POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

Volume I
Elements of Stability Calculations
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POWER
SYSTEM
STABILITY
Volume I
Elements of Stability Calculations
Edward Wilson Kimbark
AIEEE
'VPRESS
roWILEY-
\:'l9INTERSCIENCE
AJOHNWILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICAnON
IEEE Press Power Systems Engineering Series
Dr. Paul M. Anderson, Series Editor
©1995 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2394
©1948 by Edward Wilson Kimbark
This is the IEEE reprinting of a book previously published by John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. under the title Power System Stability, Volume I: Elements of
Stability Calculations.
All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproduced in any form,
nor may it be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form,
without written permission from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
ISBN 0-7803-1135-3
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kimbark, Edward Wilson
Power system stability I Edward Wilson Kimbark.
p. cm. - (IEEE Press power systems engineering series)
Originally published: New York : Wiley, 1948-1956.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents: v.I. Elements of stability calculations - v. 2. Power
circuit breakers and protective relays - v. 3. Synchronous
machines.
ISBN 0-7803-1135-3 (set)
1. Electric power system stability. I. Title. II. Series.
TKI010.K56 1995
621.319--dc20 94-42999
CIP
To my wife
RUTH MERRICK KIMBARK
FOREWORD TO THE 1995 REISSUE
The IEEE Press Editorial Board for the Power Systems Engineering
Series has, for some time, discussed the possibility of reprinting clas-
sic texts in power system engineering. The objective of this series is to
recognize past works that merit being remembered and to make these
older works available to a new generation of engineers. We believe
many engineers will welcome the opportunity of owning their own
copies of these classics.
In order to come to an agreement about which text to reprint, a num-
ber of candidates were proposed. After a discussion, the board took a
vote. The Kimbark series was the overwhelming choice for the first
books in the IEEE Power Systems Engineering Classic Reissue Series.
The subject of power system stability has been studied and written
about for decades. It has always been a challenge for the engineer to
understand the physical description of a system described' by a huge
number of differential equations. The system modeling is central to an
understanding of these large dynamic systems. Modeling is one of the
central themes of Kimbark's Power System Stability books. His dis-
cussion of the system equations remains as clear and descriptive today
as it was when first published. Many engineers have seen references to
these works, and may have had difficulty in finding copies for study.
This new printing presents a new chance for these engineers to now
have copies for personal study and reference.
Kimbark presents a method of solving the system equations that was
used in the days of the network analyzer. This method has been re-
placed by digital computer techniques that provide much greater
power and speed. However, the older methods are still of historical
interest, moreover, these step-by-step methods provide a convenient
way of understanding how a large system of equations can be solved.
Edward Kimbark was noted during his long career as an excellent
writer and one who had the unique capability of explaining complex
topics in a clear and interesting manner. These three volumes under
the general title Power System Stability, Volumes I, II, and III were
originally published in the years 1948, 1950, and 1956. Kimbark's
book, Electrical Transmission of Power Signals, published in 1949,
vii
provided a general treatment of electric power networks and signal
propagation.
Kimbark studied Electrical Engineering at Northwestern University
and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received
the Sc.D. degree in 1937. He then began a career in teaching and re-
search at the University of California, Berkeley, MIT, Polytechnic
Institute, Brooklyn, Instituto Tenologico de Aeronautica (San Jose
Campos Brazil) and, finally, as the Dean of Engineering at Seattle Uni-
versity. In 1962 Kimbark joined the Bonneville Power Administration
as head of the systems analysis branch, where he remained until his re-
tirement in 1976. He continued to work on special tasks at Bonneville
until his death in 1982.
Kimbark is well-known for his excellent books and also his many
technical papers. He was formally recognized for his achievements by
being elected a Fellow in the IEEE, to membership in the National
Academy of Engineering, and was the recipient of the IEEE Harbishaw
Award. He was awarded a Distinguished Service Award and a Gold
Medal for his service to the U.S. Department of the Interior.
The IEEE Power Engineering Society is proud to present this
special reprinting of all three volumes of Power System Stability by
Edward Kimbark.
Paul M. Anderson
Series Editor, IEEE Press
Power Systems Engineering Series
viii
PREFACE
This work on power-system stability is
intended for use by power-system engineers and by graduate
students. It grew out of lectures given by the author in a
graduate evening course at Northwestern University during the
school year 1941-2.
For the convenience of the reader, the work is divided into
three volumes. Volume I covers the elements of the stability
problem, the principal factors affecting stability, the ordinary
simplified methods of making stability calculations, and illus-
trations of the application of these methods in studies which
have been made on actual power systems.
Volume II covers power circuit breakers and protective
relays, including material on rapid reclosing of circuit breakers
and on the performance of protective relays during swings and
out-of-step conditions. Such material belongs in a work on sta-
bility because the most important means of improving the tran-
sient stability of power systems in the improvement of circuit
breakers and of protective relaying. It .is expected, however,
that the publication of this material in a separate volume will
make it more useful to persons who are interested in power-
system protection, even though they may not be particularly
concerned with the subject of stability.
Justification of the simplifying assumptions ordinarily used in
'stability calculations and the carrying out of calculations for the
extraordinary cases in which greater accuracy than that afforded
by the simplified methods is desired require a knowledge of the
somewhat complicated theory of synchronous machines and of
their excitation systems. This material is covered in Volume
III, which is expected to appeal to those desiring a deeper under-
standing of the subject than is obtainable from Volume I alone.
ix
x PREFACE
It is my hope that this treatise will prove useful not only to
readers seeking an understanding of power-system stability but
also to those desiring information on the followingrelated topics:
a-c. calculating boards, fault studies, circuit breakers, protective
relaying, synchronous-machine theory, exciters and voltage regu-
lators, and the step-by-step solution of nonlinear differential
equations.
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the following
persons:
To my wife, Ruth Merrick Kimbark, for typing the entire
manuscript and for her advice and inspiration.
To Charles A. Imburgia, A. J. Krupy, Harry P. St. Clair, and
especially Clement A. Streifus for supplying and interpreting
information on stability studies made on actual power systems.
To J. E. Hobson, W. A. Lewis, and E. T. B. Gross for review-
ing the manuscript and for making many suggestions for its
improvement.
To engineers of the General Electric Company and of the
Westinghouse Electric Corporation for reviewing certain parts
of the manuscript pertaining to products of their companies.
To manufacturers, authors, and publishers who supplied
illustrations or gave permission for the use of material previ-
ously published elsewhere. Credit for such material is given at
the place where it appears.
EnwARD WILSON KIMBARK
Evanston, Illinois
June, 1947
CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I The Stability Problem 1
II The Swing Equation and Its Solution 15
III Solution of Networks 53
IV The Equal-Area Criterion for Stability 122
V Further Consideration of the Two-Machine
System 149
VI Solution of Faulted Three-Phase Networks 193
VII Typical Stability Studies 253
INDEX 349
CHAPTER I
THE STABILITY PROBLEM
Gen. t-------f Motor
x
.Ie
X
o
1
Definitions and illustrations of terms. Power-system stability is a
term applied to alternating-current electric power systems, denoting a
condition in which the various synchronous machines of the system
remain in synchronism, or "in step," with each other. Conversely,
instability denotes a condition involving loss of synchronism, or falling
"out of step."
Consider the very simple power system of Fig. 1, consisting of a
synchronous generator supplying power to a synchronous motor over
a circuit composed of series inductive reactance XL. Each of the
synchronous machines may be rep-
resented, at least approximately, by
a constant-voltage source in series
with a constant reactance. * Thus
the generator is represented by Eo
and Xo; and the motor, by EM
and XM. Upon combining the ma-
chine reactances and the line re..
actance into a, single reactance, we
have an electric circuit consisting of FI 1 S· I t h·
G.. Imp e we-mac me power
two constant-voltage sources, Eo system.
and EM, connected through re-
actance X c= XG + XL +XM. It will be shown that the power
transmitted from the generator to the motor depends upon the phase
difference 0 of the two voltages E
G
and EM. Since these voltages are
generated by the flux produced by the field windings of the machines,
their phase difference is the same as the electrical angle between the
machine rotors.
The vector diagram of voltages is shown in Fig. 2. Vectorially,
E
G
= EM+JXI [1]
(The bold-face letters here and throughout the book denote com-
*Either equivalent synchronous reactance or transient reactance is used, depending
upon whether steady-state or transient conditions are assumed. These terms are
defined and discussed in Chapters XII and XV, Vol. III.
1
2 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
plex, or vector, quantities). Hence the current is
I = Eo - EM
jX
[2]
[5]
[4]
[3]
The power output of the generator-and like-
wise the power input of the motor, since there
jXI is no resistance in the line-is given by
P = Re(EoI)
R
(
-E Eo - EM)
= e 0---
FIG. 2. Vector diagram sx
of the system of Fig. 1. h R " I f -
were e means the rea part 0" and Eo
means the conjugate of Eo. Nowlet
EM = EM!!
and
Then
Eo = EolJ..
Eo = Eo/-a
[6]
[7]
Substitution of eqs. 5, 6, and 7 into eq. 4 gives
(
EolJ.. - EMI!J.)
P = Re Eo/-a x ~
... Re(E;2 /-90
0
_ Ea;M /-90
0
- a)
EoEM 0
= - X-cos(-90 - 8)
EoEM.
= -y-sma
[8]
This equation shows that the power P transmitted from the generator
to the motor varies with the sine of the displacement angle abetween
the two rotors, as plotted in Fig. 3. The curve is known as a power-
angle curve. The maximum power that can be transmitted in the
steady state with the given reactance X and the given internal voltages
Eo and EM is
[9]
DEFINITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF TERMS 3
and occurs at a displacement angle ~ = 90°. The value of maximum
power may be increased by raising either of the internal voltages or by
decreasing the circuit reactance.
The system is stable only if the displacement angle ~ is in the range
from -90° to +90°, in which the slope dP/do is positive; that is, the
range in which an increase in displacement angle results in an increase
in transmitted power. Suppose that the system is operating in the
steady state at point A, Fig. 3. The mechanical input of the generator
and the mechanical output of the motor, if corrected for rotational
losses, will be equal to the electric power P. Now suppose that a
p
FIG. 3. Power-anglecurve of the system of Fig. 1.
small increment of shaft load isadded to the motor. Momentarily the
angular position of the motor with respect to the generator, and there-
fore the power input to the motor, is unchanged; but the motor output
has been increased. There is, therefore, a net torque on the motor
tending to retard it, and its speed decreases temporarily. As a result
of the decrease in motor speed, 0 is increased, and consequently the
power input is increased, until finally the input and output are again in
equilibrium, and steady operation ensues at a newpoint B, higher than
A on the power-angle curve. (It has been tacitly assumed that the
generator speed would remain constant. Actually the generator may
have to slow down somewhat in order for the governor of its prime
mover to operate and increase the generator input sufficiently to
balance the increased output.)
4 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
Suppose that the motor input is increased gradually until the point
C of maximum power is reached. If now an additional increment of
load is put on the motor, the displacement angle awill increase as
before, but as it does so there will be no increase in input. Instead
there will be a decrease in input, further increasing the difference be-
tween output and input, and retarding the motor more rapidly. The
motor will pull out of step and will probably stall (unless it is kept
going by induction-motor action resulting from damper circuits which
may be present) . Pm is the steady-state stability limit of the system.
It is the maximum power that can be transmitted, and synchronism
will be lost if an attempt is made to transmit more power than this
limit.
If a large increment of load on the motor is added 8uddenly, instead
of gradually, the motor may fall out of step even though the new load
does not exceed the steady-state stability limit. The reason is as
follows: When the large increment of load is added to the motor shaft,
the mechanical power output of the motor greatly exceedsthe electrical
power input, and the deficiency of input is supplied by decrease of
kinetic energy. The motor slows down, and an increase of the dis-
placement angle ~ and a consequent increase of input result. In ac-
cordance with the assumption that the new load does not exceed the
steady-state stability limit, ~ increases to the proper value for steady-
state operation, a value such that the motor input equals the output
and the retarding torque vanishes. When this value of 0 is reached,
however, the motor is running too slowly. Its angular momentum
prevents its speed from suddenly increasing to the normal value.
Hence it continues to run too slowly, and the displacement angle in-
creases beyond the proper value. After the angle has passed this
value, the motor input exceeds the output, and the net torque is now
an accelerating torque. The speed of the motor increases and ap-
proaches normal speed. Before normal speed is regained, however,
the displacement angle may have increased to such an extent that the
operating point on the power-angle curve (Fig. 3) not only goes over
the hump (point C) but also goes so far over it that the motor input
decreases to a value less than the output. If this happens, the net
torque changes from an accelerating torque to a retarding torque.
The speed, which is still belownormal, now decreases again, and con-
tinues to decrease during all but a small part of each slip cycle. Syn-
chronism is definitely lost. In other words, the system is unstable.
If, however, the sudden increment in load is not too great, the motor
will regain its normal speed before the displacement angle becomes too
great. Then the net torque is still an accelerating torque and causes
DEFINITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF TERMS 5
the motor speed to continue to increase and thus to become greater
than normal. The displacement angle then decreases and again ap-
proaches its proper value. Again it overshoots this value on account
of inertia. The rotor of the motor thus oscillates about the new
steady-state angular position. The oscillations finally die out be..
cause of damping torques, t which have been neglected in this ele-
mentary analysis. A damped oscillatory motion characterizes a
stable system.
With a given sudden increment in load, there is a definite upper
limit to the load which the motor will carry without pulling out of step.
This is the transient stability limit of the system for the given condi-
tions. The transient stability limit is always below the steady-state
stability Iimit.t but, unlike the latter, it may have many different
values, depending upon the nature and magnitude of the disturbance.
The disturbance may be a sudden increase in load, as just discussed, or
it may be a sudden increase in reactance of the circuit, caused, for
example, by the disconnection of one of two or more parallel lines as a
normal switching operation. The most severe type of disturbance to
which a power system is subjected, however, is a short circuit. There-
fore, the effect of short circuits (or "faults," as they are often called)
must be determined in nearly all stability studies.
A three-phase short circuit on the line connecting the generator and
the motor entirely cuts off the Bow of power between the machines.
The generator output becomes zero in the pure-reactance circuits under
consideration; the motor input also becomes zero. Because of the
slowness of action of the governor of the prime mover driving the
generator, the mechanical power input of the generator remains con-
stant for perhaps i sec. Also, since the power and torque of the load
on the motor are functions of speed, and since the speed cannot change
instantly and changes by not more than a few per cent unless and until
synchronism is lost, the mechanical power output of the motor may be
assumed constant. As the electrical power of both machines is de-
creased by the short circuit, while the mechanical power of both re-
mains constant, there is an accelerating torque on the generator and a
retarding torque on the motor. Consequently, the generator speeds
up, the motor slows down, and it is apparent that synchronism will be
lost unless the short circuit is quickly removed so as to restore syn..
chronizing power between the machines before they have drifted too
tDiscussed in Chapter XIV, Vol. III.
tConventional methods of calculation, however, sometimes indicate that the
transient stability limit is above the steady-state stability limit. This paradox is
discussedin Chapter XV, Vol. III.
6 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
far apart in angle and in speed. If the short circuit is on one of two
parallel lines and is not at either end of the line, or if the short circuit is
of another type than three-phase-that is, one-line-to-ground, line-to-
line, or two-line-to-ground-then some synchronizing power can still
be transmitted past the fault, but the amplitude of the power-angle
curve is reduced in comparison with that of the pre-fault condition. In
some cases the system will be stable even with a sustained short cir-
cuit, whereas in others the system will be stable only if the short cir-
cuit Is cleared with sufficient rapidity. Whether the system is stable
during faults will depend not only on the system itself, but also on the
type of fault, location of fault, rapidity of clearing, and method of
clearing-that is, whether cleared by the sequential opening of two or
more breakers, or by simultaneous opening-and whether or not the
faulted line is reclosed, For any constant set of these conditions, the
question of whether the system is stable depends upon howmuch power
it was carrying before the occurrence of the fault. Thus, for any
specified disturbance, there is a value of transmitted power, called the
transient stability limit, below which the system is stable and above
which it is unstable.
The stability limit is one kind of power limit, but the power limit of a
system is not always determined by the question of stability. Even
in a system consisting of a synchronous generator supplying power to a
resistance load, there is a maximum power received by the load as the
resistance of the load is varied. Clearly there is 8. power limit here
with no question of stability.
Multimachine systems. Few, if any, actual power systems consist
of merely one generator and one synchronous motor. Most power
systems have many generating stations, each with several generators,
and many loads, most of which are combinations of synchronous
motors, synchronous condensers, induction motors, lamps, heating
devices, and others. The stability problem on such a power system
usually concerns the transmission of power from one group of syn-
chronous machines to another. As a rule, both groups consist pre-
dominantly of generators. During disturbances the machines of each
group swing more or less together; that is, they retain approximately
their relative angular positions, although these vary greatly with
respect to the machines of the other group. For purposes of analysis
the machines of each group can be replaced by one equivalent machine.
If this is done, there is one equivalent generator and one equivalent syn-
chronous motor, even though the latter often represents machines that
are actually generators.
Because of uncertainty as to which machines will swing together, or
A MECHANICAL ANALOGITE OF SYSTEM STABILITY 7
in order to improve the accuracy of prediction, it is often desirable to
represent the synchronous machines of a power system by more than
two equivalent machines. Nevertheless, qualitatively the behavior of
the machines of an actual system is usually like that of a two-machine
system. If synchronism is lost, the machines of each group stay to-
gether, although they go out of step with the other group.
Because the behavior of a two-machine system represents the be-
havior of a multimachine system, at least qualitatively, and because
the two-machine system is very simple in comparison with the multi-
machine system which it represents, the two-machine system is ex-
tremely useful in describing the general concepts of power-system
stability and the influence of various factors upon stability. Ac-
cordingly, the two-machine system plays a prominent role in this book.
A mechanical analogue of system stability.5§ A simple mechanical
model of the vector diagram of Fig. 2 may be built of two pivoted rigid
arms representing the E
G
and EM
vectors, joined at their extremities
by a spring representing the XI vec-
tor. (See Fig. 4.) Lengths rep-
resent voltages in the model, just
as they do in the vector diagram.
The lengths of the arms, EG and
EM, are fixed in accordancewith the
ti f t t · t 1 FIG. 4. A mechanical analogue of the
assump Ion 0 cons an In erna system of Fig. 1.
voltages. The length of the spring
XI is proportional to the applied tensile force (for simplicity, we
assume an ideal spring which returns to zero length if the force is
removed). Hence the tensile force can be considered to represent the
current, and the compliance of the spring (its elongation per unit force),
to represent the reactance.
The torque exerted on an arm by the spring is equal to the product of
the length of the arm, the tensile force of the spring, and the sine of the
angle between the arm and the spring. (More torque is exerted by the
spring when it is perpendicular to the arm than at any other angle for
the same tensile force.) Obviously, the torques on the two arms are
equal and opposite. The torque, multiplied by the speed of rotation,
gives the mechanical power transmitted from one arm to the other.
For convenience of inspection, the mechanical model will be regarded
as stationary, rather than as rotating at synchronous speed, just as we
regard the usual vector diagram as stationary. The formula for torque
(or power) in the model is analogous to that for power in the vector
§Superior numerals refer to items in the list of References at end of chapter.
8 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
diagram, namely: voltage X current X cosine of angle between them.
(Since the XI vector is 90° ahead of the I vector, the cosine of the
angle between E and I is equal to the sine of the angle between E and
XI.)
The shaft power of the machines may be represented by applying
additional torques to the arms. A convenient method of applying
FIG. 5. A mechanical analogue of
the system of Fig. 1, suitable for
representing transient conditions.
FIG. 6. A mechanical analogue of a three-
machine system consisting of generator,
synchronous condenser, and synchronous
motor.
constant equal and opposite torques to the two arms is to attach a drum
to each arm and to suspend a weight pan from a pulley hanging on a
cord, one end of which is wound on each drum, all as indicated in
Fig. 5.
Asweights are added to the pan in small increments, the two arms of
the model gradually move farther apart until the angle 0 between them
reaches 90°, at which position the spring exerts maximum torque. If
further weights are added, the arms fly apart and continue to rotate in
opposite directions until all the cord is unwound from the drums. The
system is unstable. The steady-state power limit is reached at
o= 90°. Although from 90° to 180° the spring force (current) con-
tinues to increase, the angle between arm and spring changes in such a
way that the torque decreases.
The effect of changing the machine voltages can be shown by at-
taching the spring to clamps which slide along the arms.
The effect of an intermediate synchronous-condenser station in in-
BAD EFFECTS OF INSTABILITY 9
creasing the steady-state power limit can be shown by adding a third
pivoted arm attached to an intermediate point of the spring (Fig. 6).
The condenser maintains a fixed internal voltage. Since the condenser
has no shaft input or output, no drum is provided on the third arm in
the model. With the intermediate arm (representing the condenser)
in place, the angle betwe.en the two outer arms (representing the
generator and motor) may exceed 90° without instability, and the
power limit is greater than before.
The model can be used to illustrate transient stability by providing
each arm with a flywheel such that the combined moment of inertia of
the arm and flywheel is proportional to that of the corresponding syn-
chronous machine together with its prime mover (or load). The
drums can be made to serve this purpose.
If not too great an increment of load is sud-
denly added to the pan, it will be found that
the arms oscillate before settling down to their
new steady-state positions. The angle between
the arms may exceed 90° during these oscilla-
tions without loss of stability. If the increment
of load is too large, the arms willfly apart and
continue to rotate in opposite directions, indi-
cating instability. This may happen even
though the total load is less than the steady-
state stability limit.
The effect of switching out one of two parallel
lines may be simulated by connecting the arms
by two springs in parallel and then suddenly
disconnecting one spring by burning the piece FIG. 7. A mechanical
of string by which the spring is attached. ~ n a l o g u e of the effect of a
he li be si line fault on the power
The effect of a fault on t e hne may e SlDlU- t f F" 1
ByS em 0 19••
lated by suddenly pushing a point on the spring
toward the axle (Fig. 7). The arms will start to move apart, and sta-
bility will be lost unless the spring is quickly released.
Models of this kind have been built to give a scale representation of
actual power systems of three or four machines, and the oscillations
of the arms have been recorded by moving-picture cameras.
6
There
are practical difficulties, however, in applying the model representation
to a complicated system. The chief value of the model is to illustrate
the elementary concepts of stability. Other methods of analysis are
used in practice.
Bad effects of instability. When one machine falls out of step with
the others in a system, it no longer serves its function. If it is a
10 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
generator, it no longer constitutes a reliable source of electric power.
If it is a motor, it no longer delivers mechanical power at the proper
speed, if at all. If it is a condenser, it no longer maintains proper
voltage at its terminals. An unstable two-machine system, consisting
of motor and generator, may be compared to a slipping belt or clutch
in a mechanical transmission system; instability means the failure of
the systemas a power-transmitting link.
Moreover, a large synchronous machine out of step is not only use-
less; 'it is worse than useless-it is injurious-because it has a disturb-
ing effect on voltages. Voltages will fluctuate up and down between
wide limits. Thus instability has the same bad effect on service to
customers' loads as does a fault, except that the effect of instability is
likely to last longer. If instability occurs as a consequenceof a fault,
clearing of the fault itself may not restore stability. The disturbing
voltage fluctuations then continue after the fault has been cleared.
The machine, or group of machines,' which is out of step with the rest
of the system must either be brought back into step or else discon-
nected from the rest of the system. Either operation, if done manu-
ally, may take a long time compared with the time required to clear a
fault automatically. As a rule, the best way to bring the machines
back into step is to disconnect them and then re-synchronize them.
Protective relays have been developed to open a breaker at a pre-
determined location when out-of-step conditions occur. Such relays,
however, are not yet in wide use. Preferably the power system should
be split up into such parts that each part will have adequate generating
capacity connected to it to supply the load of that part. Some over-
load may have to be carried temporarily until the system is re-syn-
chronized.
Ordinary protective relays are likely to operate falselyduring out-of-
step conditions, thereby tripping the circuit breakers of unfaulted
lines. Such false tripping may unnecessarily interrupt service to
tapped loads and may split the system apart at such points that the
generating capacity of some'parts is inadequate.]
The trend in power-system design has been toward increasing the
reliability of electric power service. Since instability has a bad effect
on the quality of service, a power system should be designed and
operated so that instability is improbable and will occur only rarely.
Scope of this book. This book will deal with two different phases of
the problem of power-system stability: (1) methods of analysis and
calculation to determine whether a given system is stable when sub-
jected to a specified disturbance; (2) an examination of the effect of
liThia aspect of relay operation is discussed fully in Chapter X, Vol. II.
HISTORICAL REVIEW 11
various factors on stability, and a consideration of measures for im-
proving stability. In our discussion these two phases will be related:
after a method of analysis is presented, it will be applied to show the
effect of varying different factors. Among these factors are system
layout, circuit impedances, loading of machines and circuits, type of
fault, fault location, method of clearing, speed of clearing, inertia of
machines, kind of excitation systems used with the machines, machine
reactances, neutral grounding impedance, and damper windings on
machines.
Since transient power limits are lower than steady-state power
limits, and since any power system will be subject to various shocks,
the most severe of which are short circuits, the subject of transient
stability is much more important than steady-state stability. Ac-
cordingly, the greater part of this book is devoted to transient stability.
Chapter XV, Vol. III, deals with steady-state stability.
Historical review. Since stability is a problem associated with the
parallel operation of synchronous machines, it might be suspected that
the problem appeared when synchronous machines were first operated
in parallel. The first serious problem of parallel operation, however,
was not stability, but hunting. When the necessity for parallel opera-
tion of a-c. generators became general, most of the generators were
driven by direct-connected steam engines. The pulsating torque
delivered by those engines gave rise to hunting, which was sometimes
aggravated by resonance between the' period of pulsation of prime-
mover torque and the electromechanical period of the power system.
In some cases improper design or functioning of the engine governors
also aggravated the hunting. Hunting of synchronous motors and
converters was sometimes due to another cause, namely, too high a
resistance in the supply line.
The seriousness of hunting was decreased by the introduction of the
damper winding, invented by Lelslanc in France and by Lamme in
America. Later, the problem largely disappeared on account of the
general use of steam turbines, which have no torque pulsations.
Nearly all the prime movers in use nowadays, both steam turbines and
water wheels, give a steady torque. A few generators are still driven
by steam engines or by internal combustion engines. These, as well
as synchronous motors driving compressors, have a tendency to hunt,
but, on the whole, hunting is no longer a serious difficulty.
In the first ten or twenty years of this century, stability was not yet a
significant problem. Before automatic voltage-controlling devices
(generator-voltage regulators, induction feeder-voltage regulators,
synchronous condensers, and the like) had been developed, the power
12 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
systems had to be designed to have good inherent voltage regulation.
This requirement called for low reactance in circuits and machines.
As a consequence of the low reactances, the stability limits (both
steady-state and transient) were well above the normally transmitted
power.
The development of automatic voltage regulators made it possible
to increase generator reactances in order to obtain a more economical
design and to limit short-circuit currents. By use of induction regu-
lators to control feeder voltages, transmission lines of higher impedance
became practicable. These factors, together with the increased use of
generator and bus reactors to decrease short-circuit currents, led to a
decrease in the inherent stability of metropolitan power systems.
Stability first became an important problem, however, in connection
with long-distance transmission, which is usually associated with
remote hydroelectric stations feeding into metropolitan load centers. ~
The application of the automatic generator-voltage regulator to syn-
chronous condensers made it possible to get good local voltage regula-
tion from a hydroelectric station and a transmission line of high re-
actance-and hence of lowsynchronizing power. The high investment
in these long-distance projects made it desirable to transmit as much
power as possible over a given line, and there was a temptation to
transmit normal power approaching the steady-state stability limit.
In a few cases instability occurred during steady-state operation, and
more frequently it occurred because of short circuits. The stability
problem is still more acute in connection with long-distance transmis-
sion from a generating station to a load center than it is in connection
with metropolitan systems. It should not be inferred, however, that
metropolitan systems have no stability problems.
Another type of long-distance transmission which has frequently
involved a stability problem is the interconnection between two large
power systems for the purpose of exchanging power to obtain economies
in generation or to provide reserve capacity. In many cases the con-
necting ties were designed to transmit an amount of power 'whichwas
small in comparison with the generating capacity of either system.
Consequently, the synchronizing power which the line could transmit
was not enough to retain stability if a severe fault occurred on either
system. There was also considerable danger of steady-state pull-out
if the power on the tie line was not controlled carefully.
From about 1920 the problem of power-system stability was the
object of thorough investigation. Tests were made both on laboratory
,Among such hydroelectric stations are Big Creek, Bucks Creek, Pit River,
Fifteen Mile Falls, Conowingo, and Boulder Dam.
HISTORICAL REVIEW 13
set-ups and on actual power systems, methods of analyses were de-
veloped and checked by tests, and measures for improving stability
were developed. Some of the important steps in analytical develop-
ment were the following:
1. Circle diagrams for showing the steady-state performance of
transmission systems. These diagrams consist of a family of circles,
each of which is the locus of the vector power for fixed voltages at
both sending and receiving ends of the line. The circles are drawn
on rectangular coordinates, the abscissas and ordinates of which are,
respectively, active and reactive power at either end of the line.
These diagrams show clearly the maximum power which a line will
carry in the steady state for given terminal voltages, as well as the
relation between the power transmitted and the angular displace-
ment between the voltages at the t\VO ends of the line. (Such
diagrams are described in Chapter XV, Vol. III.)
2. Improvements in synchronous-machine theory, especially the
extension of two-reaction theory to the transient performance of
both salient-pole and nonsalient-pole machines. A number of new
reactances were defined and used. (See Chapter XII, Vol. III.)
More recently, the effect of saturation on these reactances has been
investigated. (See Chapters XII and XV, Vol. III.)
3. The method of symmetrical components for calculating the
effect of unsymmetrical short circuits. (See Chapter VI.) In this
connection, methods of determining the sequence constants of ap-
paratus by test and by calculation had to be devised.
4. Point-by-point methods of solving differential equations, particu-
larly the swing equation (giving angular position of a machine
versus time). (See Chapter II.)
5. The equal-area criterion for stability of two-machine systems,
obviating the more laborious calculation of swing curves for such
systems. (See Chapter IV.)
6. The a-c. calculating board or network analyzer for the solution
of complicated a-c. networks. (See Chapter III.)
The methods of analysis and calculation now in use are believed to be
sufficiently accurate for determining whether any given power system
in a given operating condition will be stable when subjected to a given
disturbance. The calculations, however, are rather laborious ,vhen
applied to a large number of different operating conditions of a com-
plicated power system.
Methods of analysis will be taken up in the following chapters.
Calculated results have been checked in a number of instances by
14 THE STABILITY PROBLEM
observations on actual power systems recorded with automatic oscil-
lograph equipment.
REFERENCES
1. R. D. BOOTH and G. C. DAHL, "Power System Stability-a Non-mathe-
matical Review," Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 33, pp. 677-81, December, 1930; and vol. 34,
pp. 131-41, February, 1931.
2. A.I.E.E. Subcommittee on Interconnection and Stability Factors, "First
Report of Power-System Stability," Elec. Eng., vol. 56, pp. 261-82, February, 1937;
3. O. G. C. DAHL, Electric Power Circuits, vol. II, Power-System Stability, New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938.
4. Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, by Central Stauon
Engineers of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pitts-
burgh, Pa., 1st edition, 1942.
a. Chapter 8, "Power System Stability-Basic Elements of Theory and Ap-
plication," by R. D. EVANS.
b. Chapter 9, "System Stability-Examples of Calculation," by H. N.
MULLER, JR.
5. S. B. GRISCOM, "A Mechanical Analogy of the Problem of Transmission
Stability," Elec. Jour., vol. 23, pp. 230-5, l\1ay, 1926.
6. R. C. BERGVALL and P. H. ROBINSON, "Quantitative Mechanical Analysis of
Power System Transient Disturbances," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 47, pp. 915-25,
July, 1928; disc., pp. 925-8. Use of mechanical model with seven arms for in-
vestigating transient stability of Conowingo transmission system.
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER I
1. Two synchronous machines of equal rating, having internal voltages
(voltages behind transient reactance) of 1.2 and 1.0 per unit, respectively,
and transient reactances of 0.25 per unit each, are connected by a line having
0.50 per unit reactance and negligible resistance. Assume that the angle
~ between the two machines varies from 0 to 360
0
by 15° steps, and calculate
for each step the current, the power, and the voltage at each of three points:
at each end of the line and at its midpoint. Draw loci of the current and
voltage vectors, marking the values of 0 thereon. Also plot in rectangular
coordinates current, power, and voltage, all as functions of o.
2. Draw the power-angle curve and discuss the condition for stability of
two machines connected through series capacitive reactance which exceeds
the internal inductive reactance of both machines.
CHAPTER II
THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
Review of the laws of mechanics; translation. Since a synchronous
machine is a rotating body, the laws of mechanics applying to rotating
bodies apply to it. Review of these laws may be advantageous at this
point. The laws of rotating bodies will be clearer if we first review the
laws which apply to linear motion, or translation.
TABLE 1
FUNDAMENTAL AND DERIVED QUANTITIES OF MECHANICS, ApPLYING
PARTICULARLY TO
Quantity Symbol Defining Equation
Unit and
Dimensions
Its Abbreviation
Length x ... meter (m.) L
Mass m ... kilogram (kg.) M
Time t ... second (sec.) T
dx
[1]
ur:' Velocity v v =- meter per second (m.
dt
per sec.)
dv
Acceleration a a =- [2] meter per second per Lr-
2
dt
second (m. per sec.")
Force F F = ma [3] *newton (newt.) MLT-2
Momentum M' M' = mv [4] *newton-second (newt-
MLT-l
sec.)
Work W W =fFdx
[5] joule (j.)
ML
2
T- 2
Power
p.
P = dW
[6J watt (w.) ML
2
r-
3
dt
* Unofficial name.
The fundamental quantities of mechanics are length, mass, and time.
The fundamental units (in the m.k,s. system, which is nowthe recognized
system of units for electrical work) are the meter, the kilogram, and the
second. From these fundamental quantities and their units are derived
other quantities,' such as velocity, acceleration, force, momentum,
work, and power, and their units. In Table 1 are listed the funda-
mental quantities and certain derived quantities with their symbols,
defining equations, units and the abbreviations thereof, and dimen-
15
16 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
sions in terms of the fundamental quantities length (L), mass (M),
and time (T).
Besides the defining equations (numbers 1 to 6 of Table 1), certain
other equations giving relations between these quantities which are of
interest are derived below. Substitution of eq. 1 into eq. 2 gives for
the acceleration
[7]
[8]
Substitution of eq. 2 and eq. 7 in turn into eq. 3 gives
dv d
2x
F=m-=m-
dt dt
2
Comparison of eq. 8 with the time derivative of eq. 4 gives the addi-
tional relation
dM'
F=-
dt
Differentiation of eq. 5 with respect to x gives
F= dW
dx
Substitution for dW from eq. 10 into eq. 6 gives
Fdx
p =.- = Fv
dt
Integration of eq. 9 with respect to t gives
M' = JFdl
From eqs. 11, 3, and 4 we obtain
P = Fv = mav = aM'
whence
Af' =~
a
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12].
[13]
[14]
The kinetic energy of a moving body may be obtained by finding the
work required to set it in motion from rest, as follows:
W = JFdx = mJdV dx = mJdV vdt
d ~ d ~
= mJ: v dv = !mv
2
= !M'v [15]
ROTATION 17
Rotation. In treating rotation we must first introduce the concept of
angle. An angle is defined, with reference to a circular arc with its
center at the vertex of the angle, as the ratio of arc 8 to radius r, thus:
8
(}=-
r
[16]
The unit of angle so defined is the radian. The dimensions of angle
from the definition are length divided by length. For the present
purpose, however, it is well to recognize lengths that are perpendicular
to one another as having different dimensions, and to represent tan-
gentiallengths by the symbol L as before and radial lengths by the
modified symbol LB. From this viewpoint the dimensions of angle
are LL
R
-
1

The definitions of angular velocity and angular acceleration follow by
analogy to the corresponding definitions of linear velocity and linear
acceleration. Angular velocity is
and angular acceleration is
dB
e,.,=-
d ~
dw d
28
a=-=-
dt dt
2
(17]
[18]
The relations between angular displacement, velocity, and accelera-
tion and the corresponding tangential components of linear displace-
ment, velocity, and acceleration, respectively, of a particle of a rotating
body at distance r from the axis of rotation are given by:
8 = rO
v = rw
a = ra
[19}
[20]
[21]
The torque on a body due to a tangential force F at a distance r from
the axis of rotation is
T = rF [22]
or, considering the total torque as due to the summation of infinitesimal
forces, we may write
T = frdF [23]
The unit of torque could be called a newton-meter, but this name is not
entirely satisfactory as it might imply a unit of work. Both work and
18 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
torque are the products of force and distance; but in the case of work
the component of force parallel to the distance is used, and in the case
of torque the component of force perpendicular to the distance is used.
The two quantities may be distinguished by their dimensional formulas,
which are as follows: work, ML
2T-2
; torque, MLL
R
T-
2
• For reasons
that will appear later, the unit of torque may be called the joule per
radian.
When torque is applied to a body, the body experiences angular ac-
celeration a ~ Each particle experiences a tangential acceleration
a = ra, where r is the distance of the particle from the axis of rotation.
If the mass of the particle is dm, the tangential force required to ac-
celerate it is
dF = a dm = r a dm
Since this force acts with lever arm r, the torque required for the particle
is
dT = rdF = ~ a d m
and that required for the whole body is
T = aJr
2
dm =[a
Here
[= !TJdm
[24]
[25]
is known as the moment of inertia of the body, The m.k.s. unit"is the
kilogram-meter
2
(kg-m.").
Note the analogy between T = I« for rotation and F = rna for
translation.
The work done in rotating a body through an angle dO by exerting a
torque T may be found as follows: If the torque is assumed to be the
result of a number of tangential forces F acting at different points of
the body,
T = ErF
Each force acts through a distance
ds = rdO
The work done is
dW = L F ds = E F r dO = dO E F r = dO· T
W = f TdO [26]
ROTATION
This is analogous to eq. 5 for translation. Also
T= dW
dO
19
[27]
which is analogous to eq, 10, and which explains why the m.k.s. unit of
torque may be called the joule per radian.
Substitution for dW from eq. 27 into eq. 6 (Table 1) gives an ex-
pression for power in rotary motion,
dO
P = T- = Tw
dt
[28]
which is analogous to eq. 11 for translation.
By analogy with the definition of momentum, M' = mv, angular
momentummay be defined as
M = Iw [29]
and by derivations analogous to those of eqs. 12 and 14, we obtain also
M = JT d ~ = ~ [30]
The m.k.s. unit of angular momentum may be variously called (from
eq. 29) kilogram-meters
2-radians
per second, or (from eq. 30) watts per
TABLE 2
QUANTITIES OF MECHANICS ApPLYING TO ROTATION
Quantity Symbol
Defining
Unit and Abbreviation Dimensions
Equation
Angle
8
radian (rad.) LLR-t
8 0=-
r
Angular
dB
radian per second (rad. LLR-1r-
1
t» w =-
velocity
dt
per sec.)
Angular
dw
radian per second per second LL
n
-
1
rr-
2
a Ol =-
acceleration
dt
(rad. per sec,")
Torque T T =rF
joule per radian (j. per rad.) MLL
R
T- 2
or newton-meter (newt-m.)
Moment of I I = fr
2
dm
kilogram-meter- (kg-m.P) ML
R
2
inertia
Angular M M = Iw joule-second per radian (j- MLLRT-l
momentum sec. per rad.)
(radian per second per second), or joule-seconds per radian. The last
name seems best from the standpoint of brevity.
20 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
The kinetic energy of a rotating body may be written
W = !Iw
2
= !Mw
[31]
which is analogous to eq. 15.
Table 2 summarizes the quantities of mechanics applying to rota-
tion, with their symbols, defining equations, units, and dimensions.
Table 3 indicates some analogies and relations between the quantities
and laws of rotation and those of translation.
TABLE 3
ANALOGIES AND RELATIONS BETWEEN THE QUANTITIES
AND LAWS OF TRANSLATION AND OF ROTATION
Translation Rotation Relation
8 8 8 = r8
f}
w V = rw
a Of. a = ra
m 1
1 = Jr
2
dm
F T T = rF
M' M M = JrdM'
F = ma T = I«
W = JFd8 W=fTdJJ
P = F» = M'a P = Tw = MOt.
M' = m» M =Iw
W = !mv
2
W = !Iw
2
=tM'v =!Mw
dM'
T =dM
F=-
dt dt
The swing equation. The laws of rotation, as developed in the
foregoing section, apply to the motion of a synchronous machine.
Equation 24 states that the torque is equal to the product of angular
acceleration and moment of inertia:
or
101. = T [32]
[33]
Here T is the net torque or algebraic sum of all the torques acting on
the machine, including shaft torque (due to the prime mover of a
generator or to the load on a motor), torque due to rotational losses
(friction, windage, and core loss), and electromagnetic torque. Elec-
THE SWING EQUATION 21
tromagnetic torque may he subdivided into torques due to synchronous
and to asynchronous (induction) action.
Let Ti =shaft torque, corrected for torque due to rotational
losses
and let Tu = electromagnetic torque.
Both of these are taken as positive for generator action, that is, with
mechanical input and electrical output. They are negative for motor
action, that is, with mechanical output and electrical input. The
net torque, which produces acceleration,' is the algebraic difference of
the accelerating shaft torque and the retarding electromagnetic torque:
[34]
In the steady state this difference is zero, and there is no acceleration.
During disturbances of the kinds considered in transient-stability
studies, however, the difference exists, and there is acceleration or
retardation, depending on whether the net torque T
a
is positive or
negative.
Our problem is to solve eq. 33 so as to find the angular position fJ of
the machine rotor as a function of time t. It is more convenient, how-
ever, to measure the angular position and angular velocity with respect
to a synchronously rotating reference axis than with respect to a
stationary axis. Hence let
a = (J - Wtt [35]
where WI is the rated normal synchronous speed. Then, if we take
time derivatives, we get
da dO
- = - - WI [36]
dt dt
and
d
2
a d
2
fJ
dt
2
= dt
2
With this substitution eq. 33 becomes
/d
2
a= T
dt
2
[37]
[38]
which is unchanged in form. Writing the torque as in eq. 34, we have
d
2
a
I dt
2
= Ta = Ti - Tu [38a]
22 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
If we multiply this equation by the speed w, we obtain
d
2
5
M dt
2
= Pa = Pi - Pu
[39]
where M = I w is the angular momentum.
Pi = Tiw is the shaft power input, corrected for rotational
losses.
Pu = TuWis the electrical power output, corrected for electrical
losses.
P
a
= Pi - Pu, is the accelerating power, or difference between
input and output, each corrected for losses.
Equation 39 is more convenient to use than eq. 38abecause it involves
the electrical power output of the machine, rather than the torque
corresponding to this output. Equation 39 will be referred to here-
after as the swing equation. An equation of this form may be written
for each machine of the system.
The angular momentum M is not strictly constant because the
speed w varies somewhat during the swings which followa disturbance.
In practical cases, however, the change in speed w before synchronism
is lost is so small in comparison to the normal speed Wt that very little
error is introduced by the assumption that M is constant. Hence it is
customary in solving the swing equation to regard M as constant and
equal to 1Wt, the value of angular momentum at normal speed. This
value of M is known as the inertia constant of the machine.
The inertia constant. In the swing equation (eq. 39) various con-
sistent sets of units may be used. In the m.k.s. system Pa will be in
watts, 0 in radians, t in seconds, and M in watts per (radian per sec-
ond per second) or joule-seconds per radian. In practical stability
studies Pa usually will be expressed either in megawatts or in per unit, *
oin electrical degrees, and t in seconds. Hence, if Pais in megawatts,
M must be in megawatts per (electrical degree per second per second),
or megajoule-seconds per electrical degree (abbreviated Mi-sec, per
elec. deg.). If P
a
is in per unit, M must be in unit power seconds
squared per electrical degree. For brevity the latter value of M will
be called a per-unit value.
Sometimes the available information regarding the angular momen-
tum of a machine takes the form of the value of its stored kinetic energy
at rated speed. More often, however, the designer or manufacturer
gives the values of the moment of inertia of the machine expressed .in
·Per-unit power is power expressed as a decimal fraction of an arbitrarily chosen
base power. See Chapter III for further discussion of per-unit quantities.
THE INERTIA CONSTANT 23
pound-feet/ and the speed in revolutions per minute. In either case,
before one can proceed to a solution of the swing equation, he must
calculate the value of the inertia constant M from the data. The
formulas needed for this purpose will now be derived, beginning with
the one giving the kinetic energy in terms of the moment of inertia and
speed, and proceeding to various formulas for M.
Let WR
2
= moment of inertia in pound-feet'',
I = moment of inertia in slug-feet/,
n = speed in revolutions per minute.
w = speed in radians per second.
We = speed in electrical degrees per second.
W = kinetic energy in foot-pounds.
N = kinetic energy in megajoules,
M = inertia constant in megajoule-seconds per electrical de-
gree.
J = frequency in cycles per second.
p = number of poles.
G = rating of machine in megavolt-amperes.
Byeq. 31, using English units, the kinetic energy is
W = !Iw
2
But
21rn
w=-
60
and
[40]
[41]
[42]
[43]
By substituting eqs. 41 and 42 into eq. 40 and the result into eq. 43, we
obtain
746 -6 1 WR
2
(211"n)2
N = 550 X 10 X "2 X 32.2 X 60
= 2.31 X 10-
10
WR
2
n
2
By eq. 31 the kinetic energy may be written also as
[44]
[45]
24 THE SWING EQUATION. AND ITS SOLUTION
Solving for M,
But
Hence
M=2N
We
We = 360/
[46]
[47]
[49]
[48]
M= 2N = ~
360/ 180/
By substitution of eq. 44 into eq. 48 we obtain
WR
2
n
2
M = 1.28 X 10-
12
-1-'-
Since the relation among speed, frequency, and number of poles is
np = 120/ [50]
eq. 49 may be written also as
M .:::: 1.54 X 10-10 WR
2
n
p
or as
M = 1.84 X 10-8 W ~ 2 j
P
[51]
[52]
[53]
The inertia constant in megajoule-seconds per electrical degree may
be calculated from eqs. 48, 49, 51, or 52. If per-unit power is to be
used instead of megawatts, the value of M so obtained is merely
divided by the base power in megavolt-amperes, giving what we may
call a per-unit value of M.
Another constant which has proved very useful is denoted by Hand
is equal to the kinetic energy at rated speed divided by the rated
apparent power of the machine.
H = stored energy in joules
rating in volt-amperes
stored energy in kilojoules
rating in kilovolt-amperes
stored energy in megajoules, N
rating in megavolt-amperes, G
In terms of H the inertia constant is, by eq. 48,
GH
M = 180j
[54]
THE INERTIA CONSTANT 25
...

--....
........ lY 1800 r.am, condensing
......., .......

.....

r---.

"-
......
.......
....... -
"'-
....... ,

y-3,600 r.p.m.' condensing

......
...... ./ 3,600 r.p.m. noncondensin
--.

f-.+.J.:..[
T
The quantity H has the desirable property that its value, unlike
those of M or WR
2
, does not vary greatly with the rated kilovolt-
amperes and speed of the machine, but instead has a characteristic
10
100
2
o 20 40 60 80
Generator ratingG (megavolt.amperes)
FIG. 1. Stored energy of large steam turbogenerators, turbine included (from
Ref. 1, by permission).
5
450·514 r.p.m.-

"

200. 400 r.arn.....
.....
......,,-

....... i\.

",

l..).......
"",.",
,.....

.......
lI'
,.

......

--

,....
-
,/ ",

...-
---
',", 138· 180r.p.m.

"7
-e

......

r.p.m,

1
o 20 40 60 80 100
Generator rating G (megavolt- amperes)
FIG. 2. Stored energy of large vertical-type water-wheel generators, including
allowance of 15% for water wheels (from Ref. 1, by permission).
value or set of values for each class of machine. In this respect H is
similar to the per-unit reactance of machines. In the absence of more
definite information, a characteristic value of H may be used. Such
values are given in the curves of Figs. 1 and 2 for large steam turbo-
26 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
Type of Machine
generators and for large vertical-shaft water-wheel generators, respec-
tively. In both cases the inertia of the prime movers is included, as
it always should be. For' other machines the values of H may be
taken from Table 4.
It will be observed that the value of H is considerably higher for
steam turbogenerators than for water-wheel generators, ranging from
3 to 10 Mj. per Mva, for the former and from 2 to 4 Mj. per Mva. for
the latter. Average values are about 6 and 3, respectively.
TABLE 4
AVERAGE VALUES OF STORED ENERGY IN ROTATING MACHINES·
H, Stored Energy at Rated Speed
(megajoules per megavolt-ampere)
Synchronous motors
Synchronous condenserst
Large
Small
Rotary converters
Induction motors
• Principally from Ref. 1.
t Hydrogen cooled, 25%less.
2.0
1.25
1.0
2.0
0.5
From 30 to 60% of the total inertia of a steam turbogenerator unit is
that of the prime mover, whereas only 4 to 15% of the inertia of a
hydroelectric generating unit is that of the water wheel, including
water. t
Inertia constant H, like the per-unit reactance of machines or trans-
formers, may be expressed on either of two volt-ampere bases: (a) the
machine rating or (b) a system base arbitrarily selected for a power-
system study. The value of H for a given machine varies inversely as
the base, whereas per-unit reactance varies directly as the base.t
EXAMPLE 1
Given the following information on a steam turbogenerator unit:
Rated output
Rated voltage
Rated speed
Moment of inertia
Number of poles
Rated frequency
85,000 kw. at 85% power factor
13,200 volts
1,800 r.p.m,
859,000 Ib-ft.
2
4
60 cycles per sec.
tSome data on moments of inertia of generators and their prime movers are
given in Table 1, Chapter VII.
iPer-unit quantities are discussed in Chapter III.
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION 27
compute the following quantities:
Kinetic energy in megajoules at rated speed.
Inertia constant H.
Inertia constant M in megajoule-seconds per electrical degree.
M in per unit on 50-Mva. base.
Compare the computed value of H with the typical value read from the
curves of Fig. 1.
Solution. Rating = 85,000 = 100,000 kva. = 100 Mva.
0.85
From eq. 44 kinetic energy at rated speed is
N = 2.31 X 10-
10
WR2n2
= 2.31 X 10-
10
X 859,000 X (1,800)2
= 642 Mj.
From eq. 53
H = 642 = 6.42 Mj. per Mva.
100
From eq. 48
N 642 .
M = - = = 0.0595 Mj-sec. per elec. deg.
180/ 180 X 60
If power is to be expressed in per unit instead of in megawatts, this result
must be divided by the base power. Thus
M = 0.0595 = 0.00119 'per unit on 50-Mva. base
50
From Fig. 1, 1800-r.p.m. curve, at 100 Mva., H = 6.5, which agrees well
with the value of H computed above.
Point-by-point solution of the swing equation. The swing equation,
a differential equation governing the motion of each machine of a
system, is
[55]
where 8 = displacement angle of rotor with respect to a reference axis
rotating at normal speed.
M = inertia constant of machine.
P
a
= accelerating power, or difference between mechanical input
and electrical output after each has been corrected for
losses.
t = time.
28 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
The solution of this equation gives 0 as a function of t. A graph of the
solution is known as a swing curve. Inspection of the swing curves of
all the machines of a system will show whether the machines will re-
main in synchronism after a' disturbance. Many examples of swing
curves obtained in stability studies on multimachine systems are in-
cluded in Chapter VII. Both stable and unstable conditions are il-
lustrated there.
In a multirnachine system, the output and hence the accelerating
power of each machine depend upon the angular positions-and, to be
more rigorous, also upon the angular speeds-of all the machines of the
system. Thus, for a three-machine system there are three simulta-
neous differential equations like eq. 55:
[56a]
[56b]
(56c]
Formal solution of such a set of equations is not feasible. Even the
simplest case, which was considered in Chapter I, of one finite machine
connected through reactance to an infinite bus, with damping neglected,
leads to an equation
[57]
the formal solution of which, with Pi = 0, involves elliptic integrals."
Equation 57, with Pi ¢ 0, has been solved by use of a calculating
machine called an integraph or differential analyzer,
3
and it is possible
that machine methods of solution could be applied (although they have
not been yet) to solving the swing equations of multimachine systems.
Point-by-point solution is the most feasible and widely used way of
solving the swing equations. Such solutions, which are also called
step-by-step solutions, are applicable to the numerical solution of all
sorts of differential equations. Good accuracy can be attained, and
the computations are simple.
4
-
7
In a point-by-point solution one or more of the variables are assumed
either to be constant or to vary according to assumed laws throughout
a short interval of time ~ t , so that as a result of the assumptions made
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION 29
the equations can be solved for the changes in the other variables
during the same time interval. Then, from the values of the other
variables at the end of the interval, new values can be calculated for
the variables which were assumed constant. These new values are
then used in the next time interval.
In applying the point-by-point method to the solution of swing
equations, it is customary to assume that the accelerating power (and
hence the acceleration) is constant during each time interval, although
it has different values in different intervals. When this assumption
is made, a formal solution of eq. 55 can be obtained which is valid
throughout a particular time interval; and from the formal solution
and the values of ~ and w at the beginning of the interval the values of
aand w at the end of the interval can be computed for each machine.
Before a similar computation can be made for the next interval, how-
ever, it is necessary to know the new value of accelerating power, or
difference between input and output, of each machine. The mechan-
ical inputs are usually assumed constant, because of the slowness of
governor action,§ but the electrical outputs are functions of the rela-
tive angular positions of all the machines of the system and can be
found by solving the network to which the machines are connected.
If damping power is taken into account, the output, including damp-
ing, will depend also on the relative angular speeds of all the machines.
It therefore becomes clear that the point-by-point solution of swing
curves consists of two processes which are carried out alternately.
The first process is the computation of the angular positions, and per-
haps also of the angular speeds, at the end of a time interval from a
knowledge of the positions and speeds at the beginning of the interval
and the accelerating power assumed for theinterval, The second
process is the computation of the accelerating power of each machine
from the angular positions (and perhaps speeds) of all machines of the
system. The secondprocess requires a knowledgeof network solution,
a topic which is discussed in Chapter III. In the present chapter the
emphasis is on the first process, namely, the solution of the swing
equation proper. Two different point-by-point methods will be
described.
Method1 is the more obvious, although the less accurate, of the two
methods. In method 1 it is assumed that the accelerating power is
constant throughout a time interval lit and has the value computed for
the beginning of the interval. No further assumptions are made. If
eq. 55 is divided by M and integrated twice with respect to t, Pa being
§See discussion of Assumption 1 on p. 43.
30 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
treated as a constant, we obtain successively
do ~ a t
- =w=wo+-
dt M
and
[58]
[59]
These equations give, respectively, w, the excessof speed of the machine
over normal speed, and 0, the angular displacement of the machine
with respect to a reference axis rotating at normal speed. 00 and Wo
are the values of 0 and w, respectively, at the beginning of the interval.
These equations hold for any instant of time t during the interval in
which P
a
is constant. We are particularly interested, however, in the
values of 0 and w at the end of the interval. Let subscript n denote
quantities at the end of the nth interval. Likewise let n - 1 denote
quantities at the end of the (n - l)th interval, which is the beginning
of the nth interval. At is the length of the interval. Putting At in
place of t in eqs. 58 and 59 and using the appropriate subscripts, we
obtain for the speed and angle at the end of the nth interval
At
Wn = Wn-l + M Pa(n-l) [60]
(At)2
On = On-l + At Wn-l + 2M Pa(n-l) [61]
The increments of speed and angle during the nth interval are
At
aWn = Wn - Wn-l = M Pa(n-l) [62]
(At)2
aOn == On - On-l = at Wn-l + 2M Pa(n-l) [63]
Equations 60 and 61, or eqs. 62 and 63, are suitable for point-by-point
calculation. However, if one is interested only in the angular position
(for plotting a swing curve) and not in the speed, Wn-l may be elim-
inated from eqs. 61 and 63, as follows: Write an equation like eq. 61
but for the preceding interval
. ( ~ t ) 2
On-l = On-2 + ~ t Wn- 2 + 2M Pa(n-2) [64]
and subtract it from eq. 61, obtaining
(on - On-I) = (On-l - On-2) + At(Wn-l - Wn-2)
(At)2
+ 2M (Pa(n-l) - Pa(n-2») [65J
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION
But
31
and from eq. 62
Making these substitutions into eq. 65, we get
dt ( ~ t ) 2
a6n = a61l-l + at M Pa(1l-2) + 2M (Pa(1l-l) - Pa(1l-2»)
(dt)2
== a8n_ l + 2M (Pa(n-l) + pa(n-2» [66]
This equation, which gives the increment in angle during any interval
in terms of the increment for the previous interval, may be used for
point-by-point calculations in place of eqs. 62 and 63. The last term
is the second difference of 5, which may be symbolized by t!A
2
5.
The time interval ~ t should be short enough to give the required
accuracy, but not so short as to unduly increase the number of points
to be computed on a given swing curve. Example 2 will throw some
light on the effect of the length of interval upon the accuracy of the
solution.
EXAMPLE 2
If a synchronous machine performs oscillations of small amplitude with
respect to an infinite bus, its power output may be assumed to be directly
proportional to its angular displacement from the infinite bus. Because this
case is known to result in sinusoidal oscillations, as may be verified readily by
formal solution of the swing equation, it will serve well as a check on the
accuracy of various point-by-point solutions,
Consider a 60-cycle machine for which H = 2.7 Mj. per Mva. and which is
initially operating in the steady "tate with input and output of 1.00 unit and
an angular displacement of 45 elec. deg. with respect to an infinite bus.
Upon occurrence of a fault, assume that the input remains constant and that
the output is given by
(a)
even though the amplitude of oscillation may be great. Calculate one cycle
of the swing curve by means of (a) the formal solution and (b) a point-by-
32 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
point solution, method 1, using various values of time interval ~ t , 0.05 sec.
being tried first.
Solution. (a) Formal solution. The differential equation, with 0 expressed
in electrical radians, is
d ~ 2
M dt
2
= P; = Pi - P« = 1 - ;;: 0 (b)
and the initial conditions are
o= ~
4
when t = O.
The solution is
and ~ = o
dt
(c)
~
-
7r 7r 2
0=2-"4cOS 7rM
t
TABLE 5
COMPUTATION OF Swrso CURVE FROM FORMAL SOLUTION
OF SWING EQUATION (EXAMPLE 2)
(d)
t (sec.) 382t (deg.) cos 382t
45 cos 382t
8 (deg.)
(deg.)
0 0.0 1.000 45.0 45.0
0.05 19.1 0.945 42.5 47.5
0.10 38.2 0.786 35.4 54.6
0.15 57.3 0.540 24.3 65.7
0.20 76.4 0.235 10.6 79.4
0.25 95.5 -0.096 - 4.3 94.3
0.30 114.6 -0.416 -18.7 108.7
0.35 133.7 -0.691 -31.1 121.1
0.40 152.8 -0.889 -40.0 130.0
0.45 171.9 -0.990 -44.5 134.5
0.50 191.0 -0.982 -44.2 134.2
0.55 210.1 -0.865 -38.9 128.9
0.60 229.2 -0.653 -29.4 119.4
0.65 248.3 -0.370 -16.7 106.7
0.70 267.4 -0.045 - 2.0 92.0
0.75 286.5 0.284 12.8 77.2
0.80 305.6 0.582 26.2 63.8
0.85 324.7 0.816 36.7 53.3
0.90 343.8 0.960 43.2 46.8
0.95 362.9 0.999 45.0 45.0
1.00 382.0 0.927 41.7 48.3
which may be verified by differentiating eq. d twice with respect to t and
then substituting the result and eq. d itself into eq. b; also by substituting
l = 0 into eq. d and its first derivative and comparing the results with eqs. c.
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION
The period of oscillation is given by
T = 21r = 1r V21rM
V2/1rM
The inertia constant is
33
(e)
H 2.7 · 2 1 d
M = - = ---= 0.01432 unit power sec. per e ec. ra •
7rf 1r X 60
= -.!!- = 2.5 X 10-
4
unit power sec."per elec. deg. (or, simply, per unit).
180!
If the first value of M is used in eq. e, the period is found to be
T = 1r V21r X 0.01432 = 0.943 sec.
If 5 is expressed in electrical degrees instead of in radians, the solution
becomes
5 = 90° - 45° cos (382t)0
(I)
The amplitude of oscillation is 45°.
Values of 0 at 0.05-sec. intervals of t are computed from eq. f in Table 5.
(b) Point-by-point solution, method 1 (ilt = 0.05 sec.) Substitution of
the values of ilt and Minto eqs..62 and 63 gives
ilt 0.05
~ W n = M Pa(n-l) = ---Pa(n-l) = 200 Pa(n-l) (g)
0.00025
(ilt)2
~ O n = ilt Wn-l + 2M Pa(n-l) = O.05wn - 1 +5Pa(n.-l) (h)
Computation of the swing curve from eqs. g and h is carried out in Table 6.
The swing curve is plotted as curve 3 in Fig. 3, where it is compared with the
correct curve (curve 1) calculated from the formal solution, part a of this
example.
Comparison of curves 1 and 3 of Fig. 3 shows that curve 3, computed by
point-by-point method 1, although having very nearly the correct period,
increases in amplitude approximately 29% in each half-cycle, or 67% in
each cycle of oscillation. II The accuracy is poor.
It seems reasonable that the accuracy would be improved by the use of a
shorter interval. Consequently, let us try ilt = 0.0167 sec. (one-third of the
former value). Then in place of eqs. g and h we have
111.67 = (1.29)2.
dWn = 66.7P
a
(n - l )
L18n = O.OI67wn- l +0.555Pa(n-l)
(i)
(j)
34 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
TABLE 6
POINT-By-POINT COMPUTATION OF SWING CURVE
(METHOD 1, tlt = 0.05 sEc.)(ExAMPLE 2)
t P
u
P
a
liw w 0.05w 5P
a
tl8 8
(sec. ) (p.u.) (p.u.) (deg.Zsec.) (deg.Zsec.) (deg.) (deg.) (deg.) (deg.)
--
------
0+
0.500 0.500 100 0 0.0 2.5 2.5 45.0
0.05 0.528 0.472 94 100 5.0 2.4 7.4 47.5
0.10 0.610 0.390 78 194 9.7 2.0 11.7 54.9
0.15 0.740 0.260 52 272 13.6 1.3 14.9 66.6
0.20 0.906 0.094 19 324 16.2 0.5 16.7 81.5
0.25 1.091 -0.091 -18 343 17.2 -0.5 16.7 98.2
0.30 1.277 -0.277 -55 325 16.2 -1.4 14.8 114.9
0.35 1.441 -0.441 -88 270 13.5 -2.2 11.3 129.7
0.40 1.567 -0.567 -113 182 9.1 -2.8 6.3 141.0
0.45 1.637 -0.637 -127 69 3.4 -3.2 0.2 147.3
0.50 1.639 -0.639 -128 -58 -2.9 -3.2 -6.1 147.5
0.55 1.571 -0.571 -114 -186 -9.3 -2.9 -12.2 141.4
0.60 1.436 -0.436 -87 -300 -15.0 -2.2 -17.2 129.2
0.65 1.244 -0.244 -49 -387 -19.4 -1.2 -20.6 112.0
0.70 1.016 -0.016 -3 -436 -21.8 -0.1 -21.9 91.4
0.75 0.772 0.228 46 -439 -22.0 1.1 -20.9 69.5
0.80 0.540 0.460 92 -393 -19.6 2.3 -17.3 48.6
0.85 0.348 0.652 130 -301 -15.0 3.3 -11.7 31.3
0.90 0.218 0.792 158 -171 -8.6 3.8 -4.8 19.6
0.95 0.164 0.836 167 -13 -0.6 4.2 3.6 14.8
1.00 .. . . .. . .. 154 . .. ... . .. 18.4
The detailed calculations are not shown here, but they are similar to those of
Table 6. The swing curve is plotted as curve 2 in Fig. 3. It is found that
the amplitude error has been reduced to 9% in a half cycle or 21% in a
cycle-about one-third of the corresponding errors with dt = 0.05 sec.
These errors are still pretty large, and the labor of calculation is excessive
because so many points must be calculated.
.Two additional curves (4 and 5), calculated for larger values of dt
(0.10 and 0.15 sec., respectively), have been plotted in Fig. 3. As might be
expected, the amplitudes increase faster than before. Besides, the period
is noticeably lengthened.
Example 2 has demonstrated that swingcurves calculated by method
1 are subject to a considerable cumulative error which manifests itself
by increase in both the amplitude and the period of oscillation, espe-
cially in the amplitude. The reason for the errors is not hard to find.
Consider a time, such as the first half cycle of the harmonic oscillation
of. Example 2, during which the acceleration is diminishing. Such a
curve of acceleration versus time is shown in Fig. 4. In method 1 the
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION 35
1.0 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.1
5


r " .... ,
]'00,
[\
/
,
\.
ill
\
3 \
/,/
V'1
t\;

')
I.'

\ \
l(i;j
VT

\ -.-
l\\

'f
N'


b'
"
f\
i\
j

r
Nb
I

--"
If
,

1 Formal solution
"

2 •••• • • I1t =0.0167 sec.
\\
3 0--0--0 /1t =0.05sec.
4 6--------6 !:At =0.10sec.
))
5 0-- - -0 41t = 0.15 sec.
"
"
\\
\\
\
r\
\ 4
\
,
1

t
s
o
30
15
195
180
150
165
135
120
-45
o
-30
-15
0.4 0.5 0.6
Time t (seconds)
FIG. 3. Swing curves calculated from a formal solution of the swing equation and
by point-by-point calculation, method 1, with various values of /1t (Example 2).
a
36 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
acceleration during each interval ~ t is assumed constant at its value for
the beginning of the interval, as shown by the step function in Fig. 4,
and during the time considered it is always too great. Consequently,
the calculated speed becomes progressively higher than the true speed,
and the calculated advance of
angular position is likewise
greater than the true advance.
The second half cycle of os-
cillation thus begins with a
calculated amplitude greater
than the true value; and, if
no further errors occurred, the
oscillation would continue
with this amplitude. During
t
FIG. 4. True and assumed curves of ac- the second half cycle, how-
celeration versus time, point-by-point calou- ever, the acceleration is in-
lation, method 1. creasing, and during this time
the assumed acceleration is
always too small, that is, too negative. The calculated negative speed
is therefore too great in absolute value, and the calculated retardation
of angular position is likewise too great. Thus the calculated ampli-
tude increases with each swing.
Method 2. Most of the error caused by assuming the acceleration to
be constant during a time interval can be eliminated by using the value
of acceleration at the middle instead of the beginning of the interval.
Referring to Fig. 5a, we see that .the acceleration at the middle of the
interval is very nearly equal to the average acceleration during the
interval, as isshown by the near equality of the triangular areas above
and below the true curve. In method 2 this assumption is made:
namely, that the acceleration during an interval is constant at its value
calculated for the middle of the interval. Or, if we consider that the
intervals used in calculation begin and end at the points of time at
which acceleration is calculated, then the assumption must be re-
stated somewhat as follows: The acceleration, as calculated at the
beginning of a particular time interval, is assumed to remain constant
from the middle of the preceding interval to the middle of the interval
being considered. Let us, for example, consider calculations for the
nth interval, which begins at t = (n - l ) ~ t . (See Fig. 5.) The
angular position at this instant is an-I. The acceleration an-I, as
calculated at this instant, is assumed to be constant from
t = (n - -!) Ilt to t = (n - !) Ilt
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION 37
Over this period a change in speed occurs, which is calculated as
at
= = M Pa{n.-l) [67]
giving the speed at the end of this time as
wn-l = Wn-l + [68]
As a logical outcome of the assumption regarding acceleration, the
change in speed would occur linearly with time. To simplify the
a
In-t:n-t
U I I
I I
On --.----1------,-----
Ao,,: :
8,,-1 __ .1. I
0,,-2 I
n-2 n-l n
(0)
(b)
(e)
.1.

