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**Strain and deformation
**

a global overview

Mark van Kraaij

Seminar on Continuum Mechanics

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics

Deﬁnition Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics concerned with the stresses in solids, liquids and gases and the deformation or ﬂow of these materials. A continuum disregards the molecular structure of matter and pictures it as being without gaps or empty spaces.

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics

Seminar topics Stress Strain and deformation General principles

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics

Deﬁnition Solid mechanics deals with solid materials. A solid has a deﬁned rest shape and can support shear stresses. Fluid mechanics deals with ﬂuids (both liquids and gases). A ﬂuid takes the shape of its container and cannot support shear stresses.

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics Elasticity Plasticity

Deﬁnition Elasticity describes materials that return to their rest shape after an applied stress. Plasticity describes materials that permanently deform (change their rest shape) after a large enough applied stress.

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics Elasticity Plasticity

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics Elasticity Plasticity non-Newtonian ﬂuids Newtonian ﬂuids

Deﬁnition non-Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids in which the viscosity changes with the applied shear stress. Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids in which the viscosity is constant.

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics Elasticity Plasticity non-Newtonian ﬂuids Newtonian ﬂuids

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Outline

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics Solid mechanics Fluid mechanics Elasticity Plasticity non-Newtonian ﬂuids Newtonian ﬂuids

Seminar topics Constitutive equations Linearized theory of elasticity Fluid mechanics ...

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Outline

Outline

1

Kinematics of a continuous medium Continuum conﬁguration Motion and material derivatives Deformation and strain Rate of deformation and vorticity Polar decomposition Linear deformation and strain theory Linear deformation and strain Principal strains and invariants Compatibility conditions

2

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Outline

1

Kinematics of a continuous medium Continuum conﬁguration Motion and material derivatives Deformation and strain Rate of deformation and vorticity Polar decomposition Linear deformation and strain theory Linear deformation and strain Principal strains and invariants Compatibility conditions

2

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Continuum conﬁguration

Gr

Ê3

u X

Ê2

x

ê3 o ê1 ê2

G

b

O

Ê1

X = X1Ê1+X2Ê2+X3Ê3

x = x1ê1+x2ê2+x3ê3

Deﬁnition Let B be a 3-dimensional, continuous, material body and let P ∈ B be a material point. Let G ⊂ R3 be a conﬁguration of B at time t and Gr ⊂ R3 a reference conﬁguration.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Continuum conﬁguration

Gr

Ê3

u X

Ê2

x

ê3 o ê1 ê2

G

b

O

Ê1

X = X1Ê1+X2Ê2+X3Ê3

x = x1ê1+x2ê2+x3ê3

Deﬁnition Let X ∈ Gr be the position of material point P in the reference conﬁguration with respect to origin O. Let x ∈ G be the position of material point P at time t with respect to origin o.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Continuum conﬁguration

Gr

Ê3

u X

Ê2

x

ê3 o ê1 ê2

G

b

O

Ê1

X = X1Ê1+X2Ê2+X3Ê3

x = x1ê1+x2ê2+x3ê3

Deﬁnition Then two bijective mappings exist Φ : {(X, t) | X ∈ Gr , t ∈ R} → {x|x ∈ G} : x = Φ(X, t), Ψ : {(x, t) | x ∈ G, t ∈ R} → {X|X ∈ Gr } : X = Ψ(x, t).

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Continuum conﬁguration

Gr

Ê3

u X

Ê2

x

ê3 o ê1 ê2

G

b

O

Ê1

X = X1Ê1+X2Ê2+X3Ê3

x = x1ê1+x2ê2+x3ê3

Deﬁnition The displacement vector u links the material coordinates X with the spatial coordinates x through u = b + x − X. Often in continuum mechanics it is possible to consider both coordinate systems superimposed and then b = 0.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Continuum conﬁguration

Example Rigid body motion → x = Φ(X, t) = c(t) + Q(t)X, → X = Ψ(x, t) = QT (t)(x − c(t)). Uniform dilatation → x = Φ(X, t) = (1 + (t))X, → X = Ψ(x, t) =

1 1+ (t)

x.

**Note that this formulation excludes crack formation
**

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Description of motion

Deﬁnition

1

Material description, whose independent variables are the particle P and the time t. Referential description, whose independent variables are the position X of the particle in a reference conﬁguration and the time t (Lagrangian description). Spatial description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle at time t and the present time t (Eulerian description). Relative description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle and a variable time τ .

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2

3

4

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Description of motion

Deﬁnition

1

Material description, whose independent variables are the particle P and the time t. Referential description, whose independent variables are the position X of the particle in a reference conﬁguration and the time t (Lagrangian description). Spatial description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle at time t and the present time t (Eulerian description). Relative description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle and a variable time τ .

