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A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HIGH TURNOVER AMONG THE JANITORS AT ABC COMPANY

Chamalie Ahangama Withanage


B.Sc (Hons) Facilities Management University of Moratuwa a.w.chamalie@gmail.com Sri lanka

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Acknowledge ments

Acknowledgements

This research is accomplished to be indebted much dedication and admiration of many people who have contributed in numerous ways. I express my gratitude to each and every individual for their encouragement, values and ideas, assistance and especially their commitment towards this research to make it a success. First and most respectively, I am greatly indebted my supervisor, Mr.Mahendra Silva for the given interest, encouragement, gentle guidance and support offered through out of this study. I extend my sincere thanks to Mr. Suneth Hitihamu for his interest, encouragement and the guidance towards this work as research coordinator. It is my foremost duty to pay my gratitude to Head, Air Vice Marshal Rohitha Ranasinghe and all other staff members of IPM for the endorsement they gave me during the final year as well as during the research period. Also another word of thanks must go to all non academic staff members of the IPM for valuable help given whenever I required. I express my indebtedness to all participants in the survey for their encouragement, contribution, values and ideas, valuable assistance and especially their commitment towards this research and the valuable time they spent to make this research successful. I pay special flourishing thanks to Mr. Sudath Berugoda Arachchi (head of HR - Abans Environmental (Pvt) Ltd) for special assistance of this research. Finally I express my heartfelt thanks for my family members, relations, colleagues for giving me an outstanding company to make this research possible. Chamalie Ahangama Withanage 15th September 2012

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Dedication

Dedication...

To My Beloved Parents

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Declaration

Declaration

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains neither materials published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma or university or other institute of higher studies, except where an acknowledgement made in the text.

.. Chamalie Ahangama Withanage Institute of Personnel Management

.. Date

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Abbreviations

Abbreviations

AES- ABC Enviromental Services (Pvt) Ltd

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Abstract

Abstract

ABC is janitor based company and the performance of janitor is a significant component towards the overall company performance. Company performance can certainly be enhanced by doing labour turnover analysis and diagnostics, leading to enhance efficiency of labours. . Labour turnover has been one of the major research areas in janitorial industry. The reason is that, in almost janitorial industry is a major industry which seriously affected by labour turnover issue. The attempts were made to identify and analyze the factors of labour turnover among janitors in ABC company according to managers perspective and janitors perspective criteria of personal reason, salary, organizational reason and management style. Questions were then formulated to extract a set of exclusive factors and their levels of influence on labour turnover and distributed among janitors and managers who work in janitorial sites. Level of influence of each factors of labour turnover were analyzed through the mean value of the factors and significance factors were identified through percentage of importance. It is very important to select the suitable strategies to overcome increasing labour turnover issue. Efficiency of labours has a close link to quality and productivity improvements of the company. Therefore, managing labour turnover in successful manner is essential for surviving and it will enhance companys market competitiveness. Keywords: Labour turnover, Factors affecting, sources of turnover, ABC company (janitorial industry)

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... I Dedication... ................................................................................................................... II Declaration ....................................................................................................................III Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... IV Abstract .......................................................................................................................... V Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... VI List of Figures ............................................................................................................ VIII List of Table ................................................................................................................. IX Chapter 01 .....................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................1 1.1 Background ......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Problem Statement .............................................................................................. 2 1.3 Objectives ........................................................................................................... 2 1.4 Scope and limitation ........................................................................................... 2 1.5 Methodology ....................................................................................................... 2 1.6 Chapter Breakdown ............................................................................................ 3 Chapter 02 .....................................................................................................................5 2 Sources of Labour Turnover ...................................................................................5 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Approaches to Employee Turnover .................................................................... 5 2.3 Overview of company ......................................................................................... 6 2.4 Types of Turnover............................................................................................... 9 2.5 Methods of Identifying Reasons for Staffs Turnover ....................................... 10 2.6 Relationships among Turnover and Productivity ............................................. 11 2.7 Effects of turnover on an organization.............................................................. 12 2.8 Measuring Turnover.......................................................................................... 12 2.9 Factors Leading to Turnover ............................................................................. 13 2.10 Preventive actions to reduce turnover ............................................................... 20 2.11 Strategies to overcome employee turnover ....................................................... 21 2.12 Summary ........................................................................................................... 22 Chapter Three .............................................................................................................23 3 Research Methodology .........................................................................................23 3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 23 3.2 Research Design/Methodology ......................................................................... 24 3.3 Summary ........................................................................................................... 28 Institute of Personnel Management VI

Table of Contents

Chapter 04 ...................................................................................................................29 4 Research Findings and Analysis ...........................................................................29 4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 29 4.2 Details of the Sample ........................................................................................ 29 4.3 Results of Questionnaire and Interview ............................................................ 30 4.4 Data analysis techniques ................................................................................... 31 4.5 Sources of labour turnover janitors perspective Vs. Managers perspective .. 41 4.6 Summary ........................................................................................................... 42 Chapter 05 ...................................................................................................................43 5 Conclusions and Recommendations .....................................................................43 5.1 Recommendations for managers ....................................................................... 45 5.2 Recommendations for Academic Researchers.................................................. 45 5.3 Contribution to Knowledge............................................................................... 46 References ....................................................................................................................47

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List of Figures

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Chapter Breakdown ......................................................................................4 Figure 2.1: Organization structure of ABC Company ....................................................8 Figure 2.2: Type of turnover ...........................................................................................9 Figure 3.1: Research Process ........................................................................................23 Figure 3.2: Nested Research Methodology (Kagioglou et al., 2000)............................24 Figure 4.1: Labour turnover factors in personal reason ...............................................32 Figure 4.2: Percentage Labour composition for age group ..........................................33 Figure 4.3: Labour turnover factors in work environment............................................35 Figure 4.4: Labour turnover factors in salary and recognition......................................37 Figure 4.5: Labour turnover factors in organizational management style ....................38

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List of Tables

List of Table

Table 2.1: Employee turnover statistical data .................................................................... 7 Table 4.1: Out put of Cronbachs Alpha test for perspectives ......................................... 30 Table 4.2: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in personal reason ......... 32 Table 4.3: Percentage Labour composition for age group ............................................... 33 Table 4.4: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in work environment ..... 34 Table 4.5: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in salary and recognition37 Table 4.6: Factors influencing labour turnover in organizational management style ...... 38 Table 4.8: Ranking of factors Janiors perspective Vs Managers .............................. 41

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CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Chapter 01
1
1.1 Background

Introduction

The term turnover is defined by Price (1977) as: the ratio of the number of organizational members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period. Managers refer to turnover as the entire process associated with filling a vacancy: Each time a position is vacated, either voluntarily or involuntarily, a new employee must be hired and trained. This replacement cycle is known as turnover (Woods, 1995). These employees are extremely crucial to the organisation since their value to the organization is essentially intangible and not easily replicated (Meaghan et al, 2002). Therefore, managers must recognize that employees as major contributors to the efficient achievement of the organizations success (Abbasi et al, 2000). Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of induction and training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization. Therefore, managers at all costs must minimize employees turnover. Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the employees turnover process as whole, a wide range of factors have been found useful in interpreting employee turnover (Kevin et al, 2004). Therefore, there is need to develop a fuller understanding of the employee turnover, more especially, the sources what determines employee turnover, effects and strategies that managers can put in place minimize turnover. ABC Environmental Services (Pvt) Limited is the market leader in janitorial and related services and the position they have maintained since 1994. Being the only Janitorial and Housekeeping service provider in the country with ISO 9001 certification since 1999, has helped us to deliver a consistent and tested service while adding value to our clients service requirements. According labour turnover statistical data, labour turnover is over 30% in last decade in ABC company. It is significant figure that need to be examined root causes and find out strategies to overcome.

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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.2

Problem Statement

Turnover of janitors is over 30% in last decade and it becomes severe issue of smooth operation of company. Labour turnover rate has a close link to the quality and productivity improvements of the organization. Therefore, managing labour turnover is essential to survive in the industry and ensure industrial competitiveness.

1.3

Objectives

1.3.1 General Objective


To find out factors affecting labour turnover among janitors in the ABC company.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives


I. Identify various factors affecting for labour turnover among janitors in ABC company. II. III. Analyze factors which affecting for labour turnover among janitors Ranking the factors affecting for labour turnover according to level of perspective of janitors and manager. IV. Identify compatibility of perspective level of janitors and managers towars factors affecting for labour turnover among janitors in ABC company.

1.4

Scope and limitation


The research will be carried out within the ABC company and it is limited to janitors and operation managers who work in janitorial sites. Utilizing only two data collection method (interview and survey) Gathering actual turnover information is not easy task because there is no proper data base in ABC Company.

1.5

Methodology

Literature survey and review A comprehensive literature review has been carried out using various books, journals, research papers, conference papers, and electronic media as well as through Institute of Personnel Management 2

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

discussions with experts to identify the concept of sources of labour turnover and strategic approaches to overcome the issue. Questionnaire Survey A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been carried out to obtain views about the sources of labour turnover and strategic approaches to overcome the issue. Analysis Statistical test has been carried out to rank the sources of labour turnover and strategic approaches to overcome the issue according to the level of importance.

