Bridge Deck Analysis
This book is dedicated to Orlaith, Sadhbh and Ailbhe, and to Margaret
Bridge Deck Analysis
Eugene J.O’Brien and Damien L.Keogh Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland
Chapter 4 written in collaboration with the authors by
Barry M.Lehane Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
London and New York
First published 1999 by E & FN Spon 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 E & FN Spon is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. © 1999 Eugene J.O’Brien and Damien L.Keogh Cover photograph: Killarney Road Bridge, courtesy of Roughan and O’Donovan, Consulting Engineers All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data O’Brien, Eugene J., 1958– Bridge deck analysis/Eugene J.O’Brien and Damien L.Keogh. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-419-22500-5 1. Bridges-Floors. 2. Structural analysis (Engineering) I.Keogh, Damien L., 1969–. II. Title. TG325.6.027 1999 624’.253–dc21 98–48511 CIP ISBN 0-203-98414-5 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 0-419-22500-5 (Print Edition)
8 Bridge aesthetics Chapter 2 Bridge loading 2.6 Bearings 1.5 Articulation 1.4 Bridge elevations 1.6 Dynamic effects 2.1 Introduction 2.5 Impact loading 2.3 Cross-sections 1.7 Prestress loading Chapter 3 Introduction to bridge analysis 3.3 Imposed traffic loading 2.1 Introduction 3.4 Thermal loading 2.2 Factors affecting structural form 1.1 Introduction 1.Page v
Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Dead and superimposed dead loading 2.2 Moment distribution viii x 1 1 1 2 8 26 29 32 34 40 40 42 43 46 51 52 54 67 67 67
.7 Joints 1.
1 Introduction 4.5 Differential temperature effects 3.6 Time-dependent effects in composite integral bridges Chapter 5 Slab bridge decks—behaviour and modelling 5.5 Run-on slab 4.4 Three-dimensional analysis 7.2 Shear lag and neutral axis location 7.7 Skew and curved bridge decks Chapter 7 Three-dimensional modelling of bridge decks 7.1 Introduction 7.6 Prestress 3.4 Modelling expansion with an equivalent spring at deck level 4.2 Simple isotropic slabs 6.5 Wood and Armer equations Chapter 6 Application of planar grillage and finite-element methods 6.7 Application of moment distribution to grillages Chapter 4 Integral bridges 4.4 Planar finite-element analysis of slab decks 5.4 Thermal expansion and contraction 3.3 Differential settlement of supports 3.5 Upstand grillage modelling 75 78 89 104 111 121 121 128 133 137 145 147 151 151 151 169 185 191 200 200 200 203 211 218 228 236 240 240 240 242 244 245
.1 Introduction 5.1 Introduction 6.3 Grillage analysis of slab decks 5.2 Thin-plate theory 5.3 Conventional spring model for deck expansion 4.5 Beam and slab bridges 6.3 Effective flange width 7.Page vi 3.2 Contraction of bridge deck 4.3 Edge cantilevers and edge stiffening 6.6 Cellular bridges 6.4 Voided slab bridge decks 6.
Page vii 7.7 Prestress loads in three-dimensional models Appendix Reactions and bending moment diagrams due to applied load A 252 260 263
Appendix Stiffness of structural members and associated bending moment diagrams 265 B Appendix Location of centroid of a section C 267
Appendix Derivation of shear area for grillage member representing cell with flange 269 D and web distortion References Index 272 274
.6 Upstand finite-element modelling 7.
it includes chapters on every aspect of bridge deck analysis that a practising bridge engineer is ever likely to need. Indeed. if an error arose early on in the calculations. eccentrically loaded. prestressed concrete bridge decks could be analysed with a fair degree of accuracy—but only by using manual methods. the book contains either a novel approach to design or entirely new methods. The method was tedious. To be confident of this.Page viii
Twenty-five years ago. copiously and carefully illustrated. amongst other techniques. perhaps more so now than in the past. irregularly supported structures is essential. unambiguous English. many days could be spent in re-analysing. It covers construction in some detail. Written by two engineers who have. it is possible to change a dozen variables and a computer program will recalculate stresses and reactions in seconds. There is still a need. between them. it represents years of scholarship and research presented in a lucid and understandable style which should make even the more complex theory understandable to all engineers. in turn leading to the calculation of mx . with sections on bearings. translated from the German by the Cement and Concrete Association. fairly complex skew. This book fulfils just that role. In many aspects. my and mxy moments. somewhat approximate and could often take weeks. the use of planimeters on the way to calculating volumes under the influence surface. experience of almost all aspects of modern bridge design and analysis. Now. loading (with prestress treated as a special case of loading) and details of a unique graphical approach to moment distribution—a powerful tool in engendering an understanding of fundamental structural behaviour. Written in clear. however. Full analysis of a bridge deck involved. an understanding of the behaviour of non-symmetrical. joints and aesthetics not commonly found in bridge analysis books. This is particularly useful for
. for a bridge engineer to understand how a bridge deck responds to various combinations of load and to be able to decide if the ‘answer’ (output) is sensible. The famous Rusch and Hergenroder influence surface charts. gave surfaces for various stress and aspect ratios up to a 45° skew.
H. this must prove the standard work on bridge deck analysis for decades to come. Professor S. Structural and Environmental Engineering Trinity College Dublin
.Page ix checking the output of computer analyses.Perry Civil. All in all. although the merits of grillage methods are not ignored. Other chapters deal comprehensively with integral bridges (with a major geotechnical input from Dr Barry Lehane) and the increasing acceptance of FE methods of analysis.
including the cover illustration.Perry and Trinity College Dublin. where both authors were employed for a time. The initial writing effort was greatly facilitated for both authors through the support of Professor S. in whole or in part. The material represents the opinions of the authors. The publisher and authors disclaim any liability. typographical or editorial errors may occur. He gave most generously of his time with the sole objective of getting it right. Readers should use their own judgement as to the validity of the information and its applicability to particular situations and check the references before relying on them. The stay in Slovenia was greatly enhanced and enriched by Alenka Ž nidarič .H. The support of Roughan and O’Donovan Consulting Engineers. USA) are thanked for the use of their programs. Special thanks is due to Joe O’Donovan for providing some of the photographs in the text. and should be treated as such. arising from information contained in this publication. Ancon CCL are also acknowledged for providing a number of illustrations. Despite the best efforts of all concerned.Page x
We would like to thank Dr A. The assistance of Chris Davis and Michael Barron of Mott McDonald with Chapter 2 is gratefully acknowledged. Tel Aviv) and NIKE3D (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories.Ghali most sincerely for major contributions to some of the earlier chapters.
This publication presents many advanced techniques. Sound engineering judgement should be the final arbiter in all stages of the design process. This would not have been feasible without the enthusiasm of Aleš nidarič the Ž of Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute and the support of the University of Ljubljana. A sabbatical stay in Slovenia for the first author made the initial drafting of many chapters possible. The authors of STRAP (ATIR software. some of which are novel and have not been exposed to the rigours of time. is much appreciated. and readers are encouraged to bring errors of substance to our attention.
1. which is the direction of span. The bridges that were easy to design were usually determinate. Problems have also been reported with post-tensioned concrete bridges in which inadequate grouting of the ducts has lead to corrosion of the tendons. The deck spans longitudinally.1 which are commonly used in bridge engineering. and transversely. it has been established that a significant portion of the world’s bridges are not performing as they should. Bridge decks are frequently supported on bearings which transmit the loads to abutments at the ends or to piers or walls elsewhere. This is often associated with joints that are leaking or with details that have resulted in chloride-contaminated water dripping onto substructures. In some cases. There may be upstands or downstands at the ends of the cantilever for aesthetic purposes and to support the parapet which is built to retain the vehicles on the bridge.
1. bridges are carrying significantly more traffic load than originally intended. The main body of the bridge superstructure is known as the deck and can consist of a main part and cantilevers as illustrated. There is now a significant move away from bridges that are easy to design towards bridges that will require little maintenance. in many others.