FIG. 5. True and assumed curves of acceleration, speed, and angular position
versus time, point-by-point calculation, method 2.
ensuing calculations, however, the change in speed is assumed to occur
as a step at the middle of the period, that is, at t = (n - which is
the same instant for which the acceleration was calculated. Between
steps the speed is assumed to be constant, as shown in Fig. 5b. From
t = (n - l)L\t to t = nL\t, or throughout the nth interval, the speed
will be constant at the value wn-i. The change in angular position
during the nth interval is, therefore,
L\on = [69]
and the position at the end of the interval is
On = 011.-1 + [70]
as shown in Fig. 5c.
38 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
Equations 67 to 70 may be used for computation; but, if we are
interested only in the angular position and not in the speed, we may
use a formula for from which w has been eliminated. Such a
formula will now be developed. Substitution of eq. 67 into eq. 68,
and of the result into eq. 69, gives

= +M Pa(n-l) [71]
By analogy with eq. 69
Substituting eq. 72 into eq. 71, ,ve obtain the desired formula

= + M Pa(n-l)
[72]
[73]
which, like eq. 66 of method 1, gives the increment in angle during any
time interval in terms of the increment for the previous interval. The
last term again may be symbolized by This formula makes the
calculation of a swing curve very simple. If the speed is wanted, it
can be obtained from the relation
[74]
Method 2 is simpler to use than method 1 and is much more ac-
curate, as will be shown in Example 3.
Before proceeding with this example, it is necessary to give some
attention to the effects of discontinuities in the accelerating power Pa
which occur, for example, ,vhen a fault is applied or removed or when
any switching operation takes place. If such a discontinuity occurs
at the beginning of an interval, then the average of the values of P(J
before and after the discontinuity must be used. Thus, in computing
the increment of angle occurring during the first interval after a fault is
applied at t = 0, eq. 73 becomes
[75]
where PaO+ is the accelerating power immediately after occurrence of
the fault. Immediately before the fault the system is in the steady
state; hence the accelerating power, Pao-, and the previous increment
of angle, are both equal to zero. If the fault is cleared at
the beginning of the mth interval, in calculations for this interval
one should use for Pa(m-l) the value !(Pa(m-l)- + Pa(m-l)+), where
SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION 39
Pa(m-l)- is the accelerating power immediately before clearing and
Pa(m-l)+ is that immediately after clearing the fault. If the dis-
continuity occurs at the middle of an interval, no special procedure is
needed. The increment in angle during such an interval is calculated,
as usual, from the value of Pa at the beginning of the interval. The
reasons for these two rules should be clear after study of Fig. 6. If
the discontinuity occurs at some time other than the beginning or the

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I Pa(m-l)-I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I ,
t
m-l m n-l n
FIG. 6. The handling of discontinuities of accelerating power Pain point-by-point
calculation, method 2. A is a discontinuity occurring at the beginning of the mth
interval. PaCm-l) = ! (PaCm-l>+ +P
aCm-1)- ) is used in calculating B is
a discontinuity at the middle of the nth interval. Here PaCn-1) is used in
calculating Ll8
n

middle of an interval, a weighted average of the values of Pa before
and after the discontinuity should be used, but the need for such a
refinement seldomappears because the time intervals used in calcula-
tion are so short that it is sufficiently accurate to assume the dis-
continuity to occur either at the beginning or at the middle of an
interval.
EXAMPLE 3
Work the problem of Example 2 by method 2 of point-by-point calculation,
using various values of time interval Compare the swing curves thus
obtained with those obtained by method 1 in Example 2.
Solution. The point-by-point calculations will be based on eqs. 70 and
73. The value of M from Example 2 is 2.5 X 10-
4
per unit. The aceelerat-
40 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
ing power is given, as before, by

P = Pc> P = 1--
a ,u 900
For t1t = 0.05 sec., which will be tried first, we have
(t1t)2 = (0.05 )2 = 10
M 2.5 X 10-4
and eq. 73 becomes
(a)
(b)
The detailed calculations are carried out in Table 7. Note that, for
t = 0, the instant of occurrence of the fault, the values of Pu and of Pa are
entered both for the fault off (at t = 0-) and for the fault on (at t = 0+).
The average value of Pais used.
The order in which items (except t) are entered in the table is: from left to
right across a line until the column headed "lOPa" is reached; then diago-
nally downward and to the right to the"value of 0in the line belowthe starting
point; thence to the "Pu" column in the same line; and so on. Each new
value of flo is found by addition of the previous value of flo and the value of
lOPa between the old and new values of dO. Each new value of 0is found in
similar fashion by addition of the preceding value of aand the value of f16
between the old and new values of o.
Comparison of the values of 0 in Table 7 with the corresponding values in
Table 5, computed from the formal solution, shows a maximum discrepancy
of 1.0
0
in the first cycle of oscillation. The agreement of the point-by-point
solution with the formal solution is very satisfactory.
Similar calculations were made for at = 0.10 sec., 0.15 see., 0.20 sec., and
0.25 sec. The details of calculation are not shown here, but the resulting
swing curves are plotted in Fig. 7. The curves numbered 3, 4, and 5, and
the symbols used for them, correspond with the curves of Fig. 3 for like
values of dt. The formal solution is not plotted in Fig. 7 but agrees with
curve 3 to the accuracy of plotting.
It may be noted in Fig. 7 that, as t1t is increased, the calculated swing
curves remain and correct in amplitude, but that their periods
decrease. Even when the points are so far apart that they are not adequate
to determine the shape of the curve (as for = 0.25 sec., giving fewer than
4 points per cycle), a sine-wave can be drawn through them.
The curve for at = 0.1 sec. would be considered accurate enough for
engineering use in a stability study. In actual studies the usual periods of
oscillation are from 0.5 to 2 sec., and at is commonly taken as 0.05 or 0.1
sec. The value 0.1 sec. usually suffices and, in addition to requiring only
half as many steps as 0.05 sec., has the advantage that multiplication or
division by can be performed merely by shifting the decimal point.
In Table 8 a comparison is made of the errors in the amplitudes and periods
of the curves calculated by methods 1 and 2 in Examples 2 and 3, respectively.
TABLE 7
POINT-By·POINT COMPUTATION OP SWING CURVE
(METHOD 2, at = 0.05 sEc.)(ExAMPLE 3)
t (sec.) P« (p.u.) Po, (p.u.) 10Po, (deg.) f:.8 (deg.) 8 (deg.)
0- 1.000 0 ...
· "
...
0+
0.500 0.500 ...
·..
...
oavg. ... 0.250 2.5
·..
45.0
2.5
0.05 0.528 0.472 4.7 47.5
7.2
0.10 0.609 0.391 3.9 54.7
11.1
0.15 0.731 0.269 2.7 65.8
13.8
0.20 0.885 0.115 1.2 79.6
15.0
0.25 1.052 -0.052 -0.5 94.6
14.5
0.30 1.214 -0.214 -2.1 109.1
12.4
0.35 1.350 -0.350 -3.5 121.5
8.9
0.40 1.450 -0.450 -4.5 130.4
4.4
0.45 1.497 -0.497 -5.0 134.8
-0.6
0.50 1.492 -0.492 -4.9 134.2
-5.5
0.55 1.430 -0.430 -4.3 128.7
-9.8
0.60 1.320 -0.320 -3.2 118.9
-13.0
0.65 1.177 -0.177 -1.8 105.9
-14.8
0.70 1.011 -0.011 -0.1 91.1
-14.9
0.75 0.847 0.153 1.5 76.2
-13.4
0.80 0.697 0.303 3.0 62.8
-10.4
0.85 0.582 0.418 4.2 52.4
-6.2
0.90 0.514 0.486 4.9 46.2
-1.3
0.95 0.499 0.501 5.0 44.9
3.7
1.00 0.540 0.460 4.6 48.6
8.3
1.05 0.632 0.386 3.7 56.9
12.0
1.10 ... .. . ... 68:9
41
1.0 1.1
THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Time t (seconds)
. ~ f I
~ . ~
~
\
/
V
\.\'
~ lit:
\\
II
\
~ . \ ~ \
~
h
\. \'
I ~
\ \\'
~
.'
\ \ /
,f
\.
\ ~ \
7 :
54
'I
6 p)
.-
v
1\ '\
t ~
/
V
3
/
\'l
' .
. ~ ~
. "
3Cl
0
o L\t =0.05 sec.
46---------6 L\t=0.10 sec.
50-----0 L\t =0.15 sec.
6 ---L\t=0.20 sec.
7 ---- L\t =0.25 sec.
I I I I I
o
o
30
15
42
150
135
120
-;;;
..
~ 105
..
'0
13
90
:s
:rl
~
'0
75
~
c
...
1:
60
..
E
..
u
45
...
1i.
Ul
i;i
FIG. 7. Swing curves calculated by point-by-point method 2 with various values
of At (Example 3).
TABLE 8
PERCENTAGE ERRORS IN AMPLITUDE AND PERIOD OF
SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATION C OMPUTED BY POlNT-By-POlNT
METHODS 1 AND 2 WITH VARIOUS V ALUES OF t
Per cent Error in Amplitude
Points
Per cent Error
At
per True
At End of One Cycle
At Half
in Period
(sec.)
Cycle
Cycle
Method 1 Method 2 Method 1 Method 1 Method e
0.0167 56 +21 ...
+9 +1 ...
0.05 19
+68 0 +29 +2 -0.4
0.10 9.4 + 191 0 + 67 +5 -2
0. 15 6.2 +300 0 +100 +11 -5
0.20 4.7 . .. 0 ... . .. -9
0.25 3.7 . .. 0 . .. . .. -15
ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN STABILITY STUDIES 43
The superiority of method 2 over method 1 is shown unmistakably by
Table 8 and by the curves. Method 2 with at = 0.10 sec. yields more
accurate results than method 1 with at = 0.0167 sec., and the results are
obtained with less than one-sixth the amount of calculation.
Assumptions commonly made in stability studies. In the foregoing
discussion of the solution of the swing equation, it was tacitly assumed
that the accelerating power Pa was known at the beginning of each
interval, and, indeed, the equation could not be solved unless Pa were
known. Since P
a
= Pi - P
u
, both the input Pi and the output P
u
must be known. In the determination of Pi and P
u
the following
assumptions are usually made:
1. The input remains constant during the entire period of a swing
curve.
2. Damping or asynchronous power is negligible.
3. Synchronous power may be calculated from a steady-state
solution of the network to which the machines are connected.
4. Each machine may be represented in the network by a constant
reactance (direct-axis transient reactance) in series with a constant
electromotive force (voltage behind transient reactance).
5. The mechanical angle of each machine rotor coincides with the
electrical phase of the voltage behind transient reactance.
These assumptions will now be discussed.
1. The input is initially equal to the output. When a disturbance
occurs, the output usually undergoes an abrupt change, but the input
is unchanged. The input to a generating unit is controlled by the
governor of its prime mover. The governor will not act until the
speed change exceeds a certain amount (usually 1%of normal speed),
depending on the adjustment of thE{governor, and even then there is a
time lag before the governor changes the input. During swings of the
synchronous machines the percentage change in speed is very small
until after synchronism is actually lost. Therefore governor action 'is
usually not a factor in determining whether synchronism will be lost,
and, accordingly, it is neglected.
2. The output (electric power) of a synchronous machine consists
of a synchronous part, depending on the relative angular positions of
all the machines of the system, and an asynchronous part, depending
on the relative angular speeds of all the machines. The asychronous
part may be taken into account if desired, but, as it is usually unim-
portant in comparison to the synchronous part, it is commonly neg-
lected in the interest of simplicity. The calculation of damping or
asynchronous power is discussed in Chapter XIV, Vol. III.
44 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
3. The network connecting the machines is not strictly in the steady
state during swinging of the machines, both because of sudden circuit
changes, such as application or removal of a fault, and because of the
more gradual change of phase of the electromotive forces due to the
swinging. However, as the periods of oscillation of the machines are
relatively long (of the order of 1 sec.) in comparison to the time
constants of the network, the network may be assumed, without
serious error, to be in the steady state at all times. Steady-state
network solution is presented in Chapter III.
4 and 5. The assumption that each machine can be represented by a
constant reactance in series with a constant voltage, and the assump-
tion that the mechanical position of the rotor coincides with the phase
angle of the constant voltage, are not entirely correct. As a rule,
however, they do not lead to serious error in the determination of
whether a given system is stable. Since examination and justifica-
tion of these assumptions require a considerable knowledge of syn-
chronous-machine theory, they will not be attempted at this point but
will be postponed to Chapter XII, Vol. III.
EXAMPLE 4
A 25-Mva. 6o-cycle water-wheel generator delivers 20 Mw. over a double-
circuit transmission line to a large metropolitan system which may be re-
garded as an infinite bus. The generating unit (including the water whe 1)
has a kinetic energy of 2.76 Mj. per Mva. at rated speed. The direct-axis
transient reactance of the generator is 0.30 per unit. The transmission cir-
cuits have negligible resistances, and each has a reactance of O ~ 2 0 per unit
on a 25-Mva. base. The voltage behind transient reactance of the generator
is 1.03 per unit, and the voltage of the metropolitan system is 1.00 per unit.
A three-phase short circuit occurs at the middle of one transmission circuit
and is cleared in 0.4 sec. by the simultaneous opening of the circuit breakers
at both ends of the line.
Calculate and plot the swing curve of the generator for 1 sec.
Solution. The swing curve will be calculated by point-by-point method
2, using a time interval of 0.05 sec. Before commencing the point-by-point
calculations, we must know the inertia constant of the generator and the
power-angle equations for three different conditions of the network, namely:
(1) before the fault occurs; (2) while the fault is on; and (3) after the fault
has been cleared. The power-angle equation depends on the reactance be-
tween the generator and the infinite bus.
Network reduction. Figure 8a is a reactance diagram of the system.
Before occurrence of the fault the reactance between points A and B is
found by series and parallel combinations to be
+
0.20 0 ·
Xl = 0.30 - = .40 per unit
2
ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN STABILITY STUDIES 45
When the fault is cleared, one of the parallel circuits is disconnected, making
the reactance
X3 = 0.30 +0.20 = 0.50 per unit
The equivalent series reactance between the generator and the infinite bus
while the fault is on may be found most readily by converting the Y circuit
GABF to a ~ , eliminating junction G. The resulting circuit is shown in
Fig. 8b. The reactance of the branch of the ~ between A and B is
X = 0.30 +0.20 +0.30 X 0.20
2 0.10
= 0.50 +0.60 = 1.10 per unit
The values of reactance of the other two branches are not needed because
these branches, being connected directly across the constant-voltage power
0.20
(a)
1.10
--......-rmrn'-.......- .......----o
(b)
FIG. 8. (a) Reactance diagram of a system consisting of a generator A supplying
power over a double-circuit transmission line to a large metropolitan system B
(Example 4). (b) Equivalent circuit of the system with a three-phase short circuit
at the middle of one transmission circuit, point F of a. The circuit of b is obtained
from that of a by a y - ~ conversion to eliminate point G.
sources, have no effect on the power outputs of the sources, although they
increase the reactive power outputs. The same is true of the O.IO-per-unit
reactance at B. The power-angle equation for the circuit of Fig. 8b is the
same as it would be with these three shunt branches omitted.
Power-angle equations. The power-angle equation, giving the output
PuA of generator A as a function of the angle 0 between voltages E
A
and EB,
is
P
EAE
B
• ~ C· ~
uA = --SInu = sIn u
X
where C has the following values:
Before fault, C
1
= E
A
EB = 1.03 X 1.00 = 2.58
Xl 0.40
46 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
During fault, O
2
= EAE
B
= 1.03 X 1.00 = 0.936
X
2
1.10
After clearing, 0
3
= EAEB = 1.03 X 1.00 = 2.06
x, 0.50
Inertia constant. By eq. 54
M = GH = 1.00 X 2.76 = 2.56 X 10-4 er unit
180/ 180 X 60 P
I nitial conditions. The power output of generator A before the fault was
given as 20 Mw., which on a 25-Mva. base is 0.80 per unit. The initial
angular position of A with respect to B is found by the pre-fault power-
angle equation:
PuAl = 2.58 sin ~ = 0.80
sin ~ = 0.80 = 0.310
2.58
~ = 18.1
0
Immediately after occurrence of the fault the angular position is unchanged,
but the power output changes to that given by the fault power-angle equation
PuA2 = 0.936 sin ~
= 0.936 sin 18.1
0
= 0.936 X'O.310
= 0.290 p.u.
Point-by-point calculations. Take the time interval as at = 0.05 sec.
The steps of calculation for each point are as follows:
Pa(n-l) = Pi - Pu(n-l) = 0.800 - Pu(n-l) per-unit power
(at)2 (0.05)2
--P a(n-l) = 4 P a(n-l) = 9.76 Pa(n-l) elec. deg.
M 2.56 X 10-
~ ~ n = .1on - 1 + 9.76Pa (n - l ) elec. deg.
an = 8
n
-
l
+.1o
n
elec. deg,
Pun = C sin On per-unit power
where C = C2 = 0.936 while the fault is on (0 < t < 0.4 sec.).
C = C« = 2.06 after the fault has been cleared (0.4 < t).
At t = 0 and t = 0.4 sec. there are discontinuities in P; and hence in Ps,
and the average value should be used in calculating .10.
The calculations are carried out in Table 9. The swing curve is plotted in
TABLE 9
POINT-By-POINT COMPUTATION OF SWING CURVE (EXAMPLE 4)
t C
sin 8
P
u
P
a
9.76P a A8 8
(sec. ) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elec, deg.) (elec. deg.)
0- 2.58 0.310 0.800 0.000 18.1
0+
0.936 0.310 0.290 0.510 18.1
oRVg.
0.255 2.5
2.5
0.05
H
0.352 0.330 0.470 4.6 20.6
7.1
0.10
H
0.465 0.435 0.365 3.6 27.7
10.7
0.15
"
0.621 0.581 0.219 2.1 38.4
12.8
0.20
"
0.779 0.730 0.070 0.7 51.2
13.5
0.25
"
0.904 0.846 -0.046 -0.4 64.7
13.1
0.30
II
0.977 0.915 -0.115 -1.1 77.8
12.0
0.35
II
1.000 0.936 -0.136 -1.3 89.8
10.7
0.40-
"
0.983 0.920 100.5
0.40+ 2.06
"
2.024
0.40 avg, 1.472 -0.672 -6.6
4.1
0.45
II
0.968 1.995 -1.195 -11.6 104.6
-7.5
0.50
H
0.992 2.045 -1.245 -12.1 97.1
-19.6
0.55
II
0.976 2.010 -1.210 -11.8 77.5
-31.4
0.60
H
0.721 1.486 -0.686 - 6.7 46.1
-38.1
0.65
H
0.139 0.286 0.514 5.0 8.0
-33.1
0.70
II
-0.424 -0.874 1.674 16.3 -25.1
-16.8
0.75
u
-0.668 -1.376 2.176 21.2 -41.9
4.4
0.80
"
-0.609 -1.255 2.055 20.0 -37.5
24.4
0.85
II
-0.227 -0.468 1.268 12.4 -13.1
36.8
0.90
II
0.402 0.828 -0.028 -0.3 23.7
36.5
0.95
"
0.868 1.788 -0.988 -9.6 60.2
24.9
1.00
"
0.996 2.052 -1.252 -12.2 85.1
12.7
1.05 97.8
47
48
THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
Fig. 9, together with curves for several other clearing times. The system is
stable with 0.4-sec. clearing. This fact becomes evident at 0.5 sec., and the
remainder of the swing computation is unnecessary if we merely wish to
know whether the system is stable with the given clearing time.
EXAMPLE 5
Determine the critical clearing time of a three-phase short circuit at the
middle of one transmission line of the system of Example 4, assuming that
the circuit breakers at both ends of the line open simultaneously.
Critical clearing point
I
Sustained fault
...
cu
t
250 .....
- 50 "-_.-i.-_-a__--'-_---.__ _'" _'
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Time (seconds)
FIG. 9. Swingcurvesfor the system of Fig. 8 (Example 4).
i 200
i
"0
150 ....
I
100
...
a
c
.9
150
Solution. First, the swing curve for a sustained short circuit is computed
and plotted. The computations of Example 4 may be used up to t = 0.4
sec.; but for t > 0.4 sec. new computations must be made by use of the
power-angleequation for the faulted condition. The swing curve is plotted
in Fig. 9. Obviously the system is unstable for a sustained fault. By in..
spection of the swing curve an estimate is made of the critical clearing time.
Say that we estimate 0.5 sec. The estimate is checked by computing the
swing curve for O.5-sec. clearing, starting from the O.5-sec. point of the
computation for a sustained fault. Computation of only two points or so
suffices to show that the system is stable with 0.5-8ec. clearing. A longer
clearing time is then tried. Several more swing curves may need to be
calculated, until two clearing times, differing slightly, are found, for one of
which the system is stable and for the other of which it is unstable. From
REFERENCES 49
the curves of Fig. 9 it may be concluded that the critical clearing time lies
between 0.6 and 0.65 sec. The critical clearing angle lies between 136° and
147°.
Detailed computations are not given here because they are similar to those
of Example 4. It should be stated again that usually only a few points need
be calculated on each swing curve, departing from the curve for a sustained
fault at the assumed clearing time.
EXAMPLE 6
In Example 4 find the maximum percentage deviation of the speed from
its normal value, both before and after the time when it is first certain that
the system is stable.
Solution. Aswas mentioned in Example 4, about 0.5 sec. after occurrence
of the fault it is certain that the system is stable. The relative speed (aver-
aged over a time interval ~ t ) is ~ 8 / lit, which, since ~ t is constant, is propor-
tional to lia. The maximum value of ~ o before 0.5 sec. is 13.5 elect deg.;
the maximum value after 0.5 sec. is - 38.1 elec. deg. The corresponding
relative speeds are 13.5/0.05 = 270 elect deg, per sec. and -38.1/0.05
= -762 elect deg. per sec. The normal speed, corresponding to a frequency
of 60 c.p.s., is 60 X 360 = 21,600 elec. deg. per sec. The percentage devia-
tions from normal speed are (270/21,600)100 = 1.2% and (762/21,600)100
= 3.5%.
It appears that a governor set to be sensitive to a 1% change of speed
would have a negligible effect in determining whether the system was stable,
although it might have some effect on the ensuing oscillations.
REFERENCES
1. A.I.E.E. Subcommittee on Interconnection and Stability Factors, "First
Report of Power System Stability," Elec. Eng., vol. 56, pp. 261-82, February, 1937.
2. FREDERICK S. WOODS, Advanced Calculus, New York, Ginn & Co., 1926.
Application of elliptic integrals to the motion of a pendulum, pp. 369-71.
3. V. BUSH, "The Differential Analyzer: A New Machine for Solving Differential
Equations," Franklin Insi. Jour., vol. 212, pp. 447-88, October, 1931.
4. R. H. PARK and E. H. BANCKER, "System Stability as a Design Problem,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 48, pp. 170-94, January, 1929. Includes description of
point-by-point calculation of swing curves.
5. I. H. SUMMERS and J. B. MCCLURE, "Progress in the Study of System Sta-
bility," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 49, pp. 132-58, January, 1930. Appendix IV,
Sample Swing Curve Calculation, pp. 145-6.
6. F. R. LoNGLEY, "The Calculation of Alternator Swing Curves," A.I.E.E.
Trans., vol. 49, pp. 1129-50, July, 1930; disc., pp. 1150-1.
7. O. G. C. DAHL, Electric Power Circuits, vol. II, Power System Stability,
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938. Four methods of point-by-point calcu-
lation of swing curves, pp. 391-401.
50 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER II
1. Calculate the inertia constant M of a 25-cycle 12,500-kva. Ll-kv,
187.5-r.p.m. water-wheel-generator unit by taking a typical value of H from
Fig. 2.
2. In Example 4 plot on one sheet curves of angular position, relative
speed, and acceleration versus time.
3. Work the problem of Example 4, using ~ t = 0.1 sec. instead of 0.05
sec., and state whether you regard the accuracy of the swing curve so calcu-
lated as satisfactory.
4. Work the problem of Example 4 for a clearing time of 0.625 sec. in-
stead of 0.4 sec. Use ~ t = 0.05 sec. Is the system stable?
5. What is the critical clearing time of a three-phase short circuit close to
the sending end of one transmission line of the system of Example 41
Assume simultaneous opening of both breakers. Which fault location is
more severe, the sending end or the middle of the line? Why?
6. In Probe 5 what is the critical opening time of the first (nearby)
breaker if the second (distant) breaker opens 0.5 sec. later than the first one?
7. Compute and plot the swing resulting from the opening of one of the
two parallel transmission circuits of Example 4 as a normal switching
operation.
8. The system of Example 4 is modified by the addition of a radial feeder
to the bus of station A. If a three-phase fault occurs on this feeder at a
point separated from the bus by an impedance of jO.10 per unit and at a
time when the feeder is carrying a very light load and when the main trans-
mission lines are loaded as in Example 4, and if the fault is cleared in 0.4
sec., is the shock to the system greater or less than that caused by the fault
at the middle of .one transmission line cleared in an equal time? Why?
9. Find the steady-state power limit of the system of Fig. 8a with one
transmission line switched out. Make the following assumptions: For each
load the terminal voltage of generator A is adjusted to 1.00 per unit, and the
power factor is unity. Then assume a very small disturbance to occur during
which the excitation voltage behind synchronous reactance of 0.90 per unit
remains constant.
10. Find the transient power limit of the system of Example 4 with a
three-phase fault at the middle of one transmission line cleared in 0.4 sec. by
the simultaneous opening of the circuit breakers at both ends. Assume the
pre-fault conditions of generator terminal voltage and power factor to be as
described in Probe 9.
11. The system of Example 4 is modified by making the impedance of each
transmission line 0.10 +jO.20 per unit instead of 0 +jO.20 per unit. Find
the initial angular position of generator A with respect to the infinite bus if
the power output of A is 0.800 per unit at a voltage of 1.00 per unit and a
power factor of 1.00. Also find the power output and accelerating power
immediately after occurrence of a three-phase short circuit at the middle of
PROBLEMS
51
one line. Does neglecting resistance give an optimistic or a pessimistic re-
sult for the stability of a system having one generator and an infinite bus?
12. Show that point-by-point method 2 is equivalent to making the
substitution
in the swing equation.
13. It is known that the differential equation
(a)
has a solution
(b)
the real part of which represents a simple harmonic variation of awith t with
a period T = 21r/k. Show that the corresponding difference equation
(c)
in which an denotes the value of 8 at a time t = n ~ t , has a similar solution
where
2. k ~ t
'-' = - sln-
1-
~ t 2
(d)
(e)
14. By using eq. e of Probe 13 calculate the percentage error in period of a
simple harmonic oscillation as a function of the number of points per cycle
when the oscillation is calculated by point-by-point method 2.
25rv
Fault
FIG. 10. Power system-with frequency changer B-e (Probs. 15 and 16).
15. Describe the procedure for calculating swing curves of the machines of
Fig. 10, where A is a 60-cycle generator; B-G, a synchronous-synchronous
60-to-25-cycle motor-generator set (frequency changer); and D, a 25-cycle
synchronous motor (or generator with such local load that it is equivalent to
a motor for stability analysis). State specifically all respects in which the
procedure differs from that for a system in which all machines are electrically
in parallel.
52 THE SWING EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
16. Compute swing curves of the four machines of the system of Fig. 10
for a sustained three-phase fault at the end of the branch line near B. Data
on the system are as follows:
Reactances in per unit on a system bas6
Lines
A-B 0.40
C-D 0.20
Branch from B to fault 0.20
Machines
A 0.10
B 0.20
C 0.15
D 0.15
Inertiaconstants (H) on the system base
A 8.0
B 1.0
C 1.0
D 6.0
Initial conditions
Load of 1.00 per unit transmitted from A to D.
Terminal voltages of Band C
J
1.00 per unit.
Power factor at terminals of Band C, 1.00.
17. What are the dimensions of inertia constant H? Give a physical
interpretation.
CHAPTER III
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Determination of the swing curves of the several synchronous
machines of a power system, as has been mentioned, consists of two
processeswhich must be carried on alternately: (1) the solution of the
swing equation of each machine, giving the change in angular position
during a short interval of time due to a known accelerating power;
and (2) the solution of the network to which the machines are con-
nected, giving the output of each machine when the angular positions
of all machines are known. In Chapter II attention was focussed on
the solution of the swing equation, and the network solution required
for Example 4 was purposely made as simple as possible by using a
two-machine reactance system. The solution of the swing equation
was found to be very simple. It becomes no more complicated if the
number of machines is increased except that a similar calculation has
to be made for each machine. The solution of the network, on the
other hand, rapidly becomesmore laborious as the number of machines
is increased. The methods of network solution required for stability
studies will be outlined in this chapter.
The impedance diagram (positive-sequence* network). Before the
network can be solved, however, it must first be established. The
starting point i s ~ usually a one-line diagram of the power system to be
studied, showing generators, synchronous condensers and other large
synchronous machines, reactors, transformers, transmission lines, and
loads. The diagram is usually limited to the major transmission sys-
tem. As a rule, distribution circuits and small loads are not shown in
detail but are taken into account merely as lumped loads on substation
busses. From the one-line diagram there is prepared a diagram in
which all significant 'electrical elements of the power system are rep-
resented on a single-phase (line-to-neutral) basis by their positive-
sequence equivalent circuits with proper values of impedance. The
values of impedance of individual apparatus are commonly given either
in actual ohms or in per unit (or per cent) based on the rating of the
individual apparatus. For use in the system impedance diagram the
*This term is defined in Chapter VI.
53
54 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
values so given must be converted either to ohms referred to a common
voltage or to per-unit values on a common system base. The relation-
ships among these several systems of units will now be discussed.
Per-unit quantities. In the per-unit system the various physical
quantities, such as current, voltage, power, and impedance, are ex-
pressed as decimal fractions or multiples of base quantities. When the
apparatus base is used, the base quantities are the rated, or full-load,
values or are derived from them. Thus, for a 1,000-kva., 66,OOO-to-
11,OOO-volt single-phase transformer, base power is taken as 1,000kva.
(or kw.); base voltage on the high-voltage side, as 66,000 volts; and
base voltage on the low-voltage side, as 11,000volts. Base current on
the high-voltage side is 1,000/66 = 15.15 amp.; on the low-voltage
side it is 1,000/11 = 90.9 amp.; both these values are full-load cur-
rents. The base impedance of the high-voltage side is the ratio of
base voltage of that side to base current of that side, namely,
66,000/15.15 = 4,360 ohms. The base impedance of the low-voltage
side is 11,000/90.9 = 121.5 ohms, which is (11,000/66,000)2 = 1/36
as great as the high-voltage value. These values are the load imped-
ances required on the high- and the low-voltage sides of the transformer
to load it fully at rated voltage.
If the transformer is carrying a load of 500 kva. at 0.8 power factor
and at rated voltage, the apparent power is 500/1,000 = 0.50 per unit,
the active power is 400/1,000 = 0.40 per unit, the voltage on both
sides is 1.00 per unit, and the current on both sides is 0.50 per unit.
The per-unit voltages of both windings are nearly equal, differing by
only a small impedance drop. The per-unit currents of both windings
are nearly equal, differing by only a small exciting current.
The short-circuit, or equivalent, impedance of a transformer re-
ferred to one side is the same in per unit as when referred to the other
side, although different in ohms. For example, if the short-circuit
impedance of the above-mentioned transformer is 0.070 per unit, it is
0.070 X 4,360 = 305 ohms referred to the high-voltage side, or
0.070 X 121.5 = 8.5 ohms referred to the low-voltage side.
Per-unit impedances based on the apparatus rating are nearly the
same for all apparatus of the same general design though of different
voltage and kilovolt-ampere ratings, whereas the impedances in ohms
vary greatly with the rating. Hence typical values of impedance are
easier to tabulate, remember, and compare if expressed in per unit than
if expressed in ohms.
For conversion of self-impedances from ohms to per unit and reverse,
the following formulas are used:
PER-UNIT QUANTITIES 55
[2]
[3]
[4]
B
· d · h base voltage in volts
ase impe ance In 0 ms = .
base current In amperes
base voltage in volts
= -----------
(
baSe po\ver in vOlt-amperes)
base voltage in volts
(base voltage in volts)2
=----------
base power in volt-amperes
(base voltage in kilovoltsj''
= [1]
base power in megavolt-amperes
. . impedance in ohms
Per-unit Impedance = b · d · h
ase impe ance In 0 ms
impedance in ohms X base power in megavolt-amperes
(base voltage in kilovoltsj''
Impedance in ohms = per-unit impedance X base impedance in ohms
per-unit impedance X (base voltage in kilovolts)2
base power in megavolt-amperes
For mutual impedances between circuits of different base voltages we
have, instead of eq. 1,
B
· d base voltage 1 X base voltage 2
ase unpe ance = b
ase power
Although the foregoing relations have been derived for a single-phase
circuit (which may be regarded as one phase of a Y-connected three-
phase circuit), they apply equally well to a whole three-phase circuit
provided that the base voltage is the line-to-line value (V3 times the
line-to-neutral voltage) and the base power is the three-phase value (3
times the power per phase). ' These factors cancel in the expression
(voltage)
2
jpower.
For use in a power-system study, all impedances and other quantities
must be expressed on a common system base. An arbitrary base power
is selected; for example, 100 Mva. for a large power system, 50 or 20
Mva. for a smaller one. The base voltage for each portion of the net-
work is usually the nominal voltage of that portion and, if not stated,
is thus understood. For portions of the network connected through
transformers, however, the ratio of base voltages should equal the turns
56 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
ratio of the transformer for the particular tap used, even if the turns
ratio differs from the ratio of nominal voltages. As eq. 2 shows, when
per-unit impedances are changed from one base power (megavolt-
ampere base) to another without change of base voltage, they vary
directly as the base power.
Per-cent quantities are 100 times the corresponding per-unit quanti-
ties. The decimal point must be watched in the multiplication or
division of per-cent quantities; for example, the product of a per-cent
impedance by a per-cent current is 100 times the proper per-cent volt-
age drop.
As an alternative to putting all data into per unit on a system base,
they are sometimes expressed in ohms, volts, amperes, and so on,
referred to a common voltage, usually the nominal voltage of the major
portion of the transmission system. If this is done, impedances of the
lines of the major portion are left expressed in actual ohms, whereas
those of lines of other voltages are referred to the selected voltage by
multiplying them by the square of the turns ratio of the intervening
transformer. Impedances given in per unit on a given power base are
converted to ohms at the chosen voltage by eq. 3.
Representation of large synchronous machines. The representation
of various circuit elements in the impedance diagram will now be dis-
cussed briefly. References will be given to sources of more complete
information.
Each generator or other large synchronous machine is commonly
represented for transient-stability studies by its direct-axis transient
reactance Xd' in series with a constant-voltage power source (Fig. 1).
The armature resistance of large machines is usually negligible. The
reactances of machines already built Of designed can usually be ob-
tained from the manufacturer. The method of obtaining Xd' from a
short-circuit oscillogram is described in Chapter XII, Vol. III. For
machines of minor importance average values of Xd' may be taken from
Table 2 of Chapter XII. More exact ways of representing synchro-
.nous machines are also discussed in that chapter. .
Representation of transformers. Two-circuit transformers are rep-
resented most accurately by an equivalent T circuit in which the series
arms represent the leakage impedances, and the shunt arm, the exciting
impedance. As a rule, the exciting current can be neglected in stabil-
ity studies; if this is done, the T circuit is reduced to series impedance
Z (Fig. 2), equal in value to the short-circuit, or equivalent, impedance
of the transformer. The value of this impedance is frequently given
on the name plate. It can be measured by means of a short-circuit
test. The resistances of large transformers are usually negligible,
REPRESENTATION OF TRANSFORMERS 57
FIG. 2. Representation of a two-
circuit transformer, exciting cur-
rent neglected. V1, and V2 are the
primary and secondary voltages,
respectively. Z is the equivalent
impedance.
High Max. Per-cent Max. Per-cent Max.
Voltage, Low Reactance Low Reactance Low
Line to Line Voltage ~ Voltage ~ Voltage
(kv.) (kv.) Min. Max. (kv.) Min. Max. (kv.)
ranging from about 0.3 to 1.1%. Typical values of reactance are
given in Table 1. They depend principally upon the rated voltage:
the higher the voltage, the higher the reactance.
x'
"
FIG. 1. Representation of a gener-
ator or other large synchronous
machine in a transient-stability
study. Xd' is the direct-axis tran-
sient reactance, E/ is the internal
voltage "behind" this reactance,
and V is the terminal voltage.
TABLE 1
TYPICAL REACTANCES OF TWO-WINDING POWER TRANSFORMERS
(500 KVA. PER PHASE AND OVER, 1- OR 3-PHASE, 25 OR 60 c.e.s., 55°0. RISE)
(From Ref. la by permission of Westinghouse Electric Corporation)
Per-cent
Reactance
~
Min. Max.
0- 15 15 4.5 7.0
16- 25 15 5.5 8.0
26- 37 15 6.0 8.0
38- 50 25 6.5 9.0
51- 73 25 7.0 10.0
74- 92 34.5 7.5 10.5
93-115 34.5 8.0 12.0
116-138 37 8.5 13.0
139-161 50 9.0 14.0
162-:96 50 10.0 15.0
197-230 50 11.0 16.0
25
37
46
69
73
73
92
92
92
6.5
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
9.0
10.5
11.0
12.5
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
73
92
115
138
161
161
9.0 14.0
10.0 15.5
10.5 17.0
11.5 18.0
12.5 19.0
14.0 20.0
Three-circuit transformers are represented, with exciting current
neglected, by Y circuits (Fig. 3) such that the resistance of each
branch is the resistance of the corresponding winding, and the sum of
the reactances of each pair of branches equals the short-circuit react-
ance between the corresponding pair of windings with the remaining
winding open." 5 Thus
Xl +X
2
= X
l 2
Xl +X3 = X13
X
2
+ X
3
= X
23
[5a]
[5b]
[5cJ
58
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
whence
Xl c= !(X
12
+ X
13
- X
23
)
X
2
=!(X
I 2
+X
23
- X
13
)
X
3
= !(X
I 3
+ X
23
- X
12
)
[6a]
[6b]
l6c]
Frequently the reactance of one arm of the Y, as determined by
eqs. 6, is found to be negative. t
For estimating purposes the reactance X
l
2. between the two main
windings of a three-winding transformer may be considered equal to
the reactance of a two-winding
transformer having the same kilo-
R
1
+jX1 h tV
2
volt-ampere and voltage ratings
-a: (Table 1). The reactances X
13
I
3 1-J ~ ~ and X23 between the main wind-
v} ings and the tertiary winding
cannot be estimated accurately
becauseof the wide range in these
reactances in transformers of dif-
ferent designs.!"
FIG. 3. Representation of a three...
circuit transformer, exciting current Transformers of 4. or 5 circuits.
neglected. See Refs. 6 and 7, respectively.
Autotransformers are repre-
sented in the same manner as transformers with separate windings.
The impedances used in the diagram are those between circuit ter-
minals, not those between parts of the winding. The reactance of an
autotransformer in per cent (based on the rated kilovolt-amperes de-
livered) can'be estimated by multiplying the reactance of a two-wind-
ing transformer from Table 1 by the ratio, Ia
rated high voltage - rated lowvoltage
rated high voltage
Autotransformers can have very small reactances if the voltage ratio
is closeto unity.
[This circumstance causes no difficulty in an algebraic solution, but on an a-c.
calculating board (discussedlater in this chapter) an inordinately large capacitance
is required for representing a small negative reactance. This difficulty may be
avoided either by combining the negative reactance with whatever positive re-
actance may be in series with it or by representing it by capacitive reactance in
series with inductive reactance that is smaller than the capacitive reactance by the
amount of the required negative reactance.
TRANSMISSION LINES AND CABLES 59
Symmetrical banks of three single-phase transformers, that is, Y or A
connections of identical transformers, are represented in the single-
phase impedance diagram as one single-phase transformer, the per-unit
impedance of which, based on the kilovolt-ampere rating of the bank,
is equal to the per-unit impedance of one transformer on its own
kilovolt-ampere rating. Three-phase transformers ~ r e represented in
similar fashion. The no-load phase displacement between primary
and secondary circuits (0 or 180
0
for a ~ - ~ or Y- Y connection, ±30°
for a ~ - y or y - ~ connection) ordinarily can be and is disregarded.
Regulating transformers "for control of ratio, phase shift, or both. See
Refs. Ib, 8, and 9.
Transmission lines and cables are represented by their nominal or
equivalent 7r circuits.l!
In the nominal 7r circuit (Fig. 4a) the series branch has an impedance
equal to the total series impedance Z per phase of the line, and the
z
II ~ y tanh(...{ZY'2
2" VZf/2
~ ~ ~
(a) Nominalr (b) Equivalent 1r
FIG. 4. Circuits for representing transmission lines and cables.
shunt branch at each end has an admittance equal to half the shunt
admittance Yof the line to neutral. Here Z = zl and Y = st. where l
is the length of the line and z and yare the series impedance and shunt
admittance per unit length. The series impedance consists of resist-
ance and inductive reactance; the shunt admittance consists practi-
cally of capacitive susceptance only, as the shunt conductance of
power lines is negligible.
In the equivalent 1r circuit (Fig. 4b), the impedance of the series
branch is that of the nominal 1T' multiplied by a correction factor,
sinh vZ¥ Eiv'ZY - E-iy'Zf
VZY 2VZY
1 +Zy (Zy)2 (Zy)3
= 6+120+ 5040+··· [7a]
,
and the admittance of each shunt branch is that of the nominal 1r
60 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
multiplied by another correction factor,
E
iVZ'i/2
_ E-iVZ'i/2
(E
i YZY
/
2
+ E-iVZ'i/2) v'ZY/2
tanh (V"ZYj2)
= -----------
v'ZY/2
The correction factors can be found easily by use of Woodruff's
charts. 12
The equivalent 1r is an exact representation of a line at a particular
frequency, whereas the nominal 1r is an approximation, the use of
which is justified only if the correction factors are nearly 1, as is true if
Zy = zyl2 « 1, hence for short lines. As a general rule, the nominal e
is accurate enough for 60-c.p.s. open-wire lines not more than 100miles
long. Longer lines may be represented by an equivalent 1r or by two
or more nominal 1r'S in tandem. Very short lines have negligible
shunt admittance and can be represented by their series impedance
only.
Each part of a composite line, such as an underground cable in series
with an aerial line, may be represented by a 1r. By means of one or
more y - ~ conversions, the circuit can be reduced to one 1r, usually
an unsymmetrical one.
When several linesare connected tothesame bus,the shunt capacitances
at that end of all the 1r circuits of these lines are in parallel and may be
replaced by one capacitance from the bus to neutral. If one or more
lines are disconnected in the course of a study, the value of this capaci-
tance should be reduced accordingly.
Although T circuits could be used instead of 1r circuits, the 1r circuits
are preferable because they require only one series impedance per line
and one shunt capacitance per bus, whereas the T circuits require two
series impedances and one shunt capacitance per line.
The constants of lines may be found by measurement 13 or by calcu-
lation. In calculation the length of the line, found from a map or
other record, is multiplied by the constants per unit length. The
constants of cables are best found from the manufacturer, but they'
may be estimated from published tables.
1d

14
The constants of aerial
lines can be found accurately from tables. They depend upon (1)
the frequency, (2) the size and kind of conductor, and (3) the spacing
between conductors. The series resistance depends principally upon
size and kind of conductor and, to a lesser degree, upon frequency.
The series inductive reactance depends upon all the foregoing factors.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
61
It can be found most simply as the sum of two terms, one of which
(equal to the reactance ascribable to the flux inside a l-ft, radius)
depends upon frequency and size and kind of conductor; and the
other, upon frequency and spacing. t The shunt capacitive reactance
can be found in like manner. Reference Ic has suitable tables for
finding series and shunt reactances by this method. For estimates
the series inductive reactance of a 60-c.p.s. aerial line may be taken as
0.8 ohm per mile, and the' shunt capacitive susceptance, as 5 micromhos
per mile. For other frequencies the values are proportional.
Mutual impedance and admittance between parallel lines are negligi-
ble for positive sequence.
Representation of loads. As the loads on a power system vary with
the time of day and of year and from one year to another, one or more
particular load conditions must be selected for study; for example, the
annual peak load and the minimum load may be taken. Estimated
future loads are often used. The connected generator and trans-
former capacity and other features of system operation will depend
upon the loads assumed. Loads are assumed to be lumped on the
busses of major stations and substations. They should be expressed
as vector power P +jQ, where P is the active power, and Q the re-
active power. Each load is then represented by a shunt admittance,
y - P +jQ [8]
- V
2
where V is the voltage across the load. Ordinarily, the voltages used
in calculating the load admittances must be estimated. Later, the
admittances of the important loads can be revised, if so desired, by
using more accurate values of voltage.
Small tapped loads on transmission lines may be removed and ap-
portioned between the two ends of the line in inverse proportion to the
line impedances between the tap and the ends.
Representation of faults. A three-phase short circuit is represented
by connecting the point of fault to the neutral bus. The representa-
tion of other types of fault is discussed in Chapter VI.
Miscellaneous equipment. Closed circuit breakers and switches,
current transformers, and busses have negligible impedance on high-
voltage systems and, therefore, are disregarded. Similarly, such shunt
elements as potential transformers, lightning arresters, and coupling
tThis method of tabulating reactance of lines was originated by W. A. Lewis and
was published first in Ref. 2d.
If the three distances between conductors are unequal, the geometric mean of the
distances or the arithmetic mean of the corresponding reactance terms is used.
62 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
capacitors have impedances so high that they are considered open
circuits.
Representation of remote portions of the system. In studies of part
of a large interconnected system it is neither necessary nor feasible to
represent in equal detail all stations and lines of the entire system.
Outlying portions can be represented by equivalent circuits. A
remote portion connected at only one point to the portion being studied
can be replaced, according to Thevenin's theorem, by an impedance in
series with a constant-voltage power source. The impedance is found
by network reduction (discussed later in this chapter) or by a knowl-
edge of the short-circuit kilovolt-amperes at the point of connection.
The impedance may be assumed to be pure reactance, in which case
the equivalent circuit islike that of a generator (Fig. 1). The voltage
of the source may be assumed as 1 per unit. A remote portion of the
network connected at two points to the' portion being studied can
be represented by a power source and a Y circuit.
The inertia constant assigned to the generator of each of these
equivalent circuits should equal the total of the inertia constants of all
the machines therein (for reasons discussed later in this chapter) and,
in the absence of more definite information, may be calculated from an
average value of H (Figs. 1 and 2, Chapter II) and the known aggre-
gate generating capacity. If the total inertia is large and loosely
coupled to the portion of the network being studied, it may be con..
sidered infinite with little error. The assumption of infiriite inertia for
a remote portion of the system renders the computation of swing
curves unnecessary for the equivalent machines representing such
portions.
Check list of data required for transient-stability study.
Generators
Name-plate rating
Direct-axis transient reactance
Kinetic energy at rated speed (or moment of inertia and speed),
including prime mover (see Chapter II)
Voltage limits
Grounding§
Negative-sequence resistance and reactance]
Zero-sequence reactance§
§Required only for studies including ground faults. See Chapter VI.
[Required only for studies involving unbalanced faults.
DATA FOR TRANSIENT-STABILITY STUDY 63
Transformers, two-circuit
Name-plate rating
Equivalent resistance and reactance
Turn ratio normally used
Available taps and tap-changing equipment
Connections§
Grounding§
Transformers, multicircuit
Items listed for two-circuit transformers
Resistance of each winding ra common kilovolt-
Reactances between each pair of windings ampere base
Kilovolt-ampere rating of each winding
Reactors
Resistance
Reactance
Transmission Zines and coble«
Series resistance and inductive reactance of each line section
Shunt capacitance or capacitive susceptance of each line section,
except those for which its effect is obviously negligible
Zero-sequence resistance, reactance, and capacitance§
Synchronous condensers and large synchronous motors
Same data as for generators; however, kilovolt-ampere rating of
condensers may be different for lagging current than for leading
current
Loads
Active and reactive power for each condition to be studied
Voltage limits
Circuit breakers (see Chapters VIII and XI, Vol. II)
Interrupting time
Reclosing time }-f t t- I· · d
S
- I I th I t- 1 au oma IC rec osmg IS use
mg e-po e or ree-po e opera Ion
Protective relays (see Chapter IX, Vol. II)
Types and settings
§Required only for studies including ground faults, See Chapter VI.
64
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
The alternating-current calculating board. Mter the required data
have been compiled and the impedance diagram has been drawn, the
network must be solved in order to find the magnitudes and initial
phase positions of the internal voltages of all the synchronous ma-
chines. Subsequently, during the determination of swing curves, the
network must be solved repeatedly to obtain the power output of all
the machines when their angular positions and internal voltages are
known.
Networks may be solved by two principal methods, the calculating-
board method and the algebraic method. Calculating-board solutions
are to be preferred on account of their rapidity and ease when the num-
ber of machines considered is three or more.
The calculating board is essentially a means of representing an elec-
tric power network to scale. A three-phase network is represented on
the board on a single-phase basis. One hundred volts on the board
may represent, for example, 100 kv. line to line (57.7 kv. line to neu-
tral) on the power system, and 100 watts on the board may represent
50 Mw. three-phase (16.7 Mw. per phase) on the system. The scales
for voltage and power are then 1 : 1,000 and 1 : 500,000, respectively.
The scales of current and of impedance follow automatically from the
scales chosen for voltage and for power, In this particular example,
1 amp. on the board would represent 16.7 X 10
6
/ 57.7 X 10
3
= 289
amp. on the power system, and 100 ohms on the board would represent
57,700/289 = 200 ohms per phase (Y basis) on the system.
The alternating-current calculating board, also known as a network
analyzer or network calculator, consists of an assemblage of adjustable
resistors, reactors, and capacitors; a number .of sources of a-c. voltage
adjustable both.in phase and in magnitude; provisions for connecting
the foregoing units together in any desired manner to form a network;
and instruments for measuring scalar and vector values of voltage,
current, and power anywhere in the network. The instruments must
be so designed that insertion of them does not appreciably change
conditions in the network. A modern a-c. calculating board is shown
in Fig. 5.
In using the a-c. board in a stability study, the network is first set
up to scale, the generators being represented ordinarily by their
direct-axis transient reactances in series with power sources. Next
the phase and magnitude of the voltages of the several power sources
and the impedances of the loads are adjusted to represent the desired
normal or pre-fault operating condition, with respect to machine out-
puts, terminal voltages, and similar factors. The fault is then applied
at the desired point. If it is a three-phase fault, it is represented
THE ALTERNATING-CURRENT CALCULATING BOARD 65
simply by a short circuit on the network; if it is an unsymmetrical
fault, it is represented either by a shunt impedance or by a connection
betweenthe sequence networks (to be discussed in Chapter VI). The
voltages of the power sources (representing voltages behind transient
reactance, which are ordinarily assumed constant) are readjusted, if
necessary, to restore them to their pre-fault values. It is desirable,
however, that the power sources have such good voltage regulation
that readjustment is unnecessary, or at least small. Then the power
FIG. 5. Amodern alternating-current calculating board (by courtesyofthe General
Electric Company).
output of each machine is read by means of a wattmeter. From these
readings the accelerating power is computed, and from it the angular
change of each machine during the first time interval is found by
methods already discussed. The angular changes so found are then
reproduced on the calculating board by turning the angle-adjusting
dials of the powersources. After this has beendone, a newset of power
readings is taken, and so on. The clearing of a fault or any other
switching operation is represented by an appropriate change of con-
nections on the board at the proper time in the run. The run is con-
tinued, the swing curves being plotted as it progresses, until it is ap-
parent whether all the machines will remain in synchronism.
From the foregoing description of the use of an a-c. calculating
66 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
board in a stability study, it should be obvious that a direct-current
calculating board could not be used for the same purpose. The correct
representation of phase relations is all-important.
Alternating-current calculating boards are owned and operated by a
number of leading electrical manufacturers, consulting engineering
firms, engineering colleges, and, both publicly and privately owned
electric-power utilities.
22
Some of these boards are available for hire.
The two most widely used types will now be described.
Description of General Electric A-C. Network Analyzer.
17
, 21
The a-c. calculating board shown in Fig. 5 operates at a frequency of
480 c.p.s, ~ and has a nominal, or base, voltage of 50 volts and a nomi-
nal, or base, current of 50 rna.** Consequently, the base power is
2.5 watts, and the base impedance is 1,000 ohms. All adjusting dials
and instrument scales are marked in percentages of the base quantities.
Generator units. There are a number of power sources for supplying
single-phase voltages of adjustable phase and magnitude, which are
used principally for representing generators. Each generator unit
consists of two machines, a phase shifter and a single-phase induction
voltage regulator. The phase shifter has a three-phase stator wind-
ing, which receives 220-volt, 480-c.p.s. power from a motor-generator
set, and a single-phase rotor winding, which delivers power at constant
voltage and adjustable phase to the voltage regulator. The phase
shifter provides adjustment of phase through an unlimited angle, and
the voltage regulator affords adjustment of voltage magnitude from
oto 250% of the base voltage. The phase and magnitude adjustments
do not affect each other, nor are the adjustments greatly affected by
load. The series inductive reactance of the generator unit is compen-
sated by series capacitive reactance. As a result, the voltage regula-
tion at full load is only 2%, and the phase shift produced by rated
current at zero power factor is only 1
0
• This small voltage regulation
is very convenient in stability studies where the voltages of the power
sources represent known constant voltages behind transient reactances
of synchronous machines because the angular positions of the several
machines can be varied without the necessity of readjusting the volt-
age magnitudes. Furthermore, the phase and magnitude of each
voltage agree closely with the respective dial settings.
In studies of normal power-system operation the voltage-magnitude
,The board frequency need not be the same as the frequency of the power
system to be studied.
**The nominal voltage is approximately the average voltage (to neutral) of the
board circuits, and the nominal current is approximately the average current in the
principal board circuits.
GENERAL ELECTRIC A-C. BOARD
67
adjustment simulates adjustment of the excitation of the represented
machine, and the phase adjustment corresponds to adjustment of the
governor of the prime mover. Advancing the phase increases the
power output, and retarding the phase decreases it, unless, of course,
the angle of maximum power on the power-angle curve isexceeded.
Line-impedance units. There are a large number of line-impedance
units, each consisting of resistors and three tapped reactors perma-
nently connected in series. These units are used for representing the
impedances of transmission lines, transformers, reactors, and ma-
chines, and other low impedances. Information on the range of
resistance and reactance, size of steps, current capacity, and so on
of the line-impedance units and other circuit elements is given in
Table 2.
As the impedance units constitute a large portion of the bulk and
weight of any a-c. calculating board, it is important that they be made
small. On the other hand, it is desirable that the reactors have a
reasonably low ratio of resistance to reactance so that they can rep-
resent sufficiently well transformers, reactors, and machines having a
low ratio of resistance to reactance. Furthermore, the reactance
should be almost independent of the magnitude of current in the
reactor. These requirements for reactors tend to make them large.
The problem of conflicting requirements has been solved by the use of
low base power, a higher frequency than 60 c.p.s., and high-grade
magnetic material for the cores of the reactors.
The resistance of the line reactors ranges from 3% of the reactance
when the reactance is set at 70% of the base value to 8% at a setting
of 0.2% of the base. The resistance of the reactors is not negligible;
therefore an allowance for it (taken as 5% of the reactance setting)
should be made in setting the associated resistors.
Load-impedance units. The load-impedance units differ from the
line-impedance units chiefly in that they have a higher impedance.
They are used to represent loads or other circuits of high impedance.
The resistor and reactor can be connected either in series or in parallel
with one another. The parallel connection affords easier adjustment
of the loads because thus the adjustments of active power and of re-
active power are nearly independent of each other. The series con-
nection is used for small loads, for loads of unity or zero power factor,
and for representing high impedances other than loads. For rep-
resenting a load of leading power factor, one of the capacitor units
(mentioned in the next paragraph) is connected in parallel with a load-
impedance unit.
Capacitors are used chiefly for representing capacitance of cables
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GENERAL ELECTRIC A-C. BOARD 69
and transmission lines. They are used also for representing capacitors
and, in steady-state studies, for synchronous condensers.
Autotransformers of two designs are provided, one of which will buck
or boost the voltage by 1%steps up to a maximum of 15% of the
primary voltage; the other, by 0.5% steps up to 30.5%. They are
used for representing transformers whose actual turns ratios differ
from the nominal ratios on which the circuit impedances are calculated.
Thus they are valuable for representing transformers of adjustable
ratio, and one of them must be included in any loop around which the
product of all transformer ratios is not unity; for example, if two sys-
tems of different voltage are connected through two transformers of
unequal turns ratio. The position of zero buck or boost represents
the nominal voltage ratio.
Mutual transformers of ratio 1:1 are used chiefly for representing
mutual reactance between parallel transmission lines that are not con-
nected together at either end. They are used also in various equiva-
lent circuits. These transformers are not adjustable, but adjustable
mutual impedance is obtained by shunting one winding of the trans-
former with an adjustable impedance (line-impedance unit).
Connections. A scheme is necessary whereby the foregoing circuit
units can be readily connected together in any desired way to form a
network representing a particular power system. On the board shown
in Fig. 5 each circuit unit terminates in a pair of flexible cords, each
bearing a single-pole plug. Insertion of these plugs into horizontally
adjacent jacks of the vertical jack panels forms an electrical connection
between them. The "busses" formed by groups of adjacent plugs
can be placed in the same relative positions on the jack panel as on the
connection diagram, thus greatly facilitating the checking of connec-
tions. The lowest row of jacks is used as a ground, or neutral, bus,
and the plugs inserted in this row are connected even though not
adjacent. As an indication of polarity, one cord of each circuit unit
is colored green, the other yellow. tt A positive wattmeter reading
denotes power flow from the yellow to the green cord; a negative
reading, from the green to the yellow. Like rules hold for the sign of
the varmeter reading and the direction of lagging reactive power.
Jumper circuits are used to form zero-impedance ties which can be
metered. They are useful in .representing bus-tie breakers, terminals
of 7r circuits representing transmission lines, connections between the
sequence networks for representing faults (see Chapter VI), and so on.
ttThe mutual transformers have two pairs of cords, one for the primary winding,
the other for the secondary. Like-colored cords have like polarity. The auto-
transformers have three cords, one of which, colored black, is usually plugged
to the ground bus. The green cord connects to the movable tap.
70 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Instruments. The system of making measurements is one of the
most crucial features of an a-c. calculating board. It must satisfy
the following requirements:
1. It must be possible to insert the instruments anywhere in the
network without appreciably altering conditions in the network.
The volt-ampere burden of the instruments determines the minimum
permissiblebase power and thus fixes the size and weight of the entire
board.
2. Because of the large number of readings required in most
power-systemstudies, the instruments should be fast in response and
easily readable so that an operator can take readings all day without
eyestrain.
3. The instruments must be suitable for a variety of measure-
ments: scalar values of voltage, current, active power, and reactive
power; and vector values of voltage and current in both rectangular
and polar forms.
It has been found desirable to have two sets of instruments: (1)
the master instruments, meeting the requirements enumerated above,
and (2) instruments permanently connected to each power source.
This second set of instruments expedites the adjustment of the power
sources. The burden of these instruments is not a matter of such
concern as that of the master instruments.
The master instruments of the board shown in Fig. 5 consist of a volt-
meter, an ammeter, and a wattmeter-varmeter, In order to make the
burden of these instruments on the network negligibly small despite
the low power level used there, they are supplied with current and
voltage through two stabilized-feed-back vacuum-tube amplifiers.P
For good legibility each instrument has an 8-inch translucent scale on
which a spot of light serves as a pointer. The response of these in-
struments is rapid. Their over-all, accuracy, including the voltage
divider, the current shunts, and the amplifiers, is within ±O.5% of full
scale.
A phase shifter is provided for use with the wattmeter in the meas-
urement of vector current and voltage, as will be described presently.
The following switches, located within reach of the operator, are
used in association with the instruments:
Akey switch is provided for each circuit unit on the board. When
any of these switches is thrown, all three instruments are connected
to the selected circuit unit and indicate simultaneously.
The voltage-selector switch determines whether the voltage
furnished to the voltmeter and wattmeter comes from (a) across the
GENERAL ELECTRIC A-C. BOARD 71
circuit unit, as for reading line drops and losses, (b) from one side of
the circuit unit to the ground bus, (c) from the other side of the cir-
cuit unit to ground, (d) from either side of the circuit unit to a cord
that can be plugged to any desired point of the network, or (e) from
the instrument phase shifter.
The current-selector switch makes it possible to select current
from the circuit unit, total ground current, or current from the in-
strument phase shifter.
The reversing switch is thrown so as to make the wattmeter read
upscale. The reading is recorded with + or - sign, according to
,the position of this switch.
The watt-var switch is used to make the wattmeter-varmeter
read either active or reactive power. This switch is also used in
reading vector current and voltage.
A seven-position range-selector switch provides for the most com-
monly used combinations of voltage and current ranges: voltage,
100% and 200% of base; current, 20%, 100%,500%, and 2,000%.
There is an auxiliary switch for selecting the less-used low-voltage
ranges: 20% and 40%.
Vector measurements. To measure current in rectangular form, the
wattmeter-varmeter is furnished with the current to be measured and
with 100% voltage from the instrument phase shifter, which is set at
the desired reference angle (usually 0°). The inphase and quadrature
components of current are equal to the watt and var readings, respec-
tively. To read current in polar form, the phase shifter is turned until
the var reading is zero; then the angle is read on the phase-shifter dial.
The watt reading is the current magnitude. Vector values of voltage
are read in the same way as currents except that the wattmeter is
supplied with the voltage to be measured and with 100% current from
the phase shifter.
Instruments on the generator units. In addition to the centrally
located master instruments, there are a wattmeter-varmeter and a
voltmeter at the terminals of each power source. The wattmeter-
varmeter has voltage ranges of 150% and 300% and current ranges of
100% and 400%. It is changed from a wattmeter to a varmeter by
substituting a capacitor for the usual resistor in the potential circuit.
The voltmeter can be connected to any point in the network where the
generator is expected to regulate voltage.
Power supply. Three-phase, 480-c.p.s., 440-volt power is supplied
to the board from a remote-controlled motor-generator set consisting
of a motor, a 3-kva. alternator, an exciter, and a phase balancer. The
phase balancer is used for obtaining balanced three-phase voltages
72
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Primary
FIG. 6. Voltage vector diagram of one
phase of the three-phase voltage regulators
of a generator unit of the Westinghouse A-C.
Network Calculator. O-L is the locus of
the output voltage.
(required so that the magnitude of the voltage of each power source
shall be independent of its phase) in spite of the essentially single-phase
loading.
Between the generator and the power sources on the board is a bank
of autotransformers with taps for normal voltage and for 50% and 25%
of normal voltage. A tap-selector switch on the instrument desk
enables the operator to reduce the voltage of all power sources simulta-
neously if this is necessary to avoid overloading any of the board
circuits, for example, during the period that a fault is represented on
the power system.
Arrangement. The instrument desk, at which the operator is seated
in Fig. 5, is at the center, flanked on both sides by the jack panels and
the tables holding the flexible cords. Above the instrument panel and
jack panels are the generator units. The wings on each end of the
board (only one of which shows in Fig. 5) contain the line- and load-
impedance units, capacitors, and autotransformers, each in a removable
drawer. The board is so arranged that the units requiring the most
frequent adjustment are closest to the operator.
Description of Westinghouse A-C. Network Calculator.
19
,20 The
Westinghouse calculating board differs from the General Electric
board, which has been described, chiefly in the following features:
The frequency is 440 c.p.s.
The nominal voltage and current are 100 volts and 1 amp., respec-
tively.
Each generator unit consists of two three-phase induction voltage
regulators and a phase shifter. The three-phase secondary windings
of the two induction regulators
are in series, and the rotors are
mechanically coupled so as to
give them equal but opposite
angular displacements when the
voltage handle is turned. Con-
sequently, the three-phase out-
put voltages of the pair of
regulators are constant in phase
as the magnitude is varied.
(See Fig. 6.)tt The output of the regulators goes to the phase shifter.
The output voltage of the phase shifter has three ranges: 0 to 100, 0
to 200, and 0 to 400 volts.
ttEarly models had only one three-phase voltage regulator ahead of the phase
shifter. Consequently, the voltage adjustment changed the phase also, requiring a
compensating movement of the phase shifter.
WESTINGHOUSE A-C. BOARD 73
For representing the internal reactance of each generator there is a
special reactor having a lower resistance than the line and load reactors.
Each generator is provided with a voltmeter, an ammeter, and a
wattmeter. These instruments have auxiliary pointers that can be
pre-set manually to show the desired operating conditions. The volt-
meter can be switched to read either the internal voltage or the
terminal voltage of the generator.
The impedance units are marked in ohms at 440 c.p.s. (equal to per
cent impedance when 100ohms is used as base); the autotransformers,
in percentage; and the capacitors, in microfarads. Additional in-
formation on the various circuit elements is given in Table 3.
Each load unit is equipped with a tapped autotransformer, called a
loadadjuster, by means of which the active and reactive power of each
load can be adjusted simultaneously without changing the power
factor of the load. Usually the settings of the load resistor and
reactor are calculated for an estimated bus voltage (say, 100%). If
the actual load voltage differs from the estimated value, the load unit
does not consume the correct value of power, because power in a
constant impedance varies as the square of the voltage. By means of
the autotransformer, however, the voltage on the resistor and reactor
can be adjusted to 100% even though the bus voltage has another
value, It is merely necessary to set the autotransformer tap to corre-
spond to the measured bus voltage. The taps are in 1%steps. The
function of the load adjusters on the board is analogous to that of
feeder-voltage regulators on an actual power system.
The masterinstruments include a set for measuring scalar values and
a set for measuring vector values. The scalar instruments consist of a
voltmeter, an ammeter, and a wattmeter-varmeter. They are sup-
plied with voltage and current through two negative-feed-back
vacuum-tube amplifiers. The voltage ranges are 125 and 250 volts;
the current ranges are 0.06, 0.2, 0.6, 2, and 6 amp.
The vector instruments are an ammeter (ranges 1 and 3 amp.) and a
voltmeter (ranges 50 and 500 volts). Each is a two-coil dynamo-
meter instrument, one coil of which is inserted in the network, and the
other, consuming the greater part of the power for actuating the in-
strument, is fed from one or the other phase of the two-phase secondary
winding of an instrument phase shifter. For reading current or volt-
age in rectangular form, the phase shifter is set on the desired reference
position (usually 0°), the field coils of the ammeter and voltmeter are
connected to one secondary winding of the phase shifter, and the "in-
phase" component is read; then the field coils are connected to the
other winding, and the "quadrature" component is read. For reading
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PROCEDURE FOR USING CALCULATING BOARD 75
current or voltage in polar form, the field coils are connected to the
"inphase" winding, the phase shifter is turned until the instrument
reads zero, and the angle is read on the phase-shifter dial; the field
coils are then connected to the "quadrature" winding, and the magni-
tude of current is read on the ammeter, or the voltage on the volt-
meter.§§
The master instruments are connected to the desired circuit element
by means of a selector consisting of a compact group of twenty-five
pushbuttons. When the operator pushes one button in each of three
columns, relays are actuated that connect the selected circuit unit to
the metering bus.
The instruments, the circuit selector, and the controls for the motor-
generator set are mounted on a desk which is separate from the rest of
the board.
Procedure for using calculating board. After the data on the power
system to be studied have been assembled (see check list on p. 62 of
this chapter), the following steps must be taken:
1. Choose a suitable base or scale for representing the power
system on the calculating board.
2. Convert the data to this base or scale.
3. Assign board units to the various circuits.
4. Connect the board units.
5. Set the resistors, reactors, and capacitors.
6. Adjust the operating conditions.
7. Take readings.
8. Convert the readings to system values.
Some of these steps deserve further discussion.
Choice of base. The voltage scale ordinarily is such that the nominal
voltage of the power system is represented by the nominal voltage of
the calculating board. The current scale should be nearly as large as
it can be without subjecting any of the board units to overcurrent (see
maximum safe currents in Tables 2 and 3). If the current scale is too
small, current and power cannot be read accurately in lightly loaded
circuits. A satisfactory scale can be obtained by expressing system
quantities on a megavolt-ampere base in accordance with the following
tabler'"
§§Early models of the Calculator had the vector instruments only. Active and
reactive power was found by multiplying the voltage magnitude by the inphase and
quadrature components of current.
76 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Maximum Megavolt-Amperes
in Any Circuit
or Generator
oto 30
30 to 60
60 to 120
120 to 300
300 to 600
600 and above
Megavolt-Ampere Base
to be Used for
System Quantities
10
20
40
100
200
400
System quantities expressed in per cent on the selected megavolt-
ampere base are equal to the corresponding calculating-board quanti ...
ties in per cent of the board base. The selection of the base is not
critical because of the wide range of impedances and instrument scales
on the board. To check the suitability of the base selected, the lowest
line impedance and highest load impedance (lightest load) may be
compared with the range of available board impedances, and the cur-
rents of the most heavily loaded circuits should be compared with the
current-carrying capacities of the assigned units. If necessary, two
or more generators or line- or load-impedance units can be connected
in parallel to carry larger currents, or two load-impedance units can be
connected in series to represent very small loads. If there are a few
unusually heavy loads, it is better to represent them by two or more
load units in parallel than to use a higher impedance scale. Loads
smaller than 2% of the chosen megavolt-ampere base should be com-
bined with other loads or neglected, because their influence on the
problem is negligible.
If, during a transient-stability study, some circuits are overloaded
part of the time, for example, while a fault is on the system, the base
voltage of the board may be reduced temporarily, impedances being
left as they were.
Conversion of the data to the chosen base has already been discussed.
The resistance of each reactor (taken as 4%of the reactance setting on
the Westinghouse board, or 5% on the General Electric board) should
be subtracted from the desired resistance to obtain the proper setting
of the series resistor.
Acircuitdiagram should be prepared on whichare entered the imped-
ances to be used and the assignedcircuit units on the calculating board.
Each circuit should be assigned a positive. direction, which either is
indicated on the diagram by an arrow pointing toward, or a dot at, the
"positive" end of each circuit, or is covered by a blanket rule that the
upper or left-hand end of each circuit is positive. Negative ends of
shunt branches (generators, line capacitances, loads, and autotrans-
formers) are connected to the ground, or neutral, bus.
PROCEDURE FOR USING CALCULATING BOARD 77
Connections are made with attention to proper polarity by putting
plugs to be connected together into adjacent jacks. On the Westing-
house board the positive end of each circuit element has a red cord, and
the negative end, a black cord; on the General Electric board the
yellow cord is positive, and the green cord, negative.
Setting impedances and capacitances to the values shown on the
circuit diagram is a simple operation. Positions of series-parallel
switches and the like should be checked at the same time.
Checking of all the foregoing steps by another person is recom-
mended because much time can be wasted by mistakes that are not
discovered until after many readings have been taken.
Adjustment of initial operating conditions. Generators, loads, auto-
transformers, and synchronous condensers must be adjusted to rep-
resent the desired condition of the power system before the occurrence
of a fault.
First, all generators should be set at the same phase angle and at zero
voltage. The power may then be turned on, and the generator volt-
ages may be raised gradually to their normal value, whilethe generator
currents are watched for abnormal values caused by mistakes in setting
up the network. The loads and terminal voltages of the generators
are then adjusted approximately to the desired values by means of the
phase and voltage controls.
Bus voltages at other points are adjusted as desired by autotrans-
formers or by capacitors or generator units representing synchronous
condensers. If a generator unit is used, its power must be adjusted to
zero.
Load impedances, it is assumed, were set initially to draw the re-
quired active and reactive power at an estimated voltage. The im-
portant loads are now readjusted for the actual load voltage. If load
adjusters are available, they are used for this purpose; otherwise the
resistor and reactor (or capacitor) must be readjusted with the aid of
the master wattmeter-varmeter.
Generating units, condensers, and other elements should now be
given a final, accurate adjustment, which is checked with the master
instruments.
Limitations of system. Sometimes the desired operating conditions
cannot be obtained on the board. Unless a mistake has been made in
connecting or setting the board units, such failure indicates that the
desired condition is one that is impossible on the actual power system.
After adjusting the operating conditions, one should determine whether
all bus voltages are within suitable limits and whether any equipment
is overloaded either on the board or on the power system that it rep-
78
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
resents. If any conditions are unsatisfactory, consideration should
be given to changing either the operating conditions or the network
itself, for example, by adding new lines, transformers, generators,
condensers, reactors, or phase-shifting transformers.
Readings. A complete set of readings is recommended at the outset
in order to check the network. Voltage and phase angle of each bus
and active and reactive power at each end of each circuit are usually
read and recorded. The readings are multiplied by suitable factors to
convert them to system values which are then marked on a one-line
circuit diagram. The following checks may be made: The algebraic
sum of the active power of all circuits on the same bus should be zero;
likewise the algebraic sum of the reactive power. The difference of
power at the two ends of a line may be taken to see whether the [2R
loss is reasonable; a similar test may be made for reactive power and
1
2X.
Perhaps the most valuable check, however, is for a person
familiar with the power system being studied to see whether all results
appear reasonable.
During the progress of a transient-stability study the only readings
needed are the power outputs of the generators. Sometimes, however,
additional readings are taken, for example, to investigate the operation
of protective relays.
Changes of connections. The power to the board should be turned
off before changing any connections. After any important change of
conditions, such as the addition or removal of a short circuit, the phase
.and magnitude of the internal voltages of the generators should be
checked and readjusted if necessary.
Fault close togenerator. When a short circuit is placed on or near the
terminals of a generator, the current of that generator is high, and the
power factor is low. These conditions are not conducive to good
accuracy of the wattmeter. Furthermore, the resistance of the re-
actors representing the generator and other low-resistance circuits be-
tween generator and fault may not truly represent those resistances.
Under these conditions it is preferable, instead of reading the watt-
meter, to compute the generator power as [2R, using the measured
current and the best obtainable data on the resistance. Conserva-
tive conclusions regarding stability are reached by assuming this resist-
ance to be zero.
Algebraic solution of networks: power-angle equations. Con-
venient as the calculating board is for stability studies, it is neverthe-
less desirable to know how to solve networks algebraically. For a
two-machine system algebraic solutions are usually so simple that
nothing is gained by using a calculating board, and for three- or four-
POWER-ANGLE EQUATIONS 79
[9al
[9b]
n
. . .
3
Network
o
2
machine systems algebraic solutions are still feasible and may be
resorted to when a board is not available.
Figure 7 is a schematic representation of a general n-machine net-
work as it presents itself in most power-system network problems. The
rectangle represents a passive (impedance) linear network of any form,
to which there are applied n ex-
ternal voltages, representing the
internal voltages of the synchro-
nous machines. One side of
each voltage source is connected
to a common or neutral terminal
(0); the other sides are con-
nected to various points of the
network, numbered from 1 to n.
FIG. 7. An electric power network
The voltages E
1
, E
2
, • • • En com- represented by a passive linear network
monly represent voltages behind having external e.mJ.'s connected to it.
transient reactances, in which
case the transient reactances are to be regarded as parts of the net...
work inside the rectangle. Let the currents flowing into the network
at the terminals 1, 2, 3, · · · n be calledIj, 1
2
, 1
3
, • • • In.
The vector power (P +jQ) supplied to the network by any machine
may be found by 'multiplying the conjugate of the vector voltage by
the vector current. II II In symbols,
PI + jQI = EII
I
P
2
' + jQ2 = E
2
I
2
[9cl
where the bar over the E's denotes their conjugates. Furthermore,
since the network has been assumed linear, the currents supplied by
the various machines may be written as linear functions of the applied
voltages, thus:
n
II = YIIE
I
+YI2E2 • • • + YlnEn = E YlkEk [lOa]
k=l
n
" "Then capacitive reactive power (leading current) is positive, and inductive
reactive power (lagging current) is negative, in accordance with the A.S.A. conven-
tion. The opposite convention, however, is widely used in power-system studies
and will probably be adopted by the A.S.A. In this case the conjugate of the
vector current should be multiplied by the vector voltage.
80 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
n
In = YnlEl + Yn2
E2
· · · +rnnEn = E YnkEk [10c]
k=l
The V's are complex numbers known as the terminal self- and mutual
admittances of the network, or as the driving-point and transfer admit-
tances. If the two subscripts are alike, Y is a self-admittance or driv-
ing-point admittance; if unlike, a mutual or transfer admittance.
The meaning of these admittances is revealed by a consideration of
what happens to eqs. 10 if all the applied voltages except one are made
equal to zero. By letting all voltages except E
l
become zero, we obtain:
11 = YllE
l,
1
2
= Y
21
E
1
, ••• In = YnlE
l
[11]
permitting us to define the Y's as follows: Y
1l
is the ratio IlfE
l
when
all voltages except E
1
are zero; Y21 is the ratio 1
2
/ E
1
when all voltages
except E
l
are zero; and so forth. By letting all voltages except E
2
become zero, we can similarly define Y12, Y22, • • • Yn2. These defini-
tions point out how the admittances can be determined by measure-
ment. We shall see how they can be determined by calculation.
Before doing so, however, let us turn back to eqs. 9, giving the vector
power output of each voltage source, and substitute into them eqs. 10.
We obtain
PI + jQ1 = E1Y11E1 + E1Y12E
2
• • • + E1Y1nEn
[12a]
[12b]
and so forth. These are vector equations. For stability calculations
it is preferable to have scalar equations involving the machine dis-
placement angles o. Therefore let us substitute into eqs. 12. the
following:
s, = E
1
fJJ, E
2
= E
2
&, ... En = En& [13]
or, for the conjugates,
E
1
= ElL -81, E
2
= E
2
/ -82, ... En =E
n
/ -8n [14]
Also let
Y
11
= Y
11
/ S
11
, Y
12
= Y
12
/ S
l 2
, Y
21
= Y
2l
/ S21, Y22 = Y22 / S
22
[15]
DETERMINATION OF TERMINAL ADMITTANCES 81
and so forth. Equations 12 become
PI +jQI = E1
2Y
I1/ e l l +EIE2Y12Le12 - 81 +82· • •
+E1EnYlnL81n - 81 +8n
n
= E E1Ek
Y
l k /
8
1k - 81 +8k
k=1
P
2
+jQ2 = E
2EIY21/ e 21 - 82 +81 +E2
2Y
22/ 8 22 · • •
+E2En
Y
2n /
e
2n - 82 +8n
n
= L E
2EkY2k/
e
2k - 82 + 8k
k=l
[16a]
[16b]
and so forth. Using the relation (which defines the notation),
!.:P = cos cP +j sin cP
and taking the real part of each side of the equations, we obtain
PI = E
1
2Y
l l cos 811 +E1E2Y12 cos (812 - 81 +82) • • •
+ElEnYlncos (Oln - 8
1
+ 8n)
n
= L E1EkYI
k
cos (elk - 8
1
+ 8k) [17a]
k=l
P
2
= E
2EIY2l
cos (821 - 82 +81) + E
2
2Y
22
cos 822 • • •
+E
2En
Y
2n cos (e2n - 82 + 8
n
)
n
= E E
2Ele
Y2k cos (8
2
k - 82 +8le) [17b]
k=l
and so forth. Because these equations give the electric power output
of each machine (power input to the network) as functions of the
angular positions of all the machines, they may be called power-angle
equations. Inasmuch as this chapter deals primarily with networks,
the symbol P has been used for electric power instead of Pu, which was
used in Chapter II with the same meaning.
Algebraic solution of networks: determination of terminal admit-
tances. Equations 17 suffice for finding the power output of all
machines when the voltage magnitude and phase (angular displace-
ment) of all machines are known. To obtain such equations, however,
we must know how to obtain each Y = Y/8 for the given network.
A clue to a method of doing this is found by considering an n-
terminal passive linear network having no nodes (junctions) except
the terminals. Such a network has, in general, an impedance element
connected between each pair of terminals (including the neutral), as
shown in Fig. 8 for a network of four terminals, including neutral (a
82 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
three-machine system). In. this network there are six impedance
elements. For a network of m terminals (or n = m - 1
there are, in general, m(m - 1)/2 = (n + 1) n/2 elements. If any
of these elements are lacking, they may be considered to be present as
elements of zero self-admittance (that is, infinite impedance or open
circuit). If two or more elements are in parallel, they may be re-
placed by an equivalent single element having an admittance equal
to the sum of the admittances of the several parallel elements. From
this viewpoint any network may be converted to a network having one
and only one element connected between each pair of nodes and having
m(m - 1)/2 elements. This form of network is called a mesh circuit.
o
FIG. 8. A four-terminal passive network having one and only one element con-
nected between each pair of terminals.
The machine currents in the network of Fig. 8 may be written as
linear functions of the machine voltages and the element self-admit-
tances (lower-case y's), by noting that each machine or terminal
current is the sum of several element currents, each of which may be
written as the product of the element admittance and the voltage
across the element. Thus,
1
1
= Yl2 (E
1
- E
2)
+ Y1S (E1 - E
s
) + YOlE
1
[I8a]
1
2
= Y12(E
2
- E1) +Y2s(E2 - Es) + Y02E2 [18b]
. .
1
3
= Yls(E
s
- E
1
) + Y23(E
a
- E2) + YosE
s
lI8e]
Regrouping the terms by E's,
11 = (YOI +Y12 +Yls)E1 + (-YI2)E2 + (-Yls)E
a
[I9a]
1
2
= (-YI2)E1 + (Y02 +Y12 +Y23)E2 + (-Y2s)E
a
[19b]
1
3
= (-Yls)E
1
+ (-Y2a)E2 + (Yoa + Y13 +Y23)E
s
[Igel
there are no loads or other shunt branches in the network, then m = n.
NETWORK REDUCTION 83
[20a]
[20b]
[20c]
By comparing these with the type equations (eqs. 10, rewritten for
n == 3 as eqs. 20, which follow)
11 = Y I IE
1
+Y
12
E
2
+ Y
l a
E
a
1
2
= Y21
E
l +Y22E2 + Y
2s
E
a
l
a
= Y
3l
E
I
+Y
32E2
+ YasE
a
the terminal admittances are determined as
(Y1l = YOI + Y12 + Y13 [21a]
self-admittances J
l Y22
= Y02 +Y12 +Y23 [21bJ
Y33 = Y03 +Y13 + Y2a [21c]
(Y
12
= Y
2l
= -Y12 [22a]
mutual admittances tY13 = Y
3l
= -Y13 [22b]
Y23 = Y32 = -Y23 [22c]
That is, each terminal self-admittance is the sum of the element admit-
tances of all the elements connected to that terminal. Each terminal
mutual admittance (between two given terminals) is the negative of
the element admittance of the element connected between the given
terminals,
Algebraic solution of networks: network reduction. Wenowhave
the terminal self- and mutual admittances in terms of the element
self-admittances of a network having no nodes except the terminals.
In general, the network will have other nodes. These extra nodes,
however, may be eliminated by a process known as network reduction.
To establish the process, suppose that the extra nodes are initially
regarded as extra terminals. Suppose, for example, that the network
has five nodes, of which one is to be eliminated. The terminal volt-
ampere equations for five terminals (neutral and four others) are:
11 = YllEl +Y
12
E 2 +Y13E 3 +Y
14
E 4: [23a]
1
2
= Y21E
1
+Y22E
2
+ Y
23E3
+ Y
24E4:
[23b]
1
3
= YalEt +Ya2E 2 + YaaEa + Y
a4E4
[23c]
14 = Y4l
EI
+Y42
E2
+Y43E3 +Y
44E4:
[23d]
Now suppose that node 4 is to be eliminated. It can be eliminated
only if it has no external connections; that is, if, when considered as
a terminal, it is open-circuited. Hence
84 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Solving for E
4
and substituting the expression in place of E
4
in eqs.
23 give
E
4
= _ Y41E1 +Y42E2 +Y43E3
Y44
which may be written in the standard form:
11 = Y
11'E1
+ Y12'E
2
+Yls'E
s
1
2
= Y
21
' E
1
+ Y22'E
2
+ Y
2s
' E
s
Is = Ys1'E
l
+ YS2'E
2
+ Ys3' E
s
[25]
[26a]
[26b]
[26c]
[27a]
[27b]
[27c]
in which the Y"s are the new terminal admittances. These new
terminal admittances are related to the old ones by
y -, Y Y14
Y41
[28] 11 = 11 ---
Y44
Y12
,
= Y
12
- Y
14Y42
[29]
Y
44
Y13
,
= Y
13
- Y
14Y43
[30]
Y44
Y22
,
= Y
22
- Y
24Y42
[31]
Y
44
Y23
,
= Y
28
_ Y
24Y43
[32]
Y
44
Y33
,
= Y
33
_ Y
34Y43
[33]
Y44
or, in general, by
Y
j k
' = Y
j k
- Y
j 4Y
4
k
[34]
Y44
wherej = 1,2,3; k = 1,2,3.
NETWORK REDUCTION
85
[35a]
[35b]
[35e]
[35d]
[36a]
[36b]
[36e]
[36d]
[36e]
[36f]
[37a]
[37b]
[37e]
[38a]
[38b]
[3Sc]
Now let us find the relations between the elements of the old and
new networks. Assume that both old and new networks are of the
standard type having one and only one element between each pair of
terminals. Use relations like those of eqs, 21 and 22, namely:
Yll = YOI + Y12 + Y13 + Y14
Y22 = Y02 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24
Y33 = Y03 + Y13 + Y23 + Y34
Y44 = Y04 + Y14 + Y24 +Y34
Y12 = Y
21
= -Y12
Y 13 = Y31 = -Y13
Y 14 = Y41 = -Y14
Y23 = Y32 = -Y23
Y
24
= Y42 = -Y24
Y34 = Y43 = -Y34
Yl t ' = YOl' + Y12' + Y13'
Y
22'
= Y02' + Y12' + Y23'
Y
, '+ '+ ' 33 = Y03 Y13 Y23
Y
t 2
' = Y21' = -YI2'
Y
' Y' ,
13 = 31 = -Y13
Y23' = Y32' = -Y23'
Substitute these relations (eqs. 35 to 38 inclusive) into eqs. 28 to 34
inclusive. This substitution works out most easily for the mutual
terminal admittances, eqs. 29, 30, and 32. For example, substitution
in eq. 29 gives:
, (-YI4) (-Y24)
-Y12 = -Y12 -
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
or, changing signs,
, + Y14Y24
Y12 = Y12
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
In similar manner, we obtain
, + Y14Y34
Y13 = Y13
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
, + Y ~ Y 3 4
Y23 = Y23
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
[39]
[40]
[41)
86
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
[42]
The equations for terminal self-admittances require a little more
manipulation but. give similar results. For example, substitution in
eq. 28 gives
, , , ( -YI4) ( -YI4)
YOI + Y12 + Y13 = YOI + Y12 +Y13 +Y14 - + + +
Y04 Y14 Y24 Y34
Subtraction of eqs. 39 and 40 from this gives
, + Y14(Y14 + Y24 + Y34)
YOI = YOI Y14 -
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
+
Y14(Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34 - Y14 - Y24 - Y34)
= YOI
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
+
Y04Y14
= YOI
Y04 +Y14 +Y24 + Y34
Similarly
In general
, + Y04Y24
Y02 = Y02
Y04 + Y14 + Y24 + Y34
, + Y04Y34
Y03 = Y03
Y04 +Y14 + Y24 + Y34
, Yj4Yk4
Yjk =Yik +-4--
L Yi4
i=O
[43]
[44]
[45]
Equation 45 may be interpreted as follows: Every element of the new
or reduced networkis the result of paralleling the corresponding element of
the old network with an element arising from a star-mesh conversion.
The admittance of the mesh element arising from the star-mesh con-
version is given by the last term of eq. 45. The star-mesh conversion
with somewhat simplified notation is shown in Fig. 9. Figure 9a shows
a four-point star which is to be converted into a four-terminal mesh
(Fig. 9b), thereby eliminating the node S. The mesh-element admit-
tances in terms of the star-element admittances are:
YIY2
[46a]
Y2Y3
[46d] Y12 =- Y23 =-
L:y L:y
YIY3
[46b]
Y2Y4
[46e] Y13 =- Y24=-
L:y L:y
YIY4
[46c]
Y3Y4
[46f] Y14 =- Y34 =-
L:y L:y
where
LY ~ Yl + Y2 + Y3 + Y4
[47]
NETWORK REDUCTION
87
If the star has n points, similar formulas hold, but the expression
for ~ y has n terms. If n = 3, we have a Ydelta conversion. If
n = 2, we have a simple series combination.
Only if n = 3 is there always a unique inverse conversion, that is,
from delta to Y. In general, the conversion from mesh to star for
n > 3 isnot possible. If n = 2, the conversion can be made but isnot
unique; that is, a single element can be split into two elements in series
in an infinite number of ways.
By one star-mesh conversion, one node iseliminated. By successive
star-mesh conversions, as many nodes as desired may be eliminated.
For present purposes all nodes except the terminals are to be eliminated.
2 2
4 4
(0) Star circuit (b) Mesh circuit
FIG. 9. Star-mesh conversion.
The formula for star-mesh conversion is simpler when expressed in
terms of admittances than in terms of impedances. Furthermore, the
parallel combinations of the elements resulting from such a conversion
with other elements are made more easily by working with admittances
than with impedances. For these reasons, in addition to the fact that
we want terminal admittances in our final expressions for power, it
is preferable to work with admittances rather than impedances while
reducing a network, even though the use of impedances is, perhaps,
more customary.
The process of network reduction may be summarized as follows,
assuming the impedances of the elements to be given:
1. Make all the possible series combinations; also make parallel
combinations of elements having equal impedances.
2. Convert impedances to admittances.
3. Eliminate a node by star-mesh conversion, giving preference to
a node with the least number of elements connected to it.
4. Make parallel combinations of the new elements resulting from
the conversion and the old elements.
88
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all nodes except the terminals have
been eliminated. ***
To prepare for the power calculations required in a stability study,
perform the following additional step, which is not strictly a part of
the process of network reduction:
6. Compute the terminal admittances from the element admit-
tances by using equations like 21 and 22.
All these steps must be repeated for a number of different network
conditions. Thus, if the disturbance causing the machines to swing is
a fault, the network must be solved for the pre-fault condition, the
fault condition, and, unless the fault is sustained, for the post-fault or
cleared condition. If fault clearing is accomplished by sequential
opening of two or more breakers, the network must be solved for two
or more fault conditions. Also, if different runs are to be made for
different fault locations, different lines connected or disconnected, or
other different conditions, network solutions must be made for each
condition. On a calculating board the required changes in the net-
work for these different conditions are made very simply and quickly.
It is clear that the use of a calculating board is desirable in multi-
machine stability studies.
Determination of initial operating conditions. Even after deter-
mining the network terminal admittances for the pre-fault, fault, and
post-fault conditions, we are still not ready to begin calculation of the
swing curves, for the initial operating conditions must first be deter-
mined. Specifically, we must find the values of magnitude and phase
of the internal voltages of all the synchronous machines. If these
values were given, it would be simple to substitute them into the power
equations (like eqs. 17) for the pre-fault condition and thus. to calcu-
late the pre-fault power output of each machine, which is also the
power input to the machine.
However, the initial conditions are not usually known in such terms.
Usually the power outputs of the machines are known or assumed; the
remaining information may consist of the reactive power outputs at
the terminals (not behind transient reactance), the power factor,
terminal voltage, current, or some mixture of such quantities. Oc-
casionally conditions somewhere in the network other than at the
machine terminals are given: for instance, voltage at a certain sub-
station bus, or power or current in a certain line. From such data,
sometimes insufficient and sometimes conflicting, the initial values of
***Although any network can be reduced by the exclusive use of star-mesh con-
versions and parallel combinations, in many networks the reduction can be has-
tened by the use of 6-Y conversions and series combinations.
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 89
voltage behind transient reactance and of angular positions must be
determined as well as is possible. As a rule, this can be done only by
cut-and-try methods, which are likely to be very laborious if the net-
work is solved algebraically. Even with a calculating board cut-and-
try procedures must be adopted, but the work goes much faster when
a board is used than when algebraic solutions are relied upon.
lunt Fisk Deering Patten Murphy
0.30 0.10 0.08 0.12
A
0.30 0.10 0.08 0.12
B
0.10
0.16
0.25 0.10 0.05
Dyche
Thorne Ward
0.05
FIG. 10. Three-machine system of Example 1. Line reactances are given in per
unit on lOO-Mva. base.
After the initial power outputs, angles, and internal voltages have
been found, the calculation of the swing curves may be begun.
EXAMPLE 1
The layout of a 60-cycle three-phase three-machine system is given in
Fig. 10. The reactances of the lines, expressed in per unit on a lOO-Mva.
base, are marked on the figure. Line resistances may be neglected. Data
on the generators and on the initial generating-station outputs and bus volt-
TABLE 4
DATA FOR EXAMPLE 1
Steam Number Rating of H
Initial Initial
Xd' Station Bus
Station or of Each Unit
(p.u.)
(Mj. per
Output Voltage
Hydro Units (Mva.) Mva.)
(Mw.) (p.u.)
Lunt Hydro 3 35 0.35 3.00 80 1.05
Murphy Steam 4 75 0.21 7.00 230 ,1.00
Wieboldt Steam 2 50 0.18 8.00 90 1.00
ages are given in Table 4. All loads may be neglected except those at
Murphy and Wieboldt, which are each 200 Mw. at unity power factor.
90 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Find the initial phase and magnitude of the voltage behind transient
reactance (Xd') of each generator.
Solution.
Outline.
1. The network between the busses at Lunt, Murphy, and Wieboldt
will be reduced to its simplest form (a delta).
2. The known magnitudes and assumed phase angles of the voltages of
these three busses will be substituted into the power equations, and the
angles will be varied until the calculated values of power input to the net-
work agree with the given generating-station outputs less local load.
3. The current supplied to the network at each terminal will be found
from the known terminal 'voltages and admittances.
4. The generators at each station will be combined by paralleling their
impedances to give one equivalent machine at each station. The internal
Zl drop of each equivalent machine will be added to the terminal voltage
to find the phase and magnitude of the internal voltage.
Node to beretained.
Network element with
admittance.
Element entering into
star- mesh conversion.
Element resulting from
star- mesh conversion.