1.6

Chapter Breakdown

Chapter One: General Introduction Chapter one consists of the background to the study, aim and objectives, scope of the study, organization of the report with a brief introduction to the research methodology. Chapter Two: Literature Review This chapter presents a comprehensive literature review on factors affecting for labour turnover and strategic approaches which relates to the turnover management process. Chapter Three: Research Process and Methodology Explain about the research methodology and statistical analysis methods adopted for this study. Chapter Four: Analysis and Research Findings Described the survey findings on research Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations The conclusions derived from the research findings and recommendations for promoting good practice are presented in this chapter. Suggested recommendations for further researches are also included.

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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Chapter Breakdown Chapter 01 Introduction Objective 01 Identify and analyze factors affecting for labour turnover

Chapter 02 Literature survey Literature review

Chapter 03 Methodology

Objective 02 To find out the compatible and strategic approaches which relates to the turnover

Chapter 04 Analysis of data

Questionnaire survey Interview Chapter 05 Conclusion, recommendation and further research direction

Objective 03 Identify relative importance of factors affecting for labour turnover

Objective 04 Prioritizing influential (strong) solution for successful labour turnover management

Figure 1.1: Chapter Breakdown

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CHAPTER 02
LITERATURE SYNTHESIS

CHAPTER TWO

Sources of Labour Turnover

Chapter 02
2
2.1 Introduction

Sources of Labour Turnover

Employee turnover has become an important area of research from both a theoretical and practical standpoint. It is important from a theoretical perspective, in understanding how the underlying causes of turnover can provide insights into how to control the phenomenon. In this chapter the researcher reviewed a variety of published literature dealing with employee turnover in general and some more specific to employee turnover in the janitorial industry.

2.2

Approaches to Employee Turnover

According to Ivancevich and Glueck, staff turnover is the net result of the exit of someemployees and entrance of others to the organization. Singh et al, 1994, also define staff turnover as the rate of change in the working staffs of a concern during a definite period. Kossen defined the staff turnover as it is the amount of movement in and out (of employees) in an organization. Turnover, as per Wikipedia (the free encyclopedia), in a human resources context refers to the characteristic of a given company or industry, relative to rate at which an employer gains and loses staffs. Price (1977) defines turnover as the degree of individual movement across the membership boundaries of a social system. Macy & Mirvis (1976) viewed turnover as any departure beyond organizational boundaries. Mobley stated that turnover is the cessation of membership in an organization by an individual who received monetary compensation from the organization. Organizations invest a lot on their employees in terms of induction and training, developing, maintaining and retaining them in their organization. Therefore, managers at all costs must minimize employees turnover. Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the employees turnover process as whole, a wide range of factors have been found useful in interpreting employee turnover Kevin et al. (2004). Therefore, there is a need to develop a fuller understanding of the employee Institute of Personnel Management 5

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Sources of Labour Turnover

turnover, more especially, the sources what determines employee turnover, effects and strategies that managers can put in place to minimize turnover. These employees are extremely crucial to the organisation since their value to the organization is essentially intangible and not easily replicated (Meaghan et al, 2002). Therefore, managers must recognize that employees as major contributors to the efficient achievement of the organizations success (Abbasi et al, 2000). Managers should control employee turnover for the benefit of the organization success. Denvir & McMahon (1992) reported that "High levels of turnover can become substantial and detrimental to the organization. It prevents relationships between employees and employers. It involves heavy administrative costs and a substantial loss of productivity through the breaking up of teams who are used to working together. Yet managers may have difficulty understanding and or accepting employee turnover within their organization, due to a myopic perspective of the situation. However, identifying the underlying causes, quantifying the problem, and identifying possible solutions to high employee turnover can prove to be valuable information for managers who wish to make a difference (Mobley, 1982).

2.3

Overview of company

ABC Environmental Services (Pvt) Ltd commenced business in 1985, as a joint venture company between ABC Limited and International System of Denmark. ABC Limited is one of the largest privately held group of companies operating in Sri Lanka, having more than 27 independently operating companies organized under 4 strategic business units with a turnover of over Rs. 10 Billion (US$ 100 Million). ABC Environmental Services (Pvt) Limited is the market leader in janitorial and related services and the position they have maintained since 1994. The company has sales has sales of over Rs. 01 Billion per annum and employ over 8,000 staff on a permanent basis and service over 1,400 customers on regular contract. Being the only Janitorial and Housekeeping service provider in the country with ISO 9001 certification since 1999, has helped us to deliver a consistent and tested service while adding value to our clients service requirements.

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CHAPTER TWO

Sources of Labour Turnover

They provide services to most of the banks and private hospitals in the country and they also provide Solid Waste Management Services to the Colombo Municipal Council and other Local Authorities.

2.3.1 ABC Environmental (Pvt) Ltd Aim


We aim to be the leading Facilities Management Specialists. To achieve this, we will develop services, superior to those of The competition and match them to the local needs of our customers In order to provide them with peace of mind peace of mind and enhance their business. By delivering on thing commitment at the highest standards Of performance, we will achieve sustained profitable growth

Employee turnover statistical data


Table 2.1: Employee turnover statistical data

Year 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001

% of Labour Turnover 30 28 25 20 22 27 24 25 23 25 32

According to table 2.1 average labour turnover is 25% in last decade in ABC Company. It is significant figure that need to be examined root causes and find out strategies to overcome. Managers are struggling to manage labour turnover issue among janitors in ABC company from last ten years. But still they are unable to find sound solution to overcome issue successfully. So this study has been conducted last three months to find out factors affecting for labour turnover among janitors.

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CHAPTER TWO

Sources of Labour Turnover

2.3.2 Organization structure of ABC Company

Chief Executive Officer

Chief Finance Officer

Chief Operations Officer

DGM Projects Snr. Project Manager Head of HR IT Mgr Mgr. Admin Mgr. Legal Mgr. Finance Mgr. Finance Operational Manager Site Manager

Accountant Admin Exec. Exec Jnr. Exe CSO Jnr. Exe Secretary

Accountant

Supervisor Exec Exec Jnr. Exe Junior Executive Janitor

Figure 2.1: Organization structure of ABC Company

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General formal reporting relationship is shown in organization chart. There nearly 4000 janitors work under 300 supervisors. Nearly hundred managers managing supervisors and janitors. Ten operational managers are leading according to areas wise. Four senior operational managers are directing the sites located in the country. Duputy Genaral Manager is responsible for overall strategic approaches of the company.

2.4

Types of Turnover

Voluntary turnovers are those caused by the interest of the employee while involuntary turnovers are the decision of management to quit employees from work. Voluntary turnovers are further distinguished between functional and dysfunctional turnovers. Functional turnovers are the resignation of substandard performers and dysfunctional turnovers refer to the exit of effective performers. Dysfunctional turnover, which is the most concerning factor, of the management, since it is affecting negatively to organizations general performance, into avoidable turnover (caused by lower compensation, poor working condition, etc) and unavoidable turnovers (family moves, serious illness, death, etc) over which the organization has little or no influence. Therefore, management should give special attention to avoidable turnover which it has a control and improves the situation and then staffs retention. The following chart gives a clear picture of staff turnover ladder (Yared, 2007, p.10).

Turnover Voluntary Dysfunctional Avoidable Turnover Functional Unavoidable Involuntary

Figure 2.2: Type of turnover

(Source: Loquercio Yared, 2007, p.10) Institute of Personnel Management 9

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2.4.1 Voluntary Turnover Decision Process


As explained by Stephen, employees may become bored with the content of job, frustrated by lack of promotion, fed up with their supervisors or irritated by changes in their working environment. The following ten steps are the decision process for the voluntary turnover (Yared, 2007, p.10). a. Evaluate existing job, b. Experience job dissatisfaction, c. Think of quitting, d. Evaluate expected utility of search for a new job and the cost of quitting, e. Decide to search for alternatives, f. Search for alternatives, g. Evaluate alternatives h. Compare best alternative with present job i. Decide whether to stay or quit j. Quit

2.5

Methods of Identifying Reasons for Staffs Turnover

Since turnover involves the most important resource of an organization, it needs to be examined and monitored. Several different methods are available to researchers seeking to investigate why employees choose to leave. I - Exit Interview Undertaking formal interviews with employees before they leave the organization is a common method used to develop an understanding of their motivation for resigning. The most straightforward approach is to take the designer through a questionnaire of direct questions concerning his/her satisfaction with pay, supervisor, development opportunities, relationships with colleagues and job content (Orton, M. (1971). II - Surveys of Ex-employees Another way of collecting information about the reason for staff resignation is to contact former employees some months after they left the organization and ask them for a considered view of their reasons for resignation (Yared, 2007, p.10).

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III - Attitude Surveys A third approach is to seek the views of employees before they leave and so provide a basis for the development of policies and practices that will deter them from so doing. Questions can also be asked about their current intentions as regards the future and about their perception of alternative career paths open to them. Such approaches enable employers to anticipate in which areas future turnover is most likely to occur, and to gain an insight into the main causes (Yared, 2007, p.10). IV Quantitative Approaches Quantitative approaches are unlikely in themselves to give a particularly clear picture of reasons for turnover, they may reveal some general trends and can usefully supplement information gathered using the three other methods outlined above. Any number of ratios can be investigated using quantitative analyses. Examples might include comparing leavers with stayers in terms of their ages, the distance they travel to work, their shift-patterns, pay levels, performance record or length of service. It is also possible to use these techniques to identify the extent to which turnover varies with the type of job undertaken or with the supervision of different managers (Yared, 2007, p.10).