.2 Factors affecting structural form
In recent years. In this figure. the problem is one of durability—the widespread use of de-icing salt on roads has resulted in the ingress of chlorides into concrete. Joints may be present to facilitate expansion or contraction of the deck at the ends or in the interior. The new awareness of the need to design durable bridges has led to dramatic changes of attitude towards bridge design. all parts of the bridge over the bearings are referred to as superstructure while the substructure includes all parts below. which is perpendicular to it.1 Introduction
A number of terms are illustrated in Fig. However.Page 1
Chapter 1 Introduction
steel beams carry the self weight of the deck while composite steel and in-situ concrete carry the imposed traffic loading.1 Portion of bridge illustrating bridge engineering terms
e. simply supported spans and cantilevers. This immediately limits the structural forms to those that can be constructed in this way. is not a very efficient structural form as the second moment of area of a rectangle is relatively small.3.1 Solid rectangular
The solid rectangular section. 1. the construction must be carried out without support from below. The structural forms of bridges are closely interlinked with the methods of construction.Page 2
Fig. such as a railway yard or a deep valley. the stresses
. such structural forms have many joints which are prone to leakage and also have many bearings which require replacement many times over the lifetime of the bridge. illustrated in Fig. For example. when a bridge is to be located over an inaccessible place.g. The method of construction also influences the distributions of moment and force in a bridge. However. The move now is towards bridges which are highly indeterminate and which have few joints or bearings. The methods of construction in turn are often dictated by the particular conditions on site. For example. Such a bridge is generally constructed of reinforced concrete (particularly for the shorter spans) or prestressed concrete.
1. Various alternative structural bridge forms and methods of construction are presented in the following sections. Due to the inefficiency of this structural form. in some bridges. 1.2.3 Cross-sections
1. As a result. the shuttering costs for a bridge with a flat soffit are relatively low and the reinforcement is generally simple. such as illustrated in Figs.3. which is discussed in Section 1. bridges can be constructed with or without cantilevers.Page 3
Fig. As can be seen in Fig. However.2.2 In-situ solid rectangular section: (a) without cantilevers.8. Such construction is clearly more economical when support from below the bridge is readily available. 1. With this form of construction. a rectangular section can be constructed using precast pretensioned inverted-T-sections as illustrated in Fig. e. 1. 1.2. without much reduction in the second moment of area.3 Precast and in-situ solid rectangular section
. what is often the more important advantage of cantilevers is the aesthetic one. When this is not the case. 1. However. In-situ reinforced concrete is then poured over the precast beams to form the complete section. Solid rectangular sections can be constructed simply from in-situ concrete as illustrated in Fig. the precast beams must be designed to carry their self weight plus the weight of the
Fig.g. 1. Holes are cast at frequent intervals along the length of such beams to facilitate the threading through of transverse bottom reinforcement. over railway lines or deep waterways. it can be seen that the bridge with cantilevers has less weight. Comparing bridges of the same width. (b) with cantilevers
induced by the self weight of the concrete can become excessive. this form of cross-section is often the most cost-effective for shorter spans (up to about 20 m).2(a) and (b).
the preferred solution. 1. the voids must be accounted for when considering the design to resist transverse bending. solid rectangular sections become increasingly less costeffective due to their low second moment of area to weight ratio. in some cases.Page 4
Fig. 1. it is common practice in some countries to use in-situ concrete with polystyrene ‘voids’ as illustrated in Fig.4. In-situ T-section decks. These decks can be constructed from ordinary reinforced concrete or can be post-tensioned.
1. The complete rectangular section is available to carry other loading. It is common practice to treat voided slabs as solid slabs for the purposes of analysis provided that the void diameter is less than 60% of the total depth. As a result.3. Including voids in a bridge deck increases the cost for a given structural depth because it adds to the complexity of the reinforcement.2 Voided rectangular
For spans in excess of about 20 m. Regardless of the diameter-to-depth ratio.
1. However. are more expensive in terms of shuttering
.3. For the span range of 20–30 m. 1. Guidance is given on the analysis of this type of deck in Chapter 6. Hence it is. This problem is not so much one of steel straps failing as of grooves being cut in the polystyrene by the straps. particularly that designed to resist transverse bending.4 Voided slab section with cantilevers
(initially wet) in-situ concrete. Concerns have been expressed about voided-slab construction over the lack of inspectability of the concrete on the inside of the void and there are many countries where this form is virtually unknown. The shuttering costs are also less than for in-situ concrete T-sections which are described below. It is essential in such construction to ensure that sufficient stays are provided to keep the voids in place when the concrete is poured and to prevent uplift due to flotation.5. However. the section tends to be deeper for a given span. particularly when the designer wishes to minimise the structural depth. it reduces considerably the self weight and the area of concrete to be prestressed without significantly affecting the second moment of area.3 T-section
The T-section is commonly used for spans in the range 20–40 m as an alternative to voidedslab construction. the T-section is a less efficient structural form as it tends to have more material close to the neutral axis of the bridge than a voided slab. illustrated in Fig.
Over less accessible places.5 In-situ concrete T-sections: (a) single web such as might be used for a pedestrian bridge.4 Box sections
For spans in excess of 40 m.7. spans transversely between the beams while acting as flanges to the beams longitudinally.3.Page 5
Fig. These have a higher second moment of area
. it becomes economical to use ‘cellular’ or ‘box’ sections as illustrated in Fig.
1. These consist of pretensioned prestressed concrete or steel beams placed in position along the length of the span. precast concrete or steel forms of T-section. 1. supported on permanent shuttering. 1. are favoured.6. An in-situ concrete slab. (b) multiple webs such as would be used for wider decks
costs than voided slabs but have a major advantage in that all of the bridge deck is totally inspectable. 1. as illustrated in Fig.
However. 1. 1.
. (b) multi-cellular
per unit weight than voided slab or T-sections.7 Box sections: (a) single cell.Page 6
Fig.6 T-sections: (a) composite steel and concrete. they are only considered economical at higher spans as it is only then that the structural depth becomes sufficiently great (about 2 m) for personnel to enter the void to recover the shuttering and. when the bridge is in service. to inspect the inside of the void. (b) composite precast Y-beam and in-situ concrete
1.9 Precast M-beam
. These were constructed of M-beams with insitu concrete near the bottom to form a void. 1. M-sections were often placed side by side with the bottom flanges within millimetres of each other. 1. These have wider bottom flanges than the precast ‘Y-beams’ (Fig. However. The section is more efficient than a T-section as more concrete is located away from the centroid. corrosion problems can result and. 1.5 Older concepts
Many variations of the above structural forms have been used in the past and are evident in existing bridge stocks.8 Composite precast and in-situ box section
Box sections can be constructed of in-situ or precast concrete or can be composite with a precast pre-tensioned U-section and an in-situ concrete slab as illustrated in Fig. if water leaks into the voids. It was also common practice in the past to build bridges of ‘pseudo-box’ construction as illustrated in Fig. In the past. in the past. For example. The bottom in-situ concrete was reinforced transversely by threading bars through holes cast in the M-beams.Page 7
Fig.8.6(b)) used more commonly today.3. The analysis of this type of bridge is similar to that of any T-section bridge.9).10.
Fig. it was common practice to construct Tsection decks using precast ‘M-beams’ (Fig.
1. 1. A disadvantage of the M-section is that it is difficult to compact the concrete properly at the top surface of the wide bottom flange. 1.
(b) assumed transverse deformation
. Thus the transverse deformation is assumed to be as illustrated in Fig. they are no longer popular due to concerns about the durability of the in-situ joints. illustrated in Fig. 1. assessment and repair is difficult.4 Bridge elevations
The cross-sections described above can be used in many different forms of bridge. This consists of precast concrete slab strips joined using longitudinal strips of insitu concrete. i. 1. The latter ‘shear keys’ are assumed to be capable of transferring shear force but not transverse bending moment as they have no transverse reinforcement.11 Shear-key deck: (a) section through small portion of deck. rotation is assumed to occur at the joints between precast units.e. Another form of construction used widely in the past is the ‘shear key’ deck.11(b). Shear key decks were popular for railway bridge construction as the railway line could be reopened even before the in-situ concrete was placed. The structural behaviour of the pseudo-box section is similar to that of a small multi-cellular box section. Many of the alternative bridge elevations and their methods of construction are described in the following sections.
