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FAN LAWS

Fan laws
Fan Laws, also known as Affinity Laws, govern the performance of geometrically similar Centrifugal fans.

These laws apply only approximately to other, i.e. non-centrifugal, types of fans. Fan performance data are usually based on a standard air density of 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.20 kg/m3) at an elevation of zero.

LAWS
1.The capacity is directly proportional to the fan speed. 2. The pressure (static, total, or velocity) is proportional to the square of the fan speed.

3. The power required is proportional to the cube of the fan speed.

Symbols
D = Fan size N = Rotational speed P = Pressure Q = Volume flow rate W = Power = Gas density

Fan Law 1
The first fan law relates the airflow rate to the fan rotational speed: Volume flow rate, Q, is directly proportional to the fan rotational speed, N.

(Q1/Q2) = (D1/D2)3 (N1/N2)

Fan Law 2
The second fan law relates the fan total pressure or fan static pressure to the fan rotational speed: Total or static pressure, P, is proportional to the square of the fan rotational speed, N. (P1/P2) = (D1/D2)2 (N1/N2)2 (1/2)

Fan Law 3
The third fan law relates the total or static air power (and the impeller power), W, to the fan rotational speed: Power, W, is proportional to the cube of the fan rotational speed, N. (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)5 (N1/N2)3 (1/2)

Derivatives of Fan Laws


The three main fan laws given above, when combined and rearranged, give the relationships shown below. (Q1/Q2) = (D1/D2)2 (P1/P2)1/2 (1/2)-1/2 (P1/P2) = (D1/D2)-4 (Q1/Q2)2 (1/2) (N1/N2) = (D1/D2)-1 (P1/P2)1/2 (1/2)-1/2 (N1/N2) = (D1/D2)-3 (Q1/Q2) (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)2 (P1/P2)3/2 (1/2)-1/2 (W1/W2) = (D1/D2)-4 (Q1/Q2)3 (1/2)

Once an operational speed has been chosen, the next step then is to establish the overall size. As a start, the minimum hub diameter can be determined from d =19,000 / rpm Ps where
min

d is in inches,
Ps is in (in.wg).