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Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

LI CM N

Tc gi xin trn trng gi li cm n ti cc Cn b Nhn vin Vin o to sau i hc v cc Thy, C gio Khoa Kinh t & Qun l - Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni to mi iu kin thun li, ging dy v gip Tc gi trong qu trnh hc tp ti trng v thc hin Lun vn ny. Tc gi xin gi li chn thnh cm n ti Thy gio hng dn khoa hc - TS. Bi Xun Hi, ngi tn tnh ch bo, hng dn trong sut qu trnh Tc gi hc tp, nghin cu, thc hin lun vn tt nghip. Tc gi rt mong nhn c s gp ca cc Thy gio, C gio v cc bn ng nghip ti nghin cu c p dng thnh cng trong thc t.

Xin trn trng cm n!

HV. Nguyn Mnh Tng

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

LI CAM OAN
Ti xin cam oan, bn lun vn ny l ni dung khoa hc do Ti t nghin v khng sao chp t bt k mt lun vn hay ti liu no tng t. Ti cam oan, tt c cc trch dn, s liu c s dng trong lun vn u c ngun gc r rng, chnh xc.

Ti xin hon ton chu trch nhim vi li cam kt ca mnh.

HV. Nguyn Mnh Tng

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

DANH MC THUT NG VIT TT


STT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Ch vit tt
BOO BOT QG EPTC EVN HT IPP NM NMT PPA SB SMO

Nguyn ngha
Build - Owner - Operate (Xy dng - S hu - Vn hnh) Build - Operate - Transfer (Xy dng - Vn hnh - Chuyn giao) Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia Electric Power Trading Company (Cng ty Mua bn in) Electricity of Viet Nam (Tp on in lc Vit Nam) H thng in Independent Power Plant (Nh my in c lp) Nh my in Nh my thy in Power Purchase Agreement (Hp ng mua bn in) Singer buyer C quan mua duy nht System Market Operation (n v vn hnh h thng in v th trng in) System Marginal Price (Gi bin h thng in)

SMP

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

DANH MC CC BNG BIU


BANG II-1. T TRNG SN LNG CC LOI NGUN IN NM 2009..........38 BANG II-2. CNG SUT T CC LOI NGUN NM 2009...................................38 BANG II-3. GI BN IN CA CC LOI HNH PHT IN...............................50 BANG II-4. CC NMT C LP DO T NHN U T VN HNH..........54 BANG II-5. CC NH MY IN C GI BN IN THEO MA.........................54 BANG II-6. CC NH MY IN C GI BN C NH TRONG C NM.......55 BANG II-7. NH GI CH TIU DOANH THU MA KH CA CC NMT C LP.................................................................................................................................62 BANG II-8. NH GI CH TIU DOANH THU MA MA CA CC NMT C LP.................................................................................................................................63 BANG II-9. NH GI CH TIU THI GIAN VN HNH TNG NG CA CC NMT C LP................................................................................................65 BANG II-10. LNG NC X V SN LNG IN KHNG C HUY NG CA CC NMT C LP TRONG MA L.................................................68 BANG II-11. SUT HAO NC THIT K V SUT HAO NC THC T CA CC NMT TRONG NHNG NM QUA..............................................................68 BANG II-12: TNG HP CC KT QU PHN TCH................................................71 BANG III-13: BIU GI BIN H THNG MA MA V GI BN IN D KIN.........................................................................................................................................82

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

DANH MC CC HNH V
HINH II-1. PHN VNG H THNG IN VIT NAM..............................................36 HINH II-2. BIU PH TI NGY H HINH II-3. BIU PH TI

NGY NG..........................................................................................................................37 HINH II-2. BIU PH TI NGY H HINH II-3. BIU PH TI

NGY NG..........................................................................................................................37 HINH II-4. BIU T TRNG SN LNG CC LOI NGUN NM 2009....38 HINH II-5. BIU T L CC LOI NGUN NM 2009.......................................39 HINH II-6. S LIN H DNG TIN TRONG TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA..........................................................................................................................43 HINH II-7. T TRNG THNH PHN NGUN TRONG MA MA........................51 HINH II-8. PH BIU PH TI TRONG MA MA............................................51 HINH II-9. T TRNG THNH PHN NGUN MA KH.........................................52 HINH II-10. PH BIU PH TI MA KH...........................................................52 HINH II-11. GI BN IN CA CC NMT C GI BN IN THEO MA...55 HINH II-12. GI BN IN CA CC NMT C MT GI IN C NH TRONG NM.........................................................................................................................56 HINH II-13. DNG BIU GI BIN NGY H THNG IN VIT NAM......56 HINH II-14. NG GI IN CAO HN NG GI BIN NGY H THNG ...................................................................................................................................................57 HINH II-15. NG GI IN THP HN NG GI BIN NGY H THNG....................................................................................................................................57 HINH II-16. NG GI IN THP HN NG GI BIN NGY H THNG....................................................................................................................................58 HINH II-17. GI BIN HT V GI IN CC IPP MIN BC NGY 28/7/2009. ...................................................................................................................................................59

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

HINH II-18. GI BIN H THNG V GI IN CC IPP MIN TRUNG NGY 28/7/2009...................................................................................................................................60 HINH II-19. GI BIN H THNG VI GI IN CC IPP MIN NAM NGY 28/7/2009..................................................................................................................................60

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

MC LC Trang
DANH MC THUT NG VIT TT...............................................................................3 DANH MC CC BNG BIU............................................................................................4 DANH MC CC HNH V.................................................................................................5 PHN M U......................................................................................................................1 CHNG I C S L LUN V HIU QU KHAI THC CC NH MY IN TRONG M HNH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA...............................................................4
I.1 C s l thuyt v th trng in mt ngi mua..................................................................4 I.2 C s l thuyt v hiu qu khai thc nh my in trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua 18

TNG KT CHNG 1......................................................................................................34 CHNG II PHN TCH THC TRNG KHAI THC CC NH MY THY IN C LP TRONG C CH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA VIT NAM.....................................................................................36
II.1 Hin trng h thng in v t chc th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam................36 II.2 Phn tch, nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay .........................................................................................53

TNG KT CHNG 2......................................................................................................72 CHNG III XUT MT S GII PHP NNG CAO HIU QU KHAI THC CC NH MY THY IN C LP TRONG C CH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA VIT NAM...............................................................................................................73
III.1 nh hng pht trin ca th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam.............................73 III.2 Cc gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam........................................................................................................77

TNG KT CHNG 3......................................................................................................90 PHN KT LUN................................................................................................................91

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

TI LIU THAM KHO.....................................................................................................92

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 -2010

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

PHN M U
1. Tnh cp thit ca ti. Ngnh in l mt ngnh kinh t mi nhn, c v tr rt quan trng trong nn kinh t quc dn, cung cp nng lng phc v cho cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh v sinh hot ca nhn dn vi sn phm hng ha c bit l in nng. Vit Nam l quc gia c tim nng thu in kh ln v phn b tng i u trn khp c nc; iu kin thun li ca a hnh min Bc c th xy dng c nhng nh my thy in (NMT) qui m ln (c nhng dng sng ln, dc cao), a hnh min Trung c th xy dng c nhng NMT c qui m trung bnh v nh (sng c dc ln, nhng lu lng va phi), min Nam c th xy dng c nhng NMT c qui m trung bnh ( dc cc dng sng thng khng ln). Theo bn Quy hoch pht trin in lc quc gia giai on 2006 - 2015 c xt n nm 2025 (gi tt l Qui hoch in VI) c Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt km theo quyt nh s 110/2007/Q-TTg ngy 18 thng 7 nm 2007: Nh nc s u t xy dng v s hu cc NMT quy m ln c ngha c bit quan trng v kinh t - x hi, quc phng, an ninh, Nh nc khuyn khch cc thnh phn kinh t trong nc v cc nh u t nc ngoi tham gia xy dng cc d n ngun in theo cc hnh thc u t c php lut quy nh. Vi chnh sch khuyn khch u t vo khu pht in ca Nh nc, trong nhng nm va qua, hng lot cc d n thy in c qui m va v nh c cc thnh phn kinh t u t xy dng v a vo vn hnh gp phn ng k trong vic cung ng in cho nn kinh t quc dn. Theo thng k ca Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia (QG), ring i vi cc NMT c lp c cng sut trn 30 MW, Vit Nam hin c 10 nh my vi tng cng sut 596 MW chim 2,9 % tng cng sut t h thng in quc gia (tnh n ht thng 6 nm 2010), tng sn lng in bnh qun hng nm l 2.24 t kWh.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
1

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Theo tng hp ca tc gi, hin nay cc NMT c lp ny ang hot ng trong mi trng kinh doanh pht in m cha t c hiu qu mong mun. Mt s nguyn nhn c bn dn ti hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca cc NMT c lp khng t nh mong mun c th k n l: (i) do c th sn phm in nng, (ii) do c th ca h thng in Vit Nam, (iii) do c th trong khu qun l v vn hnh ca nh my thy in, T nhng nhn nhn, nh gi ca tc gi cng vi cc kin thc c hc v nhng hiu bit v h thng in Vit Nam sau 15 nm lm vic ti Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia, tc gi chn ti: Phn tch thc trng v xut mt s gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua lm lun vn tt nghip cao hc ngnh Qun tr kinh doanh. 2. Mc ch nghin cu. Lun vn ch yu h thng ho nhng c s l lun v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh lm tin phn tch hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. Da vo c s l lun , tc gi nghin cu, phn tch, nh gi hin trng khai thc cc NMT c lp hin nay. Trn c s phn tch hin trng, tc gi xut mt s gii php nhm nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc nh my ny trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam. 3. i tng v phm vi nghin cu. i tng nghin cu: Lun vn nghin cu tng qut nhng vn v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh v i su nghin cu phn tch mt s ch tiu nh gi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca cc NMT c lp, t xut mt s gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc nh my ny trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. Phm vi nghin cu: Lun vn nghin cu, nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. nh gi hiu

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

qu khai thc cc NMT c lp t nm 2007 (l thi im Chnh ph bt u cng cuc ti c cu ngnh in) n nay. 4. Phng php nghin cu. Lun vn s dng cc phng php phn tch, tng hp, so snh trn c s cc thng tin, s liu thu thp t cc nh my in, s liu vn hnh h thng in t nm 2007 n nm 2010. 5. Nhng ng gp ca ti. - Lm r nhng vn c bn v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip, cc gii php nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh. - Phn tch, nh gi thc trng hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. c bit l phn tch cc yu t nh hng n hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in (nh gi bn in, thi gian vn hnh tng ng, ) - xut cc gii php ch yu nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. 6. Kt cu ca lun vn. - Tn ti: Phn tch thc trng v xut mt s gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. - Kt cu lun vn: Ngoi phn m u, kt lun, danh mc cc ti liu tham kho, lun vn bao gm 3 chng: Chng 1: C s l lun v hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua. Chng 2: Phn tch thc trng cng tc khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam. Chng 3: xut mt s gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
3

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

CHNG I C S L LUN V HIU QU KHAI THC CC NH MY IN TRONG M HNH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA

I.1

C s l thuyt v th trng in mt ngi mua

I.1.1 Cc m hnh th trng in Trc y, hu ht cc nc trn th gii, ngnh in c coi l ngnh c quyn t nhin; c ba chc nng pht in, truyn ti v phn phi u tp trung trong mt cng ty in lc quc gia. Tuy nhin, cho n u nhng nm 80 ca th k 20, vic a cnh tranh vo khu pht in v phn phi bn l in c nhiu nc nghin cu v pht trin. l v nhng l do sau: - nh hng ca s pht trin nhanh nn kinh t th trng v qu trnh ton cu ho: Mt trong nhng l do ci t ngnh in l vn hiu qu ca m hnh kinh t cnh tranh. Khi th trng c t chc cnh tranh s to ra ng lc cho ngi bn nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh, lm cho li ch tng th ca x hi tng ln. T do ha ngnh in v vy pht trin cc quc gia m nn kinh t c t do ha cao nh Anh, M... - Nhu cu huy ng vn u t: i vi cc nc ang pht trin, c bit l cc nc chu Thi Bnh Dng, nhu cu vn i tu, ci to v c bit l xy dng mi cc cng trnh in l rt ln. Vn ngn sch ca Chnh ph thng khng p ng nhu cu u t cc cng trnh in. Chnh v vy vic ci t ngnh in, pht trin th trng in cnh tranh l gii php tch cc thu ht c u t t nhn vo ngnh ny. - Tin b khoa hc k thut trong lnh vc cng nghip in lc: Quy m ca cc nh my in c thay i, nh cng ngh pht trin hin nay c th ch to c nhng t my hot ng c hiu sut cao v ph hp vi cnh tranh trong pht in. ng dng cng ngh thng tin trong h
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
4

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

thng in cng gp phn lm thay i quan im trc y v kinh doanh ca ngnh in, cng ngh thng tin h tr cc n v trong vic qun l k thut v kinh doanh, giao dch khch hng ngay c khi cc hot ng ny c t chc theo m hnh cnh tranh. - Hiu ng dy chuyn: Thc t cho thy rng vic xy dng bc u c xem l thnh cng th trng in mt s nc cng c tc ng n cc nc khc. Cc nc i sau c th rt ra bi hc kinh nghim v thnh cng cng nh tht bi trong qu trnh xy dng th trng in ca cc nc i trc, tc ng tch cc a cnh tranh vo ngnh in nng cao hiu qu hot ng, gim gnh nng ngn sch u t, gim gi bn in... Tt c nhng l do trn thc y cc nc nghin cu v pht trin vic cnh tranh ho mnh m trong ngnh in, dn ti s ra i ca nhng m hnh th trng in theo l trnh vi tng cp cnh tranh: cnh tranh mt ngi mua, th trng bn bun, th trng bn l. Di y tc gi s h thng ha cc vn c bn ca cc m hnh t chc th trng in lc. I.1.1.1 M hnh th trng in c quyn Nh my in Nh my in

Truyn ti in

Cng ty in lc Quc gia

Phn phi Bn l
in nng Tin in

in nng Tin in Khch hng Hnh I-1. M hnh th trng in c quyn (Ngun: Thc hin bi tc gi)
5

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Trong m hnh th trng in c quyn, Cng ty in lc quc gia qun l ton b bao gm cc nh my pht in (l ni sn xut ra in nng), h thng truyn ti in, phn phi in. Trong m hnh ny, cc nh my in hch ton ph thuc hon ton vo Cng ty in lc quc gia, vic c bn c in hay khng khng nh hng nhiu n doanh thu ca nh my. Chnh v vy, c th thy c ch ny khng khuyn khch cc n v pht in gim chi ph, tm u ra cho sn phm ca mnh. Khch hng khng c c hi la chn nh cung cp in cho mnh. I.1.1.2 M hnh th trng in mt ngi mua

SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT

C n ty p g h t C n ty p g h t

C n ty p g h t C n ty p g h t

C n ty p g h t C n ty p g h t

Cq u n m a ua u n a Cqa m u

CC gg ty ty nn p p h n h i p p h n h i

C nnty g ty Cg p p h n h i p p h n h i

CC gg ty ty nn p p h n h i p p h n h i

KK c h h n hh ch n g h g

K h chh n h c h n g g K h

K h chh n h c h n g g K h

Hnh STYLEREF 1 \s I- SEQ Hnh \* ARABIC \s 1 2. M hnh th trng in mt ngi mua


Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
6

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

(Ngun: Thc hin bi tc gi) Th trng in mt ngi mua (cn gi l th trng pht in cnh tranh) l cp u tin trong 3 cp ca mt th trng in lc hon chnh. y l Hnh thi th trng vi c ch ngi mua trung gian (ban u c th ch cn mt ngi mua duy nht cho n gin - cn gi l C quan mua duy nht). Trong th trng in ny, C quan mua duy nht c trch nhim mua in t cc cng ty pht in mc chi ph thp nht nhm p ng nhu cu in quc gia sau bn li cho cc cng ty phn phi in phn phi cho khch hng m khng t ngnh in trc ri ro th trng khng ng c do cnh tranh. Chnh v vy th trng ny c coi l giai on qu gia m hnh th trng c quyn v mt th trng bn bun in cnh tranh hon ton. a. u im ca m hnh - Cn t thay i ln t tnh hnh hin ti. - Tng cng nng lc trong cc lnh vc ch cht, c hi thnh cng cao. - Trong thi gian trc mt, khng c tc ng ln i vi cc cng ty phn phi in ang tn ti, v vy cho php cc cng ty ny c thm thi gian ci thin nng lc ti chnh v qun l cng nh chun b cho cnh tranh trong tng lai. b. Nhc im ca m hnh - Cnh tranh ban u b hn ch bi cc yu cu pht in mi, t ng lc v p lc i vi cc n v pht in v ci thin hiu nng v gim chi ph. - i hi c quan mua duy nht phi c v th tn dng mnh hoc phi c bo lnh ca Chnh ph i vi cc hot ng mua in. - Cc cng ty phn phi khng c c hi la chn i tc cung cp in cho mnh gim chi ph. - Ct gim cc chi ph cung cp in s b hn ch.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

I.1.1.3

M hnh th trng bn bun in cnh tranh


C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t

C ng ty ph t C ng ty ph t

L i truy n t i & T tr n b n b n h g u

CC ty phn ng ty phn ng ph i ph i

CC ty phn ng ty phn ng ph i ph i

CC ty phn ng ty phn ng ph i ph i

CC ty phn ng ty phn ng ph i ph i

KK ch hh ng hh ch ng

KK ch hh ng hh ch ng

KK ch hh ng hh ch ng

KK ch hh ng hh ch ng

Hnh I-2. M hnh th trng bn bun in cnh tranh (Ngun: thc hin bi tc gi) Trong m hnh ny, cc cng ty phn phi in (thay th cho c quan mua duy nht) c th mua in trc tip t cc n v pht in (thng qua cc Hp ng mua bn in song phng) hoc mua in t th trng in giao ngay thng qua quy trnh u thu cnh tranh. M hnh bn bun in cnh tranh gay gt hn v vn hnh phc tp hn m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua, nhng s t c hiu nng cao hn. M hnh ny cng c ri ro th trng cao hn. a. u im ca m hnh

- Cc cng ty phn phi c c hi la chn n v cung ng in vi chi ph thp nht. - Cnh tranh m rng s gy p lc ln khin cc n v pht in phi nng cao hiu nng v gim chi ph. - Cc khch hng ln iu kin c th la chn cc i tc cung cp in cho mnh. - Hiu qu hn v tit kim chi ph nhiu hn so vi m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
8

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

b.

Nhc im ca m hnh

- S c cc thay i ln so vi tnh hnh hin ti. Ngnh in s phi nng cao nng lc ng k vn hnh th trng ny mt cch hiu qu. - Cc khch hng va v nh c th khng thu c li ch trc tip t vic tit kim chi ph in nng v hiu nng th trng. - Xy dng v vn hnh th trng ny s tn km v phc tp hn m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua. I.1.1.4 M hnh th trng bn l in cnh tranh

M hnh cnh tranh y - th trng bn l in cnh tranh l mt la chn cho xem xt di hn. Cnh tranh bn l m rng quy m ca th trng cnh tranh bng cch loi b c quyn cui cng cn li khu phn phi / bn l. Trong mt th trng bn l in cnh tranh, cc khch hng tiu th in bn l s c php mua in trc tip t cc n v pht in. Cnh tranh th trng v tnh phc tp ca vn hnh s tng thm na.
Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t Cng ty ph t

L i truy n t i & Th tr ng b n bun

Bn l Bn l

CT phn ph i CT phn ph i

Bn l Bn l

CT phn ph i CT phn ph i

Bn l Bn l

L i phn ph i & Th tr ng b n l

Kh ch hh ng Kh ch ng

Kh ch hh ng Kh ch ng

Kh ch hh ng Kh ch ng

Kh ch hh ng Kh ch ng

Kh ch hh ng Kh ch ng

Hnh I-3. M hnh th trng bn l in cnh tranh (Ngun: thc hin bi tc gi) a. u im ca m hnh

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Cho php tng bc tin ti mt th trng cnh tranh hn, vi cnh tranh bn l in theo tng giai on, bt u vi cc khch hng ln, sau m rng n cc khch hng nh hn. - C hi thc hin thnh cng cao hn v cc thnh phn tham gia th trng s c chun b tt hn cho cnh tranh y trong giai on di hn. - Tt c cc khch hng (c khch hng va v nh) c th thu c li ch trc tip t cnh tranh hon ton v m rng quyn la chn. b. Nhc im ca m hnh - Cc khch hng va v nh s mt nhiu thi gian hn hin thc ha tit kim chi ph v hiu nng th trng. - So vi m hnh cnh tranh bn bun, cn u t b sung nhiu hn v mt ti chnh, cng ngh xy dng th trng cnh tranh bn l. - Cho php cnh tranh bn l in lm pht sinh cc chi ph b sung do s tng ln ng k cc im o m in. - Yu cu thng tin khch hng rng ri v gia tng chi ph o to. I.1.2 Cc vn l thuyt v m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua. I.1.2.1 c im ca m hnh.