Fig.11(a). 1. 1.10 Pseudo-box section
due to the nature of this structural form.Page 8
there is less disruption to any traffic that may be below as only one span needs to be closed at any one time.2 Series of simply supported beams/slabs
When a bridge crossing is too wide for an economical single span.15.1 Simply supported beam/slab
The simplest form of bridge is the single-span beam or slab which is simply supported at its ends. as illustrated in Fig. For example. It is particularly favoured on poor soils where differential settlements of supports are anticipated. Continuous beams/slabs. In addition. 1. This form. 1. as illustrated in Fig. illustrated in Fig. have significantly fewer joints and bearings. Like single-span bridges. A further disadvantage of simply supported beam/slabs in comparison to continuous ones is that the maximum bending moment in the former is significantly greater than that in the latter.Page 9
1. The implication of this is that the bridge deck needs to be correspondingly deeper.13. there are a great many joints and bearings with the result that a series of simply supported beams/slabs is no longer favoured in practice. it is possible to construct what is in effect a series of simply supported bridges. the bending moment diagrams due to a uniformly distributed loading of intensity ω(kN/m) are illustrated in Fig.4. 1. is widely used when the bridge crosses a minor road or small river.14 Continuous beam or slab
. It also has the advantage that.14. 1. The simply supported bridge is relatively simple to analyse and to construct but is disadvantaged by having bearings and joints at both ends. the span is relatively small and multiple spans are infeasible and/or unnecessary. The cross-section is often solid rectangular but can be of any of the forms presented above. the concrete pours are moderately sized. In such cases.13 Series of simply supported beam/slabs
Fig. 1. one after the other. this form is relatively simple to analyse and construct. It can be seen that the maximum moment in the simply supported case is significantly greater (about 25%) than that in the continuous case.
1. However.12 Simply supported beam or slab
Fig. if constructed using in-situ concrete. 1. 1.
the concrete can be poured in-situ in one pour.4 Partially continuous beam/slab
When support from below during construction is expensive or infeasible. In the form illustrated in Fig. 1.
. The slab at the support in this form of construction is particularly flexible and tends to attract a relatively low bending moment.4.17. continuity over intermediate supports is provided only by the slab. 1.6.16. This tends to increase cost as the construction becomes more of a batch process than a continuous one. In the alternative form of partially continuous bridge. In-situ concrete is then used to make the finished bridge continuous over intermediate joints. Precast concrete or steel beams are placed initially in a series of simply supported spans.
1. continuous beam/slab construction has significant advantages over simply supported spans in that there are fewer joints and bearings and the applied bending moments are less. There is concern among some designers about the integrity of such a joint as it must undergo significant rotation during the service life of the bridge. However. This completely removes the need for any joints. it is possible to use precast concrete or steel beams to construct a partially continuous bridge.Page 10
Fig. the in-situ concrete is cast to the full depth of the bridge over all supports to form what is known as a diaphragm beam. illustrated in Fig. Thus the in-situ slab alone is required to resist the complete hogging moment at the intermediate supports. the amount of concrete that needs to be cast in one pour can become excessive.4. Elsewhere the cross-section is similar to that illustrated in Fig. (b) one three-span continuous beam with span lengths l
1.15 Bending moment diagrams due to uniform loading of intensity ω (a) three simply : supported spans of length l. Further. This is possible due to the fact that members of low structural stiffness (second moment of area) tend to attract low bending moment. Two forms of partially continuous bridge are possible. For bridges of moderate total length. as the total bridge length becomes large.3 Continuous beam/slab with full propping during construction
As stated above. 1. 1.
Fig. 1.16 Partially continuous bridge with full-depth diaphragm at intermediate supports: (a) elevation.17 Partially continuous bridge with continuity provided only by the slab at intermediate supports
. (b) plan view from below
the joint must move longitudinally to accommodate this rotation as illustrated in Fig. The total bending moment diagram will be a combination of that due to self weight and other loading. 1. 1. By the time the imposed traffic loading is applied.18. 1. the bridge is continuous and the resulting bending moment diagram is as illustrated in Fig. self weight continues to cause deformation in the bridge after it has been made continuous. 1. the precast concrete or steel beams carry all the self weight of the bridge which generates a bending moment diagram such as that illustrated in Fig. 1. due to creep.
Fig.19(b) than Fig.17
as the main bridge beams rotate at their ends.19 Typical distribution of bending moment in two-span partially-continuous bridge: (a) bending moment due to self weight.19(a).18 Joint detail at intermediate support of partially-continuous bridge of the type illustrated in Fig. (b) bending moment due to loading applied after bridge has been made continuous
. At this stage it is resisted by a continuous rather than a simply supported beam/slab and it generates a distribution of bending moment more like that of Fig. This introduces a complexity into the analysis compounded by a great difficulty in making accurate predictions of creep effects. 1. Unfortunately. In partially continuous bridges. 1.19(a) for a two-span bridge. 1.Page 12
In this form of construction.17. 1. However. can be a viable option.Page 13 The great advantage of partially continuous construction is in the removal of all intermediate joints while satisfying the requirement of construction without support from below. The joint may sometimes be located at the quarter-span position as illustrated in Fig. intermediate bearings are still present with their associated maintenance implications.21. Particularly for the form illustrated in Fig. resulting in minimum disruption to any existing traffic passing under the bridge. 1. starting even before work has commenced on site. This is achieved using temporary formwork supported on the bridge piers as illustrated in Fig.20(a). A significant disadvantage is that. an intermediate joint may become necessary to relieve stresses due to expansion/contraction. (b) joint at quarter span
.20(b). where bending moments and shear forces are relatively small. The method is also of a continuous rather than a batch form as the precast beams can be constructed at a steady pace.20 Temporary support system for span-by-span construction: (a) joint over intermediate pier. In particularly long continuous beam/slabs.
1. while intermediate joints have been removed. the point where one concrete pour meets the next is designed to transmit bending moment and shear force and is not intended to accommodate movements due to thermal and creep effects. 1. such as illustrated in Fig. in-situ construction.5 Continuous beam/slab—span-by-span construction
For construction of particularly long bridges when access from below is expensive or infeasible. two bearings are necessary at each intermediate support.4. can be used to achieve continuity of prestressing across construction joints. Construction on site is fast. 1. 1. Proprietary post-tensioning couplers.
Fig. It has been said that joints should be provided every 100 m at least. this figure is constantly being revised upwards as the problems of bridge joints in service receive ever more attention. one span at a time.
However. Segments can be cast in-situ or precast.22(a)). in anticipation of the need to post-tension future segments at later stages of construction.22(b)) until such time as they can be permanently posttensioned into place as illustrated in Fig. At spans of this length. The crosssection is generally of the box type constructed either of in-situ concrete or precast segments of relatively short length (4–5 m longitudinally). 1. either alternately on opposing sides or simultaneously in pairs. either method is only capable of resisting a relatively small out-of-balance moment so it is necessary to have approximately equal lengths of cantilever on each side at all times during construction. 1.6 Continuous beam/slab—balanced cantilever construction
When the area under a bridge is inaccessible and spans are in excess of about 40 m.21 Post-tensioning coupler to transmit prestress forces across a construction joint (photograph courtesy of Ancon CCL)
1. This is prevented from rotation either by a rigid connection between pier and deck or by construction of a temporary prop or props connecting the deck to the foundation as illustrated. one on each side.22(c). in the case of
. Ducts are placed in all segments when they are first cast. The segments are supported by a ‘travelling form’ connected to the existing bridge (Fig. An intermediate pier is cast first and a small part of the bridge deck (Fig. it is often economical to construct bridges by the balanced cantilever method. Segments of deck are then added to the base segment.Page 14
Fig. 1. The sequence of construction is illustrated in Fig. precast beams are not generally available to span the complete length at once.22.4. 1. 1. This form of bridge is generally made of post-tensioned prestressed concrete.
it does not normally serve any structural purpose.Page 15 the latter. 1. Moment is transferred by the concrete in compression and by the post-tensioning tendons.
.22(d) to provide a positive method of transferring shear between segments. While epoxy resin is commonly used to join segments. there is typically a ‘shear key’ as illustrated in Fig.
1. the moment due to self weight during construction is such as illustrated in Fig. a ‘stitching segment’ is cast to make the bridge continuous as illustrated in Fig. 1. 1.24. Post-tensioning tendons are placed in the bottom flange and webs by means of ‘blisters’. This form of bridge is quite inefficient as parts of it must be designed to resist a significant range of moments from large hogging to large
Fig. such as illustrated in Fig.25(b). When cantilevers meet at mid-span.23.23 Casting of stitching segment
Fig. (c) sectional elevation showing tendon. After the casting of the stitching segments and completion of construction. to resist the sagging moment that will exist in the finished structure due to applied traffic loading. 1. the bridge forms a continuous beam and the imposed service loading generates a distribution of moment.25(a). (b) temporary support of segments.22 Balanced cantilever construction: (a) elevation of base segment and pier. The bending moment in a balanced cantilever bridge is entirely hogging while the bridge remains in the form of a cantilever. 1. Thus. (d) precast segment
Segments are added on alternate sides until they reach an abutment or another cantilever coming from the other side of the span. illustrated in Fig. 1.
