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( ) 34

106 79
. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025
e-mail : info@hms.gr
www.hms.gr

GREEK MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY


34, Panepistimiou (leftheriou Venizelou) Street
GR. 106 79 - Athens - HELLAS
Tel. 3616532 - 3617784 - Fax: 3641025
e-mail : info@hms.gr
www.hms.gr


73


20 2012


1
:

2 44 39

= 18 : 11 .
5 5
5 3+ 6

11

5
88 5 39 5
2 44 39

= 18 : 11 = = 2 1 = 1.
5 5
5 3 + 6 5 44 5 39

11

2

12, 30 54,
:
3
2
2 : 2 .
=
1

(12,30,54 ) = 6 . 6 1, 2, 3, 6

2 3. = 2 = 3 .
2 3 2
2
2 : 2 = 1 : 1 = 2 4 = 8.
= 2 : =
1
3 4 3 1 3
2
2
2
2

3
33
0
= 3 2 2 = = 0 ,

3
3
3 1
2
2 = 2 = 1 0 , .

1 5 5
3
2 2
3
800 .
407
1050 . 2,5
6% .
()
.
() ( )
8% ,
.

6
= 0,15 ,
100
2,5 0,15 = 2,35 .
1050 + 407 = 1457 , 1457 : 2,35 = 620
.
8
() 800
= 64 ,
100
800 ( 620 + 64 ) = 116 .
() 2,5

= 60D = 3 .

2

= .
B , .

, AB , : AB = .
3
3
= AB = = = , :
2
2

3
= = = .
2
2
60o ,
( = )
.

= , = = .
2
2
1 .
= 180D 60D = 120D ,
= 180D
1

180 120D
= 30o .
: 1 = 1 =
2
D

x 2 y 4 z 6 2182

3 (13 22 33 + 42 9

3 1

, x = 210 , y = 48 , z = 86

x = 210 , y = 48 = ( 22 ) = 216 , z = 86 = ( 23 ) = 218 .


8

= x 2 y 4 z 6 2182 = ( 210 ) ( 216 ) ( 218 ) 2182


2

= 220 264 2108 2182 = 210.


:

= 3 (13 22 33 + 42 93 ) = 3 (13 22 33 + 24 36 ) = 3 22 33 (13 + 22 33 )


1

= 3 ( 22 33 121) = 3 22 33 1211 = 22 32 112.


1

210
32 121 32 112 33 33
=
=
= 4 = .
22 32 1211
28
28
2 16

2
3 -3

4 x 5 + 2 < ( x 3) + 2 ( 1) .

3 ,

4 3 5 + 2 < ( 3 3) + 2 ( 1) 12 5 + 2 < 2 2 16 < 7 >

16
.
7

-3 ,
4 (3) 5 + 2 < ( 3 3) + 2 ( 1) 12 5 + 2 < 6 + 2 2

.
8 < > 8
3 -3 ,
16
16
> 8 , > .
>
7
7
3

1


12
( , ) ( , ) , 0 < < ,
:
=
3

= 2 2 2 .
4

2

p ,
p ,
,

2 2 )
(

2
( ) =

=
.
2
2
2
2

( , )

( , ) , 0 < < ,
, :

( , , ) = ( 2 2 ) , ,

2 2 )
(
( ) 1
1

=
= = .
2
2
( , , ) 12
6
2 ( ) 12

1
1
2 = = ,
2
3 2

3
2
3
3
3
1

1 3 1 1 3 1
2
.
= 2 2 = 2 = = =
4

2 4 2 2 8 8 512

4
= cm < .
. = 2 ,
:
(i)
(ii)
.

