# Module 2

DC Circuit
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 9 Analysis of dc resistive network in presence of one non-linear element Version 2 EE IIT. Kharagpur .

as the voltage across the lamp increases. L. most nonmetals resistance decreases or increases with the rise or fall in temperature.9. 3. that the increments of voltage produce smaller increments of current that causes increase resistance in the filament element. Kharagpur . Additional increments of voltage produce large increments of current that causes decrease resistance in the element. On the other hand.Objectives • • To understand the volt ( V ) – ampere ( A ) characteristics of linear and nonlinear elements. more power is dissipated and in turn rising the filament temperature. Opposite effects can be observed in case of carbon filament lamp or silicon carbide or thermistor.1 shows the characteristics of tungsten and carbon filaments. The typical tungsten lamp resistance rises with temperature.9. 3. Version 2 EE IIT.1 Introduction The volt-ampere characteristic of a linear resistance is a straight line through the origin as in fig. Fig. Note.2 (see Lesson-3) but the characteristic for non-linear element for example. Most materials resistance increases (or decreases) with rise (or fall) in temperature. Further note. Concept of load-line and analysis of dc resistive network having a single nonlinear element using load-line analysis.3 (lesson-3). Temperature effects cause much non-linearity in lamps that are made of metals. diodes or lamps is not linear as in fig.

It is very easy to draw the source characteristic using the intercepts at points v(t ) = VAB = 0. where ' a ' is ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ constant ( for germanium diode ‘a’=0.9.2(a)) at the terminals ‘ A and B ’ is replaced by an equivalent Thevenin network as shown in fig.2(b). and a nonlinear element. This method is quite simple and useful to analysis the circuit while the load has a nonlinear V − I characteristic. L. This resulting solution is frequently referred to as the operating point ( Q ) for the nonlinear element characteristic (in the present discussion. consider the actual (non-ideal) V − I V a relationship of the typical diode can be expressed as I = I 0 ⎛ e −1⎞ .026 and silicon diode ‘a’=0. If the nonlinear element characteristic is given (note.2(a).9. It is assumed that the nonlinear element characteristics either defined in terms of current ( i (t ) ) (flowing through it) and voltage ( vnl (t ) ) (across the nonlinear element) relationship or Voltage (vnl (t )) and current (i ) relationships of nonlinear element can be expressed as mathematical expression or formula. i = iAB = and v(t ) = VAB = VTh . no any analytical expression is available) then one can adopt graphical method called load-line analysis to determine the branch variables ( I AB = inl and VAB = vnl ) of nonlinear element as shown in fig.2(a) that consists of independent sources. Kharagpur .Let us consider a simple circuit shown in fig. VTh − I AB × RTh = VAB ⇒ Thevenin terminal voltage = load voltage.052).9. For example. we consider a nonlinear element is a resistor R2 ). L. combination of linear resistances. Assume that the network (fig. From an examination of the figure one can write the following expression: VTh = I AB × RTh + VAB or . i = iAB = 0 (open circuit condition) Version 2 EE IIT. 9.