1. 1. (b) due to imposed loading after completion of construction
. it is frequently the most economical alternative for construction over deep valleys when propping from below is expensive. 1.25(b). temporary sliding bearings are used to minimise friction forces. a long segment is cast behind the bridge abutment as illustrated in Fig.7 Continuous beam/slab—push-launch construction
For spans in excess of about 60 m. Hydraulic jacks are then used to ‘push’ this segment out into the first span to make way for the casting of another segment behind it (Fig.25 Distributions of bending moment in balanced cantilever bridge: (a) due to self weight during construction.26(a). This results from creep deformations which are still taking place after the bridge has been made continuous.
Fig. 1.25(a) towards a form approaching that illustrated in Fig. ‘incremental-launch’ or ‘push-launch’ becomes a viable alternative to balanced cantilever as a method of construction. 1.4.Page 17
Fig. This is caused by a tendency for the distribution of moment due to self weight to change in the long term from the form illustrated in Fig. 1.24 Blisters and tendon in the bottom flange (sectional elevation)
sagging.26(b)). 1. When the deck is being pushed over intermediate supports. Nevertheless. The analysis of balanced cantilever bridges is complicated by a creep effect similar to that for partially continuous beams. In pushlaunch construction. This process is continued until the complete bridge has been constructed behind the abutment and pushed into place.
the horizontal thrust is taken by the tie.Page 18
Fig.4. 1. Parts of the deck must be designed for significant hog moment during construction as illustrated in Fig.8 Arch bridges
For larger spans (in excess of about 50 m). If this is not the case. The effect is greater than in balanced cantilever construction as the cantilever length is the complete span length (as opposed to half the span length for the balanced cantilevers). All of the bridge is constructed in the same place which is easily accessible to construction personnel and plant. as illustrated in Fig.27(a).26 Push-launch construction: (a) casting of the first segment. 1. However. (b) pushing of the partially constructed bridge over first span
The method has a considerable advantage of access. 1.28(b).
1. an arch is still a possibility if it is tied such as illustrated in Fig. the arch form is particularly effective. These same parts may be subjected to sag moment in the completed bridge as illustrated in Fig.27(b). 1. and are only a viable solution if it can be accommodated. like those designed for balanced cantilever construction. arches generate a significant horizontal thrust. must be designed for the creep effect and are subject to the associated complexity and uncertainty in design. This can be achieved if the bridge is located on a particularly sound foundation (such as rock). In a tied arch. 1. This doubling of cantilever length has the effect of quadrupling the moment due to self weight during construction.28(a). Bridges designed for pushlaunch construction. Some engineers design bridges in an arch form for aesthetic reasons but articulate the bridge like a
. A significant disadvantage stems from the distribution of bending moment generated temporarily during construction.
(b) due to imposed loading after completion of construction
Fig.28 Arch bridges: (a) conventional form with deck over the arch. 1.27 Distributions of bending moment in push-launch bridge: (a) due to self weight during construction.Page 19
Fig. 1. (b) tied arch with deck at base of arch
considerable temporary propping is required to support the structure during construction. 1. as illustrated in Fig. beneficial and assists in the resistance of stresses due to imposed loading. An additional major advantage is that arches require no bearings as it is possible to cast the deck integrally into the substructures.Page 20 simply supported beam. movements due to thermal expansion/contraction and creep/shrinkage do generate some stresses but these are not as significant as those in the frame form of construction discussed below. This is perfectly feasible but.
Fig. as the bridge has no means by which to resist the horizontal thrust. The arch action causes the self weight to generate a compression which has all the advantages of prestress but none of the disadvantages of cost or durability associated with tendons. As can be seen in Fig.29.30. an arch can readily span such a distance in one clear span creating an openness under the bridge that would not otherwise be possible. Concrete arches are particularly effective as concrete is very strong in compression.30 Deflected shape of arch subjected to thermal contraction
. If arches are located over inaccessible areas. is the fact that the curved form results in shuttering which is more expensive than would otherwise be the case. 1. 1. While traditional masonry arches were designed to be completely in compression. 1. the structural depth can be very small and large clear spans can readily be accommodated. Thus the self weight generates a distribution of stress which is. other than the problem of accommodating the horizontal thrust. For example. Other advantages of arches are that they are aesthetically pleasing in the right environment. modern concrete or steel arches have no such restriction and can be designed to resist bending as well as the axial compression generated by the arch form. it behaves structurally as a simply supported beam. The principal disadvantage of concrete arches. while a continuous beam/slab crossing a 60 m motorway would normally be divided into two or four spans. in fact.29 Simply supported beam bridge in the shape of an arch
can be analysed using two-dimensional models. accommodating movements due to temperature changes or creep/shrinkage can be a problem and. until recently.32. A further complexity in the analysis of frame bridges is that. There are no joints or bearings as the deck is integral with the piers and abutments. However. such as illustrated in Fig. Continuous slab bridges on the other hand. 1. are more effective at resisting applied vertical loading than simply supported or continuous beams/slabs. as can be seen from the examples of Fig.31.31 Frame/box culvert bridges: (a) box culvert. 1.4. the structural behaviour is three-dimensional. unless the transverse width is relatively small.9 Frame/box culvert (integral bridge)
Frame or box bridges. The minimal maintenance requirement of frame/box culvert bridges is their greatest advantage. it was not considered feasible to design frame bridges of any great length (about 20 m was considered maximum). Given the great upsurge of interest in maintenance and
Fig. The effects of deck shortening relative to the supports is to induce bending in the whole frame as illustrated in Fig.33. If some of this shortening is due to creep or shrinkage. (b) three-span frame
. there is the usual complexity and uncertainty associated with such calculations. This is because the maximum bending moment tends to be less. 1. 1.Page 21
both relating to longitudinal movements. deck movements in such bridges will generate enormous stresses.Page 22
Fig. (b) distribution of bending moment
durability in recent years. If the bridge is supported
. 1. (b) continuous beams. There are two implications for longer frame-type bridges. this lack of maintenance has resulted in an explosion in the numbers of bridges of this form. It is now considered that bridges of this type of 100 m and longer are possible. Ever longer spans are being achieved.34.32 Typical distributions of bending moment: (a) simply supported spans.33 Effect of thermal contraction of deck in frame bridge: (a) deflected shape. 1. (c) frames/box culverts
Fig. If the supports are fully fixed against translation. This problem has been overcome by allowing the supports to slide as illustrated in Fig. 1.
The second implication of longer frame bridges is that the bridge moves relative to the surrounding ground. will not lead to deterioration of the bridge itself. 1. 1. Such a joint is remote from the main bridge structure and. a joint is required to facilitate translational movements. engineers specify ‘run-on’ slabs as illustrated in the figure which span over loose fill that is intended to allow the abutments to move.Page 23
Fig. Crosssections are typically of the form illustrated in Fig. There are a number of variations of this form of construction which are considered further in Chapter 4. These can be used in combination with in-situ concrete to form a frame bridge as illustrated in Fig. A precast variation of the frame/box culvert bridge has become particularly popular in recent years.35 Composite precast and in-situ concrete frame bridge
.6(b). The run-on slab can rotate relative to the bridge deck but there is no relative translation. at the ends of the run-on slabs. 1. 1. the axes of the piles are orientated so as to provide minimum resistance to longitudinal movement. Thus. if it does leak. Precast pretensioned concrete beams have a good record of durability and do not suffer from the problems associated with grouted post-tensioning tendons.
Fig.35. To overcome this.34 Sliding support and run-on slab in frame bridge
1. which provides access.37(a). two ‘halving joints’. However.