@
1.21
I , I I
1. Network reduction. The symbols which will be used are given in Fig.
11. First the network of Fig. 10 is simplified by making the obvious series
and parallel combinations and by omitting
Node to beeliminated, the open branch from Ward to Thorne.
The result is shown in Fig. 12a, in which
the names of the stations are abbreviated
to their initial letters. The values of im-
pedance in per unit are encircled. These
values of impedance are converted to ad-
mittance values, which are not encircled.
The impedance and admittance angles,
FIG. 11. Symbols used in net- which are 90
0
and -90
0
respectively, are
work reduction. omitted for brevity.
By means of alternate star-mesh conver-
sions and parallel combinations of elements, all nodes are eliminated except
the three (L, M, and Wi) which are to be retained. The order in which
they are eliminated is not particularly important; Wa is eliminated first.
The star elements radiating from Wa are cross-hatched in Fig. 12a. The
resulting mesh elements are shown by broken lines in Fig. 12b. The star-
mesh calculations are as follows:
E Y= 10.0+5.0 +10.0 = 25.0
10.0 X 5.0
YFD = YWiD = 25.0 = 2.0
. = 10.0 X 10.0 = 4 0
Y F W ~ 25.0 ·
One parallel combination is made between Wi and D, with the result shown
in Fig. 12c.
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
91
We
5.00
(e)
L (Q][) F
• 6.66

8.08
L 2.00 M
@------e
, ,

'J'$', .
• Wi
40 X 42 = 16.15
104
20 X 42
104
2 X 42
---= 0.81
104
(h)
L 6.66 F 6.35 M
@lllllllq
(g)
• Wi
D
p
F
6.66
(b)
(d)
L

( i ) e,

• Wi
FIG. 12. Reduction of the network of Fig. 10 (Example I).
Next, node D is eliminated, with results as shown in Fig. 12d. The
calculations are as follows:
1: Y= 40.0 +20.0 +2.0 +42.0 = 104.0
40 X 20 = 7.70
104
40 X 2 = 0.77
104
20 X 2 = 0.385
104
Four parallel combinations are made, with results as shown in Fig. 12e.
92 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
Node P is now eliminated, with results as shown in Fig. 12/. The calcu-
lations are as follows:
E y = 11.5 + 24.4 + 14.3 = 50.2
11.5 X 24.4 = 5.58 11.5 X 14.3 = 3.28
50.2 50.2
24.4 X 14.3 = 6.94
50.2
Three parallel combinations are made, with results as shown in Fig. 12g.
Next, node F is eliminated, with the result shown in Fig. 12k. One
parallel combination is made, resulting finally in the Ll network of Fig. 12i.
2. Determination of bus voltage angles. The terminal admittances are
calculated from the element admittances as follows:
YLL = 2.00/-90° + 2.55/- 90° = 4.55/- 90° p.u.
YMM = 2.0 /-90° +25.5/-90° = 27.5/-90° p.u,
Yww = 2.6 /-90° +25.5/-90° = 28.1(-90° p.u,
YLM = YML = -2.00/-90° = 2.00/90° p.u,
YLw = YWL = -2.55/-90° = 2.55/90° p.u,
YMw = YWM = -25.5/-90° = 25.5/90° p.u.
The power inputs to the network are equal to the generator outputs less
local load.
P L = 0.80 - 0 0.80 p.u.
PM = 2.30 - 2.00 = 0.30 p.u.
Pw = 0.90 - 2.00 = -1.10 p.u.
The bus voltages are:
EL = 1.05&
EM = 1.00/5M
E
w
= 1.00/0 (taken as reference phase)
The power equations are:
PL = EL
2
y LL cos eLL + ELEMYLMcos (eLM - OL +OM)
+ELEwYLw cos (8LW - OL+ ow) (a)
PM = EM
2YMM
cos OMM +EMELYZ.fL cos (eML - OM +OL)
+EMEwYMwCOS(aMW-OM+OW) (b)
Pw = Ew
2Yww
cos Oww+EwELYWL cos (aWL - Ow +OL)
+ EwE-tllYWM cos (SWAt - Ow +OM) (c)
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 93
Because there are no losses in the network, only the first two equations
need be used. Because eLL = e
MM
= 8
ww
= -90°, the self-admittance
terms vanish. eLM = eLW = 8ML = eMW = 90°, and we may use the
relation, cos (90
0
- x) = sin z, Also noting that Ow = 0, we have:
PL ~ ELEMYLMsin (OL - OM) +ELEwYLW sin OL (d)
PM = ELEMYLMsin (OM - 01,) + EMEwYMW sin OM (e)
Substituting numerical values, we obtain:
0.80 = 2.10 sin (OL - OM) + 2.68 sin OL
0.30 = 2.10 sin (OM - OL) + 25.5 sin OM
(J)
(g)
These equations must be solved by trial for OL and OM. Because of the large
coefficient of sin OM we may be sure that OM is small. As a first trial, let
OM = o. Equation Jthen becomes
0.80 = (2.10 + 2.68) sin OL = 4.78 sin OL
sin OL = 0.80 = 0.1675· OL = 9.6
0
4.78 '
Substitution of this value of OL in eq. g gives
0.30 ~ 2.10 sin (-9.6°) + 25.5 sin OM
25.5 sin OM = 0.30 +2.10 X 0.1675 = 0.30 + 0.352 = 0.652
sin OM = 0.0256; OM = 1.5
0
Substitution of OL = 9.6
0
and OM = 1.5° into eqs. Jand g gives for the right-
hand members:
PL = 2.10 sin 8.1
0
+ 2.68 sin 9.6
0
= 2.10 X 0.141 + 2.68 X 0.167
= 0.296 + 0.448 = 0.744 (Should be 0.80.)
PM = 2.10 sin (-8.1°) + 25.5 sin 1.5°
= - 0.296 + 0.652 = 0.356 (Should be 0.30.)
PL will be increased by increasing OL and PM by increasing OM. Since PL
is too small and PM too large, OL should be increased and OM decreased.
Try OL = 10.3°, OM = 1.4°.
PL = 2.10 sin 8.9
0
+ 2.68 sin 10.3°
= 2.10 X 0.1547 + 2.68 X 0.1788
= 0.324 + 0.479 = 0.803 (Should be 0.800.)
PM = -0.324 +25.5 sin 1.4
0
= - 0.324 + 25.5 X 0.0244
= -0.324 +0.622 = 0.298 (Should be 0.300.)
94 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
These values are close enough to the correct values. The bus voltages are
therefore
EL = 1.05/10.3° = 1.032+jO.188 p.u.
EM = 1.00/1.4° = 1.000+jO.024 p.u,
Ew = 1.00 /0.0
0
= 1.000+jO.OOO p.u,
3. Determination of currents.
ILW = YLW (EL - Ew) = - j2.55 (0.032+ jO.188)
= 0.479 - jO.082 p.u,
IMW = YMW (EM - Ew) = -j25.5 X jO.024 = 0.612+jO.OOO p.u,
ILM = YLM (EL - EM) = -j2.00 (0.032+jO.162)
= 0.324 - jO.064 p.u,
The terminal currents of the network are
IL = ILw +I
LM
= 0.803 - jO.146 p.u.
1M = IMW - ILM = 0.288+jO.064 p.u,
Iw = -ILW - IMW = -1.091 +jO.082 p.U.
The load currents, calculated by the formula
I = p -t. jQ
E
are
2.00LO
1M ' = L - 0 = 2.00L1.4° = 2.000+jO.049p.u,
1.00 -1.4
2.00i!2
I w' = -----;n = 2.00i!2 = 2.000+jO.OOO
1 . 0 0 ~
The generator currents are equal to the currents supplied to the network
plus local load:
At L, IA = I
L
= 0.803 - jO.146 p.u,
At W, I
B
= 1
M
+1
M
' = 2.288+jO.113 p.u,
At W, Ie = I
w
+ I
w
' = 0.909 + jO.082 p.u,
4. Determinationof generator internal voltages. The generator reactances,
which were given in per unit on the basis of the generator ratings, must be
converted to per unit 011 lOO-Mva. base.
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
95
100
XA = 0.353 X 35 = 0.333 p.u,
100
XB =0.21 4 X 75 = 0.070 p,u,
100
Xc = 0.18--=0.180 p.u.
2X 50
ZA = iO.a3a p.u,
ZB = jO.070 p.u,
Zc = iO.180 p.u.
Each internal voltage is the vector sum of the terminal (bus) voltage and the
internal ZI drop.
EA = EL +ZAIA = 1.032+iO.I88+jO.333 (0.803 - jO.146)
= 1.032+ jO.188 +0.049+jO.268 = 1.081 +jO.456
= 1.17/23.0
0
p.u, Ans.
E
B
= EM+ZBI
B
= 1.000+jO.024 +jO.070 (2.29+jO.11)
= 1.000 +jO.024 - 0.008+iO.160 = 0.992+jO.184
= 1.01/10.4° p.u, Ans,
Ec = Ew+ZeIc = 1.000+jO.OOO +jO.180 (0.909 +jO.082)
= 1.000- 0.015+jO.164 = 0.985+jO.164
= 1.00 /9.5° p.u, Ans.
Check.
PA = EA·I
A
= 1.081 X 0.803+0.456 (-0.146) = 0.868 - 0.067
= 0.801 p.u, (Should be 0.80.)
PB = EB·I
B
= O. 92 X 2.29 +0.184 X 0.113 = 2.27+0.021
= 2.291 p.u, (Should be 2.30.)
Pa = Ec·Ie = O. 85 X 0.909+0.164 X 0.082 = 0.895+0.013
= 0.908 p.u, (Should be 0.90.)
EXAMPLE 2
Find the terminal admittances of the network of the three-machine system
of' Example 1, including the loads and the direct-axis transient reactances of
the machines, (a) when a three-phase short circuit is present at point X,
Fig. 10, and (b) after the short circuit has been cleared by opening both ends
of the line.
Solution. (a) The short circuit at X is electrically equivalent to a short
circuit on the Patten bus. In the network .reduction of Example 1, the
Patten bus (node P) was preserved until the stage shown in Fig. 12e. The
application of the short circuit can be represented by connecting node P to
node 0 (the neutral), a node not shown in Fig. 12 because the network re-
duced in Example 1 had no shunt elements. Hence P may be relabeled
96 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
as O. The admittances of the three equivalent machines and of the two loads
must be added to the network. All admittances should now be expressed as
complex numbers, because the load admittances do not have the same angle
as do the line and machine admittances. A lOO-Mva. base will be used, as
in Example 1.
The machine impedances in per unit on a 100-Mva. base, as found in
Example 1, and the corresponding admittances are as follows:
Machine Station Impedance Admittance
A Lunt 0.33 /90
0
3.00/-90°
B Murphy 0.07 /90
0
14.3/-90
0
C Wieboldt 0.18/90
0
5.55(-90°
The admittances of the loads at Murphy and at Wieboldt are each
2 . 0 0 ~ p.u.
After the machine and load admittances are added, the network of Fig. 12e
becomes that of Fig. 13a.
A series combination is then made between A and F; eliminating node L,
and parallel combinations are made between M and 0 and between Wi
and O. The computation is as follows:
3.00/ - 90° X 6.66/ - 90°
A-F: 9 . 6 6 ~ = 2.07/-90°
M-o: 2.0 - j24.4 = 24.5/-85.3°
Wi-O: 2.0 - j14.33 = 14.5/-82.0°
The resulting network is shown in Fig. 13b. Next, node F is eliminated by a
star-mesh conversion, as follows:
E y = (2.07 + 0.77 + 11.5+4.81) /-90° = 19.15/-90°
A-M: 2.07 X 0.77 L-90
0
= 0.083L-90
0
19.15
A-D: 2.07 X 11.5 /-900 = 1.24/-900
19.15
A-Wi: 2.07 X 4.81 /-900 = 0.520L-900
19·15
M-O: 0.77 X 11.5 L-90
0
= 0.46/-90
0
19.15 -
M-Wi: 0.77 X 4.81 L-90
0
= 0.193L-90
0
19.15
o-Wi: 11.5 X 4.81 L-90
0
= 2.88/-90°
19.15
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 97
B
- - ~ ~ @
(c)
(h)
·C
FIG. 13. Reduction of the network of Fig. 10 with a short circuit at X (Example 2).
98 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
O-B:
The resulting network is shownin Fig. 13c. Parallel combinations are made,
as follows:
M-Wi: (16.15+0.19) /-90° = 16.34/-90°
M-o: (2.0 - j24.4) - jO.5 = 2.0 - j24.9 = 25.0/-85.4°
Wi-o: (2.0 - j14.3) - j2.9 = 2.0 - j17.3 = 17.3/-83.3°
The resulting network is shown in Fig. 13d. Node M is eliminated, as
follows:
I: y = (2.0 - j24.9) - j16.3 - j14.3 - jO.1 = 2.0 - j55.6
= 55.6/-88.0°
25.0/-85.4° X
/
0 = 6.42/-87.4°
55.6_-88.0
25.0/-85.4° X
O-Wi: / ° = 7.34/-87.4°
55.6_-88.0
14.3/-90° X 16.34/-90°
B-Wi: L ° = 4.20L-92.0°
55.6_-88.0
A-o:
A-B:
0.083L- 90° X 25.0/- 85.4° /
_ -- --- = 0.037,--_-_87_.4_°
, 5.5.6/- 88.0°
0.083/-90° X 14.3/-90°
/
0 = 0.021/-92.0°
55.6_-88.0
/
. A-Wi: / ° =·0.024_-92.0°
55.6_- 88.0 -----
The resulting network is shown in Fig. 13e. Parallel combinations are
made, as follows:
O-Wi: 17.3/-83.3° + 7.34/-87.4° == 2.0 - j17.2 +0.3 - j7.3
= 2.3 - j24.5 = 24.6/ - 84.6°
A-o: -j1.24 - jO.04 = -jl.28 = 1.28/-90°
A-Wi: -jO.52 - jO.02 = -jO.54 = 0.54/-90°
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 99
The resulting network is shown in Fig. 13/. Node Wi is eliminated, as
follows:
L: y = 24.6/- 84.6° +5.55/- 90° +0.54/- 90° +4.20/ - 92.0°
= (2.3 - j24.5) - j5.6 - jO.5+ (-0.2 - j4.2)
= 2.1 - j34.8 = 34.9/-86.7°
0.54/- 90° X 24.6/ - 84.6°
A-O: = 0.38/-87.9°
34.9/ - 86.7°
0.54L- 90° X 4.20/-92.0°
A-B: = 0.065/-95.3°
34.9/- 86.7°
A-C.
. 0.54/-90° X 5.55/-90° / 0
= 0.086 - 93.3
34.9/-86.7°
420/-92.0° X 24.6/-84.6° _ / °
B-D: / ° - 2.96_-89.9
34.9_-86.7
4.20/-92.0° X 5.55/ - 90°
B-C: = 0.668/- 95.3°
34.9/-86.7°
O
- C.. 24.6L-84.6° X 5.55/-90°
= 3.91/-87.9°
34.9/-86.7°
The resulting network is shown in Fig. 13g. Parallel combinations are
made as follows:
A-B: 0.065L-95.3° +0.021/-92.0°
= -0.005 - jO.065 - 0.001 - jO.021 = -0.006 - jO.086
= 0.086/-94°
A-O: 1.28/-90° + 0.38/-87.9° = -jl.28 +0.02 - jO.38
= 0.02 - jl.66 = 1.66/-89.2°
B-O: 6.42/-87.4° +2.96/-89.9° = 0.29 - j6.42 +0.01 - j2.96
= 0.30 - j9.38 = 9.38/88.2°
The result is the final network shown in Fig. 13k.
Calculation oj terminal admittances.
YAA = 1.66/-89.2° + 0.086/-94.0° +0.086/-93.3°
= 0.02 - jl.66 - 0.01 - jO.09 - 0.01 - jO.09
= 0.00 - jl.84 = 1.84/-90.0° p.u. Ans.
100
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
YBB = 9.38/-88.2° +0.086/-94.0° +0.668/-95.3°
= 0.30 - j9.38 - 0.01 - jO.09 - 0.05 - iO.66
= 0.24 - j10.13 = 10.14/-88.7° p.u, Ans.
Yee = 3.91/-87.9° +0.086/-93.3° +0.668/-95.3°
= 0.15 - j3.91 - 0.01 - jO.09 - 0.05 - iO.66
= 0.09 - j4.66 = 4.66/ -88.9° p.u, Ans.
YAB = - 0.086/ - 94.0° = 0.086/86.0° p.u. Am.
YAc = -0.086/-93.3° = 0.086/86.7° p.u. Ans.
YBc = -0.668/-95.3° = 0.668/84.7° p.u. Ans,
(b) To clear the fault, the line from Dyche (D) to Patten (P) is discon-
nected from the network. In the network reduction of Example 1 this line
A B
• •
FIG. 14. Network resulting from the reduction of the network of Fig. 10 with
the line from Patten to Dyche disconnected (Example 2).
was preserved until the stage shown in Fig. 12c. We may start, therefore,
with that diagram and disconnect the line, then further reduce the network,
preserving terminals L, M, and Wi. At this point the load and machine
admittances may be attached, as in part a of this solution, and the network
further reduced, preserving terminals A, B, C, and O. The details of calcu-
lation will not be given here. The resulting network is shown in Fig. 14.
The element admittances are:
YAB = 1.12/-100.5° = -0.205 - il.IO p.u.
YBC = 3.06/ -102.6° = -0.66 - j2.98 p.u.
YeA = 0.502/ -100.8° = -0.093 - jO.493p.u.
YAO = 0.335/-10.8° = +0.330 - jO.063 p.u,
YBO = 2.48/-10.7° = +2.44 - jO.46 p.u.
yeo = 1.11/-10.9° = +1.08-jO.21 p.u,
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 101
The terminal admittances are:
YAA = YAB + YCA + YAO = +0.03 - jl.66 = 1.66/-89.0° p.u, Ans.
YBB = JAB + YBC + YBO = +1.58 - j4.54 = 4.81/-70.7° p.u, Ans.
Yeo = YBC +YCA + soo = +0.33 - j3.68 = 3.69/-84.9° p.u, Ana.
Y
AB
= -YAB = +0.205 +jI.IO = 1.12/79.5° p.u. Ans.
YBC = -YBC = +0.66 +j2.98 = 3.06 /77.4° p.u. Ans.
YCA = -YCA = +0.093 +jO.493 = 0.502/79.2° p.u, Ans.
EXAMPLE 3
Calculate and plot swing curves for the three-machine system of Fig. 10
with initial conditions as in Example 1, assuming a three-phase short circuit
to occur at point X, Fig. 10, and to be cleared (a) in 0.40 sec. and (b) in 0.35
sec. Carry the curves far enough to determine whether the system is
stable.
Solution. The initial conditions, as calculated in Example 1, are:
E
A
= 1.17
EB = 1.01
Eo = 1.00
~ A = 23.0°
8
B
= 10.4°
8
c
= 9.5°
PuA = PiA = 0.80
PUB = PiB = 2.30
Puc = PiC = 0.90
The terminal admittances with the fault on, as calculated in Example 2,
part a, are:
YAA cos 8AA = 0
YBB cos eBB = 0.24
Ycc cos ecc = 0.09
YAB = 0.086 aAB = 86.0°
YBC = 0.668 eBC = 84.7°
YCA = 0.086 eCA = 86.7°
The terminal admittances with the fault cleared, as calculated in Example
2, part b, are:
YAA cos 8AA = 0.03
YBB cos eBB = 1.58
Yoo cos ecc = 0.33
YAB = 1.12
YBC = 3.06
YCA = 0.502
eAB = 79.5°
aBC = 77.4°
eCA = 79.2°
102 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
The power-angle equations have the form of eqs. 17. ·Substituting the
foregoing numerical values, we obtain the following expressions, which
apply while the fault is on:
PuA = (1.17)2 X 0 + 1.17 X 1.01 X 0.086 cos (86.0° - ~ A +~ B )
+ 1.17 X 1.00 X 0.086 cos (86.7° - ~ A +ac)
= 0.10 cos (86.0° - OA +~ B ) +0.10 cos (86.7° - OA +Oc)
PuB = (1.01)2 X 0.24 +1.01 X 1.17 X 0.086 cos (86.0° - ~ B +aA)
+ 1.01 X 1.00 X 0.668 cos (84.7° - OB +~ c )
= 0.24 + 0.10 cos (86.0° - OB +OA) + 0.68 cos (84.7° - OB +oc)
Puc = (1.00)2 X 0.09 + 1.00 X 1.17 X 0.086 cos (86.7° - ~ c +~ A )
+ 1.00 X 1.01 X 0.668 cos (84.7° - Oc + ~ B )
= 0.09 +0.10 cos (86.7
0
- ~ c +~ A ) +0.68 cos (84.7
0
- a
c
+ OB)
and the following expressions, which apply-after the fault has been cleared:
PuA = (1.17)2 X 0.03 + 1.17 X 1.01 X 1.12 cos (79.5° - ~ A + OB)
+ 1.17 X 1.00 X 0.502 cos (79.2° - ~ A +~ c )
= 0.04 + 1.30 cos (79.5° - OA +DB) +0.59 cos (79.2° - DA +DC)
PuB = (1.01)2 X 1.58 + 1.01 X 1.17 X 1.12 cos (79.5
p
- OB +DA)
+ 1.01 X 1.00 X 3.06 cos (77.4° - DB +~ c )
= 1.61 + 1.30 cos (79.5° - OB + DA) + 3.09 cos (77.4° - OB + oc)
Puc = (1.00)2 X 0.33 + 1.00 X 1.17 X 0.502 cos (79.2° - Dc +OA)
+ 1.00 X 1.01 X 3.06 cos (77.4° - ~ c +OB)
= 0.33 +0.59 cos (79.2° - Oc +OA) + 3.09 cos (77.4° - Oc +OB)
The inertia constants of the machines may be calculated from the data
given in Example 1 by the formula (eq. 54, Chapter II)
M= GH = GH
180!' 180 X 60
where M = inertia constant in per unit.
G = station rating in per-unit apparent power.
H = kinetic energy at rated speed in megajoules per megavolt-
ampere of rating.
I = frequency in cycles per second.
M = 3 X 35 X 3.00 = 2.92 X 10-4
A 100 X 10,800
M = 4 X 75 X 7.00 = 19 45 X 10....
B 100 X 10,800 ·
M = 2 X 50 X 8.00 = 7.41 X 10-4
c 100 X 10,800
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
103
The time interval ilt for point-by-point calculations will be taken as0.10
sec. Then
_il_t
2
= 0.010 = 34.3
MA 2.92 X 10-4
_1l_t
2
= 0.010 = 5.14
MB 19.45 X 10--4
_1l_t
2
= 0.010 = 13.5
Me 7.41 X 10-4
The computations of power are carried out in Tables 5, 6, and 7, and the
computations of swing curves in Tables 8, 9, and 10. The results of the
computations of swing curves, namely, the angular positions of the three
- Cleared 0.40sec.
)
)
--- Cleared 0.3) sec.
tis;:;
! / ~ .
~
, ~
;}
/'
"
b\J,
/'
'9;i'f-
. .4
~ ~
/
jf
J'
jr
)
V
V
r
~
~
~
-
400
o
o 0.5 0.8
lime (seconds)
FIG. 15. Swing curves of the three-machine system of Fig. 10 with a three-phase
short circuit at point X near Patten bus cleared in 0.35 sec. and in 0.40 sec. Ma-
chines Band Cstay within about 2
0
of each other. See also Fig. 16. (Example 3.)
machines as functions of time, and also the angular differences between each
pair of machines, are listed in Table 11. The swing curves are plotted in
Figs. 15 and 16. Figure 15 shows the angular position of each machine with
respect to a reference axis rotating at normal speed. All three machines
increase their speeds on account of the drop in output during the short cir-
cuit and the assumption of constant input. Machines Band C swing prac-
tically together and are therefore represented by the same curve. Figure 16
shows the angular position of machine A with respect to machine B.
If the short circuit is cleared in 0.40 sec., the system is unstable: machine
T
A
B
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2
7
8
.
6
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.
1
9
8
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0
.
6
1
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1
.
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,
e
1
2
7
.
6
2
0
7
.
1
-
0
.
8
9
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-
1
.
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6
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1
.
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6
.
2
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.
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~ 0
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o ~ ~ ~ ~ o z o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ 0
0
T
A
B
L
E
7
C
O
M
P
U
T
A
T
I
O
N
O
F
P
u
C
(
E
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A
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L
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)
9
A
.
C
O
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9
A
C
+
O
A
C
c
o
s
P
A
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m
P
C
A
e
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C
O
B
C
e
B
C
+
O
B
C
c
o
s
P
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m
P
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c
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8
6
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1
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1
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1
7
7
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1
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4
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7
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9
8
5
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6
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7
7
0
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6
8
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.
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5
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9
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1
2
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2
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7
.
6
-
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3
1
6
"
-
0
.
0
3
"
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7
8
5
.
4
0
.
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8
0
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0
.
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5
"
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1
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4
2
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3
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9
.
0
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6
2
9
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6
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9
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8
9
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6
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7
5
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4
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6
2
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7
8
4
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0
0
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1
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4
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7
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7
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5
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6
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5
6
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2
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2
3
8
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7
4
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5
7
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1
2
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8
2
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8
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0
-
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8
8
3
"
-
0
.
5
2
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1
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2
7
8
.
6
0
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1
9
8
"
0
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6
1
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4
2
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1
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2
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4
1
8
1
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6
-
1
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0
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0
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-
0
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5
9
u
2
.
8
8
0
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2
0
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7
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0
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5
2
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2
6
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!
Z
~ ~ ~ .
.
.
.
.
Z c o o !
Z
t
j
.
.
.
.
.
t
-
3
.
.
.
.
.
o ~ .
-
~
106
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
TABLE 8
COMPUTATION OF 8A (EXAMPLE 3)
t
PiA
P
UA
P
aA
34.3PaA a8A 8A
(sec.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elee. deg.) (elee. deg.)
0+
0.80 0.06 0.74 23.0
Oavg. 0.37 12.7
12.7
0.1
"
0.08 -0.72 24.7 35.7
37.4
0.2
"
0.14 0.66 22.6 73.1
60.0
0.3
"
0.20 0.60 20.6 133.1
SO.6
0.4-
"
0.17 213.7
0.4+
"
1.49
0.4 avg.
u
0.83 -0.03 -1.0
79.6
0.5
"
0.57 0.23 7.9 293.3
87.5
0.6 380.8
80.6
0.4 0.80 1.49 -0.69 -23.6 213.7
57.0
0.5
u
1.17 -0.37 -12.7 270.7
44.3
0.6
"
1.29 -0.49 -16.8 315.0
27.5
0.7
"
1.80 -1.00 -34.3 342.5
-6.8
0.8 335.7
INITIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
TABLE 9
COMPUTATION OF 8B (EXAMPLE 3)
107
t
PiB PuB PaB 5.14PaB A8B 8s
(see.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elee. deg.)
0+
2.30 0.29 2.01 10.4
Oavg. 1.00 5.1
5.1
0.1
Ie
0.28 2.02 10.4 15.5
15.5
0.2
u
0.25 2.05 10.5 31.0
26.0
0.3
u
0.19 2.11 10.8 57.0
36.8
0.4-
u
0.19 93.8
0.4+
u
0.94
0.4 avg.
ce
0.56 1.74 8.9
45.7
0.5
u
1.38 0.92 4.7 139.5
50.4
0.6 189.9
36.8
0.4 2.30 0.94 1.36 7.0 3.8
43.8
0.5
It
1.13 1.17 6.0 137.6
49.8
0.6
II
1.19 1.11 5.7 187.4
55.5
0.7
"
1.13 1.17 6.0 242.9
61.5
0.8
304.4
108 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
TABLE 10
COMPUTATION OF 8c (EXAMPLE 3)
t
Pie PuC PaC 13.5P
a
c t16c 6c
(sec.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elec..deg.) (elec. deg.)
0+
0.90 0.12 0.78 9.5
oavg. 0.39 5.3
5.3
0.1
H
0.11 0.79 10.'7
14.8
16.0
0.2
H
0.09 0.81 10.9 30.8
26.9
0.3
"
0.06 0.84 11.3 57.7
38.2
0.4-
"
0.09 95.9
0.4+
H
0.55
0.4 avg.
H
0.32 0.58 7.8
46.0
0.5
"
0.76 0.14 1.9 141.9
47.9
0.6 189.8
38.2
0.4 0.90 0.55 0.35 4.7 95.9
42.9
0.5
"
0.57 0.33 4.5 138.8
47.4
0.6
H
0.42 0.48 6.5 186.2
53.9
0.7
H
0.26 0.64 8.6 240.1
62.5
0.8 302.6
NETWORK REDUCTION BY CALCULATING BOARD 109
A goes out of step with machines Band C, although Band C stay together.
If the short circuit is cleared in 0.35 sec., the system is stable. Both condi-
tions are apparent from Fig. 16 at 0.6 sec. The critical clearing time is be-
tween 0.35 and 0.40 sec.
J
i 90
E
8
co
'is.
en
:a
..
oS!
Q
c
< 0
)
I I I
V
Cleared 0.40

.........--.

"-

"
"
'..
'I
\
J
Cleared 0.35sec.-

V
\
/
"

V
o 0.5 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 16. Swing curve in terms of angular difference between machines A and B.
(Example 3.)
TABLE 11
SWING-CURVE DATA (EXAMPLE 3)
t 8,4 6B 80 8AB 8AO 8BO
(sec.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.)
0 23.0 10.4 9.5 12.6 13.5 0.9
0.1 35.7 15.5 14.8 20.2 20.9 0.7
0.2 73.1 31.0 30.8 42.1 42.3 0.2
0.3 133.1 57.0 57.7 76.1 75.4 -0.7
0.4 213.7 93.8 95.9 119.9 117.8 -2.1
0.5 293.3 139.5 141.9 153.8 151.4 -2.4
0.6 380.8 189.9 189.8 190.9 191.0 0.1
0.5 270.7 137.6 138.8 133.1 131.9 -1.2
0.6 315.0 187.4 186.2 127.6 128.8 1.2
0.7 342.5 242.9 2'40.1 99.6 102.4 2.8
0.8 335.7 304.4 302.6 31.3 33.1 1.8
Network reduction by use of calculating board. Sometimes, in
order to set up a network on a calculating board without exceeding the
number of impedance units available, the network or a portion of it
110 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
must be reduced to an equivalent circuit. If the identities of only two
terminals of the network, including neutral or ground if any branches
are connected to it, need be preserved, the network can be reduced to
one impedance element; if three terminals are to be preserved, it can be
reduced to an equivalent ~ (or Y) circuit; if four terminals, to an
equivalent six-element mesh circuit; and so on.
The reduction may be accomplished by calculation, as already
described, or it may be done very simply with the help of a calculating
board. If the board method is to be used, the network is set up; one
(a) (b)
FIG. 17. Reduction of four-terminal network, set up on calculating board, to an
equivalent four-terminal mesh circuit by voltage and current measurements.
terminal of it is connected to a power source, and the other terminals
are connected through jumpers to the neutral bus as shown in Fig. I7a
for a four-terminal network. The applied voltage and the currents
leaving all other terminals are then measured in vector form. If the
equivalent circuit (Fig. 17b) were set up, it would yield the same meas-
urements. As there would be no currents in the short-circuited ele-
ments (shown by broken lines in Fig. 17b), each terminal current
measured would equal the current in one of the remaining elements.
Hence the impedances of these elements are:
[48]
[49]
Now, if the voltage is applied between terminal 2 and terminals 1, 3,
and 4 joined together, and if similar measurements are made, we have:
E
2
E
2
E
2
Z12 = - J Z23 = -, Z24 = -
11 1
3
1
4
COMBINING MACHINES 111
If similar measurements are made with the voltage applied to each
terminal in tum, every impedance' is determined twice (as indicated
for Z12 above), thereby furnishing a check on the work.
If resistance and capacitance are neglected, or if all impedance angles
are assumed equal, a d-c. calculating board can be used in this manner
to determine the admittances in the power-angle equations, which are
then used in calculating the outputs of the machines. .
Combining machines. It is apparent from the foregoing discussion
and examples that the amount of work involved in making a stability
study increases tremendously as the number of synchronous machines
included becomes greater, especially if the network is solved algebrai-
cally. In order to save work, it is important to keep to a minimum the
number of machines which are separately represented. Even on a
calculating board this number must not exceed the number of generator
units on the board. The number of machines may be reduced by
combining several machines which swing together or almost together to
form a single equivalent machine.
If several machines were mechanically coupled (at such speed ratios
that they ali generated the same frequency), they would be forced to
swing together, that is, to have equal velocities and accelerations, even
though they might not have equal angular positions. Since the inertia
constant may be defined as the power required to produce unit angular
acceleration, and since the power (or torque) required to produce equal
acceleration of all the machines is the sum of the powers (or torques)
required to accelerate the individual machines, the inertia constant of
the group is the sum of the inertia constants of the individual machines.
If the machines swing together even though not mechanically coupled,
conditions in the network are the same as if they were mechanically
coupled. Therefore, the inertia constant of the equivalent machine is
taken as the sum of the inertia constants of the individual machines (re-
ferred to a common megavolt-ampere basettt if power is expressed in
per unit). It matters not whether the machines are forced to swing
together by close electrical coupling (lowimpedance between machines)
or whether they merely happen to swing together in spite of being far
apart electrically.
If the machines to be combined to form an equivalent machine are
connected in parallel at their terminals, then, by Thevenin's theorem,
their effect upon the network is the same as if they were replaced by a
single source of e.m.f., equal to the open-circuit voltage of the group of
machines, in series with a single impedance, equal to the impedance
tttAs stated in Chapter II, the inertia constant varies inversely as the megavolt-
ampere base.
112 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
seen from the terminals when the e.m.f.'s of the machines are zero.
Therefore the impedance oj the equivalent machine is a reactance equal to
the parallel combination of the reactances of the individual machines (re-
ferred, of course, to a common megavolt-ampere base if expressed in
per unit). The equivalent e.m.f, is a sort of average of the e.m.f.'s of
the individual machines. If the machines swing together, the equiva-
lent e.m.f. is constant in magnitude and has the same frequency as the
e.m.f.'s of the machines. The e.m.f. of the equivalent machine is such
that the equivalent machine initially supplies to the network the same
active and reactive power as the group of machines that it replaces.
If the machines to be combined are not in parallel at their terminals,
their reactances cannot be combined. The fictitious points between
the reactance and the source of internal voltage of each machine are
connected together, however, thereby paralleling the several voltage
sources and connecting together at one end all the reactances, the
other ends of which go to different points of the network. The paral-
leled voltage sources are replaced by a single source, which, as before,
is adjusted to deliver initially to the network the same active and
reactive power as the sources which it replaces. The division of this
power among the several points of connection to the network generally
will be different from the original division. The reactances of the
individual machines may be left as part of the network set up on a
calculating board; or, if desired, the network may be further reduced.
On the calculating board it is easy to combine machines when condi-
tions justify so doing and later to separate them again or to form new
combinations as may seem desirable.fj]
The only conclusive test of whether machines may be combined in a
given case without too much error in the swing curves or in the con-
clusions regarding system stability is to compute swing curves, first
with the machines not combined, and then again with them combined,
and to compare the results of the two computations. If the swing
curves obtained with the machines not combined show that a group of
machines swing very nearly together, however, this evidence is suffi-
cient for concluding, without running the combined swing curves, that
the machines of the group may be combined with negligible effect on
the swing curves of the other machines. Neither of the foregoing
criteria for combining machines saves any work on the cases to which it
is applied; thus their only value is to give the computer experience
which should develop his judgment on the circumstances under which
combinations may be made. Therefore some further remarks are in
order.
tttAn example of this practice appears in Study 1, Chapter VII.
COMBINING MACHINES 113
The likelihood that machines will swing together is increased by a
decrease of impedance of the connections between them, by proximity
in their initial angular positions, by similarity of their inertia constants,
and by remoteness of the fault or source of the disturbance. It is
customary to combine all the machines in the same station (unless the
station is operated sectionalized), even though the machines have
unlike ratings, impedances, inertia constants, or initial loadings. Two
or more stations which are connected together by low-impedance ties
may likewise be combined. Frequently an entire metropolitan system
is represented by a single equivalent machine if the study concerns the
stability of the connections between such a system and remote hydro-
electric plants or other metropolitan systems.
EXAMPLE 4
The swing curves obtained in Example 3 show that machines Band C
swing very nearly together. Combine them to form a single equivalent
machine called D and compute swing curves of the resulting two-machine
system for the same conditions as those which hold in Example 3.
Solution. The inertia constant of the equivalent machine is
MD = M
B
+ Me = (19.5 + 7.4) 10-
4
= 26.9 X 10-4 per unit
M
A
= 2.92 X 10-
4
, as before
The time interval tJ.t for point-by-point calculations will be taken as 0.10
sec., as in Example 3.
ilt
2
- = 34.3, as before
1t'IA
0.010 = 3.72
26.9 X 10-
4
The initial conditions for the three-machine system, as calculated in
Example 1 and used in Example 3, are:
EA = 1.17
E
B
= 1.01
Ee = 1.00
0.04. = 23.0°
OB = 10.4°
Oc = 9.5°
PiA = 0.80
PiB = 2.30
PiC = 0.90
The conditions for machine A still hold. The input and pre-fault output of
machine D is
PiD = PiB + Pie = 2.30 + 0.90 = 3.20
The values of E
B
and Ee are nearly equal, so the value of EDmay be taken
without serious error as equal to that of E
B
= 1.01. The value of OD will
lie between the values of OB = 10.4° and oe = 9.5°, probably closer to the
114
SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
value of OB becauseB is a larger machinethan C. Aweighted average could
be used, thus:
~ D =~ B P B +~ c P c = lOA X 2.30+9.5 X 0.90 = 10.1"
PD 3.20
0.172/- 93.6°
YAD = YAB +YAC = 0.086/-94.0° +0.086/-93.3°
= -0.006 - jO.086- 0.005 - jO.086
= -0.011 - jO.172 = 0.172/-93.6°
YDO = YBO +yeo = 9.38/-88.2° +3.91/-87.9°
= 0.30 - j9.38 +0.15 - j3.91 = 0.45 - j13.29
= 13.3/- 88.0°
The terminal admittances are:
YAA = -j1.84 = 1.84/-90.0°, as before
YDD = YAD +YDO = -0.01 - jO.17 +0.45 - j13.29
= 0.44 - j13.46 = 13.5/-88.1°
YAD = -YAD = -0.172/-93.6° = 0.172!86.4°
COMBINING MACHINES 115
The power-angle equations are:
PuA = 1.17 X 1.01 X 0.172 cos (86.4° - 8A+8D)
= 0.203 cos (86.4° - DAD) = 0.203 sin (3.6° + 8AD)
PuD = (1.01)2X 0.44 + 1.01 X 1.17 X 0.172 cos (86.4° +8AD)
= 0.45 +0.203sin (3.6° - DAD)
Network reduction and power-angle equations, fault cleared. The reduced
network of the three-machine system with the fault cleared is shown in Fig.
(0)
1.62/-100.6°
(6)

o
FIG. 19. Reduction of the network of Fig. 14 by joining terminals Band C to
form terminal D. Short circuit cleared. (Example 4.)
14 and is redrawn in Fig. I9a with terminals Band C joined to give terminal
D. After making two parallel combinations, as follows, the network of
Fig. 19b is obtained.
YAD = YAB +YAe = 1.12/-100.5° + 0.502/ -100.8°
= -0.205 - j1.10 - 0.093 - jO.49 = -0.30 - j1.59
= 1.62/-100.6°
fDO = YBO + yeo = 2.48/-10.7° + 1.11/-10.9°
= 2.44 - jO.46 +1.08 - jO.21 = 3.52 - jO.67
= 3.58/-10.7°
The terminal admittances are:
YA
A
= 0.03 - j1.66 = 1.66/-89.0°, as before
YDD = YAD + YDO
= -0.30 - jI.59 + 3.52 - jO.67 = 3.22 - j2.26
YAD = -YAD = -1.62/-100.6° = 1.62/79.4°
T
A
B
L
E
1
2
C
O
M
P
U
T
A
T
I
O
N
O
F
P
u
A
A
N
D
P
u
D
(
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
4
)
S
A
D
,
B
A
D
9
A
D
'
+
B
A
D
s
i
n
P
A
D
m
P
A
D
P
A
A
P
u
A
e
'
-
B
A
D
s
i
n
P
D
A
m
P
D
A
P
D
D
P
u
D
1
1
.
0
1
2
.
7
2
3
.
7
0
.
4
0
2
1
.
9
1
0
.
7
7
0
.
0
3
0
.
8
0
-
1
.
7
-
0
.
0
3
0
1
.
9
1
-
0
.
0
6
3
.
2
6
3
.
2
0
3
.
6
1
2
.
7
1
6
.
3
0
.
2
8
1
0
.
2
0
3
0
.
0
5
7
0
.
0
0
0
.
0
5
7
-
9
.
1
-
0
.
1
5
8
0
.
2
0
3
-
0
.
0
3
0
.
4
5
0
.
4
2
"
2
0
.
2
2
3
.
8
0
.
4
0
4
"
0
.
0
8
2
"
0
.
0
8
2
-
1
6
.
6
-
0
.
2
8
6
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-
0
.
0
6
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0
.
3
9
I
I
4
1
.
9
4
5
.
5
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7
1
3
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0
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1
4
5
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0
.
1
4
5
-
3
8
.
3
-
0
.
6
2
0
"
-
0
.
1
3
"
0
.
3
2
"
7
5
.
3
7
8
.
9
0
.
9
8
r
"
0
.
1
9
9
"
0
.
1
9
9
-
7
1
.
7
-
0
.
9
4
9
u
-
0
.
1
9
"
0
.
2
6
I
I
1
1
8
.
4
1
2
2
.
0
0
.
8
4
8
"
0
.
1
7
2
u
0
.
1
7
2
-
1
1
4
.
8
-
0
.
9
0
8
"
-
0
.
1
8
"
0
.
2
7
1
0
.
6
1
1
8
.
4
1
2
9
.
0
-
0
.
7
7
7
1
.
9
1
1
.
4
8
5
0
.
0
4
1
.
5
2
5
-
1
0
7
.
8
-
0
.
9
5
2
1
.
9
1
-
1
.
8
3
3
.
2
8
1
.
4
5
u
1
5
1
.
1
1
6
1
.
7
0
.
3
1
4
"
0
.
6
0
"
0
.
6
4
-
1
4
0
.
5
-
0
.
6
3
6
"
-
1
.
2
2
"
2
.
0
6
I
I
1
3
0
.
2
1
4
0
.
8
0
.
6
3
2
"
1
.
2
1
"
1
.
2
5
-
1
1
9
.
6
-
0
.
8
7
0
u
-
1
.
6
6
"
1
.
6
2
I
I
1
2
0
.
7
1
3
1
.
3
0
.
7
5
1
"
1
.
4
3
"
1
.
4
7
-
1
1
0
.
1
-
0
.
9
3
9
"
-
1
.
7
9
"
1
.
4
9
c
c
8
1
.
8
9
2
.
4
0
.
9
9
9
"
1
.
9
1
"
1
.
9
5
-
7
1
.
2
-
0
.
9
4
7
"
-
1
.
8
1
"
1
.
4
7
.
.
.
S
~ ~ ~ f
o
o
-
4
o Z o ~ z ~ ~ o ~ p
:
:
0
0
COMBINING MACHINES
The power-angle equations are:
PuA = (1.17)2 X 0.03 +1.17 X 1.01 X 1.62 cos (79.4° - 6AD)
= 0.04 +1.91 siu (10.6° +8
AD
)
PuD = (1.01)2 X 3.22 +1.01 X 1.17 X 1.62 cos (79.4° +8AD)
= 3.28 +1.91 sin (10.6° - 8
AD
)
117
The computations of power are carried out in Table 12, and the computa-
tions of swing curves, in Tables 13 and 14. The angular positions of the
two machines and the angular difference between them are tabulated as
functions of time in Table 15. The results agree fairly well with those for
the three-machine system, Table 11, Example 3.
TABLE 13
COMPUTATION OF 8A (EXAMPLE 4)
t
PiA
P
uA
P
aA
34.3PaA ~ 8 A 8A
(sec.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elec, deg.) (elec, deg.)
0- 0.800 0.800 0.00
0+
"
0.057 0.743
Oavg. 0.371 12.7 23.0
12.7
0.1
"
0.082 0.718 24.6 35.7
37.3
0.2
"
0.145 0.655 22.4 73.0
59.7
0.3
"
0.199 0.601 20.6 132.7
SO.3
0.4-
u
0.172 213.0
0.4+
"
1.52
0.4 avg. 0.85 -0.05 -1.7
78.6
0.5
"
0.64 0.1e. 5.5 291.6
84.1
0.6 375.7
80.3
0.4
"
1.525 -0.725 -24.8 213.0
55.5
. 0.5
"
1.25 -0.45 -15.4 268.5
40.1
0.6
u
1.47 -0.67 -23.0 308.6
17.1
0.7
"
1.95 -1.15 -39.4 325.7
-22.3
0.8 303.4
118 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
TABLE 14
COMPUTATION OF aD (EXAMPLE 4)·
t
PiD PuD PaD 3.72P
aD AaD aD
(sec.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elee. deg.)
0- 3.20 3.20 0.00
0+
"
0.42 2.78
oavg. 1.39 5.2
5.2
10.3
0.1
"
0.39 2.81 10.4 15.5
15.6
0.2 .
"
0.32 2.88 10.7 31.1
26.3
0.3
"
0.26 2.94 10.9 57.4
37.2
0.4-
"
0.27 94.6
'(>.4+
"
1.45
0.4 avg.
"
0.86 2.34 8.7
45.9
0.5 2.06 1.14 4.2
50.1
140.5
0.6 190.6
0.4
"
1.45 1.75 6.5
37.2
94.6
0.5
"
1.62 1.58 5.9
43.7
138.3
"
1.49 1.71 6.4
49.6
187.9 0.6
0.7
"
1.47 1.73 6.4
56.0
243.9
62.4
0.8 306.3
TABLE 15
SWING-CURVE DATA (EXAMPLE 4)
t aA aD aAD
(sec.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.) (elec. deg.)
0 23.0 10.3 12.7
0.1 35.7 15.5 20.2
0.2 73.0 31.1 41.9
0.3 132.7 57.4 75.3
0.4 213.0 94.6 118.4
0.5 291.6 140.5 151.1
0.6 375.7 190.6 185.1
0.5 268.5 138.3 130.2
0.6 308.6 187.9 120.7
0.7 325.7 243.9 81.8
0.8 303.4 306.3 -2.9
REFERENCES 119
Treatment of synchronous condensers. In the calculation of swing
curves a synchronous condenser should logically be handled in the
same way as a generator. Its power output is zero initially but not
while it is swinging. When condensers are treated like generators, it is
often found that, although they swing with large amplitude and
shorter period than the generators, because of their smaller inertia
constants they have little effect on the swingof the generators. There-
fore synchronous condensers are sometimes represented in transient
stability studies on a calculating board by static capacitors (or by
reactors if the condensers operate with lagging current). Each such
capacitor is in series with a reactor representing the transient reactance
of the condenser. At each step of the swingcalculation the capacitance
is readjusted so that its voltage, representing voltage behind transient
reactance, is restored to the initial value. Thus the reactive power of
the synchronous condenser is taken into account, but the active power
is disregarded. This procedure obviates the taking of power readings
and the calculation of the swing curve of the condenser. It affords
another method, in addition to that of combining machines, of reducing
the number of machines considered in a stability study.
REFERENCES
1. Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, by Central Station
Engineers of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pitts-
burgh, Pa., 1st edition, 1942.
a. Chapter 16, "Power Transformers and Reactors," by J. E. Hobson and R.
L. Witzke.
b. Appendix, Table 7, "Equivalent Circuits of Power and Regulating Trans-
formers."
c. Chapter 3, "Characteristics of Aerial Lines," by Sherwin H. Wright and C.
F. Hall.
d. Chapter 6, "Electrical Characteristics of Cables," by H. N. Muller, Jr.
2. C. F. WAGNER and R. D. EVANS, Symmetrical Components, New York, Me-
Graw-Hill Book Co., 1933.
a. Chapter VI, "Constants of Transformers."
b. Chapters VII, VIII, IX, which discuss constants of transmission lines.
c. Chapter X, "Constants of Cables."
d. Appendix VII, "Characteristics of Conductors."
3. EDITH CLARKE, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, vol. I, New York,
John Wiley & Sons, 1943.
a. Chapter VI, "Transmission Circuits with Distributed Constants."
b. Chapter XI, "Impedances of Overhead Transmission Lines."
c. Chapter XII, "Capacitances of Overhead Transmission Lines."
4. A. BOYAJIAN, "Theory of Three-Circuit Transformers," A.I.E.E. Trans.,
vol. 43, pp. 508-28, February, 1924; disc., p. 529.
120 SOLUTION OF NETWORKS
5. O. G. C. DAHL, Electric Circuits-Theory and Applications, vol. I,
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1928. Chapter II, "Transformer Imped-
ance and Equivalent Circuits."
6. F. M. STARR, "An Equivalent Circuit for the Four-Winding Transformer,"
Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 36, pp. 150-2, March, 1933.
7. L. C. AICHER, JR., "A Useful Equivalent Circuit for a Five-Winding Trans-
former," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 62, pp. 66-70, February, 1943; disc., p. 385.
8. J. E. CLEM, "Equivalent Circuit Impedance of Regulating Transformers,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 58, pp. 871-3, 1939; disc., pp. 873-4.
9. J. E. HOBSON and W. A. LEWIS, "Regulating Transformers in Power-System
Analysis," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 58, pp. 874-83, 1939; disc., pp. 883-6.
10. L. F. BLUME, G. CAMILLI, A. BOYAJIAN, and V. M. MONTSINGER, Trans-
former Engineering, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1938.
11. L. F. Woodruff, Principles of Electric Power Transmission, New York,
John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 1938. Equivalent T and r lines, pp. 112-5.
12. L. F. WOODRUFF, "Complex Hyperbolic Function Charts," Elec. Eng., vol.
54, pp. 550-4, May, 1935; disc., p. 1002, Sept., 1935. The charts are also published
in the book, Ref. 11.
13. C. A. STREIFUS, C. S. ROADHOUSE, and R. B. Gow, "Measured Electrical
Constants of 27Q-Mile 154-Kv. Transmission Line," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 63, pp.
538-42, July, 1944; disc., pp. 1351-2.
14. DONALD M. SIMMONS, "Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Under-
ground Cables," Elec. Jour., vol. 29, pp. 237-41, 283-7, 336-40, 395-8, 423-6,
470-7, 527-30, May to November, 1932.
15. H. L. HAZEN, O. R. SCHURIG, and M. F. GARDNER, "The M.I.T. Network
Analyzer: Design and Application to Power System Problems," A.I.E.E. Trans.,
vol. 49, pp. 1102-13, July, 1930; disc., pp. 1113-4.
16. H. A. TRAVERS and W. W. PARKER, "An Alternating-Current Calculating
Board," Elec. Jour., vol. 27, pp. 266-70, May, 1930.
17. H. P. KUEHNI and R. G. LORRAINE, etA New A-C Network Analyzer,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 57, pp. 67-73, February, 1938; disc., pp. 418-22, July, 1938.
18. H. A. THOMPSON, "A Stabilized Amplifier for Measurement Purposes,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 57, pp. 379-84, July, 1938.
19. W. W. PARKER, "The Modern A-C Network Calculator," A.I.E.E. Trans.,
vol. 60, pp. 977--82, November, 1941; disc., pp. 1395-8.
20. Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Instruction Book on
Alternating-Current Network Calculator. These books, furnished to purchasers of
the calculators, are somewhat different for each model of the calculator.
21. General Electric Company, A-C. Network Analyzer Manual, Publication
GET-1285, Schenectady, 1945.
22. DAN BRAYMER, "Today's Network Calculators Will Plan Tomorrow's
Systems," Elec. Wld., vol. 125, pp. 52-4, January 5, 1946. Table I lists a-c.
calculating boards existing or on order 'with ownership, date, frequency, number of
each type of circuit unit, and name and title of man in charge.
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER m
1. By use of a T-to-r conversion verify the rule stated in the text (p, 61)
for apportioning a small tapped load between the two ends of the line.
2. Write an expression for the impedance of a load in terms of its voltage
and vector power.
PROBLEMS
121
3. Verify the rule given (p. 58) for estimating the reactance of an auto-
transformer.
4. Find the terminal admittances of the network of Fig. 10, considered as
a two-machine system, for a short circuit partially cleared by opening the
circuit breaker at the Patten end only.
5. Using the results of Probe 4 and Example 4, compute and plot swing
curves for determining to the nearest 0.05 sec. the critical time of opening
the breaker at Patten if the breaker at Dyche remains closed.
6. Work Example 2 for a new condition (c), short circuit partially cleared
by opening the circuit breaker at the Patten end only.
7. Using the results of Probe 6 and Example 3, compute and plot swing
curves for determining to the nearest 0.05 sec. the critical opening time of
the breaker at Patten to clear partially a three-phase short circuit at X if
the breaker at Dyche remains closed.
8. Work Example 1 with the following changes: The two lines from
Murphy to Dyche (Fig. 10) are out of service. The initial generator out-
puts are: Lunt, 105 Mw.; Murphy, 195 Mw.; Wieboldt, 100 Mw.
9. Work Example 2 for the condition described in Probe 8.
10. Calculate and plot swing curves for the three-machine system of
Fig. 10 with conditions as described in Probe 8 if a three-phase short circuit
occurs at point X and is cleared in 0.30 sec. by opening breakers at both ends
of the line. The results of Probs. 8 and 9 are needed in the solution of this
problem.
CHAPTER IV
THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
Applicability of the equal-area criterion. To determine whether a
power system is stable after a disturbance, it is necessary, in general, to
plot and to inspect the swing curves. If these curves show that the
angle between any two machines tends to increase without limit, the
system, of course, is unstable. If, on the other hand, after all disturb-
ances including switching have occurred, the angles between the two
machines of every possible pair reach maximum values and thereafter
decrease, it is probable, although not certain, that the system is stable.
Occasionally in a multimachine system one of the machines may stay
in step on the first swing and yet go out of step on the second swing
because the other machines are in different positions and react dif-
ferently on the first machine.
In a two-machine system, under the usual assumptions of constant
input, no damping, and constant voltage behind transient reactance,
the angle between the machines either increases indefinitely or else,
after all disturbances have occurred, oscillates with constant amplitude.
In other words, the two machines either fall out of step on the first
swing or never. Under these conditions the observation that the
machines come to rest with respect to each other may be taken as
proof that the system is stable. There is a simple graphical method,
which will be explained in this chapter, of determining whether the
machines come to rest with respect to each other. This method is
known as the equal-area criterion for stability. When this criterion is
applicable, its use wholly or partially eliminates the need of computing
swing curves and thus saves a considerable amount of work. It is
applicable to any two-machine system for which the assumptions
stated above may be made.
The fact that the assumed conditions are not strictly true does not
necessarily invalidate the criterion. If the input to the machines is not
constant, but is changed by action of governors, the effect of such action
generally will not be appreciable until after the first swing and will then
be in such direction as to aid stability. Whatever damping is present
will reduce slightly the amplitude of the first swing and will reduce still
further the amplitude of subsequent swings.
122
APPLICABILITY OF EQUAL-AREA CRITERION 123
The effect of varying voltage behind transient reactance, Of, what is
the same thing, varying flux linkage of the field winding, deserves
consideration. Upon the occurrence of a fault the field current sud-
denly increases to the extent required to offset the increased demagnet-
izing reaction of the armature current and thereby to maintain constant
flux linkage of the field circuit. If the machine does not have a voltage
regulator, the field current ultimately decays back to its original value,
equal to the exciter voltage divided by the field-circuit resistance; and,
as it decays, the flux linkage also decays. The time constant of the
decay is of the order of 2 to 5 sec., and during the first swing the flux
linkages do not decrease much in any machine which does not go out of
step on that swing, If the fault is sustained for a long time, however,
the flux linkages may be so much reduced that the system, although
surviving the first swing, will ultimately become unstable. Even if the
fault is cleared rapidly, the opening of a line to clear it may decrease
the maximum synchronizing power and therefore increase the angular
displacement required for a given power transfer and decrease the flux
linkage for a given field current. Here, as well as for a sustained fault,
it is possible to have the machines stay in step during the first swingbut
go out of step later. If the system is stable on the first swing and also
stable in the ensuing steady state (under assumption of constant field
current), * it is reasonable to suppose that it will not be unstable at any
intermediate time; for there will probably be enough damping to
reduce the amplitude of swing as fast as the flux decays.
If the machines have voltage regulators, the regulators will tend to
maintain constant terminal voltage, which would require an increase
of field flux linkages. With excitation systems of ordinary speed of
response, the regulator and exciter action is too slow to have an ap-
preciable effect during the first swing but is fast enough to prevent loss
of synchronism on subsequent swings. By the use of voltage regulators
it is possible to preserve stability even in some instances when the
system would be unstable on the basis of constant field current in the
steady state after clearing of the fault. t
From the foregoing discussion it may be seen that, if a two-machine
system does not lose synchronism during the first swing, it is very
probably stable, especially if the machines have voltage regulators, and
also that stability or instability on the first swing may be determined
with good accuracy under the assumptions of constant input, no damp-
ing, and constant voltage behind transient reactance. The equal-area
*Steady-state stability is discussed in Chapter XV, Vol. III.
[Field decrement and voltage-regulator action arc discussed in Chapters XII
and XIII, Vol. III.
-[2]
[3]
124 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
criterion is a useful means of determining whether a two-machine
system is stable under these assumptions.
The equal-area criterion is applicable to all two-machine systems,
whether they actually have only two machines or whether they are
simplified representations of systems with more than two machines.
Two-machine systems may be divided into two types, which will be
considered in turn: (1) those having one finite machine swingingwith
respect to an infinite bus.] and (2) those having two finite machines
swinging with respect to each other.
One machine swinging with respect to an infinite bus. The swing
equation of the finite machine is
d
2
0
M - = p = p. - P [1]
dt2 a , u
where M is the inertia constant of the finite machine, and 8 is the
angular displacement of this machine with respect to the infinite bus.
Multiply each member of the equation by 2do/Mdt:
2 d 2 ~ d ~ = 2 Pa d ~
dt
2
dt M dt
or
:!. [(do)2] == 2 Pa do
dt dt M dt
Next multiply each side by dt, obtaining differentials instead of deriva-
tives,
[4]
[5]
[6]
and integrate.
(
do) 2 = ~ r P a d ~
dt M Jao
d ~ = w' = '-2-r-
a
P-do
dt \j MJ; a
When the machine comes to rest with respect to the infinite bus-a,
condition which may be taken to indicate stability-
w' = 0 [7]
tAn infinite bus is a source of voltage constant in phase, magnitude, and fre-
quency and not affected by the amount of current drawn from it. It may be re-
garded as a bus to which machines having an infinite aggregate rating are con-
nected or, in other words, as a machine having zero impedance and infinite inertia.
A large power system often may be regarded as an infinite bus.
ONE MACHINE SWINGING TO INFINITE BUS 125
requiring that
r-
J
80
Pet do = 0
[8]
This integral may be interpreted graphically (Fig. 1) as the area under
a curve of Pa plotted against 0 between limits 00, the initial angle, and
Om, the final angle; or, since
[9]
the integral may be interpreted also as the area between the curve of
Pi versus 0 and the curve of Pu
versus o. The curve of Pi versus P
ois a horizontal line, since Pi is
assumed constant. The curve of
Pu versus 0, known as a power-
angle curve, is a sinusoid (derived
in the next section of this chap-
ter) if the; network is linear and
if the machine is represented by 8
0
8
m
8
a constant reactance. The area,
FIG. 1. The equal-area criterion for
to be equal to zero, must consist stability.
of a positive portion AI, for
which Pi > P
u
, and an equal and opposite negative portion A
2
, for
which Pi < Pu. Hence originates the name, equal-area criterion for
stability.
The areas A1 and A?, may be interpreted in terms of kinetic energy.
The work done on a rotating body by a torque T acting through an
angle 0 - 00 is
[10]
and this work increases the kinetic energy of the body. The accelerat-
ing power Pa is proportional to the torque, under the previously made
assumption of nearly constant speed. Hence the work done on the
machine to accelerate it, which appears as kinetic energy, is propor-
tional to area At. When the accelerating power becomes negative
and the machine is retarded, this kinetic energy is given up; and, when
it is all given up, the machine has returned to its original speed. This
occurs when A
2
=At. The kinetic energies involved in this explana-
tion are fictitious, being calculated in terms of the relative speed rather
than the actual speed.
126 THE EQUAL-.AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
The power-angle equation for the case of one machine and an infinite
bus follows directly from the power-angle equation for one machine of a
multimachine system Ceq. 17a, Chapter III) if we let subscript 1 denote
the finite machine and subscript 2 denote the infinite bus, and if we
put 01 = 0 and 02 = o.
P
u1
= E
1
2Y
l l cos 811 + E
1E2
Y12 cos (a12 - 0)
= Pc +PM sin (0 - 'Y)
[11]
where Pc = E
1
2Y
11 cos all.
PM = E
lE2
Y
12.
E
1
is the internal voltage of the machine.
E
2
is the voltage of the infinite bus.
Ylt/8l1 and Y12/812 are terminal admittances of the net-
work between the machine and the infinite bus, as defined
in Chapter III.
'Y = 812 - 90°.
The power-angle curve is, in general, a displaced sinusoid. It is
similar to the simple sinusoid
r, = PM sin 0 [12]
displaced upward by a distance Pc and to the right by a distance
'Y. = a12 - 90°, as shown in Fig.
2. (NOTE: For a network con-
sisting of resistance and induc-
tive reactance, 8
12
lies between
90° and 180°, 'Y lies between 0
and 90°, and all lies between
o and - 90°. For a network
consisting of inductive react-
" ance only, 812 = 90°, 'Y = 0,
and 811 = -90°.)
If the network consists of
reactance only, then eq. 11 re-
duces to eq. 12, and the power-
FIG. 2. Power-angle curve of dissipative angle curve is an undisplaced
network: a displaced sinusoid. The verti- sinusoid.
cal displacement is Pa, and the horizontal
displacement is ~ . Applications of the criterion.
The use of the equal-area
method will be illustrated by applying it to two simple cases:
1. A sustained line fault.
APPLICATIONS OF THE CRITERION 127
2. A line fault cleared after the lapse of a certain time by the
simultaneous openingof the circuit breakers at both ends of the line.
The fault is assumed to occur at point X of the simple system of
Fig. 3, which consists of a generator connected through a double-
)(
Fault