M hnh mt ngi mua c coi l bc u ca qu trnh ci t tin ti t do ho trong kinh doanh in m thc cht l m hnh th trng pht in cnh tranh. M hnh ny cho php cc nh u t t nhn xy dng, s hu v qun l cc nh my in c lp. Cc cng ty pht in phi cnh tranh bn in cho C quan mua duy nht. Nh vy c quan mua duy nht s c quyn mua in t cc ngun pht cnh tranh v bn in n cc cng ty phn phi in. Khc vi m hnh c quyn lin kt dc, th trng in mt ngi mua cho php cnh tranh trong lnh vc pht in trong khi cha c iu kin thit lp cc thit ch ca th trng cnh tranh cho n tn khu bn bun v bn l in. Th trng in cnh tranh mt ngi mua i hi phi chia tch chc nng ca cc khu truyn ti v pht in trong m hnh lin kt dc.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
10

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Vic cho php cc nh u t t nhn trong nc v nc ngoi u t v xy dng ngun in s gim nh gnh nng ti chnh cho ngn sch ca Chnh ph u t vo ngnh in, chia s bt cc ri ro khi xy dng nh my in. Vic a dng ho thnh phn trong pht in cng l ng lc nng cao hiu qu hot ng, gim gi thnh sn xut in ca cc nh my in. Nh vy so snh vi m hnh truyn thng lin kt dc, m hnh mt ngi mua ny a c cnh tranh vo khu pht in. Tuy nhin, c quan mua duy nht vn c quyn mua in t cc cng ty pht in v c quyn phn phi cho cc khch hng. Trong giai on u hnh thnh th trng in cnh tranh, c nhiu nc tri qua m hnh ny, ch yu l cc nc ng u thuc Lin X c, cc nc Hn Quc, Nam M v mt s nc ng Nam . I.1.2.2 u, nhc im ca m hnh.

a. u im: - Khng gy ra nhng thay i t bin v xo trn ln trong hot ng sn xut kinh doanh v c cu t chc ca ngnh in hin ti. - C hi thc hin thnh cng cao do c thi gian cc i tng tham gia th trng dn tng cng nng lc ca mnh p ng nhu cu ca th trng. - Hnh thnh c mi trng cnh tranh trong khu pht in, ch yu l cnh tranh pht trin ngun mi v mt phn cnh tranh trc tip trn th trng ngn hn, n nh c gi in, gim p lc tng gi. - Thu ht c vn u t vo cc ngun in mi, gim gnh nng cho ngn sch u t ca Chnh ph vo ngnh in, l m hnh thch hp cho thi k c nhu cu cao v in nng v u t ngun in mi. - Khng gy nh hng ln ti cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca cng ty phn phi in hin ti. - H thng quy nh cho hot ng ca th trng cha phc tp do m hnh n gin.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
11

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Nhu cu u t c s h tng k thut cho vn hnh th trng khng ln. b. Nhc im: - n v mua duy nht c c quyn mua bun in t cc n v pht in nn c nhiu iu kin cho cc tiu cc trong iu hnh th trng. - Mc cnh tranh cha cao, ch gii hn trong cnh tranh pht in. Sc p i vi cc n v pht in gim chi ph, tng hiu qu cha ln. Khng c c hi cho cc cng ty phn phi c la chn nh cung cp. - n v mua duy nht phi c nng lc ti chnh mnh m bo thc hin cc hp ng mua in k v uy tn thu ht cc nh u t mi. - Cha c la chn mua in cho cc khch hng. I.1.2.3 Cc vn v qun l th trng in mt ngi mua.

S thay i quan trng nht trong qun l th trng in khi chuyn sang m hnh mt ngi mua l phi hnh thnh n v mua duy nht v n v iu hnh giao dch th trng in. Cc n v pht in, n v mua duy nht, cng ty truyn ti, c quan vn hnh h thng v vn hnh th trng ng vai tr quan trng i vi hot ng ca th trng. Cc n v ny cn phi c tch bit nhau v ti chnh nn m hnh th trng cn c thit k trnh nhng mu thun li ch nhm tin ti mt th trng cnh tranh minh bch, cng bng v hiu qu. Nhng quy nh v chng phi cnh tranh cn phi c ban hnh cht ch trnh c nhng hot ng lin kt lng on th trng. Cc thnh phn tham gia th trng in mt ngi mua v hot ng ca n bao gm: a. Cc cng ty pht in cnh tranh Cc cng ty pht in gi y l nhng ngi bn, cc cng ty ny s cnh tranh vi nhau c th bn in cho ngi mua duy nht. Khi c s tham gia ca cc cng ty pht in c lp, mi cng ty nn s hu vi nh my in, l tng nht l cc cng ty c th s hu c nh my nhit in v thu in c th h tr ln nhau trong qun l v hot ng th trng. Kinh nghim cc nc trn th gii cho thy trong giai on u hnh thnh th trng in cnh tranh,
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
12

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

cc nh my in thuc cng ty lin kt dc s tch ra khi cng ty v hnh thnh cc cng ty pht in ln. Cc nh my thu in a mc tiu vn c th cnh tranh mt cch hiu qu nu c mt quy nh ph hp. Cc nh my thu in bc thang nn thuc quyn s hu ca mt cng ty pht in, gip cho vic qun l v khai thc bc thang hiu qu hn, ti u ho thng qua s phi hp cht ch gia cc nh my. trnh hin tng lng on th trng, t l cng sut t ca mt n v pht in phi nh hn 25% tng cng sut t ton h thng. b. Truyn ti in. Khu truyn ti in mang tnh c quyn t nhin nh phn tch trn. n v truyn ti s l mt n v hot ng phi li nhun, cung cp cc dch v truyn ti v c hng ph. Chc nng ca n v truyn ti nh sau: - K cc hp ng cung cp dch v truyn ti, thc hin vic u ni cho cc n v pht in v n v phn phi. m bo vic tham gia li truyn ti in cng bng cho cc n v pht in. - Qun l, vn hnh thit b truyn ti m bo vn hnh an ton, tin cy. - u t pht trin li truyn ti ph hp vi quy hoch in lc. c. Phn phi in. Cp th trng ny cc cng ty phn phi cha tham gia nn khng c g thay i so vi m hnh th trng lin kt dc. d. Vn hnh h thng v vn hnh th trng. i vi chc nng vn hnh h thng in thc hin theo cc iu khon theo lut qui nh v khng thay i nhiu. Cc chc nng chnh ca vn hnh h thng in bao gm: - Lp k hoch vn hnh h thng in ngn hn, trung hn v di hn. - Lp phng thc huy ng ngun v vn hnh thi gian thc, thc hin cc dch v ph tr. - Thc hin cc phi hp sa cha, th nghim ngun, li.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
13

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Thc hin cc thao tc v x l s c trn h thng in. i vi chc nng vn hnh th trng, n v iu hnh giao dch th trng s hot ng theo Quy nh th trng do C quan iu tit in lc quy nh. Chc nng chnh nh sau: - iu hnh v qun l hot ng mua bn in giao ngay. Qun l vic thc hin mua bn cng sut, in nng trong cc hp ng c thi hn v cc hp ng cung cp dch v ph tr trong th trng in lc. - Lp k hoch huy ng cng sut, in nng ca cc nh my in trn c s cng sut, in nng trong cc hp ng c thi hn, ng k mua bn in giao ngay ca cc n v tham gia mua bn in trn th trng v cc rng buc k thut ca h thng in giao cho n v vn hnh h thng in Quc Gia v cc i tng tham gia th trng thc hin. - Xc nh nhu cu s dng cc dch v truyn ti in, phn phi in, cc dch v ph tr k hp ng vi cc n v truyn ti in, phn phi in, cc n v cung cp dch v ph tr. - Tnh ton gi in tc thi, lp ho n thanh ton i vi lng cng sut, in nng mua bn giao ngay v cc ph s dng dch v ph tr. e. n v mua duy nht. Trong th trng pht in cnh tranh mt ngi mua s hnh thnh n v mua in duy nht vi cc chc nng chnh nh sau: - D bo ph ti trung v di hn cn i lng ngun cn b sung mi ph hp vi quy hoch. - T chc la chn nh u t pht trin cc ngun in mi theo nguyn tc cnh tranh theo quy hoch ngun chi ph ti thiu di s gim st ca c quan iu tit in lc. - Thng tho, k v qun l cc hp ng mua in vi cc nh u t ngun in, cc hp ng song phng vi cc n v pht in, cc hp ng truyn ti vi cng ty truyn ti, cc hp ng dch v vn hnh.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

14

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Cn i cc yu cu mua in trong thi k ngn hn chuyn cho n v iu hnh giao dch th trng in thc hin t chc mua bn giao ngay. f. iu tit in lc. Khi thc hin ci t ngnh in theo hng m ra th trng cnh tranh cn phi c C quan iu tit in lc nhm phn tch r chc nng hoch nh chnh sch v chc nng iu tit. iu tit c nh ngha l vic thit lp, gim st v t chc thc hin chnh sch, bo m hiu lc thi hnh cc lut l nhm thc y hiu qu v ti u trong vn hnh th trng. m bo thnh cng ca vic a cnh tranh vo ngnh in, cn thit phi c mt th ch iu tit r rng, minh bch, c mt c quan iu tit c lp c trao y quyn lc thc hin cc chc nng ca mnh. C quan iu tit cn phi c lp v quyn li vi cc bn tham gia th trng. C quan iu tit c chc nng sau: - Qun l cp php hot ng in lc trong phm vi ton quc. Sa i, b sung v thu hi giy php hot ng in lc khi i tng tham gia hot ng in lc vi phm cc quy nh v cp php. - Xy dng cc quy nh chi phi cc hot ng ca th trng in v hng dn thc hin. - Gim st v iu tit quan h cung cu. - Xy dng, gim st v ph duyt biu gi in. - Gim st thc hin thi hnh lut v cc quy nh, gii quyt tranh chp, x pht v cng ch thi hnh. - Thc hin hp tc quc t trong lnh vc iu tit in lc v pht trin th trng in, lin kt li in khu vc v th trng in khu vc. - Tip nhn v qun l cc d n c lin quan n vic hon thin c ch, chnh sch iu tit in lc. - T chc o to cn b, chuyn gia iu hnh th trng, chuyn gia quy hoch h thng, tnh ton gi in.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

15

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

I.1.2.4

Phn loi cc nhm ngi bn trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua.

a. Nhm ngi bn c hnh thnh t vic ti c cu ngnh in.

KHI PHT IN
(Hin thuc s hu Nh nc v t nhn)

CC NGUN CHIN LC, TRUYN TI & IU VN HNH


(Thuc s hu Nh nc) SMO TNO c quyn Nh nc

KHI BN BUN, PHN PHI & BN L


(Hin thuc s hu Nh nc, s SB c phn ha) PCs

Cnh tranh trong CGM Gencos & IPPs

Cnh tranh trong WCM

SMHP + Nuclear

Hnh I-4. S nguyn tc ti c cu ca ngnh in (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) Vi vic chuyn i t m hnh c hnh quyn t nhin sang m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua th tt yu phi thc hin ti c cu ngnh in do y l mt trong nhng iu kin tin quyt bt buc cho vic hnh thnh v pht trin th trng in. Cc nguyn tc chnh cho ti c cu ngnh in c xc nh c th nh sau: - Tch bit v s hu cc cng ty pht in (bn bn in) vi Cng ty Mua bn in (bn mua in) xo b mu thun quyn li trong mua bn in, trnh tnh trng Cng ty Mua bn in dng v th ca mnh mang li li nhun cao hn cho cc n v pht in cng chung s hu v gy thit hi cho cc n v pht in c lp khc. - Tch bit cc khu cung cp dch v c quyn vi cc khu s hot ng cnh tranh nhm m bo i x cng bng, minh bch ca n v ny vi mi i tng khc khi tham gia th trng. Cc n v cung cp dch v c quyn cn c v tr hon ton c lp vi cc n v s tham gia hot ng cnh tranh trnh tnh trng cc n v ny s gy kh khn cho cc
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
16

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

n v khng chung s hu trong vic s dng cc dch v do cc n v ny cung cp. - Ti cu trc li khu pht in thnh cc n v pht in c quy m v nng lc cnh tranh tng ng nhau to nn cnh tranh thc s trong khu pht in. Nh vy vic ti cu trc xy dng th trng in cnh tranh s hnh thnh nhm ngi bn l cc n v pht in nm trong m hnh c quyn lin kt dc trc y m vn d l cc nh my in c cng mt ch s hu c huy ng vo li khng theo c ch th trng. b. Nhm ngi bn c hnh thnh t cc ngun vn u t phi truyn thng vo ngnh in. Nhm ngi bn l cc BOT Theo nh ngha ca Ngn hng th gii: Phng thc u t BOT l hnh thc Nh u t tin hnh u t xy dng cng trnh, sau khi hon thnh s tin hnh kinh doanh khai thc trong mt thi gian nht nh m bo thu hi c vn v c li nhun hp l sau chuyn giao khng bi hon cho Nh nc. BOT (Build - Operate - Transfer) l mt phng thc u t c p dng ring trong lnh vc c s h tng, theo phng thc ny, nh u t s tin hnh xy dng v sau khai thc kinh doanh cng trnh trong mt thi gian hp l ty thuc vo tng lnh vc u t v tng d n c th. Tuy nhin khong thi gian ny phi nh u t thu hi c vn v cc khon chi ph trang tri ng thi c mt t l li nhun hp l. Sau khong thi gian cng trnh s c chuyn giao khng bi hon cho Nh nc tip tc vn hnh, kinh doanh. Hp ng BOT l vn bn c k kt u tin ca d n BOT, l tha thun ca c quan c thm quyn ca nc ch nh cho php cng ty BOT c hng cc quyn v u i nh: quyn s dng t, quyn s dng cc dch v v cc cng trnh cng cng, cc u i v thu, cc bin php h tr khc. Ngoi ra hp ng BOT cng c cc iu khon thng mi v ti chnh thng
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
17

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

thng khc. Hp ng BOT cng l nn tng quan trng nht cho vic m phn v k kt cc hp ng sau . Cc iu khon trong hp ng BOT s c p dng cho tt c cc hp ng khc k gia cng ty BOT v bn th ba. Hp ng bao tiu sn phm l mt trong nhng hp ng quan trng bc nht ca mt d n BOT, c bit i vi cc nh u t v n quyt nh kh nng tiu th sn phm ca cng ty, cng c ngha l quyt nh kh nng to ra doanh thu t vic vn hnh d n. Hp ng ny thng c k kt gia cng ty BOT v doanh nghip nh nc c ch nh bi c quan c thm quyn k kt hp ng BOT. Theo hp ng ny, doanh nghip nc ch nh cam kt mua v cng ty BOT cam kt bn li sn phm sn xut ra t d n theo cc iu khon tha thun trong hp ng. Nhm ngi bn l cc IPP Khc vi cc d n u t dng BOT, vic u t pht trin cc d n dng IPP (nh my in c lp) hon ton do cc ch u t ch ng trn c s ph hp vi Qui hoch pht trin in v c Chnh ph chp thun. Vic mua bn in gia ch u t v bn mua in c thc hin trn c s Hp ng mua bn in c k kt gia hai bn m khng cam kt bao tiu ton b sn lng in sn xut t nh my, iu ny dn ti ch u t phi chp nhn cnh tranh bn in cho bn mua.

I.2

C s l thuyt v hiu qu khai thc nh my in trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua

I.2.1 Cc vn v hiu qu khai thc ca doanh nghip I.2.1.1 Hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh

a. Khi nim hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh Trong c ch th trng ngy nay, cc doanh nghip mun tn ti v pht trin th phi lm n c hiu qu. C nhiu khi nim khc nhau v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip, tuy nhin khi nim mang tnh tng quan nht v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l n phn nh kh nng s dng cc ngun lc ca doanh nghip.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
18

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Gio trnh Kinh t hc ca P.Samueleson v W.Nordhaus vit: hiu qu tc l s dng mt cch hu hiu nht cc ngun lc ca nn kinh t tha mn nhu cu mong mun ca con ngi. Gio s kinh t hc N.Gregory Mankiw ca i hc Harvard cho rng: hiu qu c ngha l x hi thu c kt qu cao nht t cc ngun lc khan him ca mnh. Cng ng quan im ny, t in kinh t ca Manfred Kuhn vit: tnh hiu qu c xc nh bng cch ly kt qu tnh theo n v gi tr chia cho chi ph kinh doanh. Nh vy c th khi qut rng nghin cu v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l cc nghin cu so snh gia mt bn l cc ch tiu phn nh kt qu u ra vi mt bn l cc ngun lc u vo, ng thi cc tnh ton ny c so snh vi cc chun c th a ra nhng nh gi rng hot ng ca doanh nghip l hiu qu hay khng hiu qu. Trong thc t, i vi nhiu hot ng sn xut kinh doanh, c nhiu yu t u vo v cc yu t u ra c th o lng c, tuy nhin c nhiu yu t vic nh lng l khng d dng. Do , hiu qu kinh doanh ca doanh nghip phi th hin c v mt nh tnh v nh lng. Nu xt v nh lng, ngi ta ch thu c hiu qu kinh doanh khi no kt qu ln hn chi ph, chnh lch ny cng ln th hiu qu cng cao v ngc li. Khi nh gi v mt nh tnh, mc hiu qu kinh t cao phn nh s c gng, n lc, trnh qun l ca mi khu, mi cp trong h thng v s gn b ca vic gii quyt nhng yu cu v mc tiu kinh t vi nhng yu cu v mc tiu chnh tr - x hi. Hai mt nh tnh v nh lng ca phm tr hiu qu c quan h cht ch vi nhau. c bit khi doanh nghip l n v c bn ca mi nn kinh t nn hot ng ca doanh nghip nm trong tng th chung ca nn kinh t tng th. V vy, hiu qu kinh doanh ca doanh nghip phi lun c s gn kt gia hiu qu kinh t v hiu qu x hi. Quan im ny khng nhng phn nh c mi quan h bn cht ca hiu qu kinh t l s so snh gia kt qu sn xut vi chi ph sn xut, m cn biu hin s tng quan v lng v cht gia kt qu v chi ph. N c biu hin
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
19

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

c th di dng tng hp nhiu ch tiu kinh t khc nhau trong qu trnh sn xut. Hiu qu kinh t l hiu qu xt v mt kinh t, c so snh, tnh ton, da trn gi tr v c o bng ng tin. Cn hiu qu x hi c so snh da trn bo m li ch cho con ngi, c o bng h thng cc ch tiu v pht trin con ngi v x hi nh sc khe, hc vn, trnh vn ha, quan h con ngi, quan h x hi, bo v mi trng sinh thi. Trong thc t i sng kinh t - x hi hai loi hiu qu ny c mi quan h cht ch vi nhau, chng va l kt qu va l iu kin cho nhau, va thng nht, va mu thun vi nhau. Khi xem xt hai loi hiu qu ny phi t trong mt mi quan h c v khng gian, thi gian, v cht v lng. Xt trn quan im h thng th hiu qu kinh t v hiu qu x hi cn c gii quyt hi ha i vi cc doanh nghip. C th thy r mi quan h ny gia hiu qu doanh nghip v hiu qu tng th ca ton x hi trong hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca ngnh in lc. Trn phng din ca ngnh in, r rng l nu ch coi ngnh in l mt ngnh kinh t thng thng th s khng c chuyn gi in bn thp hn so vi gi thnh sn xut. Tuy nhin, li ch ca ngnh in khi xem xt trong tng th nn kinh t quc dn, ngnh in buc phi thc hin nhim v cng ch, bn in khu vc nng thn thm ch cn thp hn c gi thnh. Nh vy, hiu qu ca doanh nghip v hiu qu tng th va thng nht v va mu thun Hiu qu kinh doanh ca doanh nghip l mt vn phc tp, c mi quan h vi tt c cc yu t ca qu trnh nh: Lao ng, t liu lao ng, i tng lao ngnn cc doanh nghip ch c th t c hiu qu khi s dng cc yu t c bn ca qu trnh kinh doanh c hiu qu. Hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l mt ch tiu cht lng tng hp phn nh mt cch khi qut nht kt qu sn xut kinh doanh v li ch thu c c v mt kinh t cng nh x hi. b. Phn loi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh Hiu qu l mt phm tr rng ri trong tt c cc lnh vc kinh t, x hi, chnh tr Hiu qu ca cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh li c biu hin
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
20

