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2DFlowApplications 2D Flow Applications

1. ShockInteractions 2. Engine Intakes EngineIntakes 3. SupersonicJets

1.Shock Reflection fl
FindM2,M3,p2/p1,p3/p1

B
1 3 2

M1 =6
A

C =12o

TABLES

M1 =6
1 2

M3 =3.41
3

C A 12 =12o

MoreReflections? More Reflections?

TABLES

1b.Shock Intersection
OPPOSITEFAMILIES
1

B
3

B=5o

M1 =3
A

A=12o 12

1b.Shock Intersection
OPPOSITEFAMILIES
1

B
3

B=5o
5

4 2

M1 =3
A

A=12o 12

1c.Shock Intersection
SAMEFAMILY
1 3 2

M1 =3
A

B A=12o 12

B=6o

2.SupersonicEngineIntakes 2. Supersonic Engine Intakes


Designed to Designedto
Compresstheflow Decelerateittosubsonic speed Minimump0 loss

Mostintakesare designedtodirectthe flowmorethanone shockwave

WhyMultipleShocks? Why Multiple Shocks?


ConsiderdecelerationofaMach2flowtosubsonic.
SINGLENORMALSHOCK SINGLE NORMAL SHOCK M=2
1 2

OBLIQUE/NORMALSHOCKCOMBINATION OBLIQUE / NORMAL SHOCK COMBINATION

M 2 M=2
1 2

45o

Two DimensionalInlet TwoDimensional Inlet

WindTunnelVisualization
Machnumber1.95

history.nasa.gov/SP4302/ch2.12.htm

Northrup F5

F4Phantom

Concorde/Olympus563 Concorde/ Olympus 563 http://www.concordesst.com/powerplant.html


TAKEOFF

SUPERSONICCRUISE

AxisymmetricInlet Axisymmetric Inlet


M =MDESIGN

M <MDESIGN

M >MDESIGN

MirageF1

GeneralDynamicsF111

SR71

SR 71Inlet SR71 Inlet

3.SupersonicJets
TAKEOFF TRANSONIC

SATURNVROCKET (APOLLO15,11,11) 39MILESALTITUDE

XCOR5M15LiquidMethane/Oxygen RocketEngine Rocket Engine

http://www.xcor.com/

2DOverExpandedJet REGULARREFLECTION
Ambient pb ExitM 1 E i Me>1 p=pe>pb p=pb p>pb p=pb

P Pressureisraisedfrompe topb asitleavesthenozzlebyan i i df i l h l b obliqueshock. Shockalsodeflectsflowdowntowardplaneofsymmetry. Deflectioncantbesustainedatsymmetryplanesoa2nd shockisformedtodeflecttheflowparalleltothesymmetry planeoncemore. Thisalsoraisesthepressureabovepb Tobringthepressurebackdowntopb theshockasto reflectfromthejetedgeasanexpansionwave,butthis j g p , thendeflectstheflowawayfromtheplaneofsymmetry.

Example
Findpressures,Mach numbersandflow directions Me=2 pe=0.1278pc

Ambient pb=0.2pc
2 1 4

p=pb
3

p>pb

p=pb

Example
Findpressures,Mach numbersandflow directions Me=2 pe=0.1278pc

Ambient pb=0.2pc
2 1 4

M2=1.702 p=pb p>pb 3 M3=1.409 p3=0.3pc

p=pb

2DOverExpandedJet MACHREFLECTION
Ambient pb ExitM 1 E i Me>1 p=pe>pb p=pb p>pb p=pb

OccurswhentheMachnumberdownstreamofthe1st shockistoolowforregularreflection(i.e.the shock is too low for regular reflection (i e the maximumturnangleforthesecondwavewouldbe lessthanthedeflectionproducedbythefirst.) B k Backpressureisgreaterthanthatforregularreflection, i t th th t f l fl ti andlessthanthatforashockattheexit.

Example
Findbackpressureat whichMach reflectionfirst appears Me=2 pe=0.1278pc

Ambient pb
2 1 4

p=pb
3

p>pb

p=pb

TABLES

AxisymmetricOverExpandedJet

http://www.aerospaceweb.org/

SpaceShuttleMainEngine

2DUnderExpandedJet
Ambient pb p=pb ExitMe>1 p=pe<pb P<pb p=pb

Pressureisreducedfrompe topb asitleavesthenozzlebyan expansionwavecenteredonthenozzlelip W Wavealsodeflectsflowupawayfromtheplaneofsymmetry. l d fl fl f h l f Deflectioncantbesustainedatsymmetryplanesoaanother expansionisformedtodeflecttheflowparalleltothesymmetry planeoncemore. plane once more Thisalsolowersthepressurebelowpb Tobringthepressurebackuptopb theexpansionreflectsfromthe jetedgeasancompressionwave,butthisthendeflectstheflow jet edge as an compression wave, but this then deflects the flow towardtheplaneofsymmetry.

Example
Computeangleand Machnumberof flowafterfirstturn ExitMe=2 pb=0.1278

Ambient pb=0.05pc p=pb


2 1

p=pb P<pb

AxisymmetricUnderExpandedJet

http://www.aerospaceweb.org/

KinkiUniversity,Japan