Generator Infinite
bus
FIG. 3. Power system consisting of a generator connected through a double-
circuit line to an infinite bus. The equal-area criterion for stability of this system
is illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, and 6.
circuit line to an infinite bus. The input to the generator and the
voltage behind transient reactance are assumed constant.
1. Sustained line fault. The power-angle curves, giving the gener-
ator output versus displacement angle, are shown in Fig. 4 for two
p
P
ml
Output, normal
conditions
Pm2
o
FIG. 4. The equal-area criterion applied to a sustained fault on the power system
of Fig. 3. The generator swings from the initial angle 8
0
to the maximum angle
8
m
determined by equality of areas Al and A
2
• The system is stable when trans-
mitting power Pi.
conditions: (1) normal, and (2) faulted. The horizontal line at dis-
tance Pi above the axis represents the constant input. The initial
operating point is a at the intersection of the input and normal output
curves. The initial displacement angle is and the initial relative
angular velocity is zero. When the fault is applied, the operating
point drops to b, directly belowa on the fault output curve. The dis-
128 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
placement angle remains 00 at the instant of fault application. There
is then an accelerating power, P
a
= Pi - Pi; represented by the
length abo As a consequence the generator is accelerated, the dis-
placement angle increases, and the operating point moves along the
curve from b toward c. As it does so, the accelerating power and the
acceleration decrease, becoming zero at c. At this point, however, the
speed of the generator is greater than that of the infinite bus, and the
angle 0 continues to increase. As it does so, Pa becomes negative,
representing retarding power. The speed diminishes until at point d,
determined by the equality of area Al = abc and area A
2
= cde, it
becomes zero. Here the maximum angular displacement Om is reached.
There is still a retarding torque; therefore the speed of the generator
P
P
m2
Pi
o
FIG. 5. Application of the equal-area criterion to finding the power limit of the
power system of Fig. 3 with a sustained fault. The input line is raised from its
position in Fig. 4 until 8
m
reaches the intersection of the input line with the curve
of output, fault on.
continues to decrease, becoming less than that of the infinite bus. The
displacement angle 0 decreases, and the operating point moves from d
through c toward b. The system is stable. The operating point would
continue to oscillate between band d if there were no damping. Actu-
ally the oscillations diminish, and the operating point finally becomes
established at c.
If the initial load on the generator were increased, as represented by
raising the input line, areas Al and A
2
and the maximum angle Om
would increase. The greatest value which Pi could have without the
machine going out of step during the existence of the fault would be
that value which makes Om occur at the intersection of the input curve
and the fault output curve, as shown in Fig. 5. This is the critical
condition in which both the speed and the acceleration become zero
simultaneously at angle Om. The value of Pi which makes this condi-
tion occur is the transient stability limit.
If the initial load were still larger, then area A
2
in Fig. 5 would be
smaller than area A1. The generator would reach point e on the curve,
APPLICATIONS OF THE CRITERION 129
where the acceleration is zero, with the speed above normal. Con-
sequently s would continue to increase, and, as it did so, the accelerat-
ing power would again become positive. The system would be un-
stable. In this case there is some retardation (between c and e), but
not enough to prevent loss of synchronism.
If input Pi were greater than Pm2, the maximum output with the
fault on, there would be no retardation whatever; and, of course, the
system would be unstable with a sustained fault.
p
P
ma
-----
Pm2
o
8
FIG. 6. The equal-area criterion applied to the power system of Fig. 3 for a fault
cleared at angle oc.
2. Line fault with subsequent clearing. In this case three power-
angle curves are needed: (1) for the normal or pre-fault condition with
the system intact, (2) for the fault condition, and (3) for the post-fault
or cleared condition with the faulted line disconnected. These curves
are shown in Fig. 6.
As in case 1, the initial angle 00 is determined by the intersection of
the input line and the pre-fault output curve (point a). Application
of the fault causes the operating point to drop from a to bon the fault
output curve, and the accelerating power causes it to move along the
curve from b to c. We may assume that, when point c is reached, the
circuit breakers open, clearing the fault. The operating point then
jumps up to e on the post-fault output curve and travels along that
curve to j, where area A
2
= defg equals area At = abed.
With a cleared fault, as with a sustained fault, a higher input (and
initial output) would cause point f to move to the right until at the
130 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
stability limit f would coincidewith h. Astill higher value of Pi would
lead to instability.
Another factor which would cause f to move to the right is an in-
crease in the time of clearing the fault, resulting in a larger clearing
angle 6
c
• For any given initial load there is a critical clearing angle.
If the actual clearing angle is smaller than the critical value, the system
is stable; if larger, the system is unstable.
Ordinarily, the clearing angle 6
c
is not known directly; instead, the
clearing time (sum of relay time and breaker time) is known. To
determine the clearing angle from a knowledge of the clearing time, the
swingcurve must be determined up to the time of clearing. Apre-cal-
culated swing curve may be used for this purpose. (See Chapter V.)
The use of swing curves is not entirely eliminated but is reduced to
a minimum by the equal-area criterion.
3. Other applications of the equal-area criterion are left to the reader.
(See Problems at the end of this chapter.)
EXAMPLE 1
By using the equal-area criterion, find the critical clearing angle for the
conditions of Example 4, Chapter II. From the swing curve for a sustained
fault find the critical clearing time.
Solution. The network (shown in Fig. 8, Chapter II) has no resistance,
and the power-angle curves are therefore undisplaced sinusoids. In Exam-
ple 4 of Chapter II the amplitudes of the curves were found to be 2.58,
0.936, and 2.06 per unit for the pre-fault, fault, and post-fault conditions,
respectively. The input was 0.80 per unit. The three output curves and
the input line are plotted in Fig. 7. The initial operating point a lies at the
intersection of the input line and the pre-fault output curve, The initial
angular displacement 60, as determined from this intersection, is about 18
0

(It was computed as 18.1
0
in Example 4.) Upon occurrence of the fault the
operating point drops to b on the fault output curve and then moves along
that curve. As it moves from b to c, the machine is accelerated and ac-
quires kinetic energy proportional to At (the shaded area abc). By counting
small squares on the graph paper, we find this area to be 19.3squares. The
operating point continues to move along the fault output curve, and, as it
moves from c to d, the machine is retarded. Area A
2
is found to be -11.4
squares, giving a net area out to point d of 19.3 - 11.4 = 7.9 squares.
Therefore, when the machine reaches a value of aequal to the abscissa of
point d, it still has a positive velocity relative to the infinite bus. As the
operating point moves from d to e, the machine is again accelerated, and
obviouslyit would pull out of step if the fault were not cleared. Indeed, this
was found to be so in the point-by-point calculation of the swing curve of
Fig. 9, Chapter II, for a sustained fault. When the fault is cleared, the
operating point jumps up to the post-fault output curve, or from point e to
APPLICATIONS OF THE CRITERION 131
180
...............
/ i'<
fault output
/
-----
i\
V

"
\
J
/ /
<,
Post-fault output
-,
\
1/

I
I Output during faUlt",
I


A
4
= - 10.4 sq.
I I I
I I
all
I


Input
.-c

·v c"\ . I

I A
2
=- 11.4sq. A
3
=3.3sq.

At = 19.3 sq.
I

\
I

"' I
I
I
13Soor
I

ISo
139°
157·
I
I
o
o 60 90 120 s, 150 s;
Angular displacement 8 (electrical degrees)
FIG. 7. Determination of critical clearing angle by the equal-area criterion.
(Example 1.)
1.0
point g, and then moves along this curve. As it moves from g to h; the
machine is retarded. The relative velocity will become zero when the net
area becomes zero. The critical condition is that in which the relative
velocity becomes zero just as the retarding power becomes zero. Geomet-
rically, the condition is that in which the net area out to intersection h is
zero. This condition is found by sliding the vertical line efg from left to
right or from right to left until the area At +A
2
+As + A4 = o. This is
3.0
2.0
2.5
0.5
easily done in practice by counting squares in columns from d to the right
and from h to the left, accumulating totals as we go and finding where the
totals are equal and opposite or at least most nearly so. In the present
problem this equality occurs at 138° or 139°, which is therefore the critical
clearing angle, ac. The shaded area in Fig. 7 is At + A
2
+ A
a
+ A
4
= 19.3 - 11.4 +3.3 - 10.4 = 0.8 O.
From the swing curve for a sustained fault (Fig. 9, Chapter II) we find
that the time corresponding to 0 = 138
0
is t = 0.61 sec. This is the critical
clearing time, t.,
It is interesting to note that the swing curve plotted for a clearing time of
0.60 sec. (clearing angle 136.2°) indicates that the system is stable. The
[ ~ 3 a ]
132 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
maximum value of 0 on that curve is 147°. For the critical clearing time of
0.61 sec. the maximum value of 0 is determined by the abscissa of inter-
section h, Fig. 7, and is about 157°. The swing curve for a clearing time of
0.65 sec. (clearing angle 146.7°) shows that the system is unstable. Thus
there is good agreement between the critical clearing angle determined by
the equal-area criterion and that determined by swing curves calculated
point by point.
Two finite machines. A system having two finite machines may be
replaced by an equivalent system having one finite machine and an
infinite bus, so that the swing equations and swing curves of angular
displacement bet\veen the two machines are the same for both systems.
It is necessary to use an equivalent inertia constant, equivalent input,
and equivalent output for the equivalent finite machine. The equiv-
alent inertia constant is a function of the inertia constants of the two
actual machines, and the equivalent input and output are functions of
the inertia constants, inputs, and outputs of the two actual machines.
The equivalent system will now be derived.
The swing equations of the t\VO finite machines are as follows:
d
2
0
1
~ a l ~ i l -- Jlu1
dt
2
= M
1
= M
1
[ISb]
[14]
The relative angle
will be used, because its value is significant in,showing the stability or
instability of the two-machine system.
d
2
0 d
2
0
l
d
2
0
2
Pal ~ a2
dt
2
= dt
2
- dt
2
= M
1
- M
2
Multiply each side of the equation by M
1M2/(M1
+M
2
) , obtaining
M
lM2
d
2
0 M
2
Pal -- M
1
Jl
a2
2=
M
1
+ M
2
dt
M
2Pui
-- M
1Pu2
M
1
+'M
2
[15]
which may be written more simply as
d
2
0
M 2 = Ps = Pi - Pu,
dt
[16]
EQUIVALENT POWER-ANGLE CURVE 133
[17]
Equation 16 is identical in form with eq. 1 for a single finite machine
and an infinite bus. Here the equivalent input,
M
2
Pi l - M
1Pi 2
Pi = M
1
+M
2
and the equivalent output,
P
u
= M2PU1
- M1Pu2
Af
l
+ M
2
[18]
are weighted means of the inputs and outputs, respectively, of the t\VO
actual machines, with the signs of Pi2 and Pu2 reversed, the weights
being inversely as the inertia constants. The equivalent inertia
constant,
[19]
is smaller than the smaller inertia constant of the t\VO actual machines.
The law of combination of the inertia constants is similar to that for
the parallel combination of impedances. This law will appear reason-
able if we note that the inertia constant is the accelerating power
divided by the acceleration and that in a two-machine system the
accelerating power of the generator is nearly§ equal (except in sign) to
that of the motor, while the relative acceleration is the sum of the ac-
celeration of the generator and the retardation of the motor. This
situation is in contrast to that which prevails in finding the inertia
constant of a machine equivalent to a group of machines that swing
together (discussed in Chapter III). There the accelerating power of the
group is the sum of the accelerating powers of the individual machines,
and the accelerations of all machines are equal. Consequently, the
inertia constants combine like impedances in series.
Having obtained the equivalent system, we may investigate its
stability either by calculation of its swing curve or by use of the equal-
area criterion. The equal-area criterion is the more convenient
method, but to apply it we must first obtain the power-angle curve of
the equivalent system.
Equivalent power-angle curve of two finite machines. The power-
angle equations of a two-machine system are (by eqs, 17, Chapter
III):
P
ul
= E
1
2Y
11 cos 8
11
+ E
1E2
Y
12 cos (8
12
- 01 +02) [20]
P'U2 = E
2El
Y2l cos (8
21
- 02 + 01) + E
2
2Y
22 cos 8
22
[21]
§Exactly equal in a purely reactive network, as explained later in the chapter.
134 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
Substitute these values of Pul and Pu2 into the expression for equiva-
lent output (eq. 18), and let ~ = ~ 1 - ~ 2 . The result is
P« = M
2E1
2Y
ll cos ell - MIE22Y22 cos e
22
M
1+M2
+E1E2 Yd M2 cos (8 - e12) - M1 cos (8+e12)] [22]
M
1+M2
The two cosine terms involving 8may be combined into a single cosine
term by considering each term as the horizontal projection of a vector
in the position for which the variable ~ is zero. Thus the first term and
the second term are, respectively, the horizontal projections of vectors
FIG. 8. Vector diagram used in the derivation of eqs. 23 to 26.
M2/-812 and - MI!8
12.
(See Fig. 8.) In this position the hori-
zontal projections are M
2
cos (-812) = M
2
cos 812 and -M
1
cos
812, and the sum is
[23]
The vertical projections are M
2
sin (-8
12)
== -M
2
sin 812 and
- M1 sin 812, and the sum is
V = - (M
1
+ M
2
) sin 812 [24]
The magnitude of the sum vector is
M" == VH
2
+ V
2
= V(M
2
- M
1
)2 cos
2
e
12
+ eM
I
+ M
2
)2 sin
2
e
12
== v' (M
1
2+M
2
2
) (cos
2
e
l2
+ sin
2
012)+2MIM2(sin2812-COS2 8
12)
== VM
1
2
+M
2
2
- 2M
1M2
cos 2812 [25]
and its phase angle is
" -1 V -1 - (M! +M2 ) sin 812
-8 = tan - = tan
H (M
2
- M
1
) cos 8
12
= tan-
1
(:: ~ z: tan e 12) [26]
REACTANCE NETWORK
Hence eq. 22 may be written more simply as
P
u
= Pc + PM cos (0 - e
/)
= Pc +PMsin (0 - 1')
where
Pc = M2E1
2Y
ll cos ell - MIE22Y22 cos e22
M
1+M2
is the vertical displacement (see Fig. 2), and
(
Ml + M
2
) 0
'Y = -tan-
1
M
1
_ M
2
tan e12 - 90
135
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
is the horizontal displacement, of a sine-wave, the amplitude of which is
PM = E
1E2Y12M"
M
1+M2
E
1
E
2
Y12 VM
1
2
+ M
2
2
- 2M
lM2
cos 2e12
==
M
1+M2
If weput M2 = 00, eqs. 28, 29, and 30 reduce to the values previously
derived for one finite machine and an infinite bus (eq. 11).
Reactance network. If the network to which the two machines are
connected contains only reactance, the power-angle equation and the
equation for equivalent input are considerably simplified. In this
case 8
1
1 = 822 = -90° and 812 = 90°, giving cos 811 = cos 822
= 0, cos 2812 = -1, and tan 812 = 00. Hence Pc = 0, 'Y = 0, and
PM = E
lE2
YI 2. The power-angle curve is then an undisplaced
sinusoid,
[31]
which is identical to the power-angle curve for one machine connected
to an infinite bus through a reactance network. In other words, if the
network contains only reactance, the power-angle equation and curve
of a two-machine system are independent of the inertia constants of
the machines. If, however, the network contains resistance as well as
reactance, both the amplitude and displacement of the power-angle
curve depend on the inertia constants.
Since there are no losses in a reactance network, one of the two ma-
chines must act as a generator and the other as a synchronous motor,
so that, if both are considered as generators, their outputs will be equal
and opposite:
Pu2 = -Pul [32]
136 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
Initially the inputs are equal to the outputs:
Pit = Put
Pi2 = P
u2
[33]
[34]
giving equal and opposite inputs,
Pi2 = -Pit [35]
Hence the equivalent input, as given by eq. 17, becomes
M2
P
it - Mt ( - Pit)
Pi = M
1
+M
2
= P« [36]
which is equal to the actual generator input. In similar fashion the
equivalent output, as given by eq. 18, becomes equal to the actual
generator output.
EXAMPLE 2
By use of the equal-area criterion determine the critical clearing angle of
the two-machine system of Example 4, Chapter III.
Solution. The following data are obtained from Example 4, Chapter
III:
MA = 2.92 X 10-
4
per unit
MD = 26.9 X 10-4per unit
PiA = 0.80 unit power
PiD = 3.20 unit power
a
AO
= 23.0°
aDO = 10.3°
With the fault on
E
A
2y AA cos eAA = 0
ED
2y
DD cos aDD = 0.45 unit power
EAEDYAD = 0.203 unit power
SAD = 86.4°
With the fault cleared
EA
2YAA
cos 8AA = 0.04 unit power
ED
2y
DD cos aDD = 3.28 unit power
EAEDYAD = 1.91 unit power
SAD = 79.4°
From eq, 19 the equivalent inertia constant is
MAM
D
2.92 X 26.9 .
M = M,A +MD = 29.8 10-4 = 2.64 X 10-4 per unit
REACTANCE NETWORK
From eq. 17 the equivalent input is
p. _ MDPiA - MAPiD
,- MA+ MD
26.9 X 0.80 - 2.92 X 3.20
29.8
21.5 - 9.35 12.15 0 41 it
= -- = . unl power
29.8 29.8
The output power-angle equation is
P; == Po +PM sin (8 - 1)
where by eqs. 28, 29, and30
Po == MDEA
2YAA
cos eAA - MAED
2
y DD cos eDD
MA+MD
P _ E E Y "';MA
2
+ MD2 - 2MAMD cos 29AD
M - A D AD M
A
+ MD
1 == -tan-
1
(MA + MD tan e
AD
) - 90°
MA- MD
For the faulted condition
P
26.9 X 0 - 2.92 X 0.45 0044.
c == = -. unit power
29.8
P = 0.203 ...;(2.92)2+ (26.9)2- 2 X 2.92 X 26.9 cos (2 X 86.4°)
M 29.8
= 0.203 "';8 +722 - 157 cos 172.8°
29.8
= 0.203 "';730 - 157 X (-0.992)
29.8
= 0.203 "';730 +156 =0.203 v'886
29.8 29.8
== 0.203 unit power
== -tan-
1
( 29.8 tan86.4°) - 90°
2.9 - 26.9
== _tan-
t 29
.
8
X 15.9 _ 900
-24.0
== -tan-
1
(-19.7) - 90° = 87.1° - 90° == -2.9°
137
138 THE EQUAIr-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
For the cleared condition
Po = 26.9 X 0.04 - 2.92 X 3.28 = 1.1 - 12.9
29.8 29.8
11.8 3 ·
= - - = - O. 96 unit power
29.8
P = 1.91 V730 - 157cos 158.8
0
M 29.8
= 1.91 v730 - 157(-0.932)
29.8
= 1.91 v730 +146 = 1.91 V876 = 1.89unit power
29.8 29.8
'Y = -tan-
1
( 29.8 tan 79.4°) - 90°
-24.0
= -tan-1 (29.8 X 5.34) _ 900
-24.0
= -tan-
1
(- 6.63) - 90° = 81.4° - 90° = -8.6°
Hence for the fault condition
P« = -0.044 + 0.203sin (8+2.9°)
and for the cleared condition
P
u
= -0.40 +1.89sin (8+8.6°)
The power-angle curves are plotted in Fig. 9. Note that they are displaced
sine curves, the displacement being from 0 to 0' and from 0 to' 0". The
input line is also drawn. The initial angle is
8
0
= OAO - aDO = 23.0 - 10.3 = 12.7°
This angle is marked on Fig. 9. The point on the input line at this value of 8
is the point representing the pre-fault operating condition. It lies on the
pre-fault power-angle curve, but there is no need of plotting any more of that
curve than this one point.
By application of the equal-area criterion, the critical clearing angle is
found to be oc = 100°, and with clearing at this angle the maximum angular
displacement that is reached is Om = 146°.
Let us see how well these values agree with the results obtained in Exam-
ples 3 and 4 of Chapter III. In both these examples the system was found
to be stable if the fault was cleared in 0.35 sec. (clearing angle, approximately
96°) and unstable if the fault was cleared in 0.40 sec. (clearing angle, 118°).
SWING CURVE BY GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION 139
Thus, in these previous examples the clearing angle was found to be between
96° and 118°, and the value found in the present example lies between these
limits. The equal-area criterion provides an easier method than we had
before of determining the critical clearing angle, but it does not enable us to
find directly the critical clearing time. From the swing curve for O.40-sec.
clearing (Fig. 16 of Chapter III) we may read the time-O.36 sec.-corre-
sponding to the critical clearing angle of 100°.
The clearing time of 0.35 sec. for which a swing curve was obtained and
plotted in Fig. 16 of Chapter III is seen to be only slightly below the critical
I
146-
6".150
13'0· 100·
o
0
0 30 60 90 s, 120
Angular displacement 8(electrical degrees.)
FIG. 9. Power-angle curves and determination of critical clearing angle by use of
the equal-area criterion. (Example 2.)
1.00
-
c
::s
! 0.50
value. The maximum angle attained in Example 3 was 135° or 136°, and
in Example 4, 131°, whereas the maximum angle under the critical condition
is 146°. The discrepancy between Examples 3 and 4 is not surprising in view
of the proximity to the critical condition, at which a very small difference in
accelerating torque changes a stable system into an unstable one
Determination of swing curve by graphical integration. The type of
disturbance which is most important in stability studies is a fault ap-
plied and subsequently cleared. It is usually desired to determine
whether a system is stable with a given load and given fault-clearing
time, to determine the stability limit for a given clearing time, or to
determine the critical clearing time for a given power. The equal-area
criterion by itself affords information on clearing angle but not on
clearing time. The clearing time, however, is of primary importance
because the circuit breakers and protective relays, by means of which
the fault is cleared, have definite operating times which are independent
of the angular displacements of the machines. Therefore, when the
[37]
140 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
equal-area criterion is used, it is necessary to find the clearing angle
when the clearing time is known, or vice versa. For this procedure
a swing curve, carried out as far as the point of clearing, is required.
The swing curve for this purpose may be obtained in at least three
different ways: (1) by point-by-point calculation, (2) by graphical
integration, or (3) by selection of a curve from sets of pre-calculated
swing curves. Point-by-point calculation was explained in Chapter
II; the method of graphical integration'' will be described in this sec-
tion; and the use of pre-calculated curves will be discussed in Chapter
v.
It has already been pointed out, in deriving the equal-area criterion,
that the relative angular speed of a machine is given by:
dB J218
- =CJJ' = - Pada
dt AI ~
Graphically, the integral appearing in eq. 37 is the area under a curve of
Pa against 8 or between curves of Pi and Pu against 8; in other words,
the same area that was used in the equal-area criterion. In the pro-
cess of applying the equal-area criterion the area may be determined as
a function of 8 by counting squares on the graph paper for successive
increments of 8. Or, if the power output is a sine function or other
simple function of the angle, the integral may be evaluated formally.
In either case w' as a function of Bmay be computed from the area by
means of eq, 37. By rearranging this equation we obtain:
dB
dt = --; [38]
CJJ
and by integrating we get:
[39]
Evaluation of this integral gives t as a function of 8; in other words, it
gives a swing curve.
If formal evaluation of this integral were possible, graphical methods
would be unnecessary. As a rule, however, eq. 39 cannot be formally
integrated even though eq. 37 can be. One simple case in which both
integrations can be done formally is that in which the accelerating
power P
a
is constant, Then
w' =~ 2 P a ( ~ - 8
0
) [40]
SWING CURVE BY GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION 141
and
[41]
In general, however, the integral of eq. 39 must be evaluated graph-
ically. This may be done by plotting a curve of l/w' against 8 and
finding the area under the curve as a function of 8. Some difficulty
will be encountered in determining the area under the curve for values
of anear the initial value 8
0
and the maximum value 8m because, at
these values of 8, w' is zero and the ordinate of the curve, u«, is ac-
cordingly infinite, although the area under the curve is finite. This
difficulty can be avoided by assuming Pa to be constant over a small
range of a(until the curve of l/w' comes back on scale) and by using
eq. 41 to compute the time for the machine to swing through this range
of 8.
EXAMPLE 3
By means of graphical integration obtain the swing curves (a) for a sus-
tained fault on the system of Example 4, Chapter II, and (b) for a fault
cleared in 0.4 sec. (These curves were previously computed by the point-
by-point method and were plotted in Fig. 9 of Chapter II.)
Solution. (a) The following data are obtained from Example 4 of
Chapter II:
Inertia constant, M = 2.56 X 10-'
Initial angle, 8
0
= 18.1
0
Input, Pi = 0.80
Output during fault, P11 = 0.936 sin 8
Therefore the accelerating power during the fault is
Po = P, - P« = 0.80 - 0.936 sin a
The area under the curve of Po against 8 is
Al = rP..da = r (0.80 - 0.936 sin8) da
J
40
JI8.1°
=[0.808+0.936 X 57.3cos 8]:8.1'
=0.80a+53.6 cos 8 - 0.80 X 18.1 - 53.6cos 18.1
0
= 0.80a+53.6 cos 8- 14.5 - 51.0
= 0.806+53.6 cos 6 - 65.5'\1nit power degrees
(a)
(b)
142 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
(57.3 is the conversion factor from radians to degrees.)
1 M X 10-
4
- = - = seconds per degree
Wi 2A
1
Al
TABLE 1
(c)
COMPUTATION OF Al AND l/w' FOR SUSTAINED FAULT (EXAMPLE 3, PART a)
a
l/w'
cos 8 53.6cos 8 0.808 Sum Al
(msec,
(deg.)
per deg.)
18.1 0.951 51.0 14.5 65.5 0 ClO
20 0.940 50.4 16.0 66.4 0.9 12.0
25 0.906 48.5 20.0 68.5 3.0 6.5
30 0.866 46.4 24.0 70.4 4.9 5.1
45 0.707 37.9 36.0 73.9 8.4 3.9
60 0.500 26.8 48.0 74.8 9.3 3.7
75 0.259 13.9 60.0 73.9 8.4 3.9
90 0 0 72.0 72.0 6.5 4.4
105 -0.259 -13.9 84.0 70.1 4.6 5.3
120 -0.500 -26.8 96.0 69.2 3.7 5.9
135 -0.707 -37.9 108.0 70.1 4.6 5.3
150 -0.866 -46.4 120.0 73.6 8.1 4.0
165 -0.966 -51.8 132.0 80.2 14.7 3.0
180 -1.000 -53.6 144.0 90.4 24.9 2.3
Al and l/w' are computed in Table 1. A curve of l/w' versus 0 is plotted in
Fig. 10. This curve is "off scale" for values of 0 between 18.1° and 20°.
The time required for the machine to swing through this angle is therefore
computed by eq. 41, using the value of P« at 0 = 19° as a good approxima-
tion to the average value of F; between = 18.1° and = 20°.
P
a
(19°) = 0.800 - 0.936 sin 19°
= 0.800 - 0.936 X 0.326
= 0.800 - 0.305 = 0.495 (d)
t = - = /2 X 2.56 X 10-4(20 - 18.1)
r. 0.495
= 0.044sec. (e)
The area A2under the curve for 10° increments of between 20° and 180° is
found by counting squares on the graph paper and is recorded in Table 2.
The cumulative total of the area, the time t, is also tabulated. The value of
t computed above for 0 = 20° is included. The total area out to any value
SWING CURVE BY GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
143
: II
II
I ,
\ J
\ J
,
Before clearing"'"
u-

-,

/]
1/

-- -
J
)

. After


'"
r-,
I

tr

.....
I
Afterclearing at 135
0
/
I I I
o
o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
6 (electrical degrees)
FIG. 10. Curves for the determination of swing curves by graphical integration.
(Example 3.)
12
10
......
cu
!
8

"'0
...
8-
en
6
"'0
c:
0
u
Q)
:E
'E
4
-
.-.j3
2
TABLE 2
TABULATION OF AREA A2 UNDER CURVE OF l/w' VERSUS 8 AND COMPUTATION OF
t FOR SUSTAINED FAULT (EXAMPLE 3, PART a)
a
A2 t a A2 t
(deg.) (sec.) (sec.) (deg.) (sec.) (sec.)
20 0.044 0.044 110 0.053 0.456
30 0.071 0.115 120 0.058 0.514
40 0.046 0.161 130 0.058 0.572
50 0.039 0.200 140 0.052 0.624
60 0.037 0.237 150 0.044 0.668
70 0.038 0.275 160 0.036 0.704
80 0.039 0.314 170 0.029 0.733
90 0.042 0.356 180 0.024 0.757
100 0.047 0.. 403
of arepresents the time for the machine to swing to that value of a. The
swing curve, 0 versus t, is plotted in Fig. 11. The points marked by small
circles were computed by point-by-point method 2 with = 0.05 sec.
The two methods give results which agree well.
(b) From Example 4 of Chapter II the output after clearing of the fault is
P
u
= 2.06 sino
(j)
144 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
and the accelerating power is therefore
P; = Pi - PUt = 0.80 - 2.06 sino (g)
From part a of this exampIe the clearing angle corresponding to the specified
clearing time of 0.40 sec. is
(h)
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1
fatult ......

.".
--,

C)

r
-,

Fault cleared at 0.6sec.-
>-.....
./
V
1\

"
,

l,/'
Fault cleared at 0.4sec.-

./
\
.........

o
o
160
200
40
0.4 0.5
t (seconds)
FIG. 11. Swing curves determined by graphical integration. (Example 3.) Small
circles are points on swing curves computed point by point.
The area under the curve of Pa against from the clearing angle to any
subsequent angle 0 is
A
1
' = rpGda = t" (0.80- 2.06sino)da
J8c JlOO°
= [0.800+2.06 X 57.3cos0
= 0.800+ 118.0 cos - 0.80 X 100 - 118.0(-0.1736)
= 0.800+ 118.0 cos 0 - 80.0 + 20.5
= + 118.0 cos - 59.5 (i)
The area before clearing, up to the clearing angle, is calculated from eq. bas
0.80 X 100 +53.6 cos 100
0
- 65.5 = 80.0 - 9.3 - 65.5 = 5.2
Therefore the total area up to any angle subsequent to clearing is
A
l
= 5.2 + AI' = + 118.0 cos - 54.3 (j)
Al and l/w' are computed in Table 3 eqs. j and c, respectively, and
1/w' is plotted as a function of 0 in the curve labeled "after clearing at
SWING CURVE BY GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION 145
100°" in Fig. 10. It will be noted that this curve crosses the previous curve
(marked "before clearing") at 100°.
TABLE 3
COMPUTATION OF At AND l/w' FOR FAULT CLEARED IN 0.4 SEC.
(EXAMPLE 3, PART b)
B
l/w'
(deg.)
cos 8 118.0 cos 8 0.808 Sum At (msec.
per deg.)
0 1.000 118.0 0 118.0 63.7 1.42
15 0.966 114.0 12.0 126.0 71.7 1.34
30 0.866 102.1 24.0 126.1 71.8 1.34
45 0.707 83.4 36.0 119.4 65.1 1.40
60 0.500 59.0 48.0 107.0 52.7 1.56
75 0.259 30.6 60.0 90.6 36.3 1.88
85 0.087 10.3 68.0 78.3 24.0 2.31
90 0 0 72.0 72.0 17.7 2.69
95 -0.087 -10.3 76.0 65.7 11.4 3.35
100 -0.174 -20.5 80.0 59.5 5.2 4.97
102 -0.208 -24.6 81.6 57.0 2.7 6.9
104.4 -0.249 -29.4 83.6 54.2 -0.1
00
For a fault cleared at 0.4 sec. (100°) the swing curve is found by taking t
equal to the area under the curves of l/w
'
versus 0, as follows: on the curve
marked "before clearing" to the intersection; thence on the curve marked
"after clearing at 100°" to the maximum angle, which is found by setting
Al = 0 in eq. j. This angle is about 104.4°. At this point w' changes from
positive to negative, and 1/ w' does likewise. The area under the curve of
negative values of 1/w', taken with negative increments of 0, is positive
and may be found equally well by using the curve plotted for positive values
of 1/w' • Therefore the curve "after clearing" is followed back past the inter-
section and as far as one cares to go. Ultimately w' again vanishes, and the
ordinate l/w' becomes infinite at some negative value of 0; however, the
curve in Fig. 10 is not drawn that far to the left.
The area under the curve in the neighborhood of the maximum angle, say
from 104.4° to 102°, may be calculated by eq. 41. The value of P; at 103°
will be assumed as the average value of P« throughout this interval of o.
At 103°, by eq. g,
P
a(103°)
= 0.80 - 2.06 sin 103
0
= 0.80 - 2.06 X 0.974
= 0.80 - 2.00
= -1.20 (k)
t = /2 X 2.56 X 10-
4(102
- 104.4) = 0.032 sec. (l)
"'J -1.20
146 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
Equation 41 was derived on the assumption of initial velocity equal to zero,
which is true if 104.4° is taken as the initial angle. The time required for the
machine to swing from 102° to 104.4°, however, is exactly equal to the time
required for it to swing back from 104.4° to 102°.
The area A
2
under the curve of l/w' and the cumulative total of this area,
the time t, are entered in Table 4. The swing curve is plotted in Fig. 11.
TABLE 4
TABULATION OF AREA A2 UNDER CURVE OF 1I"l VERSUS aAND COMPUTATION OF
t FOR FAULT CLEARED IN 0.4 SEC. (EXAMPLE 3, PART b)
s A
2
t a
A2 t
(deg.) (sec.) (sec.) (deg.) (sec.) (sec.)
100 ..... 0.400 60. 0.016 0.579
102 0.011 0.411 50 0.015 0.594
104.4 0.032 0.443 40 0.014 0.608
102 0.032 0.475 30 0.014 0.622
100 0.011 0.486 20 0.013 0.635
90 0.035 0.521 10 0.013 0.648
80 0.023 0.544 0 0.014 0.662
70 0.019 0.563
This curve agrees well with the points (marked by small circles) computed by
point-by-point method 2.
The curve of l/w' versus 0 and the swing curve for a fault cleared in 0.6
sec. (135°) have also been plotted in Figs. 10 and 11. The swing curve does
not agree well with the one calculated by the point-by-point method. The
clearing time and angle in this instance are so near the critical values that it
is likely that even small discrepancies lead to a considerable divergence of
the curves.
REFERENCES
1. R. H. PARK and E. H. BANCKER, "System Stability as a Design Problem,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 43, pp. 170-94, 1929.
2. H. H. SKILLING and M. H. YAMAKAWA, "A Graphical Solution of Transient
Stability," Elec. Eng., vol. 59, pp. 462-5, November, 1940.
3. O. G. C. DAHL, Electric Power Circuits, vol. II, Power System Stability, New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938, pp. 401-12, 443-50.
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER IV
1. Show by diagrams how the equal-area criterion can be applied to
examine the stability. of a two-machine system subjected to the following
disturbances:
a. A line fault, cleared by the successive opening of two circuit breakers.
b. A fault on a radial feeder, cleared by disconnection of the feeder.
PROBLEMS
147
c. A line fault, cleared by the simultaneous opening of the circuit
breakers at both ends of the line, followed by the subsequent simultaneous
reclosing of the same breakers.
d. The opening of one circuit of a double-circuit line as a normal switch-
ing operation.
e. A sudden increase of shaft load on 3, synchronous motor.
2. A synchronous motor, supplied with electric power from an infinite bus
over a circuit of negligible resistance, is operating with an initial shaft load
Powhich is suddenly increased by an amount D.P. The power-angle curve
has an amplitude Pm. Derive a formula for the critical load increment
set»; as a function of the initial load PO/Pm. 'Plot the equation. How
much error would there be in assuming that the equation could be rep-
resented by a straight line between the two points where the true curve
intersects the axes of coordinates?
3. Derive a formula for the transient stability limit PL of a two-machine
reactance system subjected to a sustained fault, expressing the limit in
terms of the following quantities:
P« = amplitude of pre-fault power-angle curve
flP
m
= amplitude of fault power-angle curve
a
o
= initial angular displacement
Plot a curve of PL/Pmagainst fl.
4. Derive a formula for the transient stability limit of a two-machine
reactance system subjected to a fault on a radial feeder and its subsequent
clearing by disconnection of the feeder at a clearing angle oC. Use the nota-
tion given in Probe 3.
5. Derive a formula for the transient stability limit of a two-machine
reactance system subjected to a fault on a transmission, line and its subse-
quent clearing by simultaneous opening of the circuit breakers at both ends
of the faulty line. The stability limit should be expressed in terms of the
quantities listed in Probe 3 and the following additional quantities:
r2Pm = amplitude of post-fault power-angle curve
Oc = clearing angle
6. Find the critical clearing time of a three-phase fault at the middle of
one transmission line of the two-machine system of Example 4, Chapter II,
if the initial output of the water-wheel generator is 25 Mw.
7. Find the transient stability limit of the two-machine system of Exam-
ple 4, Chapter II, for a three-phase fault at the middle of one transmission
line, cleared in 0.2 sec. by the simultaneous opening of both ends of the line.
Assume that the power-angle curves obtained in Example 4 are valid for any
value of initial power. (It would be more accurate, but more laborious, to
assume a different voltage behind transient reactance of the generator for
148 THE EQUAL-AREA CRITERION FOR STABILITY
each different value of initial power, so as to hold the initial terminal voltage
constant.)
8. Using the method of graphical integration, plot the swing curve of the
water-wheel generator of the system of Example 4, Chapter II, for an initial
output of 1.00 p.u, and a three-phase fault at the middle of one transmission
line cleared in 0.35 sec. by the simultaneous opening of circuit breakers at
both ends of the line.
[1]
CHAPTER V
FURTHER CONSIDERATION OF THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
Pre-calculated swing curves. This chapter continues the consider-
ation of the problem of the stability of two-machine systems. The
equal-area .criterion, which was discussed in Chapter IV, is a very
effective means of determining whether a given two-machine system is
stable when subjected to a given disturbance. The most important
type of disturbance is the occurrence of a fault and its subsequent
clearing by the opening of circuit breakers. If the clearing time is
known, as it usually is, the corresponding clearing angle must be found
before the equal-area criterion can be applied; or, conversely, if the
critical clearing angle for a given transmitted power is obtained from
the equal-area criterion, the corresponding critical clearing time must
be found in order that the results of the stability study will be in the
most useful form.
Perhaps the simplest way to find the clearing angle corresponding to
a given clearing time, or the time corresponding to a given angle, is to
refer to the appropriate swing curve in a set of swing curves which have
already been calculated and plotted, and which may be appropriately
called "pre-calculated swing curves." Such a set of curves, obtained
by solving the swing equation on the M.I.T. integraph, was published
by Summers and McClure
2
and is reproduced here (Figs. 1 to 10) by
kind permission of Mr. McClure.
The curves were derived for a sustained fault on a system consisting
of a synchronous machine of finite size connected through reactance
to an infinite bus. By the methods presented in Chapter IV, however,
the pre-calculated curves can be used with a system of two finite ma-
chines connected through any linear network. The usual simplifying
assumptions are made, to wit: constant input, no damping, and con-
stant voltage behind direct-axis transient reactance. To make the
curves generally applicable they are plotted in terms of a dimensionless
variable, the "modified time" T, defined by eq. 11 below.
The swing equation of a two-machine system is
d
2
a
M dt
2
= Pa =Pi - Pu
149
150 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
[3]
M1M2 equivalent inertia constant in megajoule-
where M = M1 +M2 = seconds per electrical degree. [2]
o= 01 - 02 = angular displacement in electrical degrees.
t = time in seconds.
P
M2Pil - M
1
P
i 2 • 1 · •
i = M M = equrva ent Input In megawatts
1 + 2
which, either for a reactance network or for M2 = 00, reduces to
Pi = Pil = input of machine 1 (the generator) [4]
The equivalent power output, dependent on a, is given by the power-
angle equation:
which, for a reactance network, reduces to
P« = PM sino
[5]
[6]
Expressions for Pc, 'Y, and PM are given by eqs. 28, 29, and 30 of
Chapter IV. For a reactance network the amplitude of the power-
angle curve is
[7]
where X12 is the reactance connecting machines 1 and 2, including the
direct-axis transient reactances of the machines themselves.
Substitution of eq. 5 into eq. 1 gives
d
2
8
M dt
2
= Pi - Po - PM sin (a.- 7)
or
where
p/ = Pi - Po
0' = 0 - 'Y
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
To put eq. 8 into dimensionless form, divide it by PM and then intro-
duce a quantity r, defined by
r;;:P; /7tJPM
T = t\)180 M = t\)' GH
PRE-CALCULATED SWING CURVES 151
[13]
[12]
where f = frequency in cycles per second.
GH = kinetic energy, in megajoules, of equivalent generator at
rated speed = 180fM.
The result is:
d
2 ~ ' P ,
r u i ., .,
180' dT2 = PM - sin 8 =P - sin 8
if a' is in electrical degrees, or simply
d 2 ~ '
u • ~ ,
-=p-SIDu
d,,2
if a' is in electrical radians. Here
p/ Pi - Pc
p = PM = PM [14]
and 0' has been defined in eq. 10.
Adifferential equation has been obtained which is independent of the
inertia constants of the machines and of the constants of the network.
The solution of the equation depends on the ratio of the input to the
amplitude of the power-angle curve (both input and amplitude being
measured from the horizontal axis of symmetry of the sine curve if
the sine curve is displaced vertically) and on the initial angle 50' and
initial angular speed woo For the present purpose, swing curves for
a sustained fault are wanted; hence Pn, PM, and 'Y must be the con-
stants of the power-angle equation for the faulted condition, and the
initial speed will always be zero. The solution then depends only upon
p (defined by eq. 14) and 00'.
Each family of curves in Figs. 1 to 10 is for a constant value of sin
00" the range covered being from 0 to 0.90 in steps of 0.10. The
individual curves in each family are for constant values of p, ranging in
each family from a minimum value slightly larger than the value of
sin 00' for that family up to a maximum of 3.00.
The procedure for using the pre-calculated curves to determine
critical clearing time from a given critical clearing angle may be sum-
marized as follows:
1. The power-angle curve (Pc, PM, and 1') for the faulted condi-
tion, the power input Pi, and the initial angle 00 are assumed to-be
known, because they are needed for finding the critical clearing
angle Dc by the equal-area criterion.
2. Compute p/ = Pi - Pc, P = p//P
M
, 00' = 00 - 1', sin 50"
and oc' = Dc - 'Y.
152 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
160
10
60
c
4(
40
20
2 3 4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 1. sin 00' = O.
10
10 9 8 7
3 2
160 t----+--__t__
40
20
'0
60
c:
c(
-
120

Q)
"t:J
co 100 r---t---tt-..........
E ..----.--1
U
80
4 5 6
Modified time T
FIG. 2. sin 00' = 0.10.
FIGS. 1 and 2. Pre-calculated swing curves (copied from Ref. 2 by permission).
PRE-CALCULATED SWING CURVES 153
10 9 8 7 4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 3. sin 80' = 0.20.
3 2 1
40
160
....-
en
e120
l
- 100

-a
! 80
:0
CD
60
<
10 9 8 7 3 2
160
-
en
120
bO
Q)
"'0
100
:s
o
Q)
a; 80 __

60
c::
<
20
40
4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 4. sin 80' = 0.30.
FIGS. 3 and 4. Pre-calculated swing curves (copied from Ref. 2 by permission).
154 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
10 9 8 7 3 4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 5. sin 80' = 0.40.
2
160
40
20 t--+--+-...---+---+-t--+---+-t--+--+--+--I---+-+--+--i--+---+--I
-
U)
120
to
Q)
"0
100 1---+--........ #-I-.........
.s
u
Q)
80 .............
:0
60
c
-c
10 9 8 7 3 2 1
o,-O........-.._......--"'_......._ • ..&._oIoo---A.o_oI---I- .....&.- --...._..&.--.._...........-..
o
160 t---+---+-
20 t--+--+-+---+---+--+---+-I---+---+--+---+--I---+--+-+---+---Io-o+----I
40
-
U)
! 120 t---+--.......... -bIIlI",--+-+--+--t---f---t---t--+---I'---+---f

"0
co 100
U
:s
u
Q)
:e 80

60
c
c(
4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 6. sin 80' = 0.50.
FIGS. 5 and 6. Pre-calculated swing curves (copied from Ref. 2 by permission).
PRE-CALCULATED SWING CURVES 155
10 9 8
7 4 5 6
Modified timeT
FIG. 7. sin 00' = 0.60.
3 2

o
160I---+---t--
20 J--+--+--+--+--+---lf--f--+--+--1---+--+-I--+--+--+--+--+-----4---1
-
t 120
f
-c
(ij 100
U
:a
80

60
c
<
-en
120

-c
B100
:a
(1)
80
°"-........ -..J"".---"'_a...-""'---....I.-......L---J.,;.--I..--L_"'---""""--'----&...--'---L---I-J
o 2 3 4 5 6 1 8 9 10
Modified time T
FIG. 8. sin 00' =0.70.
FIGS. 7 and 8. Pre-calculated swing curves (copied from Ref. 2 by permission).
156 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
10 9 8 7 4 5 6
Modified timeT
3 2 1

o
FIG. 9. sin 00' = 0.80.
180
160
140
en
120

Q,)
'0
co 100
-g
'0
Q,)
80
"0
60
c:
c:(
ltJt:

1/
j
8°011) 00 II)
o " 11).'" "' ..
)
/
': ;;-;; ;; n: j
-


J ; Q'11
7"
Ji7
JI/
1111 III Ii
/ if 'I
:Y r7
I
'1IJ
'I J '/J
If/
/
V
/
11//
"I
'II
II r V

/ IJvrII
if/
7
V V
JJ
flli rJjIfh '/ V

V
I

V/

V

V
f--


""/
l;"

»> 095

-

_""-......-

,.....
---
t--..
r---.

.......
40
20
o
o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ro
Modified timeT
FIG. 10. sin 00' = 0.90.
FIGS. 9 and 10. Pre-calculated swing curves (copied from Ref. 2 by permission).
PRE-CALCULATED SWING CURVES
157
3. Compute the equivalent inertia constant M by eq. 2.
4. Find the family of curves for the proper value of sin 00' and the
individual curve for the proper value of p. Enter this curve with the
ordinate 0' = Oe' and read the corresponding abscissa T = T
e

Interpolation between curves or between families of curves may be
necessary.
5. By eq. 11 compute the critical clearing time t
e
corresponding
to Te.
To determine the clearing angle corresponding to a given clearing
time, the order of the steps of procedure is altered in a way that
should be obvious.
The procedure described above breaks down if the fault is of such
nature that there is no synchronizing power while the fault is on. In
such a case PM = 0, from which it follows that p = 00 and T = 0 for
all values of t. The pre-calculated curve for this condition is the
vertical coordinate axis, and the relation between 0'" and t cannot be
determined from it. However, this relation can be found by eq. 41
of Chapter IV, namely: ~ ( )
2M 0 - 00
t = [15]
P
a
Furthermore, the pre-calculated curves cannot be used to represent
conditions after clearing a fault because the curve for the proper value
of angle and speed (at the instant of clearing) does not have the proper
value of accelerating power or acceleration after clearing.
EXAMPLE 1
In Example 1 of Chapter IV, which deals with a machine connected
through reactance to an infinite bus, the critical clearing angle for the condi-
tions of Example 4 of Chapter II was found by the equal-area criterion to be
138
0
• The corresponding critical clearing time, as determined from the
swing curve, is 0.61 sec. Check this value by use of the pre-calculated swing
curves.
Solution. From Example 4 of Chapter II, the power-angle equation
valid for the fault condition is
pu = 0.936sin 0 per unit,
whence
Po = 0, PM= 0.936, 'Y = 0;
the power input is
Pi = 0.80 per unit;
the inertia constant of the finite machine is
Ml = 2.56 X 10-
4
per unit;
158 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
and the initial angle is
whence
sin ~ o = 0.310.
From the problem statement,
Oc = 138
0
The following quantities are computed from the data:
Pi' = P, - Pc = Pi = 0.80
p = P/ = 0.80 = 0.854
PM 0.936
sin 00' = sin 00 = 0.310
~ c ' = Dc = 138
0
M = M
1
= 2.56 X 10-4
~ = J1I"PM = I 11" X 0.936 = 8 0
t \} 180M \} 180 X 2.56 X 10-4 ·
The most suitable pre-calculated curve is that for sin 00 = 0.30 and
p = 0.85 in Fig. 4. The ordinate 0' = 138
0
corresponds to the abscissa
If" = 4.8. Hence T c = 4.8 and
T
c
4.8
t
c
= - = - = 0.60 sec.
8.0 8.0
This agrees reasonably well with the previously found value, 0.61 sec.
EXAMPLE 2
Find the clearing angle corresponding to a clearing time of 0.30 sec. on the
system of Example 4, Chapter III, which consists of two finite machines
connected through an impedance network. (The equal-area criterion was
applied to this system in Example 2, Chapter IV.)
Solution. The following data are obtained from Example 2 of Chapter
IV:
M = 2.64 X 10-4 per unit
Pi = 0.41 per unit
Pc = -0.044 per unit
PM = 0.203 per unit
'Y = -2.9°
8
0
= 12.7°
1r X 0.203 = 3.66
180 X 2.64 X 10-
4
EFFECT OF FAULT-CLEARING TIME
and the following from the statement of this problem:
t = 0.30 sec.
The following quantities are computed from the data:
Pi' = Pi - Pc = 0.41 - (-0.04) = 0.45
P= Pi' = 0.45 = 2.2
PM 0.203
00' = 00 - 'Y = 12.7 - (-2.9) = 15.6
sin 00' = 0.269
T ~
"t= '1180 M=
T = 3.66t = 3.66 X 0.30 = 1.1
159
The most suitable pre-calculated curve is that for sin 00 = 0.30 and
p = 2.0 in Fig. 4. On this curve 'T = 1.1 corresponds to 0' = 76°.
o= 0' + 'Y = 76° - 3° = 73°
From Table 15, Example 4, Chapter III, at t = 0.3 sec. we find OAD
= 75.3°. This value was obtained by a point-by-point calculation. The
agreement is reasonably good.
Effect of fault-clearing time on transient stability limit. The
amount of power that can be transmitted from one' machine to the
other in a two-machine system without loss of synchronism when the
system is subjected to a fault depends on the duration of the fault.
The power limit can be determined as a function of clearing angle by
the equal-area criterion, and the relation between clearing angle and
clearing time can be found from the pre-calculated swing curves. It is
then possible to plot a curve of stability limit as a function of clearing
time. Such a curve is shown in Fig. 11. It shows that the transient
stability limit of the system can be greatly increased by decreasing the
time of fault clearing from 0.5 sec. or more to 0.2 sec. or less. The
time of fault clearing is the sum of the time that the protective relays
take to close the circuit-breaker trip circuit and the time required by
the circuit breaker to interrupt the fault current. Frequently a system
which is unstable for a particular type of fault and fault location can be
made stable by altering the existing relaying or by modernizing the
circuit breakers so as to decrease the clearing time. *
*Typical values of relay time and breaker time are given in Chapter VIII, Vol.
II. Modernization of breakers is discussed in the same chapter. Protective
relaying is discussed in Chapter IX, Vol. II.
160
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
A curve like that of Fig. 11 can be obtained by the following proce-
dure. First, the equal-area criterion isused to determine the stability
limit with instantaneous clearing. Truly instantaneous clearing is not
o
~
1 ...
'2
::s
...
(1)
c.
...
~
~
:c
nJ
en
!h
'----......---_....................---_..............--
0.5 1.0 (X)
Fault- clearing time (seconds)
FIG. 11. Curve of stability limit as a function of fault duration.
obtainable in practice, but it may be regarded as the limit approached
as the clearing time is reduced. The stability limit for instantaneous
clearing is the same as that for disconnection of the faulted line when
there is no fault on it. This limit is determined as shown in Fig. 12.
o
00 01 r/2 Om
Angle 0
FIG. 12. Determination of stability limit for instantaneous fault clearing by use
of the equal-area criterion.
After the power-angle curves of pre-fault and post-fault (cleared) out-
put have been plotted, the horizontal line representing the input,
which is equal to the initial output, is shifted up and down until area
A
l
equals area A
2
• It should be noted that moving this line changes
the initial angle 8
0
and thus moves the vertical line bounding area A
l
·
EFFECT OF FAULT-CLEARING TIME 161
The value of input determined by equality of the areas is plotted in
Fig. 11 as point 1 at zero clearing time.
Next the stability limit for a sustained fault is found as shown in
Fig. 13. The power-angle curve for the fault condition is used in place
of the post-fault curve; in other respects the determination of the
stability limit for a sustained fault is like that for instantaneous clear-
ing. The value of stability limit so found is plotted as the asymptote
(point 2, Fig. 11) which the curve approaches at large clearing times.
The two extreme values of stability limit have now been found.
Any number of convenient values of initial power between these ex-
,....
~
C
:J
..
CD
Co
-..
CD
~
2-
r1P
m
~ t - - ~ ~ ~ " " ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J - - " ' - l -
Angle 0
FIG. 13. Determination of stability limit for sustained fault by use of the equal-
area criterion.
tremes may now be, assumed, and the critical clearing angle for each is
found by the equal-area criterion as shown in Fig. 14. Power-angle
curves are drawn for the output before the fault, during the fault, and
after the fault, and the input line is drawn at one of the selected values
of initial power. The vertical line at the clearing angle a
c
is shifted
from right to left until areas Al and A
2
are equal, thus fixing the
critical clearing angle. The clearing time corresponding to this clear-
ing angle is determined from the appropriate pre-calculated swing
curve. Point 3, Fig. 11, is then plotted, its coordinates being the
assumed power and the corresponding critical clearing time. Addi-
tional points on the curve are determined in similar fashion.
The procedure described above, in which values of power are
assumed and the corresponding clearing times found, is simpler than
162 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
the alternative procedure in which clearing times are assumed and the
corresponding power limits found. For in the latter procedure the
horizontal input line is shifted, resulting in a shift also of the vertical
line at the initial angle 00, whereas in the former procedure only one
line, the vertical line at the clearing angle oc, is shifted.
The procedure which has been described for finding transient-stabil-
ity power limit as a function of fault duration is applicable only to two-
machine systems. Nevertheless the general conclusion, that decrease
of fault-clearing time improves stability and increases stability limits,
o s,
Angle 0
FIG. 14. Determination of stability limit for fault cleared in finite time.
is just as valid for a multimachine system as for a two-machine sys-
tem. The speeding up of relay and breaker operation is one of the
most effective and important means of improving power-system
stability.
EXAMPLE 3
Plot stability limit in per unit as a function of the fault duration for a
three-phase short circuit (a) at the middle of one of the parallel transmission
lines of the power system shown in Fig. 15 and (b) at the sending end of one
of the lines. The fault is cleared in both cases by the simultaneous opening
of the circuit breakers at both ends of the line. The system consists of a
hydroelectric station sending power over two parallel transmission lines at
generator voltage to a metropolitan system which may be considered an
infinite bus. The following data pertain to the system. The base power
is the aggregate rating of the hydroelectric generators.
Direct-axis transient reactance of hydroelectric generators: 0.35 per unit
EFFECT OF FAULT-CLEARING TIME
163
Stored energy of hydroelectric generators, H: Mj. per Mva. of rating
Frequency: 60 c.p.s,
Voltage behind transient reactance of hydroelectric generators: 1.00 per
unit
Voltage of infinite bus: 1.00 per unit
Reactance of each transmission line: 0.40 per unit (neglect resistance)
Reactance of transformers at receiving end of lines: 0.10 per unit
Fault Fault
(6) 0.20 <e) 0.20 0.10
" tJPG
Hydro station -0-.-40--- -#A Me:OPolitan
H= 3.0 system
H=oo
FIG. 15. Two-machine power system. (Example 3.) Reactances are given in per
unit on a common base.
0.35. 0.20 • 0.10 0:5
""------<@-.
(a) (b)
FIG. 16. Reduction of the network of Fig. 15, pre-fault condition. (Example 3.)
0.35. 0.40 • 0.10 0:5
------(@-.
(a) (b)
FIG. 17. Reduction of the network of Fig. 15, post-fault condition. (Example 3.)
0.35 0.40
'V 'V
(a)
(c)
(d)

• Q:.!Q-rQ.:.lQ. •
'V I 0.05 '\.i (b)
...
FIG. 18. Reduction of the network of Fig. 15 with a three-phase short circuit at
the middle of one line. (Example 3.)
Solution. The network joining the two machines, which is considered to
consist of reactance only, is reduced as shown in Figs. 16, 17, and 18 for the
pre-fault and post-fault conditions and for a fault at the middle of the line,
respectively. For the first two conditions the reduction is accomplished by
164 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM

/
'/
Pre- fault......
V
"
-
......
)
4

,
"
I \
V Fault cieared
1/

1\
,
I
,
I )
/ V \

r\
/ I
\
IJ

1\


Fault at middle of line-

r-, \
II

<,
r-,


at sending end

1.08
1.00
--.