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

nhiu dng khc nhau, mi dng th hin c trng ngha c th ring. Vic phn loi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh theo nhng tiu thc khc nhau c tc dng thit thc trong cng tc qun l. y chnh l c s cc ch tiu v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh t a ra nhng bin php nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. Ta c th phn hiu qu thnh nhng loi sau: - Hiu qu kinh doanh ring bit, hiu qu x hi - Hiu qu chi ph b phn, hiu qu chi ph tng hp - Hiu qu tuyt i v hiu qu tng i Hiu qu kinh doanh ring bit, hiu qu phng din x hi Hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ring bit L hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh thu c t hot ng sn xut kinh doanh ca tng doanh nghip, biu hin li nhun m mi doanh nghip t c, bao gm: - Hiu qu kinh doanh: L t s gia doanh thu tiu th sn phm v chi ph b ra cho vic sn xut kinh doanh khi lng sn phm hng ha , n ph thuc vo hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. - Hiu qu thu c do cc nghip v ti chnh: L t s gia thu v chi mang tnh cht nghip v ti chnh trong qu trnh sn xut kinh doanh. - Hiu qu hot ng lin doanh lin kt: L t s gia thu nhp c phn chia t kt qu hot ng lin doanh lin kt vi chi ph b ra lin doanh lin kt. - Hiu qu cc hot ng khc: L kt qu ca cc hot ng kinh t khc ngoi cc hot ng nu trn so vi chi ph b ra cho cc hot ng ny. Hiu qu phng din x hi L s ng gp ca cc doanh nghip vo s pht trin chung ca nn kinh t di hnh thc l ngha v ng gp cho nh nc. Khi doanh nghip kinh
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
21

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

doanh c hiu qu t c li nhun cao s ng gp cho nn kinh t x hi cc kha cnh: - Thu cho nh nc. - Tng sn phm quc ni. - Nng cao cht lng hng ha dch v. - To cng n vic lm cho ngi lao ng, gim tht ngip - Gp phn chuyn dch c cu kinh t tt hn Vic nh gi hiu qu kinh doanh hay hiu qu x hi ch mang tnh cht tng i v ngay trong mt ch tiu n cng phn nh c hai mt hiu qu. Hiu qu kinh doanh tng ln s lm tng hiu qu x hi v hiu qu kinh doanh gim i cng s lm hiu qu x hi gim theo. Hiu qu chi ph b phn v chi ph tng hp Mi doanh nghip khi tin hnh sn xut kinh doanh li c nhng iu kin c th v trnh qun l, vn, k thut hay trang thit b ring Cng nh vy sn phm khi a ra th trng cng c cc mc chi ph khc nhau, do vy m hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip ni chung l da trn c s sn xut hiu qu ca cc chi ph b phn cu thnh. Khi nh gi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ta khng nhng nh gi tng hp m cn cn nh gi tng b phn, giai on hay cng on ring. Hiu qu tuyt i v hiu qu so snh - Hiu qu tuyt i: L hiu qu c tnh ton cho tng phng n c th, xc nh mc thu c v chi ph b ra c th i n quyt nh c thc hin hay b qua d n ny khng. - Hiu qu so snh: c xc nh bng cch so snh cc ch tiu hiu qu tuyt i ca cc phng n vi nhau, mc ch l la chn cch lm hiu qu nht.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

22

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

I.2.1.2

Cc hng nng cao hiu qu

T khi nim v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh, cc hng nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh nh sau: a. Bin php tng doanh thu khi chi ph gi nguyn hoc mc tng chi ph chm hn mc tng doanh thu: Quan tm n cht lng sn phm nhm m bo uy tn ca doanh nghip trn th trng. M rng cc hot ng tip, m rng th trng tiu th nhm to ra iu kin m rng quy m sn xut tng doanh thu v tng li nhun. b. Bin php gim chi ph khi doanh thu khng gim hoc mc gim doanh thu t hn: Khi nn kinh t ri vo kh khn vic ct gim chi ph l iu rt quan trng. Tuy nhin, cn phn loi ng cc chi ph ct gim cho hiu qu, phn tch t trng nh ng vo trng tm. Mun lm c iu doanh nghip cn c mt tm nhn tng th v tnh hnh kinh doanh ca mnh. Ngoi ra, cn c mt ci nhn hng v tng lai v t nim tin mnh vo . Khi chn ng cch th chc hn t cc doanh nghip s thc hin tt chin lc gim chi ph. c. Bin php nng cao hiu qu s dng vn: - Xc nh chnh xc nhu cu vn lu ng ca cng ty - Ch ng khai thc v s dng ngun vn kinh doanh ni chung v vn lu ng ni ring mt cch hp l v linh hot - Tng cng cng tc qun l cc khon phi thu, hn ch ti a lng vn b chim dng - C bin php s dng c hiu qu vn bng tin tm thi nhn ri - T chc tt vic tiu th nhm y nhanh tc lun chuyn vn lu ng - C bin php phng nga nhng ri ro c th xy ra d. Bin php nng cao hiu qu s dng ngun nhn lc: Trong phm vi mt doanh nghip, s dng lao ng c coi l vn quan trng hng u v lao ng l mt trong ba yu t u vo ca qu trnh sn
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
23

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

xut. Nhng s dng lao ng sao cho c hiu qu cao nht li l mt vn ring bit t ra trong ra trong tng doanh nghip. Vic doanh nghip s dng nhng bin php g, nhng hnh thc no pht huy kh nng ca ngi lao ng nhm nng cao nng sut lao ng v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l mt iu ht sc quan trng, c ngha quyt nh n s thnh cng hay tht bi ca doanh nghip . Mt khc bit c c im ca lao ng trong doanh nghip s gip cho doanh nghip tit kim c chi ph, thi gian v cng sc v vy m vic thc hin mc tiu ca doanh nghip d dng hn. Nng cao hiu qu s dng lao ng l c s nng cao tin lng, ci thin i sng cho cng nhn, gip cho doanh nghip c bc tin ln trong hot ng sn xut kinh doanh. I.2.2 Cc vn v hiu qu khai thc nh my in trong cc m hnh t chc th trng in lc I.2.2.1 Khi nim v hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in

Khi nh my in c nh ngha nh mt doanh nghip, hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in hon ton ph thuc vo m hnh t chc th trng in lc m nh my in nm trong m hnh . Tuy nhin v phng din tng quan, hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in c th hiu l khi m bo cc yu cu v k thut ca h thng, cc nh my in c gi l khai thc hiu qu khi cc ngun u vo xc nh c s dng v mang li kt qu u ra l ln nht. Cc kt qu u ra c th l sn lng in nng pht vo li hoc doanh thu bn in m nh my in thu c. a. Hiu qu khai thc nh my in trong th trng c quyn lin kt dc - m bo cc yu cu k thut h thng, cht lng in nng, an ton, tin cy - Trong m hnh ny, cc nh my in u trc thuc cng ty in lc quc gia, c huy ng pht in ln li theo cch thc iu ng ca trung tm iu h thng in quc gia. Bn thn nh my in khng phi cnh tranh c pht in, hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in l hiu qu ca ton h thng.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
24

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

b. Hiu qu nh my in trong th trng in mt ngi mua Khc bit ln nht trong vic nh gi hiu qu ca nh my in trong m hnh ny so vi m hnh c quyn lin kt dc l cc nh my in phi cnh tranh vi nhau c pht in ln li. V th ngoi vic phi chu nhng rng buc v cc iu kin k thut h thng, cc nh my in c mc t do hn trong vic cnh tranh bn in m bo li ch ring ca nh my in l ln nht. Nh phn tch trn, mt th trng in v ang c hnh thnh vi cc bn tham gia l cc nh my in, Cng ty mua bn in, cc Cng ty Truyn ti in v cc Cng ty Phn phi in. Thng qua n v vn hnh h thng in v th trng in (SMO) s m bo cho hot ng ca th trng in t hiu qu cao nht v kinh t cho ton x hi v mt khc vn m bo cc tiu chun v cht lng in nng, an ton, tin cy v lin tc. Kt qu ca ci cch c cu v xy dng th trng in nhiu nc trn th gii cho thy y l mt tin b ca khoa hc qun l trong ngnh kinh t nng lng. N to ra mi trng kinh doanh cnh tranh bnh ng gia cc doanh nghip v l gii php hu hiu nhm nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip kinh doanh in. Mt trong nhng mc tiu quan trng hng u khi ti c cu ngnh in v chuyn i m hnh t c ch c quyn sang c ch th trng l to ra mi trng cnh tranh r rng trong khu pht in nhm gim chi ph v nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh cng nh trch nhim i vi ch s hu ca cc nh my in. Thng qua hot ng ca th trng in, qui lut cung cu v cnh tranh s c phn nh thc cht hn. Trong c ch th trng in, ch s hu ca cc nh my in phi quan tm ng mc n vic nng cao hiu qu vn hnh nhm mc tiu gim thiu chi ph v nng cao kh nng cnh tranh trong th trng bng gi bn hp l nhm mc tiu bn c nhiu sn phm, tng doanh thu trong th trng.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

25

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Trong c ch c quyn, qun l tp trung trc y ca ngnh in Vit Nam th trch nhim i vi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh v pht trin ca cc nh my in cn nhiu hn ch do cc nh my in u l n v hch ton ph thuc Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam, vic c bn c in hay khng khng nh hng n doanh thu ca nh my, khng khuyn khch c cc nh my in gim chi ph, tm u ra cho sn phm ca mnh. Khi chuyn sang th trng pht in cnh tranh, cc cng ty pht in s phi t cn bng thu chi tc l phi chu trch nhim bo qun ti sn, chi tiu tin vn, pht trin v nng cao cht lng dch v khch hng, kt qu hot ng kinh doanh s gn lin vi s tn ti ca doanh nghip, thu nhp ca cc thnh vin. Hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca cng ty pht in, xt mt cch nh lng c xc nh bng chnh lch gia doanh thu v chi ph, chnh lch ny cng ln th hiu qu cng cao v ngc li. Thng thng, i vi mt doanh nghip in lc khng thc hin chc nng cng ch v trong iu kin hch ton c lp, ch tiu quan trng nht, tng quan nht nh gi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh thng xuyn c s dng l ch tiu li nhun. y l cch thc so snh tuyt i kt qu u ra vi ch tiu tng quan l doanh thu v cc yu t u vo l tng chi ph. Li nhun y c xc nh nh sau: Li Nhun = Tng Doanh Thu - Tng Chi Ph (1.1)

Nh phn tch trn, do tnh c th trong c ch c quyn, doanh thu v li nhun ca cc nh my in b iu tit v cn i gia cc n v trong ton Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam nn ta khng i su vo phn tch v hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in trong c ch c quyn. Trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua, nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh, cc cng ty pht in bng ngun lc ca mnh phi tm cch nng cao doanh thu v gim thiu chi ph. tng doanh thu th cc cng ty pht in phi c mt gi bn hp l nhm mc tiu bn c nhiu sn phm. Tuy nhin vic t c mc gi bn m bo mc li nhun bin (li nhun n v) khng c ngha nh my in s t c doanh thu cc i v doanh thu ca nh my ph thuc ng thi vo mc gi bn v thi lng bn tc l thi gian nh my
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
26

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

c php pht in vo li. Do khi nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in, cc ch tiu c bn thng xuyn c xem xt. I.2.2.2 Cc ch tiu nh gi hiu qu khai thc nh my in trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua. Vi c im ca cc nh my in l (i) vn u t ban u rt ln, c bit l cc nh my thy in; (ii) phn chi ph c nh trong cu trc chi ph l ln, v i vi nh my thy in l rt ln. Do , r rng l thi gian khai thc nh my in cng nhiu s cng hiu qu mt khi gi in bn vo li cnh tranh l chp nhn c. hot ng ca nh my in l hiu qu (trn quan im ca nh my in hch ton c lp v khng thc hin nhim v cng ch), li nhun ca nh my in tng bt buc phi tng doanh thu. Doanh thu t bn in ca mt cng ty pht in c xc nh theo cng thc sau: Doanh Thu = Pc x Q (1.2) Trong : Pc l gi bn in ca Cng ty pht in Q l sn lng in bn c ca cng ty pht in (ph thuc vo thi gian pht in ln li) T cng thc (1.2) nhn thy, (i) vi sn lng in bn c l c nh th gi bn cng cao s mang li li nhun cng cao v ngc li, (ii) vi gi bn c nh th sn lng in bn c cng nhiu th doanh thu cng ln v ngc li. Ni cch khc, doanh thu t l thun vi gi bn v sn lng in bn c. Tuy nhin, xt mt cch tng th th khi gi bn cng cao, tnh cnh tranh ca sn phm cng gim, sn phm s tr ln kh bn hn v s nh hng ti doanh thu. Do vy trong c ch th trng, cc cng ty pht in phi c mt gi bn hp l c th t c doanh thu cao nht. Mc gi bn ti u mang li li nhun cao nht theo quan im ca kinh t hc l mc gi tng ng vi mc sn lng cung ng tha mn iu kin doanh thu bin bng chi ph bin: MR = MC

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

27

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

T cng thc (1.1) ta cng nhn thy rng, khi bit trc Doanh thu, tng Li nhun ca doanh nghip ta phi tm cch gim thiu Chi ph. T cc phn tch trn y ta a ra c mt s ch tiu nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in trong c ch th trng in. a. Doanh thu trong th trng cnh tranh V phng din l thuyt, vi cc sn phm hng ha thng thng v t trong c ch th trng, doanh thu l ch tiu quan trng quyt nh mc li nhun ca doanh nghip. Khi c nh cc yu t u vo, nu doanh thu tng th v li nhun ca doanh nghip tng ln, nh phn tch doanh thu hon ton ph thuc vo gi bn v sn lng bn, v th mc gi bn m bo li ch ln nht ca doanh nghip, nh chng ti cp l mc gi tng ng vi mc sn lng m chi ph bin bng doanh thu bin. Tuy nhin, trong nhiu trng hp, cu trc chi ph vi phn ln chi ph c nh vic cung ng c th thc hin khi gi bn ln hn chi ph bin i bnh qun P > AVC. Trng hp ca nh my thy in l v d in hnh, vi phn ln chi ph nm chi ph c nh do vy nh my thy in cng huy ng nhiu cng hiu qu ngay c khi gi in thp v nu khng huy ng nh my in vn phi chu chi ph c nh rt ln. Nh vy mt khi P > AVC th r rng l mc gi khng nhng cho php b p ton b chi ph bin i VC m cn cho php b p mt phn ca chi ph c nh trong khi nu khng vn hnh s mt ton b chi ph c nh. Sn phm in nng l sn phm mang tnh cht c th, khng th tch tr c nh cc hng ha thng thng khc. Vic mua bn sn phm in lun lun th hin s cn bng gia ngun cung (t cc nh my in) v nhu cu ca cc h tiu th in (phc v nhu cu sn xut, sinh hot). c bit, trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua, vn gi bn in ca cc nh my in c nhng im rt khc bit. Vic huy ng cc nh my in p ng nhu cu ph ti sau khi tha mn cc rng buc k thut s c thc hin theo nguyn tc ti thiu ha chi ph mua in (ti thiu ha chi ph cho Ngi mua duy nht), do vy vic huy ng cc t my c sp xp theo
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
28

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

th t gi t thp n cao p ng nhu cu ph ti. c sp xp trong lch huy ng (bn c in) th cc nh my in phi c mt gi bn hp l ph hp vi c trng ca ph ti tiu th in. Do c im v c cu chi ph nn gi cho bn cn phi ht sc linh ng v khng phi lc no cng t bi ton gi bn ln hn chi ph bnh qun. i vi nhng h thng in c cu trc vi nhiu nh my thy in m kh nng cung ng ph thuc nhiu vo thi tit, do nh hng ca c im kh hu cng nh tnh hnh pht trin ca nn kinh t trong giai on hin nay, vic huy ng cc nh my in nhm p ng nhu cu tiu th chu s tc ng mnh m ca yu t ma cng nh tp qun sinh hot theo ngy m. (i) Yu t ma trong nm - Ma ma: Giai on ny thi tit mt m, nhu cu tiu th in thng khng cao, hn na y l thi k nc v trn cc h thy in rt nhiu nn vic p ng nhu cu tiu th l thun li. Trong giai on ny thng ch cn huy ng cc nh my c gi tng i r p ng nhu cu tiu th in. - Ma kh: Giai on ny nc v cc h thy in thng rt hn ch, nc dng pht in ch yu l lng nc c tch trong cc h thy in trong giai on ma ma, vic huy ng cc nh my c cn i sao cho m bo in trong ton b ma kh. Hn na, giai on cui ma kh thng l thi k nng nng, nhu cu tiu th in rt cao nn vic m bo cung cp in thng gp rt nhiu kh khn. Trong giai on ny thng xuyn phi huy ng cc nh my c gi bn in tng i t tin p ng nhu cu ph ti. (ii) c im sinh hot ngy m Nhu cu tiu th in bin i rt mnh trong mt ngy m theo tp qun sinh hot, sn xut ca ngi dn. Thng thng, nhu cu tiu th in thng thp vo ban m, cao vo cc gi ban ngy. Vi c im sinh hot ngy m, nhu cu tiu th in trong mt ngy c chia thnh ba thi k l thi k thp im, thi k bnh thng v thi k cao im.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
29

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Ph hp vi quy lut cung cu, ta nhn thy c th bn c nhiu sn phm, tng Doanh thu th cc cng ty pht in phi c c cu gi bn ph hp vi c trng tiu th in. Do vy gi bn in cng cn thit phi linh ng, tc l nn chia theo ma v theo cc gi cao im, trung bnh v thp im. Vi c trng tiu th in nh phn tch trn, nu cc cng ty pht in ch c mt gi bn duy nht th c th xy ra trng hp khi nhu cu thp th gi bn li cao dn n khng bn c sn phm v khi nhu cu tiu th cao th li c gi bn thp dn n khng mang li hiu qu. Tm li, gi bn l yu t quan trng nh hng n hiu qu khai thc nh my in, gi bn cn c cho cho ngi mua duy nht mt cch linh hot theo cu trc chi ph v theo c im ca ng cu. Mt v d n gin th hin vn ny, gi s ta c mt nh my thy in, c mt gi bn duy nht, lng nc v h mi thng trong nm l khng i. Vo ma l khi m l v cc h thy in rt nhiu, mc cnh tranh c xp vo biu ph ti l rt cao, nu gi bn ca nh my khng hp l th c th dn n khng c huy ng, mt lng nc phi x qua cc ca x, lng nc dng pht in b gim, do lng sn phm ca nh my ny gim i, ngha l sut hao cao. Ngc li, nu nh my c c ch gi ph hp v c huy ng tai mi thi im, khi lng nc c dng pht in l ln nht, sn lng in l ln nht, nh my t hiu qu cao nht. b. Thi gian vn hnh tng ng Thi gian vn hnh tng ng ca mt nh my in c xc nh theo cng thc sau:
T= Q P

(1.3)

Trong : T - thi gian vn hnh tng ng trong nm ca nh my in (h); P - cng sut t ca nh my (MW); Q - sn lng in bn c trong nm ca nh my in.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

30

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

S d ch tiu ny c xem l ch tiu o lng hiu qu vn hnh ca nh my in l v, t cng thc (1.3) ta nhn thy thi gian vn hnh tng ng (T) t l thun vi sn lng in bn c ca nh my, iu c ngha T cng ln th sn lng in bn c cng cao v ngc li. T c th thy, T chnh l mt ch tiu quyt nh hiu qu vn hnh ca nh my mt khi c cu gi thnh cung ng c xc nh Thi gian vn hnh tng ng ca mt nh my in c quyt nh bi cc yu t sau: - B tr thi gian sa cha t my ph hp v gim thiu thi gian bt kh dng t my do s c hay h hng trang thit b: cc t my cn phi m bo kh nng sn sng cao nht cc thi im c kh nng v iu kin huy ng v s c b tr sa cha vo khong thi gian m c hi c huy ng l thp nht. Do vy c th nhn thy cc t my thy in lun phi m bo kh nng sn sng cao nht vo nhng thi k nhiu nc v ln lt c a ra sa cha vo thi k t nc. iu ngc li i vi cc t my nhit in. - Gi bn in hp l nh my c huy ng nhiu: nh phn tch trn, nu cc nh my in c c cu gi bn ph hp th s c huy ng nhiu p ng nhu cu ph ti, khi thi gian vn hnh tng ng ca nh my s cao. c. Sut tiu hao nhin liu Sut tiu hao nhin liu c nh ngha l lng nhin liu c s dng sn xut ra mt n v sn phm, c xc nh theo cng thc sau:
suattieuhao = luongnhienlieu luongsanpham