3
(i) = = x , = y, = 2 y = z .
:
x2 = y 2 + z 2 z 2 = x2 y 2 .
(1)
:
2 = 4 y2 + z2 z2 = 2 4 y2 .
(2)
(1) (2) :
2 4 y 2 = x2 y 2 x2 = 2 3 y 2
(3)
:
9 y 2 = x2 + 2 x2 = 9 y 2 2 .
(4)
(3) (4) :
2
6
9 y2 2 = 2 3 y2 y2 =
y=
,
6
6

2

6
2 2
2
2
x = 3
=
x=
.
= 3
6
2
2
6
= 3 y ,
2

(ii)

R=

3
6
6 2 3 2
y=
. E = R 2 =
=
.
2
4
16
8


1
x x ( x 2 ) = 24

25.

x ( x 2 ) = 24 x 2 2 x 24 = 0

= 100 ,
2 10
x=
x = 6 x = 4 .
2
2
x = 4 , ( 4 ) = 16 < 25 , 62 = 36 > 25 .
2
:

( , ) =

3 + 3 2 + 2 + ( + 2 ) ( 2 )
2
( + )

+ 0 + 1 .

:
3 + 3 2 + 2 + ( + 2 ) ( 2 )
= 3 + 3 ( 2 2 ) + ( + )( 2 )
= ( + ) ( 2 + 2 ) ( + )( ) + ( + )( 2 )
= ( + ) ( 2 + 2 + + 2 2 )
= ( + ) ( 2 2 + )
= ( + ) ( + )( ) ( )

= ( + )( )( + 1) .
:
2
( + ) = ( + )( + 1)

, + 0 + 1 ,
( + )( )( + 1) = .
( , ) =
( + )( + 1)
3
x 2 + 2 x + 2 1 = 0 .
-5 2
20.


= 4 2 4 ( 2 1) = 4 ,

x1 = + 1 x2 = 1 .

( 5, 2 ) ,
5 < + 1 < 2 5 < 1 < 2 6 < < 1 4 < < 3
.
1 < < 6 3 < < 4 1 < < 4.
,
2
2
( + 1) + ( 1) = 20 2 2 + 2 = 20 2 = 9 = 3 = 3 ,
, 1 < < 4 = 3 .

4
= = =2 .

. .
.

4
=
,
// ,
1
1
1 =
2 .
2 = 1

, : = = .
.
1 . ,
, :

1
=
=
= = 2
2 2
, = 2 = 2 .
= 2 .
2 . M .
, : = // = ( )

E
= = ( ). =
2
. ,
, .

0 1 < < 1 =

1+ ,

1+
1
1+
1
+
, =

.
1
1+
1
1+

1 + > 0 1 > 0 ,
1+
1 1+ +1
2
=
+
=
=
,
2
1
1+
1
1 2

1+
1 1 + (1 )
2

=
=
.
1
1+
1 2
1 2

=
:

1
1 + 2
1 + = 1 + =
.

1 3

1 + = + > 0 , ,
2 4

, , 0 < < 1 ,
1 < < 0 .
2

2
:

x 2 2 x 1 + 2 = 0 .

( 0,5 ) 82.


= 4 2 4 ( 1 + 2 ) = 4 ,

x1 = + 1 x2 = 1 .

( 0,5 ) ,

0 < + 1 < 5 0 < 1 < 5 1 < < 4 1 < < 6 1 < < 4 .
,
4
4
( + 1) + ( 1) = 82 2 4 + 12 2 + 2 = 82 4 + 6 2 40 = 0 ,

2 = 4 2 = 10 () = 2 = 2 .
= 2 , = 2
1 < < 4 .

3
x, y z

x
y
z
=
=
2012 x + 3 2012 y + 5 2012 z + 7
x, y z 747.


2012 x + 3 2012 y + 5 2012 z + 7
=
=
x
y
z
3
5
7
2012 + = 2012 + = 2012 +
x
y
z
3 5 7
= =
x y z
3 5 7 1
, = = = : x = 3 , y = 5 , z = 7 .
x y z
x, y z 747

747
9
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 83 2 747
= ] 2 = ] ,
2
83

2
1, 3 9.
2 = 1 = 1 ( x, y, z ) = ( 3,5, 7 ) ( x, y, z ) = ( 3, 5, 7 ) .

2 = 3 = 3 x, y, z , .

2 = 9 = 3 ( x, y, z ) = ( 9,15,21) ( x, y, z ) = ( 9, 15, 21) .

