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What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism?


religious or ideological objectives   Arthur H. Garrison .Terrorism  Is an unlawful act of violence Intimidates governments or societies Goal is to achieve political.

terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point” NYTimes. 1/6/2000 “Putting the horror in the minds of the audience. and not necessarily on the screen” .“…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities.



1837 . Emerson.Fear always springs from ignorance.

edu/itweb/services/classroom.gif .asu.west.http://www.

Arthur H.  Terror was used to resist occupation. Resistance to Roman occupation.D. Garrison .Early History of Terrorism  Terror has been used to achieve political ends and has a long history  As early as 66 – 72 A. terrorists killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property.

It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions. Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed as a religious act.Early History of Terrorism  Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders which resulted in rewards in heaven. Garrison .  Arthur H.

Garrison . the Vanished in Argentina Arthur H.g. This was the birth of Government-Sponsored Terrorism The line between terrorism and political violence is often blurred Goal: of State terrorism was to eliminate opposition.. .Modern History of Terrorism     The term “terrorism” was coined in the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794). consolidate power. e.

Lincoln assassination  Propaganda by deeds …terrorists acts  Terrorism became tool of communication.Modern History of Terrorism   Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century Individual terrorism  The use of selective terror against an individual in order to bring down a government.g. propaganda Arthur H. Garrison . e.

Modern History of Terrorism:  Middle 20th century. The last 20 years of of the 20th century religious based terrorism became more and more frequent. Garrison .   Another format is economic terrorism. which destructs industry and agriculture system. Arthur H. terrorism became a tool used by both sides of colonial conflicts.

1998). 1997). (Allen. Arthur H. Garrison .  Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage.Modern History of Terrorism  Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.  The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected. unconventional tactics in combat (Craig.

through psychological means. Terrorism is used in times of peace. Garrison . Terrorism is designed to make a point.Terrorism conclusions       Terrorism is an ancient tactic. Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare. Arthur H. fear. Terrorism is a political act. conflicts and war. Terrorism is a mode of communication.

Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Terrorism takes much Time and planning Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths .

Property of Terrorism    Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter .

not just ―my group of people‖ Eliminate the root of terrorism .Prevention of Terrorism  Primary prevention:     Education!!! Understand the differences in cultures. beliefs and human behaviors Think of the peace. freedom and equality of all human beings. religions.

Prevention of Terrorism  Secondary prevention:   Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack Improve protective system for citizens .

Prevention of Terrorism  Tertiary prevention     Early detection of the sources Prevent the extension of impairments Rescue the survivors Console the rest of the population .

International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.Types of Terrorism   Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example. Sept. the Center for National Security Studies .

Methods of Terrorism      Firearms Explosive and Incendiary Devices Chemical Agents Biological Agents Nuclear Weapon .

Suspicious Thing to Look for From Emergency Net NEWS Archives.S. Postal Inspector's Office . 1994 Document Courtesy of the U.

Chemical Agents    Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people. destroy livestock or ravage crops Some agents are odorless and tasteless They can have an immediate or a delayed effect .

Example of Chemical Terrorism   Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20. 1995 12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured Genro Ochi M.D .

air and packages. Coule. 28 . Microbes    Bacteria Viruses Toxins Phillip L. death and terror The paths of infection can be contaminated water.Biological terrorism    Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness.D. M. food.

Coule.D. 29 . M.Is this something new?  14th Century – Kaffa  City on Crimean Peninsula  Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it Phillip L.

Coule.Is this something new?  18th Century French and Indian War    British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French Caused an epidemic in tribes Effective means of incapacitating group Phillip L. M. 30 .D.

Suzuki Anthrax(USA) Resistance against colonialism Send a political message Win a local election by incapacitating the non-Rajneeshee voters Seize control of Japan through mass murder.Motives for bioterrorism Incident Motive Polish resistance Resistance against foreign occupation Mau Mau Dark Harvest Rajneeshes AUM Shrinkyo Dr.D. causing fear and apprehension Revenge for unfair treatment he received at the medical training Inculcate fear Fred T. Msc . Muwanga M.

Responses to Bioterrorism    Early detection of active and potential cases Emergency measures to save lives Prevention and management of secondary contamination .

Nuclear Terrorism     Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred .

0003 2001 2893 2404624 0.Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States Average death per year From terrorism From all causes Proportion (%) 1990’s 8 2534203 0.12 .

000 One in 100. 1987 .000.000 Homicide Terrorism attack in 2001 Hit by lightning Terrorism attack in 1990’s One in 100.000 One in 50.000 One in 25.000 Penguin Books.000.000 One in 10.Risk of Dying Smoking 10 cigarettes a day All natural causes age 40 Road accident Playing soccer One in 200 One in 850 One in 8.

000 .000.000 One in 10.Death Rate of Various Causes in 2000 USA and that from Terrorism Heart disease* Cancer * Cerebrovascular diseases* One in 400 One in 500 One in 2.000 Homicide* Terrorism in 2001 Terrorism in 1990’s One in 20.000 One in 50.000 One in 100.000 One in 4.000 Accidents * Diabetes* Suicide* One in 3.

What occupation has had the greatest risk of death from Terrorism? .

11 Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been high Despite the low risk.Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001?     The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990’s. and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001 But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. surprise and fear engulfed the United States and world . shock.

and alcoholic beverage. . smoking. chemical.Conclusion     Terrorism is unlawful act Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political. explosive devices and biological. nuclear materials Even through the events of 2001.the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles. religious and ideological objectives Terrorism can be conducted through firearms.

if we wish. be educated out. Menninger . FDR.The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. — Karl A. 1933 Fears are educated into us & can.

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