2.6

Relationships among Turnover and Productivity

Turnover deeply related with the productivity of an organization. Employee turnover can hamper the overall productivity of an organization and is often a symptom of other difficulties. During the time of replacement the co-worker faces problems due to the vacancy. After the replacement the co-worker have to spend time from their task to help the new worker. Newly appointed employee may not be trained properly for the new position and needed time consuming training for settle down with the new job place. There may be cultural differences between new employees with the previous one which slows down his job performance. Demographic position also influences workers performance and characteristics. The market reputation of the employer is adversely affected due to high staffs turnover. May not be able to meet customer orders and expectations on timely manner. All the causes mentioned above contribute hugely to the damage of productivity of any organizations or service sectors. Care therefore Institute of Personnel Management 11

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must be taken to reduce or minimize turnover rate as minimum as possible (Shamsuzzoha & Rezaul, 2007, 65).

2.7

Effects of turnover on an organization

An excessive turnover rate regardless of cause has an enormous negative impact on the company and those employed with the organization. Sometimes even consumer and customers suffer by the amount of change in the business. Employee turnover can have a negative effect on the performance of the business. The most common find of the effects turnover has on an organization is financial loss. These costs can be separated into two categories. Tangible costs include the time spent in recruiting, selecting, interviewing, and training new employees. These expenses are visible and noted in the cost of advertising and manpower expenses. A manager spends time away from his principal duty to be involved in the hiring process. A certain amount of capital is lost due to the time devoted to other functions instead of managing everyday functions (White, 1995). Employee turnover can become expensive if not controlled by the company. Intangible losses include the lost of the knowledge the person leaving is taking with them. The greater the intellect of the person, the larger the loss. The workload of the remaining employees is increased due to the missing person (Ren, 2003). Coworkers must now pick up the slack and work longer or more shifts until a new employee is hired, which also creates overtime in certain industries. Companies may have to deal with the negative publicity which follows businesses with high turnover rates (White, 1995).

2.8

Measuring Turnover

The commonly used formula to calculate a crude turnover rate for any given period is described as shown below by the Total leavers over period x 100 Average no. of employees

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The employee turnover rate is usually calculated by dividing the number of employees separated from the company they were working for by the base number of jobs during the period (CIPD, 2006).

2.9

Factors Leading to Turnover

Employees move from one organization to the other and from one industry to the other for different reasons. It is the attraction of a new job or the prospect of a period outside the workforce which 'pulls' them like higher salary or better benefits; on other occasions they are 'pushed' due to dissatisfaction in their present jobs to seek alternative employment. It may be mixtures of both pull and push factors. According to the recent research conducted by CIPD, (2006), push factors play a major role in most resignations than pull factors. CIPD also emphasized that it is relatively rare for people to leave jobs in which they are happy, even when offered higher pay elsewhere. Human resource management is one of the most important functions that should be carried out with care and consciously in order to motivate staffs for better productivity and serve the organization for long time. The cause of staff turnover should be studied by management carefully. From the control point of view the staff turnover may either be avoidable or unavoidable. They also further elaborated that unavoidable causes are not fault of management but due to other factors which are not under organizations control like employees personal betterment, domestic affairs such as marriage and pregnancy, illness, retirement, death, etc. and avoidable causes are like employees dissatisfaction with job, low remuneration, long hour of work and poor working conditions, bad relation with supervisors and fellow workers and redundancy of activities.

2.9.1 Work environment related reason


I - Lack of Training New-hire orientation and skills training are two required components of job preparation for which employers are responsible. Job preparation begins with the initial step in training during new-hire orientation. Employees who start new jobs without any kind of orientation or training are often unaware of workplace policies and processes that would benefit their job performance. Additional training throughout the employment relationship keeps employee skill sets up-to-date and enables a more Institute of Personnel Management 13

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productive and efficient workforce. When employees lack the training necessary to become more productive, their performance suffers and they will either leave of their own volition for jobs that provide training and employee support or they will be terminated for poor performance. A lack of proper training and development is also major cause for voluntary turnover (James, 2004, 13). II - Poor Working Conditions Employees must have the necessary tools to perform their duties. This includes the proper equipment, machinery as well as adequate lighting, work. Poor working conditions due to physical elements lead to low productivity and overall job dissatisfaction. The latter, particularly when left unaddressed leaves employees feeling unappreciated and they ultimately leave (Alan & Rita, 2002) III - Workplace Conflict Employees involved in workplace conflict especially when management or human resources fails to investigate or resolve the issues. Unresolved workplace conflict has a detrimental effect on employee morale. Employer precautions include enforcing workplace policies that support fair employment practices and implementing a process for employees to report incidents that often rise to the level of workplace conflict, such as harassment or bullying (Edmund & Bradley, 1988). IV - Employee Communication Employers who communicate regularly with employees lessen the risk of creating a workforce that feels undervalued and unappreciated. Keeping employees informed about organizational changes, staffing plans and fluctuating business demands is one way to ensure employees remain with the company. Neglecting employee concerns about job security through lack of communication or excluding employees from discussions that can affect their job performance, such as policy or procedural changes, negatively impacts the way employees view their employer. Their views transform to dissatisfaction and finally low productivity due to low morale and disengagement. The negative relationship between instrumental communication and turnover (Helen, 2007).

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V - Job Dissatisfaction Job dissatisfaction has been found to be a common occurrence with several levels of severity. A direct positive correlation was found in the employees level of dissatisfaction and the chance that the employee would leave the organization (Henry, 2007). VI - Role Stressors Staw (1980) identified three role stressors, which contribute to employee turnover. These three role stressors are role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload. Almost the opposite of lack of responsibility, role stress is a result of work environment perceptions and thus, influences affective responses such as organizational commitment. Role ambiguity results when an employee is uncertain how to perform the job. Role conflict is experienced when an employee receives two or more sets of expectations or demands that are incompatible and cannot be simultaneously satisfied (Churchill, Ford, & Walker 1976). VII - Lack of Respect Certain businesses have been criticized for not giving employees the respect that they feel they deserve. Employees expect to be treated with dignity and respect at all levels of the job. Employees can be the deciding factor in an organizations success. For this reason, employers should treat employees with respect and in the same manner in which they would like to be treated. If management does not realize that employees are its most important assets. Since employees generally want to do a good job, it follows that they also want to be appreciated and recognized for their works. Even the most seasoned employee needs to be told what he or she is doing right once in a while (James, 2004, 14). VIII - Lack of Responsibility Individuals perceive that they are ready to make the decisions yet, management may never give them the chance. Responsibility is a major factor that can provide a lasting change of attitude. Therefore, empowering the employee could be a critical investment in a companys future (James, 2004, 13).

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IX - Job security Job security is the probability that an individual will keep his or her job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed. Employees have a preference for security of their jobs (Hokey, 2007), X - Degree of autonomy Researchers on turnover recognize that the relationship between the degree of autonomy and turnover is based on the assumption that a high degree of autonomy is a positive outcome for the member of the organization. It is assumed that individuals will negatively evaluate controls in the form of orders and rules imposed on them by the organization. Several studies have reported data on the relationship between job autonomy and turnover and all have found that lower amounts of autonomy are associated with higher turnover (Adel & Roger,1985, ). XI - Feedback on performance There are a few studies reported supporting a negative relationship between feedback on performance and turnover. Ross and Zander (1997) mention in their study that feedback represented a significant factor in the employee's decision to participate. XII - The organizational culture The reward system, the strength of leadership, the ability of the organizations to elicit a sense of commitment on the part of employees, and its development of a sense of shared goals, among other factors, will influence such indices of job satisfaction as turnover intentions and turnover rate (Samson, 2012, 314). XIII - A bad match between the employee's skills and the job Employees who are placed in jobs that are too difficult for them or whose skills are underutilized may become discouraged and quit the job. XIV - Substandard equipment, tools or facilities If working conditions are substandard or the workplace lacks important facilities such as proper lighting, furniture, restrooms and other health and safety provisions, employees will not be willing to put up with the inconvenience for long time (Holden, 1980). Institute of Personnel Management 16

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2.9.2 Management style related factors


I - Ineffective Leadership Ineffective leadership results from employers failure to provide support for employees who demonstrate aptitude and interest. Promoting employees without the benefit of basic leadership training puts the employer at risk for high turnover and low productivity. Its akin to setting the supervisor up for failure and it jeopardizes employee-supervisor relationships. Leadership training and employee development can help the new supervisor understand how to balance his dual responsibilities managing department functions and managing people. Without leadership training, however, the supervisor can fail because he did not receive the training he needed and employees who report to him suffer because of potentially poor employee-supervisor relationships (Holden, 1980). II - Poor relationship with the management Poor relationship with the management can be an important reason for the employees to leave their jobs. These may include providing training to the line managers for an effective supervision before appointing or upgrading them, providing security of jobs with good working environment etc. There may be an offer for re-training the existing managers who have a poor record at keeping their staff happily. Supervising managers could be accountable for employee turnover in their teams (Ren, 2003). III - Inadequate or lackluster supervision Employees need guidance and direction. New employees may need extra help in learning an unfamiliar job. Similarly, the absence of a training program may cause workers to fall behind in their level of performance and feel that their abilities are lacking (Ren, 2003). IV - Supervisory style Several studies have explored the relationship between aspects of supervisory style and turnover. The general conclusion is that employees who have supervisors high on human relations ability are less likely to quit. Related aspects of supervisory style have been found to be associated with turnover in many other studies. Also some previous studies found a negative relationship between satisfaction with supervisor and turnover (Ren, 2003). Institute of Personnel Management 17

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2.9.3 Salary / career advancement related factors


I - Lack of Advancement When employees perceive no growth areas/future or desire to advance within the system, they have no reason to remain in the current work situation. Poor promotional opportunities are associated with higher rates of turnover. There are many research results supporting the negative relationship between promotional opportunities and turnover. If the job is basically a dead-end proposition, this should be explained before hiring so as not to mislead the employee. The job should be described precisely, without raising false hopes for growth and advancement in the position (James, 2004, 13). II - Income Many studies have established that there is a strong relationship between pay levels and turnover rates. Armknecht and Early, in their analysis of manufacturing quit rates, found that the level of earnings is the most important single factor affecting voluntary separation. Other studies have reached similar conclusions about the negative relationship between pay levels and turnover (Samson, 2012, 314). III - Unequal or substandard wage structures Inequity in pay structures or low pay is great causes of dissatisfaction and can drive some employees to quit. Again, a new worker may wonder why the person next to him is receiving a higher wage for what is perceived to be the same work.

