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LCD

Nguyn l hot ng Mn hnh LCD C hai kiu cu to mn hnh tinh th lng chnh, khc nhau cch thit k ngun sng. Trong kiu th nht, nh sng c pht ra t mt mn pht sng nn, c v s phng phn cc nh cc nh sng t nhin. nh sng ny c cho lt qua lp knh lc phn cc th nht, tr thnh nh sng phn cc phng ch c 1 phng. nh sng phn cc phng ny c tip tc cho truyn qua 2 lp in cc trong sut 1 x rnh ngang - 1 x rnh dc kp lp tinh th lng gia. Sau , nh snh s b i gc phn cc tu thuc vo in th gia 2 li in cc (b tr thnh ma trn) tip tc i ti knh lc phn cc th hai c phng phn cc vung gc vi knh lc th nht, ri i ti mt ngi quan st. Kiu mn hnh ny thng p dng cho mn hnh mu my tnh hay TV . to ra mu sc, lp ngoi cng, trc khi nh sng i ra n mt ngi, c knh lc mu.

loi mn hnh tinh th lng th hai, chng s dng nh sng t nhin i vo t mt trn v c gng phn x nm sau, di nh sng ny li cho ngi xem. y l cu to thng gp cc loi mn hnh tinh th lng en trng trong cc thit b b ti. Do khng cn ngun sng nn chng tit kim nng lng.

Cu trc cc lp ca mt mn hnh tinh th lng en trng khng t pht sng (thng thy trn my tnh b ti). 1.Knh lc phn cc thng ng lc nh sng t nhin i vo. 2.Lp knh c cc in cc ITO. Hnh dng ca in cc l hnh cn hin th. 3.Lp tinh th lng. 4.Lp knh c in cc ITO chung. 5.Knh lc phn cc nm ngang. 6.Gng phn x li nh sng cho ngi quan st. xt nguyn l hot ng ca LCD, chng ta cn bit cc vn v Tnh cht phn cc ca nh sng, Tnh cht ca tinh th lng, cc li in cc trong sut,... 1. Tnh cht phn cc ca nh sng nh sng l mt loi sng in t truyn trong khng gian theo thi gian. Phng dao ng ca sng nh sng l phng dao ng ca t trng v in trng (vung gc vi nhau). Dc theo phng truyn sng, phng dao ng ca nh sng c th lch nhau mt gc tu . Xt tng qut, nh sng bnh thng c v s phng dao ng khc nhau. nh sng phn cc l nh sng ch c mt phng dao ng duy nht, gi l phng phn cc. Ni vn tt: - Trng hp nh sng t do khng phn cc: sng nh sng dao ng theo nhiu phng khc nhau.

Hnh 1. nh sng t do khng phn cc - Trng hp nh sng b phn cc sau khi i qua knh lc phn cc: sng nh sng dao ng theo mt phng xc nh.

Hnh 2. nh sng phn cc 2. Tnh cht tinh th lng Cc phn t trong tinh th lng lin kt vi nhau theo tng nhm v gia cc nhm c s lin kt v nh hng nht nh, lm cho cu trc ca chng c phn ging cu trc tinh th. Vt liu tinh th lng c mt tnh cht c bit l c th lm thay i phng phn cc ca nh sng truyn qua n, tu thuc vo xon ca cc chm phn t. xon ny c th iu chnh bng cch thay i in p t vo hai u tinh th lng. Tm li, cc tnh cht cn lu ca tinh th lng trong k thut LCD gm :

Hnh 3. Tinh th lng

Hnh 4. Cc ht tinh th lng - Cc phn t tinh th lng s t nh hng v t sp xp ca khi tip xc vi b mt khe rnh

Hnh 5. Tinh th lng t sp xp khi tip xc b mt c khe rnh - Tinh th lng khi trng thi t nhin, cc phn t sp xp ln xn nn ngn khng cho nh sng xuyn qua

Hnh 6. Tinh th lng t nhin khng dn sng

- Vi tinh th lng c sp xp th nh sng s truyn qua cc khe h nh

Hnh 7. nh sng truyn qua cc khe h nh 3. Cu to mn hnh LCD Mn hnh tinh th lng c cu to bi cc lp xp chng ln nhau. Lp di cng l n nn, c tc dng cung cp nh sng nn (nh sng trng). n nn dng trong cc mn hnh thng thng, c sng di 1000cd/m2 thng l n hunh quang. i vi cc mn hnh cng cng, t ngoi tri, cn sng cao th c th s dng n nn xenon. Cu to Mn hnh LCD mu gm c: Mn pht sng nn + Mn phn cc ngang + Li in cc ngang trong sut c rnh ngang + Tinh th lng + Li in cc dc trong sut c rnh dc + Lp lc mu + Mn phn cc dc + Mn hin sng.

Hnh 8. Cu to nguyn l ca LCD mu Gia 2 lp in cc dc v ngang cc phn t tinh th lng c khuynh hng t sp xp bng cch t t xoay 1 gc 90

Hnh 9. Lp tinh th lng c cc phn t c sp xp xoay 90

Chm nh sng phn cc ngang i qua tinh th lng s xoay thnh phnh phn cc dc

Hnh 10. Chm tia sng phn cc i qua lp tinh th lng xoay phng phn cc i 90 Di tc dng ca in trng cc phn t tinh th lng c sp xp li v khng xoay 90

Hnh 11. nh hng ca in trng n tinh th lng Do khi khng c in trng, chm tia sng t mn pht sng nn pha sau s n c mn hnh v s to thnh im sng nht, chng chui vo li phn cc ngang v thot ra li phn cc dc nh hiu ng xoay phn cc t ngang thnh dc ca tinh th lng. Ngc li khi c in trng cao nht gia 2 li (3.5V) th do hiu ng xoay b v hiu ha nn chm tia sng phn cc ngang khng th thot ra li phn cc doc, tr thnh im ti hon ton. Gia 2 mc ta c nh sng t ti n sng.

Hnh 12. Nguyn l iu khin sng ti Hnh nh thu c trn mn hnh

Hnh 13. Nguyn l to nh trn mn hnh LCD