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Heat of Vaporization of Hexane Jose Angel Valdez Jr.

October 17th, 2012 In order for a substance to change from liquid to gas, there is a required input of energy. As liquids increase in temperature, the pressure they exert increases as well. This energy input is known as the Heat of Vaporization. This particular experiment shows a graphing method of how to calculate the heat of vaporization of a solvent, in this case hexane. Table 1. Hexane Temperature Temperature (C) (K) -53.9 219.1 -25 248 -2.3 271 15.8 288.8 49.6 322.6 68.7 341.7

Pressure (Torr) 1 10 40 100 400 760

In order to obtain a straight-line graph, it is necessary to convert the above equation into a natural logarithm function, by taking the natural logarithm in both sides of the equation. This will provide the equation of the form Ln (P) = Ln (A) (H/R)(1/T), as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) lnP=(-H/R)(1/T)+lnP y = m x + b By plotting 1/T as the x-axis and Ln (P) as the y-axis, the straight-line graph is obtained. Table 2. 1/T Ln (P) 0.00456 0 0.00403 2.302 0.00369 3.688 0.00346 4.605 0.00310 5.991 0.00293 6.633

Graph 1
8 7 6 5 lnP 4 3 2 1 0 0.00000 0.00100 0.00200 1/K 0.00300 0.00400 0.00500

When obtaining the trend line of Graph 1, it is obtained that Y = -4042.9x=18.545 (trend line) m = -4042.9 and it represents H/R. Therefore,

The values of ln (P) at two different temperatures 35 C and 80 C can be calculated. Then, by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the value of H is measured.

Calculate the ln (P) at T=35 C and T=80 C. At T= 35 C = 308 K. ln (P) at T is equal to: Calculating ln (P) at T= 308 and T=353.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

; P = e ^5.42 = 226 torr ( )

; P = e ^ 7.09 = 1202 torr

The enthalpy of vaporization is a constant value. It does not change with respect to temperature. The pressure values changes with respect to temperature to keep the value of enthalpy of vaporization constant. By using Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Ln (P1) Ln (P2) = Ln (P1/P2) = ( 1- 1/T2) ( - 1/353) ( 1- 1/T2)

Ln (226/ 1202) =

AH = 33570.14 J = 33.57 KJ This value is consistent with the first value obtained by using the slope of the straight-line graph.