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2

3

4

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Description of motion

Deﬁnition

1

Material description, whose independent variables are the particle P and the time t. Referential description, whose independent variables are the position X of the particle in a reference conﬁguration and the time t (Lagrangian description). Spatial description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle at time t and the present time t (Eulerian description). Relative description, whose independent variables are the present position x occupied by the particle and a variable time τ .

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2

3

4

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Description of motion

Deﬁnition

1

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2

3

4

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Description of motion

Deﬁnition

1

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2

3

4

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Material and local time derivatives
**

Deﬁnition Consider an arbitrary ﬁeld quantity F. The material time d derivative (denoted with dt ) and the local time derivative ∂ (denoted with ∂t ) are given by ˜ dF ∂ F(X, t) := , dt ∂t ∂F ∂F(x, t) := . ∂t ∂t

After applying the chain rule the following relation is found dF ∂F = +v· dt ∂t F,

**where v = dx is the instantaneous velocity of the particle dt (material derivative of the particle’s position).
**

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Material and local time derivatives
**

Deﬁnition Consider an arbitrary ﬁeld quantity F. The material time d derivative (denoted with dt ) and the local time derivative ∂ (denoted with ∂t ) are given by ˜ dF ∂ F(X, t) := , dt ∂t ∂F ∂F(x, t) := . ∂t ∂t

After applying the chain rule the following relation is found dF ∂F = +v· dt ∂t F,

**where v = dx is the instantaneous velocity of the particle dt (material derivative of the particle’s position).
**

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Material and local time derivatives

**Example d ∂ = +v· dt ∂t Applying the material derivative operator on Density ρ :
**

dρ dt

=

∂ρ ∂t

+v·

du dt ∂v ∂t

ρ. =

∂u ∂t

Displacement u : v = Velocity v :a=

dx dt dv dt

= =

+v· v.

u.

+v·

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Deformation and displacement gradients
**

Gr

Ê3

X O

Ê1

dX Y

Ê2

x

dx y

G

Deﬁnition A motion where the shape and/or volume of B is changed is called a deformation. In a deformation the distance between two material points changes x = Φ(X, t), y = Φ(Y, t) = Φ(X, t) + =: ∂Φ(X, t) dX + O(|dX|) ∂X x + F (X, t)dX + O(|dX|).

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Deformation and displacement gradients
**

Gr

Ê3

X O

Ê1

dX Y

Ê2

x

dx y

G

Deﬁnition A motion where the shape and/or volume of B is changed is called a deformation. In a deformation the distance between two material points changes dx ≈ F dX, where F = ∂ Φ(X,t) = ∂X Also G=

∂u ∂X ∂x ∂X

is the material deformation gradient.

**= F − I is the material displacement gradient.
**

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Deformation and strain tensors
**

Deﬁnition Because F still includes rigid body rotation it is not a direct measure for deformation. Therefore look at the change of length of a line-element between two material points |dx|2 = (dx, dx) = (F dX, F dX) = (F T F dX, dX) := (CdX, dX), where C = F T F is the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. A deformation quantity which becomes zero when there is no deformation present is the Lagrangian strain tensor E= 1 1 (C − I) = (G + G T + G T G). 2 2

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Deformation and strain tensors
**

Deﬁnition Because F still includes rigid body rotation it is not a direct measure for deformation. Therefore look at the change of length of a line-element between two material points |dx|2 = (dx, dx) = (F dX, F dX) = (F T F dX, dX) := (CdX, dX), where C = F T F is the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. A deformation quantity which becomes zero when there is no deformation present is the Lagrangian strain tensor E= 1 1 (C − I) = (G + G T + G T G). 2 2

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Rate of deformation and spin tensor
**

Deﬁnition In solid mechanics the deformation and displacement gradients play an important role. In ﬂuid mechanics it is often the gradient of the velocity that is important L= dF −1 ∂v = F =: D + W, ∂x dt

where D = 1 (L + LT ) is the rate of deformation tensor 2 and W = 1 (L − LT ) is the spin tensor. 2 Moreover, the vorticity vector w = anti-symmetric tensor W.

1 2

× v is associated with the

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Stretch and rotation
**

Deﬁnition A polar decomposition of an arbitrary, nonsingular second-order tensor is given by the product of a symmetric positive-deﬁnite tensor and an orthogonal tensor. For the deformation gradient this means F = R U = V R, where R is the rotation tensor U is the right stretch tensor V is the left stretch tensor

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Outline

1

Kinematics of a continuous medium Continuum conﬁguration Motion and material derivatives Deformation and strain Rate of deformation and vorticity Polar decomposition Linear deformation and strain theory Linear deformation and strain Principal strains and invariants Compatibility conditions

2

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Linear deformation

Deﬁnition In linear deformation theory the displacement gradients are small compared to unity ||G|| = ∂u ∂X =: ε 1.