'c
::s

8-
---

0.50
0.32
parallel and series combinations; for the third condition, by two yea con-
versions and intervening series combinations. With a three-phase fault at
the sending end of one line it is obvious, without reducing the network, that
no power can be transmitted, The resulting reactances between machines,
1.50
o
o 30 60 90 120 150 180
o(degrees)
FIG. 19. Determination of stability limit for instantaneous clearing of a fault at
either location and for a sustained fault at the middle of the line. (Example 3.)
and the amplitudes of the power-angle curves (PM = EAEB/X
AB
= l/XAB),
are as follows: .
Condition
Reactance
PM
(per unit)
(per unit)
Pre-fault
0.65
1.54
Post-fault
0.85
1.18
Fault at middle
2.45
0.41
Fault at end co
0
The power-angle curves are plotted in Fig. 19. The stability limit for
instantaneous clearing is found by the equal-area criterion in the upper part
of this figure. The value thus found, 1.08 per unit, is correct for both fault
locations. The stability limit for a sustained fault at the middle of the line
is found in the lower part of Fig. 19; it is 0.32 per unit. The stability limit
for a sustained three-phase fault at the end of the line is zero.
T
A
B
L
E
1
D
E
T
E
R
M
I
N
A
T
I
O
N
O
F
C
L
E
A
R
I
N
G
T
I
M
E
F
R
O
M
C
L
E
A
R
I
N
G
A
N
G
L
E
(
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
3
)
s
i
n
0
0
F
a
u
l
t
a
t
M
i
d
d
l
e
o
f
L
i
n
e
F
a
u
l
t
a
t
E
n
d
o
f
L
i
n
e
P
i
P
i
0
0
s
,
(
p
.
u
.
)
=
-
(
d
e
g
.
)
O
c
T
c
t
c
=
T
c
/
5
.
0
8
O
c
-
0
0
t
o
1
.
5
4
p
=
P
i
/
0
.
4
1
(
d
e
g
.
)
f
r
o
m
p
r
e
-
c
a
l
c
.
(
s
e
c
.
)
(
d
e
g
.
)
(
d
e
g
.
)
(
s
e
e
.
)
f
r
o
m
F
i
g
.
2
0
c
u
r
v
e
s
f
r
o
m
F
i
g
.
2
1
1
.
0
0
.
6
5
0
4
0
2
.
5
5
1
0
.
4
0
.
0
8
4
6
6
0
.
0
6
0
.
9
0
.
5
8
5
3
6
2
.
2
6
0
0
.
7
0
.
1
4
5
2
1
6
0
.
1
0
0
.
8
0
.
5
2
0
3
1
2
.
0
7
0
1
.
0
0
.
2
0
5
8
2
7
0
.
1
4
0
.
7
0
.
4
5
5
2
7
1
.
7
8
2
1
.
3
0
.
2
6
.
.
.
.
.
.
·
.
.
0
.
6
0
.
3
9
0
2
3
1
.
5
9
5
1
.
6
0
.
3
1
7
5
5
2
0
.
2
2
0
.
5
0
.
3
2
5
1
9
1
.
2
1
1
1
2
.
2
0
.
4
3
.
.
,
.
.
,
·
.
.
0
.
4
0
.
2
6
0
1
5
1
.
0
1
3
0
3
.
1
0
.
6
1
9
5
8
0
0
.
3
3
0
.
3
5
0
.
2
2
8
1
3
0
.
8
5
1
4
4
6
.
0
1
.
1
8
.
.
,
.
.
.
·
.
.
0
.
2
0
.
1
3
0
8
·
.
,
.
.
,
·
.
,
·
.
.
1
2
0
1
1
2
0
.
5
6
0
.
1
0
.
0
6
5
4
·
.
.
.
.
,
·
.
,
·
.
'
1
3
8
1
3
4
0
.
8
6
0
.
0
5
0
.
0
3
2
1
·
.
.
.
.
'
·
.
,
·
.
.
1
5
0
1
4
9
1
.
2
8
t
r
j
~ a t
-
3
~ ~ d ~ a t
'
"
4
t
r
j
>
-
~ Z o ~ .
.
.
.
.
.
~ t
J
:
j
t
-
l
~
166 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
Pre-faulty
J 1/
I r-.......
I
J.
0.32 1-1..1-
Vi!
11111
I 11j.;
:--.: ~ I-- Faultat middle of line I ! ............. \
~ I I I I I I I I I "r-.... 1\
I, I I I I I I I ~
180 : 120: : 150
111 130 144
i i 60
4551
30 : : 90:
70 82 95
6 (degrees)
FIG. 20. Determination of stability limit as a function of clearing angle by use
of the equal-area. criterion, three-phasefault at the middle of the line. Areas for
P = 0.50 are shaded. (Example3.)
Stability limits between 0.32 and 1.08 per unit are assumed with the fault
at the middle of the line, and the corresponding critical clearing times are
found in Fig. 20. Stability limits between 0 and 1.08 per unit are assumed
with the fault at the sending end of the line, and the corresponding critical
clearing times are found in Fig. 21. In both figures curves of stability limit
as a function of clearing angle are plotted. The values of clearing angle are
entered in Table 1.
The values of clearing time corresponding to these values of clearing angle
are found from the pre-calculated swing curves if the fault is at the middle
of the line and from eq. 15 if the fault is at the end of the line. In the first
case the numerical value of Tit is needed. Byeq. 11 it is
: = ~ 7 T ' ! P M = /7T' X 60 X 0,41 = 5.08
t GH '\j 3.0 X 1
In the second case we have from eq. 15
2GH (<<5
c
- «5
0
)
180! r,
2 X 3.0 X 1 (<<5 c - «50) =
180 X 60 Pi - P..
Details of the determination of clearing time are given in Table 1.
Curves of stability limit as a function of clearing time are plotted in Fig.
22
EFFECT OF FAULT-CLEARING TIME 167
Pre-fault-
V-
J

f-
17\-


--
- -
0-'\:
1:___:___

cleared
-- --
, I
, I

--
I ..-- Stability limit _
, , I

vs. clearing angle
J : II I I
{7
lY1
I I
"-

I

--
-- ' - I
-
11
- - -'- - - -
: I

I I I

, ,
I I I
I\..
I
if
' , I I I
"

I I
I I
I

I
I ,
--
--
7:;
-t- - 1-,-
- ' I
-,-

I
: I

,
I I I 1'0..
,
I
I

I I
. ' .....


I I
Fault at end of line"
, I

!"

I I

V/

v/ r/ /ijj:

. -
1/'// 1'/// /// v/./
,
1.30
1.08
1.00
-
.-=
c:
'"

-

e 0.50
o
o 30 : : : 60 90:
465258 75 95
o(degrees)
120
150
180
FIG. 21. Determination of stability limit as a function of clearing angle by use of
the equal-area criterion, three-phase fault at the sending end of the line. Areas
for P = 0.20 and P = 1.00are shaded. (Example 3.)
1.4 ex>
0.5 1.0
Fault- clearing time ( seconds)

'\
1\
1\\
\ f\
'\
1\
\
."
,
<,
\r-Fault at middle of line
11"--
t\.
t'--....
fll--
-,

I
I
==
'"

L- Fault at sending end of line
-

""""-
-
:...-
o
o
0.5
1.0
FIG. 22. Curve of stability limit as a function of fault-clearing time for the system
of Fig. 15. (Example 3.)
168 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
Curves for determining critical clearing time. A more direct way of
determining the critical clearing time of a fault on a two-machine
system than that described in the first part of this chapter has been
developed and described by Byrd and Pritchard.f Their method
facilitates the plotting of curves of stability limit as a function of fault
duration. It takes cognizance of the fact that the voltages behind
transient reactances, and hence the amplitudes of the power-angle
curves, usually vary with the power transmitted in a way determined
by operating practice. This fact was disregarded in our previous
discussion, although allowance could have been made for it.
In Byrd and Pritchard's method two assumptions are utilized in
addition to those which were made in developing the equal-area crite-
rion. They are:
1. That the network is purely reactive.
2. That all circuit breakers which open to clear the fault do '80
simultaneously.
Both these assumptions are commonly, although not necessarily, made
in using the equal-area criterion in order to simplify the calculations.
The derivation of Byrd and Pritchard's method follows: Let the
power-angle curves of the two-machine reactance system be:
Before the fault: Pu, = Pm sin 0
During the fault: Pu, = T1P
m
sin a
After the fault: Pu, = T2Pm sin 0
[16]
[17]
[18]
In other words, Tl and T2 are the ratios of the amplitudes of the power-
angle curves during and after the fault, respectively, to that before the
fault. Inasmuch as the amplitude of the power-angle curve of a
reactance network is given by eq. 7,
p _ E
1E2
m - X
12
[19]
[20]
it isapparent that fl and T2 may be expressed in terms of the reactances
between machines before, during, and after the fault, thus:
X12 before fault
T1 ==
X
12
during fault
X12 before fault
T2 ==
X12 after fault
[21]
CUltVES DETEltMINING CRITICAL CLEAItING TIME 169
It is also apparent that, if the internal voltages E
1
and E
2
should vary,
the amplitudes of all three power-angle curves would be changed
proportionately, and the ratios rl and r2 would not be affected.
The three power-angle curves and the input line Pi are drawn in
Fig. 14 so that the equal-area criterion may be used to find the critical
clearing angle oc. Ordinarily the two shaded areas are equated. It is
just as correct, however, to equate the irregular area under the heavy
line to the area of the rectangle below the input line. If this is done,
the following equation results, from which Oc can be found:
[22]
Upon setting Pi = Pm sin 00 and evaluating the integrals, eq. 22 be-
comes:
(Om-OO)Pm sin 80= -rIPm(COSOc-coSOO)-r2Pm(COSom-cosoc) [23]
(om - 00) sin 00 = (r2 - rl) cos Oc + rl cos 00 - T2 cos Om [24]
(om - 00) sin 00 - Tl cos 00 +r2 cos Om
cos Oc = [25]
r2 - rl
where
[26]
Thus, if TI, r2, and 00 are known, the critical clearing angle Oc can be
found from eqs, 25 and 26. The corresponding critical modified time
Tc can then be found from pre-calculated swing curves (Figs. 1 to 10)
which are solutions of the swing equation (13) in which 0' now is
simply 0 and p = (sin oO)/rl. The actual clearing time to in seconds
can be found from the equation
I GH
t
c
= T
c
1rrlPm = T
c
[27]
which differs from eq. 11 in that PMhas been replaced by TIPm, the new
symbol for the amplitude of the power-angle curve during the fault.
The steps which serve to determine T
c
as a function of Tl, T2, and sin
00 were carried out for many values of the independent variables, and
the results were plotted in the form of curves of T
c
versus r2 for constant
TI and sin 00. See Figs. 23 to 39. Each family of curves is for a con-
stant value of sin 00, the range covered being from 0.10 to 0.90 in steps
of 0.05. The individual curves in each family are for constant values
of Tl.
170
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
J I


I I Tl I J rr
0
,"""l-
I!! 8
&t)1
8
.....

1-0 ..... .....
0
1-0 0 0
"

1-1- II
"
II j
.......

c:
,,"'rJ
"... ,
.....
II
I'
r
I
I'
J J J J
II III II
r,
--If..
r
"
.,

II II r1 'I
().
'I I.J
//

'I

II
l...l
1...oIl L..I
.... L.".1iiJ" I.....l .....
looII ....
L-L- -. ...
o
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
FIG. 23. sin 80 =0.10.
I I I I IIJ I
,
l II I I I
i-H&t)


I II
0
i-&t)
8l

It') ..... ", f-1- C\I f- 1('),
0 ..... 0
.......... i-f- .....
- : IJ
d ,"""0 _0
_1- 0
1-'-
__ 0
0
"
f- "
f-II
"1
1- .....
I- "
" :
c: .......
f- ........ J-
:: c:
f-I-
,-- ........ ,
..... ...JI
'-I- I- I-i-
--,
J I r 1
j
I'
"
II
, ,
I
-,
I'
j
If 'I
.,
I II IJ
]
J
,
II IJ
"
..oil
v II' 1...oIl
v
"
"
l....l
II' L...II I....ll L-
L...o ..... '- 1-1-
.... -
o
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIG. 24. sin80 = 0.15.
FIGS. 23and 24. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
CURVES DETERMINING CRITICAL CLEARING TIME 171
I I I I
I I ,
• •
I • I ,
1-+-1--0
i-I--
--fir) :
I
,
It)
If? '
raj
0
.....
--
--....
0
1-1-'-

i-'---
--0 0'
'0 '
11
"

1-1-
- II J II

i-i-i-
...0-#
i-I--
=...-'
4,.'" I 1...'"
i-i-i- i-i-
i-i-r- i-I--
-- :
II
I
,
J J J
,
I I I
-I-
,
J /
2 J
I
,

"
v v

Ij
,,-

"
l.",lI'ilI"""
..... ""'.",.- i.ooo'ioooo' ....

.,
-,"
10.-.... ".-
--
...-
..--
...... ,..-

T
t
- 0.25_
T
c
FIG. 25. sin 80 =0.20.
1.0
0.8
... N 0.6
0.4
0.2
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.0
0.8
a!' 0.6
0.4
I
,


-i-
II
I I

i=
--
Ill)
01
1:fJt


.C?
-f- ..... t- -i-
I-dI'
-- --


o l-
e
-l-
e:)
-....-
-I- CV
i- C\J
"
/IT
II
-i-
"
II

-
I- C:i J
... M
0-#
a..'" J-

a.....,1
a....,I-:
--
- II -
II II
i- i- -i-
I
--
-a.."" -
i-
J..."",
I'
I
t--
i-
I/ / 'I II

J
"
II
I J J
,,-

r-J'I.
,
IJ
'("
J II
I J
, ,


,
[.""II i.lIII .....
-... ..... ........
1.1--
...

".- 1.1 ....
_...
-
... """
--""" ---
t
'T
c
FIG. 26. sin 80 = 0.25.
0.2
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.0
0.8
... " 0.6
0.4
1---
t
W
I
I I I r
I I ,
t I I I , I I
, I
ttC:fJ
I
::r'
/fI
1--I- 0 I-S
lili
I-r- -i- 0
OJ 10·
>- °t
i- .... l
1
0.
'O·t
i-_
-f- II
" I
II
:1-11
i--
i- II I
II 1
II

- ...
- a.. ...


c: j

I-i-
- i.: 1
..."t:
i- """Ji-
1--
,
1 I 'I
,
II I I IJ
r II v
'I
I I v
'"
, ,

.,

,



-
---,-
--
,--
p
0.2
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIG. 27. sin 80 = 0.30.
FIGS. 25, 26, 27. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
172
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
--





I I I .I-

--- 0
2 2 9i>-fil
1--
:1
I
........
--- 0
1--

...... -
- .... 11
/I II II II t- II
1-- O' J
1
0
,
--....
---- ....
- -
--
- II _" If
" rj'-
---
--
__ a..;
:-c: ....... ..... 4.'"'f I-
4.'"'f
j
'- _
i---
4.'"'f.,-._
.....,/
J
.....,
I II 'I 1/ J v
II 'I J
"
If' v
"
v
I;'"
I" L."l
"
J v I...... I......
II J v l,;Ill IlllI' L.... 1...- ......
J L."l
....
-- -


...... _I.- ...
I I
I I
I
I I
1.0
0.8
...... 0.6
0.4
0.2
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.0
0.8
.... 0.6
0.4
FIG. 28. sin 80 =0.35.
I I I I I II I I I
I 1-'
1/ I I I
1/
I II IIT:J:,.

1-1-

[ .... f.
..... 1-&0

........




- t:i
tt;
O'
... - O'
1-..... O' II
O' -
1-1-
1-1-

II
II
.... ""--1- 1/ ....
P" 1/

.... .... II J
tt
'''''1} ...
-\""if"

... c:
1-- 4."'f f--

I-

,
I
,

,
I I
,.

J
J
,
if"
,
J . .
l....IIlI
,-'"
....
_.....
-
...

-- - '---
T
c
FIG. 29. sin 80 =0.40.
0.2
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
T
c
FIG. 30. sin 80 = 0.45.
FIGS. 28, 29, 30. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
CURVES DETERMINING CLEARING TIME
173
J II II I 1 II J IJ
I J 'I '(
II J J 'II] v J
11
I II I 1/ "J
II II 1
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0
0.5 '-'-__ ---..........,,-'-' ...-.. ...r....I
o
FIG. 31.. sin ao = 0.50.
... "
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
I- I I
fS;
f1-

I I II L

I I I
It)

'OJL-L-

1-1- 'I
I f I
I- 0

I I
1-0
0
o Oi'

I- t;;:)'
tr II ,...
I- "
"
" l-
II : II
II

I- II
I-
"... ...
1-1-
ti- II II
c::r
I-
"...
...............,
......., I-
1-1-
(,.....,
J l-
I- ....
" fo-
'I 'I II If 'f
(..., l-I-
J J IJ IJ
rt-fo- ....
I II I T 1
I
,
i J v
j
, ,
v
I I II
,
"

'"
II J J
,

1.11
..,
l...oillill"'"
,
J I..-
"
I 'I IlIlII'
..,
--
1...-"-
_........
I,
,,-
L-'-'
_....
_L- ... ""'"
0.6
0.5
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
T
c
FIG. 32. sin ao = 0.55.
FIGB. 31 and 32. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
174
...e-t 0.8
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
II , __
-
FIG. 33. sin 80 = 0.60.
I I

I I I I I
s
t8 /f{

0
-10 0 c;-c; ()" <:>. f-

t::)"
"
/I I/I zr q I" ... :::
II /t t.-
/t
->0--
c:
I.;.J , .... 1..."" J 1..."" """-1
"...,-::
,\'\0
-l- '('\!
I
,
I II I lA" I 1:1
0
_
J J I)


I I

1\L..;;;.....
I
,


,,-

If II v ......


J If'
v:
--'"
.....
.-....
.... -

......

"""'10-- ....


.... ..

.,
1.0
0.9
... " 0.8
0.7
0.6
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.Q
0.9
0.8
FIG. 34. sin 80 = 0.65.
I
l$qr!J

J
I , I I I J , II' ,
, ,
- 0
Ort' I
I I

I
- -
-
_0 o c::i Ci O'
I I ()-:"
-- "
"I/Ht
Ht:
:r-I/O"l
i- " J
I If' I I I
-......
""'J "14,....J 4,. ...tr--
- v-
v-
0(",

'D,I-

t I
,

.C'\ ___ ....
I II II 1...-
I I

,

_....
-
",

.... -

...
_....
11""-
0.7
o
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIG. 35. sin 80 = 0.70.
FIGS. 33, 34, 35. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
CURVES DETERMINING CRITICAL CLEARING TIME 175
1.0
0.9
0.8



IIi}
I I


0'Yo
0:' If' T T
1-1-
0 t::i O' O' o 0'
//'1
1-1-

T o
u: :!J
,<,

'h...--
....I -

.,
11
} II v
"
lIi"" ..... I......""
'I'

"
.""
1..- .....
J J I/'
'"

l..o""""
...
'I
.,.

jllIII"

'-
io"'"
_I-'"
0.7
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIG. 36. sin 00 =0.75.
030
r
'
= .
'1 =O. 0 rr
l
=0.40
oJ
1/


..
17
;L

a:t
Iio' 'r .1:
I- ;!Ii • Ci
" J-
/t
'-
-
t-,"" 11

tt"
.""
"" --
-"
11'1 I.' 1....1"'" I..- 1.1I ...... ... 1-.......
L.-
.... 11I""
r:r/: l..o.IlIl--
... -
.......
'--
..."'"'"
1--
..... 1.-:-
1.0
0.9
T
c
FIG. 37. sin 00 =0.80.
0.8
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
1.00
0.95
0.90
o 0




W
co
'>
v
- n,
F-f-
rt> - v

o· f-f-
oep co'"
Alo,,,
-"I"
I- 1/ 1/ rlf- f-I- //

- ?
I- 4.. .... J"-'r- .... ,jf-.....
'(,
............
l-
I..;
r J I;' I;l'" I.l'"
II IJ l' I....
I...-

j
J
"
I.l'" i...ll
ijll'"
I v
--
..... jllIII"
t-
IJ 1....1 L....o .....

II""
....... "'"'"
JI
1....1 l.olII
T
c
FIG. 38. sin 00 = 0.85.
0.85
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
....




L....
II 0
.....

.....

ol-
e::; O· O· +0'


" -
II " 1/
-f-
- '- -'"
1\
.....
... " -)
"...; 4..' ..... _"'" l0- ll""
, I v:

-

"'""',-
... ",
Iiiiiii
I I.."
--"
--
--"'"
-


...... """'"
I
T
1.00
... 0.95
0.90
o 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIG. 39. sin 80 = 0.90.
FIGS. 36, 37, 38, 39. Curves for determination of clearing time (copied from Ref. 3
by permission).
176
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.6
r
J
or r
2
0.3 0.2 0.1
Ii
J
v
1/
iJ
II'
1/
J
V
II
/
I ~
~
v
V
WI'"
I;"
v:
,.,
I ~
~
l.'
,.,
,.,
~
I'
'-'
l;l"
I ~
I#"
o
o
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.2
It is convenient to have an additional curve for determining the
stability limits for instantaneous clearing and for sustained faults. To
obtain the equation of such a curve refer to Fig. 12, which shows the
application of the equal-area criterion to the case of instantaneous
1.0
~
c 0.5
. ~
FIG. 40. Curve for determining the stability limit for a sustained fault or for a
fault cleared instantaneously (copied from Ref. 3 by permission).
clearing, and equate the area of the rectangle under the Pi line between
ao and 6
m
to the area under the post-fault power-angle curve between
the same limits.
Area of rectangle = Pi(8
m
- 60) = Pm(6m - 60) sin 60
Area under power-angle curve =T2Pm 1
6m
sin ~ as =T2
P
m (cos ~ o - cos 8m)
Equating the two areas, we get
(am - a
o
) sin ~ o = T2(COS ao - cos ~ m ) [28]
CURVES DETERMINING CRITICAL CLEARING TIME 177
where 8
m
is as given by eq. 26. Equation 28 expresses implicitly a
relation between T2 and sin 8
0
which is plotted in Fig. 40. To find the
stability limit for instantaneous clearing, enter this curve with T2 and
read sin 8
0
• Then the stability limit is Pm sin 8
0
• The same curve can
be used to find the stability limit for
a sustained fault by entering it with P
the value of TI instead of T2; this be-
comes evident when Fig. 13 is com-
pared with Fig. 12.
It has already been mentioned
that, as the transmitted power (Pi ==
Pm sin 8
0
) varies, the internal voltages
E
1
and E
2
usually vary, and hence
Pm = E
1E2/X12
also varies. For the
present purpose the most useful way a0------------"'·
to show these relations is to plot Pi sin 00
and Pm against sin 8
0
, as shown in F 41 T · 1 f P d
10. . ypica curves 0 , an
Fig. 41. r; versus sin ~ o .
The procedure for obtaining a curve
of power limit as a function of fault duration by Byrd and Pritchard's
method will now be summarized.
1. Reduce the reactance network to an equivalent ~ between the
two machines and neutral for each of the three conditions:
a. Before the fault.
b. During the fault.
c. After clearing the fault.
Only the reactances X12 between the two machines are used in what
follows.
2. Compute the equivalent inertia constant M by eq. 2.
3. Calculate and plot curves (like those of Fig. 41) of
a. Pm = E
IE2/XI 2
versus sin 8
0
b. Initial power Pi versus sin 8
0
maintaining the bus voltages at the values which would be held in
actual operation.
4. Compute TI and T2 by eqs. 20 and 21.
5. a. Enter the curve of Fig. 40 with Tl and read sin 8
0
• From
Fig. 41 read Pi corresponding to this value of sin 8
0
• This is the
stability limit for a sustained fault.
b. Repeat, using T2 instead of TI. The value of Pi thus found is
the stability limit for instantaneous clearing.
178
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
6. t Select values of sin 00 which are multiples of 0.05 and which
are between the values found in steps 5a and 5b. For each such
value of sin 00 find the proper family of curves from Figs. 23 to 39;
find the curve for the value of Tl; enter this curve with T2 and read
T
e

7. For each value of sin 00 used in step 6 read the corresponding
values of Pi and Pm from the curves of step 3 (like Fig. 41).
8. t For each value of Tc found in step 6 compute the clearing time
t
e
by eq. 27, using the proper value of Pm determined in step 7.
9. Plot stability limit Pi as a function of clearing time t
e
• This
curve will look like the one in Fig. 11.
The method which has been described fails if Tl = 0, since for this
caser = 0 and t is indeterminate from eq. 27. To avoid this difficulty
a newmodified time p is now introduced, related to the actual time t by
t = p J180M = p IGH . [29]
7rPm ~ 7 r f P m
and differing from Tin eq. 27 in that Pm, the amplitude of the pre-fault
power-angle curve, is used instead of T1P
m
, the amplitude of the fault
power-angle curve. Hence p = T/Vi). The swing equation now
becomes
p=
with 8 in electrical radians, and it has the solution
2(0 - 00)
.sin00
[30]
[31]
which will be recognized as eq. 15, transformed by the substitution of
eq. 29 for t, and with 0 - 00 expressed in electrical radians.
Given Tl = 0 and the values of T2 and sin 00, Pc may be found by
using eqs. 25 and 26 to get oc, and then eq. 31 to get Pc. From the
results of such calculations Pc has been plotted in Fig. 42 against sin 00
for various values of T2.
If Tl = 0, steps 6 and 8 of the procedure are replaced by steps 6A
and 8A, respectively, which are as follows:
6A. Select values of sin 00 which are between zero and the value
found in step 5b. Find the curve in Fig. 42 corresponding to the
[If rl = 0, substitute steps 6A and 8A, described on this page and page 180,
for steps 6 and 8, respectively.
a ~ a
x
t
:
1
~ t
;
d
~ a
=
~ z ~ z o § :
j
~ a &
;
~ Z o ~ ~ s
:
l
%
j
7
.
0
6
.
5
6
.
0
5
.
5
5
.
0
4
.
5
4
.
0
3
.
0
2
.
5
2
.
0
1
.
5
3
.
5
P
c
C
u
r
v
e
s
f
o
r
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
i
n
g
c
l
e
a
r
i
n
g
t
i
m
e
-
i
f
r
l
=
0
(
c
o
p
i
e
d
f
r
o
m
R
e
f
.
3
b
y
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
)
.
F
I
G
.
4
2
.
0
.
5
1
.
0
o
o
1
.
0
0
.
8
0
.
6
0
'
0 c
:
'
(
i
i
0
.
4 2
~ ~ c
o
180
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
value of r2. Enter it with the selected values of sin ao and read the
corresponding values of Pc.
8A. For each value of Pc found in step 6A compute the clearing
time t
c
by eq. 29, using the proper value of Pm determined in step 7.
EXAMPLE 4
Plot a curve of stability limit as a function of fault duration .for a three-
phase fault at the middle of one of the 132-kv. transmission lines of the power
system of Fig. 43. The two hydroelectric generators i and k are to be ra.
0.175
~
33.0/13.2
O . l 7 5 ~
33.0/13.2
0.30
0-111:
0.35
0.35
~ 3 0
)(
6.6/132
Fault
.6.'A-
0.140
~
33.0/13.2
0.140 f----®
33.0/13.2
FIG. 43. One-line diagram of power system, with reactances of lines and trans-
formers in per unit on a lOO-Mva. base (Example 4). Data on generators and loads
are given in Table 2. (From Ref. 3 by permisslon.)
garded as one machine of a two-machine system, and the steam turbo-
generators, a, b, g, and h, together with loads c, d, e, and J, as the other
machine. Each load is assumed to consist of three equal parts, one of
resistance, one of synchronous motors operating at half load, and one of
induction motors at 1/2.75 load. The reactances and inertia constants of
the generators and of the compositeloads are given in Table 2, expressedon a
base power equal to the rating of the individual generator or load. In Fig.
43 the reactances of the lines and transformers are given on a base of 100
Mva. and nominal voltage. The system frequency is 60 c.p.s,
Solution. The procedure described on pp. 177-8 will be followed.
1. Network reduction. All reactances will be expressed on a system base
of 100 Mva, The reactances in Fig. 43 are already on this base. The
CURVES DETERMINING CRITICAL CLEARING TIME 181
machine reactances in Table 2, given on the machine base, are converted to
the system base by multiplying them by (100 Mva.)/(machine rating in
megavolt-amperes) .
TABLE 2
MACHINE REACTANCES AND INERTIA CONSTANTS (EXAMPLE 4)
Rating
,
H Xd
Machine Kind ~
Mva. P.F.
Machine System Machine System
Base Base Base Base
a Turbogenerator 40 0.8 0.18 0.45 6.0 2.40
b
" " " " " " "
c Composite load 55 0.9 0.56 1.01 1.95 1.07
d
" "
30
u
"
1.86
"
0.58
e
" "
"
" "
"
"
u
f
u
"
55
"
"
1.01
"
1.07
g Turbogenerator 50 0.8 0.18 0.36 6.0 3.00
h
" "
" "
" " "
i Hydro generator 29. 4 0.85 0.30 1.02 3.0 0.88
k
"
u
" " "
"
"
u
The network is so nearly symmetrical about a horizontal axis that the
reduction may be facilitated with very little sacrifice in accuracy by assum-
ing that the two sections of the long receiving bus are tied together and also
that the load busses d and e are tied together. In addition, machines i and
k are assumed to be tied together behind their transient reactances; ma-
chines a, b, c, d, e, j, g, and h are assumed to be tied together similarly.
Then, after simplifying the hydroelectric-station circuits and the receiving
system by series and parallel combinations, the circuit of Fig. 44a results.
The reactances of the three parts which are separated from one another by
transformers are given on a common power base of 100 Mva, and on voltage
bases equal to the nominal voltages of 6.6, 132.0, and 33.0 kv, It will be
noticed that the ratio of the receiving-end transformers, 125.4 kv./33.0 kv.,
is not equal to the ratio of base voltages, 132.0 kv./33.0 kv, Therefore the
base voltage for the receiving system should be changed from 33.0 kv. to
33.0 X 132.0/125.4 = 34.7 kv.; the reactance of that system on the new
base is
0.13 X (33'0)2 = 0.12 per unit
34.7
The new value is shown in Fig. 44b. Parallel and series combinations give
the result shown in Fig. 44c for the pre-fault network. Xu = 1.10 per unit.
The faulted network is obtained by grounding the midpoint X of one
line in Fig. 44b. Then a ~ - Y conversion, series combinations, and a Y - ~
conversion lead to the ~ network of Fig. 44d. X
12
= 7.20 per unit.
The post-fault network is obtained by omitting one of the parallel lines of
182
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
Fig. 44b. Then a series combination leads to Fig. 44e. X
12
= 1.28 per
unit.
2. Inertia constant. The inertia constants in Table 2, given on the ma-
chine base, are converted to the system base by multiplying them by (rna-

6.6/132 kv. 0.35 125.4/33.0 kv.
051
2

0.35
/>.
vvv
(c)
(d)
(e)
FIG. 44. Reduction of the network of Fig. 43 (Example 4). The reduced networks
are given by c for the pre-fault condition, by d for the fault condition, and by e for
the post-fault condition.
chine rating)/(100 Mva.). Then
HI = Hi+ H
k
= 1.76
H2 = Ha +Hb+ Hc + Hd+ He +H/+ H, +Hh = 14.1
H = H
1H2
= 1.76 X 14.1 = 1.56
HI + H
2
15.9
3. Curves of P« andPi versus sin 00. Assume that 132kv. (1.00 per unit)
is maintained on the high-voltage side of the step-up transformers, and 33.0
kv. (0.95 per unit) is maintained on the low-voltage side of the step-down
transformers. The voltages behind transient reactance, E
1
and E
21
as
functions of the initial angle 00 between them, can be found from the vector
diagram of Fig. 45 by assigningarbitrary values to the current I and solving,
CURVES DETERMINING CRITICAL CLEARING TIME 183
either graphically or by trigonometric computation, the resulting triangles
for Ell E
2
, and 00. Then P« and Pi are calculated from the relations
P _ E1E2 _ E1E2
m - X
l2
- 1.10
and
Pi = Pm sin 00
0.661 - - - - ~ ~ 0.121
FIG. 45. Vector diagram for determining E1 and E2 as functions of ~ o (Example 4).
TABLE 3
CALCULATION OF Pm AND Pi VERSUS sin ao (EXAMPLE 4)
P, E
I
E
2
~ o sin ~ o
Pm
0.125 1.106 0.933 7.7 0.134 0.935
0.250 1.121 0.934 15.3 0.264 0.948
0.375 1.145 0.936 22.7 0.386 0.971
0.500 1.177 0.939 30.0 0.499 1.001
0.750 1.267 0.950 43.6 0.689 1.090
1.000 1.373 0.972 55.9 0.828 1.221
The results of the calculations are given in Table 3. Curves of Pm and Pi as
functions of sin 00 are plotted in Fig. 46.
4. Computation of fl and f2. By eqs. 20 and 21,
1.10 3
fl= -=0.15
7.20
1.10
r2= -=0.86
1.28
5. Stability limits for sustained fault and[or instantaneous clearing.
a. Sustainedfault. Entering the curve of Fig. 40 with fl = 0.153, we read
184
THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
sin 80 = 0.117. Entering the Pi curve of Fig. 46 with this value of sin 00, we
read Pi = 0.110.
b. Instantaneous clearing. Entering the curve of Fig. 40 with '2 = 0.86,
I
/
Pm
~
/'
~
~
v
1--
---
J
/
J
~ V
V
/
/1>;
/
1/
V
0.5
1.0
o
o 05 ID
sin 00
FIG. 46. Curves of Pm and Pi as functions of sin 80 (Example 4).
TABLE 4
CALCULATION OF POWER LIMIT Pi AS A FUNCTION OF CLEARING TIME t
e
(EXAMPLE 4)
1 2 3 4 5 6
sin 80 Pi Pm Tc/tc
t
e
Te
(sec.)
0.80 0.933 1.18 4.68 0.13 0.03
0.75 0.843 1.14 4.57 0.24 0.05
0.70 0.763 1.10 4.50 0.35 0.08
0.65 0.690 1.07 4.44 0.45 0.10
0.60 0.623 1.04 4.37 0.55 0.13
0.55 0.560 1.02 4.33 0.67 0.15
0.50 0.500 1.00 4.29 0.78 0.18
0.45 0.443 0.986 4.26 0.90 0.22
0.40 0.390 0.973 4.23 1.07 0.25
0.35 0.336 0.963 4.21 1.26 0.30
0.30 0.285 0.954 4.19 1.50 0.36
0.25 0.236 0.946 4.17 1.79 0.43
0.20 0.188 0.940 4.16 2.29 0.55
0.15 0.141 0.936 4.15 3.31 0.80
~
SUMMARY OF CALCULATING TRANSIENT STABILITY 185
1\
\
,
~
\
'i\
",
'"
r-,
............
............
~
r--..
::::-
we read sin 00 = 0.825. Entering the Pi curve of Fig. 46 with this value of
sin 00, we read Pi = 0.995.
6, 7, and 8. Stability limii« [orfinite clearing times. These three steps are
carried out in Table 4. In col. 1 are entered values of sin 00 from 0.15 to 0.80
at intervals of 0:05. In cola. 2 and 3 are the corresponding values of Pi and
1.0
1.0
1r X 60 X 0.153 v'p=4.3 vp
1 X 1.56 m m
o
o
0.5
Clearing timet, (seconds)
FIG. 47. Curve of stability limit as a function of clearing time, three-phase short
circuit at the middle of one of the 132-kv. lines of the system of Fig. 43 (Example 4).
PM' read from the curves of Fig. 46. In col. 4 is the value of'rclt
c,
which by
eq, 27is
In col. 5 is the value of Te read from the curves. In col. 6 is fe, obtained by
dividing Te from col. 5 by Tc/t
c
from col. 4.
9. Curve oj stability limit as aJunction oj clearing timeis plotted in Fig. 47.
Summary of methods of calculating transient stability. Byrd and
Pritchard's method, which has just been illustrated, is probably the
best way of finding the critical switching time corresponding to a given
transmitted power, or of finding the transient stability limit for a given
switching time, for a two-machine pure-reactance system with only one
instant of switching after inception of thefault.
If the network is not purely reactive (for example, if line resistance
or shunt loads are to be taken into account), this method is not ap-
plicable. However, the equal-area method may be used in conjunction
with pre-calculated swing curves as described on pp. 149-57 of this
chapter.
If the system has three or more machines, their swing curves must be
186 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
TABLE 5
RECOMMENDED METHODS OF CALCULATING TRANSIENT STABILITY OF A Two-
MACHINE SYSTEM
Number of
Recommended Method of Calculating
Instants of
A B
Switching Examples
Critical Switching Time Stability Limit Corre-
or Circuit
Corresponding to a sponding to a Given
Change
Given Power Switching Time
Sustained fault Use equal-area crite-
1
Fault cleared instantly rion or Byrd and
Switching out a sound Pritchard's method
line (steps 1 to 5).
(Pure-reactance network)
Plot part of curve by Byrd and Pritchard's
method.
Fault cleared in finite
(Linear impedance network)
time by simultane-
Use equal-area method Cut and try by assum-
2 ous opening of all
breakers
for finding critical ing power and pro-
switching angle, then ceeding as in A.
pre-calculated swing
curve for finding
switching time.
Fault cleared by se.,
quential opening of
2 breakers
3 Fault cleared by si- Dse a combination of swing curves, equal-area
multaneous opening criterion, and successive trials.
of all breakers, fol-
lowed by simultane-
ous reclosing
calculated to a value of time when one can determine whether the sys-
tem is stable for the assumed power and switching time. The pro-
cedure is then repeated for different values of power or of switching
time.
If there is more than one instant of switching after inception of the
fault on a two-machine system (for instance, if a fault is cleared by
successive opening of two or more circuit breakers), it is still possible
to use the equal-area criterion as an adjunct to swing curves, making
continuation of the swing curves beyond the instant of the last switch-
ing operation unnecessary. Suppose, for example, that a fault is
cleared by successive opening of two breakers at known times and that
CERTAIN FACTORS AFFECTING STABILITY 187
the power limit is sought. A value of power is assumed, and the swing
curve is calculated till the time of opening of the second breaker.
The equal-area criterion for stability is then used. The procedure is
repeated for other values of power until one is found which makes the
positive and negative areas equal. This value is the stability limit.
A plot of net area against power enables one to find the stability limit
by interpolation after two or three trials.
Table 5 lists the foregoing methods of calculation for two-machine
systems with recommendations concerning which to use in each of
various situations.
For estimating purposes two sets of curves which are not reproduced
here will be found useful. One of them" gives, for a two-machine
reactance system, curves of critical clearing time t
c
against sin 00 for
constant rl and r2. Four families of such curves are given, each for a
value of rl corresponding to a different type of short circuit at the
sending end of a transmission line and for several values .of r2. The
equivalent inertia constant, H = H
1H2/(H1
+H
2
) , is assumed to be
1.5. If it has a different .value, the switching time read from the
curves must be multiplied by a correction factor VH/1.5.
The other set of curves" gives the critical clearing time of a fault on a
metropolitan power system having generators of H = 8 operating at
full load and 0.85 power factor, based on the assumption that the
generator or group of generators nearest the fault swings with respect
to the remaining generators.
Certain factors affecting stability. With a knowledge of the meth-
ods of analyzing the stability of the two-machine system that have been
described in the preceding pages, we can proceed to draw a number of
general conclusions regarding the effect on stability of certain features
of apparatus design, system layout, and operation. The effect of each
feature must be considered under all three conditions-before the
fault, during the fault, and after clearing the fault. Some features of
layout or design promote stability during all three conditions, whereas
others are beneficial during one condition but detrimental during
another.
In the equal-area criterion for stability, the power-angle curves for
each of the three conditions are used. (Refer to Fig. 14.) The factors
determining the relative sizes of the two compared areas Al and A
2
are
(1) the clearing angle Oc and (2) the amplitudes of the three power-
angle curves, Pm, rIPm, r2Pm» relative to the height of the input
(initial power) line Pi. Stability is aided by decreasing area A1 and by
increasing area A
2
• For a given Pi this may be accomplished, from
the geometrical viewpoint, chiefly by decreasing the clearing angle Oc
188 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
and by increasing the amplitudes of the fault and post-fault curves,
T1P
m
and T2Pm. It is also helpful to decrease the amplitude of the
pre-fault power-angle curve if such reduction is possible without at the
same time decreasing the amplitudes of the other two power-angle
curves, because so doing increases the initial angle 00- If any feature
changes the amplitudes of all three curves proportionally, however, it is
beneficial to increase rather than to decrease the amplitudes.
The clearing angle s, depends on the clearing time and on the equiv-
alent inertia constant (eq. 2). The importance of rapid fault clearing,
obtainable by the use of high-speed circuit breakers and fast relaying,
has already been stressed. For a given clearing time the clearing
angle is decreased by increasing the inertia constant. If the inertia
constants of the two machines are far from equal, the equivalent
inertia constant of the system is very nearly that of the lighter ma-
chine; hence it is more effective to increase the inertia of the light
machine than of the heavy one. Seldom, however, has it proved
economical to increase the inertia of a generator beyond its normal
value. t But a consideration of the role of inertia sheds some light on
the relative critical clearing times for hydroelectric generators (average
H = 3) and steam turbogenerators (average H = 6) if the circuit
reactances are about the same. Since the time varies as the square root
of the inertia constant Ceq. 27), a fault on a hydroelectric system must
be cleared in about 70% of the critical clearing time of the correspond-
ing steam system.
The amplitude of the power-angle curves is E
1E2/X12
, where E
1
and
E
2
are the internal voltages of the two synchronous machines and X
12
is the reactance between these voltages, which is, in general, different
for each of the three circuit conditions. Increasing the internal volt-
ages increases the amplitude of all three power-angle curves and aids
stability. An increase in internal voltages usually accompanies an
increase of load on the machines, but this does not necessarily mean an
increase of the equivalent input Pi. If both generators have local
loads which are increased in the proper ratio, Pi is not affected. (See
eq.3.)
The amplitude of all the power-angle curves is increased by decreas-
ing the reactance X12 between the machines. This reactance consists
principally of the reactances of the two synchronous machines, trans-
former reactance, and line reactance. A large part of it is in the ma-
chines. The transient reactance of each class of large synchronous
machines (steam turbogenerator, water-wheel generator, condenser,
etc.) has a characteristic value and does not vary much in normal
tA notable exception is the Boulder Dam station.
CERTAIN FACTORS AFFECTING STABILITY 189
designs. A lower value of reactance (in per unit) is obtained essen-
tially by building a larger machine and under-rating it. This has
seldomproved an economical way to aid stability.§ The reactances of
transformers also have, for a given size and voltage, normal values
belowwhich it is difficult to go. The reactance of an overhead trans-
mission line is only slightly affected by any change of spacing or con-
ductor size which is practical from other standpoints than stability.
A decrease in system frequency, of course, decreases the reactances of
all parts of the system and thereby aids stability. Therefore a fre-
quency of 25 or 50 c.p.s. is preferable to 60 c.p.s. from the standpoint of
stability. Nevertheless, because of other advantages, 60 c.p.s. has
become the standard power-systemfrequency in the United States, and
a transmission project operating at a lower frequency would necessarily
include frequency-changing equipment at one or both ends. This ad-
ditional equipment might offset any advantage of the lower frequency
in regard to stability. Up to the present time the stability limitations
of 60-c.p.s. systems have not been serious enough to warrant lower
frequencies. Series capacitors have been used on some transmission
lines to partially compensate for the inductive reactance of the lines.
However, they have not been used on any major project where stability
was an important factor, although they have been seriously consi-
dered.
6
,7,g
The most important means of reducing the reactance are (1) to
connect more lines in parallel and (2) to raise the transmission volt-
ages.
The ratio rl of the amplitude of the fault power-angle curve to the
amplitude of the pre-fault power-angle curve depends upon the type
and location of the fault. The effect of the type of fault will be dis-
cussed in Chapter VI. The effect of location will be considered
briefly now. A fault on a bus or on a line close to a bus is more severe
than a fault of the same type near the middle of a line. Most severe
of all is a three-phase short circuit at some point (for example, fault b
in Fig. 15) where it entirely blocks the transfer of power from one
generator to the other; then rl = o. Although a fault near the end
of a line and one near the middle of the line are equally probable, the
most severe location is usually assumed in a stability study so that the
results will be conservative.
The ratio T2 of the amplitude of the post-fault curve to the amplitude
of the pre-fault curve depends on the number and location of lines
which are opened to clear the fault; therefore it depends upon the
fault location and upon the relaying scheme. The most favorable
§Again the Boulder Dam station is a notable exception.
190 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
value of T2 encountered in practice is 1. This value applies to a fault
on an unloaded radial feeder cleared by disconnection of the feeder.
It is also attained with quick-reclosing schemes which restore the
faulted line to service after a brief time to allow for extinction of the
arc. II Afault on a bus, although electrically equivalent before clearing
to a fault on a line adjacent to a bus, is more severe in its effects after
clearing than a line fault is because several lines must be opened to
clear it. Sometimes a comparative study is made between a small
number of high-voltage lines and a large number of low-voltage lines
having the same parallel reactance in per unit. The large number of
lines is preferable to the small number from the standpoint of stability,
because to clear a fault requires the opening of one line in either case,
24
24
16
J
16 16
FIG. 48. System for whichthe effectof high-voltagebussingis considered in Prob, 4.
but one line is a small fraction of the entire number of lines when this
number is great. For other reasons, however, a smaller number of
lines may be preferable.
When two or more parallel lines are used, the number of intermediate
busses is a factor affecting stability. For example, in the system of
Fig. 48 it is worth inquiring whether the addition of the two high-volt-
age busses shown in broken lines is beneficial or detrimental. If the
high-voltage busses and circuit breakers are provided, a line fault can
be cleared by switching out one line while leaving all the transformers
connected, whereas, without the high-voltage busses, the transformers
would be switched out with the line. Thus the busses increase the
value of T2 and are beneficial after clearing of the fault. On the other
hand, during the fault the shock to the system is increased by the
busses; that is, Tt is lessened. Which effect predominates depends
upon the speed of clearing. With fast clearing the busses are benefi-
cial; with slow clearing they are detrimental.
The same principle may determine, although less obviously, the
effect upon stability of changes of layout in more complicated networks.
The effect of a given change may be either beneficial or detrimental,
depending upon the speed of fault clearing. Needless to say,_ many
USee Chapter XI, Vol. II.
PROBLEMS 191
contemplated changes of connections are conceived from other motives
than the improvement of stability. They may be intended, for
example, to improve voltage regulation, to increase the reliability of
supply to certain loads, or to relieve overloading of certain lines.
Nevertheless the effect of such changes on stability conditions should
be considered.
Most of the conclusionswhich have been drawn from a study of the
two-machine system apply equally well to a multimachine system.
When a muItimachine system is unstable, as a rule, it is split into two
groups of machines which go out of synchronism with each other, while
the machines within each group stay in synchronism. The grouping
may differ with the fault location. Still, for a given fault location,
the general behavior of the multimachine system is similar to that of a
two-machine system. It could be analyzed as a two-machine system
except that the machines within a group may swing so far with respect
to each other (yet without goingout of step) as to have a marked effect
on the relations between the two groups. In addition, the grouping
for a givenfault location is not always apparent in advance.
REFERENCES
1. R. H. PARK and E. H. BANCKER, "System Stability as a Design Problem,"
A.l.E.E. Trans., vol. 48, pp. 170-93, January, 1929.
2. I. H. SUMMERS and J. B. MCCLURE, "Progress in the Study of System Stabil-
ity," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 49, pp. 132-58, January, 1930.
3. H. L. BYRD and S. R. PRITCHARD, JR., "Solution of the Two-Machine
Stability Problem," Gen. Elec. Rev., vol. 36, pp. 81-93, February, 1933.
4. R. D. EVANS and W. A. LEWIS, "Selecting Breaker Speeds for Stable Opera-
tion," Elec. Wid., vol. 95, pp. 336-40, Feb. 15, 1930.
5. S. B. GRISCOM, W. A. LEWIS, and W. R. ELLIS, "Generalized Stability Solu-
tion for Metropolitan Type Systems," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 51, pp, 363-72, June,
1932; disc., pp. 373-4.
6. E. C. STARR and R. D. EVANS, "Series Capacitors for Transmission Circuits,"
A. I. E. E. Trans., vol. 61, pp. 963-73, 1942; disc., pp. 1044-6.
7. R. B. BODINE, C. CONCORDIA, and GABRIEL KRON, "Self-Excited Oscillations
of Capacitor-Compensated Long-Distance Transmission Lines," A.I.E.E. Trans.,
vol. 62, pp, 41-4, January, 1943; disc., pp. 371-2.
8. J. W. BUTLER, J. E. PAUL, and T. ·W. SCHROEDER, "Steady-State and Tran-
sient-Stability Analysis of Series Capacitors in Long Transmission Lines," A.I.E.E.
Trans., vol. 62, pp. 58-65, February, 1943; disc., pp. 377-80.
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER V
1. Check the results of Example 3, part a, by Byrd and Pritchard's
method.
2. Work Example 4 for a three-phase fault on a 132-kv. line near the
hydroelectric-station high-voltage bus.
192 THE TWO-MACHINE SYSTEM
3. Work Example 4, assumingthat the voltages behind transient reactance
are independent of the initial power transmitted.
4. Find the effect of high-voltage bussing on the stability of the 6o-cycle
system shown in Fig, 48 (consisting of a generator G1 feeding over a double-
circuit high-voltage line to the infinite bus G2) by plotting stability limit in
per unit against fault duration in seconds for a three-phase fault at the send-
ing end of one circuit (a) with no high-voltage bussing and (b) with high-
voltage bussing at both ends, as indicated by the broken lines. The re-
actances of the circuit elements are given in per cent based on the rating of
G1. Assume that the voltage of the infinite bus and the sending-end
voltage of the high-voltage lines are 1.00 per unit for all values of initial
power. Explain why the curves cross.
5. Find the effect of fault location on the system of Fig. 48 with high-
voltage bussing, by plotting stability limit in per unit as a function of fault
location as the three-phase fault moves from the sending end to the receiving
end of the line. The clearing time is constant at 0.15 sec.
CHAPTER VI
SOLUTION OF FAULTED THREE-PHASE NETWORKS
Symmetrical components. Most power systems are three-phase,
but, as long ,as they are symmetrical, they may be represented on a
single-phase line-to-neutral basis for purpose of calculations. Three-
phase systems are usually symmetrical or very nearly so during normal
conditions and also during three-phase faults. During other types of
fault, such as line-to-ground or line-to-line, they are unsymmetrical,
and the simple single-phase representation no longer suffices. In such
cases the method of symmetrical components! is generally used.
In the method of symmetrical components an unsymmetrical set of
vector currents or voltages is resolved into symmetrical sets of com-
ponents. Before proving that such resolution is possible, let us first
consider the inverse process, that of adding symmetrical sets of
vectors to obtain an unsymmetrical set.
Consider a symmetrical set of vectors (Vat, Vbl, Vel of Fig. la)
representing the balanced voltages or currents of a three-phase circuit.
The vectors are equal in magnitude and 120
0
apart in phase. Their
phase order, or phase sequence, is abc, which is called the positive
sequence. Consider also another symmetrical set of vectors (V
a2
, Vb2,
V
e2
of Fig. Ib) of the opposite phase sequence, cba. These vectors are
said to have negative phase sequence. If now corresponding vectors
of the two sets are added, thus
Va' = Val +V
a2
[1]
Vb' = »« +V
b2
[2]
v: = Vel + V
e2
[3]
as shown in Fig. Ic, the resultant vectors, Va', v: Ve', form an
unsymmetrical set. They are neither equal in magnitude nor 120
0
apart in phase.
It has been shown that an unsymmetrical set of vectors results from
the addition of corresponding vectors of two symmetrical sets of
opposite phase sequence, By reversal of the process the resulting
unsymmetrical set can be resolved into its symmetrical components.
We may well ask, can any unsymmetrical set of three vectors be
resolved into two symmetrical sets, one of positive phase sequence, the
other of negative phase sequence? This question is answered if we
193
194 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
notice that, since the sum of the three vectors in each symmetrical set is
zero, the sum of the three vectors in the resulting unsymmetrical set is
also zero.
Val +Vbl +Vel = 0 [4]
V
a2
+Vb2 +Ve2 = 0 [5]
Adding, we get
(Val + V
a2
) + (V
bl
+V
b2
) + (Vel + V
c2
) =0 [6]
or
(a)
[7]
\\\
~ o V
bO
V
eO
(d)
FIG. 1. Composition of unsymmetrical vectors from symmetrical components.
(a) Positive-sequence vectors. (b) Negative-sequence vectors. (c) Addition of
negative-sequence vectors to positive-sequence vectors. (d) Zero-sequencevectors.
(e) Addition of the sum of positive-sequence and negative-sequence vectors to zero-
sequence vectors.
In general, the sum of the three vectors in an unsymmetrical set is not
zero but, instead, may have any value. Obviously, an unsymmetrical
set whose sum is not zero cannot result from the addition of two sets,
each having a sum of zero.
Suppose, however, that we add to the positive-sequence and negative-
sequence sets a set of equal vectors, Van, V
bO
, V
eO
(shown in Fig. Id),
known as a zero-sequence set. The resulting set of vectors (shown in
Fig. Ie) is:
v, = v: +Val = VaO +Val + V
a2
Vb = VbO +Vb' = V bO + V bl + V
b2
v, = VeO +V e' = V eO + Vel +Ve2
[Sa]
[8bl
[Sc]
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS 195
These vectors are unsymmetrical, and their sum is not zero. Can any
unsymmetrical set of three vectors be resolved into three symmetrical
sets-a positive-sequence set, a negative-sequence set, and a zero-
sequence set? It can if eqs. 8 can be solved for the symmetrical com-
ponents in terms of the given vectors Va, Vb, V
e
• In eqs. 8 there appear
to be nine unknown components, but actually only three of them are
independent because the three vectors of each set are determined by
anyone of the three, say by the phase a vector, and by the symmetry
of the set.
Vbl = V
a1!240°
= a
2
V
al
Vel = V
al/120
0
= aV
al
V
b2
= V
a2/120°
= aV
a2
V
e2
= V
a2/240°
= a
2
V
a2
V
bO
= V
eO
= VaO
where
a = /120
0
= -0.500 +jO.866
and hence also
a
2
= /240
0
= -0.500 - jO.866
a
3
= 1
a
4
= a
Substituting eqs. 9 into eqs. 8, one obtains
v. = VaO+ Val + Va2
Vb = VaO + a
2
Va1+aV
a2
v, = V
aO
+aV
al
+ a
2V
a2
Subscript a may now be dropped, giving
Va = V
o
+V
t
+V
2
v, = v, + a
2V
t
+aV
2
v, = V
o
+aV
I
+a
2V
2
[9a]
[9b]
[ge]
[9d]
[ge]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14a]
[14b]
[14c]
[1Sa]
[I5b]
[15e]
It is desired to solve eqs. 15 for V
o
, v; and V
2
in terms of Va, Vb, and
V
e
• The simplest method of solution follows. To obtain V
o
, add the
three eqs. 15 together, obtaining
Va +Vb +Vc = 3V
o
+ (1 + a +a
2
) (V
l
+ V
2
)
196
Note that
Hence
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
1 +a +a
2
=0
[16]
[17]
To obtain VI, multiply the three eqs. 15 by 1, 8, and a
2
, respectively,
obtaining
v; = Vo +VI +V
2
aVb = aVo +VI +a
2
Y
2
a
2
Y
e
= a
2
y
o
+VI + aV
2
Then add, obtaining
Va +aVb +a
2
y
c
= (1 +a +a
2
) (y
o
+V
2
) +3V
1
whence
VI = i(V
a
+ aVb + a
2V
e
) [18]
To obtain V
2
, multiply the three eqs. 15 by 1, a
2
, and a, respectively,
add, and divide by 3, obtaining
V
2
= i(V
a
+ a
2
V
b
+ aYe) [19]
The symmetrical components of any three given vectors Va, Vb, v, are,
therefore
V
o
= i(V
a
+ Vb + V
e
)
VI = i(Va +aVb + a
2
V
e
)
V
2
= l(Ya +a
2
Vb+aYe)
[20a]
[20b]
[20c]
Any three given vectors can be resolved into symmetrical components
of positive, negative, and zero phase sequence by using eqs. 20. The
operations indicated by eqs. 20 may be performed either graphically
or arithmetically. If the given vectors comprise a symmetrical set of a
particular phase sequence, the other two components will vanish. If
the sum of the given vectors is zero, they have no zero-sequence com-
ponent. The vectors may represent any alternating quantities as-
sociated with a three-phase circuit or machine, such as line-to-neutral,
line-to-ground, or line-to-line voltage; current; or flux. In this
chapter we are concerned with voltage and current vectors.
The actual or phase voltages are given in terms of their symmetrical
components by eqs. 15, and the symmetrical components are given in
terms of the actual voltages by eqs. 20. The corresponding equations
for current are:
[21a]
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Ib = 1
0
+ a
2
1
1
+ aI
2
I, = 1
0
+ all + a
2
1
2
1
0
= J(la+lb+le}
11 = i n, + alb + a
2
I
c
)
1
2
= l(la + a2Ib + ale)
197
[21b]
[21c]
[22a]
[22b]
[22c]
An alternative form of eqs. 15 and 20, obtained by using the rectan-
gular form of operators a and a
2
(see eqs. 10 and 11), is as follows:
Va = v; + (VI + V
2
) [23a]
Vb = V
o
- 0.500(V
1
+ V
2
) - jO.866(V
I
- V
2
) [23b]
V
e
= V
o
- O.500(V
1
+ V
2
) + jO.866 (VI - V
2
) [23c]
V
o
= l[V
a
+ (Vb + V
c
) ] [24a]
VI = i[V
a
- O.500(V
b
+ V
c
) +jO.866 (Vb - V
e
) ] [24b]
V
2
= irv
a
- 0.500(Vb + V
c
) - jO.866(V
b
- Vc)] [24cJ
This form is convenient if it is desired to compute with complex num-
bers all in rectangular form. Needless to say, similar equations hold
for currents.
EXAMPLE 1
Calculate the symmetrical components of the following unbalanced line-
to-neutral voltages:
Va = 100/90° volts
Vb = 116LQvolts
Vc = 71/225° volts
Solution 1. The symmetrical components are given by eqs, 20.
v, = 100/90° 0 +jl00
v, = 11612 116+ jO
V
c
= 71/225° = -50 - j50
3V
o
= Va+Vb + Vc = 66+ j50 =,83/37°
Vo = 22 + j17 = 28/37° (Ans.)
198 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
s, = 100/90° = 0 +j100
aVb = 116/120° = -58 +j100
a'lY
e
= 71/105° = -18 + j68
3VI = VI +aVb +a'rYe= -76 +j268 = 279/106°
VI= -25+ j89 = 93/106° (Ans.)
Va = 100/90° = 0 +jl00
a"V
b
= 116/240° = -58 - jl00
aVe = 71/345° = +68 - j18
3V2 = V
o
+ a"Vb +aVe = +10 - j18 = 21/299°
V2 = + 3 - j6 = 7/299° (Ans.)
The symmetrical components are, therefore:
V
o
== 22 +j17 = 28/37° volts
VI = -25 + j89 = 93/106° volts
V2 = +3 - j6 = 7/299° volts
Check 1. From the symmetrical components which have just been
found, the phase voltages will be calculated by eqs. 15 as a check.
V
o
= 28/37° = 22+j17
a"V
I
= 93/346° = 90 - j23
aV2 = 7/59° = 4 + j6
Vb =V
o
+a?:V
I
+aV
2
= 116+. jO (Check)
V
o
= 28/37° = 22+ j17
aVI = 93/226
0
= -65 - j67
aZV
2
= 7/179° = - 7 + jO
V
e
= V
o
+aV
l
+a?:V
2
= -50 - j50 (Check)
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Solution 2. Equations 24 will be used.
Vb= 116+ jO
V
c
= -50 - j50
Vb +Ve = 66 - j50
O.500(Vb +Vc) = 33 - j25
Va = 0+jl00
3Vo = 66 + j50
Va - O.500(Vb +Ve) = -33 +j125
Vb - Ve = 166+ j50
O.866(Vb - V
e
) = 143 + j43
jO.866(Vb - V
c
) = -43 +j143
3V1 = -76 + j268
3V2 = 10 - jlS
The symmetrical components are
Vo = 22+j17 volts
VI = -25 + j89 volts
V2 = 3 - j6 volts
agreeing with Solution 1.
Check 2. Equations 23 will be used.
VI = -25+ j89
V
2
= 3 - j6
VI +V2 = -22+ j83
O.500(VI +V
2
) = -11 + j42
V
o
= 22+ j17
Va = 0 +jl00 (CMc1c)
V
o
- O.500(VI +V
2
) = 33 - j25
Vi - V2 = -28 + j95
O.866(V1 - V
2
) = -24 + j82
jO.866(V1 - V
2
) = -82 - j24
Vb = 115 - jl (Should be 116 - jO)
V
c
= -49 - j49 (Should be -50 - j50)
199
200, SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
[25a]
[25b]
[25c]
Sequence impedances. The most important property of sym-
metrical components of current and voltage is that, in a balanced three-
phase circuit or part of it, the three sequences are independent. A
balanced three-phase circuit is one having similar connections in all
three phases, equal self-impedances in all three phases, and equal
mutual impedances between each pair of phases. The statement that
the three sequences are independent means that currents of each phase
sequence will produce voltage drops of the
same phase sequence only. For example,
if positive-sequence currents flow through
a balanced circuit, the resulting voltage
drops are exclusively of positive sequence,
and their zero-sequence and negative-
sequence components are zero.
The independence of the sequences in any
FIG. 2. A balanced three- particular form of balanced circuit may be
phase circuit element with shown algebraically. This will be done for
self- and mutual impedances. the circuit shown in Fig. 2, consisting of
equal series self-impedances Zs in the three
phases and equal mutual impedances Zm between each pair of phases.
The relation between phase currents la, I
b
, I, and phase voltage drops
Va, Vb, V
e
is given by the following equations:
·V
a
= z.r, +Zmlb +Zmle
Vb = Zmla +Zslb +ZmIe
V
e
= Zmla + ZmIb + z.r,
It is now necessary to find relations between the symmetrical com-
ponents of voltage and current similar in form to eqs. 25. To obtain
these relations, substitute eqs. 25 into eqs. 20 and then use eqs. 22.
v; = lcva +v, + Ve)
== i CIa +r, +Ie) CZs + 2Z
m
)
= CZs + 2Z
m)Io
VI = leVa + aVb + a
2
Ve)
= Zs!Cla +alb +a
2
l e) +Zm!CIb'+ I, +ala + ale +a
2
1a +a2Ib)
= ZsI
1
+ zmiC-I
a
- alb - a
2
Ie)
= (Z8 - Zm)I
1
Similarly',
SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES
These equations may be written as
V
o
= Zolo
VI = z.r,
V
2
= Z2
I
2
where
Zo = Z, +2Z
m
Zl == Z2 =Z, - Zm
201
[26a]
[26b]
[26c]
[27a]
[27b]
Unlike eqs. 25, in which the value of each phase voltage depends upon
all three phase currents, in eqs. 26 the voltage of each sequence depends
only upon the current 'of the same sequence. The ratio of sequence
voltage to sequence current may be called a sequence impedance; thus
Zo is the zero-sequence impedances Zl, the posiiioe-sequence impedance;
and Z2, the negative-sequence impedance. The positive- and negative-
sequence impedances of this particular circuit are equal; indeed, for
any static three-phase circuit they are equal. For rotating machinery,
however, the positive-sequence impedance usually differs from the
negative-sequence impedance because of the mutual reactances be-
tween rotor and stator windings. The impedances of synchronous
machines are considered further in Chapters XII and XIV, Vol. III.
Equations 27 show that, if Z8 and Zm are of the same sign (or, more
precisely, if their vectors lie approximately in the same direction, as
they do for a transmission line or cable, where each of the three phases
is considered to consist of a wire with ground return), then the zero-
sequence impedance is higher than the positive- or negative-sequence
impedance. If, on the other hand, Zm is of opposite sign from Zs, as
it is for the stator windings of a three-phase machine, then the zero-
sequence impedance is lower than the positive- or negative-sequence
impedance. Let us show that Zm of the machine is a negative react-
ance. It is a familiar fact that, if two coils are placed initially with
their axes parallel and if one coil is then turned with respect to the
other, their mutual inductance diminishes, reaching zero at 90°; and,
upon further turning of the coil, the mutual inductance becomes
negative and is still so at 120°, which is the angular separation of the
coils of a three-phase machine.
The sequence impedances may be calculated from the phase self-
and mutual impedances, as illustrated by eqs. 27 for a particular case;
or they may be measured. For example, the positive-sequence
impedance of an induction motor running at any given speed may be
determined by impressing known positive-sequence voltages on its
202
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
[28a]
[28b]
[28c]
Ie +Ie' +Ie" = 0
FIG. 3. A three-phase
junction.
terminals, measuring the resulting positive-sequence currents, and
taking the ratio of voltage to current. The negative-sequence imped-
ance may be measured in similar fashion by impressing negative-
sequence voltage on the terminals and driving the rotor at the same
speed as before. For measuring the zero-
sequence impedance a single-phase voltage
may be impressed between the neutral
point and the three line terminals tied to-
gether.
Kirchhoff's laws. In the preceding sec-
tion it was shown that the symmetrical
components of current and voltage obey
Ohm's law, V= ZI. It will now be shown
that they obey Kirchhoff's laws as well.
Kirchhoff's law of currents states that the
sum of all the currents flowing into a junc-
tion (node) is zero. At a three-phase junction, as illustrated in Fig.
3, this law applies separately to each phase, thus:
la + i: +la" = 0
Ib +Ib' +I b" = 0
If we add the three equations together and divide by 3, we obtain
!(la + Ib + Ie) +!(Ia' +Ib' +Ie') + i(Ia" +Ib" +Ie") = 0
or
10 +10' +10" = 0
[29]
Also, by multiplying eqs. 28a, 28b, and 28c by 1, a, and a
2
, respectively,
adding the resulting equations together, and dividing by 3, we obtain
11 +11' +II" = 0 [30]
By a similar procedure, with a and a
2
interchanged, we get
[31]
Equations 29, 30, and 31 show that the sequence currents (symmetrical
components of current) obey Kirchhoff's current law just as the phase
currents do.
Kirchhoff's voltage law states that the sum of all the voltage drops
(or rises) around a closed path (loop or mesh) equals zero. In a three-
THE SEQUENCE NETWORKS 203
[32a)
[32b]
[32c]
Va +Va' +Va" = 0
Vb +Vb' +Vb" =0
v, + Ve' + v: == 0
phase circuit the law holds for each phase. Thus for the circuit of
Fig. 4 we have
FIG. 4. A three-phase mesh.
These equations are of the same form as eqs. 28; therefore equations
can be derived from them similar to eqs. 29, 30, and 31. They are
v; + V
o
' +Vo" = 0 [33a]
VI + VI' + VI" = 0 [33b)
V2 +V2' + V2" = 0 [33c]
Thus the sequence voltages obey Kirchhoff's voltage law.
The sequence networks. It has been shown that in a balanced
three-phase network the symmetrical components of voltage and cur-
rent obey Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's laws, the same laws followed by
the actual voltages and currents. There is thus good justification for
the concept of sequence networks. The actual three-phase network,
in which the actual voltages and currents exist, isreplaced for purposes
of analysis by three fictitious single-phase networks, in which the sym-
metrical components or sequence voltages and currents exist. They
are the positive-sequence network, in which the positive-sequence volt-
age and current exist; the negative-sequence network, in which the
negative-sequence voltage and current exist; and the zero-sequence
network, in which the zero-sequence voltage and current exist. The
204 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
positive-sequence network is identical to the single-phase impedance
diagram considered in Chapter III. The negative-sequence network
is very much like the positive-sequence network but differs from it in
the following respects: (1) ordinarily there are no negative-sequence
generated electromotive forces; (2) the negative-sequence impedance
of rotating machinery is different from the positive-sequence imped-
ance; and (3) the phase displacement of transformer banks for nega-
tive sequence is of opposite sign to that for positive sequence. The
zero-sequence network differs greatly from the other two in that (1)
the impedance of transmission lines is higher than for positive sequence;
and (2) the equivalent circuits of transformers are different. Conse-
quently, the zero-sequencenetwork is given further consideration later
in this chapter.
In so far as the three-phase network is balanced, the three sequence
networks are independent; that is, they are not connected or coupled
to one another. But wherever the three-phase network is unbalanced,
there is a connection or coupling between t\VO or three of the sequence
networks at the corresponding points of unbalance. The nature of the
connection or coupling between the sequence networks will be deter-
mined in the next section for the types of unbalances most important
in stability studies, that is, for short circuits.
Consider the component parts of a three-phase power network to
see whether they are balanced. Rotating three-phase machines,
transformer banks consisting of three identical units, cables, and
transposed overhead lines are balanced. Untransposed overhead
lines are only slightly unbalanced. Loads, although often unbalanced
when considered in small portions, are approximately balanced when
the whole load of a substation is considered. Therefore, all the major
parts of a three-phase power network are either exactly or very nearly
balanced during normal conditions. During fault conditions the same
statement holds for all parts of the network except for the fault itself
if the fault is of some type other than three-phase. Therefore, the
sequence networks representing the power system are entirely indepen-
dent of one another under normal conditions and are connected only
at the point of fault under unbalanced fault conditions.
The usual three-phase power system has no generated electromotive
forces except symmetrical positive-sequence ones. Therefore the
sequence networks representing such a system have no generated
electromotive forces except those in the positive-sequence network.
The negative-sequence and zero-sequencenetworks, having no electro-
motive forces within themselves and not being connected to the posi-
tive...sequence network under balanced conditions, are "dead." There-
REPRESENTATION OF SHORT CIRCUITS 205
fore only the positive-sequence network need be considered under such
conditions. Under unbalanced fault conditions, however, the negative-
sequence network and, for some types of faults, also the zero-sequence
network are energizedby their connection to the positive-sequence net-
work at the point of fault. The nature of these connections will
no,v be considered.
Representation of short circuits by connections between the
sequence networks. Short circuits on a three-phase system may be
classified into the following types: one-line-to-ground, line-to-line,
One- Llne-to- Ground
; ~ Phaseb
g,,:,
Phase c
Line-to. Line
Phases band c Phases c anda Phases a andh
!=c :=E =t=
Iwo-Line-to· Ground
Phases band c Phases c anda Phases a andb
;=:F =F =F
g ~ : ~
Three· Phase
Involving ground Not involving ground
. ~ ~ :=E
g-:r
FIG. 5. Types of short circuit on a three-phase network.
two-line-to-ground, and three-phase. Three-phase short circuits may
be further classified into those involving ground and those not in-
volving ground. The other types may be further classified by the
phases involved. The different types of short circuit are shown
diagrammatically in Fig. 5.
The procedure for finding the connections of the sequence networks
corresponding to a fault on a three-phase network consists of four steps:
1. Draw a circuit diagram of the fault on the three-phase network,
labelling the pertinent phase voltages and currents by suitable letter
symbols and by arrows denoting their positive directions.
2. Write three equations expressing relations between the phase
206 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
(a)
Posmve-
sequence
network
Negative-
sequence
network
Zero·sequence
network
a c
14 ....
I .,
Va
Three·
b ~
b ....
.,
phase
Ie .....
Vb
network
C ~
"
tVe
g ~
currents and voltages or particular values thereof imposed by the
fault condition.
3. Convert these equations to three corresponding equations in
sequence currents and voltages. This conversion is accomplished
by using eqs. 15, 20, 21, and 22.
4. Find connections of the sequence networks satisfying the
equations obtained in the last step.
The procedure just outlined will now be carried out for each type of
short circuit, commencing with the line-to-ground short circuit on
phase a. Line-to-ground short cir-
cuits on phase b or phase c may be
treated by renaming the phases so
as always to call the faulted phase,
phase a. The relations of the sym-
metrical components come out most
simply when the fault is taken on
phase a, which was adopted as the
reference phase. (That is, the com-
ponents of the other phase vectors
were expressed in terms of the
components of the phase-a vector.)
For the same reason line-to-line
and two-line-to-ground faults will
be taken on phases band c, thus
making the faults symmetrical with
respect to phase a.
The three-phase network, what-
ever its form, may be symbolized
by a box having four terminals at
the point of fault, namely, phases a,
b, and c and the ground, as shown
in Fig. 6a. Different types of short
circuit may be applied to the net-
work by making the appropriate
connections between two, three, or
four of these terminals. Each of
the three sequence networks may
be represented similarly by a box having two terminals at the point
of fault (line terminal and neutral terminal) as shown in Fig. 6b.
The connections between these terminals, corresponding to the con-
nections between terminals of the three-phase network, will be derived.
Let Va, Vb, and V
c
denote the line-to-ground voltages at the point of
(b)
FIG. 6. (a) Schematic representa-
tion of a three-phase network with
terminals at the point of fault. (b)
Schematic representation of the cor-
responding sequence networks.
REPRESENTATION OF SHORT CIRCUITS 207
fault, and let la, Ib, and I, denote the phase currents flowing into the
fault, as marked on Fig. 6a. Let V
o
, Vt, V
2
be the symmetrical com-
ponents of Va' Vb, Vc; and let 1
0
, It, 1
2
be the symmetrical components
of la, Ib' r,
Line-to-ground short circuit on phase a. (See Fig. 7a.) The line-to-
ground voltage of the grounded phase is zero, and the currents flowing
into the fault from the two unfaulted phases are zero. Hence the
equations for phase voltages and currents are:
From eqs. 34 and 15a
v, + VI + V
2
= 0
From eqs. 35, 36, and 22
1
0
= II = 1
2
= i1a
[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]
Hence the relations between symmetrical components of fault voltage
and current, corresponding to eqs. 34, 35, and 36 for actual fault
voltages and currents, are
V
o
+ VI + V
2
= 0
1
0
= II = 1
2
[39a]
[39b]
A series connection of the three sequence networks (Fig. 7b) satisfies
these equations.
Line-to-line short circuit on phases band c. (See Fig. 7c.) The
equations for phase voltages and currents are
Vb = Va
I, = 0
Ib+t, = 0
Substituting eqs. 15 into eq. 40,
v; +a
2V
t +aV2 = Vo+aVI +a
2V
2
Subtracting V0 from each side and rearranging, we get
V
1
(a
2
- a) = V
2
(a
2
- a)
whence
[40]
[41]
[42]
[43]