Fig.37 Halving joint at end of drop-in span: (a) traditional detail (no access).36 Beam bridge with drop-in span
Fig. as illustrated in Fig. 1. 1. some older bridges were constructed of precast concrete with drop-in spans.37(b). is illustrated in Fig. The drop-in span. This bridge is determinate as the central ‘drop-in’ part is simply supported. (b) alternative detail with access
. it is still popular in some countries for pedestrian bridges over roads. This detail is particularly problematic as access to inspect or replace the bearings is extremely difficult. Thus. 1. 1.Page 24
1. can be placed in position very quickly over a road or railway requiring a minimum closure time. were used. The side spans are simply supported with cantilevers to which point loads from the drop-in span are applied at their ends.36. In older bridges of the type.10 Beams/slabs with drop-in span
For ease of construction and of analysis. The form has the disadvantage of having joints and bearings at the ends of the drop-in span as well as at the extremities of the bridge itself. in particular.4. A typical example is illustrated in Fig. A more convenient alternative. it can readily be constructed over inaccessible areas. The joint and bearing detail at the ends of the drop-in span in this form of construction is particularly important.
It is also generally necessary to carry out a dynamic analysis for bridges of such slenderness.
.4. The deck can then be designed as a continuous beam with spring supports.Page 25
1. becomes feasible when the total bridge length is in excess of about 150 m and is particularly economical for lengths in the 200–400 m range. An analysis complication is introduced by sag in the longer cables which has the effect of making the stiffness of the support provided non-linear. • There are very high tensile and shear stresses at a point where the structural depth is relatively small. 1. the current limit is of the order of 1000 m.11 Cable-stayed bridges
Cable-stayed construction. for the longest spans. there can be difficulty finding space to provide sufficient reinforcement to resist all of the types of structural action that take place in the halving joint. 1. • As can be seen in Fig. which promotes corrosion of the halving joint reinforcement. The maximum main span achievable is increasing all the time. the joints tend to leak.39. The cables are only required to take tension and they provide support to the deck at frequent intervals.38. The concept of cable-stayed bridges is simple. illustrated in Fig. regardless of which alternative is chosen. halving joints frequently cause difficulty for a number of reasons: • Even for pedestrian bridges in which de-icing salts are not used.38 Reinforcement detail in halving joint
However. 1. steel box section decks are used to reduce the bridge self weight. the cross-sections of cable-stayed bridges are often composite with steel beams and concrete slabs. For spans of moderate length.
it is a necessary consideration for those which do. cablestayed construction is generally favoured except for the very longest bridges. While this clearly does not apply to bridges without joints or bearings. up to about 2000 m span. the problems of creep. 1. Further. Thus.39 Cable-stayed bridge
The economy of the cable-stayed form stems from its ease of construction over inaccessible places. It lends itself readily to staged construction with the cables being added as required to support successively placed segments of the deck. They are more expensive to construct than cable-stayed bridges as they are not particularly suited to staged construction and the initial placing of the cables in position is onerous.4. For these reasons. While the present trend is to provide ever fewer joints and bearings. the main cables are in catenary and the deck hangs from them applying a substantially uniform loading.40.12 Suspension bridges
The very longest bridges in the world. it is sometimes difficult to cater for the horizontal forces generated at the ends of the cables. are of the suspension type illustrated in Fig. the bridge must have the capacity to resist some relatively small forces while accommodating movements.
Fig. segments are placed successively on alternate sides of the pylon.Page 26
1. The articulation of a bridge is the scheme for accommodating movements due to creep. 1.40 Suspension bridge
1. shrinkage and thermal effects while keeping the structure stable.5 Articulation
Bridge design is often a compromise between the maintenance implications of providing joints and bearings and the reduction in stresses which results from the accommodation of deck movements. Horizontal forces are caused by braking and traction of vehicles. wind and accidental impact forces from errant vehicles. In suspension bridges. 1. As for balanced cantilever bridges. shrinkage and thermal movement are still very real and no one form of construction is the best for all situations.
41 Plan views showing articulation of typical bridges: (a) simply supported slab. also at E. (b) twospan skewed slab.Page 27 In-situ concrete bridges are generally supported on a finite number of bearings. free sliding—fully free to move horizontally. such as those due to temperature changes. The bearings usually allow free rotation but may or may not allow horizontal translation. 2. it may be possible to articulate ignoring transverse movements such as illustrated in Fig. (c) two-span bridge of small width
. a combination of the three types of bearing is provided. For both bridges. 3. guided sliding—free to move horizontally in one direction only. When bridges are not very wide (less than about 5 m). They are generally of one of the following three types: 1.
Fig. Free sliding bearings are provided elsewhere to accommodate transverse movements. These bearings are designed to resist horizontal forces such as the impact force due to an excessively high vehicle attempting to pass under the bridge.41(c). in the case of the two-span bridge. At the same time they accommodate longitudinal movements. In many bridges. To make the structure stable in the horizontal plane. 1. Two of the simplest forms of articulation are illustrated in Figs. guided sliding bearings are provided at C and. 1. 1. fixed—no horizontal translation allowed.41(a) and (b) where the arrows indicate the direction in which movements are allowed. A is a fixed bearing allowing no horizontal movement.
Further. Further. 1. the orientation of movements tends to radiate outwards from the fixed bearing. shrinkage or thermal movement results in a predominantly longitudinal effect which causes AB to shorten by δ to AB'. Bearings are generally incapable of resisting an upward ‘uplift’ force.Page 28 When bridges are not straight in plan. The orientation of bearings which accommodate this movement is illustrated in Fig. considerably shortening its life. (c) movement of curved bridge. |AC|. 1. C' must move a corresponding distance to C″If the strain is the same in AB and . dust and other contaminants are likely to get into the bearing.41(b). (d) articulation to accommodate movement
. if unanticipated net uplift occurs. However. 1. the magnitude of the movement |CC″ is proportional to the radial distance from the fixed point. (b) articulation to accommodate movement.42(a).42(d). |. Similarly for the curved bridge illustrated in plan in Fig.42 Plan views showing articulation of crooked and curved bridges: (a) movement of crooked bridge. A to C.42(b). the movements would be accommodated by the arrangement of bearings illustrated in Fig. 1. Uplift can occur at the acute corners of skewed bridges such as B and E in Fig. Uplift can also occur due to applied
Fig. the net result is a movement along a line joining the fixed point. 1. as B has 1 2 moved to B'. 1. This can be seen in the simple example illustrated in Fig. BC.42(c). Similarly. BC shortens by δto BC'. Creep.
1.44 Uplift of bearing due to transverse bending caused by differential thermal effects
loading in right bridges if the span lengths are significantly different. the two outer bearings must be designed to resist all of the load which renders the central bearing redundant.Page 29
1. not only is there a risk of deterioration in the central bearing but. 1. Only a limited number of the more commonly used types are described here.43 Uplift of bearings due to traffic loading
Fig. However. If this occurs.43. Such a situation can be prevented by ensuring that the reaction at the central bearing due to permanent loading exceeds the uplift force due to temperature. as it is not taking any load.
1. as illustrated in Fig.44. differential thermal effects can cause transverse bending which can result in uplift as illustrated in Fig. Further details of these and others are given by Lee (1994). it is better to provide two bearings only.
. 1. even with no skew and typical span lengths.6 Bearings
There are many types of bearings and the choice of which type to use depends on the forces and movements to be accommodated and on the maintenance implications.1 Sliding bearings
Horizontal translational movements can be accommodated using two surfaces which are in contact but which have the capability to slide relative to one another. If this is not possible. 1.
consist of a metal cylinder containing an elastomer to which the force is applied by means of a metal piston. In some combinations. However. it has been suggested that they be treated as wearing parts that eventually need to be replaced. guides are used such as illustrated in Fig. 1.6. 1. 1.2 Pot bearings
Pot bearings.Page 30
Fig.45. this form is also referred to as the spherical bearing. rotation is facilitated through some other mechanism and plane sliding surfaces are used which allow translation only. Thus. such as illustrated in Fig. Sliding bearings today generally consist of a stainless steel plate sliding on a PTFE-coated surface. In other cases. Some bearings are lubricated. They are frequently used for motorway bridges of moderate span. The elastomer effectively acts as a retained fluid and facilitates some rotation while preventing translation. They can take many forms and are often used in combination with other forms of bearing.