Vi mt lng nhin liu u vo khng i th sut hao s cng gim khi lng sn phm sn xut ra cng nhiu. iu ny ng ngha vi vic cng tc vn hnh v iu kin vn hnh nh my in quyt nh sut tiu hao nhin liu v xa hn l hiu qu khai thc nh my in. Tht vy, khi nhin liu u vo l cc ti nguyn khng ti sinh nh than , kh t hay du m, nu cc nh my
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
31

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

in cho gi ch c tham gia cung ng trong thi gian ngn th r rng chi ph phi tr cho vic khi ng s rt ln v khi sut tiu hao nhin liu cng rt ln. Khai thc nh my nh vy r rng l khng hiu qu. Trong khi i vi NMT th lng nc c s dng cho pht in cng tng ng vi lng nguyn liu u vo c s dng sn xut ra sn phm in nng v sn phm c tiu th, tc l lng nc ny to ra doanh thu cho ch s hu ca nh my; cn lng nc x cng tng ng vi phn doanh thu ca lng nc ny bng khng. Vic gim Chi ph cng ng ngha vi vic gim sut hao sn xut ra mt n v sn phm tc l gim chi ph bin i. gim sut hao th lng sn phm sn xut ra phi tng. T cc phn tch trn c th d dng nhn thy rng tng lng sn phm u ra th ngoi vic m bo ch vn hnh hp l v tit kim th thi gian vn hnh phi m bo v iu ny c c th phn nhiu gi bn cho vo h thng phi hp l. I.2.2.3 Cc yu t nh hng n hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in

Nh vy, c th nhn thy rng, vic khai thc hiu qu cc nh my in trong m hnh t chc th trng in mt ngi mua ph thuc ng thi vo cc yu t ni b v cc yu t bn ngoi nh my in. R rng rng cc vn v khai thc m bo sut tiu hao nhin liu thp, mc sn sng ( kh dng) ca cc nh my, chin lc tham gia li vi tnh linh ng ca gi ca nh sn xut chc chn s nh hng ti hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in. Tuy nhin, tnh linh ng v gi c cn ph thuc rt nhiu vo yu t bn ngoi quan trng l mc gi bin h thng, tnh sn sng trong cung ng cn ph thuc vo ngun nng lng u vo sn c. Tc gi trnh by di y, cc yu t quan trng nht nh hng ti hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in trong m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua a. Gi bin h thng Gi bin h thng SMP (System Marginal Price) l gi ca t my hay nh my cui cng tham gia pht in vo h thng in (bn cho mt ngi mua duy nht) khi b qua cc rng buc trn li in truyn ti.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
32

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Gi s h thng c n t my c lp nhau (thuc n cng ty), gi in m mi cng ty bn vo li l p1, p2, ....., pn, khng lm mt tnh tng qut, ta gi s : p1 < p2 < .....< pn Gi s n v iu h thng in v th trng in (SMO) ch cn huy ng n t my th h no (1 < h < n), vy Ph chnh l gi bin ti thi im xem xt (ph = SMP). Trong trng hp tn ti 2 nh my c gi cho nh nhau, SMO s chia u phn cng sut yu cu cho mi nh my nu iu kin k thut cho php. T nguyn tc huy ng t my p ng nhu cu tiu th in ta nhn thy: khi mt t my c gi bn thp hn gi bin th t my s c huy ng v ngc li khi mt t my c gi bn cao hn gi bin th t my s khng c huy ng. T gi bin h thng v gi bn in ca nh my in c th nh gi c nh my c c huy ng p ng biu ph ti hay khng, l cn c cc nh my in trong th trng xy dng chin lc pht ph hp T cc phn tch trn ta c th nhn thy rng, t my c gi bn cao nht nhng thp hn gi bin h thng s t Doanh thu bin cao nht trong th trng. Do , cc nh my t c tng doanh thu cao trong th trng cn c mt c cu gi ph hp vi biu gi bin h thng. b. Mc kh dng t my pht in Mc kh dng ca cc t my pht in s nh hng trc tip ti hiu qu khai thc ca cc nh my. Mc kh dng ca t my l mt thnh phn quyt nh thi gian vn hnh, ng ngha vi vic quyt nh Tng doanh thu ca nh my. Nh my s t doanh thu bin ln nht khi gi cho gn nht vi gi bin, nhng ch t Tng doanh thu cc i khi c thi gian pht ln nht. Thng thng cc t my c b tr sa cha theo (i) chu k vn hnh (i tu sau 48 thng vn hnh, trung tu sau 24 thng v tiu tu sau 12 thng), (ii) theo khuyn co ca nh cung cp thit b hoc (iii) theo cc hp ng bo dng sa cha vi cc nh thu. Nu tun th theo cc yu t trn c th xy ra trng hp lch sa cha ca t my ri vo giai on t my c kh nng c
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
33

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

huy ng cao nht v ngc li t my li kh dng vo giai on khng c c hi huy ng. Trong thc t, cc t my thy in lun phi m bo kh nng sn sng cao nht vo nhng thi k nc v nhiu c th c huy ng ti a, ln lt c tch ra sa cha trong thi k t nc. Cc t my nhit in nn tch ra sa cha vo ma l v kh nng c huy ng khng cao v phi m bo kh nng sn sng cao nht vo ma kh. c. Ngun nng lng u vo Nh bit, cc ngun nng lng dng sn xut in nng bao gm: than, kh, nc, du y c th l cc ngun s cp nh thy nng, hoc nng lng th cp nh than , cc sn phm du m, kh t. Nu nh tnh sn sng trong cung cp ca than, du m v kh t l m bo th tnh n nh th ngun nc ti cc nh my thy in l im hn ch ln nht ca loi hnh nh my in ny. i vi cc nh my thy in, nc v h s l yu t quyt nh hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca nh my thy in. Trong ma l lng nc v cc h thy in thng rt nhiu v vi lu lng ln, nu c gi bn hp l th cc nh my thy in c th c khai thc ti a 24/24h trong mi ngy ma l v t c hiu qu cao nht. Trong ma kh, lu lng nc v cc h thy in rt hn ch, vic khai thc cc nh my thy in ch yu da vo lng nc tch c trong h t cui ma l nm trc. Nm no nc v tt th nh my c nhiu nc pht in, t hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh cao v ngc li, nu nc v km th nh my s khng c nc pht in. i vi cc loi hnh nh my khc cc yu t quyt nh hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l gi nhin liu u vo, gii hn nhin liu.

TNG KT CHNG 1
Chng 1 l Chng c s l lun ca lun vn, l khung phn tch phc v cho cc phn tch nh gi hin trng sau . Trong chng ny, tc gi h thng ha cc ni dung c bn nh sau:
34

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Th nht: Gii thiu tng quan v th trng in mt ngi mua, trong nu ra cc m hnh th trng in, t m hnh th trng in c quyn trc y n m hnh cao nht ca th trng in sau ny l m hnh bn l cnh tranh. Trong mi m hnh th trng in tc gi phn tch nh gi nu bt c im ca tng m hnh, phn tch cc u nhc im cng nh cc vn trong qun l th trng in mt ngi mua. Th hai: a ra khi nim v hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh. Hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh l mt phm tr kinh t phn nh trnh s dng cc ngun ti lc, vt lc vn c ca doanh nghip t c kt qu cao nht trong hot ng sn xut kinh doanh vi chi ph sn xut kinh doanh l thp nht. Th ba: a ra cc ch tiu phn tch hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh v cc nhn t tc ng n hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip (c th l i vi hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca cc nh my in), t tm hiu cc bin php nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

35

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

CHNG II PHN TCH THC TRNG KHAI THC CC NH MY THY IN C LP TRONG C CH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA VIT NAM

II.1 Hin trng h thng in v t chc th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam.
II.1.1 Hin trng h thng in Vit Nam Do yu t lch s cng nh a l, h thng in Vit Nam hin nay c chia thnh ba h thng in (HT) min, l: (i) HT min Bc bao gm 28 tnh, thnh ph pha Bc tri di t Qung Ninh n H Tnh, (ii) HT min Trung bao gm 9 tnh, thnh ph tri di t Qung Bnh n Khnh Ho v 4 tnh Ty Nguyn, (iii) HT min Nam bao gm 23 tnh, thnh ph pha Nam tri di t Ninh Thun n C Mau. Hinh II-1. Phn vng h thng in Vit nam H thng truyn ti in Quc gia (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) II.1.1.1 Ph ti h thng in Theo s liu ca Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, trong nm 2009 in
Min Trung nng sn xut ton h thng in quc gia t 87019 GWh vi cng sut cc i

ghi nhn c l 13867 MW.


5900MW

Min Bc

1500MW

Min Nam 7400 MW


TP. HCM

Do TP. Ha hng ca c im kh hu cng nh tnh hnh pht trin ca nn nh Noi


1500 MW kinh t trong giai on hin nay, biu ph ti HT Vit Nam chia thnh 2

dng in hnh l biu ph ti ma h v biu ph ti ma ng.

2250 MW

Biu ph ti ngy in hnh ca nm 2010, c th hin chi tit nh sau:

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

36

Lun vn thc s QTKD


16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 8000 6000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 4000

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN


14000

Ngy 23-03-2010

Ngy 20-01- 2010

12000

10000

2000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

QG

Bc

Nam

Trung

QG

Bc

Nam

Trung

Hinh II-2. Biu ph ti ngy h ng

Hinh II-3. Biu ph ti ngy

(Ngun: Bo co tng kt qu 1&2/2010 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia) Qua hai dng biu ph ti trn cho thy biu ph ti ngy HT Vit Nam rt li lm v c dc ln; trong ngy c mt thp im v hai cao im, thp im ngy thng ri vo khong t 22h ngy hm trc n 4h, cao im sng t 9h30 - 11h30 v cao im ti t 17h - 20h. Yu t quyt nh vn ny l do trong cc thnh phn ph ti ca h thng th thnh phn Qun l & Tiu dng dn c chim t trng ln. II.1.1.2 Ngun in trong h thng in Theo thng k ca Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, HT Vit Nam hin c cc dng ngun pht chnh l thu in, nhit in than, nhit in du, tuabin kh. a. T trng cc loi ngun trong h thng Theo s liu ca QG, tnh n ht nm 2009 tng cng sut t cc loi ngun trong HT Vit Nam l 18481MW. S liu thng k t trng v sn lng cng nh cng sut ca cc loi ngun trong HT Quc gia nm 2009 nh sau: Loi ngun Thu in Nhit in than Nhit in du (FO)
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Sn lng (GWh) 29977 12532 2551

T l (%) 34.45% 14.40% 2.93%


37

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

TBK chy kh TBK chy du Nhit in chy kh Ngun khc Nhp khu Trung Quc

37117 249 482 10 4102

42.65% 0.29% 0.55% 0.01% 4.71%

Bang II-1. T trng sn lng cc loi ngun in nm 2009 (Ngun: Bo co tng kt vn hnh 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia)
Nhit in chy kh, 0.55% TBK chy du , 0.29% Ngun khc , 0.01%

Nhp khu Trung Quc , 4.71%

Thu in , 34.45%

TBK chy kh , 42.65% Nhit in du (FO), 2.93% Thu in TBK chy kh Ngun khc Nhit in than TBK chy du Nhp khu Trung Quc

Nhit in than , 14.40% Nhit in du (FO) Nhit in chy kh

Hinh II-4. Biu t trng sn lng cc loi ngun nm 2009 (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi)

Loi nh my Tng Thu in N than N du TBK Diesel + TN IPP & BOT

Cng sut t (MW) 18481 6173 2145 537 3197 500 5929

T l(%) 100% 33.4% 11.6% 2.9% 17.3% 2.7% 32.1%

Bang II-2. Cng sut t cc loi ngun nm 2009

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

38

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN


Thu in , 33.4%

Ngoi EVN , 32.1%

Diesel v TN, 2.7% Tua bin kh+ ui hi, 17.3%


Thu in Tua bin kh+ ui hi Diesel v TN

Nhit in du, 2.9%


Nhit in than

Nhit in than, 11.6%

Nhit in du Ngoi EVN

Hinh II-5. Biu t l cc loi ngun nm 2009 (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) b. Nguyn tc khai thc v sp xp lch sa cha cc loi ngun Theo QG, do c im cng ngh pht in v c th h thng dn n nguyn tc khai thc cc NM hin nay nh sau: - Thu in: Khai thc theo iu tit h cha trong ma kh, theo th t gi trong ma l. K hoch sa cha thng c b tr vo ma kh do sn lng t hn so vi ma l. - Nhit in than, du: Huy ng cao trong ma kh, hn ch trong ma l (m bo cng sut nh, chng qu ti, b in p...). K hoch sa cha thng c b tr vo ma l. - Gasturbine chy du: Do chi ph sn xut in cao nn thng chy ch ph nh, chng qu ti hoc theo yu cu c bit; huy ng ly sn lng nu thiu in nng trong ma kh. K hoch sa cha theo s gi vn hnh tng ng (EOH). - Gasturbine chy kh v ui hi: Huy ng cao trong ma kh, gim khai thc trong ma l (m bo cng sut nh, chng qu ti, b in p...). K hoch sa cha theo s gi vn hnh tng ng (EOH). Chnh v vy, k hoch sa cha ca ton h thng in quc gia c sp xp theo nguyn tc v th t u tin sau:
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
39

Lun vn thc s QTKD


-

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Khng ng thi b qu nhiu t my pht in ra sa cha nhm m bo h thng in lun lun c d phng v cng sut vo mi thi im trong nm vn hnh.

Khng ng thi b nhiu t my pht in trong mt khu vc ra sa cha nhm m bo h thng truyn ti in lun lm vic trong gii hn cho php.

Tn trng ti a k hoch sa cha t my ca cc n v xut. K hoch sa cha ngun in phi ph hp vi c th cung ng ca ngun nhin liu (c th thy vn, k hoch cung cp than, k hoch sa cha bo bng h thng cung cp kh). u tin b tr thy in sa cha vo ma kh, nhit in v tua bin kh vo ma ma.

H thng lm vic kinh t nht L trnh pht trin th trng in v c im ca th trng

II.1.2

in mt ngi mua Vit Nam II.1.2.1 L trnh hnh thnh v pht trin th trng in Ngy 26/1/2006, Th tng Chnh Ph ban hnh Quyt nh s 26/2006/Q-TTg ph duyt L trnh, cc iu kin hnh thnh v pht trin th trng in lc. Theo quyt nh ny, th trng in Vit Nam c hnh thnh v pht trin qua 3 cp : - Cp 1 (2005 - 2014): th trng pht in cnh tranh. - Cp 2 (2015 - 2022): th trng bn bun in cnh tranh. - Cp 3 (t sau 2022): th trng bn l in cnh tranh. a. Th trng pht in cnh tranh (t nm 2006 n nm 2014) Trong th trng pht in cnh tranh (cn gi l th trng in mt ngi mua), cc n v pht in thuc s hu nh nc, cng ty c phn hoc cng ty t nhn s tham gia cho gi cnh tranh trn th trng in giao ngay v k hp ng bn bun in c thi hn vi Cng ty Mua bn in l n v mua duy nht trong th trng in.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
40

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Cng ty Mua bn in k hp ng bn bun in cho cc cng ty phn phi. Cc cng ty phn phi bn l in cho khch hng s dng in. b. Th trng bn bun in cnh tranh (t nm 2015 n nm 2022) Trong th trng bn bun in cnh tranh s c nhiu ngi bn v nhiu ngi mua. Cc n v pht in s k cc hp ng c thi hn v tham gia cho gi cnh tranh bn in cho cc n v mua bun hoc cc cng ty phn phi in. Cc n v bn bun s phi cnh tranh bn in cho cc n v phn phi v cc khch hng ln. c. Th trng bn l in cnh tranh (t sau nm 2022) Trong th trng bn l in cnh tranh cc khch hng c quyn la chn nh cung cp in cho mnh (n v pht in, n v bn l in) k hp ng mua bn in hoc mua in giao ngay. y l mc cnh tranh cao nht ca th trng in lc v hin mi ch trin khai mt vi nc trn th gii nh Na Uy, Thy in, Australia Trong khun kh ca ti tc gi ch i su phn tch cc vn trong th trng pht in cnh tranh mt ngi mua. II.1.2.2 c im ca th trng pht in cnh tranh a. c im th trng pht in cnh tranh Theo Quyt nh 26/2006/Q-TTg, th trng pht in cnh tranh c thc hin trong giai on t 2006 n 2014 v c chia lm hai cp nh sau: Cp 1: th trng pht in cnh tranh th im (th trng in ni b ca EVN) - thc hin t nm 2005 n 2008. c im chnh ca giai on ny l ch c cc cng ty c phn pht in do EVN nm gi c phn chi phi hoc cc cng ty pht in do EVN nm gi 100% vn tham gia cho gi v cnh tranh bn in trn th trng. Cc nh my in c lp (IPP) khng thuc s hu ca EVN tip tc bn in cho EVN theo cc hp ng mua bn in di hn (PPA) c k kt.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
41

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Cp 2: th trng pht in cnh tranh hon chnh - thc hin t nm 2009 n nm 2014. Trong giai on ny tt c cc cng ty pht in (gm cc cng ty pht in thnh vin ca EVN v cc nh my in c lp - IPP) u tham gia th trng pht in cnh tranh. Cc n v pht in s bn in thng qua cc hp ng c thi hn v cho gi cnh tranh bn in trn th trng in giao ngay. T l in nng mua bn theo hai hnh thc ca tng n v do Cc iu tit in lc quy nh. b. Cc hnh thc mua bn in trn th trng Trong th trng pht in cnh tranh c 2 hnh thc mua bn in nh sau: - Mua bn thng qua hp ng c thi hn gia bn bn v bn mua; - Mua bn giao ngay gia bn bn v bn mua thng qua n v iu hnh giao dch th trng in lc. cc nc trn th gii, lng in nng mua bn thng qua hp ng c thi hn thng chim t l khong 80 - 85% tng sn lng in nng sn xut ca cc cng ty pht in, phn cn li c mua bn theo phng thc mua bn in giao ngay. Theo qui nh ca Lut in lc, t l in nng mua bn theo hai hnh thc s do Cc iu tit in lc quy nh thay i ph thuc vo s pht trin ca th trng in lc. II.1.3 Hin trng c cu, m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam II.1.3.1 C cu m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua Theo n thit k, khi hnh thnh th trng pht in cnh tranh mt ngi mua, c cu Cng ty m - Tp on in lc Vit Nam gm: (i) cc nh my in hch ton ph thuc gi vai tr l Cng ty pht in, (ii) Cng ty truyn ti in, (iii) Cng ty phn phi in, (iii) Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia v (iv) Cng ty Mua bn in (gi vai tr c quan mua duy nht). Cc chc nng chnh ca cc n v ny nh sau: n v pht in: c chc nng kinh doanh bn in cho bn mua in theo hp ng c thi hn v cho gi bn in giao ngay trn th trng in lc.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
42

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

n v truyn ti in: cung cp dch v truyn ti v hng ph truyn ti in, khng kinh doanh mua bn in. Cc cng ty phn phi in: thc hin chc nng qun l vn hnh li in phn phi v bn l in cho khch hng s dng in. Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia: thc hin cc chc nng ch huy, iu khin cc n v pht in, truyn ti in, phn phi in. Phng thc vn hnh h thng in quc gia c lp trn c s tun th theo cc quy nh trong cc hp ng mua bn in c thi hn v bn cho gi bn ca cc n v pht in. Cng ty Mua bn in: mua in t n v pht in theo hp ng c thi hn v mua in giao ngay trn th trng; Bn in cho cc n v phn phi theo gi trong khung gi bn bun in c ph duyt. Trong giai on th trng pht in cnh tranh, Cng ty Mua bn in l n v mua bun duy nht trn th trng. s
Cng ty m, cc NM thuc EVN