2.9.4 Personal reasons related factors


I - Reallocates with their spouse or partner Employee also pushed to leave job due to the dissatisfaction in their present workplace or by domestic circumstances when someone reallocates with their spouse or partner (Adel, 1985). II - Age Reviewers of the turnover literature report a consistent negative relationship between age and turnover younger employees have higher rates of turnover than older ones (Adel, 1985).

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III - Length of service As with age, reviewers of the turnover literature report a consistent negative relationship between length of service and turnover, turnover being relatively high in the early years of employment (Adel, 1985). IV - Marital status There are contradictory results reported in the literature on the relationship between marital status and turnover. However some researchers pointed out in their studies that family responsibilities, assessed by marital status and number of dependents, have generally been associated with decreased turnover (Adel, 1985). V - Sex No simple pattern emerges when we examine the literature on the relationship between the sex of the employees and turnover. However, Marsh and Mannari found in their study that women had higher turnover rates than men. VI - Unrealistic expectations Another factor is the unrealistic expectations and general lack of knowledge that many job applicants has about the job at the time that they receive an offer. When these unrealistic expectations are not realized, the worker becomes disillusioned and decides to quit (Samson, 2012, 314). V - The person These include both personal and trait-based factors. Personal factors include things such as changes in family situation, a desire to learn a new skill or trade, or an unsolicited job offer. These traits are some of the same characteristics that predict job performance and counterproductive behaviors such as loafing, absenteeism, theft, substance abuse on the job, and sabotage of employer's equipment or production. These traits can be measured and used in employee screening to identify individuals showing lower probability of turnover (Samson, 2012, 314).

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2.10

Preventive actions to reduce turnover

Management needs the appropriate training in order to detect and be able to deal with certain situations that may arise in order to prevent the person from leaving. Employee issues should be taken care of before resignation is given. Company leadership should be involved in practicing good personnel management techniques which will assist in the reduction of job dissatisfaction and thus turnover. Poor management is a cause of dissatisfaction, and can be resolved by using good management skills. Company training should be evaluated periodically as well as occasional audits of employee performances and standards evaluations should be conducted to gain a better perspective on employee satisfaction (Ren, 2003). Management should be involved in finding out the reasons people are leaving. They should also work to promote job satisfaction and create a stronger company loyalty. This information can be gathered by using exit interviews and surveys. Exit interviews may be too late for the person leaving, but it may help to keep others. Employee attitude surveys give the manager a better understanding of how the employees feel about their jobs and can help gage job satisfaction. Managers should recognize that preventing turnover is a difficult task which requires knowledge of certain issues leadership should learn in order to be more successful at keeping employees and reducing the turnover rate. Open door policies are another form of gathering information and possible insight into employee job satisfaction and receive innovative and productive ideas to help keep the company at a healthy stage ( Ren, 2003). Companies attempt to keep salary and compensation information private, which can reduce dissatisfaction and animosity between employees. The solution to compensation issues might be easily resolved if that is the sole reason for leaving a company; pay employees more than competitors do. Another factor of turnover is the fact that many managers are unaware of the true cost of turnover, and others do not know the general core causes and those causes specific to their areas of responsibility, therefore cannot take action. Poor management deteriorates employee morale, and cannot determine the reasons people do not want to work there anymore. In addition, some managers are under the mistaken impression that turnover is simply going to happen and there is nothing to do to stop it (Ren, 2003). Institute of Personnel Management 20

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2.11

Strategies to overcome employee turnover

I - Recognize Accomplishments For some employees, acknowledgment of a job well done can mean almost as much as a pay increase. When employees do a good job, praise them in front of their peers. You can also thank the whole staff by taking them to lunch or dinner after the successful completion of a difficult project (James, 2004, 438). II - Treat People Fairly An employee who perceives unfairness, is highly likely to resign. Do not discriminate against employees and treat them at all times. III - Job Security If people feel secure within their role, they are less likely to feel the need to look elsewhere for employment. Security and stability are greatly valued by most employees. IV - Communicate Good communication is vital within any business. If communicate regularly with employees, they are more likely to feel like a true member of the team. Open communication channels such as consultative bodies, performance appraisals, attitude surveys and grievance systems will give your staff the opportunity to raise any issues they may be having and will help to prevent a problem escalating to the point of leaving the business (Muhammad, 2005). V - Promote Engagement Keep employees engaged to prevent them from becoming bored and losing interest in their work. Seek their input to determine ways you can keep the job interesting and fresh and provide new challenges by creating special projects that make use of their particular skills and interests. Work with those who desire advancement to create an action plan to get to the next level (Naresh, 1999)

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VI - People Management Skills for Line Managers Ensure that all line managers are fully trained in people management and development skills. Re-training may be required for any line manager who has a high level of staff turnover. VII - Be Flexible If people are forced to work hours which do not suit them, they may well look for a job which fulfills their requirements, therefore, it may be needed to accommodate flexible working hours/times, if practicable within your organization (Leonard, 2008).

2.12 Summary
In this chapter the researcher reviewed a variety of published literature dealing with employee turnover in general and some more specific to employee turnover in the janitorial industry.

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CHAPTER 03
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

Chapter Three
3
3.1 Introduction

Research Methodology

The research methodology is the process followed to achieve the aims and objectives of the research. The aim of this chapter is to give an outline view of the process that will be used in this research. The chapter illustrates the research methodology, research design and the arguments for selecting the methodology. The chapter elaborates the research methodology using the research process Research problem Background study Establish aim & objectives

Literature synthesis

Data Collection Preliminary


Guide to sampling and identification

Further Research Sample selection

Questioner Survey

Data Analysis

Conclusion & Recommendation


Figure 3.1: Research Process

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The objectives of this research were to identify and rank the factors affecting labor turnover among ABC company. Further to test out whether any distinction exists between the perspective of labours and managers of factors affective labour turnover. The main factors for labour turnover were identified through a literature search. Questions were formulated according to the factors, which distributed among managers and janitors.

3.2

Research Design/Methodology

RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

RESEARCH APPROACH
RESEARCH TECHNIQUES

(Source: Kagioglou et al. 2000 cited Senarathna, 2005)


Figure 3.2: Nested Research Methodology (Kagioglou et al., 2000)

Research design or research methodology of any research consists of identifying the following three key factors. 1. First, identify research philosophy on which the research will be premised. 2. Then, select an appropriate research approach for theory testing and/or building. 3. Finally, select research techniques for data collection and data analysis. The final outcome of the research depends highly on this research design. Therefore it is of paramount importance to develop the most appropriate research design for the particular research study.

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Research Methodology

3.2.1 Survey Research Approach


There is an important distinction between surveys and survey research. A survey is a means of "gathering information about the characteristics, actions, or opinions of a large group of people, referred to as a population". Surveys that are conducted to advance scientific knowledge are referred to as survey research (Kraemer, 2002).

3.2.2 Research Technique


After selecting the research approach, appropriate research techniques had to be identified to operate the research. These techniques could be discussed under two broad types as data collection techniques and data analysis techniques. Commonly used data collection techniques are interviews, questionnaires, document surveys, observation and participation (Tan, 2002). The method of data analysis is also important because there should be a way to interpret of the collected data and come to a conclusion. The data analysis technique will act as the media to interpret the data and give the conclusion. Statistical analysis, Content analysis, Pattern-matching and Cognitive mapping are the commonly used techniques in data analysis. This research has referred to statistical analysis following headings discuss those technique. 3.2.2.1 Data Collection Technique Detailed Questionnaire Survey Detailed questionnaire survey was the most important part of this data collection. The research identified factors affecting labour turnover. Format of questionnaires Questionnaire one - Factors affecting for labour turnover according to janitors perspective This questionnaire included some of the factors identified from the previous research studies and literature for their references. Janitors have been asked to indicate the relative effect of those factors using a simple 5 level scale. Questionnaire two Factors affecting for labour turnover according to managers perspective

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This questionnaire included some of the factors identified from the previous research studies and literature for their references. Managers have been asked to indicate the relative effect of those factors using a simple 5 level scale. Interview with managers Interview with managers to identified general background of them, managerial capability, educational level and perspective towards labor turnover. Interview with janitors Interview with janitors to identified background information, root cause for turnover with description. Sampling Sampling can be defined as the method of selecting a representative sample from a population. But selecting most appropriate sample for the study is quite difficult (Tan 2002). 30 numbers of janitors and managers were selected from ABC company. A group of managers and janitors had been selected to provide opinions on the labour turnover in ABC company.

Following criteria is used to correctly identify eligible participants for the surveys. Janitors who left from the company in the period of research conducted. Managers who directly managing janitors in janitorial sites.