3
q
,
b
I
:
t
v
:
V
a
C

b
g
-
- (
a
)
.
.
.
.
1
0
.
.
.
.
.

t
v
o
Z
e
r
o
-
o
.
.
.
.
1
1
P
O
S
e
"
t
V
I
o
o
.
.
.
.
1
2
'
"
N
e
g
.
t
V
2
-
(
b
)
O
n
e
-
l
i
n
e
-
t
o
·
-
g
r
o
u
n
d
a
3
q
,
b c g
- (
c
)
:
:
M
o
Z
e
r
o
t
v
o
-
.
.
.
.
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1
.
.
.
.
.
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t
V
l
P
O
S
e
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.
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N
e
g
.

t
V
2
(
d
)
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t
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-
l
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n
e
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o
-
+
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-
f
>
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b
3
q
,
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:
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g
v
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b
(
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)

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r
o
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t
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r
-
V
o
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.
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.
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e
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(
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.
REPRESENTATION OF SHORT CIRCUITS 209
Substituting eqs. 41 and 42 into the expression for 1
0
in eq.22a, we
obtain
1
0
= 0 [44]
Substituting eq. 44 into the expressions for Ib and Ie in eqs, 21 and
substituting the results into eq. 42, we obtain
(a
2
+a) (11 +1
2
) = 0
or
[45]
Hence the relations between symmetrical components of voltage and
current for the line-to-line short circuit are:
VI = V
2
11 +1
2
= 0
1
0
=0
[46a]
[46b]
[46c]
These relations are realized by a parallel connection oj the positive- and
negative-sequence networks, leaving the zero-sequence network open-
circuited. (See Fig. 7d.)
Two-line...to-ground short circuit on phases band c. (See Fig. 7e.)
The equations for phase voltages and currents are:
[47a]
[47b]
[47c]
These are like eqs. 34 to 36 for a one-line-to-ground short circuit,
except that voltage and current are interchanged. Therefore the
equations in symmetrical components will be like eqs. 39 except for an
interchange of voltage with current. They are:
10 +11 +12 = 0
V
o
= VI = V
2
[48a]
[48b]
These equations are realized by a parallel connection oj the three sequence
networks (Fig. 7f).
Three-phase short circuit not involving ground. (See Fig. 7g.) The
equations of phase voltages and currents are:
Va = v, = v,
Ia +Ib+I, = 0
[49]
[50]
210 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
Substituting eqs. 49 into eqs. 20, we get
VI = V2 = iVa(l +a +a
2
) = 0
Substituting eq. 50 into eq. 22a for 1
0
:
1
0
= 0
Hence the equations of symmetrical components for this type of fault
are:
[5Ia]
[51b]
[5Ic]
[52a]
[52b]
[52c]
[53a]
[53b]
[53c]
They are satisfied by short-circuiting the positive- and negative-
sequence networks and leaving the zero-sequence network open-
circuited (Fig. 7h).
Three-phase short circuit involving ground. (See Fig. 7i.) The
equations of phase quantities are:
v, == 0
Vb == 0
v, = 0
The corresponding equations for symmetrical components are:
V
o
= 0
VI = 0
V
2
== 0
The equivalent circuit consists of a short circuit on each of the three
sequence networks (Fig. 7;).
Ordinarily no distinction need be made between the two types of
three-phase short circuit, because the zero-sequencenetwork is "dead"
whether or not its terminals are short-circuited. The negative-
sequence network is also dead during a three-phase short circuit, and
the zero-sequence network is dead during a line-to-line short circuit.
These dead networks are shown in Fig. 7 for the sake of completeness,
but they are disregarded in fault calculations except in the rare in-
stances where (1) the three-phase network contains unsymmetrical
generated electromotive forces, or (2) there is a second fault or other
unbalance in addition to the one being considered.
Solution of faulted three-phase networks by the method of sym-
metrical components. Any three-phase network which is symmetrical
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS 211
throughout except for one unsymmetrical short circuit can be rep-
resented by its three sequence networks connected at the point of fault
as shown in Fig. 7. When the appropriate connections have been
made, the current or voltage anywhere in anyone of the sequence net-
works is equal to the corresponding component of current or voltage
at the corresponding point of the three-phase network. If the values
of the phase currents and voltages are desired, they can be computed
by combining the sequence currents and voltages in accordance with
eqs. 15 and 21 or eqs. 23. In stability studies, however, the sym-
metrical components usually suffice.
This method of solving a faulted three-phase network is well suited
to the calculating board. After the three sequence networks have been
set up on the board, connections can be made readily for representing
any type of fault at any location. The sequence currents and voltages
can then be read by plugging in the measuring instruments.
If the network is not too complicated, it is feasible to solve it by
algebraic reduction of the sequence networks.
ExAMPLE 2
A line-to-ground short circuit occurs on bus D of the power system of Fig.
8a. Find the symmetrical components of current and voltage and the phase
currents and voltages throughout the network if the internal voltages of
generators A and B are equal and in phase, both having the value jl.05 per
unit. The sequence reactances in per unit are as marked on the sequence
networks of Fig. 8b, and resistances are assumed to be negligible. Generator
A is ungrounded; B has a solidly grounded neutral.
Solution. The short circuit is assumed to be on phase a. It is rep-
resented by connecting the three sequence networks in series as shown by
the broken lines in Fig. Sb. Note that zero-sequence current cannot flow
in ungrounded generator A; hence the zero-sequence network is open at this
point (between Co and 0
0
, Fig. 8b).
The positive-sequence network is reduced as shown in Fig. 9 to one e.m.f,
in series with one reactance. During the process of reduction the identity
of the e.m.f.'s of generators A and B is retained until step c, so that the re-
sults can be used later inExample 3. Then, as the e.m.f.'s are assumed to be
equal in the present example, points Al and B
I
of Fig. 9c are joined to give
Fig. 9d. In Figs. 10 and 11 the negative-sequence and zero-sequence net-
works, respectively, are reduced each to a single reactance. Then in Fig. 12
the three reduced networks are connected in series, as the original networks
were in Fig. 8, to represent the line-to-ground short circuit; and the com-
bined circuit is further reduced to an e.m.f, and a reactance. In Fig. 13 the
current through the reactance is found by dividing the e.m.I, by the react-
ance, and the voltages across the sequence networks are found by multiplying
the current by the respective reactances. The terminal voltages and cur-
212 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
(a)
Positive- Sequence Network
0
1
Negative· Sequence Network
O
2
0.10
zero-Sequence Network
00 0-- - - - - - - ---'
(b)
FIG. 8. (a) One-linediagram of a powersystem used to illustrate fault calculations.
(b) The sequence networks of the system with values of reactance in per unit
marked thereon. The sequence networks are connected by broken lines so as to
represent a line-to-ground short circuit at point D. (Example 2.)
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS 213
Al 0.08 D
1
0.03 8
1
0.25 0.20
rv _0.13_ rv
(a)
°1
(6)
(c)
(e)
(d)
0.216
01 01
FIG. 9. Reduction of positive-sequence network (Example 2).
0.293
214
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
0.08 D
2
0.03
(a)
(6)
D
2
0.01 D
2
(c) (d) (e)
0.09
0.193 0.136 0.08
02 02
FIG. 10. Reduction of negative-sequence network (Example 2).
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
0.14 Do 0.054
(a)
0.054
215
Do 0
0
0-- - - - - ---..
(b)
(d) 0.066
0
0
0.046 0.02
::::::::J (c)
FIG. 11. Reduction of zero-sequencenetwork (Example 2).
·105'
~ 1 D2 0.09 O2 Do0.066 00
r - V Y V ~ - - ~ - - ~
L ::-=- ..J (0)
jl.05
ctt::J
-+-- (b)
FIG. 12. (a) Connection of the reduced sequence networks to represent a line-
to-ground fault. (b) Final reduction. (Example 2.)
..---N 3.62
LV +il.OS:J
jO.57
216 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
il
~
3.62
.....
"
~ -
1.54 2.08
in
sfrv
in
0 ci
. ~ . ~
.....
°1
(0) (b) (c)
FIG. 14. Determination of the positive-sequence currents and voltages by re-
expansion of the positive-sequence network. See Fig. 9 for values of reactance.
(Example 2.)
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS 217
rents of the sequence networks thus found are the symmetrical components
of the voltages at the point of fault and of the current in the fault.
Each sequence network is now re-expanded by going through the steps of
the network reduction backwards, finding all currents and voltages at each
~
D
2
~
D
2
3.62 3.62
3.62
-
~
1.50
~
2.12
°2
3.62
(a)
(b)
°2
(c)
D
2
Jo.041
3.62
1.50 I ( jO.06 jO.03) I 2.12
I 150 I 2.12 I
jO.23 t · t jO.29 t jO.26
(d)
1.27 D
2
2.35
- jO.OJ ~ " " ' - < f - - - - '
.......----+-jO.03- 2.12
0.23 jO.33 ~ /0.26
°2 w)
FIG. 15. Determination of the negative-sequence currents and voltages by re-
expansion of the negative-sequence network. See Fig. 10 for values of reactance.
(Example 2.)
step. This re-expansion is illustrated in Figs. 14, 15, and 16. Then in
Fig. 17 the sequence networks are redrawn with the values of the sequence
currents and voltages marked on them.
The phase currents and voltages are computed from their symmetrical
components in Table 1 by use of eqs, 23 and are shown on the circuit diagram
of Fig. 18. It should be noted that, since the generator e.m.f.'a were as-
sumed to be imaginary (that is, 90° ahead of the reference phase), and since
the impedances of the network were assumed to be purely reactive, all the
sequence currents are real, and all the sequence voltages are imaginary. A
similar statement holds for phase a currents and voltages, but not for phases
band c.
218 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
(a)
3.62 3.62
Do 0----<]0-_--<10--.
!
jO.17 ~ I'0.07
jO.24 i
J
°00---------'
3.08
0.54 Do 3.08
(b)
(e)
jO.08 jO.17
jO.24
ijO.l6 jO.09
(d)
°0
FIG. 16. Determination of the zero-sequence currents and voltages by re-ex-
pansion of the zero-sequence network. See Fig. 11 for values of reactance.
(Example 2.)
FIG. 17. Sequence currents and voltages in the power system of Fig. 8
(Example 2).
T
A
B
L
E
1
t
D
0
C
A
L
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N
O
F
P
H
A
S
E
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
S
A
N
D
V
O
L
T
A
G
E
S
(
E
X
A
I
I
P
L
E
2
)
t
"
'
4
d t
-
3
.
.
.
.
.
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
s
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
s
0 Z
r
-
-
,
.
,
,
,
.
"
G
e
n
.
G
e
n
.
L
i
n
e
L
i
n
e
L
i
n
e
L
i
n
e
B
u
s
B
u
s
B
u
s
0 ~
A
B
C
D
C
E
E
D
t
E
D
S
C
D
E
~
1
1
1
.
5
4
2
.
0
8
1
.
2
9
0
.
2
5
1
.
1
6
1
.
1
6
j
O
.
6
7
j
O
.
5
7
j
O
.
M
>
1
2
1
.
5
0
2
.
1
2
1
.
2
7
0
.
2
3
1
.
1
7
1
.
1
7
-
j
O
.
2
3
-
j
O
.
3
3
-
j
O
.
2
6
d ~
1
1
-
1
2
0
.
0
4
-
0
.
0
4
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
2
-
0
.
0
1
-
0
.
0
1
j
O
.
9
0
j
O
.
9
0
j
O
.
9
0
t
.
'=
j
1
1
+
1
2
3
.
0
4
4
.
2
0
2
.
5
6
0
.
4
8
2
.
3
3
2
.
3
3
j
O
.
4
4
j
O
.
2
4
j
O
.
3
8
t
j
1
0
0
3
.
6
2
0
.
5
4
-
0
.
5
4
1
.
6
8
1
.
4
0
-
j
O
.
1
6
-
j
O
.
2
4
-
j
O
.
0
7
Z
r
,
3
.
0
4
7
.
8
2
3
.
1
0
-
0
.
0
6
4
.
0
1
3
.
7
3
j
O
.
2
8
0
j
O
.
3
1
t
.
'
=
j
t
-
3
!
(
1
1
+
1
2
)
1
.
5
2
2
.
1
0
1
.
2
8
0
.
2
4
1
.
1
6
1
.
1
6
j
O
.
2
2
j
O
.
1
2
j
O
.
1
9
=
a
1
0
-
!
(
I
l
+
1
2
)
-
1
.
5
2
1
.
5
2
-
0
.
7
4
-
0
.
7
8
0
.
5
2
0
.
2
4
-
j
O
.
3
8
-
j
O
.
3
6
-
j
O
.
2
6
0
0
.
8
6
6
(
1
1
-
1
2
)
0
.
0
3
-
0
.
0
3
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
2
-
0
.
0
1
-
0
.
0
1
j
O
.
7
S
j
O
.
7
S
j
O
.
7
8
~ ~ .
.
.
.
.
c
o
220 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
BusD
4.01+jO
0.52+jO.ot
O.52-jO.Ol
BusE
10.86+jO
BusC
3.10+jO
-0.74 - jO.02
- 0.74+jO.02
-1.52 +jO.03 00 ~ ~
~ ~ ~
....... I I
+coco
0"":"":
00
I
\0\0
('t)('t)
000
.....................
+ I I
OcoCO
,,-,,-
00
I
-O.06+jO
- 0.78- j 0.02
- 0.78+jO.02
\0\0
_NN
a ~ ~
....... I I
+ coco
0"-"-
dd
I
FIG. 18. Phase currents and voltages in the network of Fig. 8 with a line-to-
ground short circuit on phase a of bus D. Values of current in arrow direction
are marked on the horizontal lines; values of line-to-ground voltage, on the vertical
lines (busses). (Example 2.)
Fault shunts. Since the internal electromotive forces of a three-
phase synchronous machine are of positive sequence, and since no
power results from the combination of positive-sequence voltages with
negative-sequence or zero-sequence currents, the generated power of a
synchronous machine and the synchronizing power between the various
synchronous machines of a power system are positive-sequence power.
Therefore the positive-sequence network is of primary interest in a
stability study, and the zero- and negative-sequence networks are only
of secondary interest.
In the positive-sequence network a short circuit can be represented
by connecting a shunt impedance Zpat the point of fault. The value
of ZF depends upon the type of fault and upon the impedances Zo and
Z2 of the negative- and zero-sequence networks as viewed from the
point of fault.
The formula for the impedance of the fault shunt may be determined
in either of two ways. The first way is by inspection of the connec-
tions between the sequence networks for representing the various types
of short circuits (Fig. 7). The line-to-ground short circuit is rep-
resented by connecting in shunt with the positive-sequence network
FAULT SHUNTS
221
{57]
[56]
[541
[55J
Two-line-to-ground
Three-phase
at the point of fault the series combination of the zero-sequence and
negative-sequencenetworks; the line-to-line short circuit isrepresented
by thus connecting the negative-sequence network only; and the
two-line-to-ground short circuit is represented by the parallel com-
bination of the zero- and negative-sequence networks. Hence the
impedances of the fault shunts are as follows:
Type of Impedance of
Short Circuit Fault Shunt, Zl'
Line-to-ground Zo +Z2
Line-to-line Z2
ZoZ2
z, +Z2
o
The second way of finding the impedance of the fault shunt is to
take the two equations
V
o
= -ZoI
o
V
2
= -Z2I2
[58]
[59]
which are independent of the type of fault, together with the three
equations giving relations between, or special values of, the sequence
currents and voltages at the fault, and to eliminate from the five equa-
tions the four quantities V
o
, 1
0
, V
2
, 1
2
, thereby obtaining one equation
of the form
[601
[61J
For example, for a line-to-ground short circuit on phase a, eqs. 39 are
used. Substitution of.eqs. 58 and 59 into eq. 39a gives
-ZoI
o
+VI - Z2
I2
= 0
VI = ZoI
o
+ Z2I2
By eq. 39b1
0
and 1
2
may be replaced by It, giving
VI = (Zo + Z2)I
I
By comparison of eqs. 60 and 61 the impedance of the fault shunt is
ZF = z, + Z2 [62]
agreeing with eq. 54. The same result would have been obtained if
the short circuit had been taken on phase b or c instead of on a.
It may be worth pointing out that, although the connections of
Fig. 7 are valid even if the zero- or negative-sequence networks contain
generated electromotive forces, the expressions given for the imped-
222 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
ances of fault shunts are restricted to the normal condition, in which
such e.m.f.'s are lacking.
The positive-sequence network with the fault shunt connected to it
may be reduced in the usual way to the simplest form of network con-
necting the internal voltages of the synchronous machines. For a two-
machine system the reduced network is, of course, a tJ. (or 1r).
EXAMPLE 3
Find the fault shunt for representing a line-to-ground short circuit on bus
D of the power system of Fig. 8, Example 2, and reduce the positive-sequence
network (with shunt attached) to an equivalent 1f' between the two generator
0.293
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIG. 19. Reduction of positive-sequence network with attached fault shunt of
reactance X, representing a line-to-ground short circuit on the power system of
Fig. 8 (Example 3.)
e.m.f.'s and neutral. Repeat for other types of short circuit at the same
location.
Solution. In Example 2 the zero-sequence and negative-sequence net-
works were reduced to single impedances as viewed from the point of fault
(terminals D and 0). These impedances were Zo = jO.066 and Z2 = jO.09
per unit. For a line-to-ground short circuit the impedance of the fault
shunt is
Zp = Zo +Z2 = jO.066 +jO.09= jO.156 per unit
The positive-sequence network was reduced as shown in Fig. 9, and in part
c of that figure it has been reduced as far as possible while still retaining the
EFFECT OF TYPE OF FAULT ON STABILITY 223
separate identities of generators A and B. In Fig. 19 the fault shunt is
attached, and the network is reduced to an equivalent 1r. Since all the
branches of this 1r are reactive, only the branch between A and B affects
the power-angle equation. The reactance of that branch, for a line-to-
ground fault, is
X = 0.293 + 0.216 + 0.293 X 0.216 = 0.509 + 0.381
AB 0.010+'0.156
= 0.890 per unit
For any reactance XF of the fault shunt,
X = 0.509 + 0.0633
AB 0.010+ X,
Hence for a line-to-line short circuit
X". = X
2
= 0.090
X 0
+
0.0633 + ·
AB = 0.5 9 0.100 = 0.509 0.633= 1.14 per unit
For a two-line-to-ground short circuit,
X,. = XoX2 = 0.066 X 0.090 = 0.038
x, + X
2
0.156
X
+
0.0633 + ·
AB = 0.509 0.048 = 0.509 1.32 = 1.83 per unit
For a three-phase short circuit
X
F
= 0
X
+
0.0633 + 33 ·
AB = 0.509 0.010 = 0.509 6. := 6.84 per umt
The reactance between generators A and B is lowest for the line-to-ground
fault, higher for the line-to-line fault, still higher for the two-line-to-ground
fault, and highest of all for the three-phase fault.
Effect of type of fault on stability. The lower the impedance of the
fault shunt, the less is the power exchanged between any two syn-
chronous machines for a given angular displacement, and therefore
the lower is the stability limit for a given fault duration. In a two-
machine system, such as that of Example 3, it is clear that the lower
the impedance of the fault shunt (connected in the shunt branch of the
T network of Fig. 19a), the higher is the impedance of that branch of
the reduced network which joins the two generators (branch AlB!)
Fig. 19c). The synchronizing power varies inversely as the impedance
of branch AIB
I.
Asimilar situation exists on a system of more than
two machines.
224 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
Comparison of the expressions for the impedances of the fault shunts
for the several types of short circuit (eqs. 54 to 57) shows that this
impedance is lowest-indeed, is zero-for the three-phase short circuit,
higher for the two-line-to-ground short circuit, still higher for the line-
to-line short circuit, and highest for the line-to-ground short circuit.
It follows that the most severe type of fault, as ·regards power-system
stability, is the three-phase short circuit, followedin order of decreasing
severity by the two-line-to-ground, line-to-line, and one-line-to-ground
~
~ 0.5 J - - - + - - - + - + + ~ ~ ~ ~ - + - - i - - - + - - f
~
e
0.5 0.8 00
Fault duration (seconds)
FIG. 20. Curves of stability limit as a function of fault duration for four types of
fault at the sending end of a line of the system of Fig. 15, Chapter V (Example 4).
short circuits. The relative severity of the various faults is shown to
advantage by curves of power limit versus fault duration, such as the
curves of Fig. 20. The difference in severity of the several types of
fault becomes smaller as the fault duration is decreased, but, even with
the fastest feasible clearing times, the difference is usually pronounced.
For zero clearing time (which is not attainable in practice) the power
limit is independent of the type of fault.
In making a stability study some judgment is necessary in choosing
the type of fault which is assumed to occur. The assumption of three-
phase faults (the most severe type) gives conservative results and the
simplest computation. It is therefore a useful assumption when
comparing the effects of different fault locations, different system lay-
outs, bussing arrangements, load conditions, and similar factors.
EFFECT OF TYPE OF FAULT ON STABILITY 225
However, three-phase faults are of infrequent occurrence, especially on
high-voltage overhead lines on steel towers, and the power limits
determined on this assumption may be unduly pessimistic. For this
reason it has been common practice to assume two-line-to-ground faults
as the most severe condition likely to be encountered. In some loca-
tions, such as on busses of isolated-phase construction, it would be
reasonable to assume that only line-to-ground faults could occur.
Line-to-ground faults are the type of most frequent occurrence, and
three-phase faults, the least frequent. The relative and absolute
frequency of occurrence of the several types differs on different power
systems, depending largely on the type of line construction.
Sporn and Muller
4
give the following figures on the number of faults
of different types occurring on a group of transmission lines most of
which are operated at 132 kv.:
Line-to-ground 58
Two-line-to-ground 8
Three-phase 6
Total 72
In designing a system or a modification of one to improve stability,
it appears logical to make estimates both of the value of various degrees
of reliability of service and of the cost of achieving them. Then it may
be determined whether the expense of any particular improvement of
reliability is warranted. If a certain system can be made stable during
three-phase faults at reasonable cost, it may be worth doing; but, if the
expense is excessive, one may have to be satisfied with a system which
is stable during two-line-to-ground faults but not during three-phase
faults. In another system for which the requirements of reliability
are not so stringent, instability during two-line-to-ground faults may
be tolerated provided that the system is stable during line-to-ground
faults. If still lower standards of reliability prevail, interruptions of
service can be expected from any type of fault.
EXAMPLE 4
Determine and plot stability limit in per unit as a function of fault duration
for each of the following types of short circuit at the sending end of one line
of the two-machine system of Fig. 15, Example 3, Chapter V: (a) one-line-
to-ground, (b) line-to-line, (c) two-line-to-ground.
Positive-sequence reactances are given in Fig. 15 of Chapter V. Negative-
and zero-sequence reactances in per unit are as follows:
Generators: X
2
= 0.24, K« = 0.06
Each transmission line: X
2
= 0.40, X
o
= 0.65
Receiving-end transformers: X
2
= X
o
= 0.10
226 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
The transformers are connected Y- ~ with neutral of primary windings
solidly grounded.
Solution. The negative-sequence and zero-sequence networks are shown
in Figs. 21a and 22a, respectively. They are reduced to single reactances
(d)
0.24 0.30
( O ) ~ (c)
i°.l
33
(b)
FIG. 21. Reduction of the negative-sequence network, fault at sending end of
line (Example 4).
0.65
0.06 0.425
(0) r::-:=::J (c)
0.06 0.325 0.10
~ ( b )
(d)
FIG. 22. Reduction of the zero-sequence network, fault at sending end of line
(Example 4).
in parts b, c, and d of those figures. The values of the reactances are
X
2
= 0.133 and K« = 0.053 per unit.
The reactances of the fault shunts (X
F
) are:
Line-to-ground:
Line-to-line:
Two-line-to-ground:
X
o
+ X
2
= 0.186 per unit
X
2
= 0.133 per unit
X
OX2

X
o
+X~ = 0.038 per unit
The positive-sequence network is shown in Fig. 16a of Chapter V. With
the fault shunt attached to it at the proper point it becomes as shown in
Fig. 23a, and, after a Y-d conversion, it is as shown in Fig. 23b. The
reactance of the branch connecting the two generator e.m.L's is
XAB = 0.35 +0.30 +0.35;F0.30 = 0.65 + 0 ~ ~ 5
EFFECT OF TYPE OF FAULT ON STABILITY 227
Upon substituting the values of X
F
given above, we get the following values
of XAB:
Line-to-ground: 1.22 per unit
Line-to-line: 1.44 per unit
Two-line-to-ground: 3.41 per unit
0.65+° i ~ 5
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(a) (b)
FIG. 23. Reduction of the positive-sequence network with attached fault shunt of
reactance XI' (Example 4).
For the pre-fault condition (Chapter V, Fig. 16) X
AB
was 0.65 per unit,
and for the post-fault condition (Chapter V, Fig. 17) it was 0.85 per unit.
Henee n and r2 have the following values:
Line-to-ground.·
Line-fo-line:
Two-line-to-ground.·
All typesojJault.·
0.65 5
'1 = -=0.3
1.22
rl = 0.65 = 0.45
1.44
rl = 0.65 = 0.19
3.41
0.65 7
'2=-= 0.6
0.85
Byrd and Pritchard's curves will now be used. From Fig. 40 of Chapter
V values of sin 8
0
are obtained, corresponding to the values of '1 and r2
above. The values of sin 00, multiplied by Pm = EAEB/X
AB
= 1.00
X 1.00/0.65 = 1.54 per unit, give the power limits for sustained fault and
for instantaneous clearing. These values have been entered in Table 2 in
the columns headed "sin 00" and Upi" on the lines for t
e
= 00 and to = o.
Values of sin 00 which are multiples of 0.05 and which lie between the
values already found for t
e
= 00 and for t
e
= 0 are selected. The curves
of Figs. 23 to 39 of Chapter V are entered with the proper values of sin 00,
rl, and '2, and the values of Teare read from the curves and written in Table
2. Values of Te/t
e
are calculated from eq. 27 of Chapter V, as follows:
~ == ~ 1 f f 1 ' 1 P ... == ~ 1 f X 60 X 1'1 X 1.54 == ~
to GH 1 X 3.00
and are written in Table 2. The critical clearing time to is then calculated
from T
e
+ Tc/t
e•
228 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
TABLE 2
CALCULATION OF POWER LIMIT Pi AS A FUNCTION OF CLEARING TIME t
c
(EXAMPLE 4)
Type of Fault sin ~ o Pi = 1.54sin ~ o
"cltc t«
t
c
(sec.)
0.456 0.70 7.15 00
0.50 0.77
"
3.65 0.51
Line-to-ground
0.55 0.85
"
2.45 0.34
rl = 0.53
0.60 0.92
It
1.70 0.24
r2 = 0.76
0.65 1.00
u
1.15 0.16
0.701 1.08
"
0
0.378 0.58 6.59 00
0.40 0.62
"
4.40 0.67
Line-to-line 0.45 0.69
"
2.90 0.44
Tl = 0.45 0.50 0.77
"
2.20 0.33
r2 = 0.76 0.55 0.85
"
1.70 0.26
0.60 0.92
"
1.25 0.19
0.65 1.00
It
0.85 0.13
0.147 0.23 4.28 00
0.20 0.31
It
2.95 0.69
0.25 0.38
"
2.25 0.53
0.30 0.46
"
1.75 0.41
Two-line-to-ground 0.35 0.54
"
1.40 0.33
Tl = 0.19 0.40 0.62
"
1.20 0.28
T2 = 0.76 0.45 0.69
"
1.00 0.23
0.50 0.77
"
0.80 0.19
0.55 0.85
"
0.65 0.15
0.60 0.92
u
0.5 0.12
0.65 1.00
"
0.32 0.07
The results of the calculations are shown by the curves of Fig. 20. The
curve for a three-phase fault has been copied into this figure from Fig. 22 of
Chapter V so that the effects of the four types of fault on stability may be
compared.
Effect of fault impedance. In the derivation of the connections
between the sequence networks for representing short circuits,. it was
assumed that the fault itself had no impedance. Actually the fault
may have some impedance, principally the resistance of the arc be-
tween conductors. On high-voltage circuits this resistance is usually
negligible in comparison to the other impedances of the network, and
no allowance is made for it in calculation. * In ground faults there may
be additional resistance in the path to ground through the tower foot-
*For valuesof arc resistance seefootnotein sectionon reactancerelaysin Chap-
ter IX, Vol. II.
EFFECT OF FAULT IMPEDANCE
229
ing or through the object causing the fault. The value of this resist-
ance varies widely, with a median value of around 20 ohms.
5
This
resistance also is usually neglected in stability studies, thereby simplify-
ing calculation and giving results for the most severe condition.
If, for any reason, it is desirable, fault impedance may readily be
taken into account, as shown below.
Line-to-ground fault. Let F be the impedance of the fault between
conductor aand ground. To facilitate the analysis suppose that at the
point of fault there are attached to the three-phase network three equal
impedances of value F, as shown in Fig. 24a. This artifice has the
advantage of making the three-phase network symmetrical up to
point M, where a line-to-ground fault of zero impedance may be ap-
plied. The added impedance F appears in each sequence network
between the point of fault and point M. Terminals 0 and M of the
sequence networks are then interconnected as shown in Fig. 24b to
represent a line-to-ground short circuit. Conditions inside the se-
quence networks are not altered if an impedance 3F is connected in
series with the networks as shown in Fig. 24c instead of three separate
impedances of F each.
Line-to-line fault. Let F be the impedance of the fault between
conductors band c. Suppose that the fault condition is represented
by connecting an impedance F/2 to each of the three conductors at the
point of fault and then applying the line-to-line short circuit at the
other end of these impedances (point M, Fig. 24d). Such a connec-
tion is equivalent to connecting impedance F/2 to the line terminal of
each sequence network and then connecting the positive- and negative-
sequence networks in parallel as shown in Fig. 24e. Of course, the two
impedances F/2 which are no,v in series are equivalent to a single
impedance F.
Two-line-to-ground fault. Let the impedance between conductors
band c be F
L
, and let the impedance to ground be Fa. For generality
Fa might be tapped onto any point of FL, but, as FL is usually much
smaller than FG, it will be sufficiently accurate for the present purpose
to assume that Fa is connected to the center point of F
L
, giving F
L/2
between the junction and each faulted conductor, as shown in Fig. 24f.
The impedance FG in the ground connection can be shown to be
equivalent to an impedance 3FG in the zero-sequence network. The
connections between the sequence networks are then as shown in
Fig. 24g.
Three-phase fault. For symmetrical fault impedances as shown in
Fig. 24h the connections of the sequence networks are as shown in
Fig. 24i.
e
e
<
:
)
r
n
1
-
3
t
-
-
0
4
o Z t
:
1
Z t
=
r
j
t
-
3
:
a
o 0
0
F
a
(
h
)

3
c
b
b

1
9
F
.
/
2
(
I
)

3
,
1
,
.
b

g
o
.
-
.
l
.
-
-
-
J
\
A
A
-
-
I
Z
e
r
o

F
L
/
2
F
L
/
2
F
a
3
c
1
>
b c
g
o
-
(
d
)
F
/
2
Z
e
r
o
o
-
-
f
-
!
V
'
0

P
O
S
e
F
/
2
3
F

L
!
:
:
J
-
l
l
:
:
J
I

(
b
)
(
c
)
(
e
)
(
g
)
(
i
)
O
n
e

l
i
n
e

t
o
-
g
r
o
u
n
d
f
a
u
l
t
l
i
n
e
-
t
o
-
l
i
n
e
f
a
u
l
t
T
w
o
-
l
i
n
e
-
t
o
-
g
r
o
u
n
d
f
a
u
l
t
T
h
r
e
e
-
p
h
a
s
e
f
a
u
l
t
F
I
G
.
2
4
.
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
h
e
s
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
n
e
t
w
o
r
k
s
c
o
r
r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g
t
o
v
a
r
i
o
u
s
t
y
p
e
s
o
f
f
a
u
l
t
w
i
t
h
f
a
u
l
t
i
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
.
°
2
M
o
(
a
)
a

c
-
g
:
r
:
:
v
v
'
:
I
UNSYMMETRICAL OPEN CIRCUITS
231
[66)
Impedance of Fault Shunt, Z,.
z, +Z2 +3F [63]
Z2 +F [64]
FL + (Zo +FL/2 +3Fa) (Z2 +FL/2) [65]
2 Zo +Z2 +FL +3Fa
FL
2
Line-to-ground
Line-to-line
Three-phase
Two-line-to-ground
Fault shunts. The impedances of the fault shunts, connected across
the positive-sequence network at the point of fault to represent the
effect of faults having impedance, may be found from inspection of the
connections in Fig. 24; they are as follows:
Type of Fault
(with Fault Impedance)
Type of Fault
Unsymmetrical open circuits and series impedances. Unsym-
metrical open circuits may be caused by blown fuses or by single-pole
switching.t The connections between the sequence networks for
representing one or two open conductors or an impedance in series with
one conductor are given in Fig. 25. The derivations of these connec-
tions are similar to those given for.ahort circuits earlier in this chapter.
Before these connections are made, the line side of each sequence net-
work is opened at the point of fault, and the line on each side of the
opening is considered to be a terminal. (These are the two upper
terminals shown on each block in Fig. 25.) The neutral terminal,
used for representing short circuits, is not used for representing open
circuits.
The effect of an unsymmetrical open circuit or series impedance on
positive-sequence quantities may be represented by connecting an
impedance Zp in series with the positive-sequence network at the point
of fault. The value of .Zp depends upon the impedances Zo of the zero-
sequence network and Z2 of the negative-sequence network, each
measured or calculated from terminals at the point of fault in series,
instead of in shunt, with the respective network.
Series Impedance z"
Inserted in Positive-
Sequence Network
One conductor open
Two conductors open
Three conductors open
Impedance Z in series
with one conductor
ZoZ2
ZO +Z2
Zo +Z2
co
1
(l/zo) + (l/z2) +(3fZ)
[67]
[68]
[69]
[701
fSingle-pole switching is discussed in Chapter XI, Vol. II.
232
a
b
c
g
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
-l!.
a a
Z a
b
--!!.
b ~
c
.s.
c c
g g g g
Z/3
(
o
Zero
0
o o
Pos.
0
o 0
Neg.
0
-.
z ~ o
-.
P ~ s .
[5J
Neg.
Neg.
0 0'
'\Nv
() C)
Zero
0
()
0
Pos.
0
o 0
Neg.
0
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
Normal One con- Two con- Three con- Impedance Z
condition duetor open ductors open duetors open in one conductor
FIG. 25. Connections between the sequence networks corresponding to various
types of open circuit or series impedance.
Simultaneous faults and other double unbalances. Approximately
20% of the faults on double-circuit overhead transmission lines on the
same towers involve both circuits. Occasionally two faults occur
simultaneously at points which are separated geographically as well as
electrically, particularly on systems which are grounded through high
impedance. A combination of an unsymmetrical short circuit with an
unsymmetrical open circuit may occur, as when the short circuit is
partially cleared by the opening of a fuse or single-pole circuit breaker.
The conditions described above may be called "double unbalances."
In general, a double unbalance cannot be correctly represented by
connecting the sequence networks at each of the two points of fault as
they would be connected for single unbalances at those points, nor can
the effect of a double unbalance on positive-sequence quantities be
correctly represented by connecting into the positive-sequence network
fault shunts or series impedances which have the same values that they
would if the two faults had occurred separately.
For methods of solving three-phase networks having double un-
balances see Refs. 2, 3, 6, and 7.
LINES IN THE ZERO-SEQUENCE NETWORK 233
The zero-sequence network. The zero-sequence network plays an
important role in determining the currents and voltages during ground
faults. This network differs from the positive- and negative-sequence
networks particularly with respect to the representation of lines and of
transformers.
Representation of lines in the zero-sequence network. In any
three-phase circuit positive- and negative-sequence currents are con-
fined to the line conductors. Zero-sequence currents, however, being in
phase in all three line conductors, must find a return path elsewhere,
usually either through the earth or through both the earth and over-
head ground wires or cable sheaths. The spacing between the out-
going and return paths is therefore greater for zero-sequence than for
positive-sequence currents. Accordingly, the zero-sequence series
inductive reactance is greater; and the shunt capacitive susceptance is
smaller, than the corresponding positive-sequence quantities. The
zero-sequence inductive reactance of lines is greater than the positive-
sequence reactance approximately by the following factors:
Single-circuit aerial lines without ground wires or with steel ground
wires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 3.5
Single-circuit aerial lines with copper or aluminum ground wires. . . . . . . 2
Double-circuit aerial lines without ground wires or with steel ground
wires " . . . . .. . . . . . 5.5
Double-circuit aerial lines with copper or aluminum ground wires. . . . . . 3
Three-phase cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 to 5
Single-phase cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Although these factors are useful for estimating zero-sequence react-
ance of lines, more accurate values should be calculated if the conductor
sizes and spacings and the earth resistivity are known. Methods of
calculating zero-sequence resistance, reactance, and capacitance are
given in Refs. 1, 2, 3, and 21 of Chapter III.
There is a considerable zero-sequence mutual impedance between
parallel aerial lines on the same towers or even on the same right-of-
way. The methods of calculating mutual impedance are also given in
the references. If t\VO lines having self-impedances Za and Zb and
mutual impedance Zm are connected together at both ends, they may
be replaced by a single impedance, Fig. 26a. If they are connected
together at one end only, they can be represented by the equivalent Y
circuit of Fig. 26b. If they are not connected at either end, they can
be represented on an a-c. board by the equivalent circuit of Fig. 26c,
which utilizes an insulating transformer of ratio 1: i.t For ordinary
tWo A. Lewis, in discussing Ref. 8, attributes this circuit to C. F. Wagner.
234 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
calculation they can be represented by the mesh circuit of Fig. 26d.
8
If a fault is to be represented on one of a pair of coupled lines, the lines
on each side of the fault must be considered a separate section. Thus,
Ca)
ZeZb-Z",,'l
Za+
Z
b -
2Z
""
o------JVV\r---

6'----6
,
CJ ----a
(c)
c
(bl
a'
a'----a
(d)
6'----b
b'
Zb
FIG. ?6. Equivalent circuits for two coupled lines of self-impedances Za and Zb
and mutual impedance Zm. Lines connected together (a) at both ends, (b) at one
end only, and (c) and (d) at neither end.
I
Fault
)(

a
b
m(Zb-Zm) (l-m)(Zb-Zm)
FIG. 27. Equivalent circuit of two coupled lines, one of which is faulted.
if there is a fault on one of two lines connected' at both ends, and the
fault is distant from one end by a fraction m of the length of the lines,
the equivalent circuit is as in Fig. 27. Equivalent circuits for three or
more coupled lines have been devised" but are seldom needed. Two
coupled circuits having appreciable shunt admittance can be rep-
resented by the equivalent or nominal circuits given in Ref. 9.
TRANSF9RMERS IN THE SEQUENCE NETWORKS 235
Representation of transformers in the sequence networks. As a
rule, every important transformer bank on a three-phase power system
consists either of three identical single-phase transformers having each
set of windings connected in Y or in d or of a three-phase transformer
having its windings connected likewise. Only 'such transformers hav-
ing not more than three sets of windings are considered here.
As was mentioned in Chapter III, the positive-sequence equivalent
circuit of a two-circuit transformer bank, with exciting current neglected,
consists of a series impedance and an ideal transformer of complex
ratio. The angle of the complex ratio expresses the phase shift of
positive-sequence voltage from one side of the transformer bank to the
other. For D.-d or Y-Y connections the shift is either 0 or 180°. For
!:J,.-Y or Y-!:J,. connections the phase shift, with the standard manner of
naming the phases, is either +30° or -30°, depending upon the exact
connections. By naming the phases in a different manner, the phase
shift of +30
0
may become + 150
0
or -90°, and the phase shift of -30°
may become +90° or -150°. The nomenclature in which the phase
shift is ±90° is the most convenient for computation and is recom-
mended for that purpose.2, 10 If per-unit quantities are used, the
magnitude of the complexratio becomes 1, but the angle remains. In
setting up the positive-sequence network, the phase shift is commonly
neglected. The currents and voltages are first calculated as if there
were no phase shift, and later the phase shift is taken into account if it
is of any moment in the use of the results. When phase shift is not
represented, the positive-sequence equivalent circuit for per-unit
quantities consists merely of a series impedance.
The negative-sequence equivalent circuit of a transformer bank is like
the positive-sequence circuit except that the angle of the complex
ratio is of opposite sign. For example, if the phase shift for positive-
sequence current and voltage is +90°, the phase shift for negative-
sequence current and voltage is -90°. Here again the phase shift is
usually disregarded in setting up the negative-sequence network, but
it may be taken into account later if desired.
The zero-sequence equivalent circuit differs considerably from the
positive- and negative-sequence circuits. For banks of single-phase
transformers the value of impedance is the same, but, instead of this
impedance being simply in series with the line, each end of the imped-
ance may be either open or grounded, depending upon the connections
of the bank. The proper connection may be deduced by considering
the paths of zero-sequence currents. Zero-sequencecurrents are equal
in the three phases. It is apparent that such currents cannot flow
through a set of Y-connected windings if the neutral of the Y is isolated,
236 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
but they can flow if the neutral is grounded. Zero-sequence currents
cannot flowfrom a three-phase line into a set of A-connected windings,
but they can flow around the delta. If exciting current is neglected,
zero-sequence currents can flow in one set of windings of a transformer
bank only if zero-sequence currents can flo,v also in the other set of
windings, The foregoing statements may be summarized as follows:
Zero-sequence current cannot flow from a line into a transformer bank
Three-phase circuit
(a)
Delta·delta
(b)
Ungrounded Y-
ungrounded Y
(c)
Grounded Y-
grounded Y
(d)
Grounded Y-
delta
(e)
Ungrounded
Y- delta
(I)
Ungrounded Y-
grounded Y
Zero- sequence circuit
---VV\;---
_l
FIG. 28. Zero-sequence equivalent circuits of two-circuit transformer banks.
unless the windings connected to the line are in Y with grounded
neutral and unless the other windings are either in ~ or in Y with
grounded neutral, The zero-sequence equivalent circuits of various
transformer connections are shown in Fig. 28. Only connections c,
grounded Y-grounded Y, and d, grounded Y - ~ , present a path for
zero-sequence current. The other connections are equivalent to an
open circuit in the zero-sequence network,
The zero-sequence impedance of the grounded y - ~ bank is equal to
the short-circuit impedance of one transformer. Figure 29 may help
TRANSFORMERS IN THE SEQUENCE NETWORKS 237
to show why this is so. In part a of the figure the actual connections
are shown. It is assumed that equal currents 1
0
are impressed on the
primary windings, causing the secondary current 1
0
' to circulate
around the delta. Because of the symmetry of the delta, terminals
A, B, and C are at the same potential and may be connected to one
another, as indicated by broken lines in the figure, without effectively
changing the circuit for zero sequence. Connecting terminals A, B,
and C is equivalent to short-circuiting each secondary winding separ-
ately as in part b of the figure. It is apparent that the circuit of Fig.
(a)
1 #
0
1
0
~
Vo 1
0
~ I r i
Vo1
~ I o '
0
tvo
-
(b)
FIG. 29. Diagram showing that the zero-sequence impedance of a transformer
bank connected grounded Y-A is equal to the short-circuit impedance of the trans-
formers.
29b presents between each primary line and ground an impedance equal
to the short-circuit impedance of one of the transformers. As the line
current is 1
0
and the line-to-ground voltage is V
o
, the impedance
VolI
o
is the zero-sequence impedance. It is equal to the positive-
sequence impedance because the latter is also the short-circuit imped-
ance.
Grounding impedance. The neutral of the Y-connected windings
may be grounded either solidly or through a neutral impedance Zn.
The current through Zn is 310, causing a voltage drop across it of
3Z
nIo
, which is added to all three line-to-neutral voltages and hence
to the zero-sequence component of these voltages. In the zero-
sequence network the current is 10, and to obtain the correct zero-
238 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
sequence voltage drop the neutral impedance must appear in this net-
work as an impedance 3Z
n
in series with the transformer impedance.
Multicircuit transformers. As mentioned in Chapter III, the posi-
tive-sequence equivalent circuit of a three-circuit transformer, with
exciting current, phase shift, and ratio neglected, consists of three
impedances connected in Y between the terminals of the three circuits.
1 2 3
41£;
(a)
FIG. 30. Zero-sequence equivalent circuits of three-circuit transformer banks.
As long as phase shift is neglected, the negative-sequence circuit is
identical to the positive-sequence circuit. The zero-sequence circuit
consists of the same set of Y-connected impedances, but the three
terminals of the, Y may not all be connected to the corresponding
external circuits. Each of the three windings should be considered
separately, and the corresponding terminal of the Y should be con-
nected according to the same principles already established for two-
circuit transformers, namely: (1) if the winding is the
line is left open, and the corresponding impedance is grounded; (2) if
TRANSFORMERS IN THE SEQUENCE NETWORKS 239
the winding is Y-connected with grounded neutral, the line is con-
nected to the impedance; and (3) if the winding is Y-connected with
isolated neutral, both the line and the impedance are left open. In
Fig. 30 these principles are applied to several different connections of
three-circuit transformers. The same principles apply to transformers
of four or more circuits.
Three-phase transformers. Three-phase shell-type and three-phase
five-legged core-type transformers resemble banks of three single-phase
transformers in that they have three magnetic circuits which are al-
most independent of each other. Hence the equivalent circuits of
these transformers are the same as those for banks of single-phase units.
In three-phase three-legged core-type transformers, however, condi-
tions are different. Application of Kirchhoff's lawto the fluxesof three
legs shows that there can be no zero-sequence flux in such a transformer
except that leaking through air paths from top to bottom of the core.
Therefore zero-sequence exciting currents produce no zero-sequence
voltage except that induced by this leakage flux, which is small com-
pared with the core flux that would be set up by positive-sequence
currents of like magnitude but large compared with the leakage flux
between primary and secondary windings. In other words, the zero-
sequence exciting impedance is much smaller than the positive-
sequence exciting impedance but is about five times as great as the
leakage impedance, or equivalent impedance, between windings. Con-
sequently, even a two-circuit transformer of this type should be rep-
resented by a T circuit. The shunt branch, representing the zero-
sequence exciting admittance, cannot be neglected, as it usually is in
the positive-sequence circuit. The effect of the three-legged core is
similar to that produced by adding a high-impedance il-connected
winding, as is evidenced in the equivalent circuit by the third branch,
the terminal of which is grounded. The connections at the other
terminals, corresponding to the actual windings, depend upon the
connections of those windings, as already discussed.
Autotransformers. The commonest type of autotransformer on
three-phase transmission systems has a set of Y-connected tapped
windings with a grounded neutral and a separate A-connected stabiliz-
ing winding (formerly called a tertiary winding). It is, therefore, a
three-circuit transformer connected Y- Y- il, and its equivalent circuit
is the same as that of a transformer with three separate windings
similarly connected, the impedances being given on the circuit basis.
2
The zero-sequence circuit is connected as shown in Fig. 30a without the
grounding impedances. If the neutral of the autotransformer is
grounded through impedance, this impedance is common to both
240 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
Y-connected circuits and, when expressed in actual ohms, is both the
mutual impedance and a component of each self-impedance. When
expressed in per unit or in ohms referred to a particular voltage, how-
ever, this impedance has three different values, one for the mutual
impedance and two for the two self-impedances. Therefore, the single
impedance must be represented by a Y circuit, as shown in Fig. 31.
If the neutral of an autotransformer is ungrounded, zero-sequencecur-
rents can pass from one circuit to the other without transformation,
the transformer acting merely as a series impedance.
(a)
A B
(b)
FIG. 31. An impedance Z common to two circuits, A and B, must be represented
in the per-unit system by a Y circuit if different base voltages are used for the two
circuits. N is the ratio of base voltage A to base voltage B, and Z' is the per-unit
value of Z on base voltage A. In the zero-sequence network all impedances are
multiplied by 3.
Other symmetrical transformer connections, including regulating trans-
formers. See Ref. 12.
Effect of grounding on stability. Methods of grounding a power
system modify its zero-sequence impedance. This affects the imped-
ance of the fault shunts for representing ground faults and thereby
affects the severity of such faults.
Most transmission systems are grounded through transformers, the
high-voltage windings of which are connected in Y with grounded
neutral. Such transformers are nearly always used at the points of
supply and sometimes also at points of load. Occasionallytransform-
ers whichdo not carry load are used solelyfor the purpose of grounding.
On high-voltage systems the usual practice is to ground the trans-
former neutrals solidly; on medium-voltage systems, to ground them
either solidly or through resistors or reactors of lowper-unit impedance.
Some medium-voltage systems are nominally ungrounded but actually
are grounded through the relatively high zero-sequence shunt capacitive
reactance of the lines. If one or more transformer neutrals are
grounded through reactors, the inductive reactance of which resonates
with the capacitive reactance, the zero-sequence impedance may be
made much higher than that of a nominally ungrounded system.
Resonant grounding reactors, known as Petersen coils or ground-fault
EFFECT OF GROUNDING ON STABILITY 241
neutralizers, are used to a small but increasing extent. Transmission
systems to which generators are connected directly, rather than through
transformers, are grounded through the generators. The generator
neutrals, like transformer neutrals, may be grounded either solidly or
through resistors or reactors.
The zero-sequence impedance of a transmission system, viewed from
the point of fault, depends upon the number of grounding points, upon
the distance of the grounding points from the point of fault, upon the
zero-sequence impedance of the grounding transformers (or gener-
ators), and upon the impedance of the grounding resistor or reactor,
if used.
An increase in the zero-sequence impedance, viewed from the point
of fault, results in a decrease in the severity of a one-line-to-ground or
two-line-to-ground fault. The effect of a two-line-to-ground fault
approaches that of a line-to-line fault at the same location, and the
effect of a one-line-to-ground fault approaches that of no fault. There-
fore, in its effect on system stability during ground faults, grounding
through impedance is better than solid grounding. Either resistors
or reactors may be used to decrease the severity of ground faults, but
reactors are cheaper and commoner than resistors.
At some locations, however, resistors are more effective than
reactors. On a system consisting of several synchronous machines
joined by low-resistance lines, the occurrence of a fault decreases' the
electrical outputs of the generators and the electrical inputs of the
actual or equivalent motors, causing the generators to be accelerated
and the motors to be retarded. The closer the fault is to a particular
machine, the greater is its effect on the electrical output or input of that
machine, and the greater is the tendency for the machine to be ac-
celerated or retarded, as the case may be. Stability is promoted by
anything which increases the output of the generators during the fault,
thereby lessening their acceleration, provided that the retardation of
the motors is not increased correspondingly. A grounding resistor, by
consuming power during a ground fault, exerts on a synchronous ma-
chine a braking effect which is greater the closer the fault is to the
resistor and the closer the machine is to the fault. A grounding re-
sistor located near a generator is therefore beneficial, as it exerts the
greatest braking effect on the generator for faults closeby, which would
otherwise result in the greatest decrease of load and, consequently, in
the greatest acceleration. Grounding resistors should not be used,
however, near actual or equivalent synchronous motors or near syn-
chronous condensers, for such machines already are retarded by faults.
In a two-machine system resistance grounding may be advisable at the
sending end and reactance grounding at the receiving end.
242 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
Neither grounding resistors nor grounding reactors have any effect
during three-phase faults.
The choice of a grounding system is influenced not only by con-
sideration of stability but also by other factors, among which are:
(a) limitation of current to prevent damage to generator windings
from excessive mechanical forces; (b) limitation of neutral-to-ground
and line-to-ground voltages of transformers to permit the use of graded
insulation and lightning arresters of lower voltage rating, which give
better protection; (c) limitation of inductive influenceon communica-
tion circuits during ground faults on the power system; and (d) obtain-
ing suitable conditions for rapid and selective relay operation to clear
ground faults. Since the conditions for limiting current conflict with
those for limiting voltage, the choice of grounding method rests on
compromise. The importance of the effect on stability of the method
of grounding has been decreased in recent years by the trend toward
higher speeds of fault clearing.
EXAMPLE 5
Determine the effectiveness of grounding reactors or resistors in increasing
the stability limit of the two-machine system of Fig. 32 during two-line-to-
ground faults on the transmission lines. Assume the grounding reactance
or resistance to be 10% on the basis of the kilovolt-ampere rating of. generat-
ing station A.
Solution. A fault at either end of one of the transmission lines is more
severe than a fault near the middle of a line; therefore, two-line-to-ground
faults will be assumed, first at point C, then at point D, Fig. 32. The
stability limit depends upon fault duration. For comparing the different
methods of grounding it will be simplest to find the stability limit for sus-
tained faults. This limit will be found by first obtaining the power-angle
equation and then using the equal-area method, or, when the network is
purely reactive, by using Fig. 40 of Chapter V, which was derived by the
equal-area method.
The grounding impedances, Zs at the sending end and ZRat the receiving
end, appear in the zero-sequence network as 3Zs and 3ZB, respectively.
The three sequence networks are connected in parallel at points C and 0
(as shown in Fig. 32b) to represent a two-line-to-ground fault at the sending
end; they are connected similarly, but at D and 0, to represent a fault at the
receiving end. The zero-sequence and negative-sequence networks are each
reduced to a single impedance between terminals C and 0 (or D and 0), and
then the positive-sequence network with fault shunt attached is reduced to a
7r circuit. Next the power-angle equation is found by the methods of Chap-
ter IV. The details of calculation will not be shown, but the resulting
equations are given in Table 3. The corresponding stability limits, found
by the equal-area method, are presented in Table 4.
EFFECT OF GROUNDING ON STABILITY 243
30
30
(a)
1.0
10 11 15
Posltive- sequence network
Zero- sequence network
10
°1
I
I
I
3Z R I
'-- ~ ~ - - -1
32
3Z
s
(b)
o
FIG. 32. Two-machine system of Example 5. (a) One-line diagram. (b)
Sequence networks interconnected to represent a two-line-to-ground fault at point
C. Reactances are given in per cent on the rating of the generating station.
TABLE 3
POWER-ANGLE EQUATIONS OF THE Two-MACHINE SYSTEM OF FIG. 32 FOR
VABIOUS METHODS OF GROUNDING (EXAMPLE 5)
Power-Angle Equations
(power in per cent of rating of station A)
Grounding
Impedance
(per cent)
~ ~
Z8 Zs
o 0
jl0 0
o jtO
jl0 jtO
10 j10
10 10
Any Any
Any Any
SLGFault at SendingEnd
P
u
= 34 sin 8
P
u
= 51 sin 8
P
u
= 36 sin 8
P« = 55 sin 8
P
u
= 5 +60 sin (8 +7°)
P
u
= 10 + 56 sin (8 + 10°)
LL Fault at SendingEnd
Pu, = 77 sin 8
Norrnal Conditions
P« = 154sin 8
SLGFault at Receiving End
Pu, = 40 sin 8
Pu, = 42 sin 8
Pu, = 55 sin 8
Pu, = 59 sin 8
Pu, = 4 +58 sin (8 + 2°)
Pu, = -5 +55 sin (8 +8°)
LL Fault at Receiving End
Pu, = 77 sin 8
One Line Disconnected
Pu, = 129 sin 8
244 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
With solid grounding at both ends, the stability limit for a sustained two..
line-to-ground fault at the -sending end is 27% of the rated kilovolt-amperes
of generating station A; and, for a similar fault at the receiving end, it is
32%, as given in the first line of Table 4. The addition of a 10% grounding
reactor at either end increases the stability limit considerably for a fault at
that end but only very slightly for a fault at the distant end. The use of
reactors at both ends increases the stability limit for any fault location; the
increase of stability limit over that obtained with solid grounding at both
TABLE 4
Stability Limit for Sustained Fault
(in per cent of rating of station A)
A
o
o
jtO
jtO
jtO
10
o
jto
o
jl0
10
10
STABILITY LIMITS OF THE Two-MACHINE SYSTEM OF FIG. 32 FOR
SUSTAINED FAULTS, AS AFFECTED BY GROUNDING REACTORS
AND RESISTORS (EXAMPLE 5)
Grounding
Impedance
(per cent)
~
Zs ZR
~
2LG Fault at 2LG Fault at
Sending End Receiving End
27 32
42 34
29 45
46 48
57 52
59 41
LL Fault at LL Fault at
Sending End ReceivingEnd
Any Any 66 66
Stability limit for any fault cleared instantaneously is 123%.
ends is considerable, but the increase over that obtained with a reactor at the
end near the fault is slight. The substitution of a 10% resistor for the
reactor at the sending end provides an additional increase in the stability
limit, although the increase is greater for a fault at the sending end than for a
fault at the receiving end. The further substitution of a resistor for the
reactor at the receiving end results in a small additional increase in stability
limit for a fault at the sending end, but the benefit is more than offset by a
considerable decrease in stability limit for a fault at the receiving end.
The best grounding scheme oj those investigated here is a resistor at the sending
end and a reactor at the receiving end. Even when this scheme is used, the
stability limit is lower for a two-line-to-ground fault than for a line-to-line
fault.
The improvement in stability limit obtained by the use of grounding
impedance is smaller for a rapidly cleared fault than for a sustained fault,
although the stability limit itself is greater.
If grounding resistors are used at one or both ends, the stability limit
depends upon the ratio of the inertia constant of the motor to that of the
TWO-PHASE COORDINATES 245
generator. The dependence of stability limit on the inertia constants may
be understood by recalling that the equivalent power-angle curve of a two-
machine system having resistance is a sinusoid displaced upward (according
to eq. 28, Chapter IV) by an amount
Po = M2E12Y ll cos811 - M1E22Y 22 cos 8 22
M1+M2
where M
l
and M
2
are the inertia constants of the generator and of the motor,
respectively; E
1
and E
2
are the internal voltages of the generator and of the
motor, respectively; and Fu cos On and Y
22
cos 8
22
are the terminal self-
conductances of the network between the internal voltages. If the two
conductances are assumed to be equal, as they would be if the fault were
electrically midway between the two internal voltages, and if, furthermore,
the two internal voltages are assumed to be equal, Po would be zero if the
inertia constants were equal. If, however, M
2
were greater than M
I
, Pc
would be positive, indicating a raising of the power-angle curve by the
amount of Po and a resultant raising of the stability limit by about the same
amount. If, on the other hand, M
2
were smaller than M
I
, Pc would be
negative, indicating a lowering of the curve and of the stability limit. In
the present example it has been assumed that the generator and motor have
equal values of stored energy per rated kilovolt-ampere but that the rating
of the motor is three times that of the generator, giving M2 = 3M
l
• If the
two-machine system consisted of a hydroelectric station supplying power to a
metropolitan system of one or more steam stations, M
2
would be consider-
ably larger than M
I
, both because of the greater capacity of the steam system
and because of the greater stored energy per kilovolt-ampere of the steam
turbogenerators; increasing M2/M1from 3 to 00, however, would increase
the stability limit only a small amount. The stability limit is further in-
creased if, as is usually true, the internal voltage of the generator is greater
than that of the motor (E
I
> E
2
) . In addition to the upward shift of the
power-angle curve when M
2
> M
I
, there is a small shift to the left, which is
beneficial.
A thorough investigation of the methods of grounding would include a
study of the effects of varying the magnitude of the grounding reactance or
resistance on power limit and also on the line-to-neutral voltages. These
matters, however, will not be considered here.
Two-phase coordlnates.P-l" Symmetrical components, which have
been used in the preceding part of this chapter for analyzing unbalanced
three-phase circuits, are a kind of substituted variables. Another kind
of substituted variables, sometimes used for the same purpose, are
two-phase coordinates. Two-phase components of current and volt-
age are defined as follows:§
I, = i (2I
a
- I
b
- Ie) [71a]
§In Ref. 14 a, {j, and 0 components are defined in a slightly different way.
246
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NET\VORKS
1
[7tb] III = - (Ie - Ib)
va
I
z
= l(la+ Ib + Ie)
[71c]
V
z
= !(2V
a
- Vb - V
c
) [72a]
1
[72b]
V
1I
= va (Vc - Vb)
v, = leVa + Vb + Vc) [72c]
Note that the expression for I, differs from that for V
z
by a factor 2.
If eqs. 71and 72are solved for the phase quantities in terms of their
two-phase components, the following expressions are obtained:
la = Ix +!Iz
[73a]
1 V3 1
[73b]
r, = -"2
I
x - 2 r, + '2
I
z
1 va 1
[73c]
I, = -"2
I
z + 2 III +2"Iz
Va = V
x
+ Vz
[74a]
1 va
[74b] Vb = -2
V
- - V + V
x 2 y z
1 va
[74c]
v, = -7jVx + 2 Vy + v,
Relation to symmetrical components. Two-phase components are
related to symmetrical components as follows:
r, = 11 + 1
2
I
y
= j(I
I
- 1
2
)
[75a]
[75b]
[75c]
v. = VI + V
2
[76a]
V
y
= j(V
1
- V
2
) [76b]
v, = v; [76c]
Note that the x current and voltage are equal to the sum of the posi-
tive- and negative-sequence components, andthe y current and voltage
are equal to the difference of the positive- and negative-sequence com-
TWO-PHASE COORDINATES 247
ponents multiplied by j. The z voltage is the zero-sequence voltage,
but the z current is twice the zero-sequence current.
Consider a balanced, positive-sequence set of three-phase voltages.
Their negative-sequence component is zero. Their two-phase com-
ponents, byeqs. 76, are V
x
= VI and V
y
= jV
1
, which are balanced
two-phase voltages of phase order y, x. Similarly, the two-phase
components of negative-sequence three-phase voltages are two-phase
voltages of phase order x, y.
The substitute networks. The x voltages and currents may be im-
agined to exist in a single-phase network called the z network; the y
voltages and currents, in another called the y network; and the z volt-
ages and currents, in a third called the z network. These networks are
analogous to the sequence networks used in the method of symmetrical
components and may be given the more general name of "substitute
networks." The substitute networks representing a balanced three-
phase network whose positive- and negative-sequence impedances are
equal are independent of one another. The x and y impedances are
equal to each ather and to the positive- and negative-sequence imped-
ances. The z impedances are one-half the corresponding zero-sequence
impedances.
The positive- and negative-sequence impedances of rotating poly-
phase machinery are usually unequal. For many purposes, however,
they may be assumed equal without serious error, thus making the use
of two-phase coordinates practicable.
If the three-phase network contains balanced, positive-sequence
generated electromotive forces, then the x and y networks contain
electromotive forces of equal magnitude, those in the y network leading
those in the x network by 90°. Ordinarily, the z network contains no
generated electromotive forces.
The self- and mutual impedances of the substitute networks and the
connections between the networks corresponding to any given imped-
ances and connections of the three-phase network or any portion of it
may be found by the process previously described for symmetrical
components and illustrated by the derivation of equivalent circuits
for representing several types of short circuit.
Connections between the substitute networks for representing short
circuits are shown in Fig. 33.
13
A line-to-ground short circuit is
represented by connecting the x and z networks in series and leaving the
y network open. A line-to-line short circuit is represented by short-
circuiting the y network and leaving the x and z networks open. The z
network is dead and need not be set up. However, the x network in
this case and the y network in the case of a line-to-ground fault, al-
248 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
though not connected to anything at the point of fault, contain gener-
ated voltages and carry normal load currents.] A two-line-to-ground
fault is represented by short-circuiting the y network and paralleling
the x and z networks through a transformer of 2 : 1 ratio. If the
impedances of the z network are given four times their normal value
ao
3<p ~ b
go
o
%
-.
[J
0-
-
Z
o
[]
-.
[]
[Z]
o 0
__.1-
1
% I; ~ p I
(a) (6) (c) (d)
One •line•to- ground une-to•line Two . line•to- ground Three- phase
FIG. 33. Connections between the substitute networks (z, y, z) for representing
various types of short circuit on a three-phase network (34)).
(twice, instead of half, the zero-sequence impedances), the trans-
former can be omitted.
If the three-phase network is symmetrical except at the point of
fault, and if the negative-sequence impedances are assumed every-
where equal to the positive-sequence impedances, the x and y networks
are not coupled to each other and are identical except for a 90
0
phase
difference in generated e.m.f.'s. Therefore it is unnecessary to have
both these networks set up simultaneously on a calculating board.
The positive-sequence network is used in turn for both the x and y
networks. For example, in calculating a line-to-line fault (Fig. 33b),
readings are taken in the positive-sequence network, first with nothing
[Under the assumptions made in using a d-e. calculating board, all line-to-
neutral voltages in this network are equal, and all currents in it are zero.
REFERENCES 249
connected to it at the point of fault, and then again with a short circuit
there. It is not even necessary to shift the generator voltages by 90°
because it is a simple calculation to rotate the second set of readings
forward through 90°, that is, to multiply them by j. Readings can be
taken for all types of short circuit with only two networks set up on the
board.
Applications oj two-phase coordinates. In general, only the positive-
sequence network need be set up for a stability study, faults being
represented by fault shunts. Sometimes, however, it is desired to
study the probable operation of protective relays, and for this purpose
the currents and voltages while the system is faulted must be found.
The method of two-phase coordinates furnishes a convenient way of
calculating these quantities from readings taken on a calculating board
on which only the z network is set up in addition to the positive-
sequence network. .
Two-phase coordinates also find application to the analysis of un-
balances which are symmetrical with respect to one phase, for example,
single-phase series or shunt impedances, banks of transformers con-
nected in V or T, and untransposed transmission lines.
14
, 15,16
REFERENCES
1. C. L. FORTESCUE, "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to the
Solution of Polyphase Networks," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 37, pp. 1027-140, 1918.
Historical reference.
2. C. F. WAGNER and R. D. Evans, Symmetrical Components as Applied to the
Analysis of Unbalanced Electrical Circuits, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1933.
3. W. V. LYON, Applications of the Method of Symmetrical Components, New
York, McGraw-Hill Book ce., 1937.
4. PHILIP SPORN and C. A. MULLER, "Five Years' Experience with Ultrahigh-
Speed Reclosing of High-Voltage Transmission Lines," A.I.E.E. Troms., vol. 60,
pp. 241-6, May, 1941.
5. C. L. GILKESON, P. A. JEANNE, and E. F. VAAGE, "Power System Faults to
Ground: Part II: Fault Resistance," Elec. Eng., vol. 56, pp. 428-33, 474, April,
1937.
6. EDITH CLARKE, "Simultaneous Faults on Three-Phase Systems," A.I.E.E.
Trans., vol. 50, pp. 919-41, September, 1931.
7. E. W. KIMBARK, "Experimental Analysis of Double Unbalances," Elec. Eng.,
vol. 54, pp. 159-65, February, 1935.
8. FRANK M. STARR, "Equivalent Circuits-I," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 51, PP.
287-98, June, 1932; disc., pp. 321-6.
9. J. C. BALSBAUGH, R. B. Gow, W. P. DOUGLASS, and A. H. LEAL, "Equivalent
Circuits-2 Coupled Circuits," Elee. Eng., vol. 55, pp. 366-71, April, 1936; disc.,
pp, 1037-9, September, 1936. This paper gives an exactly equivalent five-terminal
mesh circuit for two coupled lines not connected to each other at either end. The
250 SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
discussion gives (1) an alternative circuit using a transformer, and (2) nominal or
approximate values of the impedances of the equivalent circuits with numerical
comparisons of the nominal values with the exact values.
10. BRYCE BRADY, "Symmetrical Notation of Three-Phase Circuits," A.I.E.E.
Trans., vol. 60, pp. 955-7, November, 1941.
11. A. N. GARIN, "Zero-Phase-Sequence Characteristics of Transformers,"
Gen. Elec. Reo., vol. 43, pp. 131-6, 174-9, March and April, 1940.
12. J. E. HOBSON and W. A. LEWIS, "Equivalent Circuits for Power and Regu-
lating Transformers," Elec. Jour. preprint, January, 1939; also published as Ap-
pendix, Table 7, Electrical Transmission and DistributionReference Book by Central
Station Engineers of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, 1st
edition, 1942.
13. EDITH L. CLARKE, "Determination of Voltages and Currents during Un-
balanced Faults: Use of the Sum and Difference of Positive and Negative Sequence
Symmetrical Components," Gen. Elec. Reu., vol. 40, pp. 511-3, November, 1937.
14. EDITH CLARKE, "Problems Solved by Modified Symmetrical Components,"
Gen. Elec. Reo., vol. 41, pp, 488-94, 545-9, November and December, 1938.
15. EDWARD W. KIMBARK, "Two-Phase Coordinates of a Three-Phase Circuit,"
A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 58, pp. 894-904, 1939; disc., PP. 904-10.
16. EDITH CLARKE, Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems, vol. I, Symmetrical
and RelatedComponents, New York, John Wiley &Sons, 1943. Chapter V, "Two
Component Networks for Three-Phase Systems"; Chapter X, "Alpha, Beta, and
Zero Components of Three-Phase Systems."
PROBLEMS ON CHAPTER VI
1~ Graphically and algebraically find the symmetrical components of the
following sets of phase voltages:
a
Va = 100/0
v, = 100/240°
v, = 100 /120°
b
v, = 100LQ
v, = 100/120°
v, = 100 /240°
C
v, = 100LQ
v, = 100LQ
V
c=100LQ
2. Find the symmetrical components of the following sets of phase cur-
rents:
a
I" = 0
I
b
= I
I, = -I
b
I
a
= I
I b = -!I
Ie = -!I
c
I a = I
Ib = 0
I, = 0
3. Find the symmetrical components of the following sets of voltages,
and check the results by computing the given voltages from them:
v, = 100/180°, v. = 100/90°, v, = 100/0.
4. Find the phase currents corresponding to the following symmetrical
components: 1
0
= 0.15/31°, 11 = 0.97/ 1 8 ~ , 12 = 0.45/303°.
PROBLEMS 251
5. Work Example 2 with a two-line-to-ground short circuit on phases
band c of bus D instead of a one-line-to-ground short circuit.
6. Work Example 2 with a line-to-line short circuit on phases band c of
bus D instead of a one-line-to-ground short circuit.
7. Work Example 2 with the neutrals of both generators A and B, instead
of generator B only, solidly grounded.
8. Compute and diagram the flow of reactive power of each sequence in
the faulted three-phase network of Example 2.
9. Find the equations similar to eqs. 39 for a line-to-ground short circuit
on phase b instead of on phase a. Showthat the impedance of the fault shunt
is the same for a fault on either phase.
10. Find the expression for the impedance of the fault shunt representing a
two-line-to-ground short circuit, using the second method described in the
text (p. 221).
11. Find an expression for the impedance of a shunt representing a fault
consisting of a line-to-ground short circuit on phase a and a line-to-line short
circuit on phases band c at the same point of a three-phase circuit.
12. Find the sequence currents in the system of Fig. 8 when the internal
voltages of generators A and B differ in phase by 60°. The magnitude of
each internal voltage is 1.05 per unit. Use the fault current as reference
phase.
13. Find the reactances of shunts for representing each of the four types of
short circuit at the middle of one of the lines of the system of Fig. 15, Chap..
ter V. (The negative- and zero-sequence reactances are given in Figs. 21
and 22 of Chapter VI.)
14. Calculate and plot stability limit as a function of fault duration for
one-line-to-ground and two-line-to-ground short circuits at the middle of one
of the lines of the two-machine system of Fig. 15, Chapter V. Also plot for
comparison the stability limit for a three-phase short circuit at the same
point. (See Fig. 22, Chapter V.)
15. Work Example 4 of Chapter V with a two-line-to-ground fault, instead
of a three-phase fault, at the center of one line. Assume that the negative-
sequence reactance of the system is equal to the positive-sequence reactance
when viewed from the point of fault, and that the zero-sequence reactance of
the transmission lines is equal to 3.5 times their positive-sequence reactance,
mutual reactance between the two transmission circuits being negligible,
16. Which fault on the system of Example 4, Chapter V, is more severe in
its effect on stability, a three-phase short circuit at the middle of one line or a
two-line-to-ground short circuit at the sending end of one line?
17. Which fault on the system of Fig. 8 is more severe in its effect on
stability, a one-line-to-ground short circuit on line CDnear bus D or a three-
phase short circuit on one of the parallel lines DE' near bus D? Does the
answer depend upon the clearing time?
18. Prove that the connections of Fig. 24gare correct by writing equations
for the relations between phase currents and voltages at the fault and then
252
SOLUTION OF FAULTED NETWORKS
deriving the corresponding equations for the relations between symmetrical
components.
19. If, in Example 4, the line-to-ground fault had a 20-ohm resistance, by
what percentage would the maximum synchronizing power be increased over
that for a solid fault? System base is 50 Mva., 33 kv.
20. Prove that there is no net power in a three-phase circuit attributable
to a voltage of one sequence in conjunction with a current of a different
sequence.
21. Find the stability limit of the two-machine system of Example 5 for
sustained one-line-to-ground faults. Consider the following methods of
grounding: (a) Zs = ZR = 0; (b) Zs = jl0%, ZR = 0; (c) ZB = 0,
ZR = jl0%; (d) Zs = ZR = j10%. .
22. In Probe 21 consider an additional grounding method, as follows:
(e) Zs = 10%, ZR = jl0%.
23. In Example 5 find the line-to-ground voltages of the sending-end
transformers during a two-line-to-ground fault at the sending end. Con-
sider each of the following grounding methods: (a) Zs = ZR = j10%; (b)
Zs = 10%,ZR = j10%.
24. In Example 5 find the power limits for two-line-to-ground faults
cleared in 0.25 sec. with the methods of grounding listed in Probe 21. The
frequency is 60 c.p.s.
25. In Example 5 find the power dissipated in the 10% grounding resistor
at the sending end during one-line-to-ground and two-line-to-ground faults
at the sending end. A 10% reactor is used at the receiving end. Assume
EI = 1201!1. and E2 = 1001!1.%.
26. Calculate and plot power dissipated in the grounding resistor of the
following simple system during a line-to-ground fault as a function of the
resistance in per cent. The system consists of a generator for which the
positive- and negative-sequence reactances are each 20%, a bank of trans-
formers of 10% reactance, connected Ll- Y with neutral grounded through a
resistor, and a fault at the secondary terminals.
27. Calculate and plot the higher line-to-neutral voltage (in per cent) of
the unfaulted phases, during a line-to-ground fault on the system of Probe
26, as a function of the grounding resistance in per cent.
28. Verify the equivalent circuits of Figs. 26b and c.
29. Derive an equivalent circuit for two coupled lines of different nominal
voltages in which per-unit impedances are used.
30. Prove the relations shown in Fig. 31 for representing the ground
impedance of an autotransformer.
31. Find the value of series impedance presented to zero-sequence current
by an autotransformer with ungrounded neutral.
32. Solve Example 2 by two-phase coordinates. Assume X2 of generators
to equal Xl.
CHAPTER VII
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
In the past twenty years a great number of stability studies have
been made, usually with the aid of an a-c. calculating board, on existing
or projected electric power systems. Through the courtesy of a num-
ber of operating and engineeringcompanieswe are enabled to present in
this chapter accounts of several such studies made during the last ten
years. Most of the companies have preferred that their names and
the identity of their stations, substations, and lines be withheld; ac-
cordingly, letter symbols have been substituted. Let the reader be
assured, however, that neither the stations nor the studies are fictitious.
These typical stability studies have been included in order to illus-
trate some of the purposes for which stability studies are made, to
show how such studies are carried out, how the types and locations of
faults to be studied are chosen, howsimplifications of the power system
(such as the combining of several stations) are decided upon, and how
limiting or critical conditions are selected for study, and also to give a
glimpse at the progress made in the improvement of power-system
reliability.
Some of the stability studies here presented are incidental parts of
more general studies that included also steady-state operation (loading
of lines, maintenance of voltage, required capacity of synchronous
condensers, and so forth). All these studies involved great masses of
data and calculations which it was not feasible to reproduce here in
full; for example, length, spacing, wire size, zero- and positive-se-
quence impedances of transmission lines; name-plate data and
impedances of transformers, generators, and other machines; actual
and estimated future loads on substations at different times of day and
year; moments of inertia of machines; calculations of per-unit
impedances on a selected system base; calculating-board connection
diagrams and instrument readings; and calculations of swing curves.
The reports on some studies fill one or more volumes. The condensed
accounts of the studies which follow give an inadequate idea of the
amount of labor actually spent on the studies. Nevertheless, we hope
that they convey a clear conception of the methods and results.
253
254 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
STUDY 1*
The power systems of company A and company B, when operating
in parallel, experienced difficulties due to transient instability. As an
increased flow of power from company B to company A was con-
templated, stable operation would become of greater importance.
Study 1 was made to determine what factors entering into the inter-
connected operation of the two systems were important in causing
instability and how stability might be improved.
Description of systems. A map of the two systems, showing
generating stations, substations, and transmission lines (with their
voltages and lengths), appears in Fig. 1. Each station and substation
is there identified by a two-letter combination, the first letter of which
denotes the power company owning or operating it. The combined
systems extended approximately 620 miles from station BO to station
AV.
Company A had two steam stations (AL and part of AP), several
fairly large hydroelectric stations (AB, AC, and AG), and many small
hydroelectric stations, some of which were neglected or were combined
with larger nearby stations in the study. The principal load centers
were near AL and AM. The transmission system of this company was
composedof (1) a backbone of three 132-kv.lines in parallel, about 140
miles long, firmly tying together the principal generating stations and
load centers; and (2) an extensive 44-kv. network which paralleled
the 132-kv. lines, connecting smaller generating stations and loads.und
which extended the system south of the terminus of the 132-kv. lines
at station AE to station AP and to numerous substations. Company
A had few instability problems in itself, as the loss of anyone line
(either 132-kv. or 44-kv.) would not seriously weaken the ties between
generating stations.
Company B had a dozen or so small hydroelectric stations, divided
into an eastern and a western group. Most of the stations of the
western group (BB to BF, inclusive) were connected to each other and
to station AD of company A by a single 132-kv. line. Stations BG
and BH, also in the western group, were connected to the other
stations of this group by two 44-kv. lines. The stations of the eastern
group (RI to RO, inclusive) were joined to one another and to the
western group chiefly by 66-kv. lines, with some 44-kv. lines. Thus,
over most of the length of system B there was only one 132...kv. line, or
*Information concerning this study was obtained through the courtesy of
Ebasco Services, Incorporated, New York City, with the concurrence of the operat-
ing companies concerned.
STUDY I-DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS 255
two or three lower-voltage lines. This system undoubtedly would
present problems in transient instability even if it were not inter-
connected with the system of company A. In addition to what might
34
BM
38
Company B
@] Steam generating station
@ Hydro generating station
~ Combination generating station
@ Synchronous condenser substation
o Substation
• Fault location
- 132·kv. transmission line
+H++ 66·kv. transmission line
-- 44·kv. transmission line
Figures onlines aretheirlengths in m i l e s ~
Two·letter combinations are station designations.
AV
71
Principal line
interconnecting
companies A and B
o AA
125
AO
FIG. 1. Map of the power systems of companies A and B, Study 1.
be called an inherently unstable arrangement of the transmission
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served, several hydroelectric stations on this system had generators
with characteristics which were not well suited to maintaining
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STUDY I-DESCRIPTION· OF SYSTEMS 259
Interconnected operation of the two systems resulted in additional
transient stability problems for both systems. As will appear from
the swing curves obtained in this study, however, faults occurring near
TABLE 2
LIST OF STATIONS HAVING SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES (SroDY 1)
Load Condition 1 Load Condition 2
Kind of
Aggregate Kinetic Aggregate Kinetic
Station
Machines
Mva. Energy Mva. Energy
Running (Mj.) Running (Mj.)
AA Hydro 6.8 10.0 6.8 10.0
AB
It
53.2 264.1 20.5 93.8
AC
u
33.3 85.2 11.1 28.4
AE Condo 15.0 55.6 Off Off
AF Hydro 4.5 Neglected 4.5 Neglected
AG
It
Off Off 18.8 32.0
AH
It
5.0 24.8 5.0 24.8
AI
It
1.2 3.0 1.2 3.0
AL Steam 41.0 321.8 25cO 158.0
It
Hydro 1.8 13.6 1.8 13.6
u
Combined 42.8 335.4 26.8 171.6
AN Hydro 2.5 Neglected 2.5 Neglected
AP Steam 18.8 120.8 18.8 120.8
u
Hydro 14.8 36.4 17.9 39.5
u
Combined 33.6 157.2 36.7 160.3
AV Cond. 5.0 Neglected Off Off
BB Hydro 34.4 46.6 Off Off
Be
It
10.0 21.4 3.0 3.2
BD
u
9.4 16.9 9.4 16.9
BE
II
12.6 30.8 12.6 30.8
BF
Ie
18.0 38.8 18.0 38.8
BG
It
10.0 15.9 10.0 15.9
BH
a
16.1 50.5 13.1 44.8
BI Condo 7.5 7.3 Off Off
It
Hydro 2.8 5.0 OtT Off
It
Combined 10.3 12.3 Off Off
BK Hydro 11.3 9.8 11.3 9.8
BL Cond. 3.0 2.6 Off Off
BN Hydro 11.0 33.7 6.0 18.3
BO
It
3.6 7.6 Off Off
station BG or east of it had little relation to the stability of intercon-
nected operation, although such faults sometimes presented serious
stability problems for the eastern part of the system of company B.
The 125-mile, 44-kv. line from AA to BA had several small hydro-
electric stations (grouped as station AA in the study) and several small
0
)
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STUDY I-LOADING CONDITIONS
261
loads. Although faults on this line would sever it from the intercon-
nected system, they would have little effect on the rest of the system.
Table 1 lists synchronous machines (generators, condensers, and
large motors) on the systems of both companies with their ratings,
transient reactances in per cent based on their own ratings, moments of
inertia (WR
2
) in thousands of pound-feet", and amounts of kinetic
energy in megajoules. Table 2 lists the synchronous-machine stations
(or in some cases groups of neighboring stations) represented in this
study, with their aggregate megavolt-ampere ratings and amounts of
kinetic energy. Figure 2 is a diagram of the positive-sequence network,
simplified to the extent required for setting it up on the calculating
board. The zero-sequence diagram is not reproduced here.
The oil circuit breakers and protective relays on these systems were
of slow-speed types at the time this study was made.
Loading conditions. Transient stability was studied for two
different loading conditions: (1) estimated August day loads and (2)
estimated October night loads. (The loading of the various circuits
for the two load conditions is shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively.)
The first condition was one of heavy loads, due largely to pumping for
irrigation, and involved a considerable transfer of power from company
B to company A (30 Mw. from station BB to station AD). The
second condition was one of light loads but of even greater transfer of
power (36Mw.) from company B to company A. In load condition 2,
all the station BB generators and five of the six station Be genera-
tors were shut down because of shortage of water; hence much of the
power transferred to company A was necessarily transmitted from
sources (chieflyfrom stations BE and BF) more distant than in load
condition 1.
The calculating board used in this study had ten power sources for
representing generators. In order to check connections and settings
of the board and also to help determine which generators could be
grouped together for transient stability studies, readings for load
condition 1 were taken, first with company B generators represented
in considerable detail and then with company A generators represented
in considerable detail, according to the columns of Table 3 headed
Run 1 and Run 2. The readings thus obtained are shown in Fig. 3.
The generators were then grouped as shown in the columns of Table 3
for runs 3, 4, 5, or 6, according to fault location, to permit their rep-
resentation by ten power sources on the board. Individual line and
generator loads were somewhat distorted by the grouping; the read-
ings are not reproduced here. Readings for load condition 2 were taken
with the generators grouped as shown in Table 3 for run 7, and these
readings are shown in Fig. 4.
262 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
STUDY i-LOADING CONDITIONS 263