In linear deformation theory all O(ε2 ) terms are neglected. A consequence of this is that the material and spatial displacement gradients are very nearly equal ∂u ∂u ∂x ∂u = = ∂X ∂x ∂X ∂x I+ ∂u ∂X = ∂u (1 + O(ε)). ∂x

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Linear deformation

Deﬁnition In linear deformation theory the displacement gradients are small compared to unity ||G|| = ∂u ∂X =: ε 1.

In linear deformation theory all O(ε2 ) terms are neglected. A consequence of this is that the material and spatial displacement gradients are very nearly equal ∂u ∂u ∂x ∂u = = ∂X ∂x ∂X ∂x I+ ∂u ∂X = ∂u (1 + O(ε)). ∂x

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Linear deformation

Deﬁnition In linear deformation theory the displacement gradients are small compared to unity ||G|| = ∂u ∂X =: ε 1.

In linear deformation theory all O(ε2 ) terms are neglected. A consequence of this is that the material and spatial displacement gradients are very nearly equal ∂u ∂u = . ∂X ∂x

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Linear strain tensor

Deﬁnition Neglecting the higher order terms in the Lagrangian strain tensor gives the linear Lagrangian strain tensor E = = El := 1 (G + G T + G T G) 2 1 (G + G T + O(ε2 )) 2 1 ∂u ∂u (G + G T ) = + 2 ∂X ∂X

T

.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**2D interpretation of linear strain tensor
**

Example Uniaxial extension in x-direction: εxx ≈ Uniaxial extension in y-direction: εyy ≈ Pure shear without rotation: γxy = εxy =

dux dX . duy dY .

π 2 − ψ = θ1 + θ2 , duy 1 1 dux 2 γxy ≈ 2 dY + dX

.

duy dY dux dY

dux q2 y dX

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q1 duy

dX

Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Principal strains and invariants
**

Properties Several properties hold for the symmetric, second-order linear strain tensor The principal strain direction is a direction for which the orientation of an element at a given point is not altered by a pure strain deformation (no shear strain component). The principal strain values ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) are the unit relative displacements (normal strain components) that occur in the principal directions.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Principal strains and invariants
**

Properties Several properties hold for the symmetric, second-order linear strain tensor The invariants are given by IE l IIE l IIIE l = tr E l = = = det E l =

1

+

2

+

3,

1 2

+

2 3

+

3 1,

1 2 3.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

**Principal strains and invariants
**

Properties Several properties hold for the symmetric, second-order linear strain tensor An additive decomposition consisting of a spherical tensor and deviator tensor El = where

M MI

+ (E l −

M I),

=(

1

+

2

+

3 )/3

is the mean normal strain.

The deviator tensor is associated with shear deformation for which the cubical dilatation vanishes.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Compatibility conditions

Deﬁnition If the strain components are given, the symmetric linear strain matrix may be viewed as a system of six PDEs for determining the three components of the displacement vector u. For a solution to exist, a necessary and sufﬁcient condition is given by the compatibility relations 2 ∂ 2 xy ∂x∂y ∂ 2 xx ∂y∂z = = ∂ 2 yy ∂ 2 xx + , ∂y 2 ∂x 2 ∂ yz ∂ xy ∂ ∂ zx − + + . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Summary

Strain and deformation: a global overview The kinematics of a general continuous medium have been discussed. Several important quantities have been introduced Material and spatial coordinates Deformation and strain Rate of deformation and vorticity Linear deformation theory simpliﬁes the general theory on the assumption that the displacement gradients are small.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

Summary

Strain and deformation: a global overview The kinematics of a general continuous medium have been discussed. Several important quantities have been introduced Material and spatial coordinates Deformation and strain Rate of deformation and vorticity Linear deformation theory simpliﬁes the general theory on the assumption that the displacement gradients are small.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

For further reading

Lawrence E. Malvern Introduction to the mechanics of a continuus medium Prentice-Hall, 1969. George E. Mase Schaum’s outlines of continuum mechanics McGraw-Hill, 1970.

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Kinematics

Linear

Summary

For further reading

Lawrence E. Malvern Introduction to the mechanics of a continuus medium Prentice-Hall, 1969. George E. Mase Schaum’s outlines of continuum mechanics McGraw-Hill, 1970.

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