3.2.3 Data Analysis Techniques


The questionnaires has used likert scale (1 to represent less important and 5 to represent most important) and the results received by the survey was analyzed using statistical software package (SPSS). 3.2.3.1 Coefficient of Variation (COV) Coefficient of Variation (COV) expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean and it is useful to compare relative variability of different responses.

COV =

S 100% X

Where, 26

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COV S X -

Coefficient of Variation Standard Deviation Weighted Mean of Sample

3.2.3.2 Internal Consistency Analysis (Cronbachs Alpha) Cronbach's alpha is a test for a model or survey's internal consistency. In addition, it identified as 'scale reliability coefficient'. Cronbach's Alpha is a measure of how well tified each individual item in a scale correlates with the sum of the remaining items. It measures consistency among individual items in a scale (Streiner and Norman, 1989), (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1978). nally The standardized Cronbach's can also be defined as;

Where N is the number of components

equals the average variance and

is the

average of all covariances between the components (Cronbach, 1951). According to Nunnally and Bernstein (1978), in a reliable data set the alpha should be between 0.7 d and 0.9. 3.2.3.3 Hypothesis Testing In attempting to reach decisions, it is useful to make assumptions or guesses. Such assumptions, which may or may not be true, are called Statistical Hypothesis. In many othesis. instances researchers formulate a statistical hypothesis for the sole purpose of rejecting it or nullifying it. Such hypotheses are often called Null Hypothesis and are normally denoted by H0. Any hypothesis which differs from a given hypothesis is called an hypothesis alternative hypothesis. So, in this research the Null Hypothesis is, H0 : There is no correlation between the janitors perspective and managers

perspective. H1 : There is correlation between the janitors perspective and managers

perspective

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

Test Statistics to Test Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs) Rank correlation measures the difference between the ranks for each pair.
n

6 d i2 rS = 1 n ( n 1)
i =1 2

t cal = rs
rs di n

n2 1 rs
2

Distributed t with n-2 degree of freedom

- Rank Correlation Coefficient - Difference between each rankings - Number of objectives H0 : = 0 (There is no correlation between rankings of

Null Hypothesis janitors and manager)

Alternative Hypothesis of janitors and mangers)

H1

: 0 (There is a correlation between rankings

is the standard symbol of Correlation Coefficient. In this hypothesis is the Rank Correlation Coefficient.

3.3

Summary

This chapter discussed the methodology and the design of this particular research. The survey method and questionnaire survey is considered to collect data from janitors and managers who work in ABC company. Data were analyzed through mean and percentage of importance. Hypothesis test was conducted to find out compatibility of managers perspective and janitors perspective.

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CHAPTER 04
1 DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

Research Findings and Analysis

Chapter 04
2
2.1 Introduction

Research Findings and Analysis

A proper data collection and adhering to advanced methods to analyze the data are paramount important in a research to achieve worthy outcomes. This chapter illustrates the findings and analysis of the survey and finding and analysis regarding the factors affecting labour turnover. Prior preparing the questionnaire the researcher has referred many research articles in the source of lobour turnover.

2.2

Details of the Sample

There are nearly 4,000 labours in ABC. It is very difficult to identify the whole population because there is no proper documentation method within the company. However, janitors who are in remote areas are disregarded. The questionnaires were distributed among 30 janitors who are working in ABC in the Western province. There are many sampling techniques in the theory of statistics to select a sample. Basically those techniques are discussing how to select a sample without being bias to any respondent and to give same opportunity for each respondent to be selected in to the sample. But without knowing the whole population those techniques cannot be used effectively. Hence this research had selected a representative random sample for data collection.

2.2.1 Data Analysis for Reliability


The data set has to check the reliability before use for the analysis. When doing questionnaire surveys sometimes there may be questions, which are not consistent to the issue, or sometimes received data may have lot of variations within respondents. Therefore, internal consistency should be checked and variables which reduce the reliability of the test should be disregarded from the analysis. Cronbachs Alpha has used to check the internal consistency in this research. A low coefficient alpha indicates that the sample of items performs inadequately in Institute of Personnel Management 29

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understanding the idea given by the measure. Conversely, a large alpha indicates that the identified variables correlate well with true scores (Gilbert and Churchill, 1979). The 16th version of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 16) software was used to carry out this test. The received Cronbach's Alpha value is 0.724 for the data set for perspectives and this shows the reliability of the data set according to the Gilbert and Churchills interpretation.
Table 2.1: Out put of Cronbachs Alpha test for perspectives

Sources of labour Turnover Salary / Recognition Personal Reason Work Environment Organizational management situation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 0.721 0.707 0.719 0.782

Above table 4.1 indicates the resultant Cronbach's Alpha value. If the received value is very much lower than 0.724 that corresponding factor should be removed from the analysis. That is because this situation shows a low reliability. In this case neither perspective received values greater than Cronbach's Alpha value and therefore can be concluded as the data set is reliable and each perspective has a strong relationship for the issues specified.

2.3

Results of Questionnaire and Interview

The labours were asked to consider factors in the questionnaires which had been identified from the literature review. Labours and managers were asked to indicate the relative effect of those factors using a simple 5level scale:, 1 Least affected

2 - Fairly affected 3 - Moderately affected 4 - Significantl affected 5 - Extremely affected

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Purpose of this questionnaire was to find out relative effect of sources of labour turn over to turnover in ABC. Results of interview received from janitors and mangers are analyzed in qualitative method

2.4

Data analysis techniques


No. of respondents who stated No. of respondents who Significantly affected and + stated the criteria is Extremely affected average Total no. of respondents

Percentage

All together there were 30 respondents .Factors which obtained as a percentage value of less than 50% were disregarded and the factors which obtained a percentage value of more than 50% were considered as significance factors of labour turnover. Above calculations is carried out for the factors, for the identification of the significant factors. A mean for each factor is computed to deliver an indication of the importance of the factor. The mean computation is used to rank the factors according to their significance in affecting labour turnover. The factors having mean ratings of higher than the neutral point 3, this indicates that these factors are seen by labours as highly affected in labour turnover. Coefficient of Variation (COV) expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean and it is useful to compare relative variability of different responses. Statistical result obtained through coefficients of variations is a good indication of the agreement between responses of the labours. Low coefficient of variations indicates higher level of agreement between respondents. Among the above identified factors have coefficient of variations ranging between 20%-40%. These are comparatively lower coefficient of variations; hence indicate higher agreement between labours.

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Table 2.2: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in personal reason

Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Health-related issues Difficulty travelling to and from work Difficulty balancing work/life issues Childcare issues Elder care issues Relocation to follow spouse Maternity Retirement Other domestic reasons

COV % 20 24 30 32 27 29 21 33 34

Janitor Importance % Mean 90 88 85 84 83 80 48 45 40 4.35 4.03 3.95 3.92 3.59 3.41 2.92 2.78 2.32 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Manager Rank 5 4 2 1 6 9 3 8 7 Mean 3.01 3.89 4.26 4.32 2.89 2.22 4.04 2.41 2.61

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Mean (Janitor) Mean (Manager)

Figure 2.1: Labour turnover factors in personal reason

According to the table 4.2 health-related issues, difficulty travelling to and from work and difficulty balancing work/life issues have mean value above three in perspective of janitor and manager and are becoming extremely affected factors under personal reason. Retirement and other domestic reasons have the low mean value (below 2.78) in janitors perspective and managers perspective. Regarding the ranking of personal reason section, enormous rank difference between factors of maternity and health-related issues indicates the incorrect management perspective towards labour turnover. There are no huge differences in ranking difficulty balancing work/life issues, elder care issues and retirement. Institute of Personnel Management 32

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The indicators which are health-related issues and difficulty travelling to and from work have received low ranks in the managers perspective are the significant factors for labour turnover according to the labours perspective. According to the percentage of importance significantly affected has received more than 80%. That indicates the significance of particular factors is high comparing to other factors under personal reasons. The averaged affected factors were in range of 60% - 80% in and percentage of importance.
Table 2.3: Percentage Labour composition for age group

Age Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Over 64

Number of labours % 7 8 13 18 35 19

Percentage Labour composition for age group


Under 25 19 7 8 13 35 18 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64

Figure 2.2: Percentage Labour composition for age group

1. Health related issues Exposure to chemicals, working with machinery and sharp tools, work long hours and working in risky working conditions are causing to health related issues. Sleep disorders, depression, hearing loss, lung disease, diabetes, vision & eye diseases, heart disease, and cancer are mainly stated diseases which most elder janitors are suffering. According to figure 4.2 54 percent of janitors are over 55. Most of janitors join in their middle ages since they need to be independent and live separately without being a burden to their children. They are not capable enough to do careers which need more talents and skills. So they have to leave service with a short period of time. They asked insurance system or allowance for medical. There are above 50 percent female labours who have worked nearly 10 years. Among them more than 67 percent are widowed or divorced. Literacy of around 61 percent of labours are illiterate or under grade 5. Institute of Personnel Management 33

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2.