(tn)
--.tn· 8S't
J
. ...

; 0 -..(&rU "CLt'r)
CQ .... 0...

...
TABLE 3
GROUPING OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES FOR REPRESENTATION BY TEN POWER
SOURCES ON THE CALCULATING BOARD AND VALUE OF KINETIC ENERGY OF EACH
GROUP IN MEGAJOULES (STUDY 1)
Power Source Numbers and Kinetic Energy (Mj.)
Station
Runs
RunS Run 1 Run 2
3 and 4-
Run 6 Run 7
BO Static*
BL Static 1 22.5 Off
BI 1 1 66.1 1 66.1
BN 2 2 33.8 1 18.3
BK 3 3 9.8 2 9.8
BHs 4 25.6
4 Off 2 44.8 3 44.8
BH1 5 19.2
2 66.4
BG (66kv.) 5 6 10.9
3 15.9 4 15.9
BG (44 kv.) 6 7 5.0
BE 7 4 30.8 8 30.8 5 30.8
3 69.6
BF 8 5 38.8 Off
6 55.7
BD 9 4 16.9 6 16.9 9 16.9
BC 10 1 5 21.4 7 21.4 7 3.2
BB (6.6 kv.) Load box 2
6 46.6 Off
BB (44 kv.) 3 8 56.6
AA 4 7 10.0 With AP
AG Off Off Off
AB 5
8 154.2
AC 6 10
Q()
AF 7
(Infinite
8 376.2 9 376.2
bus)
AH
Off
AN 8
AI
199.4 9
AL 9
9 391.0
AE Static
10 548.1
AP 10 10 170.2
10 157.1
AV Static Off
*uStatic" means represented by capacitor on calculating board.
264
STUDY I-SWING CURVES 265
Fault locations. A principal object of the study was to determine
maximum allowable clearing times for faults at locations where they
would affect the stability of the interconnection. It is apparent that a
fault anywhere on the single-circuit 132-kv. lines from station AD to
station BE would split the system into two parts unless high-speed
reclosing were used. Since high-speed reclosing of high-voltage lines
was still in the experimental stage at the time of this study, however,
it was not considered. Hence faults on the single-circuit 132-kv. lines
were not studied. Faults on anyone circuit of the three-circuit 132-
kv. connection between stations AB and AE would not divide the
system, and the critical clearing time of such faults had to be deter-
mined. Since the impedance of two or three 132-kv. lines in parallel
is very low, the exact location of a fault on these lines would not make
much difference. But afault nearstation AD onone of the three 13S-kv.
lines to station AC was believed to have a somewhat greater tendency
to produce loss of synchronism between the machines of company A
and those of company B than a fault anywhere else. Consequently,
this fault location was chosen for study.
Faults on the 44-kv. transmission system also required consideration.
The most severe effect on stability would be produced by a fault near
the 44-kv. terminals of a large 132-to-44-kv. transformer bank. Two
such locations were selected for study, one near each end of the 132-kv.
system. One was near station AE on the 44-kv. line to station AS, the
other near station BE on the 44-kv. line to station BG. The critical
clearing time of faults elsewhereon the 44-kv. lines would be expected
to be longer than for those at the selected locations.
Faults on 44-kv. or 66-kv. lines at some distance from the 132-kv.
system would not be expected to have much effect on the stability of
the interconnection. A fault location nearstation BGonthe #-kv. line
to station BH was tried to see whether it would disturb the inter-
connection.
The four fault locations chosen for study and described above are
marked on the map, Fig. 1.
Two-line-to-ground faults were considered in most cases, and three-
phase faults in some cases. Nearly always, simultaneous clearing at
both ends of the faulted line was assumed.
Swing curves. Eighteen transient-stability runs were made in the
course of the study. The swing curves obtained are reproduced in
Figs. 5 to 22 inclusive, and the conditions and results of each run are
summarized in Table 4.
In numbering the stability runs, the first number, such as 3 of 3-8-1,
refers to the load.run made to obtain proper initial conditions for the
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.
STUDY i-SWING CURVES
267
320 r - - - - o y o - - - r - - . , . - - - r - - r - ~ - _ _ r _ - _ . . . _ - ....
280 ..--t---t--
2401---t---t--
40
9 (AE, AL)
0.6 0.2 0.4
ne (,seconds)
FIG. 5. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-3, load condition 1, three-phase
fault near substation AD on one 132-ky. line to station AC, cleared in 0.3 sec.
Unstable.
268 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
stability run, and 8-1 refers to the first transient-stability run made
with these initial conditions, 8-2 refers to the second run, and so on.
The usual simplifying assumptions were made (constant voltage
behind transient reactance, constant input, and so forth). A time
interval =0.1 sec. was used in point-by-point calculations.
240
6(BB)
200 -+---+----+---+-----f
40 t----I--- -f.---f----+----t

cu·
U
.....
1-----I.-3+---+----+---+---+---+----i

0 ......- .....-"'"-----.......- ......----......- .....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 6. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-4, load condition 1, three-phase
fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.2 sec.
Stable.
In determining the allowableclearingtime of faults, the usual method
was first to estimate this time and then to make a run using this esti-
mated time. If conditions proved stable, another run was made using
a clearing time 0.1 sec. longer than before. If the second run showed
the systems to be unstable, then the clearing time of the first run gave
STUDY I-SWING CURVES 269
the answer desired. If the second condition was still stable, then a
third run was made with 0.1 sec. longer clearing time.
Runs 3-8-5,3-8-6, and 3-8-7 (Table 4) illustrate the method. For a
two-phase-to-ground fault at station AD on one of the lines to station
AC under load condition 1, run 3-8-5 showed the systems to be stable
200 _-_-or---r---__-.,..--..,...--..,...----...
O--_......_.Io-_""-_.a..-_..I..-_"'--......--'
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 7. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-5, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.4
sec. Stable.
for 0.4-sec. clearing. Run 3-8-6 showed the systems to be still stable
for 0.5-sec. clearing. However, run 3-8-7 showed them to be unstable
for 0.6-sec. clearing time. Thus it was shown that 0.5 sec. was the
maximum allowable clearing time for these particular conditions.
In some cases it was possible to determine maximum allowable
clearing time from a single run because the angular swing of particular
machines was wide enough, and the trend of accelerating and de-
celerating forces on the calculating sheets was such that the run was
readily seen to be a borderline case, and additional clearing time would
270
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
undoubtedly have caused instability. Sometimes comparison with
runs previously made was helpful in such interpretations.
A detailed discussion of the various swing curves follows.
Stability during load condition 1; faults on 132-kv. system of com-
pany A. The generators were grouped on the power sources of the
calculating board as shown in Table 3 for run 3. Initial conditions for
200.--or---r---r----r---r--'T"""--"---'
160

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 8. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-6, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.5
sec. Stable.
the stability runs were those of load condition 1 (Fig. 3). Swing
curves 3-8-3 and 3-8-4 (Figs. 5 and 6) show that the systems were
unstable for O.3-sec. clearing but were stable for O.2-sec. clearing of a
three-phase fault at station AD on one of the 132-kv. lines to station
AC. Curves 3-8-5, 3-8-6, and 3-8-7 (Figs. 7,8, and 9) show that, with
a two-line-to-ground fault at the same location and with the same load
condition, the systems were stable for O.5-sec. clearing and unstable
for O.6-sec. clearing.
Onall these curves it should be noted that the three main generating
STUDY I-SWING CURVES
280 -----.-----..------------
271
80
40
O..... ......_....... '___""_____.;;:::I
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 9. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-7, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC. cleared in 0.6
sec. Unstable.
272
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
320 --.....--------------.---.....--.....---
280 1---+---0+-
240 t--+--r---
80
8(AB,AC,AF
t
AH,AI,AN)
40 I--_...-_-+-
0'---.............-_....._ ......._ ....._ ....._ ......_ ...
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 10. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 4-8-1, load condition 1, 15,OOo-kva.
shunt reactors added on station BB low-voltage bus, three-phase fault near sub-
station AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.3 sec. Unstable.
STUDY 1-PROPOSED CHANGES AT STATION BB 273
stations of company A swung almost exactly together, slowing down
during the fault, thus acting like the equivalent motor of a two-machine
system. Station AA and those stations of company B which were
connected at 132 kv. (BB to BE, inclusive) swung fairly closely to-
gether-although not as closely as the stations of system A-and
speeded up, acting like an equivalent generator. In every case
station BB, the station closest to the fault 'of this group, speeded up
more than the others (although it was closely followed by station AA)
and was the first station of this group to pull out of step. Stations
BG to BO, which were farther from the fault, were less affected, but
tended to stay with the other company B stations.
Study of proposed changes at station BB. As station BB was found
to be the first station of company B to pull out of step during faults on
the 132-kv. transmission system of company A, it was believed that
any measures taken to help this station stay in step might materially
improve the stability of the interconnected systems. Three different
changes were studied.
Use of shunt reactors. The design of the generators at station BB
contemplated normal operation at 80% lagging power factor. Actu-
ally, however, these machines were usually operated near unity power
factor. Such operation caused the machines to have internal voltage
lower than normal and tended to make them unstable. Studies were
made to show the effect of connecting shunt reactors to the low-tension
busses at station BB in order to put about 15-Mvar lagging load on the
machines and thereby increase their internal voltages.
The initial load conditions with the reactors added were obtained
in load run 4 and differed only slightly from the conditions of load run
3. The same generator grouping was used. Three-phase and two-
line-to-ground faults were assumed at the same location as before,
namely, near station AD on a 132-kv. line to station AC. Curve
4-8-1 (Fig. 10) shows that the system was unstable for 0.3-sec. clearing
of a three-phase fault, whereas curve 3-S-4 (Fig. 6) shows that the
system was stable for O.2-sec. clearing of such a fault without the use
of shunt reactors at station BB. Therefore it is apparent that the
addition of the reactors would not increase the maximum allowable
clearing time for a three-phase fault by as much as 0.1 sec. Curve
4-8-2 (Fig. 11) shows that a clearing time of 0.7 sec. was permissible
for a two-line-to..ground fault, and curve 3-S-6 (Fig. 8) shows a per-
missible clearing time of 0.5 sec. if no reactors are used. Therefore,
a gain of at least 0.2 sec. in allowable clearing time of a two-line-to-
ground fault would result from the use of the reactors.
Use of series resistors. Amethod of increasing the stability of hydro-
274 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
electric generators by automatically cutting resistors in series with
them during faults and thereby maintaining their load and decreasing
their acceleration during faults was proposed by R. C. Bergvall.' As
this method appeared to offer a possibility for stabilizing station BB,
it was studied on the board. A resistance of 7.2 ohms per phase, con-
nected in series with each of the four 7,500-kva. 6,600-volt generators,
200 . . . - - - , . - - - - r - - - ~ - . . . . - - . . , . . - - . , _ _ - _ r _ - _ r _ - _ , . _ - _
0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0
Time (seconds)
FIG. 11. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 4-8-2, load condition 1, 16,OOO-kva.
shunt reactors added on station BB low-voltage bus, two-line-to-ground fault near
substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.7 sec. Stable.
was found to maintain practically fuIlload on the generators during the
fault. Resistors of this value were assumed to be cut into the circuit
0.1 sec. after occurrence of the fault and short-circuited again 0.2 sec.
after clearing of the fault. The result is shown in curve 3-8-8 (Fig. 12),
in which a two-line-to-ground fault near station AD on a 132-kv. line
to station AC caused instability when cleared in 0.7 sec. This ap-
peared to be a borderline case, however, and it seemed safe to conclude
that 0.6-sec. clearing of the fault would have made the system stable.
Comparison of this result with curve 3-8-6 (Fig. 8) for the same condi-
STUDY I-PROPOSED CHANGES AT STATION BB 275
1.0 0.8 0.2

.ml
S


bO
.5 t \0 -I----+---i---+--__+_-
1.
5
Q)
Cl)4----+----+--__+_---+---i-
.51
I
'tn+---+---I----4----+----11---
'en

o
40
200 ----.....--......--'I"--..--..,----r----r-----r--r-----.
120 1--..;;;;::::::'l...
- 80 1...--.&-_..1.-_..1..._..1-_....1-_.....1-_....1-_-"--......---'- __
o
-40
0.4 0.6
Time (seconds)
FIG. 12. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-S-8, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.7
sec.: 7.2-ohmresistors inserted in station BB generator leads 0.1 sec. after initiation
of fault and removed 0.2 sec. after clearing of fault. Unstable.
276
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
tions but without the series resistors showed an increase of permissible
clearing time of only 0.1 sec.
Decreased transient reactance. The four large generators at station
BB had the abnormally high transient reactance of 65% by test. Un-
200.---.,.--or---..,---..,.--...,.---.,--....,---.....----
i 120
-----
f
"'t:J

CD
bo
c
«J
80

g
(ij
c
'-

.E 40

- 40 -----......-"""-----_...r.-_....._-'-_....._....I
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (seconds)
FIG. 13. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-10, load condition 1, transient
reactance of station BB generators reduced from 65 to 35%, two-line-to-ground
fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.8 sec.
Stable.
doubtedly, this high value of reactance decreased the stability of
station BB. In order to determine the effect of a lower value of
transient reactance for these machines, curve 3-8-10 (Fig. 13) was
taken with the reactance assumed as 35%. The results showed that
O.S-sec. clearing of a two-line-to-ground fault would make the system
stable. This represented an improvement of 0.3 sec. over the 0.5-sec.
STUDY I-FAULTS BETWEEN STATIONS BE AND BG 277
clearing which was necessary for the same fault conditions but with
the high value of transient reactance.
Faults on the 44-kv. system of company A. Three-phase and two-
line-to-ground faults were tried near station AE on the 44-kv. line to
station AS under load condition 1. Curves 3-8-1 and 3-8-2 (Figs. 14
200
0.8
9(AE,AL)
0.2
o1:-.- ...... ........- ......
9
0.4 0.6
Time (seconds)
FIG. 14. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-1, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AE on 44-kv. line to substation AS, cleared in 0.4
sec. Stable.
160
40
and 15) showthat the systems remained stable for either type of fault
'cleared in 0.4 sec. The limiting case for a two-line-to-ground fault
was not obtained, and O.5-sec. clearing was judged to be permissible.
A fault on the low-voltage circuits of any of the large stations tapping
the 132-kv. lines of company A would be of approximately the same
severity in regard to stability.
Faults on the 44-kv. line between stations BE and BG.' The effect
of a two-line-to-ground fault near station BE on the 44-kv. line to
station BGunder load condition 1 is shown in curves 5-8-1,5-8-2, and
5-8-3 (Figs. 16, 17, and 18). The generators were regrouped as shown
278 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
200r---r---__- - , . - - _ - - - r - - ~ - _ - _ _ _ ,
- 80 en
Q)
f
~
Cl>
"'C
-Cl)
00
c
co
40
Cl>
~
8 (AB, AC, AF,
.s
'0
AH, AI, AN)
>
ro
E
$
.s
0
- 40 t----+---+---+---t--+---t----+---"---i---t
- 80 t----t-----+----+--
1---+---+----..-- 3 +---+---+---+---f
~ I
- 120""'-_-'--_......._--'-_--A._...... ....... _ ....._ ...
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 15. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 3-8-2, load condition 1, three-phase
fault near substation AEon 44-kv. line to substation AS, cleared in 0.4 sec. Stable.
STUDY I-FAULTS BETWEEN STATIONS BE AND BG 279
0.8 0.6
8 (AA, BB)
7(BC)
0.2
O'--_J..-_.L-_..Io.-_..a..___......._....Ioo._....._....
o
40
320--,...--..,.----r---rlr---r---r--,---,
240
80
2801----f---t---f---1---t--t----t---t--,
C1J
-so
c:
co 160 .....- .......

(ij
E
120 (AB, AC, AF, AH, AI, AN)
I I
10(AE, AL, AP, AV)
200
GJ
e
iP
"C
-
0.4
Time· ( seconds)
FIG. 16. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 5-8-1, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near station BE on one 44-kv. line to station BG, cleared in 0.3 sec.
Unstable.
280 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
for run 5 in Table 3 to give more detailed representation near the fault
and less detailed representation far away from it.
Curve 5-8-1 shows the system to be unstable with O.3-sec. clearing.
Station BE, which was closest to the fault, pulled ahead and out of
240 . - - _ r - - ~ r - - - r - - r - - - - r - - - . . - - - . . . . - - . .
200 I--t---...
lO(AE,AL,
AP,AV)
40 t---+--
I---+-- ...., +---+--+--+---+---0+-----1
~ I
o......- .....- . - . - - ~ - " - - ~ - ......-----'
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 17. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 5-8-2, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near station BE on one 44-kv. line to station BG, cleared in 0.2 sec.
Stable.
step with the rest. Stations BD and BF also speeded up, and stations
BG to BO slowed down. It should be noted that the initial flow of
power was from the former to the latter group of stations, which may
be regarded as the equivalent generator and motor, respectively, of a
two-machine system. Stations BB and Be were but little affected}
and the stations of company A were affected hardly at all.
Curve 5-S-2 shows the system to be stable with O.2-sec. clearing at
STUDY I-FAULTS BETWEEN STATIONS BE AND BG 281
./1(BI,BK,
, BL,BN,BO)
4(BE)
breakers
opened
12CYCles'*1
40
10(AE, AL, AP, AV)
240 r--......---,.--.,..--....--..,.---.----.----.
200 1---+---'1---+--..---+---+---+---1
o.....------...--.......-...-.------.......- - - - ~
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 18. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 5-8-3, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near station BE on one 44-kv. line to station BG, cleared in 0.2 'sec.
at BE and in 0.4 sec. at BO. Stable.
282 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
both ends of the line. It was also stable, as shown by curve 5-8-3,
with sequential clearing in 0.2 sec. at station BE and in 0.4 sec. at
station BG.
Faults on 44-kv..line between stations BG and BH. The effect of a
two-line-to-ground fault near station BG on the 44-kv. line to station
240
40 J---+---t--
9(BD)
I
10 (BB, Be,
andcompany A
asinfinite bus)
I
«S 120 7 (BG44 kv.)
I
3 (BJC)
I
Ci 4(B82)
c
...
80
-;; 160 .....
I
."
-
I---t---t--...,-I--+---f--+--+---f
:;

O'---'-------.....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time(seconds)
FIG. 19. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 6-8-1, load condition 1, two-line-to-
ground fault near station BG on one 44-kv. line to station BH, cleared in 0.3 sec.
Stable.
BH was ascertained for load condition 1. The generators were re-
grouped, as shown in Table 3 for run 6, to give more detail in the
neighborhood of the fault, including the separation of stations BG and
BH into two parts each. The machines of company A, together with
stations BB and Be, all of which werefound to be only slightly affected
by a fault between BE and BG, were represented in this run as an
STUDY I-STABILITY DURING LOAD CONDITION 2 283
infinite bus. Curve 6-8-1 (Fig. 19) shows the system to be stable for
O.3-sec. clearing at both ends of the line. The general direction of
power flow was eastward. During the fault stations west of the fault
360 r----y--r---,.--..---yo----,n-----r----.
280 I---+---+----+-+--I--.......
160
120
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 20. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 7-8-1, load condition 2, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.4
sec. Unstable.
(equivalent generators) speeded up, and stations east of the fault
(equivalent motors) sloweddown.
Stability during load condition 2. In this load condition, as already
mentioned, station BB and most of the generators at station Be were
284 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
shut down, and more power was transmitted from company B to
company A than in the previous load condition. The generators were
grouped in a manner (shown in Table 3 for run 7) which was judged
360 .---".--....---..----.,.....-.,..--.,.---ro--_
10{AA, AP)

AI, AL, AN)

en
CD

CD
240
.!l
co
C
tV
Wo

200
tV
C
...
J!!
.E
280
160
120 __-+--+--+--+----t
0.6 0.2 0.4
Time (seconds)
FIG. 21. Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 7-S-2, load condition 2, two-line-to-
ground fault near substation AD on one 132-kv. line to station AC, cleared in 0.3
sec. Stable.
to be suitable for faults at either of two locations-near AD on the
132-kv. line to AC or near BE on the 44-kv. line to BG.
Curves 7-8-1 and 7-8-2 (Figs. 20 and 21) show that, for a two-line-
to-ground fault at the former location, the systems were stable for
STUDY l-STABILITY DURING LOAD CONDITION 2 285
O.3-sec. clearing and unstable for O.4-sec. clearing. It will be noted
that the permissible clearing time of 0.3 sec. for this load condition was
considerably shorter than the permissible clearing time of a similar
fault under load condition 1, which was found to be 0.5 sec. This
can be attributed to three reasons:
320
120 I--+.---"'----t--+---+---t---r---;
80 """_'"
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 22 Swing curves, Study 1, stability run 7-8-3, load condition 2, two-line-
to-ground fault near station BE on one 44-kv. line to station BG, cleared in 0.2
sec. Stable.
1. The amount of power transferred from company B to company
A was greater under load condition 2 than under load condition 1.
2. With station BB shut down, much of the power which it
formerly supplied had to be transmitted from a greater distance.
The result was a greater angular displacement between the gener-
ators of the two systems in the steady state and, therefore, less stable
operation in the transient state.
286 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
3. When station BB was on the line, regardless of the amount of
power supplied by it, it served to support the voltage near the middle
of the interconnecting line and thus to improve both steady-state
and transient stability. In load condition 2, station BB was shut
down, and this effect was nonexistent.
The permissible clearing time of a three-phase fault was not de-
termined, but, as it was 0.2 sec. under load condition 1, it would be
0.2 sec. or less under load condition 2.
Curve 7-8-3 (Fig. 22) for a two-line-to-ground fault near BE on the
44-kv. line to BGshows a stable condition for O.2-sec. clearing at both
ends. It was thought probable that sequential clearing, 0.2 sec. at BE
and 0.4 sec. at BG, would be stable under load condition 2, as it was
under load condition 1.
Summary of allowable clearing times. The slowest clearing times
permissible with stable operation, as determined from the swing curves,
are summarized in Table 5.
TABLE 5
SLOWEST PERMISSIBLE CLEARING TIMES OF FAULTS
(STUDY 1)
Load condition 1 (estimated August day loads)
Three phase fault near AD on 132-kv. line to AC:
Two-line-to-ground fault near AD on 132-kv. line to AC:
Three-phase fault near AE on 44-kv. line to AS:
Two-line-to-ground fault near AE on 44-kv. line to AS:
Two-line-to-ground fault near BE on 44-kv. line to BG:
Two-line-to-ground fault near BG on 44-kv. line to BH:
Load condition 2 (estimated October night loads)
Three-phase fault near AD on 132-kv. line to AC:
Two-line-to-ground fault near AD on 132-kv. line to AC:
Two-line-to-ground fault near BE on 44-kv. line to BG:
*Estimated.
0.2 sec.
0.5 sec.
0.4 sec.
0.5 see."
0.2 sec.
0.3 sec.
0.2 sec.*
0.3 sec.
0.2 sec.
Conclusion and recommendations. The study showed that the
characteristics of the transmission system, especially in regard to the
speed of clearing faults, had a decidedly more important bearing on the
problem of improving stability than did the characteristics of individ-
ual machines or stations. It was concluded that no adequate correc-
tion of transient instability could be obtained until both relays and oil
STUDY 1-CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 287
circuit breakers on most of the 132-kv. circuits, on many of the 44-kv.
circuits, and at major generating stations were modernized to obtain
high-speed clearing of faults. If relaying .and oil circuit breakers
were modernized, no other changes would be needed in the system to
obtain a practicable solution of the instability problems which were
studied.
Three proposals for increasing the stability of the generators at
station BB by changes at that station were studied, but the usefulness
of the proposed changes was limited by the fact that this plant was
usually shut down, because of water conditions, at night during the
fall and winter seasons when the greatest amount of power was usually
transferred from company B to company A and when instability of
the systems was aggravated by this heavy power flow. Furthermore,
changes at station BB would have very little effect in improving stabil-
ity under most fault conditions which occurred on the system of
company B.
Consideration was given to the possibility of making changes affect-
ing generators at plants other than BB. In all cases studied, however,
it was found that the machines in a particular area swung closely
together as a group, almost without regard to characteristics of indi-
vidual stations. In practically every case the machines nearest the
fault showed the greatest tendency to lose synchronism.
From the foregoing observations, it was concluded that any changes
which might be made at any of the generating stations would be
limited in their effect and relatively costly to attain and, therefore,
would assume a position of minor importance which did not justify
further study.
It was recommended that a definite program of relay and oil circuit-
breaker improvement be prepared, taking into consideration the
amount of good to be accomplishedby various changes and the cost of
the changes. It was also advised to concentrate on those changes
which would allow the systems to remain stable after a two-line-to-
ground fault, as three-phase faults are infrequent on properly relayed
high-voltage systems. Modernization of relay systems and of oil
circuit breakers would not only increase stability but would also de-
crease damage to equipment and improve service to customers.
It appeared that the most improvement at the least cost could be
obtained at many points on the system by relay changes. Moderniza-
tion of some oil circuit breakers might be accomplished at reasonable
cost but would, in general, be more expensive than relay changes to
attain the same improvement in stability. Someother breakers should
be replaced rather than rebuilt.
288
S Chicago
...
an
C'f)
.""
Indiana and S
Cincinnati
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
Toledo
(Toledo Edison Co.)
South
Point 10
lorain
(OhioP.S. Co.)
FIG. 23. Central 132-kv. transmission system of American
Akron
(OhioEdison Co.)
Massilon
(Ohio P.s. Co.)
41.8mf.
6.68+j19.0
STUDY 2
Alliance
(OhioP.S. Co.)
Newcomerstown
289
..,....,........-5
5'--0
West Penn
Power Co.
Turner
(Institute, W. Va.,
nearCharleston)
Cabin
Creek
W. Va.
Windsor
(Power, W.Va., nearWheelinl)
®- Steam- electric generatintplant
@- Synchronous condenser(s).
®- Equivalent of power system.
~ L o a d .
--- Future 132·kv. line.
-- Existing 132·kv. line.
Impedances aregiven in per cent
on l00·Mw. 132·kv. base.
en Parallel impedance of double -
circuitline.
Figures onbusses areshunt
capacitive susceptances of
connected linesin percent
onsame base.
Gas and Electric Company and interconnections (Study 2).
290 TYPICAL STABILITY. STUDIES
STUDY 2t
In 1940 the Ohio Power Company was adding two new generating
units (numbers 4 and 5, rated at 94.5 Mva. each) to its steam-electric
generating station at Philo (on the Muskingum River near Zanesville,
Ohio), thereby increasing the aggregate capacity of the station from
271.4 Mva. to 460.4 Mva. The generators at Philo were paralleled
through 132-kv. busses. The 132-kv. oil circuit breakers had a rated
interrupting capacity of 2,500 Mva, The addition of the new gener-
ators would have increased the interrupting duty of these breakers from
approximately 2,250 Mva. to approximately 3,150 Mva., a value in
excess of their rating, had not steps been taken to limit the short-
circuit currents. For this purpose it was decided to install reactors
between two sections of the 132-kv. bus, which will be called sections
A and B.
In October, 1940, an a-c. calculating-board study was made by the
American Gas and Electric Service Corporation of the central system
of the American Gas and Electric Company and interconnected sys-
tems, including the expanded Philo station with the bus reactors. The
study included short-circuit studies, load studies, and a few stability
runs.
The system studied is represented in Fig. 23. It extended from
Indiana across Ohio to West Virginia with interconnections to Chicago,
Cincinnati, western Pennsylvania,' Vir-ginia, and Tennessee. Steam-
electric generating plants of the represented part of the American Gas
and Electric Company's system were located at Twin Branch (Mish-
awaka, Indiana), at Philo, at Cabin Creek, West Virginia, at Logan,
West Virginia, and at Windsor (near Wheeling), West Virginia. The
generating plants of 'the interconnected systems also were predomi-
nantly steam stations. All the transmission lines represented in the
study operated at 132 kv. Impedances of the lines and of the equiva-
lent generators are given in per cent on a 100-Mva. base in Fig. 23;
total shunt capacitive susceptances at each bus, resulting from nomi-
nal-e representation of the transmission lines, are also given in per cent
on the same base. The impedances of the equivalent generators were
obtained by simplifying the circuits of generating or synchronous-
condenser stations, using the transient reactances of the machines.
For example, Fig. 24 is a simplified diagram of Philo station with the
machines and lines grouped on the bus sections in the manner assumed
tData on this study were obtained from the American Gas and Electric Service
Corporation, New York City, through the courtesy of Philip Sporn, Vice President
in Charge of Engineering, Harry P. St. Clair, System Planning Engineer, and
Charles A. Imburgia.
STUDY 2 291
Crooksville
Zanesville Howard Torrey North· Newcom· Rutland
No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 east erstown No. 1
Generators
j35.3 j61.7 j25.6 j57.0 j57.0 j33.7 j35.3 j61.1 j25.6
e Circuit breakers assumed to open to clear thefault
FIG. 24. Philo steam-electric generating station. Simplified one-line diagram of
the connections assumed in Study 2. Impedances are in per cent on 100-Mva.
base. Transient reactances are used for the generators.
(a)
(b)
FIG. 25. Philo plant reduced to two equivalent generators, A and B. Impedances
are in per cent on l00-Mva. base. (a) Normal condition, (b) after clearing fault
on bus section AI.
292 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
in the stability study. Data on the generators and transformers at
this station are given in Table 6. Values of impedance on a 100-Mva.
base, taken from this table, are marked on Fig. 24. By means of series
and parallel combinations the circuit was further simplified as shown
in Fig. 25. Similar simplifications were performed for the other
generating stations and interconnected power systems shown in Fig. 23.
TABLE 6
DATA ON GENERATORS AND TRANSFORMERS
AT PHILO PLANT (STUDY 2)
GENERATORS
Xd' %on Xd" %on
Unit
,..--......
Hon
Number Mva. r.p.m, Rating 100 Mva, Rating 100Mva, 100Mva.
1 42.1 1800 24.0 57.0 15.0 33.6 2.35
2 42.1 1800 24.0 57.0 15.0 33.6 2.35
3-1 62.4 1800 22.0 35.3 13.0 20.8 3.81
3-2 62.4 1800 21.0 33.7 14.0 22.4 3.81
3-3 62.4 1800 22.0 35.3 13.0 20.8 3.81
4HP 50.7 3600 13.0 25.6 10.0 19.7 1.74
4LP 43.8 1800 27.0 61.7 16.0 36.6 3.22
5 lIP 50.7 3600 13.0 25.6 10.0 19.7 1.74
5LP 43.8 1800 27.0 61.7 16.0 36.6 3.22
TRANSFORMERS
x%on
~
Unit Mva. Rating 100Mva.
T-l 45 8.9 19.8
T-2 45 8.2 18.2
T-3-1
63 17.8 28.3
T-3-2 63 17.5 27.8
T-3-3 63 17.9 28.4
T-4 120 13.4: 11.2
T-5 120 13.4 11.2
The inertia constants of the equivalent generators are listed in
Table 7. Most of these values are based upon detailed information,
but a few, particularly those for future additional generating capacity,
are estimated at the rate of 6 per 100Mva. for old generators and 5 per
100 Mva. for new generators, the new ones being assumed to be
hydrogen-cooled.
The calculating-board set-up was similar to that of Fig. 23, except
that Fort Wayne and the stations and systems west and south of it
were combined and represented by an equivalent generator at Fort
STUDY 2 293
TABLE 7
VALUES OF INERTIA CONSTANT H OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES ON l00-MVA.
BASE (STUDY 2)
Machines Case
1 2 3
Chicago, Indana, and Cincinnati'systems Off 61 76*
Twin .Branch generators 1, 2, 3, 172 Mva. 7.8 7.8 7.8
Twin Branch generator 4, 94 Mva, Off Off 5.0
Fort Wayne condenser, 30 Mva, 1.2 1.2 1.2
Total, Fort .Wayne and West 9 70 90
Fostoria condensers, 40 Mva. 0.7 0.7 Negl.
Toledo Edison Co. system, approx, 100 Mva. 6 6 7.7*
Lorain generating station of Ohio P. S. Co., 36 Mva. 2.1 2.1 2.7*
Canton condensers (Torrey, Sunnyside, Northeast) 2.1 2.1 2.1
Akron and Alliance systems, over 500 Mva. 8 20 36.5*
Total, Canton and interconnections 38.6
Windsor generators (Beech Bottom Power Co.), 257 Mva. 15.1 15.1 15.1
West Penn Power Co. system, approx. 1,000 Mva. Off 71.2 71.2
Total, Windsor and East 86.3 86.3
Philo A (gens. 1, 2, 3-1, 4) before clearing fault, 241 kyat 13.5 13.5 13.5
Philo A (gens. 1, 2, 3-1, 4) after clearing fault, 199 kva, 11.1 11.1 11.1
Philo B (gens. 3-2, 3-3, 5), 219 kva, 12.6 12.6 12.6
Rutland, future installed capacity of Appalachian Electric
Power Co. and interconnected systems, approx. 1,100
Mva. 60
Lancaster, future interconnection to west, approx, 170 Mva. 10
Cabin Creek generators 1 to 8, 232 Mva, t
Logan generators, 102 Mva. t
Plants south of Logan and interconnected systems, 375Mva,
Total, Logan and south
*Estimated future increase.
[Combined with Rutland.
60
10
t
t
Off
Off
15
4.4
22.6
27
294 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
Wayne. Furthermore, double-circuit transmission lines were rep-
resented on the board by single impedance units set at the impedance
of two lines in parallel; when one circuit was supposed to be switched
out, the setting of the impedance unit was doubled.
The short-circuit studies showed that the reactance between bus
sections A and B at Philo should be 7.5% on a 100-Mva. 132-kv. base
in order to limit the interrupting duty of any circuit breaker to a value
slightly less than 2,500 Mva. The 7.5% reactance would be obtained
from two sets of reactors in parallel, as shown in Fig. 24, each having
15% reactance.j
Load studies were made to determine the proper normal-load rating
of the reactors and to find the arrangement of transmission lines on the
two bus sections that would give the best conditions of transmission.
In these studies estimated 1942 peak loads were used.
In the course of the load studies, three transient-stability runs were
made to test the stability of the system (modified by the addition of
new generating units and bus reactors at Philo) with the interconnect-
ing lines to other companies (Chicago, Indiana and Cincinnati, and
western Pennsylvania) first open, and then closed.
The three transient-stability runs are herein designated cases 1, 2,
and 3. In cases 1 and 2 proposed generating stations or interconnec-
tions at Lancaster and Rutland were assumed to be in operation, and
the existing generating stations at Logan and Cabin Creek were com-
bined in an equivalent generator at Rutland. The flow of active and
reactive power in both cases was as shown in Fig. 26. The flow from
Philo west toward Fort Wayne was heavy. There were also heavy
flows from Rutland to Philo and from Philo to Canton. In both cases
1 and 2 a three-phase fault was assumed to occur on section Al of
the Philo 132-kv. bus and to be cleared in 0.15 sec. (9 cycles) by the
action of I-cycle bus diffffi.ential relays opening the following 8-cycle
circuit breakers (see Fig. 24): Howard line 1, Crooksville line 1,
generator 1, and bus-tie reactor 1. The assumptions which have been
stated represent a severe condition regarding stability, because of the
heavy power flow over long transmission lines, the severe type of fault,
the fault location at the sending end, and the loss of a long, heavily
loaded circuit in clearing the fault. A three-phase fault near Philo on
one of the lines to Howard might be expected to produce very nearly
the same effect as a fault at the location assumed.
In case 1 the interconnections to other companies were open; in case
2 they were closed. The swing curves for cases 1 and 2 are given in
tThe reactors actually installed were rated 125 Mva., 138 kv., 23% reactance
(equivalent to 20% per reactor on 10o-Mva. 132-kv. base).
~ § ~ ~
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296 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
Figs. 27and 28, respectively. In case 1 Fort Wayne and Twin Branch
pulled out of step with the rest of the system, but in case 2 these sta-
tions, supported by the interconnections to the Chicago and Indiana
0.6
I

,

r-,
I
//
I
"\
I
V

VI/
V
I ---....
V

__lZ


.......
-

I
I
condenser
I
Windsor-"'\
I I I
I

I
I Lanc,aster
-

ZAkron - Alliance
I...........
l-/
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......

,
I

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-I----
,
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Fostoria condenser

I I "
"i'-L -
. I J I I
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Wayne andWest

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r-, ;1

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en
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-40
«I
io
c
<
-60
-80
-100
40
60
20
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Time (seconds) afteroccurrence of fault
FIG. 27. Swing curves, Study 2, case 1. Future set-up. Generating plants at
Lancaster and Rutland. Interconnections open. Three-phase fault on Philo
132-kv. bus section Al cleared in 0.15 sec. by opening Howard line 1, Crooksville
line 1, generator 1, and bus-tie reactor 1. Unstable.
systems, stayed in step. The motion of the other machines was very
nearly the same in both cases. Philo A, the machine nearest the fault,
lost all its load while the fault was on and speeded up more than any
other machine. Philo B, separated from Philo A by the bus-tie
reactor, also speededup, although less than Philo A did because it lost
STUDY 2 297
j
1
I
/v

I T
I


....
Fault
I
//
"
cleared

0.15 sec.
y
. ./
B
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r\. ___

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rr-
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/,-Windsor Canton condenser

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-- I
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c:

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Fostoria i
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" FortWayne andWest
---.
I I I I I
-60
less load. The other generating stations were affected but .little. The
synchronous condensers, whose swing curves are shown by broken lines,
had very low inertia and swung with a shorter period than did the
generating stations. Because of their small inertia they had little
effect on the rest of the system, and they were not represented separ-
ately in case 3.
60
c
o
:t:i

-40
40
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Time (seconds) after occurrence of fault
FIG. 28. Swing curves, Study 2, case 2. Future set-up. Generating plants at
Lancaster and Rutland. Interconnections closed. Three-phase fault on Philo
132-kv. bus section Al cleared in 0.15 sec. by opening Howard line 1, Crooksville
line 1, generator 1, and bus-tie reactor 1. . Stable.
Case 3, representing immediate-future conditions, was set up without
the proposed generating stations at Lancaster and Rutland, but with
the existing stations south of Philo at Logan and Cabin Creek in
operation, and with interconnections to other companies closed.
Loads were as shown in Fig. 29, substantially the same as for cases 1
and 2. A three-phase fault was assumed to occur on section A2 of the
132-kv. bus at Philo and to be cleared in 0.15 sec. by the opening of
Howard line 2, Crooksville line 2, Rutland line 2, generator 2, and bus-
tie reactor 2. Note that the two groups of lines at Rutland are not
bussed. The swing curves (Fig. 30) show that Cabin Creek and
298 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
FortWayne
and West
40-jl0
Crooksville
South
Point
lorain
11.4 - j3.6
-........-- 100.5
.............. 106
t139 +j6.0
Logan andSouth
FIG. 29. Initial load conditions of case 3, Study 2. Flow of active and
....
('t)
e",
I
('f)
...
....
Po: 40.0 +jl1.0
~ ~
I
o
~
98.0
Massilon
~
24.0 +j19.6
B
Philo
STUDY 2
Akron, Alliance, and
Canton condensers
s
40.0 +nos
-e--
28.0 - ,56
Newcomerstown
Cabin Creek
1040
G t190 - ;14.0
299
North -
east
....---.....-98.0
t$
:s
It'
Windsor
andWest ~ ......- 102
Penn
reactive power in Mw. +j Mvar. Bus voltages are given in per cent of 132 kv.
300
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
I
<.$1

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01
Cabin
v::

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gJl
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fI'
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"31

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71
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r-,
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Windsor",
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Fort Wayne and West
----.
r---.
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l
60
Logan, which were sending power to Philo, speeded up and pulled out
of step with Philo. The pull-out might be attributed partly to the loss
of a Philo-Rutland-South Point-Turner circuit and partly to the initial
angular displacement between Logan and Cabin Creek, on the one
80
-40
-60
40
-80
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Time (seconds) afteroccurrence of fault
FIG. 30. Swing curves, Study 2, case 3. Immediate-future set-up. No genera-
tion at Lancaster or Rutland. Three-phase fault on Philo 132-kv. bus section A2
cleared in 0.15 sec. by opening Howard line 2, Crooksville line 2, Rutland line 2,
generator 2, and bus-tie reactor 2. Unstable.
hand, and Philo, on the other hand, being larger than that between
Rutland and Philo in case 2. Philo A and B swung more nearly to-
gether than they did in cases 1 and 2, probably because Philo A was
more lightly loaded than before (175' instead of 215 Mw.).
Conclusions. The following conclusions were reached:
1. The proposed bus reactors at Philo were found to have little
effect on system stability, as evidenced by the fact that the generators
STUDY 3 301
in sections A and B of the plant swung approximately together, even
for a fault on one bus section.
2. It was also found that, without the benefit of the added inertia of
the Chicago and Cincinnati interconnections (although these connec-
tions are normally closed), the system under the assumed load condi-
tions would lose synchronism between Twin Branch and Philo after a
three-phase bus fault at Philo cleared in 9 cycles with the loss of one
Philo-Howard circuit. With the interconnections closed the results
indicated that synchronism would probably be maintained under this
fault condition.
To increase the margin of stability under such conditions a program
of modernizing the Philo line breakers was worked out (and has subse-
quently been completed), calling for a reduction from 8 to 5 cycles in
the breaker-operating time and from 9 to 6 cycles in over-all clearing
time of faults. Also, the system tie lines between Ohio and Indiana
have been strengthened by the construction of a new 132-kv. line from
Portsmouth to Muncie, Indiana, providing a direct line from Turner to
the Indiana area.
3. Likewise, with a three-phase bus fault at Philo followed by loss of
a Philo-Rutland-Turner circuit, the system, under the heavy load
conditions assumed, showed a probable loss in synchronism between
Philo and the south. Here again, the subsequent improvements
which have been mentioned were designed to eliminate this difficulty,
and they have undoubtedly provided the necessary margin of stability
to prevent loss of synchronism under these conditions.
4. The system engineers have also pointed out that the future in-
stallation of 3-cycle breakers to replace 5-cycle breakers at the most
important locations, together with more extensive application of high-
speed reclosing, will provide still greater gains in system stability.
STUDY 3
Figure 31 represents a 132-kv. 60-cycle transmission network con-
necting a large steam generating 'station A (on the extreme right-hand
side of the diagram) to a large metropolitan receiving system, which
may be consideredan infinite bus and which is represented by system J
on the extreme left. Connected to the same 132-kv. network are two
other steam generating stations, E and I, and a number of substations
with loads.
The circuit breakers and relays on the network were too slow to
maintain synchronism between A and J through severe faults. There-
fore, it was believed best to operate the system sectionalized by open
breakers marked with crosses in Fig. 31. Under this plan each of the
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.
STUDY 3 303
three generating units at station A fed toward the metropolitan system
J over a separate circuit. Afault on anyone circuit and its subsequent
clearing disconnected one of the units at A from the rest of the system.
The disadvantage of this mode of operation was that, after clearing a
fault in or near stations A, B, or C, the loads at A, B, C, or D (depend-
ing on the fault location) were fed from stations E, I, and J over such
long lines that the voltages at the loads became too low. To take the
most extreme case, the load at station A could not be supplied over
the long line from system J if a fault occurred in generator At.
The study here described was made to determine which breakers
would have to be speeded up and possibly also equipped with high-
speed relaying to make station A stay in synchronism with the rest of
the system for faults on the I32-kv. network if the network were to be
operated unsectionalized, that is, with the breakers marked by crosses
closed.
The breaker-opening times were about 20 cycles, except for some
8-cycle breakers at stations A and E; and the relay times were from 1
to 60 cycles, depending on the fault location. It was assumed in the
study that any breakers requiring faster opening would be rebuilt to
open in 8 cycles. The line relaying would be changed where necessary
to high-speed distance relays having I-cycle operating time; and, if
necessary for stability, carrier-current pilot equipment would be added
to give simultaneous tripping of the breakers at both ends of the line for
faults at any point of the line. It was further assumed that high-speed
bus differential protection would be installed where necessary for
stability.
It is common to use two-line-to-ground faults in stability studies,
inasmuch as three-phase faults are very infrequent on high-voltage
steel-tower transmission lines. In this study, however, three-phase
faults were assumed, because they are not much more severe than two-
line-to-ground faults in their effect on stability and because they are
much simpler to represent. Only the positive-sequence network need
be considered for three-phase faults, whereas the zero- and negative-
sequence networks must also be considered for two-line-to-ground
faults.
Three-phase faults were assumed at various locations, the choice of
which will be discussed, and for each location swing curves were calcu-
lated to determine whether the system would be stable with the existing
breakers and relays and with faster breakers and relays.
To obtain the swing curves, the network of Fig. 31 (with all breakers
closed) was set up on an a-c. calculating board. Each line was rep-
resented by a nominal e, although the shunt capacitance at each end of
304 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
the line is not shown in Fig. 31. The three generators of station A were
represented by a single equivalent machine on the assumption that,
being connected to the same bus-although sectionalized by reactors-
they would swing nearly alike. The generators of station E were not
represented, except in one case in which the fault location was near this
station. For other fault locations it appeared that these generators
were electricaliy close enough to the metropolitan system J and far
enough from the fault so that they would not have much effect. In
such cases the load of station E was set to represent the true load there
less generation there. At station I two groups of generators on sepa-
rate busses were represented. All generators were represented by
transient reactance and voltage behind transient reactance. At
station A the reactances of the three generators were represented by
separate impedance units connected at one end to different bus sections
(separated by reactors) and connected at the other end to one power
source, the voltage of which represented voltage behind transient
reactance of all three generators. Generator A1 had two windings,
the self and mutual reactances of which were represented by a Y
circuit. In accordance with usual practice voltages behind transient
reactance were kept constant during the study. Data on the inertia,
speed, and kinetic energy of each actual and equivalent generator are
given in Table 8. An interval of 0.1 sec. was used in the point-by-
point calculations.
The outputs of the various machines, the values of the loads, and the
bus voltages were adjusted to typical values (shown on Fig. 31) as
nearly as possible to values observed on the system with sectionalized
operation at time of maximum system load. Loads were represented
by constant impedances, which were not changed after the fault
was on.
The most severe fault location is ordinarily closeto the sending end of
the system. Therefore it is logical to try first a fault so located. The
worst fault location on the system of Fig. 31 would be on the low-volt-
age bus of station A. A three-phase fault here would entirely interrupt
any exchange of power between the generators of this station and the
rest of the system. This bus, however, was of isolated-phase con-
struction; therefore the only type of fault which could occur here was
one-line-to-ground, which is not a severe fault from the standpoint of
stability. The closest point to the bus at which a three-phase fault
could occur was on the high-voltage side of one of the transformers
(there was no high-voltage bus at A) or on the far side of a set of
reactors feeding a local load (fault location 2). As a matter of fact, a
more severe fault location than either of these was on the bus of sub-
STUDY 3
305
TABLE 8
INERTIA OF GENERATORS (STUDY 3)
Rating
WR2
Speed
Stored
Generator
(Mva.) (lb-ft.
2
) (r.p.m.)
energy H 11M
(Mj.)
At 100 859,000 1,800 640 6.40
AS 50 475,000 1,800 365 7.29
AS 50 475,000 1,800 365 7.29
A, total 200 1,809,000 1,370 6.85 7.89
Et 12.5 51,000 1,800 38 3.04
E2 12.5 51,000 1,800 38 3.04
ES 35 357,000 1,800 266 7.60
E4
30 29,100 3,600 87 2.90
E, total 90 429 4.76 25.2
Ila 50 390,000 1,800 291 5.81
Ilb 60 391,000 1,800 292 4.86
11, total 110 781,000 583 5.30 18.5
ISa 35 243,000 1,800 181 5.17
ISb 100 750,000 1,800 560 5.60
IS, total 135 993,000 741 5.49 14.6
station B, where a three-phase fault would entirely interrupt the flowof
power between generators A and the other generators. It wasim-
material, while the fault was on, whether it was on one or another bus
section of substation B or whether it was just outside the substation on
anyone of the seven lines. The worst location as regards conditions
after the fault was cleared, however, was on the upper bus section
(fault location 1), where clearing a fault would require the opening of a
bus-tie breaker and of three line breakers, whereas a fault in any of the
other locations mentioned would require the opening of fewer lines.
Consequently, the effect of a three-phase fault at location 1 on the bus
of substation B was examined first.
A three-phase fault at this location was known to put station A out of
step if slow breakers were used. Therefore 8-cycle breakers and 1-
cycle bus differential relays were assumed, giving a clearing time of 9
cycles. The swing curves are shown in Fig. 32. Clearly the system
was stable, although without much margin. Twelve-cycle clearing
would probably be too slow.
72 64 56 48 24
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
16 8

r---

V

A--
./
r-;
1/

"
r-,
V
r-,

V

f-- Fault cleared completely 9 f"'v
I
--

\
"l

...............
<,
/
",.

It- Faulton
-
'-.....

"".,..--
-
"

I--.
t---.

