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L thuyt ha hc

Ha hu c

A. NHN BIT CC CHT HU C (Tng qut)

Cht mun nhn bit


Hp cht c lin kt C = C hay C C Phenol

Thuc th
dd Brom

Hin tng
Phai mu nu

Phn ng
CH2 = CH2 + Br2 BrCH2 CH2Br CH CH + 2Br2 Br2CH CHBr2

OH

OH + 3Br2 Br Br Br + 3HBr

dd Brom Anilin Hp cht c lin kt C = C C C Ankyl benzen Ankin c lin kt ba u mch Hp cht c nhm CH = O: Andehit, glucoz, mantz Axit fomic Este formiat H COO R Hp cht c nhm CH= O Ancol a chc Cu(OH)2 (c t nht 2 nhm OH gn vo 2 C lin tip) dd Anehit NaHSO3 Metyl xton bo ha Hp cht c H linh ng: axit, Ancol, phenol Na, K dd KMnO4

Kt ta trng

(ke tu trag) t a n

NH2 + 3Br2

NH2 Br Br Br + 3HBr

(ke tu trag) t a n

3CH2 = CH2 + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3HOCH2 2OH + 2MnO2 + 2KOH CH

Phai mu tm

3CH CH+8KMnO4 3HOOC COOH + 8MnO4 +8KOH

CH3
2 + 2KMnO4 0

COOK
HO 80-100 C

+ 2MnO2 + KOH + H2 O

Kt ta vng nht dd AgNO3 trong NH4OH (Ag2O)

R C + Ag[(NH3)2]OH R C C H C Ag + H2O + 2NH3 R CH = O + 2Ag[(NH3)2]OH R COONH4 + 2Ag + H2O + 3NH3 CH2OH (CHOH)4 CHO + Ag2O

Kt ta Ag (phn ng trng bc)

t ,ddNH3 (CHOH)4 COOH + 2Ag CH2OH

(Phn ng ny nhn bit nc tiu bnh tiu ng c cha glucoz)

HCOOH+2Ag[(NH3)2]OH(NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag +H2O+2NH3


ddNH3 Hay: HCOOH + Ag2O CO2 + 2Ag + H2O

HCOOR+2Ag[(NH3)2]OH(NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag +ROH+2NH3

Cu2O gch To dd mu xanh l trong sut Kt ta dng kt tinh Si bt kh khng mu

t R CHO + 2Cu(OH)2

RCOOH + Cu2O + 2H2O

CH2 OH CH2 OH

HO CH2 HO CH2

CH2 OH HO CH2
]

CH OH + Cu(OH)2 + HO CH CH O Cu O CH + 2H2 O CH2 OH HO CH2


^

R CHO + NaHSO3 R CHOH NaSO3

2R OH 2R COOH 2C6H5 OH

+ 2Na + 2Na + 2Na

2R ONa 2R COONa 2C6H5 ONa

+ H2 + H2 + H2

Gv: Trn Quc Ngha

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L thuyt ha hc

Ha hu c

B. NHN BIT CC CHT HU C (Chi tit)

Cht
Ankan

Thuc th
Cl2/s dd Br2 dd KMnO4

Hin tng
Sn phm sau P lm hng giy qu m Mt mu mt mu Sp cho p trng gng Mt mu Mt mu mt mu kt ta mu vng nht kt ta mu Mt mu

Phn ng
as CnH2n+2 + Cl2 CnH2n+1Cl + HCl

CnH2n + Br2 CnH2nBr2 3CnH2n + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3CnH2n(OH)2 + 2MnO2 + 2KOH


PdCl2 ,CuCl 2 2CH2 = CH2 + O2 CH3CHO

Anken Kh Oxi Ankaien dd Br2 dd Br2 dd KMnO4 AgNO3/NH3 (c ni 3 u mch) dd CuCl trong NH3 dd KMnO4, t0

CnH2n2 + 2Br2 CnH2nBr4 CnH2n2 + 2Br2 CnH2nBr4 3CH CH+8KMnO4 3HOOC COOH + 8MnO4 +8KOH HC CH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH Ag C C Ag + 2H2O + 4NH3 R C + [Ag(NH3)2]OH R C C H C Ag + H2O + 2NH3 CH CH + 2CuCl + 2NH3 Cu C C Cu + 2NH4Cl R C C H + CuCl + NH3 R C C Cu + NH4Cl