Cc CTL
C quan truyn ti, C quan iu

Th trng

Cc NM bn in qua TT

Khch hng ln Xut khu in

CNG TY MUA BN IN

Cc NM bn in qua H

Hp ng Nhp khu in

Chi ph qun l, vn hnh, khu hao

Cc loi thu

Hinh II-6. S lin h dng tin trong th trng in mt ngi mua


Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
43

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

(Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) II.1.3.2 C ch mua bn in a. Mua in thng qua cc hp ng c thi hn Cn c vo c cu ngnh in Vit Nam, m hnh t chc ca Tp on in lc Vit Nam, cng tc mua in t cc hp ng trc tip c thi hn hin c thc hin nh sau: Cc cng ty pht in hch ton ph thuc EVN (Ho Bnh, Tr An, Ialy, Tuyn Quang...): Cng ty Mua bn in s k hp ng vi EVN hoc cc nh my ny. Gi in do EVN quyt nh trn c s tng chi ph sn xut cng li nhun ti a khng qu 5%, ty thuc cn i li nhun ca Cng ty Mua bn in cng nh ca Tp on. Cc cng ty pht in l n v thnh vin ca EVN: i. Cc n v c phn ho: i vi cc Cng ty pht in c phn ho v k Hp ng mua bn in vi EVN, Cng ty Mua bn in hin k tha quyn v ngha v ca EVN trong cc hp ng mua bn in vi cc cng ty ny. i vi cc cng ty pht in hin ang trong qu trnh c phn ho, Cng ty Mua bn in s trc tip k hp ng mua bn in trn c s gi in v thi hn hp ng c Hi ng qun tr EVN ph duyt. ii. Cc cng ty c phn pht in l n v thnh vin ca EVN (Hi Phng, Qung Ninh...): Cng ty Mua bn in trc tip m phn v k kt hp ng mua bn in theo quy nh chung. iii. Cc cng ty pht in TNHH MTV trc thuc EVN (Ph M, Th c, Cn Th): Cng ty Mua bn in hin k tha quyn v ngha v ca EVN trong cc hp ng mua bn in k vi cc cng ty ny. iv. Cc Cng ty BOT: Ph M 2-2, Ph M 3: Cng ty Mua bn in k tha quyn v ngha v ca EVN trong cc hp ng mua bn in vi cc cng ty BOT.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

44

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Cc nh my IPP: i vi cc IPP k hp ng vi EVN, Cng ty Mua bn in hin k tha quyn v ngha v ca EVN trong cc hp ng mua bn in. i vi cc IPP mi: Cng ty Mua bn in m phn v k kt hp ng mua bn in theo quy nh chung. Cc nh my in, c bit l cc nh my in c lp s cnh tranh nhau v gi c huy ng pht in ln li p ng nhu cu ph ti. Gi bn in k kt trong hp ng l yu t quyt nh nh my c c huy ng pht in ln li hay khng, iu ny s nh hng trc tip n sn lng in bn cng nh tng doanh thu ca cng ty pht in. b. Mua in giao ngay trn th trng in lc: Theo quy nh ca Lut in lc, mt phn in nng do Cng ty Mua bn in mua t cc cng ty pht in c thc hin thng qua hnh thc giao ngay trn th trng in lc. Theo kinh nghim ca nhiu nc khi bt u thc hin th trng in th lng in nng c thc hin theo phng thc mua bn in giao ngay s chim khong 5 - 20% tng sn lng in nng trao i mua bn. Khi th trng pht in cnh tranh mt ngi mua vn hnh, vic mua bn in giao ngay trn th trng in gia Cng ty Mua bn in v cc Cng ty pht in thng qua n v iu hnh giao dch th trng in lc s c thc hin theo Quy nh th trng in do c quan Nh nc c thm quyn ban hnh. Yu t quyt nh vic khai thc cc nh my in s l gi cho ca cc nh my. Chin lc cho gi ca cc cng ty pht in s quyt nh sn lng c huy ng cng nh doanh thu ca cng ty pht in. c chin lc cho gi hp l th cc cng ty cn c cc nghin cu k lng v th trng v gi bin ca th trng. II.1.3.3 Thc trng cng tc mua in hin nay a. C s php l v nguyn tc m phn mua bn in

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

45

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Cng tc m phn, k kt v thc hin Hp ng mua bn in vi cc n v pht in cn c vo cc vn bn php quy sau: - B Lut Dn s, Lut in lc, Lut Thng mi v cc vn bn hng dn thc hin. - Ngh nh s 16/2005/CP-N ngy 07/02/2005 ca Chnh ph v qun l u t xy dng cng trnh. - Quyt nh 30/2005/Q-BCN ngy 31/8/2006 ca B trng B Cng nghip v Quy nh v qun l u t xy dng cc d n in c lp. - Quyt nh 709/Q-NLDK ngy 13/4/2004 ca B Cng nghip v Hng dn tm thi ni dung phn tch kinh t ti chnh u t v khung gi mua bn in cc d n ngun in. - Quyt nh s 2014/Q-BCN ngy 13/6/2007 ca B Cng nghip v Qui nh tm thi ni dung tnh ton phn tch kinh t, ti chnh u t v khung gi mua bn in cc d n ngun in. - Quyt nh 1704/Q-EVN-TT ngy 28/6/2006 ca Tng Gim c EVN ban hnh Quy nh v trnh t, th tc mua bn in gia Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam v Ch u t cc d n nh my in c lp (IPP). Trong m phn PPA th quan trng nht l m phn gi bn in. Trn thc th, gi bn in ca cc nh my in c bn bn v bn mua tnh ton v tha thun trn c s cc thng s u vo c th ca d n. Nguyn tc tnh ton l da trn ton b cc chi ph thc t ca ch u t b ra trong thi gian xy dng v thi gian vn hnh vi mc sinh li ni ti mong mun t c hiu qu kinh t cho c bn mua in v bn bn in, tun th cc qui nh ca Nh nc v khng vt khung gi pht in do B Cng Thng (trc y l B Cng nghip) qui nh theo tng thi k. b. Cc dng Hp ng mua bn in Hin nay, EVN y quyn cho Cng ty mua bn in k Hp ng mua bn in (PPA) vi cc Cng ty pht in thuc EVN v Ch u t cc IPP, y

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

46

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

quyn cho cc Cng ty in lc k v thc hin PPA i vi cc d n IPP c tng cng sut < 30MW. Cc dng PPA hin nay: - Hp ng ca cc Cng ty pht in hch ton c lp trc thuc EVN v cc Cng ty pht in c phn m EVN l c ng chi phi : i vi cc Cng ty pht in hch ton c lp (Ung B, Ph M, Cn Th, ): EVN k PPA vi thi hn 1 nm. Gi in NM Ung B l gi ton phn tnh theo VND/kWh. Gi in cc nh my Ph M, Cn Th v Th c c chia thnh gi cng sut v gi in nng. Cui nm, Hi ng Qun tr EVN cn c vo sn lng huy ng v cc chi ph thc t ca tng nh my tin hnh xem xt iu chnh gi in mua. i vi cc Cng ty pht in c phn (thy in Vnh Sn - Sng Hinh, Thc B, Thc M, nhit in Ph Li, Ninh Bnh, B Ra: Tp on k PPA vi cc cng ty c thi hn 4 nm, gi in do Hi ng Qun tr ph duyt v l gi ton phn (VN/kWh), khng cam kt sn lng huy ng. i vi nh my thy in, gi in c nh c phn theo ma. i vi nh my nhit in, gi in c iu chnh theo gi nhin liu. - i vi cc IPP: Cc nh my in BOT Ph M 2.2, BOT Ph M 3, IPP C Mau 1&2, Nhn Trch 1: PPA c thi hn 20 nm, gi in theo gi cng sut (USD/kW/thng) v gi in nng (USD/kWh - ph thuc vo gi nhin liu). Ngoi ra bn mua phi m bo bao tiu lng kh ti thiu hng nm theo Hp ng cung cp kh k gia bn bn v bn cung cp kh. Cc NM Hip Phc v Formosa : l cc nh my bn in d ln li. PPA c thi hn 5-10 nm, gi in tnh bng USD/kWh v c iu chnh theo gi nhin liu. Ngoi ra bn Mua phi cam kt cng sut huy ng ti thiu m bo duy tr cung cp cho ph ti ti ch ca NM.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

47

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Cc nh my bn in d khc bao gm: V an, Amata, Bourbon: PPA c thi hn ngn 2-5 nm, gi in tnh bng USD/kWh v c iu chnh theo gi nhin liu. Khng cam kt sn lng hoc cng sut huy ng. Cc nh my thy in c lp gm : Cn n, Srokphumieng Cc PPA c thi hn 20-25 nm, gi bn in l ton phn tnh bng /kWh v khng cam kt sn lng huy ng. Cc nh my nhit in Cao Ngn, Na Dng, Sn ng v Cm Ph v mt s IPP khc: PPA c thi hn 25 nm, gi in ton phn tnh c nh tnh theo VND/kWh v khng cam kt sn lng huy ng. - Nhp khu in: Nhp khu t Trung Quc: mua in t li in Trung Quc cp in p 110kV (200-300MW). T 2007 mua cp in p 220kV (450-500MW). Gi in c nh tnh theo USD/kWh. T nm 2007 s p dng iu chnh theo t gi RMB/USD sau mi 2 nm. Nhp khu in t Lo: Hin nay ch c 1 Hp ng mua in t nh my thy in Xkaman 3. Gi in tnh theo USD/kWh c trt gi hng nm. C cam kt sn lng huy ng 722 tr.kWh (sn lng bc 1). Gi in vi sn sn lng mua trn mc cam kt bng 50% gi ca sn lng bc 1. c. nh gi Hin nay, ang tn ti nhiu dng hp ng mua bn in khc nhau nn vic thc hin gp rt nhiu kh khn. Mt s hp ng c bao tiu sn lng, mt s c rng buc trong huy ng cng sut, cc nh my ny c huy ng theo cc iu kin rng buc nn nhiu thi im bt buc phi huy ng cc nh my ny d gi ca chng c th cao hn cc nh my khc. i vi cc nh my thy in c lp thng thng c k theo 1 gi hoc 2 gi (ma kh, ma ma). Trong giai on ma kh thng thng s c huy ng ht theo lng nc c (gm lng nc v h v lng nc tch trong h t ma l nm trc), trong giai on ma l, cc hp ng ch c 1
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
48

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

hoc 2 gi s c nhiu hn ch v mc cnh tranh c pht in ln li nht l vo thi gian thp im ca h thng. II.1.4 Nguyn tc v thc trng huy ng cc nh my in trong c ch

th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay S khc bit ln nht gia sn phm in nng v nhng sn phm hng ha khc l sn phm in nng c mi lin h khng th tch ri vi h thng vt l v sn xut v tiu th din ra gn nh ng thi. Trong h thng in, cung v cu lun phi c cn bng tc thi (cn bng ngun v ti), s cn bng ny c th hin qua tn s ca HT Quc gia, bt k s mt cn bng no u dn ti s thay i ca tn s h thng, c th dn n tn s vt ra ngoi di hot ng cho php, iu ny s nh hng ti hot ng v tui th ca cc thit b s dng in cng nh chnh cc thit b trong nh my in. Mt s khc bit ng k na gia in nng v cc loi hng ha khc l in nng sn xut bi mt nh my khng th truyn trc tip n 1 khch hng c th, ngc li, mt khch hng khng th nhn in ch t mt ngun pht. Do vy lng in bn c ca mt cng ty pht in l lng in c huy ng pht ln li in Quc gia. Do c th ca sn phm in nng cng nh h thng in Vit Nam, hin nay QG ang thc hin vic huy ng cc nh my in p ng biu ph ti theo nguyn tc (sp xp theo trnh t u tin) nh sau: - Huy ng theo cc yu cu k thut nh b in p, chng qu ti... - Huy ng theo cc yu cu khch quan khc nh ti tiu, giao thng thy - Huy ng theo cc rng buc trong hp ng mua bn in - Huy ng theo tnh ton ti u v tnh ton th trng in Chnh v vy, gi bn in l mt yu t nh hng ln n vic huy ng nh my in. Di y l thng k gi bn ca cc loi hnh NM trong h thng c sp xp theo th t t thp n cao:
Loi hnh pht in Ch s hu Gi in (/kWh) Ghi ch
49

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD


Thy in Tuabin kh Thy in c lp Nhit in than Nhit in du Tuabin kh du EVN EVN hoc ngoi Ngoi EVN EVN hoc ngoi EVN EVN

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN


200 - 400 400 - 500 496 - 846 600 - 800 2000 - 3000 4000 - 5000 Mt s NMT c gi ma ma/ma kh

Bang II-3. Gi bn in ca cc loi hnh pht in (Ngun: Tng hp ca tc gi) Nh phn tch trn, trong cc thnh phn ngun ca HT Quc gia, thu in chim t trng ln, vic khai thc cc nh my ny hon ton ph thuc vo yu t ma trong nm. Vi c im ca ph ti h thng v c cu ngun in nh hin nay, vic khai thc cc nh my in p ng biu ph ti c chia lm 2 ma r rt l ma ma (cc thng 6, 7, 8) v ma kh (cc thng cn) nh sau: a. Ma ma Do c im thi tit kh hu, vo ma ma nc v cc h thu in rt di do, v vy cc nh my thu in s c sn ngun nhin liu vn hnh ti a (nu c xp vo biu huy ng). Tuy nhin, y l thi k ngun cung ca h thng ln nhng nhu cu (ph ti) li thp do thi tit mt m nn cc nh my phi cnh tranh nhau quyt lit c pht in ln li (c bit l vo cc gi thp im ca h thng), nu cc nh my thy in khng cnh tranh c pht in th bt buc phi x tha nc v kh nng tch tr ca h cha l hn ch. Chi tit cc thnh phn ngun tham gia ph biu ph ti vo ma ma c th hin trn hnh di y:

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

50

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Diesel, 0.0%

Mua ngoi , 5.4%

TBK du , 0.0%

Thu in , 41.5%

TBK + ST, 39.8%

N du , 0.8%

N than , 12.5%

Hinh II-7. T trng thnh phn ngun trong ma ma (Ngun: Bo co tng kt vn hnh 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia)
Ph biu ph ti m l a
14500 14000 13500 13000 12500 12000 11500 11000 10500 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

M a n oi u g Ndu

D iesel Nth an

T K du B

T K + ST B T u in h

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Hinh II-8. Ph biu ph ti trong ma ma (Ngun: Bo co tng kt vn hnh 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia) b. Ma kh Vo ma kh lng nc v cc h thu in hn ch, nc dng cho pht in ch yu l lng nc tch c trong h t ma ma lin trc. Do vy vic khai thc cc nh my thy in hon ton tun theo ng iu tit (lng nc ny c s dng ht pht in v c th kt hp ti tiu), giai on ny cc nh my thy in hu nh khng phi cnh tranh.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

51

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Chi tit cc thnh phn ngun tham gia ph biu ph ti vo ma kh c th hin nh hnh di y.
D iesel, 0.0% TB du , 3.0% K Thu in , 20.4%

M ngoi , 4.1% ua

N than , 20 .4%

TB + ST, K 50.9%

N du , 1.1%

Hinh II-9. T trng thnh phn ngun ma kh (Ngun: Bo co tng kt vn hnh 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia)
Ph biu ph ti ma kh
14000 13500 13000 12500 12000 11500 11000 10500 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Diesel

TBK du

Thu in Mua ngoi N than

N du

TBK + ST

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Hinh II-10. Ph biu ph ti ma kh (Ngun: Bo co tng kt vn hnh 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia)

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

52

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

II.2 Phn tch, nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay
II.2.1 Gii thiu v phn tch nguyn tc khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay Theo Quyt nh s 18/2008/Q-BCT ngy 18/7/2008 ca B Cng Thng, qui nh tt c cc NMT c cng sut t 30 MW tr xung c coi l nh my thy in nh v c khai thc theo c ch chi ph trnh c. V vy, trong khun kh ti, tc gi s gii thiu v phn tch, nh gi hin trng hiu qu khai thc i vi cc NMT c cng sut trn 30MW pht in thng mi trong thi gian qua. Theo thng k ca Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, ring i vi loi nh my ny, Vit Nam hin c 10 nh my vi tng cng sut 596 MW chim 2,9 % tng cng sut t h thng in quc gia (tnh n ht thng 6 nm 2010), tng sn lng in bnh qun hng nm l 2.468 t kWh. Cc nh my ny c lit k chi tit nh di y.
Nh my in Tng Ngy cng sut COD (MW) 2*41 1/2004 Sn lng Dng bnh qun iu tit nm (triu kWh) tun ngy ngy ngy nm ngy ngy ngy 396 240 497 140 182 80 204 145

STT

Ch s hu

V tr xy dng

1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6

Cty CP thy in Cn n Cn n

B p, Bnh Phc

Cty CP thy in Srokphu B Gia Mp, Bnh Srokphumieng mieng Phc Cty CP T & PT in S San 3A Cty CP thy in Ty Bc Cty CP thy in Bnh in Cty CP thy in Qu Phong S San 3A Iagrai, Gia lai

2*25.5 10/2006 2*54 2*16 2*22 3*6 + 11*2 3*21 2*16 12/2006 2/2009 5/2009 8/2009 8/2009 10/2009

Nm Mng La, Sn La Chin 2 Bnh in Qu Phong Hng Tr, Tha Thin - Hu Qu Phong, Ngh An ng Giang, Qung Nam Bc Bnh, Bnh Thun

Cty CP thy in Sng Cn Sng Cn 2 2 Cty CP pht trin Bc Bnh in lc Vit Nam

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

53

Lun vn thc s QTKD


Nh my Ch s hu KrongHn in Cty CP Sng Ba ng

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN


Sn lng Tng Ngy Dng bnh qun cng sut COD iu tit nm (triu 2*32 247.5 (MW) 06/2010 nm kWh) 2*40 06/2010 ngy 336

STT 9 10

V tr xy dng Sng Hinh, Ph Yn

Cty CP pht trin Srepok 4 Bun n, k Lk in i Hi

Bang II-4. Cc NMT c lp do t nhn u t vn hnh (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) Qua cc s liu thng k, mt iu d nhn thy l cc IPP l loi nh my c qui m va v nh, ch c NMT Bnh in v Krng Hnng l nh my c h cha iu tit nm, cn li l cc nh my c h cha iu tit ngn hn (iu tit theo ngy v tun). Hin nay gi bn in ca cc IPP l gi in ton phn khng i trong sut thi hn hp ng. Cc hp ng mua bn in (PPA) c k kt gia bn Bn v Cng ty Mua bn in c thi hn t 20-25 nm ty d n. Mt s PPA c gi bn in trong nm c chia theo hai ma (ma kh v ma ma), cn li l gi c nh cho c nm khng phn bit ma. Chi tit gi bn in ca cc nh my k hp ng mua bn in theo ma c lit k bng II-5. Tn nh my S.P.Mieng Sng Cn Sesan 3A Nm Chin 2 Bc Bnh Qu Phong Srepok 4 Thi hn hp ng Bt u Kt thc Sau 25 nm 1/01/2008 Sau 25 nm 5/05/2009 Sau 25 nm 1/12/2006 Sau 25 nm 1/02/2009 Sau 25 nm 10/2009 Sau 20 nm 08/2009 Sau 25 nm 07/2010 Gi in (/kWh) Ma kh Ma ma 653 540 656 535 650 496 695 588 705 525 700 610 790 581.6

Bang II-5. Cc nh my in c gi bn in theo ma (Ngun: Tng kt Cng tc mua in - Cng ty Mua bn in)

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

54

Lun vn thc s QTKD


900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Nm Chin Qu Phong Bnh in Sng Cn 2 S San 3A Bc Bnh Cn n Srokphumieng KrongHnng Srepok 4 9 10 11 12

Hinh II-11. Gi bn in ca cc NMT c gi bn in theo ma (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) Gi bn in ca cc nh my k hp ng mua bn in c nh c nm c lit k bng II-6. Tn nh my Krong H'nang Cn n Bnh in Thi hn hp ng Bt u 07/2009 10/2003 05/2009 Kt thc Sau 20 nm Sau 25 nm Sau 25 nm Gi in (/kWh) 638 846 634

Bang II-6. Cc nh my in c gi bn c nh trong c nm (Ngun: Tng kt Cng tc mua in 2009 - Cng ty Mua bn in)

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

55

Lun vn thc s QTKD


900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

N Chin m Qu Phong Bnh in Cn n KrongH nng

10

11

12

Hinh II-12. Gi bn in ca cc NMT c mt gi in c nh trong nm (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) Theo Trung tm iu HT Quc gia; do (i) c th ca h thng in Vit Nam hin nay v nh xu hng nhng nm ti, (ii) dng biu ph ti h thng in, (iii) nguyn tc huy ng ngun; dng biu gi bin ngy ma ma h thng in quc gia c dng nh hnh II-13:
3000

Dng biu gi bin h thng ma ma

2500

Gi in (/kWh)

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0 Gi SMP

(h)

Hinh II-13. Dng biu gi bin ngy h thng in Vit Nam (Ngun: Tng hp ca tc gi)
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
56

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Vi gi bn in ca cc NMT hin nay v dng gi bin ngy ma ma nh trn, trong thc t c th xy ra cc trng hp sau: Trng hp 1: ng gi in cao hn ng gi bin h thng.
3000