Difficulty travelling to and from work

Most of the respondents travel more than 20km daily from home to workstations. That is the reason this factor takes higher mean value of 4.03 among responses of janitors. When compare to their salary and cost for bus fare, it is very hard to afford. So they asked travelling facility or travelling allowance to stay with company and their argument is no point of staying with company with affording all expenses. 3. Difficulty balancing work/life issues Cause of child care issues, elder care issues, relocation to follow spouse and maternity most of the employees leave company. Pregnant ladies are unable to perform janitor role in the pregnancy period. Since they have to perform some hard work. Therefore they request light weight work in that period for pregnant ladies in the interview process. Since they are daily paid wagers, working hours are laid on 7am- 7pm or 7pm 7am in whole week. That 12 hour shifts put off them their private life and unable to attend to child care issues and elder care issues. So they ask a flexible policy from the company in order to balnce the work and life issue.
Table 2.4: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in work environment

Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Poor fit between the employe e and the job Job dissatisfaction Workload/stress Work environment Risky working conditions Inadequate employee orientation and training Inferior facilities and tools Worried about job security Way work is organized

COV % 31.0 23.5 20.9 24.9 20.8 25.4 22.5 23.6 23.6 25.6 24.6

Janitor Importance Ran % Mean k 97.67 90.75 83.83 80.37 76.91 73.45 69.99 56.15 43.4 40.15 36.91 4.34 4.12 3.62 3.46 3.41 3.27 3.43 3.12 2.68 2.60 2.46 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Manager Ran Mean k 5 6 2 4 7 8 11 1 9 10 3 3.21 3.18 3.87 3.65 3.02 2.97 2.31 4.26 2.75 2.56 3.76

10 Insufficient challenge 11 Lack of meaningful work

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4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Mean (Janitor) Mean (Manager)

Figure 2.3: Labour turnover factors in work environment

According to the figure 4.3 poor fit between the employee and the job, job dissatisfaction and workload/stress can be identified as highly affected factors for labour turnover for janitors who are currenltly working for ABC (mean values for particular factors 4.34, 4.12 and 3.62 respectively). Issues about job security, workload/stress and lack of meaningful work factors have also received high mean value in managers perspective level but low in janitors perspective. Way work is organized and insufficient challenges have received low mean value in both perspective levels. This represents inappropriate factors in affecting labor turn over in ABC company. The indicators have shown high mean values in janitors perspective which are poor fit between the employees and the job and job dissatisfaction have average probability in affecting according to the managers perspective. According to the percentage of importance, eight factors become the critical factors in labour turnover. Their mean values are more than three according to janitors perspective. Therefore those indicators should be systematically studied by managers to overcome issues in a logical manner. According to the results obtained from the interview, about 60 percent of labors think, that their working environment bad or worst. More that 56 percent of labours never obtained a proper training from ABC company. Over 71 percent said that their work load is very much high.

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Poor fit between the employee and the job Cleaners are responsible for maintaining the cleanliness of the building and to perform other related cleaning tasks including cleaning disinfect sinks, toilets, floors, waste baskets and etc. But some workers do not perform their work at the required asatisfatory level. So after getting knows the real picture of janitors role, most of workers leave company. So managers need to be careful when recruiting janitors and they have to make sure that the recruited janitor is best fit to workstation to avoid unnecessary issues. Employee orientation and training According to results of interviews with janitors, there should be an orientation and training program for safety orientation, chemical hazards, electrical hazards, ergonomic hazards and injuries on the Job. Because substantial deaths have been reported due to unawareness of the safety processes. Knowing safety techniques lead to minimize the risks in working environment in janitorial field. Most of janitors dont know how to perform the cleaning taskes in a systematic way. Therefore on the job training is essential for enhancing job satisfaction and minimizing labour turn over. Work environment Based on the interview results, there should be a reasonable temperature, circulation of fresh air and sufficient and suitable lighting in janitors rest rooms. The drinking water and washing facility should be available in the operational units. The operatives who finish their shift work in the night, relevant facilities should be provided. Managers should recruit sufficient labours to perform job, because insufficient staff lead to increase workload of single janitor and that factor leads to turnover intention. Further, mangers should provide tools and equipment to carry out work effortlessly and effectively.

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Table 2.5: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in salary and recognition

No 1 2 3 4

Variable Dissatisfaction with pay Less or no appreciation for work done Internal pay inequity Lack of career development

COV % 17.31 18.95 20.68 20.51

Importance % 92.34 83.00 87.67 78.33

Janitor Mean 4.59 4.11 4.02 3.95 Rank 1 2 3 4

Manager Rank 1 3 4 2 Mean 4.12 2.98 2.76 3.97

5.0 4.0 3.0 Mean (Janitor) 2.0 1.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 Mean (Manager)

Figure 2.4: Labour turnover factors in salary and recognition

According to the figure 4.4 all indicators become significantly affected factors for labour turnover because they have received higher mean value (above 3.95) and percentage of importance (above percentage of 78). Even less or no appreciation for work done and internal pay inequity have received higher mean value according to janitors perspective; while those factors have received very low mean value from managers. Managers dont believe appreciation is essential factor for keeping labours with company in the long term. Further they need to come across solution to solve issues regarding internal pay inequities. According to an interview with janitors, salary is the main issue that is leading for leaving organization. So researcher suggests that, managers should be capable enough to manage organizational operational and overhead cost to increase labours salary. Since in janitorial field success is mainly depends on performance of janitors. There should be an organizational culture that appreciates janitors makes sure recognition to janitors. Institute of Personnel Management 37

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Their monthly salary is below 10 000 LKR and they are getting nearly 12 000- 13 000 LKR with overtime payments. 80 percent of labours believe that they are not paid well when comparing to other companies who is having similar working environment. So more than 85 percent of them are planning to resign and join other companies where the wages are high.
Table 2.6: Significance of factors influencing labour turnover in organizational management style

No

Factor Conflicts with supervisors or co-workers Management inability to solve major administrative problems Perceptions of unfair treatment Ineffective communication. Poor supervision Management dishonest in dealing with employees Dissatisfaction with management style

COV % 31.0 23.5 20.9 24.9 20.8 22.5 23.6

Importance % 97.67 90.75 87.83 85.37 78.78 75.23 69.56

Janitor Mean 4.34 4.12 4.02 3.96 3.71 3.63 3.52 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Manager Rank 1 5 2 3 4 7 6 Mean 4.13 2.67 3.12 3.01 2.86 2.48 2.59

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Mean (Janitor) Mean (Manager)

Figure 2.5: Labour turnover factors in organizational management style

Receiving higher mean value (above 3.52) and higher importance of percentage (above 69 percentages) for all factors indicates organizational management style significantly affected for higher labour turnover.

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Huge mean value difference indicates in management inability to solve major administrative problems, perceptions of unfair treatment and ineffective

communication. Management doesnt believe above factors affect significantly for high turnover that is showing in their low mean for the factors. Janitors and managers believe conflicts with supervisors or co-workers are the major factor for higher turnover under management style. According to results, getting through interview with janitors management and supervisors should keen enough for janitors issues regarding their jobs. For that there should be a sound communication system between janitors and management. Head office staff should be supportive to solve janitors issues in a rapid manner and should be treated them friendly manner in such situation. All the janitors should be treated in the same and fair manner to minimize bad image towards the management. 78 percent of labours feel that they are treated as slaves by the management though 54% of managers believe that the labour- management interaction is good. While 56 percent of labors feel that relationship with supervisors is bad, 53% managers stated that the relationship is good. Around 67 percent of labours have had conflicts with the supervisors and they have got any inquiries to solve their problems. The relationship among labours is bad according to 55 % of labours, but 67% managers believe that the relationship is good. According 64 percent of labours, supervisors leadership skills are bad. 90 percent of managers are male and there 70 percent of mangers are in the age group of 36-40. 88 percent of managers have their highest education qualification as G.C.E A/L. The managers never obtained a proper training to develop their management skills; they have leadership skills only by experience. 63 percent of managers are confident with their leadership skills. 81 percent of managers have got their position by promotions with experience.

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2.4.1 Test Statistics to Test Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs)


n

6 d i2 rS = 1 n ( n 1)
i =1 2

t cal = rs

n2 1 rs
2

Distributed t with n-2 degree of freedom

Null Hypothesis H0

: = 0 (There is no correlation between rankings) : 0 (There is a correlation between rankings)

Alternative Hypothesis H1

t value was calculated using the SPSS computer package and the result of the test hypothesis as follows, Organizational Management style Decision Rule : Reject H0 if Tcal > 2.365 or Tcal < -2.365 Value of T 0.177 Decision Conclusion Since -2.365< Tcal <2.365, there are no enough evidence to reject H0 : The null hypothesis is accepted. According to that there is no

relationship between the rankings. Therefore there to a 95% confidence interval it can be stated that the ranking the factors of janitors perspective and managers perspective is different

Section Personal reason Work environment Salary / Recognition Management style

T-Cal 3.453 0.847 2.658 -0.177

T(28) 2.120 2.228 2.179 2.365

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2.5

Sources of labour turnover janitors perspective Vs. Managers perspective

According to the results of the test statistic of rank correlation coefficient, to a 95% confidence interval there is no correlation between the rankings of Work environment and Management style in janitors perspective and managers perspective but there is correlation between the ranking of personal reason and salary/ recognition. Following are the sources of labour turnover which have recorded the highest difference in ranking:
Table 2.7: Ranking of factors Janiors perspective Vs Managers

Section Personal reason

Factor Health-related issues Maternity Childcare issues Lack of meaningful work Worried about job security Inferior facilities and tools Career development Management inability to solve major administrative problems

Rank Janitor Manager 1 5 7 4 11 8 7 4 2 3 1 3 1 11 2 5

Difference 4 -4 -3 -8 -7 4 -2 3

Work environment Salary / Recognition Management style

Considering the difference of ranking factors such as health-related issues, inferior facilities and tools inferior facilities and tools and management inability to solve major administrative problems have significant important in janitors perspective than managers perspective in labour turnover. Factors such as, maternity, childcare issues ,lack of meaningful work, worried about job security and career development have significant importance in managers perspective than janitors perspective in labour turnover.