L. Table: volt-ampere characteristic of non-linear element 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 0. 9.3(a)) is given in tabular form. the intersection of source characteristic and load characteristic represents the solution of voltage across the nonlinear element and current flowing through it or operating point ( Q )of the circuit as shown in fig.9.3 Application of load-line method Example-L. More-specifically.1 0. It is obvious that the RTh values of voltage ( VAB ) and current ( I AB ) at the terminals of the source are exactly same as the voltage across and current in the load as indicated in fig. Application of load-line analysis is explained with the following examples. The point of intersection of the load and the source characteristic represents the only condition where voltage and current are same for both source and load elements.9.9.1: The volt-ampere characteristic of a non-linear resistive element connected in the circuit (as shown Fig.VTh = I N (short − circuited at A & B ter min als) in two axes.6 1.2(c).0 1.0 Version 2 EE IIT.2 0.0 Vnl I nl 15 4.8 2.9.05 0.2(a). Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .3(b) can be obtain using ‘node-voltage’ method (or one can apply any method to find VTh ). Version 2 EE IIT.9. point ‘b’ is higher potential than the point ‘a’). 25 10 15 V − (−20) −4. For the same circuit. Node voltage at ‘c’ Vc − 10 Vc Vc + 20 + + = 0 ⇒ Vc = − 4.032 A 15 15 Voltage across the terminals ‘a’ and ‘b’=Thevenin equivalent voltage ( VTh ) = −4. Solution: (i) The Thevenin equivalent circuit across the terminals “ ' a ' and ' b ' of fig.48 volt . if the non-linear element is replaced by a linear resistance RL . (note.032 = − 14.52 − 10 × 1.(i) (ii) Calculate the voltage drop Vab across the non-linear element.52 volt. find the choice of RL that will absorb maximum power delivered by the independent sources.52 + 20 Current through ‘c-a’ branch = c = = 1.

RTh The operating point of the circuit is found from the intersection of source characteristic (load-line) and load characteristic curves as shown in fig. On the other hand. From this graph (see fig.38 Volt . terminal ‘a’ and ‘b’ is open-circuited). if the nonlinear resistance is short-circuited.3(d)). If the nonlinear load is removed (i. the terminal voltage will be equal to the Thevenin voltage ( VTh ). we examine the extreme conditions under which a given source may operate.15 A and the voltage across the nonlinear element is Vab =10.9.e.3(d). one can find the current flowing through the nonlinear element I L = 1. Kharagpur .14 + 10 ) 5 = 3.3(b) is given below: To construct the source characteristic (load-line).9. the current flow V through the ‘a’ and ‘b’ terminal is I sc = I N = Th .87 Ω ⎣ ⎦ Thevenin equivalent circuit for the network as shown in fig.9.Thevenin resistance ( RTh ): RTh = ⎡( 25 10 ) + 10 ⎤ 5 = ( 7. Version 2 EE IIT.

Kharagpur .9.4(a) shows that a nonlinear element (diode) is included in the circuit.(ii) If the nonlinear resistance is replaced by a linear resistance. due to its graphical nature and thus it provides an approximate solution of the circuit.87 Ω . the network will deliver the maximum power to the load and the 2 VTh 14. Example-L.87 Remarks: The primary limitation of this method (load-line analysis) is accuracy.9.842 corresponding maximum power is given by Pmax = = = 14. the maximum power transfer condition is achieved when the linear load resistance RL = RTh = 3. Version 2 EE IIT.2: Fig.23 W RTh 4 × 3. Under such condition.

1) I = I 0 ⎜ e a − 1⎟ = 10−6 ⎜ e 0.19mA 15mA 102.35 v Vd I 0 mA 0.9. I = current in diode in mA 0v 0.6mA 268mA 702mA Step-1: Thevenized circuit Remove the nonlinear element (diode) and replace the rest of the circuit (as shown in fig.25 v 0. Version 2 EE IIT. Table: Vd = voltage across the diode in volt.4(b)) by a thevenin equivalent circuit (see fig. The volt-ampere characteristic of the diode is given by the expression ⎛ Vd ⎞ ⎛ Vd ⎞ (9.32 v 0.3 v 0.046mA 2.026 − 1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Solution: (i) Load-line analysis method The volt-ampere characteristics of the diode are given in tabular form using the equation (9.2 v 0.Calculate the current flowing through the diode. voltage across the diode and the power dissipated in the diode using (i) load-line analysis (graphical) technique (ii) analytical method.4(c)).9. Kharagpur .1 v 0.1).