2500

Gi in (/kWh)

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0 Gi bin h thng Gi in

(h)

Hinh II-14. ng gi in cao hn ng gi bin ngy h thng Vi trng hp ny gi bn in ca NMT lun cao hn gi bin h thng, iu ny dn ti ngy hm nh my khng c huy ng bt k thi im no v doanh thu trong ngy vn hnh bng khng. Trng hp 2: ng gi in thp hn ng gi bin h thng.
3000

2500

Gi in (/kWh)

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0 Gi bin h thng Gi in

(h)

Hinh II-15. ng gi in thp hn ng gi bin ngy h thng


57

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Vi trng hp ny gi bn in ca NMT lun thp hn gi bin mua in ca h thng , iu ny dn ti ngy hm nh my c huy ng ti a lin tc v nhng doanh thu trong ngy vn hnh thp. Trng hp 3: ng gi in ct ng gi bin h thng.
3000

2500

Gi in (/kWh)

2000

1500

S2

S4

1000

S1

S3

S5

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0 G bin h thng i G in i

(h)

Hinh II-16. ng gi in thp hn ng gi bin ngy h thng Vi trng hp ny gi bn in ca NMT ti cc min S1, S3 v S5 cao hn gi bin h thng, nh vy ti cc min ny nh my khng c huy ng. Ti cc min S2 v S4 gi bin ca h thng cao hn gi bn in nn nh my c huy ng ti a; nh vy trong ngy c nhng thi im nh my khng c huy ng, c nhng thi im nh my c huy ng nhng gi bn in thp hn gi bin nhiu, iu ny dn ti doanh thu ca nh my trong ngy vn hnh tng i thp. Doanh thu nh my s ch t ti a khi biu gi bn in ngy xp x hoc trng kht vi biu gi bin h thng in. Xt mt cch tng th, ni chung gi bn in ca cc NMT l tng i r so vi cc loi hnh pht in khc (mt s nhit in than, tuabin kh, c bit l cc ngun chy du...). V vy trong giai on ma kh ton b lng nc v h cng vi lng nc tch c trong cc h thy in trong giai on ma ma nm trc s c s dng cho pht in. Tuy nhin vi c th h thng in Vit Nam tng cng sut cc NMT chim xp x 33.4% cng sut ton h thng, trong giai on ma l hu ht tt c cc h u c nc v vi lu lng ln (ma l min bc t thng 6 - 8, min Nam t thng 7 - 9, min Trung t
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
58

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

thng 8 - 10), trong cc NMT ca EVN (chim 30.5% cng sut h thng) c chi ph pht in rt thp nn trong giai on ny mi NMT c lp phi cnh tranh vi cc nh my khc (cc NMT khc, cc nh my nhit in, cc nh my tua bin kh,) v c hi pht in c bit l vo gi thp im trong ngy. Thc t vn hnh nhng nm qua cho thy, vi gi bn in l mt gi tr khng i trong ngy vn hnh th vo cc gi thp im ca h thng, khi nhu cu h thng khng cao nh my thng khng c huy ng, trong khi vo cc gi cao im, nhu cu h thng rt cao th nh my li c gi bn r, do vy doanh thu trong ngy vn hnh ca nh my thp (thp im ca h thng th khng bn c sn phm, cao im ca h thng th bn r), thm ch trong ma l nh my c th phi x tha nc (khi nh my tch nc nc v lng nc v nhiu hn lng nc c s dng pht in). minh chng, ta xem xt kt qu vn hnh HT quc gia ngy 28/7/2009 nh di y:
30 00 G b nh th n i i g 20 50

Gi in (/kWh)

20 00

10 50 G B R 62 i a 1 G N mC i 6 5 i h n 9

10 00

50 0 G T B 47 i h c 7 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 0 (h )

Hinh II-17. Gi bin HT v gi in cc IPP min Bc ngy 28/7/2009. (Ngun: Bo co sn xut HT quc gia ngy 28/7/2009 - QG)

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

59

Lun vn thc s QTKD


3 00 0

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

G b n h th n i i g 2 00 5

Gi in (/kWh)

2 00 0

1 00 5 G B R 61 i a 2

G S o 4 7 0 i rep k 9

1 00 0

5 00 G V hS n5 i n 22 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 13 14 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 21 2 2 23 0 (h )

Hinh II-18. Gi bin h thng v gi in cc IPP min Trung ngy 28/7/2009 (Ngun: Bo co sn xut HT quc gia ngy 28/7/2009 - QG)
30 0 0 G b n h th n i i g 25 0 0

Gi in (/kWh)

20 0 0

15 0 0 G B R 6 2 i a 1

G C n n8 6 i 4

10 0 0

5 00 G T M 4 i h c 52 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 16 1 7 18 1 9 2 0 2 1 22 2 3 0 (h)

Hinh II-19. Gi bin h thng vi gi in cc IPP min Nam ngy 28/7/2009. (Ngun: Bo co sn xut HT quc gia ngy 28/7/2009 - QG) II.2.2 nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong

c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay Nh c s l thuyt c tc gi trnh by Chng 1, ba ch tiu Doanh thu, Thi gian vn hnh tng ng, Sut hao nhin liu l cc ch tiu c nh hng quyt nh n hiu qu khai thc nh my in. V vy, c c s nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay, ta s tin hnh xem xt v nh gi trn tng ch tiu c th.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

60

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

II.2.2.1.

nh gi theo ch tiu Doanh thu

Trong thc t, sn lng in bnh qun hng nm ca mi NMT u c cu thnh t sn lng in bnh qun ma ma v sn lng in bnh qun ma kh (c trong thit k ca d n trn c s cc thng s thy nng, thy vn). Do gi bn in l mt gi tr khng i theo ma (vi cc nh my c 2 gi trong nm) hoc c nh c nm (vi cc nh my c mt gi trong nm), nn khi nh gi ch tiu Doanh thu nm ta s tin hnh nh gi ch tiu Doanh thu theo tng ma. Nh c s l thuyt c tc gi trnh by Chng 1, Doanh thu l mt ch tiu ch u t xem xt, nh gi hiu qu hot ng ca NMT. Ch tiu ny c nh gi l tt khi Doanh thu thc t ln hn Doanh thu k hoch v ngc li l xu. a. Trong giai on ma kh Trong giai on ma kh, lng nc ch yu s dng cho pht in l lng nc tch c trong h t ma ma lin trc (thng thng cc h thy in u tch y nc), lng nc v h trong ma ny kh hn ch v nh hng khng nhiu n sn lng ca c ma kh. Theo Cng ty Mua bn in, Doanh thu k hoch, Doanh thu thc t ma kh ca cc NMT c lp trong cc nm t 2007 - 2009 nh sau: 2007 NM
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

S T T
1 2 3 4 5 6

2008
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

2009
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

Cn n
S.P.Ming

200 79.3 169.5

201 75.6 125.6

Tt Xu Xu

200 79.3 169.5

201 80.4 170

Tt Tt Tt

200 79.3 169.5

202 80.9 172

Tt Tt Tt

S San 3A

N.Chin 2 Cha vo vn hnh Bnh in Cha vo vn hnh Qu Phong Cha vo vn hnh

Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

Vo VH t gia ma l Vo VH t gia ma l Vo VH t gia ma l

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

61

Lun vn thc s QTKD


7 8 9 10

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN


Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Vo VH t gia ma l Vo VH t gia ma l Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

Sng Cn Bc Bnh

Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

K.R.Hnng Cha vo vn hnh Srpk 4


Cha vo vn hnh

Bang II-7. nh gi ch tiu doanh thu ma kh ca cc NMT c lp (Ngun: Cng ty Mua bn in v tng hp ca tc gi) Qua bng s liu v kt qu nh gi, tc gi nhn thy hu ht cc NMT c lp u vt ch tiu Doanh thu ma kh (nh gi: Tt), ch c NMT Srok Phu Ming v S San 3A ma kh 2007 khng t do lng nc v t hn trung bnh nhiu nm. iu ny c l gii rng, vo ma kh do nhu cu ph ti tng cao, giai on ny Trung tm iu HT Quc gia thng xuyn phi huy ng cc nh my c gi bn in tng i t tin p ng nhu cu ph ti vi mc tiu m bo in trong c ma kh. V vy ton b lng nc tch c trong h t ma ma lin trc v lng nc v trong ma kh ca cc NMT hu nh c s dng ht cho mc ch pht in. Chnh v vy cc NMT c lp d dng t hoc vt Doanh thu k hoch ma kh. b. Trong giai on ma ma Ngc vi giai on ma kh, trong ma ma lng nc v cc h thy in rt di do, ngoi s dng cho mc ch pht in th phn cn li s c tch trong h cha. Tuy nhin do thy in chim t trng kh ln trong h thng nn y l giai on cnh tranh gay gt v c hi pht in ca cc nh my in. Theo Cng ty Mua bn in, Doanh thu k hoch, Doanh thu thc t ma ma ca cc NMT c lp trong cc nm t 2007 - 2009 nh sau: S T T
1

2007 NM
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

2008
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

2009
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh gi hoch t
(t ng) (t ng)

Cn n

135.3

112.2

Xu

135.3

93

Xu

135.3

113

Xu

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

62

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

S T T
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2007 NM
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

2008
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh hoch t gi
(t ng) (t ng)

2009
Doanh Doanh thu k thu thc nh gi hoch t
(t ng) (t ng)

S.P.Ming S San 3A

60.9 101

59.5 60

Xu Xu

60.9 101

54 33

Xu Xu

60.9 101

47 75

Xu Xu

N.Chin 2 Cha vo vn hnh Bnh in Cha vo vn hnh Qu Phong Cha vo vn hnh Sng Cn Bc Bnh
Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

Vo VH t gi ma l Vo VH t gi ma l Vo VH t gi ma l Vo VH t gi ma l Vo VH t gi ma l Cha vo vn hnh Cha vo vn hnh

K.R.Hnng Cha vo vn hnh Srpk 4


Cha vo vn hnh

Bang II-8. nh gi ch tiu doanh thu ma ma ca cc NMT c lp (Ngun: Cng ty Mua bn in v tng hp ca tc gi) Qua bng s liu v kt qu nh gi, tc gi nhn thy cc NMT c lp u khng t ch tiu Doanh thu ma ma (nh gi: Xu). iu ny c l gii rng, vo ma ma (thng thng thi tit mt m) nn nhu cu ph ti khng cao, trong khi y l giai on nc v cc h thy in rt di do; nn trong giai on ny mi NMT c lp phi cnh tranh vi cc NM khc (NMTc lp khc, NMT ca EVN, cc nh my nhit in than, tua bin kh) v c hi pht in. Do gi bn in khng hp l nn vo cc gi nhu cu tiu th in thp (cc gi thp im) cc NMT khng c huy ng nn tng sn lng in ma ma thp, y l yu t khin Doanh thu ma ma ca cc NMT c lp khng t k hoch ra. II.2.2.2. nh gi theo ch tiu Thi gian vn hnh tng ng

Trong thc t, khi xem xt nh gi tnh kh thi ca d n xy dng NM, ngi ta quan tm n S gi s dng cng sut cc i (Tmax) ca nh my ny, Tmax s quyt nh n sn lng in bnh qun hng nm ca d n. i
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
63

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

vi cc d n thy in, s gi s dng cng sut cc i c tnh ton c th theo ch thy vn, iu tit h cha c xem xt n yu cu m bo nc h lu ma kit ca tng cng trnh. Theo Qui nh tm thi ni dung tnh ton phn tch kinh t, ti chnh u t v khung gi mua bn in cc d n ngun in c ban hnh km theo quyt nh s 2014/Q-BCN ngy 13/6/2007 ca B trng B Cng nghip, qui nh Tmax ca cc d n NMT phi nm trong khong t 4000h/nm n ti a 5500h/nm. Nh c s l thuyt c tc gi trnh by Chng 1, Thi gian vn hnh tng ng (T) l mt ch tiu hng nm ch u t xem xt, nh gi hiu qu hot ng ca NMT trong nm. Ch tiu ny c nh gi l t khi Thi gian vn hnh tng ng ln hn hoc bng S gi s dng cng sut cc i v ngc li l khng t. Theo thng k ca Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, S gi vn hnh tng ng v Tmax ca cc nh my thy in c lp c lit k trong bng II-9:
Nh my Cn n S.P Ming S san 3A Sng Cn Bnh in Tmax 4950 4800 4600 5200 5350

2007
T 4630 4620 3198 nh Gi Khng t Khng t Khng t T 4338 4623 3648

2008
nh Gi Khng t Khng t Khng t T 4652 4422 4287

2009
nh Gi Khng t Khng t Khng t

Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 5/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 2/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh Thng 10/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh

Nm Chin 2 4650 Qu Phong Srepok 4 Bc Bnh K.R.Hnng 4800 4850 495 5200

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

64

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Bang II-9. nh gi ch tiu Thi gian vn hnh tng ng ca cc NMT c lp. (Ngun. Tng hp ca Tc gi) Qua bng s liu v kt qu nh gi, tc gi nhn thy, tt c cc NMT c lp u khng t ch tiu Thi gian vn hnh tng ng (nh gi: Khng t). iu ny c th c l gii do nhng nguyn nhn sau:
-

Gi bn in khng hp l nn t my khng c huy ng nhiu (nh nhn xt ca tc gi ch tiu Doanh thu).

Lch sa cha ca cc nh my khng hp l nn t my khng kh dng vo nhng thi im c c hi c pht in: Trong thc t, i vi mi t my pht in sau mt thi gian vn hnh u phi tch ra bo tr sa cha. Nu nh cc nh my tin hnh cc cng vic sa cha, bo dng ng cc chu k th c th phi tch t my thy in ra sa cha vo thi k ma l (nu nm u tin a vo vn hnh trong giai on ma l). Bn cnh , hin nay do nh hng ca bin i kh hu cng nh tc ng ca nn ph rng u ngun ang din ra gay gt nn c nhng h l xut hin rt sm hoc rt mun tri qui lut t nhin. V vy cc nh my thy in phi c lch sa cha cc t my hp l, sa cha vo giai on c hi pht in t v sn sng khi c hi pht in cao.

Do nng lc qun l vn hnh, sa cha v khc phc s c cha tt nn t my phi ngng sa cha nhiu v thi gian sa cha ko di hn bnh thng: (i) Theo truyn thng ca ngnh in, ngay khi chun b a mt nh my in mi vo vn hnh, EVN xy dng mt b khung cn b qun l c bit l cn b qun l k thut l nhng ngi c kinh nghim t nhng nh my vn hnh c cng cng ngh. Trong khi , vic tham gia vo khu pht in - mt lnh vc hon ton mi khin cho ch s hu ca cc NMT c lp gp nhiu kh khn, lng tng trong cng tc qun l, iu hnh ni chung cng nh lnh vc qun l k thut ni ring. (ii) Do tham gia vo mt lnh vc mi, cha c c hi khng nh c uy tn ca doanh nghip nn cc NMT c lp khng thu ht c ngun nhn lc c cht lng cao, cng tc o to ngun nhn lc gp nhiu kh

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

65

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

khn do thiu h thng to liu phc v o to, thiu trang thit b phc v thc hnh, thiu cn b c nng lc hng dn, km cp (mc d c nhng gii php thu cc nh my ca EVN o to). V vy thc t vn hnh cng tc vn hnh, sa cha cng nh khc phc s c gp nhiu kh khn, lng tng. (iii) Tt c cc n v qun l cc NMT c lp u hot ng theo m hnh cng ty c phn, v vy chnh sch s dng lao ng phc v cng tc vn hnh v sa cha c nhiu hn ch, hu ht cc n v ch c lc lng sa cha nh, n gin. Cc cng vic sa cha ln u khng th t m trch c.
-

Thiu vt t thit b d phng nn thi gian bt kh dng ca t my kh nhiu: (i) Do thiu kinh nghim trong vic thit lp danh mc vt t d phng, (ii) Do ngun kinh ph u t cho vic mua sm vt t d phng khng c nhiu, trong khi cc vt t thit b ca NMT u l thit b c chng, t tin v a phn phi nhp t nc ngoi. Chnh v vy trong thc t nhiu t my khng th kh dng do khng c vt t thay th hoc ch mua sm mt rt nhiu thi gian.

Do cc nguyn nhn khch quan khc nh s c hoc sa cha trn h thng dn n gii hn kh nng pht ca nh my.

II.2.2.3.

nh gi theo ch tiu Sut hao nc

Trong thc t, ch ca dng chy t nhin thng khng ph hp vi nhu cu tiu th in. Chng hn, xt chu k mt nm th lu lng nc v trn cc sng thay i rt mnh (c bit l gia ma ma v ma kh), trong khi in nng tiu th hng thng ca ph ti h thng li thay i khng nhiu, do vy vo ma l lng nc v qu nhiu, khng th s dng ht theo cng sut vn hnh cc t my, cn ma cn lu lng nc ca dng chy qu t khng p ng cho nhu cu pht in. Xt trong phm vi ngn hn, v d mt ngy m, th lu lng nc hu nh khng thay i, trong khi biu cng sut ph ti tng h thng li thay i rt ln theo ca kp lm vic ca cc nh my x nghip v nhu cu in sinh hot.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

66

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Chnh v vy, i vi cc NMT trong ma kh lng nc tch c trong h t ma l nm trc cng vi lng nc v h ca nhng thng ma kh s c s dng hon ton cho vic pht in vi mc tiu a mc nc h v mc nc cht (l mc nc thp nht trong h cha m NMT c th vn hnh lu di, m bo cc ch tiu kinh t-k thut quy nh) vo u ma l k tip. Tuy nhin trong ma l, thng thng nc v nhiu do vy vo thi gian u v gia ma l, ngoi lng nc v h c s dng ngay cho pht in (c huy ng theo yu cu ca iu h thng in) th lng nc cn li s c tch trong h phc v cho vic pht in ca ma kh nm sau. Tuy nhin do kh nng tch ca h c hn nn sau khi tch y h, nu lng nc v h vn ln hn lng nc s dng cho pht in th bt buc phi x tha, vn cn quan tm l nu nh my c huy ng ti a 24/24h th vic x tha l bt kh khng nhng nu nh my cha c huy ng ti a m vn phi x tha th qu lng ph. Thng k v lu lng x v sn lng khng c huy ng cc nh my thy in c lp c lit k trong bng II-10.
2007 2008 2009

Nh my

Lu lng x Triu m3

Sn lng khng c huy ng Triu kWh 26,123 8,996 151,585

Sn lng Sn lng Lu lng Lu khng c khng c x lng x huy ng huy ng Triu m3 867,007 109,179 1,905,34 Triu kWh Triu m3 Triu kWh 48,818 8,530 103,607 474,387 289,51 778,90 23,995 18,323 34,960

S San 3A Cn n S.P.Ming
Sng Cn Bnh in Nm Chin 2 Qu Phong Srepok 4 Bc Bnh K.R.Hnng

423,453 1895.19 1007.18

Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 5/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 2/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh Thng 10/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

67

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Bang II-10. Lng nc x v sn lng in khng c huy ng ca cc NMT c lp trong ma l. (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi t cc Bo co tng kt vn hnh cc nm 2007, 2008, 2009 - Trung tm iu HT Quc gia) Nh c s l thuyt c tc gi trnh by Chng 1, Sut hao nhin liu l mt ch tiu xem xt, nh gi hiu qu hot ng ca NMT. Ch tiu ny c nh gi l tt khi Sut hao nhin liu thc t bng Sut hao nhin liu thit k v ngc li. i vi loi hnh thy in th nc chnh l nhin liu duy nht phc v cho vic pht in. Chnh v vy khi xem xt v ch tiu Sut hao nhin liu ta s xem xt nh gi Sut hao nc thc t so vi Sut hao nc thit k. Vi lng nc v h trong nm, nu nh my c c cu gi hp l, lng in bn c cng ln v lng nc phi x tha cng t th sut hao ca nh my cng nh, ngha l nh my hot ng cng hiu qu. Ngc li, nu gi bn khng hp l dn n phi x nc nhiu, sn lng huy ng trong nm b suy gim, khi sut hao nc ca nh my s cng ln v nh my hot ng khng hiu qu. Di y l cc s liu v Sut hao nc thit k v Sut hao nc thc t ca cc NMT c lp trong nhng nm qua.
Sut hao Nh my thit k
m3/kWh

Tng lng nc v
triu m3

2007 2008 2009 Sut Tng Sut Tng nh nh Sut hao nh hao lng hao lng gi gi thc t gi thc t nc v thc t nc v
m3/kWh triu m3 m3/kWh triu m3 m3/kWh

S San 3A 18.41 Cn n 11.54 S.P.Mieng 21.53 Sng Cn Bnh in N.Chin 2 Qu Phong Srepok 4 Bc Bnh K.R.Hnng

5657.59 4833.08 4436.98

26.21 15.25 27.34

Xu 7131 27.76 Xu 9152 Xu 4425 17.8 Xu 6569 Xu 4440 28.39 Xu 6160 Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 5/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 2/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 8/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh Thng 10/2009 mi vo vn hnh Thng 6/2010 mi vo vn hnh

29.77 15.8 22.28

Xu Xu Xu

Bang II-11. Sut hao nc thit k v sut hao nc thc t ca cc NMT trong nhng nm qua
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
68

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

(Ngun: Thu thp v tnh ton ca Tc gi) Qua bng s liu v kt qu nh gi (nh gi: Xu), tc gi nhn thy tt c cc NMT c lp u khng t ch tiu Sut hao nc. Tc l lng nc c s dng cho pht in cha tng xng vi kh nng vn hnh ca nh my, iu ny c th c l gii do nh my cn lng ph cc c hi pht in (cc nguyn nhn nh trnh by cc ch tiu trn) dn ti nh hng n hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. II.2.3 Tng kt nh gi chung cc kt qu phn tch v hin trng hiu

qu khai thc cc nh my thy in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Nh cc phn tch, nh gi trn th hin nay cc NMT c lp u khng t cc ch tiu v Doanh thu, Thi gian vn hnh tng ng, Sut hao nc. y l nguyn nhn dn n hiu qu khai thc cc nh my in c lp khng cao. Nhng nguyn nhn ny xut pht t c ngi mua, ngi bn cng nh c th sn phm in nng v c th ca h thng in. Cc nguyn nhn c th c tm tt nh sau: II.2.3.1 i vi ngi bn. - Biu gi bn in cha hp l v linh hot, cha ph hp vi biu gi bin ca h thng in. - Lch sa cha nh k ca mt s t my pht in khng hp l. Vic xy dng k hoch sa cha cha ch n c th thy vn v nhng bt thng do bin i kh hu, do nn ph rng gy ra.
-

Nng lc qun l vn hnh, sa cha v khc phc s c cha tt nn t my pht in cn phi ngng sa cha nhiu v thi gian sa cha ko di hn bnh thng.

