Experiment No.

7
Title of the Experiment:
“To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve.”

Method:
By measurement of head differences across each of a number of fittings connected in series, over a range of steady flows.

Apparatus:
      The F1-10 Hydraulics Bench to measure flow by timed volume collection. The F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Apparatus. A stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water Clamps for pressure tapping connection tubes. Spirit level Thermometer

Apparatus Overview:
The accessory is designed to be positioned on the side channels of the hydraulics bench top channel. The following fittings are connected in a series configuration to allow direct comparison:  long bend.  area enlargement  area contraction  elbow bend  short bend  valve fitting  mitre bend Flow rate through the circuit is controlled by a flow control valve. Pressure tappings in the circuit are connected to a twelve bank manometer, which incorporates an air inlet/outlet, valve in the top manifold. An air bleed screw facilitates connection to a hand pump. This enables the level in the manometer bank to be adjusted to a convenient level to suit the system static pressure A clamp which closes off the tappings to the mitre bend is introduced when experiments on the valve fitting are required. A differential pressure gauge gives a direct reading of losses through the gate valve

Apparatus Diagram: Technical Data: The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. Internal diameter of pipework d = 0.0240 m . If required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements.0183 m Internal diameter of pipework at enlargement outlet and contraction inlet d = 0.

Nomenclature:- .

h2) will be negative for the enlargement and negative for the contraction. tighten the air bleed screw and partly open both the bench valve . the gate valve and the flow control valve and start the pump to fill the test rig with water. then. and K is then determined as Due to the change in pipe cross-sectional area through the enlargement and contraction. taken before and after each fitting. For the pipe fitting experiment. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank.2 m water The loss coefficient may then be calculated as above for the gate valve. Equipment Set Up: Set up the losses apparatus on the hydraulic bench so that its base is horizontal (this is necessary for accurate height measurements from the manometers). Because of the complexity of flow in many fittings. metres) in the form: K = the loss coefficient v = mean velocity of flow into the fitting. This can then be converted to an equivalent head loss using the equation 1 bar = 10. will be For the gate valve experiment. This change can be calculated as: To eliminate the effects of this area change on the measured head losses. the system experiences an additional change in static pressure. Note that (h1 . can be found in experiment Reynolds Apparatus or in a suitable fluids text book. A full investigation of Reynolds number. Now. Connect the test rig inlet to the bench flow supply and run the outlet extension tube to the volumetric tank and secure it in place Open the bench valve. this value should be added to the head loss readings for the enlargement and the contraction. K is usually determined by experiment. the head loss is calculated from two manometer readings.Theory: The energy loss which occurs in a pipe fitting (so-called secondary loss) is commonly expressed in terms of a head loss (h. In order to bleed air from pressure tapping points and the manometers close both the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from the adjacent air valve. and typical flow variation as it changes. Reynolds number is a dimensionless number used to compare flow characteristics. open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometers to purge all air from them. pressure difference before and after the gate is measured directly using a pressure gauge.

To retain the hand pump pressure in the system. re-tighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height. take height readings from all of the manometers after the levels have steadied. which is read from the sight glass. . Start with the gate valve closed and open fully both the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve. at a given flow rate. it is necessary to run two separate tests Exercise A measures losses across all pipe fittings except the gate valve. measure pressure drop across the valve from the pressure gauge. Determine the volume flow rate by timed collection. therefore. These levels can he adjusted further by using the air bleed screw and the hand pump supplied. Collect fluid for at least one minute to minimize timing errors. the bleed screw must be open. Repeat this procedure to give a total of at least five sets of measurements over a flow range from approximately 8 . Exercise B measures losses across the gate valve only. adjust the flow rate by use of the test rig flow control valve. this together with the table detailing the Kinematic Viscosity of Water at Atmospheric Pressure is used to determine the Reynolds number.17 liters per minute. Next. Once measurements have started. Measure the outflow water temperature at the lowest flow rate. Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the maximum volume flow rate required (approximately 17 liters/minute). Adjust the flow from the bench control valve and.and the test rig flow control valve. open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to enter the top of the manometers. For each of at least 5 flow rates. which should be kept fully open. In order to determine the volume flow rate. do not adjust the gate valve. carry out a timed volume collection using the volumetric tank. The air bleed screw controls the air flow through the air valve. Now open the gate valve by approximately 50% of one turn (after taking up any backlash). This is achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring (with a stopwatch) time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid in the tank. so when using the hand pump. the screw must be closed after pumping Procedure: It is not possible to make measurements on all fittings simultaneously and. Clamp off the connecting tubes to the mitre bend pressure tappings (to prevent air being drawn into the system).

43 Velocity v (m/s) v2 / 2g K MITRE ELBOW SHORT BEND LONG BEND ENLARGE MENT CONTRAC TION 0.26e 2.013 0.293 -0.05 0.43 4.059 0.307 0.04 0.001 0.305 2.259 0.86 0.07 Series1 X=AXIS DYNAMIC HEAD Y=AXIS HEAD LOSS .009 0.038 0.013 1.001 2.034 0.038 0.50 GRAPHS: 0.03 0.025 0.h2 (m) 0.32 0.045 0.06 0.43 4.293 0.038 0.26e -4 0.69 -4 0.01 0.26e -4 2.035 0.86 0.26e -4 0.26e 2.085 0.284 0.24 0.03 0.04 0.015 -4 0.001 0.02 0.193 0.050 Volume Collected V (m3) 0.001 Time Flow to rate Q t Collect (m3 /s) T (sec) 4.001 4.293 0.038 0.26e 2.016 0.001 -4 0.50 0.005 0 0 0.43 4.86 0.320 0.55 1.90 0.144 0.86 0.Observations and Calculations: FITTINGS h1 (m) h2 (m) Head loss Δh = h1 .243 0.015 0.40 -1.02 0.43 4.01 0.43 0.

there is no dependence on head losses across pipe fittings upon velocity Yes it is justifiable to treat the loss coefficient as constant for a given fitting Source of errors: Error in reading can occur due to   Careless attitude while noting the readings. Incorrect use of units in calculations . Rounding off the values in calculations.00E-04 1.5 1 0.5 -1 -1.5 Series1 0 0.50E-04 2.5 5.00E-04 2.00E+00 -0.50E-04 X=AXIS VOLUME FLOW RATE Y=AXIS CONSTANT K CONCLUSION:There isn’t any relationship between any of the values.2 1.00E-05 1.

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