4
c(O, R) , AB ( )
M AB . c1 ( A, AM ) c2 ( B, BM )
c(O, R) K N . c1 ( A, AM )
c2 ( B, BM ) M T . T
KMN .

5
KM c( O , R ) c1( A, AM ) .
OA KM .
(1)
MT c1( A, AM ) c2 ( B , BM ) .
AB MT .
(2)
MN c( O , R ) c2 ( B , BM ) .
OB MN .
(3)
(1) (2) , :
=M
( ).
A
1

(2) (3) , :
( )
B = M
1

OAB , :
= B .
A
1
1
=M
.
: M
1
2

ANM ABM , c( O , R )
q
AM .

TNM c ( B , BM ) ,
2

TBM , : TNM = ABM


ANM = TNM A,T , N .
ANK = ANM ( c( O , R )
AM AK ). NA
KNM .


1

1
1
1
1
2011
+
+
+ +
=
.
1+ 2 1+ 2 + 3 1+ 2 + 3 + 4
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + + x 2013

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + x =

x ( x + 1)
, x ,
2

:
2
2
2
2
2011
+
+
+ +
=
x ( x + 1) 2013
2 3 3 4 4 5
1
1 2011
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 + + + ... +
=
x x + 1 2013
2 3 3 4 4 5
2
2011
2
2
1
=

=
x = 2012.
x + 1 2013
x + 1 2013
2

f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c

g ( x ) = cx + b , a, b, c \, a 0 , ,

, a, b, c
.


ax 2 + bx + c = cx + b ax 2 + ( b c ) x + ( c b ) = 0

. 0,
2
= ( b c ) + 4a ( b c ) = 0 ( b c )( b c + 4a ) = 0 c b = 4a,
b c .
c b = 4a :
ax 2 4ax + 4a = 0 a ( x 2 4 x + 4 ) = 0 x 2 4 x + 4 = 0 x = 2.
( 2, 2c + b ) .

3
x, y z

x
y
z
=
=
2012 x + y 2012 y + z 2012 z + 7
x, y z 147.

2012 x + y 2012 y + z 2012 z + 7


=
=
x
y
z
y
z
7
y z 7
2012 + = 2012 + = 2012 + = =
x
y
z
x y z
y z 7 1
, = = = : x = 7 3 , y = 7 2 , z = 7 .
x y z
x, y z 147
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 147 49 6 + 49 4 + 49 2 = 147
6 + 4 + 2 = 3 6 1 + 4 1 + 2 1 = 0
( 2 1)( 4 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 1) = 0
( 2 1)( 4 + 2 2 + 3) = 0 = 1 = 1,
4 + 2 2 + 3 = 0 = 8 < 0 .
:
( x, y, z ) = ( 7, 7, 7 ) ( x, y, z ) = ( 7, 7, 7 )
4
c(O, R) , BC ( )
M BC . c1 ( B, BM ) , c2 (C , CM )
c(O, R) K , N , , c1 ( B, BM ) , c2 (C , CM )
A M . M BC
c1 ( B, BM ) , c2 (C , CM ) T , S .
AM , KT , NS .

, , K , A,C , S N , A, B ,T .

6
AM c1( B , BM ) c2 ( C ,CM ) .
BC AM .

BC TS ( ).
T = AM
S = 90 o .
TS AM ( AM TS ). AM
A,T A, S
c1( B , BM ) c2 ( C ,CM ) .
, A,C , S A, B ,T .
K , A,C N , A, B .
c( O , R ) , B KM ( BM , BK
c1( B , BM ) ). BM BK
, .
= MCB

(1) .
KCB
BC AM , ABC MBC
, :
= MCB

ACB
(2) .
(1) (2) KCB = ACB
K , A,C .
N , A, B .
AMTK AMSN :
AKT = ANS = 90 o .
TK KS TN NS .
AM TS , AM , KT ,
NS ATS , .

P ATS . P , A,T , S
A
PTS .
KMN PTS A
KMN .