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# FAN LAWS

Fan laws
Fan Laws, also known as Affinity Laws, govern the performance of geometrically similar Centrifugal fans.

These laws apply only approximately to other, i.e. non-centrifugal, types of fans. Fan performance data are usually based on a standard air density of 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.20 kg/m3) at an elevation of zero.

LAWS
1.The capacity is directly proportional to the fan speed. 2. The pressure (static, total, or velocity) is proportional to the square of the fan speed.

## 3. The power required is proportional to the cube of the fan speed.

Symbols
D = Fan size N = Rotational speed P = Pressure Q = Volume flow rate W = Power = Gas density

Fan Law 1
The first fan law relates the airflow rate to the fan rotational speed: Volume flow rate, Q, is directly proportional to the fan rotational speed, N.

## (Q1/Q2) = (D1/D2)3 (N1/N2)

Fan Law 2
The second fan law relates the fan total pressure or fan static pressure to the fan rotational speed: Total or static pressure, P, is proportional to the square of the fan rotational speed, N. (P1/P2) = (D1/D2)2 (N1/N2)2 (1/2)

Fan Law 3
The third fan law relates the total or static air power (and the impeller power), W, to the fan rotational speed: Power, W, is proportional to the cube of the fan rotational speed, N. (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)5 (N1/N2)3 (1/2)

## Derivatives of Fan Laws

The three main fan laws given above, when combined and rearranged, give the relationships shown below. (Q1/Q2) = (D1/D2)2 (P1/P2)1/2 (1/2)-1/2 (P1/P2) = (D1/D2)-4 (Q1/Q2)2 (1/2) (N1/N2) = (D1/D2)-1 (P1/P2)1/2 (1/2)-1/2 (N1/N2) = (D1/D2)-3 (Q1/Q2) (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)2 (P1/P2)3/2 (1/2)-1/2 (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)-4 (Q1/Q2)3 (1/2)

Once an operational speed has been chosen, the next step then is to establish the overall size. As a start, the minimum hub diameter can be determined from d =19,000 / rpm Ps where
min

d is in inches,
Ps is in (in.wg).