Thiu vt t thit b d phng nn thi gian bt kh dng ca t my kh nhiu.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

69

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

II.2.3.2 i vi ngi mua. - L doanh nghip nn mc tiu ti thiu ha chi ph mua in (nhm gia tng li nhun) c t ln hng u m cha quan tm nhiu n cc li ch x hi khc. - Qui nh thi hn hp ng mua bn in qu di (20-25 nm) dn n kh khn trong vic thay i cc ni dung hp ng. - C nhiu dng hp ng mua bn in khc nhau. II.2.3.3 Do tnh cht c th ca sn phm in v c th h thng in - Sn phm in nng l mt sn phm c th, khc hn cc hng ha thng thng khc, sn phm in nng khng th tch tr c. Khu sn xut v tiu thu hu nh din ra ng thi. - Biu ph ti rt nhp nh, chnh lch gia cao im v thp im rt ln. - Cc t my nhit in than v tua bin kh (c ui hi) l cc t my khi ng chm, khng th ngng v khi ng thng xuyn nn nhiu thi im gi bn cc nh my nhit in than v tuabin kh t hn cc nh my thy in nhng vn c duy tr vn hnh. - H thng in cn nhiu s c v bt thng dn n hn ch kh nng khai thc cc t my pht in Tng hp cc kt qu phn tch trn c th hin trong bng II-12. Ch tiu hiu qu Yu t nh hng Nguyn nhn xut

Doanh thu Biu gi bn Gi bn in hin Xy dng c ch gi ca cc cng in nay cha hp l. in nhiu gi ty pht in Kh nng sn Lch sa cha cc sng ca t t my cha hp l my Nng lc ca lc lng sa cha thp
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Thit lp lch sa cha hp l Nng cao nng lc qun l vn hnh v sa cha


70

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Ch tiu hiu qu Thi gian vn hnh tng ng

Yu t nh hng

Nguyn nhn

xut

Vt t d phng Thit lp c ch chia s km vt t d phng gia cc Do rng buc trn nh my c cng cng ngh v xut x thit b h thng in X nc trong Xy dng c ch gi bn khi t my Gi bn in cha in nhiu gi khng c hp l huy ng. Bang II-12: Tng hp cc kt qu phn tch

Sut hao nguyn liu

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

71

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

TNG KT CHNG 2
Chng 2 l Chng phn tch v nh gi thc trng khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. Trong chng ny, tc gi thc hin c cc ni dung c bn nh sau: Th nht: Gii thiu v phn tch v h thng in Vit Nam, trong nu ra ra cc c th ca ph ti h thng, ca c cu ngun v nguyn tc thit lp k hoch sa cha cng nh khai thc cc nh my trong h thng. Th hai: Phn tch, nh gi hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay trn c s thng k, phn tch cc s liu lin quan v tm ra nhng yu t nh hng. Th ba: Ch ra cc nguyn nhn dn n hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp hin nay l do ngi bn, ngi mua hay do c th sn phm in nng v th ca h thng in.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

72

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

CHNG III XUT MT S GII PHP NNG CAO HIU QU KHAI THC CC NH MY THY IN C LP TRONG C CH TH TRNG IN MT NGI MUA VIT NAM

III.1 nh hng pht trin ca th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam.


Tp on in lc Vit Nam c nhim v chnh v quan trng l sn xut tiu th in nng v u t pht trin ngnh cng nghip in p ng yu cu in phc v sn xut, pht trin kinh t chnh tr vn ho v i sng dn sinh trong ton x hi, lm nng ct ngnh cng nghip in lc Vit Nam pht trin nhanh v bn vng, cnh tranh v hi nhp kinh t quc t c hiu qu. Ph hp vi yu cu v nh hng chin lc pht trin kinh t x hi, cng nghip ho v hin i ho t nc. Trong giai on t nm 2006 n 2014, thc hin Quyt nh 26/2006/QTTg ngy 26/1/2006 ca Th tng Chnh ph v l trnh, cc iu kin hnh thnh v pht trin cc cp th trng in lc ti Vit Nam, Tng cng ty in lc Vit Nam (nay l Tp on in lc Vit Nam) tch cc xy dng, trin khai thc hin cng nh tham gia hiu qu th trng pht in mt ngi mua. III.1.1 Quan im xy dng th trng in mt ngi mua.

Vic thit k v xy dng th trng in mt ngi mua ti Vit Nam thng nht theo cc quan im nh sau: - Tha mn cc mc tiu ngn hn v di hn - Thu ht vn u t pht trin ngun in - Tng hiu qu sn xut - Tng quyn la chn mua in cho khch hng - m bo cung cp in n nh, tin cy v cht lng - Pht trin bn vng
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
73

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Xy dng th trng in cn xt n h tng c s v vt cht v con ngi cn ang trn hon thin. - Pht trin qua tng cp t n gin n phc tp, t bn t ng n t ng ho hon ton. - Tng dn tnh cnh tranh qua cc cp . - m bo n nh - Khng t bin trong hot ng sn xut - kinh doanh - thi gian tng cng nng lc ca tng khu sn xut. III.1.2 Cc vn cn ch khi xy dng v trin khai th trng in

mt ngi mua. Khi trin khai th trng in mt ngi mua ti Vit Nam, cc vn sau cn c ch : - Th trng in v mt di hn c th a n vic gim p lc tng gi mua in, tuy nhin ri ro v ti chnh ngn hn khi mi trin khai l khng th b qua. - Ri ro v ti chnh trong giai on u trin khai l kh trnh khi nn cn chun b tt cc bin php gim thiu thit hi v c th chu ng c tn tht. - Do tnh cnh tranh trong th trng in dn n gi tr ca mt s nh my gim v c nguy c dn n ph sn. - Vic tch cc khu Pht in - Truyn ti - Phn phi xc nh cc thnh phn chi ph ca cc khu ny trong gi in l mt bc v cng quan trng trong k hoch trin khai Th trng in hon chnh. - H thng SCADA/EMS, trao i thng tin cho cc bn tham gia th trng, o m v truyn tin dung lng ln s l mt yu cu cp thit m bo cho th trng in hot ng thng sut.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

74

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

- Khng c mt m hnh no p dng trn th gii ph hp cho tt c cc yu cu m EVN v tnh hnh pht trin thc t ca ngnh in Vit Nam ang t ra. - M hnh Th trng in ban u CNG N GIN CNG TT v li ch n mang li thm ch c th cn tt hn mt m hnh phc tp t kha cnh qun l. Tuy nhin m hnh phi c thit k rt k lng t ban u t kha cnh minh bch, cng bng, khng phn bit i x v hn ch c cc vn can thip v thao tng bng cc quyt nh ca c nhn vo qu trnh vn hnh th trng in. III.1.3nh hng pht trin ca th trng in mt ngi mua. Pht trin th trng pht in cnh tranh ti Vit Nam bao gm nhng mc tiu c th sau: III.1.3.1 Tng cng hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh ca ngnh in. Thng qua hot ng ca th trng in khu pht in qui lut cung cu v cnh tranh s c phn nh thc cht hn. Khi chuyn sang th trng pht in cnh tranh s c p lc i hi cc n v pht in phi nng cao hiu qu v nng sut, ct gim chi ph cung cp in, nng cao cht lng dch v khch hng, kt qu hot ng kinh doanh s gn lin vi s tn ti ca doanh nghip, thu nhp ca cc thnh vin. Nh cc n v ny s c kh nng nh gi in ca h mt cch cnh tranh v vn thu c li nhun. Mc tng chi ph dch v cung cp in trong tng lai s thp hn mc tng chi ph khi khng c th trng. III.1.3.2 To mi trng hp dn, thu ht vn u t vo lnh vc pht in, ngn chn nguy c thiu in. Khi mt khun kh php l v iu tit r rng v lnh mnh c xy dng v cc mc gi y c thit lp thu ht cc u t mi, cc nh u t phi Chnh ph s tin tng hn v quan tm hn n vic u t vo ngnh in Vit Nam. Vi chng trnh ci cch, s c c hi tt hn t c mc tng trng vt qu 3.600 MW cng sut pht mi m d tnh s c cc n v ngoi EVN u t trong giai on 2003 - 2010. Do , ngnh in s c
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
75

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

ngun pht p ng nhu cu in d bo v h tr tng trng kinh t ca t nc. III.1.3.3 m bo cn bng cung cu in nng cho nn kinh t quc dn theo c ch th trng. S pht trin ca ngnh in nh hng trc tip n s pht trin ca nn kinh t. Tuy nhin chnh s pht trin nhu cu s dng in gy ra mu thun. Cc ngnh kinh t quc dn yu cu ngnh in pht trin nhanh, nhng pht trin nhanh cn u t nhiu vn, gi in bn ra s cao. Ngc li nu gi bn in thp s lm cho ngnh in mt kh nng thu hi vn, khng pht trin c theo yu cu ca nn kinh t quc dn. Cc nc trn th gii tm thy con ng gii quyt mu thun ny bng cch p dng gi in cnh tranh. Gi in cnh tranh s l cng c ca th trng in to ra s cn bng t nhin nhu cu s dng in, li nhun ca cc ngnh sn xut v cc n v cung cp in. Thng qua cc tn hiu cng khai trn th trng in, khch hng s dng in s nh gi ng c bc tranh kinh doanh ca EVN. III.1.3.4 Tin ti m ra cc loi hnh kinh doanh a dng cc bc tip theo ca th trng in, m bo pht trin ngnh in bn vng Mt s loi hnh kinh doanh c thc hin mt cch d dng trong vic mua bn cc loi hng ho khc (nh nhiu ngi cng mua v bn, nh gi mua - bn thng nht...) nhng li rt kh thc hin trong ngnh in nu vn theo cch kinh doanh c quyn nh c. Chuyn hng sang th trng in c th gip ngnh in d dng thc hin cc quy lut mua - bn hng ho nh cc ngnh ngh khc.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

76

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

III.2 Cc gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam.
III.2.1Xy dng biu gi bn in ph hp vi din bin thy vn ca h cha v c th h thng in Vit Nam III.2.1.1 C s xut Theo cc kt qu phn tch Chng 2, hin nay gi bn in cha hon ton ph hp vi din bin thy vn ca h cha v c th h thng in Vit nam. Chnh v vy, nhm nng cao hiu qu khai thc NMT c lp thng qua vic ci thin cc ch tiu nu trn, tc gi xut gii php Xy dng biu gi bn in linh hot ph hp vi din bin thy vn ca h cha v c th h thng in Vit Nam. C th biu gi bn in mi s c 4 loi gi, l:
-

Gi bn in ma kh Gi bn in cho cc gi thp im ca ma l Gi bn in cho cc gi bnh thng ca ma l Gi bn in cho cc gi cao im ca ma l

III.2.1.2 Ni dung ca gii php Trn c s gi bn in trong Hp ng mua bn in c k kt gia Ch s hu NMT c lp v Cng ty Mua bn in (EPTC) nh c cp ti Chng 2. Ch u t ngh EPTC phi hp tnh ton v tha thun li biu gi bn in theo phng php v trnh t sau: Bc 1: Xc nh cc cp gi bn in bnh qun ma kh v ma l. (i) Tnh tng doanh thu d kin hng nm

R = Pc x Eo
Trong : R - Tng doanh thu d kin hng nm Pc - Gi in bnh qun nm (c trong Hp ng mua bn in) Eo - Sn lng in bnh qun hng nm ca NMT (ii) Xc nh cc cp gi bnh qun ma kh, ma ma
77

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Mi lin h gi in bnh qun ma ma v ma kh c th hin nh sau: Pc_mua * E_mua + Pc_kho * E_kho = R Trong : Pc_mua - Gi in bnh qun ma ma Pc_kho - Gi in bnh qun ma kh Ekho - Sn lng in bnh qun ma kh Emua - Sn lng in bnh qun ma mua Trn c s cng thc lin h trn, bn Bn xy dng cc cp gi in bnh qun ma kh, ma ma sao cho cc cp gi in ny khng vt khung gi l ma kh t 2.5 - 5.0 US cent/kWh; ma ma t 2.0 - 4.7 US cent/kWh (Qui nh tm thi ni dung tnh ton phn tch kinh t, ti chnh u t v khung gi mua bn in cc d n ngun). Bc 2: Xc nh cc cp gi bn in gi thp im, gi cao im ca ma ma. Cn c theo Thng t s 08/2010/TT-BCT ngy 24/02/2010 Quy nh v gi bn in nm 2010 v hng dn thc hin, qui nh cc khung thi gian tnh gi in nh sau: Gi Cao im: t 9h30 n 11h30 v t 17h n 20h (05 gi) tt c cc ngy t th Hai n th By trong nm, Ch nht khng c gi cao im. Gi Bnh Thng: t 04h n 9h30, 11h30 n 17h v t 20h n 22h (13gi) tt c cc ngy t th Hai n th By trong nm, ring Ch nht t 4h n 22h (18h). Gi Thp im: t 22h n 04h (06 gi) sng hm sau tt c cc ngy trong nm. Nh vy, theo thng t ny th trong 168 h ca mt tun c 30h cao im, 42h thp im v 96h bnh thng. Nguyn tc tnh ton biu gi pht in ma ma l da trn tng doanh thu d kin khng i hng tun v sn lng in pht vo cc gi cao im,
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
78

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

cc gi bnh thng v cc gi thp im trong tun. Biu gi bn in ma ma c xc nh sao cho gi in cc gi thp im thp c th c huy ng ti a. Trnh t tnh ton nh sau: Tnh tng doanh thu d kin khng i hng tun ma ma Doanh thu d kin khng i hng tun c xc nh bi: Rtuan = Pc_mua * Etuan (**) Trong : R - Tng doanh thu d kin khng i hng tun ca ma l Pc_mua - Gi in bnh qun ma ma Etuan - Sn lng in pht k vng tun ma ma. P_NM - Cng sut ca NMT (Etuan = P_NM * 168) 168 - S gi trong mt tun Xc nh cc cp gi bn in gi thp im, cao im ca ma ma nh my c khai thc ti a trong ngy ma ma v m bo doanh thu k vng th bn Bn cn phi gim gi bn vo cc gi thp im v tng gi bn vo cc gi cao im (nhm ph hp vi dng biu ph ti ngy v nguyn tc huy ng ngun trong h thng). Cng thc xc nh mi lin h gi in gi thp im v gi cao im trong ma ma nh sau: Pt x Et + Pbt x Ebt + Pc x Ec = Rtuan Pt, Pbt, Pc - Gi in cc gi thp im, bnh thng v cao im trong ngy ma ma Pbt = Pc_mua Et, Ebt, Ec - Sn lng in pht cc gi thp im, bnh thng v cao im trong tun. Cn c vo mi cp gi ma ma, ma kh xc nh c Bc 1, bn Bn xy dng cc cp gi in gi thp im, gi cao im ca ma ma cho nh my theo cng thc di y:
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
79

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Pt = (Rtuan - Pc_mua x Ebt - Pc x Ec)/Et (Cng thc lin h gi in gi thp im, gi cao im ca ma ma) Bc 3: Xc nh biu gi in Cn c cc cp gi bn in gi thp im, gi cao im trn, bn Bn v bn Mua thng nht la chn mt cp gi, tha mn cc rng buc:
-

Khng vt khung gi pht in ca Nh nc C kh nng cnh tranh vi cc nh my nhit in v tua bin kh vo cc gi thp im ca ma l (gi in ca nhit in v tua bin kh c trnh by Bng II-3).