K-
----
'"
I .........
I
r-I""""""
I ¥
'r-J
o
o 32 40
Time (cycles)
FIG. 32. Swing curves, Study 3, fault at location 1, cleared completely in 9 cycles.
System stable.
306
100
80

Q)
e

Q)
60
-0
jij
E
u
Q)
40
"ii)
Q)
1i".o
e
<
20
--
A
.
-
1
-:

r-,
I

V
"'

VI
I

1/
I

Fault cleared

12
--
I

I



-11
-
..................
k-- Fault on-

I I
100
80
20
o
o
8 16 24 32
Time (cycles)
40 48
FIG. 33. Swing curves, Study 3, fault at location 2, cleared in 15 cycles. System
stable.
STUDY 3 307
J
24
12
11
...._ ......... ......
o 8 16
Time (cycles)
FIG. 34. Swing curves, Study 3,
fault at location 3, cleared at both
ends in 9 cycles. System stable.
It could be inferred, without taking more swing curves, that the
system would likewisebe stable for a fault on either of the other bus
sections at substation B cleared in 9 cycles, but would be unstable with
the slowbreakers. Therefore all the breakers at B should be speeded
up, and each bus section should be equipped with high-speed protec-
tion.
It could be inferred further that the system would be stable for a
fault close to substation B on anyone of the seven lines cleared in 9
cycles at both ends. Whether sequential clearing would give stability
is not yet clear, but this point will be 60 __
considered later.
-
Attention was next turned to fault
location 2, separated by a reactor 40
from the low-voltage bus of station
o
A. Fifteen-cycle clearing time was :a
assumed, corresponding closely to ! 20 ..........
the existing relay and breaker times
of 6 and 8 cycles, respectively. The
swing curves are given in Fig. 33.
Again, the system was stable.
Fault location 3, just outside sta-
tion A on one of the lines to sub-
station B, was considered next.
Nine-cycle clearing was assumed at
both ends. The swing curves, shown in Fig. 34, indicate that the sys-
tem was stable by a big margin. Sequential clearing will be con-
sidered later.
The next fault was taken at location 4 near station E on one of the
lines to substation C. The machine at E was represented by a power
source on the supposition that this machine would be a significant
factor in the stability of the system. Sequential clearingwas assumed,
9 cycles (1 cycle relay time plus 8 cyclesbreaker time) at E, where the
breaker already was an 8-cycleone, and 80 cycles (60 cycles relay time
plus 20 cycles breaker time) at C. The swing curves are given in Fig.
35. The system was stable and would be so even if the line were not
opened at C. There seems not to be much margin, however, in the
clearing time at E. For this fault location the existing breakers were
satisfactory.
When the fault was taken at the other end of the same line (location
5), however, 21-cycle clearing at C (1 cycle relay time plus 20 cycles
breaker time), followed by 68-cycle clearing at E (60 cycles relay time
plus 8 cycles breaker time) was not fast enough for stability. The
120 r - - - - - r - - - - , . . . - - ~ - _ _ r _ _ - _ , _ - - . , . . . _ _ - ~ - -
96 84 24 12
O'-......I.-I---.l----......- ~ - - - - - ....- ...........- ~
o
100
- 80
&/)
Q)
~
aD
Fault cleared at C Q)
"tJ
co
.g
60
1J
Q)
'ii
Q)
bo
e
40
-e
20
J
36 48 60
Time (cycles)
FIG. 35. Swing curves, Study 3, fault at location 4, cleared at station E in 9
cycles and at substation C in 80 cycles. System stable.
72 64 56 48 24 16 8
/
r I
!
/ !
~
I
I
I
j ~
:
I
I
V
I
I
I
V
I
I
I
J
I I
I I
~ ~
V-
I- Fault cleared Fault cleared
--J at station C at station E--.
I
21'"'-' 68'"'-'
I
./
~
I
I
I I
~ ~
I
I
----
I I
~ - Fault on-
~ ~ ~
;
~ I
I
~
~
~
~
I
I
./
I
..........
_1/
~ l l
; -
.........
...........
I
.......... J
I
I
I
I
J____
I
o
o 32 40
Time (cycles)
FIG. 36. Swing curves, Study 3, fault at location 5, cleared at substation C in
21 cycles and at station E in 68 cycles. System unstable.
308
140
120
100
-
en
Q)
~
bO
Q)
80
"'0
tV
u
~
"ii
60
Q)
co
~
40
20
STUDY 3 309
swing curves of Fig. 36 show that station A went out of step with the
rest of the system. Therefore the breaker at C must be speeded up.
Nine-cycle clearing at both ends would certainly give stable operation,
because 9-cycle clearing sufficedin the more severe fault locations 1, 2,
and 3. Sequential clearing (not tried) probably would be satisfactory.
Attention was now turned to the circuit from B to D, and a three-
phase fault was taken at location 6 near D. Generator 12 was not
140 ---_-__ ......
cleared in 27'"
r
I
!
;
I
I
;
I
T I I I I I
Fault cleared at B'-.. --L.--
68""
I I
I
I
1/
.1/

.......... _...... I'--Fault cleared in 68/V
20 '--
120
100
-
(/)
Q,)
e
bO
Q,)
80
"0
(ij
u
'':;:
t)
Q,)
Q)
60
-Q,)

c
<
40
72
:
64 56 48
I
24 16 8
O'--...I..... ...... __..._"___'_....__....._........
o 32 40
Time (cycles)
FIG. 37. Swing curves, Study 3, fault at location 6, cleared at substation B in
27 cycles, system stable; or in 68 cycles, system unstable.
represented for this case, because, with a fault at 6 either on or cleared,
12 could exchange no power with station A and hence would have no
effect on the swinging of A with respect to the infinite bus J. For
similar reasons the clearing time at substation Dwas immaterial to the
stability of A. The clearing time at substation B was first assumed as
68 cycles (60cycles existing relay time plus 8 cyclesnew breaker time) ;
generator A pulled out of step as shown by the swing curves in broken
lines in Fig. 37. The clearing time was then reduced to 27 cycles,
resulting in stability without much margin, as shown by the swing
curves in solid lines in Fig. 37. The required clearing time of 27 cycles
or less at B was too short to permit selective operation between the
310 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
breaker at B and the 20-cyclebreaker to the left of D for a fault just to
the left of D. Either the breaker to the left of D must be speeded up,
or else carrier-current relaying must be installed on the line from B
to D. With an 8-cycle breaker and J-cycle relay at D, and a margin of
20 cycles (required by good practice), the clearing time at B would be
1 + 8 + 20 + 8 = 37 cycles, which was still too slow. Hence carrier-
current relaying was needed, and by its use the clearing time at sub-
station B could be reduced to 9 cycles. As already stated, the clearing
time at D was not important; therefore the breaker at D need not be
changed.
Consider next fault location 7 near substation C on the line from B
to C. Before the fault was cleared, conditions were the same as they
E
c
B
A
• 8- cycle breakers needed.
- - - Carrier - current relaying needed.
FIG. 38. Location of 8-cycle breakers and carrier-current relaying necessary to
maintain stability with interconnected operation under the conditions of Study 3.
were for the fault at location 5, for which 21-cycleclearing was too slow.
Hence the breaker at Cmust be speeded up to 8 cycles, giving a clearing
time at C of 9 cycles. After the breaker at C was opened, conditions
were similar to what they were for the fault at location 6, except that
the shock during the first 9 cycles was greater for location 7 than for 6,
as the reactance between the fault and the bus of substation B was
slightly less for location 7 than for location 6. Therefore the critical
clearing time at B for a fault at 7 must be considerably less than the 27
cycles found for location 6. A clearing time of 68 cycles (existing relay
time of 60 cycles plus new breaker time of 8 cycles) was far too slow,
and even 37 cycles (second-zoneimpedance relay time of 29 cycles plus
breaker time of 8 cycles) was too slow, Carrier-current relaying was
therefore needed on each of the two lines between Band C.
For similar reasons carrier-current relaying should be used on each
STUDY 4-DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS 311
of the four lines between A and B. Sequential clearing of end-zone
faults appeared to be permissible, however, on the two lines between
C and E. Eight-cycle bus-tie breakers and high-speed bus relaying
should be used at stations Cand E, as well as at B.
Faults were not taken any farther from station A than stations D
and E, because it was known that station A would stay in step, even
with the existing breakers and relays.
The conclusions of the study are set forth in Fig. 38, which shows' the
locations where 8-cycle breakers were required and the lines to which
carrier-current relay channels should be added.
STUDY 4§
Three power companies (herein called companies A, B, and C),
operating in neighboring states but having no physical connections
with one another, were considering the construction of interconnecting
transmission lines to permit the interchange of power between them in
either direction. Study 4 was made to determine (a) the transmission
capacity or power limit of the proposed interconnecting lines, (b) the
required capacity of line terminal equipment, such as transformers and
shunt reactors or synchronous condensers, and (c) the modifications
necessary within the three systems to permit utilization of the full
power capacity of the interconnecting lines.
Description of systems. The systems involved in the study are
portrayed by the impedance diagrams (Figs. 39 and 40), and they are
also described in the following paragraphs. Stations of these systems
are designated by two-letter combinations, the first letter of which
denotes the company owning the station.
Company A operated a metropolitan power system having a steam-
electric generating station of 112-Mva. capacity (station AA) which
fed a number of substations through a l3.8-kv. transmission network
(shown in upper right-hand corner of Fig. 40). Station AA was con-
nected through two 66-kv. lines to substation AB, from which con-
nections were made to companies D and E and-by one of the proposed
lines-to company B.
Company B had a system consisting of two distinct parts. (See
Fig. 39.) One part, shown on the left-hand side of the diagram, had
two steam-electric plants (station BF, 25 Mva., and station BG, 32.5
Mva.) a few miles apart. These plants served the area in which they
§Information concerning this study was obtained through the courtesy of
Ebasco Services, Inc., New York City, with the concurrence of the operating com...
panies concerned.
312
DC
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
-- Usbnllines.
- - Proposed lines.
0- Synchronous condenser,
0- Ste.m·· electric I.ner.ti",

rji\.- Hydroelectnc I.ner.tin,
v:..;- 'tatlOn.
0- lenerator
representln,.power
system.
LOid.
:I: ...
+ Tr.ns'ormer.
lOMv...
FIG. 39. Study 4, part 1. Impedance diagram showing impedances of trans-
mission lines and transformers in per cent on 4o-Mva. base. Values of capacitive
susceptances of lines are in per cent on the same base. Proposed interconnections
are shown in broken lines.
STUDY 4-DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS 313
System C
equlVlltnt
8j:t
1210
AIC
1.!9
AG AD
....
~
,.,;
+
;-
~
~ AC
C?
~
~
IE
~
AJ
It'
2
N
N
0;
~ ;-
0
.;-
~
~
~
cd
:;-
s
AA
::
13.8
+
all ~
~ CA 1l0kv N
H ( I : U ~ : ~ )
DA 138 ltv.
~
DA 110 kv
7 ~
~
",
N
,.,;
2 .;-
aMva.
+'
~
C it
N ~
'i. fIi
3.28
~ III
DB HOb -
cd
DC4.15ltv.
+
N
~
In
ltl
"!
3.28 ::
~
II'
:;-
IQ
IQ
DC 110 kv.
I ;-
iii
~
N
SA 601tv
20 Mva.
~
.,
+
In
'It
...
C?
~
40 Mva.
DE 110 kv
H
R
D F69
/'Ii
:;-
kv.
,...
~
25
G
9.92
DF 110kv
Mvt.
FIG. 46. Study 4, part 2. Impedance diagram with values in per cent on 25-Mva.
base. Line capacitance values are in microfarads on calculating board.
314 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
were situated and fed a number of smaller towns through a 60-kv.
transmission system. The other part, shown on the right-hand side,
had one steam-electric plant (station BD, 50 Mva.) feeding a number of
substations through 66-kv. radial transmission lines. These two parts
were joined through a two-circuit 132-kv. line about 100 miles long
from substation BC to station BD.
The system of company B was: interconnected at substation BA
to the system of company F and at station BD to the system of
company G.
Company C, having an extensive system with both steam and hydro-
electric plants, was interconnected with several other large systems in
adjacent states. It is represented in Figs. 39 and 40 as an equivalent
generator on the bus of substation CA.
Company D operated asystem (shown in Fig. 40) which included
several hydroelectric stations (DA, DE, DF, DG, and DH) of capac-
ities ranging from 8 to 40 Mva. and a I IO-kv. transmission system
connecting these generating stations to one another, to substations,
and to companies A and E. This system extended several hundred
miles from the city served by company A.
Company E had a 28-Mva. steam-electric plant located in a city
about 60 miles distant from company A.
Company F had a large system; with both steam and hydroelectric
plants. Of these only station FA, the plant nearest system C, was
represented individually in the study, the remainder of the system
being represented by a single equivalent generator (shown in lower left-
hand corner of Fig. 39).
Company G had steam plants at GB and GD and' a hydroelectric
plant at GC. It was interconnected with company B at station BD
(lower right-hand corner of Fig. 39).
Company H operated a metropolitan system, situated about half way
between companies A and B but not connected to them. Its generat-
ing capacity was approximately 275 Mva. (See Fig. 40.)
A list of synchronous machines of companies A, B, D, E, and Gwill
be found in Table 9. As the systems of companies C, F, and H were
not represented in detail, their machines are not listed.
Proposed interconnecting lines. Two lines were proposed, the first
connecting company A to company B, the second connecting company
B to company C. Both are shown by dashed lines in Fig. 39. For the
first line two alternative routes were studied, one from substation AB
to station BD, the other from substation AB to substation Be. The
lengths of these routes are about 280 and 244 miles, respectively. The
second line was to have terminals at BD and CA, and a length of about
256 miles.
STUDY 4-PROPOSED INTERCONNECTING LINES 315
TABLE 9
LIST OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES (STUDY 4)
Number Rating
Total
Kinetic ,
WR2
Station of Like
Kind of Xd
Energy
Units
Machine (%)
(kilo-lb-
(Mj.)
kv. kva. r.p.m. ft.
2
)
AA 1 Steam 13.2 18,750 1,800 28.0 140 104.8
"
1
H
"
25,000
H
24.0 207 154.0
"
1
u
"
25,000
H
"
237 176.4
u
1
"
13.8 31,250
"
21.0 237 176.4
u
1
H u
12,500 3,600 11.0 15.5 46.4
u
Total 112,500 658.0
AJ 1 Steam 13.8 6,250 3,600 14.0 10.2 29.9
BA 1 Condo 4.16 3,500 720 29.0 38.9 4.7
BC 1 Condo 12.47 3,750 720 29.1 38.9 4.7
u
1
H
"
3,750
"
32.0 106.3 12.7
Ie
Total 7,500 17.4
BD 1 Steam 12.0 18,750 1,800 18.0 102 76.4
"
1
"
"
31,250
"
22.0 235 176
--
Ie
Total 50,000 252.4
BF 1 Steam 12.5 25,000 3,600 11.0 62* 186
BO 1 Steam 4.16 7,500 3,600 15.8 19* 56.8
"
2
Ie
"
12,500 1,800 19.0 85.3* 64
--
"
Total 32,500 184.8
DA 3 Hydro 13.8 14,000 150 36.0 7,500 38.8
H
Total 42,000 116.4
DC 1 Condo 4.15 8,000 900 34.9 40.5 7.6
DE 2 Hydro 6.9 10,000 180 35.0 4,650 34.8
a
Total
-
20,000 69.6
DFl 2 Hydro 6.9 10,000 180 35.0 4,650 34.8
DF2 1
"
u
20,000 164 42.0 9,870 60.8
DF Total 40,000 130.4
DG 3 Hydro 6.9 2,750 112.5 39.0 1,250 3.6
" "
-
Total 8,250 10.8
*Estimated.
316
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
TABLE 9 (Continued)
Number Rating
Total
Kinetic
Kind of
,
WR2
Station of Like
Zd
Energy
Units
Machine (%) (kilo-Ib-
(Mj.)
kv. kva. r.p.m. ft.
2
)
DH 2 Hydro 13.8 14,500 257 32.0 1,950 29.6
II
Total
--
29,000 59.2
DI 1 Condo 13.8 15,000 900 35.7 93 17.4
EA 2 Steam 4.15 8,575 3,600 12.0 19.6 58.4
II
1
"
"
6,250
II
14.0 12.4 37.2
II
1
"
u
5,000
"
16.0 10.0 29.9
"
--
Total 28,400 183.9
EA 1 Condo 4.15 7,500 900 35.1 38.0 7.1
FA Steam
II
Total 162.4 121
GB 1 Steam 31,250 1,800 19.0 414
II
1 Freq.chr. 33,000 300 36.0 6,200
II
Total 64,250
GO 4 Hydro 5,000 164 32.0 1,010
II
Total 20,000
GD 1 Steam 15,625 23.0
Both interconnecting lines were to be of 154-kv. single-circuit
construction, with hollow 250,OOO-circular-mil copper conductors of
O.766-inch diameter, supported by wooden H frames. The equivalent
spacing between phase conductors would be 17 ft. Ground wires
would be installed to protect the line against lightning.
The necessary terminal equipment would include transformers, shunt
reactors or synchronous condensers, circuit breakers, and protective
relays.
The transformers at substation AB would have three windings: high
voltage, 154 kv. Y; low voltage, 66 kv. Y; and tertiary, 13.8 kv. ~ .
Those at the other end of the A-to-B line (at either BC or BD, depend-
ing upon the route selected) would be 154-to-132 kv. Y...connected
autotransformers with 12.5-kv. d-connected tertiary windings. For
the B-to-C line the transformers at station BD would be autotrans-
formers similar to those on the A-to-B line, and, even if the terminals
STUDY 4-SCOPE OF THE STUDY 317
of both lines were to be at station BD, it was assumed that separate
transformers would be used for each line. At substation CA 154-to-
110-kv. autotransformers with tertiary windings would be required.
The tertiary windings of these transformer banks would be used for
connection of shunt reactors or synchronous condensers to supply the
reactive power needed to hold the voltages of the terminal busses at
suitable values. They would also provide a path for zero-sequence
current.
To attain reliable transmission of power over the proposed single-
circuit interconnections, without the aid of any parallel ties between
the systems, it would be necessary to use high-speed clearing of faults
on these lines and high-speed reclosure of terminal breakers. Obtain-
able circuit breakers had an opening time of 5 cycles and a reclosing
time of 20 cycles with three-pole operation. The assumption of
I-cycle carrier relaying gave an assumed fault-clearing time of 6 cycles
and a reclosing time of 21 cycles, measured from the instant of occur-
rence of the fault.
Scope of the study. The study included power-flow and transient-
stability studies. The power-flow studies served to determine: (1)
approximate steady-state power limits of the interconnections, (2) the
reactive power which had to be supplied by reactors or synchronous
condensers at the terminals of the proposed lines and elsewhere, (3) the
required capacity of the terminal transformers, (4) the need for addi-
tional generating, transformer, or transmission-line capacity within the
several systems, and (5) initial conditions for the transient-stability
studies. Transient-stability studies served to determine: (1) the
transient power limits of the interconnections for faults on the inter-
connecting lines, and (2) the required clearing times of faults on other
lines to prevent impairing the power capacity so determined.
The study was divided into two parts, made at different times and
with different a-c. calculating boards. Part 1 dealt with the power
capacity of the A-to-B and B-to-Cinterconnections for power flow in
each direction, also with the choice between BC and BD as southern
terminal of the A..to-B line; it dealt also with the effect on stability of
interconnecting systems F and Gto system B, and with various internal
problems of systems Band C arising from the proposed interconnec-
tions. For brevity those portions of the study pertaining primarily to
system C and to the B-to-Cline are omitted from the present report.
Part 2 was concerned with internal problems of system A, including the
required speed of clearing of faults on lines within that system, and
also with the effect on stability of connecting system H to a tap on the
A-to-B line.
318 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
Loads. Estimated July and December peak loads three years after
date of study were used. The July loads have practically the same
active-power component as the December loads but have higher
reactive-power components.
Method of determining power limits. Approximate steady-state
momentary power limits of the interconnections were found by in-
creasing the electrical angle between bus voltages at major generating
stations of the different power systems to approximately 45°. The
practical steady-state power capacity was taken as 5 Mw. below the
value so found, to allow for momentary fluctuations of about 5 Mw.
above the average power carried by the line. Such fluctuations could
be caused by sudden changes in loads or by faults at distant points.
Transient-stability power limits were found principally by obtaining
swing curves by the point-by-point method in order to determine
whether the system would be stable or unstable with various values of
initial power flow if a two-wire-to-ground fault should occur on the
interconnecting line, followed by 6-cycle clearing and 21-cycle reclosure.
The effects of faults on other lines were investigated in similar fashion,
except that three-phase faults were assumed on overhead lines without
ground "vires, on double-circuit lines, and on cables, and that various
clearing times were assumed. The number of machines represented
in these transient-stability runs varied from four to ten.
In two instances the number of machines was reduced to two,
power-angle curves were obtained by use of a calculating board, and
curves of power limit versus switching time were then computed.
The rated power capacity of the interconnecting lines was taken as
5 Mw. lower than the transient power limit, to allow for fluctuations.
Simplification of systems. In representing the systems only major
stations, substations, and transmission tie lines were included. Radial
lines were represented as loads on the busses from which they radiated.
For example, the entire 66-kv. system supplied from station BD was
represented as a load on the BD 66-kv. bus.
Lines were represented by nominal sr circuits, the capacitances of all
lines on a given bus being represented by one capacitor on that bus.
Proposed interconnecting lines were represented by several sections,
depending upon location of proposed taps to other systems.
Three-circuit transformers were represented by their equivalent Y
circuits. If one branch of such a circuit had negative reactance (as
indicated, for example, in Fig. 39 on the 66-kv. side of the transformer
at substation AB), the following change was made in setting up the
circuit on the calculating board: The branch with negative reactance
was set up with zero reactance, and its negative reactance was com-
STUDY 4-SIMPLIFICATION OF SYSTEMS 319
bined with the greater positive reactance of the opposite branch, thus
preserving the correct value of through reactance from primary to
secondary terminals.
TABLE 10
GROUPING OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES FOR REPRESENTATION BY POWER SOURCES
ON THE CALCULATING BOARD (STUDY 4)
Power Source Numbers
Station
Run Run Run Run Run Run Run Runs Run
1 2 3
4
5 6 7 8 to 11
l'
--------
--------
DE, DF, DH 1 1 1 1 1 1
------ I 1 1 --
--
DA,DG 2 2 2 2 2 2
--------------
--
EA 3 3 3 3 3 3
------ --
--
AJ 4 4
2 2 2 --
--
AA (north bus) 4 4 4 4 5 5
--
--
AA (south bus) 6 6
------
--------
--
BD 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 7 7
--------------
--
BF 6 6 Off Off
-- 6 ---- 4 4 8 8
BG 7 7 6 4
--
--------------
System C
00* 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
----------
----
I-
GB 8 7
5
---- 5
--
GC,GD 9 8
6
----
--
--
FA Off 10 9 Off 6 Off 7 Off Off
---- --
--
Rest of systemF
00 00 00 00
---- --
--
--
System H Off Off Off Off 9
*00 = Infinite bus.
Synchronous condensers were not represented dynamically during
stability studies, but merely by capacitors or reactors.
System C was represented by an equivalent generator on the sub-
station CA bus. System F, exclusiveof station FA, which was shown
individually, was represented by an equivalent generator. In stability
studies the equivalent generators at CA and FA were regarded as
infinite. Station DG was combined with station DA. Stations GC
and GD were represented by an equivalent generator on the sub-
320 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
station GA bus. In part 1of the study the portion of system D beyond
substation DD was represented as an equivalent generator on the DD
bus, and station AJ was combined with station AA. In part 2 the
portion of system B near stations BF and BG (including transformers,
lines, and loads, but not generators) was represented by an equivalent
circuit (shown in Fig. 40), the terminals of which were: station BF
12.5-kv. bus, station BG 4.16-kv. bus, substation Be 132-kv. bus, and
substation BA 60-kv. bus. Since generators were not included in this
network, it was possible to change the generator reactances according
to the number of machines assumed in operation at each station and
according to whether adjusted synchronous reactances were wanted for
steady-state runs or transient reactances for transient-stability runs.
In many of the transient-stability runs further combinations of
generators were made, as shown in Table 10; for example, stations BG
and BF were combined in some runs.
Swing curves, part 1. Twelve transient-stability runs were made
in the part of the study considered. The swing curves are reproduced
in Figs. 41 to 52, inclusive, and the conditions under which they were
taken and the resulting conclusions concerning the stability or in-
stability of each case are summarized in Table 11. The grouping of
generators for each stability run is shown in Table 10. Each run will
now be discussed.
Run 1. The company B terminal of the A-to-B line was assumed to
be at substation BC. As a step in finding the power limit of this line
for northward power flow, the power sources on the board were ad-
justed to give 39.6 Mw. of power received at substation AB from Be.
To supply this power, 13 Mw. was transmitted to system B from sys-
tem C, and a new generating unit was assumed installed and operating
at station BF, resulting in a need also of 20 Mva. of additional trans-
former capacity at BF. A two-line-to-ground fault was assumed to
occur on the 154-kv. A-to-B line near the sending end. The assumed
clearing and reclosing times were 6 and 21 cycles, respectively. The
sending end of any line is ordinarily the worst fault location on the line
from the standpoint of stability; but" since acceleration of the gener-
ators during the 6 cyclesin which the fault is on is small compared with
that during the following 15 cycles In which the line is open and the
systems are completely separated, a fault of given type anywhere on
the line would have substantially the same effect on stability as a fault
at the sending end. Inspection of the swing curves (Fig. 41) shows
that the machines of system B swing approximately together and that
they speed up. The speeding up is due to their dropping load during
the disturbance. The machines of systems A, D, and E also swing
T
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322 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
1.0 0.8 0.2
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together, but they slow down because they take on additional load
during the disturbance to make up in their systems for the power which
was received from system B. System C was represented as an infinite
bus and, therefore, did not swing. Station BD, which was closer to
system C than were stations BF and BG, swung less than did stations
BF and BG, as though it were attracted by system C. The curves
clearly show that the system was stable.
80
1 (DE, DF. DH)
0.4 0.6
Time (seconds)
FIG. 41. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 1. 39.6 Mw. received at
substation AB from substation Be, and 13.0 Mw. received at station BD from
substation CA. Two-line-to-ground fault-near substation BCon proposed 154-kv.
line to substation AB, cleared in 6 cycles, line reclosed in 21 cycles. Stable.
Run S. The power received at substation AB was increased to 45.6
Mw. To supply this increased power, the power sent to system B from
system Cwas increased to 21.4 Mw., while the outputs of stations BD,
BF, and BG were left unchanged. Systems F and Gwere connected to
system B with zero interchange of active and reactive power. With
the same fault location and with switching times the same as those in
the preceding run, the system proved unstable. Therefore the power
limit oj the A-to-B line for northward r'power flow is between J,.O and J,.5
Mw. received. The rated power capacity of the line may be taken as
35 Mw, Study of the swing curves (Fig. 42) shows that the machines
STUDY 4-SWING CURVES, PART 1 323
of systems Band G and of station FA swung ahead together. The
rest of system F was represented as one infinite bus, and system C was
represented as another infinite bus. The generators of system B did
not swing as far ahead of system C in this run as they did in the pre-
ceding run, in spite of the increase in power transfer. This fact shows
80 ..--.....----r---,...__--r--_,._-_- - __-_-__
40
-en
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...
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System F as infinitebus
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e
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- 160'"'---..---'--...L-....-"'---..L_--L.._-'-_..L-_I-....--J._...L.........J
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 42. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 2. 45.6 Mw. received at
substation AB from substation BO, and 21.4 Mw. received at station BD from
substation CA. Systems F and G connected to system C with 0 +jO power
interchange. Two-line-to-ground fault near substation Be on proposed 154-kv.
line to substation AB, cleared in 6 cycles, line reclosedin 21 cycles. Unstable.
that the connection of systems F and G to system B has a beneficial
effect on stability. Nevertheless, the generators of systems A, D, and
E, again swinging together, swung farther behind than previously and
pulled out of step with the other generators. Hence the power limit,
either with or without the connection of systems F and Gto system B, is
between 40 and 45 Mw., and it may be concluded that the connection
of those systems has only a small effect.
Run 3. One consequenceof selectingsubstation Be as the company
324
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
B terminal of the A-to-B line, while station BD is the terminal of the
B-to-C line, is that, when it is desired to transfer power from company
C to company A, this power must flowover the double-circuit 132-kv.
120__......__---t"---.--......--_-__-....--__- __

80


;1. 5
'-
I
-
40
i
f
-a
-
i
0
...
f
System F
....
co
c
-40
11

..
c
.I!
en
c
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to-
-80
- 120
- 160..........-"'" """"""-_......._ .......-...l"----""_-'"'-_....._.-..-_.a..-.....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 43. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 3. 40.0 Mw. received at
substation AB fromsubstation BC, 58.0 Mw. receivedat substation BCfromstation
BD, and 40.4 Mw. received at station BD from substation CA. Systems F and
G connected to system C with 0 +jOpower interchange. Double-circuit three-
phase fault near station BD on the 132-kv. lines to substation Be, cleared in 9
cycles, lines reclosedin 30 cycles. Stable but critical.
line from BD to BC, which at the same time may be required to carry
power from station BD to loads in the left-hand portion of system B.
To test stability under such conditions, run 3 was made. Generation
was adjusted to send 40.0 Mw. (slightly below the power limit found
above) to AB from BC and 40.4 Mw. to BD from CA. At the same
STUDY4-SWING CURVES, PART 1
325
time station BD was generating more than was required by the load
in the adjacent part of System B, and the surplus was transmitted to
the distant part, resulting in a total power of 58.0 Mw. received at sub-
station BC over the 132-kv. lines from BD. No new generators were
assumed to be running. Systems F and Gwere connected to system B
with zero interchange. A three-phase fault involving both circuits]
of the 132-kv. line to Be was assumed to occur near BD and to be
cleared in 9 cyclesby simultaneous opening of the breakers at both ends
of both circuits, followed by their reclosure in 30 cycles. The swing
curves (Fig. 43) show that the system was stable ·but critical. The
machines of systems A, D, and E, again swinging together, sloweddown
and almost, but not quite, pulled out of step with the other machines.
Stations BD, GB, GC, and GD (which are on the sending side of the
opened line) swung ahead and then oscillated; of these stations, BD,
which is nearest the fault, swung ahead most rapidly. Stations BF
and BG slowed down at first but speeded up after reclosure of the
faulted lines. The power limit was slightly over 58 Mw. on the BC-BD
lines or slightly over 40 Mw, on the AB-BC line. The latter figure is
close to the limit already found for a fault on the AB-BC line and is
therefore satisfactory. If the fault should involve only one circuit,
the power limit would be higher.
Run 4. It was next decided to investigate the power limit of the
A-to-B line when carrying power southward (from A to B). The
power sources were adjusted to give 35.4Mw. received at Be from AB.
To supply this amount of power, the output of station AA generators
was increased to 22 Mw. above the rated capacity of the station,
requiring that a new generating unit be assumed installed and operat-
ing there; and, in addition, 30.5 Mw. was received at substation AB
from system D. To absorb this amount of power in system B, station
BF was shut down. The B-to-C line was closed with zero active and
reactive power interchange as measured at station BD 132-kv. bus.
Systems F and Gwere not connected. Additional transformer capac-
ity was required as follows: 13 Mva. at station AA, 5 Mva, at sub-
station AB, and 12 Mva. at substation Be. A two-line-to-ground
fault was assumed to occur near AB on the proposed 154-kv. A-to-B
line, with the usual switching times. The swing curves (Fig. 44) show
the system to be unstable. Systems A, D, E and system B, although
initially swinging apart, came back together and remained in syn-
chronism, but both these groups pulled out of step with system C.
[Such a fault might consist either of a three-phase fault on each circuit or of 8,
one-line-to-ground fault on one circuit and a two-line-to-ground fault on the re-
maining phases of the other circuit.
326 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
System C
as infinite bus
en


\0
.sl
e
';1
u
...., ...---+---1

80
-;; 240
e
r
"'0
-
CD
J 200 1---1---4---1
ftS
f
Ci
E 160

C
CD
'iii
c
120
Run 5. Conditions in this run were identical to those in the last ron
except that systems F and G were connected to system B with zero
interchange. The combined system was again unstable (see Fig. 45),
but this time systems Band Cstayed in step with each other, whereas
320 ---------....--r------r----r---y---.--.---r--,
40 '--...... .....---'
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 44. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 4. 35.4 Mw. received at
substation BC from substation AB. Two-line-to-ground fault near substation AB
on proposed 154-kv. line to substation BC, cleared in 6 cycles, line reclosed in 21
cycles. Unstable,
systems A, D, E pulled ahead and out of step with Band C. The
motion of the A, D, E machines was almost exactly the same in both
runs, but the motion of the system B machines was greatly reduced by
the connection of systems F and G. The power limit of the A-to-B
line for southward power flow was less than 35 Mw. whether systems
F and G were connected or not, and was estimated as being between
STUDY 4-SWING CURVES, PART 1 327
I
i
V
I
I
"2'
/
I
Cl)1
1(systemDl')
V
I

cu_
....
I

V
V

/

ar....
/


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./
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I
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V
ml
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5
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System Casinfinitebus yo

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-
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----

V _

I
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System F asInfinite bus
I 4 (BG).
""",-
r---""'"
I
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240
280
80
-
I
"0
200
f
co
8L

160
ca
j
1:
QI
120
e
...
40
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Titne (seconds)
FIG. 45. Swingcurves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 5. Same as run 4 except that
systems F and G were connected to system C with 0 +jO power interchange.
Again unstable.
30 and 35 Mw. The practical power capacity was taken as 25 Mw.
Note that the transient-stability limit for southward flow was less than that
for northward flow on the same line.
Run 6. The company B terminal of the A-to-B line was now shifted
from BC to BD, and northward power transfer was investigated.
300
First the value of 30 Mw. received at AB from BD was tried. Station
BF was generating 54 Mw. with the new generator operating, and 23
Mva, of additional transformer capacity was required there. No
power was received from system C, and systems F and Gwere discon-
nected. Generation at station AA was reduced to such an extent that
to supply its local load necessitated the receipt of power from system
D as well as from system B and required 11 Mva. of additional trans-
328 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
1(System D)
2 (AA, AJ, EA)
Q)
"60
e
«S

B
g 120
L....
co
E
.!
.5
80
'in
c
cu
.=
40 a-----'_--.L.._.....-'--......_""----"_.-.._....... __
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (seconds}
FIG. 46. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 6. 30.0 Mw. received at
substation AB from station BD. Two-line-to-ground fault near station BD on
proposed 154-kv.line to substation AB, cleared in 6 cycles, line reclosedin 21 cycles.
Stable.
reduced. Power flow conditions were much like those of run 1 except
that the generation at AA was smaller, the difference being made up
by power received from system D. Also, systems F and G were con-
nected to B. The interconnected systems were stable (Fig. 47), with
considerably more margin than there was in run 1 (Fig. 41). The
improvement might be due in part to the change in company B termi-
nal and in part to the connection of systems F and G. The power
limit of the A-to-B line with terminal-at BD was not exactly deter-
mined, but it appeared to be somewhat higher than the corresponding
limit with line terminal at Be, at least for northward power flow.
Swing curves, part 2. In part 2 of the study the required clearing
time of faults on company A's 13.8-kv. system and the effect on stabil-
former capacity at station AA (slightly less than the amount required
in run 4). A two-line-to-ground fault was applied to the A-to-B line
at the sending end (station BD), cleared in 6 cycles, and reclosed in 21
cycles. The system was stable; all the swings were of small amplitude.
(See Fig. 46.)
Run 7. The power transfer on the A-to-B line was increased to 40.6
Mw. received at substation AB from station BD. To provide the in-
creased power, 12.4 Mw. was received at BD from system C. To
absorb the increased power, the generation at station AA was further
200 ,.--..,.-_,_--..---y---r---.,.-----,--..,..---.-----r-__
STUDY 4-SWING CURVES, PART 2 329
ity of an interconnection with company H were investigated. The
network of Fig. 40 was set up on the calculating board. As compared
with the set-up of part 1 (Fig. 39), the principal changes were: (a)
The base was changed from 40 Mva. to 25 Mva. (b) The l3.8-kv.
network of company A was represented in detail, including the sepa-
ration of station AA bus into two sections by a bus reactor, with the
generators of each section represented separately, and the separation
200 r----r---,.---r---r---.....---...r----r-_r_-.......--.....---,
- 160 I----I---+---+--.a..--t-+---+----t-- 6 (Ge, GD)
I
5 (GBl,..,...--+----t
'0
-
I
1 --t'---t'--..... --+-----t--i---f---t----f
ml"U

3 t -+---+--+--.--+----+----t---..+---+--t
1'-
O--...... ..........I.-..&.-_"--.......- ......_------.....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (seconds)
FIG. 47. Swing curves, Study 4, part 1, stability run 7. 40.6 Mw. received at
substation AB from station BD and 12.4 Mw. received at station BD from sub-
station CA. Systems F and G connected to system C with 0 +jOpower inter-
change. Two-line-to-ground fault near station BD on proposed 154-kv. line to
substation AR, cleared in 6 cycles, line reclosed in 21 cycles. Stable.
of station AJ from station AA. The 13.8/66-kv. transformers at
station AA were assumed to be of 25-Mva. capacity each, or 50 Mva,
total, as found necessary in part 1. (c) The remote part of system D
was shown in more detail. (d) The part of system B containing sta-
tions BF and BG was represented by an equivalent circuit. The
company B terminal of the A-to-B line was placed at -station BD.
Systems F and G were not connected. Zero active power and about
17 Mva, reactive power were supplied to system B from system C.
Run 8. First the required clearing time of faults on the 13.8-kv.
330
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
1.2 1.0
System Casinfinite bus
0,4 0.2
- 20 "'- ..-..-_""----'-_........_"--......_ ........_Il.o.-
o
140
system of company A was examined. The A-to-B interconnection
was delivering 26 Mw. to station BD (approximately the practical
power capacity of the interconnection as found in part 1). The out-
put of station AA generators was 101.5 + j40.7 Mva. Since this out-
put exceeded the capacity of the station, a new generator was assumed
on the north bus, and the aggregate capacity was divided equally
160 ...----r---.--r---r-.,...--..,r-----r---r----,r----,--.,.--.,---,
en 120
Q)
e
t)I)
Q)
100
Q)
1io
c:
co
80
.B
g
co 60 ..... ......
E
.s
.5
C 40
Q)
'Vi
c
20
0.6 0.8
Time (seconds)
FIG. 48. Swing curves, Study 4, part 2, stability run 8. 26.0 Mw. received at
station BD from substation AB. Three-phase fault on 13.8-kv. feeder near station
AA north bus, cleared in 12 cycles. Stable.
between the two busses. The voltages of both bus sections were held
at the same magnitude, but a phase difference between them caused
5 Mw. to be transferred from the south to the north bus. From
system D 25 Mw. was delivered to system A. One machine was
assumed to be operating in each system D plant except station DA,
where all machines were assumed to be in service. At station EA 15
Mva. of additional 110/66-kv. transformer capacity was required.
A three-phase fault was assumed to occur near station AA on a
13.8-kv. underground cable feeder supplied from the north bus. With
12-cycle clearing the system was stable. (See swing curves, Fig. 48.)
STUDY 4-SWING CURVES, PART 2
331
260
240
220
200
180
,...
I
160
r
'0
GJ
co
140
c
to
I
nI
120
g
Ci
c
"-
lOa
G)
..,
.5
~
c:
Q)
'iii
80
c
e
to-
60
40
20
0
- 20 .........._-'----a_--'-_...A..---"_........ ....._ ~ ..... ....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 49. Swing curves, Study 4, part 2, stability run 9. Same as run 8, except
that clearing time was increased to 18 cycles. Unstable.
Run 9. With I8-cycle clearing of the same fault the systems were
unstable (Fig. 49).
Run 10. The purpose of this run was to show the effect of three-
phase faults farther away from station AA. The location selected
was a point about 1,000ft. from station AA on a 700,OOO-circular-mil
cable supplied from the south bus. With the additional impedance of
this cable between station AA and the fault, the voltage at AA re-
332 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
mained high enough to prevent the generator output from decreasing
as much as before, so that even with I8-cycle clearing the system was
stable (see Fig. 50). The extreme oscillations of the station AJ
machine, as shown by its swing curve, should be discounted somewhat,
as they did not represent the true motion of the machine but were the
200r----.---r-.-......-......
180
Xli
160
i

f"04
140

!
!
.;1
4D

"0
120
.....

.!!
co
I
c
tV
100

g
to
80
c
..

..,
60
c

en
C

40
20
0
- 20 ....... -.r.._.....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 50. Swing curves, Study 4, part 2, stability run 10. Same as run 9 except
that fault was 1,000 ft. from station AA south bus on 700,OOO-cir.-mil cable.
Stable.
result of inaccuracies caused by the use in the step-by-step calculations
of a time interval too long in comparison to the period of oscillation of
the machine.
Run 11. The purpose of this run was to showthe effect of removing
the bus-tie reactor at station AA, leaving the north and south busses
tied together through only the transformers and the 13.8-
kv. network. In every other respect it was identical to run 9. Com-
STUDY 4-SWING CURVES, PART 2
333
parison of the swing curves of run 11 (Fig. 51) with those of ron 9
(Fig. 49) shows that splitting the bus at AA decreased the rate at
which systems A and B swung apart, but not sufficiently to allow
stability to be regained. Although this run was considered unstable,
220 ------.....------,r-----r---w----r-.....-----,---t--r----,
200
180
160

en
Q,)

140
1)0
Q,)
"'C
-Q,)
ao
120
e
to

S
100
g
-;;
E
.!
80
.5
....
c
Q)
.iii
60 c:
e
...
40
20
0
- 20 ....
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time ( seconds)
FIG. 51. Swing curves, Study 4, part 2, stability run 11. Same as run 9 except
that station AA bus was split. Still unstable.
it represented a borderline condition, indicatingthat the systemswould
be stable under slightly more favorable conditions, such as appreciable
arc impedance in the fault or decreased power transfer on the inter-
connection.
Run 12. The purpose of this run was to showthe effect on stability
of connecting system H to the A-to-B line. System H was a metro-
334 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
politansystem located near the center of the proposed interconnecting
line from AR to RD. It was represented as a 275-Mva. generator tied
to the 154-kv. line through a 30-Mva. transformer, with zero inter-
change of active and reactive power. Power of 45 Mw. was trans-
180
160
140
,....
120
~
if»
""
100
.....
I
c
.,
80
&
~
~
Ci
60
E
f
l
40
·Iii
c:
S
20
0
~ 2 0
-40
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Time (seconds)
FIG. 52. Swing curves, Study 4, part 2, stability run 12. 45.0 Mw. received at
station BD from substation AB. System H connected to the A-to-B line with
0+;0 power interchange. Two-line-to-ground fault near substation AB on the
proposed 154-kv. line to station BD, clearedin 6 cycles, linereclosed in 21 cycles.
Unstable.
mitted to BD from AB, necessitating a new generator on AA north bus
and requiring only one machine to be operated at BD. The power
delivered to system A from system D was raised to 37.4 Mw. by in-
creasing the output of the system D generators already in operation.
With a two-line-to-ground fault at the sending end of the 154-kv. inter-
STUDY 4-POWER-ANGLE CURVES, PART 2 335
-
- ~
V
""'"
'<
~ S y s t e m s
/
I
A,D,E,
I
nofault
/"
I
'"
1
I
Q)
/
00
-, I;
~
/1
I ~
'\ l:c
v
I
I ~
I
I ~
I I ~
I I ~
I
I<.J
I
I
I
,
I
~ S y s t e m s
I
I
/
A,D,E,
I
~
--......
""- fault on
I
V
~
I
.Y
200
220
i20
100·
80
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
Rotor electrical angle (desrees)
FIG. 53. Power-anglecurves, Study 4, part 2, run 13. 5 Mw. receivedat station
BD from substation AB. Three-phase fault on 13.8-kv. feeder near station AA
north bus. Critical clearing angle, determined by equal-area method, is -34°;
critical clearingtime, 24 cycles.
connecting line and with the usual clearing and reclosing times" the
systems were unstable. The swing curves (Fig. 52) show that systems
A, D, and E swung ahead together, whereas systems B, C, and H
swung very little. The power limit of the A-to-B line for southward
power transfer with system H connected to the line was thus shown to
be less than 45 Mw. This limit was found more exactly as described
below.
240
Power-angle curves, part 2. Power-angle curves and the equal-area
criterion were used for (1) obtaining a curve showing the critical clear-
ing time of a three-phase fault close to the north bus of station AA
required to maintain stability of systems A, D, E with systems Band C
for any amount of power transferred from A to B; (2) determining the
power limit of the A-to-B line for southward transfer with system H
connected.
Critical·clearing time of a three-phase fault near 8tation AA 19.8-kv.
336
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
north bus. To use the method mentioned it was necessary to reduce
the system to an equivalent two-machine system. Inspection of the
swing curves for runs 8 to 11 showed that the machines of systems A,
D, and E swung together and, therefore, could be combined with very
little error to one equivalent machine. The machines of system B
likewise swung together and could be combined, and system C was
regarded as an infinite bus. It was decided to combine the machines
v
",-
~
...-Systems
/
"<
A.D,E.
I
nofault
V
I
""
/
I
I
1
~
,
"-
v:
leu
."
/
1"6"0
I
,e:
t'O
V
I
00
1.=
I
,-5
I
I ' ~
I
I ~
I I-
I I . ~
I
I=E
I
IU
I
I
J
I-Systems
I
I A.D,E,
I I
fault on.
I
------
..... ...........
I
~
~
""'"
~
~ V
80
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 a 20 40 60 80
Rotor electrical angle (degrees)
FIG. 54. Power-anglecurves, Study 4, part 2, run 14. 15 Mw. receivedat station
BD from substation AB. Three-phase fault on 13.8-kv. feeder near station AA
north bus. Critical clearing angle is -37°; critical clearing time, 18 cycles.
240
100
120
cJ)
t::
eu
~ 180
i
E
~ 160
...
::J
o
...
Q)
~ 140
Q.,0
200
220
of system B with those of system C and to represent them all as an
infinite bus. This procedure could be expected to give somewhat
pessimistic results because the speeding up of the machines of system B
to follow those of systems A, D, E was beneficial to stability.
Power-angle curves were obtained on the calculating board by the
following procedure: when possible, the initial conditions of each run
were made identical to those of a previous load-flow study. The
power received at station BD from substation AB was set to 5 Mw.,
15 Mw., 25 Mw., and 35 Mw. in runs 13, 14, 15, and 16, respectively;
STUDY 4-POWER-ANGLE CURVES, PART 2 337
and the voltages of the 66-kv. bus at AB and of the 132-kv. bus at BD
were adjusted to normal values. The phase angle of the power source
representing the voltage back of transient reactance of the finite
A-D-E machine was then advanced in steps of about 15°, both this
voltage and the voltage representing the infinite bus being held con-
stant, and at each step the power output of the finite machine was
recorded. These results were plotted as the curves labelled "no fault"
- -
V'
.........
"<

A,D,E,
/ I
nofault
1/
I

-,
I

I
I'
VI!
I
"

l:i
I

I.e:
I


IJ 1«1
I
I
1
8
I
I

I
I
li
A, D, E,

L-.-

---...
fault on



80
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
Rotor electrical angle (degrees)
FIG. 55. Power-angle curves, Study 4, part 2, run 15. 25 Mw. received at station
BD from substation AB. Three-phase fault on 13.8-kv. feeder near station AA
north bus. Critical clearin.g angle is -33°; critical clearing time, 16 cycles:
240
120
100
200
220
in Figs. 53 to 56, inclusive. The angle scale in these figures is arbi-
trary and is not the angle between the internal voltage of the finite
machine and the voltage of the infinite bus. For each value of power
transfer a second curve was obtained in similar manner, except with
the fault applied, and with the internal voltages held at the same
values as before. The critical clearing angle for each value of power
transfer was then obtained by the equal...area method, and the cor-
responding critical clearing time was found from a swing curve calcu-
lated by use of the values of power read from the power-angle curve.
338
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
The kinetic energy of the A-D-E machine was taken as 1,361 Mi.
The swing curves are given in Fig. 57.
The desired curve of power transfer versus critical clearing time was
then plotted and is shown in Fig. 58. The results of stability runs 8
and 9 are consistent with this curve: for 25-Mw. transfer the system
was stable with 12-cycle clearing and unstable with 18-cycle clearing.
I
I A,D,E•
./ -, nofault
Vi '"
220
240--------.....------.---.-----,---,...----.,
120I----f----+--!-"f-----f---i---+----i---f-----t
100 ........-+--_+_-___t--_+__-__P-----t__-__t
80 60
80'---......- .....--.....--....------......- .....
-100 -80 .. 60 -40 -20 0 20 40
Rotor electrical angle
FIG. 56. Power-angle curves, Study 4, part 2, run 16. 35 Mw. received at
station BD fromsubstation AB. Three-phase fault on lS.8-kv. feeder near station
AA north bus. Critical clearing angle is -45°; critical clearing time, 11 cycles,
Power limit oj A-to-B line with system H connected. The swing
curves of run 12 indicate that the machines of systems B, C, and H may
be regarded as an infinite bus and those of systems A, D,and E as a
single finite machine. Power-angle curves with no fault and again
with a two-line-to-ground fault near AB were obtained. It seemed
permissible to use the same power-angle curves for all values of initial
power transfer, because in runs 13 to 16 the voltage behind transient
reactance varied only 3% over the range of power transfer that was
considered. With the fault cleared, the power transfer over the inter-
STUDY 4-POWER-ANGLE CURVES, PART 2 339
connection became zero, but the output of the finite machine did not
become zero because it was supplying local load. Its output with the
line open, however, was independent of angle and was found from
previous load studies, as follows: The total load on systems A, D, and
E, when operating with zero interchange with system B, was deter-
mined from one load run, and the total load plus losseswhen delivering
-20 0
..-.-
-40
_ -20
en en
i
Q)
!
-60 i -40 "0
Q) Q)
lib lib
c c:
-e
-80
-e -60
-100 -80
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time (seconds) Time (seconds)
(a) (b)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time (seconds)
(cl)

100----
::7f
I
i
J
o
-80
o
Q)
bO
c:
-e -60
- -20

"0 -40
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Time (seconds)
(c)
-80 '---"""---..............-...--...
o
o
_ - 20

e
r
-40
j
-. -60
FIG. 57. Swing curves used in connection with the power-angle curves of Figs.
53 to 56 to determine critical clearing times.
45 Mw. to system B was obtained from another load run. The differ-
ence between these figures gave the decrease in losses which would
occur on opening the 154-kv. interconnecting line, normal voltage
conditions being assumed. This decrease in losses was expressed as a
percentage of the power sent into the 154-kv. line. To determine the
output with the fault cleared, the percentage found as just described
was added to the input to the 154-kv. line, and the augmented input
was subtracted from the output of the initial operating conditions.
340
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
\
\ Unstable
,
Stable
1\
\
,
~
\
,
o
o
~ 30
;
~
Q)
E
"0 20
~
Q,)
. ~
Q)
"0
10 20
Clearing time(cycles)
FIG. 58. Curve of power delivered
to station BD from substation AB
over proposed 154-kv. interconnect-
ing line versus critical clearing time
of a three-phase fault on a 13.8-kv.
feeder near station AA north bus.
Based on the results of runs 13 to 16,
Study 4, part 2.
The critical reclosing time was found by use of the equal-area method
and swing curves (Figs. 59 to 61) for transfers of 25, 35, and 45 Mw.,
using a clearing time of 6 cycles in every case. The clearing angle
corresponding to the clearing time of 6 cycles was found by computing
the swing curve up to this point. The critical reclosing angle was then
40 found by the equal-area method, and
the corresponding reclosing time was
obtained by extending the swing
curve to this angle.
A curve of critical reclosing time
versus power transfer was plotted
and may be seen in Fig. 62. From
this curve the power limit for 21
cycles reclosing time is read as 42
Mw, This is consistent with the re-
sult of stability run 12, in which the
system was found to be unstable with
45 Mw. transfer and 21-cycle reclos-
30 ing. The practical power capacity
was taken as 35 Mw.
Conclusions. The following cOI\-
elusions were among those reached
as a result of Study 4:
Capacity of interconnection between
systems A and B. The power ca-
pacityof the proposed 154-kv. inter-
connection between systems A and
B, based on the maintenance of syn-
chronism through a two-line-to-ground fault on the interconnecting
line, with 6-cycle clearing and 21-cycle reclosing, and allowing a mar-
gin of at least 5 Mw. for momentary fluctuations in power on the line,
would be 25 Mw. received in system B or 35 Mw. received in system
A. These values would hold for either of the two routes considered.
If system H were connected to the line, the power received in system
B might be increased to 35 Mw, In arriving at these limits it was
assumed that automatic equipment for controlling the interchange
power flow would be installed and used, and that high-speed relaying
and switching would be provided on critical circuits within systems A
and B as well as on the interconnecting line itself. The connection
of systems F and G to system B would be beneficial to stability but
would not have enough effect to warrant the assignment of higher
power ratings to the interconnection. The capacity of the intercon-
STUDY 4-CONCLUSIONS 341
I I I
Critical reclosing time
r-
'I ·1'-

Swing Power output
V
ff),
Systems A, D,E,

1/
V

nofault

V
/
V

V
/
V Critical

reclosing
/ /
V angle",--

v
V

. "

- j

K
7

-17
7 7 7
77 -77
,
/
f'/f///f'/// '///

\
,'/
-r
I

angle
V
,........
[7
.\ -:--10-
V

r.-
'//M '/// 1//./ 1/// ///
Power output
7

Systems A, D,E,
'./
" Power output
fault on
Systems A, D, E,
lineopen
260
0.6

en
240 "'0
c
0
0.4
....,
CD
E 220
i=
0.2

(I)
=
co

E
0

j
cf 180
'160
140
nection, if a loss of synchronism were allowable during a fault on the
interconnecting line 'or on other critical circuits, would be approxi-
mately 35 to 40 Mw. in either direction.
Speed of fault clearing. To avoid instability when the interconnec-
tion was delivering its rated load of 25 Mw. to system B, it would be
0.8
120
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Rotor electrical angle (degrees)
FIG. 59. Power-angle curves and swing curve, Study 4, part 2, run 17. 25 Mw.
received at station BD from substation AB. Two-Jine-to-groundfault near sub-
station AB on proposed 154-kv. interconnecting line to station RD. Clearing
time, 6 cycles. Critical reclosingtime, 42 cycles.
necessary to use high-speed relaying and switching on some of the
circuits of company A. Three-phase faults near station AA 13.8-kv.
or 66-kv. busses and near substation AB 66-kv. bus must be cleared in
12 cycles or less. The time for clearing three-phase faults on the
13.8-kv. network might be increased to 18 cycles if the fault was
separated from the bus by 1,000 feet or more of 700,OOO-circular-mil
cable or by an equivalent impedance. If the station AA bus was
sectionalized, three-phase faults on or near the bus must be cleared in
16 cycles or less.
342 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
1 I I I I
7
Critical reclosing time
l/
-
,I. ,I.
I
V
11
Swing curve:->
I
I./:' Power output
I--
/"
1-
-
bi
Systems A, D, E, -
/
rnf/
no fault
/ /.
V


v
V

r,,1o.
j )

V Critical

"
I /
--
I
I
J
V
reclosing

'//J.
JV
Inputt:
J

[7
I

r--- Clearing angle
V
,.........
r--r---
V
r--...
Power output
4
Systems A, D,E,
'/
\ Power output
fault on
Systems A, D, E.
lineopen
260
-
.g 0.4
c
0

240 4n
-
«U
0.2
220
0
-;;;
=
cv
&200
E
-...
Q)

e. 180
160
140
High-speed relaying and switching might be necessary also on several
of the transmission lines of company B, but further studies would be
required, after the terminal of the line had been selected, to determine
the extent of such changes.
Terminal transformer capacity. The transformer at substation AB
should have a capacity of 45 Mva. and that at either station BD or
0.6
120
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Rotor electrical angle (degrees)
FIG. 60. Power-angle curves and swing curve, Study 4, part 2, run 18. 35 Mw.
received at station BD from substation AB. Two-line-to-ground fault near sub-
station AB on proposed 154-kv. interconnecting line to station RD. Clearing time,
6 cycles. Critical reclosingtime, 31 cycles.
substation BCshould have a capacity of 50 Mva. Both these trans-
formers should have tertiary windings rated 15 Mva. for connection
to synchronous condensers or static reactors.
The capacity of the 13.8/66-kv. transformers at station AA should
be increased from 20 Mva. to 45 Mva,
The line as built. The interconnection between companies A and B
was built and put into service in 1942. The line was 268.5 miles long
STUDY4-THE LINE AS BUILT
343
with terminals at substations AB and Be and no intermediate switch-
ing stations nor taps. (The route finally selected was longer than the
one assumed in the preliminary studies.) It was a single-circuit 154-
kv. line. The phase conductors were 250,OOO-circular-mil, hollow,
hard-drawn copper cables of O.u83-inch diameter, supported by strings
0.4
-;;-
260
"0
e
0
! 0.2
Q,)
240 E
i=
0
220
-

IV
200
t]G
Q)
E
-
i
180
160
140

, I I
Critical ......... Swing curve
_ reclosing time-


P(
. /
I- Clearing r
I
""""'"'"
"",."."
Power output
J



Systems A, D,E, -
1 '
r

nofault
1/

I
/v
InputP,../'
-,
I I
)/
I\.
reclosing
....V
angle
1\
Clearing
v--: Power output
\
I
Systems A, D,E, -

angle""",,--
i--=3
fault on
--
V
--
..... '///1
.,V
t"" .
",
""- Power output
V
Systems A, D,E,
lineopen
120
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Rotor electrical angle (degrees)
FIG. 61. Power-anglecurves and swing curve, Study 4, part 2, run 19. 45 Mw.
received at station BD from substation AB. Two-line-to-ground fault near sub-
station AB on proposed 154-kv. interconnecting line to station BD. Clearing time,
6 cycles. Critical reelosing time, 16 cycles.
of ten 10-inch suspension insulators. They were spaced 14 ft. 6 in.
apart in a horizontal plane (18 ft. 3 in. equivalent spacing). There
were two i-inch high-strength galvanized-steel ground wires 12 ft.
above the phase conductors .at structures and 20 ft. above them at
midspan. The structures were wooden H frames. There were three
complete transposition barrels in the line.
At substation AB there was a 40-Mva. 161/69/13.8-kv. three-wind-
ing transformer bank, and at substation Be, a 45-Mva. 161/138/12.5-
344
TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
~ ~
'"~
..
-,
Unstable
, , ~
Stable
"'-.
<,
-,
"'0
e
~
~ 20
"'0
J
kv. autotransformer bank. At each terminal there were three 5-Mvar.
static reactors connected to the tertiary windings.
Because of the length of the line it was necessary to develop and use a
new type of high-speed relay system which could distinguish between
faults and power swings even though the magnitude of indicated
impedance might be nearly the same.
2
,3 Internal faults in the ter-
minal transformers were cleared by differential relays which tripped
50
40
10
o
o 10 20 30 40 50
Reclosing time ( cycles)
Constant clearing time, 6 cycles
FIG. 62. Curve of power delivered to station BD from substation AB over pro-
posed 154-kv. interconnecting line versus critical reclosing time for a two-line-to-
ground fault on this line near substation AB, cleared in 6 cycles. Based on the
results of runs 17 to 19, Study 4, part 2.
open the low-voltage oil circuit breakers (66 kv. at AB, 132 kv. at
BC)and tripped closed a three-pole grounding switch on the 154-kv.
side, causing the breakers at the distant end of the line to open.
Staged-fault tests." After the line had been constructed and was
ready for service, a number of staged faults were placed on the line to
check the operation of the new long-line relays and to check the tran-
sient-stability power limits found in the calculating-board studies which
have been described. Some faults were placed on the 154-kv. inter-
connecting line itself, others on 60-kv., 66-kv., and 132-kv. lines near
its terminals. The first group of fourteen tests was made with sys-
terns A and B synchronized but with almost no power flow on the
interconnection. In these tests a few incorrect relay operations were
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346 TYPICAL STABILITY STUDIES
M,
1.2
<,
I I
~
1
Unstable
"
IV
~
4
1
4
"
I ~
~ B
2'
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4A
Stable
'I'\..
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Stable Unstable
~ Test ~ A
Calculated 0

40
discovered, which led to some changes in the connections and adjust-
ments of the relays and circuit-breaker control. The second group of
eight tests were made with various amounts and directions of power
interchange. Oscillographic records were made of eighteen currents
or voltages in the main and control circuits, making possible the
determination of the sequence and time of various operations. The
tests of the second group are summarized in Table 12.
50
o
o 10 20 30 40
Reclosing time of terminal breakp.rs (cycles)
FIG. 63. Approximate curve of transient-stability power limit as a function of
reclosing time for faults on the 154-kv. interconnection of companies A and B,
Study 4. Points from staged-fault tests. and from calculating-board results are
plotted.
With the exception of tests 4 and 4A, in which synchronism was lost,
power swings observed throughout the interconnected systems were
small.
After the application of faults on the 154-kv. line the terminal
breakers successfully cleared the fault and reclosed in every case where
they were intended to do so. ·The same breakers remained closed in
every test in which a fault was applied to other lines, indicating proper
functioning of the relays during external faults.
Study of the test results revealed that the expected 21- or 22-cycle
over-all time from fault to final reclosure of the second breaker was not
being obtained on account of a delay of from 2 to 4 cycles in the relay
action at the end of the line remote from the fault. This trouble was
corrected subsequently.
REFERENCES 347
In order to correlate the tests with the results of stability runs made
on the calculating board, Fig. 63 was prepared. Here points rep-
resenting the staged-fault test results and other points representing
the calculating-board results with line terminal at substation Be are
plotted with delivered power as ordinate and reclosingtime as abscissa.
The sloping line MN separates the region of stability from the region
of instability. The test results agree reasonably well with the results
of the board studies. Exact agreement cannot be expected because
the conditions existing at the time of the staged-fault tests differred
from the conditions assumed in the calculating-board studies. In
particular, the interconnection between systems Band C, assumed in
the calculations, had not yet been built. Even if it' had been, it
would not have been feasible to schedule power flow and generation in
five or more power systems in several states in such manner as to
duplicate the conditions assumed in calculation.
REFERENCES
1. R. C. BERGVALL, "Series Resistance Method of Increasing Transient-Stability
Limit," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 50, pp. 490-4, June, 1931; disc., pp, 494-7.
2. F. C. POAGE, C. A. STREIFUS, D. M. MACGREGOR, and E. E. GEORGE,
"Performance Requirements for Relays on Unusually Long Transmission Lines,"
A.l.E.E. Trans., vol. 62, pp, 275-83, June, 1943.
3. A. R. VAN C. WARRINGTON, "Protective Relaying for Long Transmission
Lines," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 62, pp. 261-8, June, 1943.
4. C. W. MINARD, R. B. Gow, W. A. WOLFE, and E. A. SWANSON, "Staged-
Fault Tests of Relaying and Stability on Kansas-Nebraska 27Q-Mile 154-kv.
Interconnection," A.I.E.E. Trans., vol. 62, pp. 358-67, 1943; disc., pp.425-6.
INDEX
Acceleration, 15, 16
angular, 17, 19
Adjustment of initial operating condi-
tions, 77
Admittances, driving-point, 80-6
mutual, 80-6
self-,80-6
terminal, 80-6, 95
transfer, 80-6
Algebraic solution of networks, 78-101
Alpha, beta, zero components, 245
Alternating-current calculating board,
64
American Gas and Electric Company,
288,290
Amplifiers for instruments on a-c.
board, 70, 73
Analogies between translation and rota-
tion, 20
Analogue, mechanical, 7
Angle, 17, 19
Angular acceleration, 17, 19
Angular momentum, 19
Angular velocity, 17, 19
Apparatus base, 54
Assumptions made in stability studies,
43
Autotransformers, 58
on a-c. board, 68, 69, 72, 73, 74
zero-sequence equivalent circuit of,
239
Bad effects of instability, 9
Base impedance, 55
Base quantities, for a-c. board, 66,
72
choice of, 75
for per-unit system, 54
Board, a-c. calculating, 64
349
Braking effect of grounding resistor,
241
Breakers, data required on, 63
eight-cycle, need for, Study 3, 310
Bus, infinite, 124
Bus reactors at Philo, 290, 294, 300
Busses, effect of, on stability, 190
Byrd, H. L., 168
Cables, data required on, 63
equivalent circuits, 59
Calculating board, a-c., 64
procedure for using, 75
Capacitance of transmission lines,
representation of, 60
Capacitors, on a-c. board, 67, 68, 73, 74
series, 189
Carrier-current relaying needed, Study
3,310
Check list of data required for transient-
stability study, 62
Checks on readings, 78
Circuit breakers, data required on, 63
eight-cycle, need for, Study 3, 310
Cleared fault, application of equal-area
criterion to, 129
Clearing angle, 130
determination of, by pre-calculated
. swing curves, 157, 158
Clearing time, 139
allowable, Study 1, 286
critical, curves for determining, 168-
85
determination of, by pre-calculated
swing curves, 157, 1,P8
effect of, on transient stability, 159
Combining machines, 111, 264, 319
Common voltage, referring quantities
to, 56
350
INDEX
Components, alpha, beta, zero, 245
symmetrical, 193
Composite line, 60
Condenser, synchronous, data required
on, 63
mechanical analogue of, 8
Study 1, 296-7
treatment of, in transient-stability
study, 119
Connections on a-c. board, 69, 77
changes of, 78
Conversion, of impedances, 54
star-mesh, 86-7
Coordinates, symmetrical, 193
two-phase, 245
Correction factors for equivalent 1r cir-
cuit of transmission line, 59
Coupled lines, equivalent circuits of,
234
Critical clearing angle, 130, 136
determined by pre-calculated swing
curves, 157, 158
Critical clearing time, curves for deter-
mining, 168-85
determined by pre-calculated swing
curves, 151, 157
Damper winding, 11
D8IDping, 5,43,122,123
Data required for transient-stability
study, 62-
Dead sequence networks, 210
Difference equation (problems), 51
Dimensions of quantities of mechanics,
15, 17-9
Discontinuities in point-by-point solu-
tion of swing equation, 38
Double unbalances, 232
Duration of fault, effect of, on stability,
159, 185, 224
Ebasco Services, Inc., 254, 311
Energy, kinetic or stored, 16, 20, 23-6
of synchronous machines, 25,
256-8, 292, 305, 315-6; seealso
Inertia constant
rotational, 20, 23-6
Equal-area criterion, 122
Equal-area criterion, Study 4, 335-43
Equipment, miscellaneous, 61
Equivalent circuits, of coupled lines,
234
of remote portions of system, 61
of transformer, 56
negative-sequence, 235
zero-sequence, 235-40
of transmission lines and cables, 59
Equivalent generator, 6
Equivalent impedance of transformers,
54,56
Equivalent inertia constant of two-
machine system, 133
Equivalent input of two-machine
system, 133, 136
Equivalent motor, 6
Equivalent output of two-machine
system, 133, 136
Equivalent pi (71") circuit of transmis-
sion line, 59
Equivalent power-angle curve of two
finite machines, 133
Equivalent T circuit of transformer,
56
Factors affecting stability, 187
Fault, close to generator, 78
effect on stability, 5
of duration of, 159, 185, 224
of type of, 223
shown by mechanical analogue, 9
Fault impedance, 228
Fault location, effect of, on stability,
189
Fault locations, Study 1, 265
Study 3,302
Fault shunts, 220, 231
Faulted three-phase networks, solution
of, 193
Faults, relative number of various types
of, 225
relative severity of various types of,
223
representation of, in symmetrical
components, 205, 228-30
in two-phase coordinates, 247
simultaneous, 232
INDEX
351
Finite machines, 132
Flux linkage of field winding, 123
Force, 15, 16
Formal solution of swing equation, 28,
32
Frequency, effect of, on stability, 189
used on a-c. board, 66, 72
Frequency changer, 189
(problem), 51
General Electric A-c. Network Ana-
lyzer,66
Generator units of a-c. board, 66, 68,
72,74
Generators, data required on, 62
representation of, 56
Governor, 5, 122
Graphical integration, determination of
swing curve by, 139
Grounding, effect of, on stability,
240
Grounding impedance, 237
effect of, on stability, 240
of autotransformer, 240
H (constant), 24-6
High-voltage bussing, effect of, on sta-
bility, 190
Historical review, 11
Hunting, 11
Impedance, base, 55
fault, 228
grounding, 238
negative-sequence, 201
per-unit, 55
positive-sequence, 201
series, representation of, 231
transformer, 56
zero-sequence, 201
effect of grounding on, 241
mutual, of lines, 233
Impedance diagram, 53
Impedance units on a-c. board, 67, 68,
73,74
Inertia, moment of, 18, 19
Inertia constant, 22
effect of, on stability, 188
Inertia constant, equivalent, of. two-
machine system, 133
of combined machines, 111
of remote portion of system, 62
Infinite bus, 124
Initial operating conditions, 77, 78
Input assumed constant, 43
Instability, bad effects of, 9
definition of, 1
Instantaneous clearing, stability limit
for, 160, 164
determination of, by curve, 176
Instruments on a-c. board, 70, 71
Integration, graphical, determination of
swing curve by, 139
Interconnecting lines, Study 4, 314, 342
Interconnection, 12
Interconnections, effect of, on stability,
Study 2, 294-301
Intermediate busses, effect of, on sta-
bility, 190
Internal voltages, effect of, on stabil-
ity, 2,188
Joule (unit), 15
Jumper circuits on a-c. board, 69
Junction, three-phase, 202
I{inetic energy, 16, 20, 23-6
in equal-area criterion, 125
of synchronous machines, 25, 256-8,
292, 305, 315-6; see also Inertia
constant
rotational, 20, 23-6
Kirchhoff's laws, 202
Laws of mechanics, 15
Length, 15
Limitations of system, 77
Line-impedance units of a-c. board, 67,
68,73,74
Line-to-ground fault, 207, 248
fault shunt, 220, 231
with fault impedance, 229
Line-to-line fault, 207, 212, 248
fault shunt, 220-231
with fault impedance, 229
Lines, transmission, representationof, 59
352 INDEX
Lines, zero-sequence mutual impedance
of, 233
Load adjuster, 73
Load-impedance units of a-c. board, 67,
68;73, 74
adjustment of, 73, 77
Loads, data required on, 63
representation of, 61
Location of fault, effect of, on stability,
189
Mass, 15
Master instruments of a-c. board, 70,
73,75
McClure, J. B., 149
Mechanical analogue, 7
Mechanics, laws of, 15
Mesh, three-phase, 203
Mesh circuit, 82, 110
Metropolitan systems, 12, 187
M.k.s. system, 15
Modified time, 149, 169, 178
Moment of inertia, 18, 19
Momentum, 15, 16
angular, 19
Motor-generator set for a-c. board, 71
Motors, large synchronous, data re-
quired on, 63
Multicircuit transformers, zero-
sequence equivalent circuit of,
238
Multimachine system, 6, 122, 191
Mutual impedance base, 55
Mutual impedance of parallel transmis-
sion lines, 61
zero-sequence, 233
Mutual reactors on a-c. board, 68, 69,
74
Mutual transformers on a-c. board, 68,
69, 74
Negative sequence, 193, 194
Negative-sequence equivalent circuit
of transformer, 235
Negative-sequence impedance, 201
Negative-sequence network, 203, 212
Network, negative-sequence, 203, 212
poffitive-sequence, 53,203,212
Network, zero-sequence, 203, 212
Network analyzer, 64
General Electric, 66
Westinghouse, 72
Network calculator, 64
Network reduction, 83, 213-5
algebraic, 83
calculating-board method of, 109
symbols used in, 90
Network re-expansion, 216-8
Network solution, algebraic, 78-101
Networks, sequence, 203
solution of, 53
solution of faulted three-phase, 193
substitute, 247
Newton (unit), 15
Nodes, 83
Nominal pi (1r) circuit of transmission
line, 59
Nominal voltage and current of a-c.
board, 66, 72
Ohio Power Company, 290
One-line diagram, 53
Open circuits, representation of, by
connections between sequence
networks, 231
Parallel transmission lines, 61
effect of, on stability, 189, 190
Per-cent quantities, 56
Per-unit quantities, 54
Phase shift in transformers, 59, 235
Phase shifters on a-c. board, 66, 72, 73
Philo station, 290-2
Pi (1r) circuits of transmission line, 59
Point-by-point solution of the swing
equation, 27
discontinuities, 38
errors, 34, 42
Polarity of connections on a-c. board,
69,76
Positive direction of circuit units on a-c.
board, 69, 76
Positive sequence, 193, 194
Positive-sequence impedance, ·201
Positive-sequence network, 53, 203
use of, for x and y networks, 248
INDEX
353
Post-fault output curve, 129, 131
Power (mechanics), 15, 16
in rotation, 19
Power-angle curve, 2, 3, 125, 126
equivalent, of two finite machines,
133, 135
Power-angle curves, Study 4, 335-8,
341-3
Power-angle equation, 2, 78
one machine and infinite bus, 126
two finite machines, 133
two-machine reactance system, 135
Power limit, 6
method of determining, Study 4, 318
Power supply of a-c. board, 71
Pre-calculated swing curves, 149-59
Pre-fault output curve, 129-31
Pritchard, S. R., Jr. 168
Radian, 17, 19
Reactance, effect of, on stability, 2, 188
of synchronous machines, 56
of transformers, 57
of transmission lines, 61
zero-sequence, 233
transient, 256-8, 292, 315-6
decrease of, to aid stability, 276
Reactive power, sign of, 79
Reactors, data required on, 63
grounding, effect of, on stability, 241
on a-e. board, 67, 68, 73, 74
correction for resistance of, 76
shunt, use of, to aid stability, 273
special, on Westinghouse a-c. board,
73
Readings on a-c. board, 78
Reclosing, high-speed, Study 4, 317
Reclosing time, critical, Study 4, 340,
344, 346
Reduction, of network, 83
algebraic, 83
calculating-board method of, 109
symbols used in, 90
of sequence networks, 213-5
Re-expansion of networks, 216-8
Referring quantities to a common vol-
tage,56
Regulating transformers, 59
Regulator, induction voltage, on a-c.
board, 66, 72
voltage, 11
effect of, 123
Relays, long-line, 344
protective, data required on, 63
false operation of, 10
Remote portions of system, 62
Resistors, grounding, effect of, on sta-
bility, 241
on a-c. board, 67, 68, 73, 74
series, use of, to aid stability, 273
Rotation, analogies of, to translation,
20
laws of, 17, 19
Scalar instruments on a-c. board, 73
Sectionalised operation, 301
Sequence, negative, 193-4
positive, 193, 194
zero, 194
Sequenceirnpedances, 200
Sequence networks, 203, 212
connections between, for represen-
ting faults, 205
for representing, faults with impe-
dance, 228-30
for representing open circuits, 231
Series capacitors, 189
Series impedances, representation of,
by connections between sequence
networks, 231
Series resistors, use of, to aid stability,
273
Severity of types of faults, 223
Short circuit, effect of, on stability, 5
representation of, by connections
between the sequence networks,
205, 228-30
by connections between the sub-
stitute networks, 247
types of, 205
Short-circuit impedance of transform-
ers, 54, 56
Shunt reactors used to aid stability, 273
Shunts for representing faults, 220, 231
Simplification of systems, Study 4,318
Simultaneous faults, 232
354 INDEX
Solution, of faulted three-phase net-
works, 193
of networks, algebraic, 78-101
Stability, certain factors affecting, 187
definition of, 1
transient, summary of methods of
calculating, 185
Stability limit, effect of fault-clearing
time on, 159, 167
effect of type of fault on, 223
steady-state, 4
transient, 5, 6
Stability studies, assumptions made in,
43
typical, 253
Staged-fault tests, Study 4, 344
Star-mesh conversion, 86-7
Steady-state stability limit, 4
Study 4,318
Steam turbogenerators, stored energy
of, 25
Step-by-step solution of the swing
equation, 27
discontinuities, 38
errors, 34,42
Stored energy, seeKinetic energy
Studies, typical stability, 253-347
Study 1, 254
Study 2,290
Study 3,301
Study 4,311
Substitute networks, 247
Summary of methods of calculating
transient stability, 185
Summers, I. H., 149
Sustained fault, application of equal-
area criterion to, 127
stability limit for, 161, 164
determination of, by curve, 176
Swingcurves, 28, 32, 48, 103, 1.09, 144
determination of, by graphical inte-
gration, 139
pre-calculated, 149-59
Study 1, 265-85
Study 2, 296,.297, 300
Study 3, 306-9
Study 4, 322-34, 339
Swing equation, 20
Swing equation, formal solution of, 28,
32
point-by-point solution of, 27
errors, 34, 42
Symmetrical components, 193
Synchronous condenser, data required
on, 63
mechanical analogue of, 8
Study 1, 296-7
treatment of, in transient-Btability
study, 119
Synchronous machines, kinetic energy
of, 25, 256-8, 292, 305, 315-6
reactance of, 256-8, 292, 315-6
representation of, 1, 43-4,56
Synchronous motors, data required on,
63
System base, 55
T circuit of transmission line, 60
Tapped loads, 61
(problem), 120
Three-circuit transformer, 318
zero-sequence equivalent circuit of,
238
Three-phase fault, 209, 248
fault shunt, 220, 231
with fault impedance, 229
Three-phase networks, solution of
faulted, 193
Three-phase transformers, zero-
sequence equivalent circuit of,
239
Time, 15
modified, 149, 169, 178
Torque, 17, 19
Transformer banks, 59
Transformers, data. required on, 63
equivalent circuits of, 56
impedance of, 56
multicircuit, 58
zero-sequence equivalent circuit
of, 238
negative-sequence equivalent circuit
of, 235
per-unit quantities of, 54
phase shift in, 235
reactances of (table), 57
INDEX 3S5
Transformers, regulating, 59
representation of, 56
in the sequence networks, 235
three-circuit, 57, 318
zero-sequenceequivalent circuit of,
238
three-phase, 59
zero-sequence equivalent circuit
of, 239
two-circuit,' 56
zero-sequence equivalent circuit of,
235
Transient reactance, decrease of, to aid
stability, 276
values of, 256-8, 292, 315-6
voltage behind, 123
Transient stability,certaiIL factors af-
fecting, 187
summary of methods of calculating,
185
Transient stability limit, 5, 6
determination of, by equal-area ori-
terion,128
Study 4, 318, 340, 346
Translation, analogies of, to rotation, 20
laws of, 15
Transmission, long-distance, 12
Transmission lines, constants of, 61
data required on, 63
equivalent circuits, 59
Turbogenerators, stored energy of, 25,
256-9, 292, 305, 315-6
Two-line-to-ground fault, 209, 248
fault shunt for, 220, 231
with fault impedance, 229
Two-machine system, 1, 7, 122, 149
equivalent inertia constant of, 133
equivalent input of, 133, 136
equivalent output of, 133, 136
Two-phase coordinates, 245
Unbalances, double, 232
Units of quantities of mechanics, 15,
19
Varmeter on a-c. board, 70, 73
Vector instruments, 71, 73
Vector measurements on a-c. board, 71,
73
Vector power, 79
Velocity, 15
angular, 17
Voltage, behind transient reactance,
123
of transmission, effect of, on stabil-
ity, 189
Voltage regulators, 11
effect of, 123
Water-wheel generators, stored energy
of,- 25, 256-9, 315-6
Wattmeter-varmeter on a-c. board, 70,
73
Westinghouse .A-c. Network Calcula-
tor, 72
Work, 15
of rotation, 18
WR2 (moment of inertia), 23, 256-9,
305, 315-6
Zero sequence, 194
Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of
transformers, 235-40
Zero-sequenceimpedance,201
effect of grounding OD, 241
of transformer, 236
Zero-sequence mutual impedance of
lines, 233
Zero-sequence network, 203, 233
representation of lines in, 233
Zero-sequence reactance of lines, 233

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