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CHAPTER FOUR

Research Findings and Analysis

2.6

Summary

This chapter discusses the accomplished methodology of this research and the results of the survey. Then detailed survey was carried out among janitors and managers who are working in ABC. The respondents were prioritizing according to each perspective and rank the differentiation was done in the analysis. Finally combinations between two responses were identified.

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CHAPTER 05
1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 05
2 Conclusions and Recommendations

ABC is janitor based company and the performance of janitor is a significant component towards the overall company performance. Company performance can certainly be enhanced by doing labour turnover analysis and diagnostics, leading to enhance efficiency of labours. Labour turnover has been one of the major research areas in janitorial industry. The reason is that, in almost janitorial industry is a major industry which seriously affected by labour turnover issue. It is very important to select the suitable strategies to overcome increasing labour turnover issue. Efficiency of labours has a close link to quality and productivity improvements of the company. Therefore, managing labour turnover in successful manner is essential for surviving and it will enhance companys market competitiveness. Labour turnover is a burning issue for any organizations. For the steady productivity of an organization it is essential to maintain its skilled workforce. But most of the times it is very difficult to control the turnover rate within organizations. It can be argued that the managing labour turnover is the best human resources practice. Managing labour turnover has been identified as a good management practice, which is facilitated to achieve organizational goals. Most of the companies including ABC have identified the importance of managing labour turnover in order to achieve their business objectives. In past, managing labour turnover consists of responsibility of administrative department, but nowadays several human resources practices have established to reduce the labour turnover. This particular research is aimed at identified sources of labour turnover according to janitors perspective and managers perspective. But it is identified that there is a gap of perspective level. Although anybody can argue that already sources of labour turnover has been identified, but due to incorrect identification and poor management decisions lead to unsuccessful labour turnover management.

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CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusions and Recommendations

The attempts were made to identify and analyse the factors which are highly influencing in labour turnover in labors perspective and janitors perspective and difference in perspective levels were analysed in four categories. The identification of the influencing factors in personal reason, management style, salary and work environment were achieved through a comprehensive literature review and survey. This study was based on the questionnaire survey and interview to extract a set of exclusive factors which are highly influencing labour turnover and to determine the level of influence of each factor for labour turnover. Level of influence of each factors were analyzed through the mean value of the factors and significant factors were identified through percentage of importance. Through the ranking of the significant factors affecting labour turnover in ABC, ranking correlation coefficient was calculated. Result of the test hypothesis proved that there is no correlation among the ranking of factors for two section of turnover (management style and work environment). Salary/ recognition and personal reason of janitors have correlation among the ranking of factors. Therefore it can be concluded that the identification of sources of labour turnover is different from managers perspective from janitors perspective exclude salary/ recognition and personal reason of janitors. Under the personal reasons of janitors section health-related issues, difficulty travelling to and from work and difficulty balancing work/life issues have become significant factors. Poor fit between the employees and the job, job satisfaction and workload/stress are considerable factors under work environment section. As the significant factors of salary and recognition dissatisfaction with pay and less or no appreciation for work done are also important. Conflicts with supervisors or coworkers, management inability to solve major administrative problems and perceptions of unfair treatment are major factors under management style. According to results from interview process, most of them are elder female janitors who travel long distance to work station. They need considerable salary to survive and expect good recognition from management and supervisors. Further they are looking forward for a sound working environment with enough staff to carry out functions in a smooth manner. Further good supervision and training are expected by janitors. It appears that managers in ABC have limited knowledge of janitors requirements.

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CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusions and Recommendations

Since managers should have extensive knowledge of the factors affecting turnover to solve the issues in a systematic manner. Findings of this research can be used by all the managers who are working in ABC to successfully manage turnover issue successfully.

2.1

Recommendations for managers

Through the industry survey, it has been found out that the proper identification of sources of labour turnover are in a very poor stage because most of managers are busy with routine work, Therefore they lack of opening for strategic approach. Through this research it is strongly recommended for mangers to implement labour turnover managing strategies after an appropriate evaluation of sources of labour turnover. Unless otherwise they would not be able to achieve target for afford. There is no panacea for achieving eliminating turnover in ABC company. With the actual identification of sources of turnover, it is important to grasp the current turnover rates and actual condition in detail, set goals and achieve the goals through a sound strategic approach as far as possible. Employees are the backbone of business success and therefore, they need to be motivated and maintained in organization at all cost in terms of providing quality products and services to the society. Managers must understand that employees in their organizations must be treated as the most valuable assets of the organization. This asset needs to be monitored with due care, otherwise their organizations would cease to exist. Managers should examine the sources of employee turnover and recommend the best approach to fill the gap of the source. In most situations the causes of staff turnover are a combination of one or more factors. Therefore, the best solution for the problem is to identify the major causes and treating them to reduce.

2.2

Recommendations for Academic Researchers

This research was carried out to identify sources of labour turnover among janitors in ABC Company in janitors perspective and managers perspective. This research was limited to the turnover among janitors in ABC Company. Also due to the time Institute of Personnel Management 45

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusions and Recommendations

limitation the sample was limited to thirty and all of them are in western province. Therefore followings are recommended as further extensions of this research. 1. Case study can be conducted to check the validity of the proposed sources of turnover introduced by this research. 2. Extend this research and develop a novel tool to mange turnover issue in ABC Company in successful manner. 3. Can extend this research to identify the relationship of managing employee turnover and overall performance of the organization and develop a model to demonstrate the relationship. 4. In the increasing competition and when going for the competition of janitorial industry, this research outcome can be further improved and develop as cost declining tool.

2.3

Contribution to Knowledge

This research has identified the inadequateness of researches in the area of identification of sources of labour turnover among janitors as the knowledge gap. Proper identification of sources of labour turnover needed to be managing issue has been introduced by this research to fill that gap through a comprehensive literature survey and evaluation of managers and labors perspective. Therefore those factor identification and evaluation of relationship between perspective levels can be considered as contribution to knowledge by this research.

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REFERENCES

References

References

1. Adel, H., & Roger, M. (1985). Some factors influencing labour turnover: personnel managers. Personnel Review, 14, 22-28 2. Alan, K., & Rita, M. (2002). Past work experience, present opportunities and turnover decisions. Personnel Review, 31, 518-539 3. Birgit, S., & Nicole, T. (2007). Turnover intention and preparedness for change:Exploring leader-member exchange and occupational self-efficacy as antecedents of two employability predictors. CareerDevelopment International, 12, 660-679 4. Edmund, H., & Bradley, J. (1988). Labour turnover in UK manufacturing. International Journal of Manpower, 9, 811 5. Helen, R. (2007). Can training remove the glue from the sticky floor of low-paid work for women?. Equal Opportunities International, 26, 555-572 6. Henry, O. (2007). A review of the literature on employee turnover. African Journal of Business Management, 23, 49-54 7. Hokey, M. (2007), Examining sources of warehouse employee turnover. International Journal of Physical, 37, 375388 8. Hokey, M., & Ahmed, E. (2003). Developing the profiles of truck drivers for their successful recruitment and retention. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 33, 149-162. 9. Holden, D. A. (1980), Industrial Structure and Labour Turnover, International Journal of Manpower, 1, 36 10. Ian, M. T., & Jonathan, W. (2007). The importance of management style in labour retention. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 27, 5-18 11. James, H. (2004). A review of a multiple retailer's labour turnover, International journal of retai & distribution management, 32, 434 441 Institute of Personnel Management 47

References

12. Jason, H. H. (2002). Reasons given for employee turnover in a full priced department store. Home economics,23, 19-44 13. John, J. R., & James, E. S. (1977). Sources of professional staff turnover in public Accounting firms revealed by the exit interview. Accounting Organizations and Society, 2, 165-175 14. John, S. (2002), Job-to-job turnover and job-to-non-employment movement: A case study investigation. Personnel Review, 31, 710721 15. Leonard, k. (2008). An analysis of labour turnover: causes and effects. MBA, Egerton University 16. Luisito, B., & Olivier C. (2009). The determinantsof excess worker turnover in Luxembourg. International Journal of Manpower, 30, 253-268 17. Michael, C.G., & Davidson, N. (2010). How much does labour turnover cost?: A case study of Australian four- and five-star hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22, 451-466 18. Muhammad, A. B., & Muhammad, J. (2005). Human resource practices as determinants of employee turnover: an empirical investigation. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 10, 69-80 19. Naresh, K. (1999). Employee turnover bad attitude or poor management. Singapore, Nanyang technology university. Organization. Addis Ababa University 20. Orton, M. (1971). The Costing of Labour Turnover. Personnel Review, 1, 85-88 21. Peter, B., & Keith, M. (2003). Labour turnover and retention in New Zealand: The causes and consequences of leaving and staying with employers. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 41, 195-214 22. Ren, C. (2003). Employee turnover. MBA, Capella University 23. Richard, P (1974). People &amp; jobs: the perennial problem: labour turnover in distribution. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 2, 18-22

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References

24. Rosalind, C. (1993), Excessive Labour Turnover: The Case of Clerical Staff inSingapore. International Journal of Manpower, 14, 3240 25. Samson, K. (2012). Assessment of causes of labour turnover in three and five starrated hotels in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 15, 311-317 26. Sandra, R. C. (2012). Assessing employee turnover in the language services Section of parliament of the republic of South Africa. MPA, University of Stellenbosch 27. Sarah, B., & Gaia, G. (2004). Labour turnover and firm performance. Workplace employee relations survey, 23, 7-31 28. Simon, B., & Kristian, H. (2007). Labour turnover in the retail industry Predicting the role of individual, organisational and environmental factors. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35, 289-307 29. Shamsuzzoha, A. H. M., & Rezaul, H. S. (2007). Employee Turnover-a Study of its Causes and Effects to Different Industries in Bangladesh. Employee Turnover, 64- 68 30. Employee Turnover-a Study of its Causes and Effects to Different Industries in Bangladesh. Employee Turnover, 64- 68 31. Yared, D. (2007). Staff turnover in international non-governmental. MBA, Addis Ababa University

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APPENDICES

A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company Dear Sir / Madam, Research PQHRM 47 I am a student of Institute of Personnel Management, undertaking the PQHRM. In fulfillment of this program, I am required to conduct a research and produce a research.