T cp gi la chn, hai bn thng nht gi in cho gi bnh thng ca ma ma v gi ma kh trn c s suy ngc li phng n chn. III.2.1.3 Kt qu k vng Vi biu gi bn in nh tc gi xut s mang li li ch cho cc bn lin quan, c th nh sau: Li ch i vi x hi. Trong thc t hin nay, vic NMT x nc sau khi h cha tch y d to ra l nhn to gy ngp lt nghim trng, xi l v bi lp cho vng h lu, nh hng ln n i sng sinh hot cng nh hot ng kinh t ca nhn dn pha h du cng nh mi trng t nhin. Do vy, vi vic p dng biu gi bn in nh tc gi xut th ngay t thi k u ma ma NMT c huy ng ti a 24/24h trong ngy nn lng nc chy xung h du khng ln v n nh, hn na h cha s c dung tch d phng ct l trong sut c ma ma (trng hp nu bt buc phi x tha do nc v qu nhiu th cng khng gy l ln h du), m bo s n nh i vi cc hot ng kinh t cng nh i sng sinh hot ca nhn dn pha h lu cng nh mi trng t nhin.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

80

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Ngoi ra, vi vic gim khai thc cc nh my nhit in, cc nh my tua bin kh vo cc gi thp im (do cc NMT c huy ng cao) tit kim c ngun nhin liu ha thch ang ngy cng cn kit v gim nhim mi trng do pht thi ca cc nh my in ny gy ra. Hn na, vic p dng gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp s c tc ng tch cc: i. Thu ht thm s quan tm n c hi u t vo lnh vc sn xut in ca ca gii doanh nhn, ca cc doanh nghip thuc mi thnh phn kinh t. T thu ht thm ngun vn u t vo lnh vc sn xut in, gp phn m bo cung ng in mt cch bn vng cho cng cuc pht trin t nc. Chnh ph khng phi u t nhiu vn cho ngnh in nh trc y. ii. Gp phn mang li thnh cng cho cng cuc ci t ngnh in m c th l m hnh th trng in mt ngi mua. Gip nhn dn hiu hn v nhng chnh sch ng n trong cng tc qun l ngnh, cng nh nh hng pht trin ngnh in ca Nh nc nh quyt nh s 26/TT ca Th Tng Chnh ph ch r. Li ch i vi bn Bn in. Nh bit, i vi NMT th lng nc c s dng cho pht in cng tng ng vi lng nguyn liu u vo c s dng sn xut ra sn phm in nng v sn phm c tiu th, tc l lng nc ny to ra doanh thu cho ch s hu ca NMT; cn lng nc x cng tng ng vi phn doanh thu ca lng nc ny bng khng.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

81

Lun vn thc s QTKD


3000

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Biu gi bin h thng ma ma v gi bn in d kin

2500

Gi in (/kWh)

2000

1500

1000

500

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 0 Gi SMP Biu gi in ma ma d kin Gi bn theo hp ng (1 gi c nm)

(h)

Bang III-13: Biu gi bin h thng ma ma v gi bn in d kin (Ngun: Tng hp ca Tc gi) Thc trng khai thc cc NMT trong nhng nm va qua c tc gi trnh by v phn tch Chng 2, vo cc gi thp im ca ma ma hu ht cc NMT khng c huy ng (mc d t my sn sng v nh my ang phi x nc bo v an ton cng trnh) do gi bn in cao hn gi bin h thng (nh hnh trn). iu ny dn n sn lng in thc pht ma ma ca nh my thp hn sn lng in ma ma k hoch kh ln (do sn lng in mi ngy thp), do doanh thu nm ca NMT s thp hn doanh thu k hoch. Vi vic p dng biu gi bn in linh hot nh tc gi xut th trong ma ma NMT c huy ng ti a do gi bn in lun thp hn gi bin h thng ti mi thi im (nh hnh trn). iu ny dn n sn lng in thc pht ma ma ca nh my t hoc cao hn sn lng in ma ma k hoch (do sn lng in mi ngy u ti a), do doanh thu nm ca NMT s t thm ch cao hn doanh thu k hoch. Gii php ny ngoi vic nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT (thng qua vic ci thin c 3 ch tiu doanh doanh thu, thi gian vn hnh tng ng
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
82

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

v sut hao nc) m cn c nhng tc ng tch cc nh hng d lun NMT khng nhng khng cn l nguyn nhn gy ra l m cn l tc nhn gim thiu c l lt, gp phn gim c sc p ca chnh quyn a phng v nhn dn ti ni xy dng v khu vc h du ca NMT ln chnh cc ch u t NMT. Li ch i vi bn mua in (Cng ty Mua bn in). Do gi ca cc nh my nhit in, nh my tua bin kh l khng i.V vy vi vic p dng biu gi bn in linh hot nh tc gi xut tc l vo cc gi thp im cc NMT gim gi bn in thp hn gi ca cc nh my nhit in, nh my tua bin kh ( cnh tranh c hi pht in) dn n gi bin ca h thng gim thp. iu ny ngoi mang li doanh thu cho chnh NMT c huy ng cn gim chi ph cho ngi mua duy nht l Cng ty Mua bn in (so vi trng hp cc nh my vn gi gi c nh nh hin nay) do mua c in nng r hn cc nh my nhit in, nh my tua bin kh. Thc t trong nhng nm va qua cho thy, khi NMT phi x l trong khi c hi pht in khng nhiu to ra nhng lung d lun khng tt i vi Cng ty Mua bn in ni ring v Tp on in lc Vit Nam ni chung nh khng cng bng, minh bch, phn bit i x c bit l c quyn trong lnh vc pht in. Vic p dng biu gi in linh hot khng nhng s gip cho bn Mua nng cao hiu qu sn xut kinh doanh thng qua vic gim c chi ph mua in m cn gip x hi hiu hn v ngnh in Vit Nam, v c th ca lnh vc sn xut in v sn phm in, trnh c nhng d lun khng hay nh hin nay. III.2.2 Thit lp k hoch sa cha ph hp vi c th thy vn v c

th h thng in III.2.2.1 C s xut Theo cc kt qu phn tch Chng 2, hin nay k hoch sa cha ca nh my in c lp cha ph hp vi c th thy vn v c th h thng in. Chnh v vy, nhm nng cao hiu qu khai thc NMT c lp thng qua

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

83

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

vic ci thin cc ch tiu nu trn, tc gi xut gii php: Thit lp k hoch sa cha ph hp vi c th thy vn v c th h thng in. Thng thng, cc t my pht in ni chung sau cc chu k vn hnh u phi tch ra sa cha, bo dng theo ng qui nh ca nh ch to v ph hp vi cc qui nh v qun l k thut ca ngnh in Vit Nam (nh Quy phm k thut vn hnh nh my in v li in). i vi cc t my thy in, chu k sa cha qui nh nh sau: (i) nh k sau 12 thng (1 nm) vn hnh s tch sa cha tiu tu;

(ii) nh k 24 thng vn hnh (2 nm) s tch sa cha trung tu; (iii) nh k 48 thng vn hnh (4 nm) s tch sa cha i tu; Nh tc gi phn tch trn, nu trc y, vic xy dng, trin khai v iu tit k hoch sa cha ton b cc cng trnh ngun v li in hng nm c thc hin theo s ch o trc tip, thng nht t EVN xung cc n v th hin nay, quy trnh ny c nhiu thay i, nht l i vi h thng ngun in n thi im ny, t l ngun in c lp ngoi EVN chim trn 30% cng sut ton h thng, cha k n mt phn khng nh cng sut thuc quyn s hu ca EVN chuyn sang cc cng ty c phn nn v c bn, cng tc sa cha u do cc n v ny ch ng, EVN rt kh c th can thip su v ch o theo cch thc v ang lm vi cc n v trc thuc Theo Trung tm iu HT Quc gia, hin nay cng tc phi hp lp k hoch sa cha cc t my pht in trn h thng in quc gia c thc hin theo cc iu khon qui nh ti Qui trnh iu h thng in quc gia do B Cng nghip (nay l B Cng Thng) ban hnh theo quyt nh s 56/QBCN ngy 26/11/2001. i vi cc NMT, trn c s cc chu k sa cha nu trn, cc n v qun l vn hnh cn c vo tnh hnh thc t v khuyn co ca nh sn xut cng nh chuyn gia lp k hoch sa cha t my, gi v tha thun vi Trung tm iu HT Quc gia.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

84

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Nh tc gi trnh by v phn tch Chng 2, mt trong nhng nguyn nhn dn n hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp hin nay cha t c nh mong mun l do vic lp k hoch sa cha cc t my pht in cha hp l. Theo Trung tm iu h thng in quc gia, h thng in Vit Nam hin nay v trong nhng nm ti lun lm vic vi cn bin d phng cng sut thp, chnh v vy trong thc t vn hnh vic thay i lch sa cha i vi mi t my pht in l rt kh khn. Chnh v vy trong nhng nm qua, khi mt s h thy in xut hin l sm hoc l mun (nc v h thy in sm hn chu k hng nm), NMT c c hi pht in nhng li khng c t my sn sng hoc t my pht in vn bt buc phi tch ra sa cha theo ng k hoch. Chnh v vy tc gi xut gii php Thit lp k hoch sa cha ph hp vi c th thy vn v c th h thng in. III.2.2.2 Ni dung ca gii php Trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua hin nay, vic pht in ca mt nh my in ph thuc rt nhiu yu t trong c yu t cnh tranh, kh nng cung cu Chnh v vy, cng tc lp lch sa cha ti u ca nh my rt quan trng, nh my c a ra sa cha khi c hi pht in t, sn sng pht khi c hi pht in cao. Khi c c lch sa cha ti u s lm tng kh nng cnh tranh ca nh my, tng sn lng pht v tng doanh thu, li nhun ca nh my. Nh tc gi phn tch, trong thc t khi Lch sa cha cho tt c cc t my trong h thng in c thit lp th vic thay i thi gian sa s khng d dng do cn bin d phng ca h thng rt thp. Chnh v vy nhm t c mc tiu pht in nhiu, bn sn lng cao v trnh nhng ri ro khi phi li thi gian sa cha cc t my vt qu so vi khuyn co ca nh sn xut, cung cp thit b. Thc t hin nay, do tc ng ca bin i kh hu ton cu v nn ph rng u ngun v ang din ra gay gt khin qui lut l v cc h thy in (bao gm chu k l sm, l chnh v v l mun) t nhiu b tc ng. Thc t cho thy c nhng nm mt vi h thy in l xut hin rt sm vo ng thi k cui ma kh hoc ht ma ma vn xut hin l vi lu lng ln (do rng khng cn gi c vai tr iu tit lu lng nc v h).
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
85

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

Trong khi vi cc cng tc i tu sa cha ti cc NMT li tun theo chu k nm (12 thng vi tiu tu, 24 thng vi trung tu v 48 thng vi i tu) nn nhm duy tr trng thi sn sng ca cc t my in m bo c th tn dng ti a lng nc v h cho vic pht in trong nhng nm ti, tc gi ngh: Cc ch s hu ca cc NMT c lp r sot li cc k hoch sa cha i tu, trung tu, tiu tu ca cc t my. Xy dng li k hoch sa cha hng nm m bo cc mc tiu: i. Cc k hoch sa cha t my phi c b tr hp l vo khong thi gian t u thng 11 hng nm (cch thi k l mun khong 1 thng) n cui thng 4 nm sau (cch thi k l sm khong 1 thng). ii. Cc k hoch sa cha t my phi c b tr hp l m bo mi khong thi gian ch ti a mt t my tin hnh sa cha. iii. Cc k hoch sa cha t my phi c b tr hp l m bo c ngun nhn lc tham gia sa cha cng nh c vt t d phng thc hin. III.2.2.3 Kt qu k vng Nh tc gi phn tch trn, vo ma kh c hi c huy ng ti a ca cc NMT l rt ln. Vi gii php Thit lp k hoch sa cha ph hp vi c th thy vn v c th h thng in do tc gi xut th vo cc thi k c th xy ra l (c bit l vi nhng cn l tri qui lut nh hin nay) cc NMT lun sn sng pht in vi mc cng sut cao nht v vy v s c khai thc ti a, chnh v vy s ci thin c c 3 ch tiu v doanh thu, v thi gian vn hnh tng ng cng nh sut hao nc. III.2.3 xut h tr chuyn mn cc vn v qun l vn hnh nh

my in c lp III.2.3.1 C s xut Theo cc kt qu phn tch Chng 2, do nng lc qun l vn hnh, sa cha v khc phc s c cha tt v thiu vt t thit b d phng nn nh
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
86

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

hng n hiu qu khai thc NMT c lp. Chnh v vy, nhm nng cao hiu qu khai thc NMT c lp thng qua vic ci thin cc ch tiu nu trn, tc gi xut gii php: H tr chuyn mn cc vn qun l vn hnh nh my in c lp. Tp on in lc Vit Nam (EVN) hin ang s hu 27 nh my thy in c cng sut t khc nhau, vi a dng v cng ngh v xut x. Vi chiu dy kinh nghim trong cng tc qun l vn hnh ngun in, EVN hin c (i) i ng cn b qun l v k thut nhiu kinh nghim, (ii) ngun nhn lc lnh ngh trong cng tc vn hnh, x l s cv sa cha thit b, (iii) h thng cc trang thit b hin i phc v cng tc sa cha, th nghim, (iv) h thng trang thit b phc v cng tc thc hnh, din tp x l s c hon ho, (v) h thng cc ti liu qui chun v vn hnh v sa cha cc thit b trong cc nh my in. Tuy nhin, l mt doanh nghip nh nc nn EVN c nhng rng buc v c ch chnh sch trong vic i ng nhn ti, mt khc theo l trnh ci cch v ti c cu ngnh in, EVN v ang sp xp li cc doanh nghip thnh vin theo hng gn nh v tinh gim bin ch. Chnh v vy, hin nay mt s cn b qun l v cn b k thut ca cc doanh nghip thnh vin ca EVN c nguyn vng c n lm vic ti nhng doanh nghip mi pht huy c nng lc cng nh c i ng xng ng so vi trnh v cng hin ca mnh. Thc t cho thy, cc NMT u c xy dng tp trung theo tng khu vc theo phn vng a l nhng ni c tim nng thy in. Tuy nhin do ch s hu ca cc NMT u c ngnh ngh truyn thng khc nhau nn s lin kt, h tr nhau trong cng tc xy dng, qun l vn hnh cha cao. Bn cnh , do nhiu nguyn nhn trong c vic tit kim chi ph u t nn ngay t thit k NMT, mt s khu trong qui trnh cng ngh b n gin ha, hu ht cc thit b trong nh my l thit b xut x t Trung Quc. Cng do ngun vn hn hp v thiu kinh nghim trong qun l vn hnh nh my in nn trang thit b phc v cng tc sa cha th nghim khng c u t hoc u t t v thiu ng b, c bit l h thng vt t d phng thay th hu nh khng c hoc c nhng khng phi l nhng vt t chin lc.
Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.
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Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

III.2.3.2 Ni dung ca gii php a. H tr ngun nhn lc c chuyn mn v kinh nghim khai thc vn hnh nh my in - i vi lc lng cn b qun l v cn b k thut: Xy dng chnh sch trng dng v i ng xng ng i vi lc lng cn b k thut v cn b qun l nhm: (i) S dng hp l v to s yn tm cng tc cho lc lng cn b c cht lng cao hin c, (ii) Thu ht ngun cn b qun l v cn b k thut c kinh nghim ti cc NMT ca EVN, c bit l cc NMT c cng cng ngh v xut x trang thit b. - i vi lc lng vn hnh v sa cha nh my: (i) Xy dng chnh sch thu ht ngun nhn lc cht lng cao trn c s trng dng v i ng tha ng, (ii) xy dng k hoch o to v ti o to lc lng vn hnh, lc lng sa cha trn c s tham kho kinh nghim trong cng tc o to ca cc NMT thuc EVN. Xy dng v chun ha h thng ti liu cc qui trnh k thut phc v cng tc vn hnh, x l s c v sa cha cc thit b trong NMT. b. y mnh hp tc vi cc n v thy in khc. - Hp tc vi cc n v c nng lc trong cng tc sa cha thy in: Nhm tinh gim v tit kim chi ph, hu ht ch s hu ca cc NMT c lp u khng ch trng xy dng lc lng sa cha (ch duy tr mt b phn nh lm cng tc sa cha nh, gin n) cng nh khng u t mua sm cc trang thit b phc v cng tc sa cha, th nghim v c bit l cn thiu kinh nghim trong lnh vc ny. V vy gii php m tc gi xut l cc ch s hu cc NMT c lp cn xy dng mi quan h vi cc n v c kinh nghim sa cha thy in hin c trong khu vc nh cc cng ty th nghim in, cc cng ty thy in uy tn khc, mi cc n v ny tham quan, kho st v k kt cc hp ng sa cha nguyn tc. khi c nhng trc trc, h hng m n v khng th t khc phc c hoc s mt nhiu thi gian x l hn bnh thng (do thiu ngun

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

88

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

nhn lc v trang thit b cng nh kinh nghim) th s c h tr nhanh nht t cc n v ny. - Do ngun kinh ph u t cho vic mua sm vt t d phng khng c nhiu, trong khi cc vt t thit b ca NMT u l thit b c chng, t tin v a phn phi nhp t nc ngoi rt mt thi gian. Chnh v vy gii php m tc gi xut l cc ch s hu ca cc NMT c cng cng ngh, cng xut x thit b phi hp lp danh mc cc trang thit b (c bit l cc trang thit b c tn sut h hng nhiu), thng nht phn b cho mi n v tin hnh mua sm mt s hang mc vt t c th, to ngun vt t d phng cho nhau khi cn thit, hn ch ti a thi gian bt kh dng t my khi c hng hc hoc s c. III.2.3.3 Kt qu k vng Vi gii php m tc gi xut, s gp phn: i. Nng cao cht lng cng tc qun l iu hnh NMT, mt lnh vc hon ton mi v ang gp nhiu kh khn i vi cc ch s hu hin nay. ii. Cht lng cng tc sa cha, khc phc s c m bo cht lng cng nh gim thiu thi gian bt kh dng t my m khng phi u t nhiu kinh ph. T , nhng gii php ny s gp phn nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trn c s ci thin c c 3 ch tiu l doanh thu, thi gian vn hnh tng ng v sut hao nc m hin nay cc NMT ang phi i mt.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

89

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

TNG KT CHNG 3
Chng 3 l Chng tc gi xut cc gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc my in c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua. Trong chng ny, tc gi thc hin c cc ni dung c bn nh sau: Th nht: Gii thiu v nh hng pht trin th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam, trong tc gi phn tch v quan im xy dng th trng, cc vn cn ch khi xy dng v trin khai th trng cng nh nh hng pht trin th trng mt ngi mua Vit Nam. Th hai: xut cc gii php nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua cng nh phn tch lowicj ch ca cc bn lin quan nu thc hin gii php.

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

90

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

PHN KT LUN
Hng ng chnh sch khuyn khch u t vo lnh vc pht in ca Nh nc, trong nhng nm qua cc thnh phn kinh t trong v ngoi nc tham gia u t, xy dng v a vo vn hnh hng lot cc d n ngun in, gp phn ng k trong vic cung ng in cho nn kinh t quc dn. Ti c cu ngnh in v vn hnh th trng pht in cnh tranh mang li nhng i thay tch cc cho ngnh in Vit Nam cng nh mang n nhng c hi kinh doanh mi cho cc thnh phn kinh t phi truyn thng. Tuy nhin, khai thc cc nh my in trong c ch th trng in mt ngi mua nh th no t c hiu qu cao nht lun l vn m cc nh qun l nh my in cn phi gii quyt. Trong khun kh phm vi lun vn ny, ba gii php c la chn trnh by trn c th ni l kh quan trng v cn thit cho cc nh qun l NMT c lp. y l cc gii php nhm nng cao hiu qu khai thc cc NMT c lp, gp phn cho th trng in mt ngi mua Vit Nam ngy cng hot ng hiu qu, dn nng cao tng bc tnh cnh tranh, cng bng v minh bch trong hot ng in lc nhm hng ti mc tiu cui cng l a ngnh in Vit Nam ngy cng pht trin bn vng!

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

91

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

TI LIU THAM KHO


PHN TI LIU TING VIT [1]. Bo co tng kt vn hnh h thng in Quc gia nm 2008. Trung tm iu H thng in Quc gia. [2]. Bo co tng kt vn hnh h thng in Quc gia nm 2009. Trung tm iu H thng in Quc gia. [3]. Bo co tng kt vn hnh h thng in Quc gia nm 2008. Trung tm iu H thng in Quc gia. [4]. Bo co tng kt vn hnh h thng in Quc gia, qu I&II nm 2010. Trung tm iu h thng in quc gia. [5]. Tng kt cng tc mua bn in nm 2009. Cng ty Mua bn in. [6]. Phng Vn hnh Kinh t, (2010). Bo co tnh ton lp k hoch vn hnh th trng pht in cnh tranh nm 2011. Bo co gi Cc iu tit in lc do Phng Vn hnh Kinh t - Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia lp. [7]. Phng thc vn hnh h thng in Quc gia 6 thng cui nm 2010 v nh hng cho nm 2011. Phng Tnh ton h thng in - Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia lp. [8]. Quyt nh s 18/2008/Q-BCT ngy 18 thng 7 nm 2008 ca B trng B Cng Thng,(2008). Quy nh v biu gi chi ph trnh c cho cc nh my in nh s dng nng lng ti to. B Cng thng. [9]. Quyt nh s 2014/Q-BCN ngy 13 thng 06 nm 2007 ca B trng B Cng nghip, (2007). Ban hnh Quy nh tm thi ni dung tnh ton phn tch kinh t, ti chnh u t v khung gi mua bn in cc d n ngun in. B Cng nghip [10]. TS. Bi Xun Hi,(2008). L thuyt gi nng lng. Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut [11]. Vin Nng lng - EVN, (2005). Tng s pht trin in VI. Vin Nng lng [12]. Ng Sn Hi, (2004). Vn hnh kinh t h thng in. Ti liu tham kho ni b c quan Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia
92

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

Lun vn thc s QTKD

Khoa Kt & Ql - Trng HBK HN

[13]. PGS.TS. Nguyn i on, (2008). Gio trnh kinh t hc v m. Nh xut bn Bch Khoa - H Ni [14]. Phng Vn hnh Kinh t, (2010). Th trng in Vit Nam - Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin. Ti liu bin son o to vn hnh cc nh my in, Phng Vn hnh Kinh t - Trung tm iu h thng in Quc gia. [15]. Quyt nh s 26/2006/Q-TTg ngy 26 thng 01 nm 2006 ca Th tng Chnh ph. Ph duyt l trnh, cc iu kin hnh thnh v pht trin cc cp th trng in lc Vit Nam. Th Tng Chnh Ph. [16]. TS Nguyn i Thng, (2004). Bi ging kinh t hc vi m. Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K thut - H Ni. [17]. Thng t 08/2010/TT-BCT ban hnh ngy 24 thng 2 nm2010. Quy nh v gi bn in nm 2010 v hng dn thc hin. B Cng Thng. [18]. B Cng nghip, (2006). Quy nh th trng pht in cnh tranh th im ni b. [19]. Thng t 18/2010/TT-BCT ngy 10/05/2010, (2010). Quy nh th trng vn hnh th trng pht in cnh tranh. B Cng Thng

PHN TI LIU TING ANH [20]. Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam, (2006). The single buyer model in Vietnam [21]. Mohammad Shahidehpour - Hatim Yamin, (2002). Market operations in Electric power system

Hc vin. Nguyn Mnh Tng Kha: 2008 - 2010.

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