1. namely polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). the sliding surfaces are spherical and allow rotation. They are also used in combination with plane sliding surfaces to provide free sliding
. When translation is to be allowed in one direction only.46. Sliding bearings offer a frictional resistance to movement which is approximately proportional to the vertical force. at which time the coefficient returns to the unlubricated value. Whether or not sliding bearings are lubricated.45 Guided sliding bearing (photograph courtesy of Ancon CCL)
This is possible due to the availability of a material with a high durability and a very low coefficient of friction. pot bearings by themselves are commonly used at the point of fixity. it is common in such systems for the lubricant to be squeezed out after a number of years. resulting in a reduced coefficient of friction.
1. 1. 1. Elastomeric bearings accommodate rotation by deflecting more on one side than the other (Fig. 1. They are considered to be quite durable except in highly corrosive environments and require little maintenance. They are made from rubber and can be in a single layer (for relatively low loading) or in multiple layers separated by metal plates.g. elastomeric bearings can be a very economical alternative to sliding or pot bearings. such a combination can also be used to form a guided sliding bearing. e.45).Page 31
Fig.47(b)). (b) translation
.6.46 Pot bearing
bearings. By incorporating guides (Fig.3 Elastomeric bearings
When the forces to be resisted are not very high.
1.47(a)) and translation by a shearing deformation (Fig.47 Elastomeric bearing: (a) rotation. 1.
Fig. when bearings are provided under each beam in precast construction.
for larger gaps. joints buried beneath road surfacing are possible and.7. can result in a minimum maintenance solution.
1.48. as illustrated in Fig. 1. movements will always occur with the result that joints will always be needed. particularly in road bridges. allowing saltcontaminated water to wash over the substructures.48 Buried joint (after Lee (1994))
. However. Even in integral construction. and frequently leak.7 Joints
While bearings in bridges can frequently be eliminated.Page 32
1.49. Joints are notoriously problematic. However.
Fig. the movement must be accommodated at the end of the run-on slab. it is difficult to find a suitable material which carries the impact loading due to traffic across the gap while facilitating the necessary movement. 1. A typical arrangement is illustrated in Fig. This form has been successfully used for movements of up to 40 mm and is inexpensive to install or replace.
1.7. The material used to span the joint is important.2 Asphaltic plug joint
The asphaltic plug joint is similar to the buried joint in that the gap is protected by road surfacing. if designed well.1 Buried joint
For movements of less than 10–20 mm. in this case the road surfacing over the joint consists of a specially formulated flexible bitumen. 1. the number of movement joints being used in bridge construction is decreasing with the philosophy that all of the associated maintenance implications should be concentrated into as few joints as possible.
It can accommodate movements of similar magnitude to the asphaltic plug joint but has a reputation for frequent failure and leakage.49 Asphaltic plug joint (after Lee (1994))
1.50. the nosing joint. 1.7.3 Nosing joint
Very popular in the 1960s and 1970s. is no longer favoured in many countries. 1. 1.
Fig. The nosings today are made up of cementitious or polyurethane binders instead of the epoxy mortars popular in the 1970s which were often found to deteriorate prematurely.50 Nosing joint (after Lee (1994))
. illustrated in Fig.
It is generally agreed that the upstand and parapet are important and that they should be carried through from the bridge to corresponding upstands and parapets in the abutment wing walls as illustrated in Fig. there is generally some common ground. 1. However. Dublin)
. Some aspects of aesthetics are common to most bridges.8 Bridge aesthetics
The art of bridge aesthetics is a subjective one with each designer having his/her own strongly held opinions. This serves to give a sense of continuity between the bridge and its setting as the eye can follow the line of the bridge from one end to the other. particularly on what constitutes an aesthetically displeasing bridge. Certain bridge proportions in particular. The aesthetics of the more common shorter-span bridges are considered in this section. particularly if the designer wishes to draw attention away from an excessively deep main deck. The depth of the upstand and the main deck relative to the span is a critical issue as will be seen in the following sections.53.51 Continuity of upstand and parapet (photograph courtesy of Roughan and O’Donovan Consulting Engineers. 1. 1. This effect can be useful.52). 1.Page 34
1.51. The effect can be emphasised by casting the upstand in a whiter concrete or by casting the outer surface at an angle to the vertical as illustrated in Fig. look better than others and attention to this can substantially improve the appearance of the structure. Further details on these and longer-span bridge aesthetics can be found in the excellent book on the subject by Leonhardt (1984).
Fig. The sun tends to shine directly on upstands while the main deck tends to remain in shadow (Fig.
1 Single-span beam/slab/frame bridges of constant depth
For very short-span bridges or culverts.52 Shading of main deck relative to upstand (photograph courtesy of Roughan and O’Donovan Consulting Engineers.8.Page 35
Fig. 1. the shape of the opening is square (span equals height) and the abutment wing walls are large triangular
. The abutment wing walls also play an important role as can be seen in the example of Fig. 1. In this example.53 Section through upstand
1. the shape of the opening has a significant influence on the aesthetics. 1.
Ratios of 20
. it may be difficult to get a good finish with in-situ concrete and. (d) 10 and 5
blocks.g. concrete) as the abutment walls. 1.54 Square opening with alternative span/upstand and span/main deck depth ratios: (a) 10 and 5 with brick wing walls. A typical solution is illustrated in Fig. this clearly is a matter of opinion and also depends on the relative depths of the main deck and the upstand.Page 36
Fig. However. Three alternatives are illustrated in Fig. (b) 20 and 5. a relatively deep main deck is often recommended such as one-fifth of the span. 1. 1. it may be better to clad the wing walls in masonry as illustrated in Fig. if aesthetics are important. 1.54.54(a) while leaving the main deck and upstand in concrete. (c) 20 and 10. However.54(b) with a span/upstand depth ratio of 20 and a span/main deck depth ratio of 5. For such a bridge the main deck can be constructed of the same material (e. For a square opening.
it is common practice in three-span construction to have the centre span greater than the side spans. For a 2×1 rectangular opening with wing walls of similar size. 1. this proportioning also tends to bring the relative dimensions of the rectangular openings closer. Leonhardt points out that scale is important as well as proportion. The heavier looking alternative illustrated in Fig.
1. 1.54(c) for upstand and main deck respectively.2 Multiple spans
The relative span lengths in multi-span bridges have a significant effect on the appearance.54(d) and (a). The bridge illustrated is probably typical with a main span/upstand depth
. 1. 1. (b) deep deck and slender upstand
and 10 are illustrated in Fig. a parapet wall is integral with the upstand making it look deeper than necessary. When the ground level is lower at the centre. a much more slender deck is desirable. This can be convenient as the principal obstruction to be spanned is often in the central part of the bridge. span/upstand depth ratios of 20 and a span/main deck depth ratio of 10 is often recommended. as illustrated in the figure.57. This is illustrated in Fig. where people and traffic are close to the structure which is large relative to their size. (In this structure. For aesthetic reasons. 1. an even more slender deck is favoured.Page 37
Fig. 1.56(a). Typical ratios are illustrated in Fig.55 Rectangular opening with small wing walls: (a) slender deck and deep upstand. It can be seen that the upstand appears too thin and/or the deck too deep.) A structure with similar proportions looks much better in Fig.8.55(b) has ratios of 60 and 10. For rectangular openings with less pronounced wing walls. 1.56(b) as it is smaller and is more likely to be viewed from a distance.55(a) with a span/upstand depth ratio of 40 and a span/main deck depth ratio of 20. typically by 25–35% as illustrated in Fig. while ratios of 10 and 5 are illustrated in Fig. which has a good aesthetic effect. 1.
(b) curved alignment achieved using two curves of differing radius. (b) small structure remote from the viewer looks better than in(a)
Fig. 1.57 Three-span bridge with good proportions
Fig. 1.Page 38
Fig. (c) curved haunches
.58 Variable depth bridges: (a) straight haunches. 1.56 The influence of scale on appearance: (a) large structure near the viewer looks heavy.