4(d).4(c).9.5 =10 Ω The equivalent Thevenin circuit is shown in fig.9.2 = 3 volt.9.4(b). Version 2 EE IIT.Applying KVL around the closed path of the circuit as shown in fig. Kharagpur . Step-2: Load-line analysis Draw the source and load (diode) characteristics on a same graph paper as shown in fig. Note that the Thevenin parameters obtained in step-1 are used to draw the source characteristic. .L. we get 2 4 − ( 5 + 5 ) × I − 2 = 0 ⇒ I = = 0. RTh = ( 5 5 ) + 7.2 A 10 VTh = 4 − 5 × 0.

46×Vd (9. Current flowing through the diode = I L = 269 mA Power dissipated in the diode = Pdiode = Vab × I L = 88.77 mW (ii) Analytical method KVL equation around the loop of fig.4(d) provides the information of the following quantities: Voltage across the diode = Vd = Vab = 0.46 + Vd − 3 (9.The operating point Q in fig.46 + Vd ( ) (note VTh = 3 V .33 volt. The above equation is rewritten in the following form f (Vd ) = 10−5 eVd × 38. Kharagpur .9.4) Version 2 EE IIT.2) or 3 = 10−5 eVd × 38. RTh = 10 Ω) The nonlinear algebraic equation can be solved by using any numerical technique. one can consider the Newton-Raphson method to the above equation. To solve this equation.L.9.3) ( ) f (Vd ) =1 + 0.385 ×10−3 × e38.4(c) is written as VTh − I L × RTh − Vd = 0 VTh = I L × RTh + Vd (9.

we get I L = L.2).5(a) and it is connected to a resistive circuit of fig. Iteration 1. Using equation (9.4 Test your understanding (Marks: 30) T.1 The volt-ampere characteristic of a unknown device ( T ) is shown in fig. Kharagpur .36 v 0. Newton’s formula is used ⎛ f (Vd ) ⎞ Vd ( new) = Vd ( old ) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ f (Vd ) ⎠Vd =Vd ( old ) (9.58 mA and power 10 RTh dissipated in diode Pdiode = Vab × I L = 0.3886 v 0.3845 v 0.58 = 100.3996 v 0.To solve Vd .36 V .3845 v 0.3842 = = 261. The final value of Vd is obtained after four iterations and they are shown below.3886 v 0.9.3842 v VTh − Vd 3 − 0.5(b).3996 v 0.5 mW . Vd ( old ) Vd ( new) 0.5) Initial guess of Vd is assumed as Vd ( old ) = 0. 2. 3. 4.9.9. Version 2 EE IIT.3842 × 261.

Kharagpur . Version 2 EE IIT.9.2 A Thermistor with the volt-ampere characteristic (see fig.6(a)) given below is connected into one arm of a bridge as shown in the circuit of fig.7 V ) [3] T.9.6(b). [3] (ii) Indicate the operating point on the graph and estimate the values of IT and VT (ans. plot the source characteristics on the voltagecurrent axes.(i) If Vin = 10 V . and VT = 3. and Rin = 150 Ω . IT = 43 mA.

3 V. R = 0. Justify the answer using the load-line analysis technique. compute the power dissipated by the thermistor. (ans. Kharagpur . 5.7 mW) [5+2] Version 2 EE IIT.4 mA and 12.(i) Determine the value of R so that the thermistor operation point is at VT = 5 Volt and IT = 2 mA.5 k Ω ) [5] (ii) Find the new operating point of the thermister when R = 300 Ω . Subsequently. (Ans. 2.

7. voltage Vd and power dissipated by diode.3 The diode whose volt-ampere characteristic is given by analytical expression ⎛ Vd ⎞ ⎛ Vd ⎞ I = I 0 ⎜ e a − 1⎟ = 10−6 ⎜ e 0. 40 V and 50 V respectively. [5] (ii) the diode voltage for each case while the supply voltage ( Vs ) is changed in succession to 30 V. Kharagpur . ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Using analytical method.026 − 1⎟ is used in the circuit of fig.T. determine the following (i) the diode current I d .9.9. [7] Version 2 EE IIT.