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Operan systmy kov slov Cvienie 2: Unix ->operan systm o o o o o o o o o o operan systm je program beiaci po cel dobu vpotovho

vpotovho systmu truktra OS: V strede je hardvr Nad nm jadro OS (kernel) rove rozhrania jadra-> systmov volania Najniia rove prce s OS pevne dan mnoina operci, ktor jadro vie vykona obvykle zabalen do C-funkci (napr. read();) programov rozhranie (API) jadra v praxi sa aplikcie vyuvaj na vyej knininej rovni, nie na rovni jadra Systmov programy, GUI, Shell rove pouvateskho rozhrania prkazov riadok (Command Line Interface, CLI) Grafick rozhranie (Graphical User Interface, GUI) Na vrchu s aplikcie Shell -> lohy: Rozhranie sluieb OS -> prstup k sborom, spanie procesov

o tanie, kontrola a vykonvanie prkazov -> prkazov riadok preta prkaz a vykon ho o o Interpret ->medzi interaktvnou a neinteraktvnou prcou Prispsobenie pracovnho prostredia -> zrchlenie prce, asto pouvan veci Skript -> aplikcia pre Shell

Cvienie 3: subor obycajny subor adresar

symbolicka linka

Cvienie 4: ODPAD!!! (12.10.2010) Cvienie 5: Procesor zakladna cast PC, kt. interpretuje, vykonva alebo spracva intrukcie alebo dta programu vo forme strojovho kdu instrukcia - prvok zo sboru zkladnch operci pre procesor; zakladna jednotka strojoveho kodu. atomickost instrukcie dana instrukcia sa vykona naraz, nemoze byt prerusena prerusenie - metoda pro asynchronnu obsluhu udalosti, kedy procesor prerus vykonavanie sledu instrukcii, vykona obsluhu prerusen a potom pokracuje v predoslej cinnosti. pamat miesto na ulozenie programov / dat spolocna pamat viacero CPU zdiela rovnaku pamat program - popis realizacie danej ulohy v presne definovanej forme vhodnej pre vykonanie pocitacom. proces - spusteny pocitacovy program umiestneny v operacnej pameti PC v podobe sledu strojovych instrukcii synchronizacia - vseobecna poziadavka na nejake usporiadanie procesov v case prostriedok fyzicka / virtualna sucast PC s limitovanou dostupnostou/mnozstvom... vzajomne vylucovanie - dva procesy nesmu vyuzivat prostriedok sucasne kriticka oblast - cast programu, v ktorej sa pristupuje k prostriedku poziadavky na riesenie vzajomneho vylucovania: Solutions to the critical-section problem must satisfy: Mutual exclusion Only one process in its critical section at a time; i.e., no critical-section overlap Progress (a.k.a. deadlock-free) If some process wants into its critical section, then some process gets in Bounded waiting (a.k.a. lockout-free) Every process that wants into its critical section eventually gets in vstupny a vystupny protokol Cvienie 6: specialne instrukcie Cvienie 7: semafor operacie nad semaforom semantika operacii nad semaforom invariant semaforu vseobecny semafor binarny semafor

inicialna hodnota semaforu monitor

Cvienie 8: multiprogramming (multiprogramovanie) - allocation of a computer system and its resources to more than one concurrent application, job or user ("program" in this nomenclature). multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system. multitasking - method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is actively executing instructions for that task. Multithreading - Executing more than one thread (part of a task / program) parallely.

Swapovanie - The process of using virtual memory to temporarily store data when physical memory is full. externa fragmentacia - External fragmentation is the phenomenon in which free storage becomes divided into many small pieces over time. interna fragmentacia - occurs when storage is allocated without intention to use it.[1] This space is wasted. For example, in many file systems, each file always starts at the beginning of a cluster, because this simplifies organization and makes it easier to grow files. Any space left over between the last byte of the file and the first byte of the next cluster is a form of internal fragmentation called file slack or slack space.

Cvienie 9: virtualna pamat strankovanie logicky adresovy priestor fyzicka pamat virtualny adresovy priestor stranka strankovy ram logicka adresa fyzicka adresa

tabulka stranok dvojurovnova tabulka stranok vypadok stranky (page fault) asociativna pamat TLB

Cvienie 10: retazec odkazov na stranky (reference string) pracovna mnozina stranok algoritmus vyberu obete zasovnikovy algoritmus LRU algoritmus FIFO algoritmus Optimalny algoritmus

Cvienie 11: ???