1. they are not as aesthetically pleasing as a curved profile. As for single-span bridges. When alignments are curved.Page 39 ratio of 40 and a span/deck depth ratio of 20. 1. When a road or rail alignment is straight.58(a). 1. where the depth is increased at the points of maximum (hogging) moment. straight haunches are possible as illustrated in Fig. illustrated in Figs. the upstand is continuous from end to end. However. both in terms of shuttering and reinforcement details. curved decks are strongly favoured over straight ones. effectively tying the bridge together.58(b) and (c). Straight haunches are considerably cheaper than curved ones. This greatly complicates the detailing but makes for an efficient light structure and tends to look very well.57 to increase the apparent slenderness of the bridge. An open parapet is also used in the bridge of Fig. Varying the depth of bridges allows the depth to be increased at points of maximum moment.
wind and imposed traffic loading. the draft Eurocode EC1 (1995) and the American standard AASHTO (1995). Three codes of practice are referred to in this chapter. which
. Thermal changes can have significant effects. Dead and superimposed dead loads consist of permanent gravity forces due to structural elements and other permanent items such as parapets and road surfacing. Other types of loading which may occur but which are not considered here are the effects of shrinkage and creep. Where footpaths or cycle tracks have been provided. it is often necessary to consider phenomena which would normally be ignored in buildings. effects such as differential settlement of supports frequently need to be considered by bridge designers while generally being ignored by designers of building structures. Imposed traffic loads consist of those forces induced by road or rail vehicles on the bridge.Page 40
Chapter 2 Bridge loading
2. horizontal loading due to braking/traction and centrifugal effects in curved bridges must also be considered. the British Department of Transport standard BD37/88 (1988). The various types of loading which need to be considered are summarised in Table 2. particularly in frame and arch bridges. the gravity loading due to pedestrians/cyclists can be significant. For example. exceptional loads (such as snow) and construction loads.1. The predominant effect is the vertical gravity loading including the effect of impact. Another source of loading is earth pressure on substructures. These and other more common forms of bridge loading are considered in this chapter. Both the British standard and the AASHTO treatments of temperature are somewhat tedious in that different load ‘combinations’ must be considered. However. namely. This is considered in Chapter 4 in the context of integral bridges.1 Introduction
For bridges. Some of these are treated in greater detail in the following sections as indicated in the third column of the table. An alternative. For example. the AASHTO standard specifies one combination which includes the effects of temperature.
2 2. In practice.3 – 2. vehicles and the bridge itself Effect of prestress on indeterminate bridges
2. Dynamic effects 9. Wind 10. recommends that the process of soil/structure interaction be taken into consideration for accurate analysis of problems of this type. Differential settlement 7. In pedestrian bridges. The draft Eurocode on Geotechnical Design. in AASHTO and in the draft Eurocode. it should be ensured that the natural frequency of the bridge is not close to that of walking or jogging pedestrians. EC7 (1994). it is recommended that a combined model of the bridge structure and the supporting soil be used to determine the stresses induced by settlement. this usually only includes pedestrian bridges and long-span road and rail bridges.Page 41
Table 2. Superimposed dead 3. i. No geotechnical guidance is given in either BD37/88 or AASHTO on how bridges should be analysed to determine the effect of this phenomenon. The load specified in the UK has increased dramatically in recent years.5 2.
. Imposed traffic 4.7
must also be considered. The calculation is complicated by the use of different factors of safety and the specification of different design limits for the different combinations.6 – 2. For example. The loading due to impact from collisions with errant vehicles can be quite significant for some bridge elements. excludes some thermal and wind effects but includes a higher traffic loading. the service stresses permitted in prestressed concrete bridges are higher for the combinations in BD37/88 which include temperature than for combinations which do not. Impact 8. The draft Eurocode treats temperature in a manner similar to other load types and applies the same method of combining loads as is used throughout EC1.1 Summary of bridge loads
Gravity loading due to structural parts of bridge Gravity loading due to non-structural parts of bridge Loading due to road or rail vehicles Gravity loading due to non-vehicular traffic Uniform and differential changes in temperature Relative settlement of supporting foundations Impact loading due to collision with errant vehicles Effect of bridge vibration Horizontal loading due to wind on parapets.2 2. as will be demonstrated in Chapter 3. where the natural frequency of the bridge is at a level which can be excited by traffic or wind. Differential settlement of supports can induce significant bending in continuous beam or slab bridges. Thermal 6. Dead 2.e.4 – 2. Pedestrian and cycle track 5. Vibration is generally only significant in particularly slender bridges. Similarly high levels of impact loading are in use in many European national standards.
The critical load case generally occurs when a train of high vehicles are present on the bridge resulting in a large vertical projected area. Because of such uncertainty.2 Dead and superimposed dead loading
For general and building structures. Bridges are unusual among structures in that a high proportion of the total loading is attributable to dead and superimposed dead load. It is simply calculated as the product of volume and material density. For shorter spans. such superimposed dead loading is particularly prone to increases during the bridge lifetime. For this reason. lightweight concrete has been successfully used in order to reduce the dead load.
. The former is the gravity loading of all structural elements. This is particularly true of long-span bridges. it is important to remember that an overestimate of the dead load can result in excessive stresses due to prestress. wind can induce static horizontal forces on bridges. In such cases. However. a particularly high load factor is applied to road pavement. For prestressed concrete bridges. dead or permanent loading is the gravity loading due to the structure and other items permanently attached to it. Both the British and the American standards specify a simple conservative design wind loading intensity which can be safely used in most cases. In some cases. In BD37/88. Prestress is not a load as such but a means by which applied loads are resisted. Superimposed dead load is the gravity load of non-structural parts of the bridge. it is probable in many cases that the parapet will need to be replaced during the life of the bridge and the new parapet could easily be heavier than the original one. concrete or composite steel beams with concrete slabs are the usual materials. Such items are long term but might be changed during the lifetime of the structure.Page 42 In addition to its ability to induce vibration in bridges. An example of superimposed dead load is the weight of the parapet. However. It is not unusual for road pavements to get progressively thicker over a number of years as each new surfacing is simply laid on top of the one before it. The most notable item of superimposed dead load is the road pavement or surfacing. Thus dead load should be estimated as accurately as possible rather than simply rounded up. Wind tends not to be critical for typical road bridges that are relatively wide but can be significant in elevated railway viaducts when the vertical projected surface area is large relative to the bridge width. in indeterminate bridges it is necessary to analyse to determine the effect of prestress so it is often convenient to treat prestress as a form of loading. Thus. There is clearly always going to be a parapet so it is a permanent source of loading. steel or aluminium decks can become economically viable due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. More accurate (and complex) methods are also specified for cases where wind has a significant effect. The methods used are very similar to those used to determine the effects of temperature changes.
2. there is a subdivision of this into dead loading and superimposed dead loading. superimposed dead load tends to be assigned higher factors of safety than dead load.
WIM technology has resulted in a great increase in the availability of truck weight statistics and codes of practice are being revised to reflect the new data. While pedestrian/cycle traffic loading on bridges is not difficult to calculate. the road width is divided into a number of notional lanes. The AASHTO code specifies a traffic lane loading which consists of a knife-edge load plus a uniformly distributed lane loading. the imposed traffic loading specified by AASHTO is considerably less onerous than that specified by both BD37/88 and the Eurocode. rail or pedestrian/cycle or indeed any combination of these.3. each 3 m wide. more importantly. In the first place. Most codes allow a reduction for long footpaths. a reduced intensity is allowed by some codes to reflect the reduced probability of both traffic and pedestrian loading reaching extreme values simultaneously. BD37/88 and the draft Eurocode specify two types of traffic loading. there tends to be a bias as drivers of illegally overloaded trucks quickly learn that weighing is taking place and take steps to avoid that point on the road. 5 kN/m 2 in the draft Eurocode and the British standard and 4 kN/m 2 in the American code). In the past. a truck of specified dimensions and axle weights must be considered. Normal traffic loading or Highway A (HA) represents an extreme
. Alternatively. The outstanding road width between kerbs. Bridge traffic loading is often governed by trucks whose weights are substantially in excess of the legal maximum. The AASHTO code also specifies notional lanes of fixed width. A dynamic factor is applied to the truck to allow for the increased stresses which result from the sudden arrival of a speeding vehicle on a bridge. the quantity of data collected is relatively small but. Bridge traffic loading is applied to notional lanes which are independent of the actual lanes delineated on the road. ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’. The British Standard on the other hand (for carriageway widths in excess of 5 m) allows the lane width to vary within bands in order to get an integer number of lanes without having any remaining area. In general. there has been a scarcity of good unbiased data on road traffic loading until recent years. Bridge codes commonly specify a basic intensity for pedestrian loading (e. its importance should not be underestimated. In recent years the situation has improved considerably with the advent of weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology which allows all trucks passing a sensor to be weighed while they travel at full highway speed. There are two problems with this as a means of collecting statistics on truck weights.Page 43
2. In the Eurocode.3 Imposed traffic loading
Bridge traffic can be vehicular. after removing these lanes.1 Imposed loading due to road traffic
While some truck-weighing campaigns have been carried out in the past. sampling was carried out by taking trucks from the traffic stream and weighing them statically on weighbridges. Vehicular and rail traffic are considered in subsections below. When a structural element supports both pedestrian and traffic loading.