Ankin

Toluen

CH3
2 + 2KMnO4 0

COOK
HO 80-100 C

+ 2MnO2 + KOH + H2 O CHOH = CH2 OH + 2MnO2 + 2H2 O


+ H2

CH = CH2

Stiren Ancol Ancol bc I

dd KMnO4

Mt mu

+ 2KMnO4 + 4H2 O
2R OH + 2Na
0

Na, K
CuO (en) t0

khng mu
Cu (), Sp cho p trng gng Cu (), Sp khng p trng gng dung dch mu xanh lam

2R ONa

t R CH2 OH + CuO R CH = O + Cu + H2O

R CH = O + 2Ag[(NH3)2]OH R COONH4 + 2Ag + H2O + 3NH3


0

Ancol bc II Ancol a chc

CuO (en) t0

t R CH2OH R + CuO R CO R + Cu + H2O

CH2 OH CH2 OH

HO CH 2 HO CH 2

CH2 OH HO CH 2
]

Cu(OH)2

CH OH + Cu(OH)2 + HO CH CH O Cu O CH + 2H2O CH2 OH HO CH 2


^

Anilin

nc Brom

To kt ta trng

NH2 + 3Br2

NH2 Br Br Br + 3HBr

(ke tu trag) t a n

Anehit

R CH = O + 2Ag[(NH3)2]OH AgNO3 Ag trng trong NH3 R COONH4 + 2Ag + H2O + 3NH3 Cu(OH)2 t0 RCHO + 2Cu(OH)2 + NaOH RCOONa + Cu2O + 3H2O gch NaOH, t0 dd Brom Mt mu RCHO + Br2 + H2O RCOOH + 2HBr Andehit no hay ko no u lm mt mu nc Br2 v y l phn ng oxi ha kh. Mun phn bit andehit no v khng no dng dd Br2 trong CCl4, mi trng CCl4 th Br2 khng th hin tnh oxi ha nn ch phn ng vi andehit khng no

Gv: Trn Quc Ngha

Trang 2

L thuyt ha hc

Ha hu c

Cht
Axit cacboxylic

Thuc th
Qu tm
2 CO3

Hin tng
Ha CO2 Ha xanh Ha Khng i

Phn ng
2R COOH + Na2CO3 2R COONa + CO2 + H2O S nhm NH2 > s nhm COOH S nhm NH2 < s nhm COOH S nhm NH2 < s nhm COOH 2H2N COOH + Na2CO3 2H2N COONa + CO2 + H2O R R

Aminoaxit
2 CO3

CO2 Ha xanh dd xanh lam gch Ag trng Mt mu sn phm tham gia p trng gng Vn c dd xanh lam dd xanh lam Ag trng sn phm tham gia p trng gng sn phm tham gia p trng gng

Amin

Qu tm Cu(OH)2 Cu(OH)2 NaOH, t0 AgNO3 / NH3 dd Br2 Thu phn

2C6H12O6 + Cu(OH)2 (C6H11O6)2Cu + 2H2O CH2OH (CHOH)4 CHO + 2Cu(OH)2 + NaOH


t CH2OH (CHOH)4 COONa + Cu2O + 3H2O
0

Glucoz

CH2OH (CHOH)4 CHO + 2Ag[(NH3)2]OH CH2OH (CHOH)4 COONH4 + 2Ag + H2O + 3NH3 CH2OH (CHOH)4 CHO + Br2 CH2OH (CHOH)4 COOH+2HBr C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 Glucoz Fructoz C12H22O11.CaO.2H2O

Saccaroz
C12H22O11

Vi sa Cu(OH)2 Cu(OH)2

C12H22O11

Ca(OH)2

C12H22O11 + Cu(OH)2 (C12H22O11)2Cu + 2H2O C12H22O11 + Cu(OH)2 (C12H22O11)2Cu + 2H2O

Mantoz
C12H22O11

AgNO3 / NH3 Thu phn

C12H22O11

H2O

2C6H12O6 (Glucoz)

Thu phn Tinh bt


(C6H10O5)n

(C6H10O11)n

nH2O

nC6H12O6 (Glucoz)

ddch iot

To dung dch mu xanh tm, khi un nng mu xanh tm bin mt, khi ngui mu xanh tm li xut hin

Gv: Trn Quc Ngha

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