Research Topic: A study of factors affecting high turnover among the janitors at ABC company

Purpose of the Research: To find out factors affecting labour turnover and analyze factors affecting for labour turnover related to ABC Company

I would be grateful if you could complete this questionnaire within your busy work schedule. The information gathered through this survey will be only used for this particular research, they will not be used for any other purpose, and also results would be summarised, and therefore no specific referees will be made to individuals. I assure you that, all your responses will be kept in absolute confidentiality and you will not be held responsible for the research outcome.

Yours faithfully, DissertationSupervisor Madhubhashanie.A.W.C Final year student PQHRM 47 Institute of Personnel Management Mr. Mahendra Silva Senior Manager Insurance Corporation Colombo 02

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company

A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company

Purpose Questionnaire : To Identify and extract maximum amount of unbiased information from the janitors in the ABC company regarding the factors affecting turnover among janitors. This Questionnaire Survey is designed to carry out in among the Janitors in ABC company

Option which cause to sources of employee turnover are extracted from your responses. Read the statement carefully and express your opinion regarding the factors affecting labour turn over among janitors in ABC company by marking in the relevant cage regarding each statement

Please assign each option a scorewhich reflect your opinion on scale by using 1 to 5 whereas: 1 - Least affected 2 - Fairly affected 3 - Moderately affected 4 - Significantl affected 5 - Extremely affected The higher the score, the extremely affected sources of employee turnover

Would you please list out any other criteria, which you believe that should be included in this list, as sources of employee turnover ?

Note: Following are the identified some of the selection criteria from the literature and past research studies.

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company General Information Name: ............................................................................................................................................... Age Group: Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Over 64

Length of Service: Under 5

6-10

11- 15

16-20

21-25

Over 25

Gender:

Female

Male

Marital Status:

Single

Married

Widowed

Divorced

Education qualification

Illiterate

Under grade 5

Under grade 10

1. What was the most important reason for your leaving? ...................... 2. Your current salary/grade? Below 10,000 10,001-15,000 15,001-20,000

3. Your physical working environment? Very Good Good Average Bad Worst

4. The training you have received? Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never

5. Did you feel that you were marginalized by the management? Yes No

a. If yes, what could be the reason? ......................

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company 6. How was your relationship with your supervisors? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

7. Have you ever made any grievance to your supervisor? Yes No

a. If yes, how do you feel about the response? Very satisfied Satisfied Not satisfied No reply at all

8. Do you think that you have been paid well? Yes No

9. How was the work load in terms of normal working hours (i.e. 8 hour per day)? Normal Beyond Under

10. Do you think that the environment condition had impact for your resignation? Yes No

11. Do you think that the salary that you get compensate your work load? Yes No

12. How was the relationship among labours? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

13. How do you rate the leadership skill of your supervisors? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

14. How do you rate the benefits and compensation of the ABC in comparison with other similar organizations? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company 15. What should be done to improve the working situations in general? 16. What negative situations did you experience while working for the organization? . 17. What kind of organization do you intend to work for in the future? 18. Is there anything that would change your mind about leaving the organization? . 19. Is there any health related issues lead to leave from the company? Yes No

a. If yes, what are they? .............. 20. Why did you join to this company? . 21. What is the distance that you travel daily from home to workstation? (In km) 22. What are the facilities you expect from the company to stay with? .... 23. What is your working shift? Are you satisfied with the current shift hours? 24. What kind of training you need to perform your job well? . 25. What kind of working environment that you need, to perform job effectively? .

Institute of Personnel Management

A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company
Assign a score to represent the relative importance

No I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 III 1 2 3 4 IV 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sources of Employee Turnover Personal Reason Maternity Difficulty in balancing work and life issues Childcare issues Elder care issues Health-related issues Retirement Relocation to follow spouse/partner Difficulty travelling to and from work Other domestic reasons Work Environment Way work is organised Workload/stress Work environment job satisfaction Insufficient challenges Worried about job security Poor fit between the employee and the job Inferior facilities, tools, etc Risky working conditions Inadequate employee orientation and training Lack of meaningful and challenging work. Salary / Recognition Dissatisfaction with pay Internal pay inequity Lack of promotion/career development Less or no appreciation for work done Oraganizational management style Conflicts with supervisors or co-workers Dissatisfaction with management style Perceptions of unfair treatment Ineffective communication. Poor supervision Management care how you really felt about your work? Management open and honest in dealing with employees Management ability to solve major administrative problems 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Managers at ABC Company Dear Sir / Madam, Research PQHRM 47 I am a student of Institute of Personnel Management, undertaking the PQHRM. In fulfilment of this program, I am required to conduct a research and produce a research. Research Topic: A study of factors affecting high turnover among the janitors at ABC company Purpose of the Research: To find out factors affecting labour turnover and analyze factors affecting for labour turnover related to ABC Company

The purpose of this questionnaire is exclusively for academic purpose as a requirement for PQHRM. It's administered to assess your views about your working conditions, experience, staffs that have been working under your supervision and general working environment about your organization. I assure you that, all your responses will be kept in absolute confidentiality and you will not be held responsible for the research outcome. Therefore, your genuine, frank and timely responses are quite vital to determine the success of this study. So, I kindly request your contribution in filling the questionnaire honestly and responsibly.

Yours faithfully,

Research Supervisor Madhubhashanie.A.W.C Final year student PQHRM 47 Institute of Personnel Management Mr. Mahendra Silva Senior Manager Insurance corporation Colombo 02

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Managers at ABC Company

A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Janitors at ABC Company

Purpose Questionnaire: To Identify and extract maximum amount of unbiased information from the managers in the ABC company regarding the factors affecting turnover among janitors.

This Questionnaire Survey is designed to carry out in among the Managers in ABC Company

Option which cause to sources of employee turnover are extracted from your responses. Read the statement carefully and express your opinion regarding the factors affecting labour turn over among janitors in ABC company by marking in the relevant cage regarding each statement Please assign each option a score which reflect your opinion on scale by using 1 to 5 whereas: 1 - Least affected 2 - Fairly affected 3 - Moderately affected 4 - Significantly affected 5 - Extremely affected The higher the score, the extremely affected sources of employee turnover

Would you please list out any other criteria, which you believe that should be included in this list, as sources of employee turnover? Note: Following are the identified some of the selection criteria from the literature and past research studies.

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Managers at ABC Company

Personal Profile
1. Gender: Female Male

2. Age Group: 20-25

26-30

31-35

36-40

Over 40

3. Educational Qualification 12 grade or below Diploma Degree

4. Work experience in the ABC (in years) Less than one year 1-2 Years 2-3 Years 3-5 Years > 5 years

5. Total work experience including other organizations Less than one year 1-2 Years 2-3 Years 3-5 Years > 5 years

6. Total managerial experience Less than one year 1-2 Years 2-3 Years 3-5 Years > 5 years

7. Position in the ABC Manager Coordinator If other, please specify

8. How you get your current positions? Initial Employment By Promotion If other, please specify

9. How do you rate your own leadership skill? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

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A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Managers at ABC Company 10. How you developed your leadership skill? (Select one or more) Through experience Through training

If other, please specify: 11. Did you have human resource management practice before joining ABC? Yes No

12. Did you take human resource management training after joining ABC? Yes No

13. How do you rate your relationship with your janitors? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

14. How do you judge the work load of your janitors in terms of the normal working hours?(i.e. 8 hour per day) Normal Beyond Under

15. What do you think about the working condition of the ABC? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

16. How do you rate the relationship between janitors? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

17. How do you rate the relationship between supervisors and janitors? Excellent Very good Good Fair Bad

Institute of Personnel Management

A study of factors affecting high turnover among the Managers at ABC Company
Assign a score to represent the relative importance

No I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 III 1 2 3 4 IV 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sources of Employee Turnover Personal Reason Maternity Difficulty in balancing work and life issues Childcare issues Elder care issues Health-related issues Retirement Relocation to follow spouse/partner Difficulty travelling to and from work Other domestic reasons Work Environment Way work is organised Workload/stress Work environment job satisfaction Insufficient challenges Worried about job security Poor fit between the employee and the job Inferior facilities, tools, etc Risky working conditions Inadequate employee orientation and training Lack of meaningful and challenging work. Salary / Recognition Dissatisfaction with pay Internal pay inequity Lack of promotion/career development Less or no appreciation for work done Oraganizational management style Conflicts with supervisors or co-workers Dissatisfaction with management style Perceptions of unfair treatment Ineffective communication. Poor supervision Management care how you really felt about your work? Management open and honest in dealing with employees Management ability to solve major administrative problems 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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