2. is known as the ‘remaining area’.g.
14. 2. the vehicle is known as the Highway B or HB vehicle. 19. a typical one being full HA in Lanes 1 and 2 combined with 60% of full HA in the other lanes as illustrated in Fig.5 kN/m 2 elsewhere. 400 kN and 200 kN for Lanes 1. Illustrated in Fig.6. the standard combination is a load intensity of 9 kN/m2 in Lane No. This could be a traffic jam involving a convoy of very heavy trucks as would tend to govern for a long bridge. for example. Eurocode normal loading consists of uniform loading and a tandem of four wheels in each lane as illustrated in Fig. In BD37/88. The AASHTO code allows similar reductions in lane loading for multi-lane bridges to account for the reduced probability of extreme loading in many lanes simultaneously. While there are a number of factors which can vary between road classes and between countries. to take 25 units (a 1000 kN vehicle) while a highway bridge can be designed for 45 units (a 1800 kN vehicle). it could be a chance occurrence of two overloaded moving trucks near the centre of a short bridge at the same time. In the British standard. a number of possibilities must be considered. the abnormal load in BD37/88 is
Fig. While there are exceptions. respectively. only one abnormal vehicle is specified but it may have a length of 9. A large number of alternative abnormal vehicle classifications are specified in the draft Eurocode from which individual countries can select combinations for which roads of specified classes are to be designed.1 ‘Normal’ road traffic loading: (a) Eurocode normal loading. 2 and 3. In addition.Page 44 combination of overloaded trucks of normal dimensions. 2. On the other hand. For bridges with many notional lanes. or 29. The four wheels of the tandems together weigh 600 kN. The possibility of abnormal or Highway B (HB) loading must also be considered in British and Eurocode designs.6.2.1(b).1(a). 1 and 2. Particularly on roads with rough surfaces. 2. there is uniform loading in the remaining area.6. ‘full’ HA lane loading consists of a uniform loading whose intensity varies with the loaded length and a ‘knife edge’ concentrated loading of 120 kN.6 m. 24. there can be a considerable dynamic component of truck loading which is deemed to be included in the specified normal load. Combinations of normal traffic and an abnormal vehicle must be considered in bridge design. 2. This consists of an exceptionally heavy vehicle of the type which is only allowed to travel under licence from the road/bridge authority. It is scaled in gross ‘units’ of 40 kN so that a minor road bridge can be designed.6. (b) British standard HA loading
. Different countries have different classes of abnormal vehicle for which bridges must be designed.
A standard light rail load model. This follows from the fact that the train can generally be assumed to remain on the tracks. However. there are some aspects of traffic loading that are specific to railway bridges which must be considered. The weights of railway carriages can be much better controlled than those of road vehicles with the result that different load models are possible depending on the railway line on which the bridge is located.5 kN per unit
generally taken to replace the normal loading throughout the length of the vehicle and for a distance of 25 m before and after it. less stringent models have been used for the design of bridges on some light rail networks. On bridges. When used. bridges throughout a rail network are generally designed for the same normal load model. However. There are two disadvantages to the use of track slabs.6 m intervals of magnitude 250 kN each and uniform loading of intensity 80 kN/m both before and after them. Normal load is placed throughout the remainder of the lane and in the other lanes.3. the normal load model. On passenger transit ‘light rail’ systems. Railway tracks on grade are generally laid on ballast. The standard Eurocode normal load model consists of four vertical point loads at 1. The static loads specified for the design of railway bridges must be increased to take account of the dynamic effect of carriages arriving suddenly on the bridge. is similar in format. However. is specified in the British standard. 2. In BD37/88. The other disadvantage to the use of track slabs depends on the method used to maintain and replace ballast. known as Railway Upper (RU). In addition.
2. less onerous load models can be applied.Page 45
Fig. an additional vertical dynamic load is induced by the change from the relatively ‘soft’ ballast support to the relatively hard track slab.2 Imposed loading due to rail traffic
The modelling of railway loading is considerably less onerous than that of road traffic loading as the transverse location of the load is specified. This factor is a function of the permissible train speed and of the natural frequency of the bridge. the Eurocode provides for an alternative abnormal load model. If this is done using automatic
. Railway Lower (RL).2 British standard abnormal (HB) vehicle consisting of 16 wheel loads of F=2. This effect can be minimised by incorporating transition zones at the ends of the bridge with ballast of reducing depth. tracks can be laid on a concrete ‘track slab’ or the bridge can be designed to carry ballast and the track laid on this.
While it is possible in road bridges for all vehicles to brake at once.4 Thermal loading
There are two thermal effects which can induce stresses in bridges. metal bridges must be designed for temperatures in the range − °C to 49 °C and concrete 18 bridges for temperatures in the range − °C to 27 °C. Unlike in-situ concrete bridges.
. The British Standard and the draft Eurocode specify no baseline. The difference between ambient temperature and the effective temperature within a bridge depends on the thickness of surfacing and on the form of construction (whether solid slab. The AASHTO code specifies a baseline temperature equal to the mean ambient in the day preceding completion of the bridge. Both the draft Eurocode and the British standard specify contour plots of maximum and minimum ambient temperature which can be used to determine the range of temperature for a particular bridge site. The first is a uniform temperature change which results in an axial expansion or contraction. such as in an arch or a frame bridge. If the top of a beam heats up relative to the bottom. a considerable delay can be caused by the need to remove the equipment at the start of the bridge and to reinstall it at the end. Different figures are specified for 12 ‘cold’ climates. If restrained. It is important in bridge construction to establish a baseline for the calculation of uniform temperature effects. Another aspect of loading specific to railway bridges is the rocking effect. it is statistically much less likely. Uniform changes in temperature result from periods of hot or cold weather in which the entire depth of the deck undergoes an increase or decrease in temperature. if it is restrained from doing so. bending moment and shear force are generated. It is possible to control this baseline by specifying the permissible range of temperature in the structure at the time of completion of the structural form. i. Longitudinal horizontal loading in bridges can affect the design of bearings and can generate bending moment in substructures and throughout frame bridges. In concrete bridges. beam and slab. Resulting stresses in the period after construction will tend to be relieved by creep although little reliable guidance is available on how this might be allowed for in design. The American approach is much simpler.e. It is assumed for design purposes that more than half of the load (about 55%) can be applied to one rail while the remainder (about 45%) is applied to the other. it tends to bend. The second effect is that due to differential changes in temperature. This can generate torsion in the bridge. Horizontal loading due to braking and traction is more important in railway bridges than in road bridges as the complete train can brake or accelerate at once. Completion of the structural form could be the process of setting the bearings or the making of a frame bridge integral. bending moment and shear. this can generate significant axial force. particularly for concrete with high cement contents.Page 46 equipment. high early temperatures can result from the hydration of cement. etc. those made from precast concrete or steel will have temperatures closer to ambient during construction. In ‘moderate’ climates. the temperature of the bridge at the time of construction.).
In such cases. bending and residual effects as will be illustrated in the following examples. integral bridges undergo repeated expansions and contractions due to daily or seasonal temperature fluctuations. that distribution which exists when the structural material first sets. bridges are subjected to differential temperature changes on a daily basis. The applied temperature distribution is converted into the equivalent stress distribution of Fig. This effect can be particularly significant when the depth of the superstructure is great. the baseline temperature is clearly a mean temperature which relates to the density of the adjacent soil.3 is subjected to the differential increase in temperature shown. This is resolved into axial. Methods of analysing to determine the effects of the equivalent loads are described in Chapter 3. Two distributions of differential temperature are specified in some codes. the magnitude of the resulting thermal stresses can be significantly overestimated. such as in the morning when the sun shines on the top of the bridge heating it up faster than the interior. 2.1: Differential temperature I The bridge beam illustrated in Fig. The corresponding forces and moments are then readily calculated. 2.Page 47 As is discussed in Chapter 4. The equivalent axial force can readily be calculated as the sum of products of stress and area:
. the implication being that the distributions specified represent the differences between the baseline and the expected extremes. i. If cracking is ignored. this causes the backfill behind the abutments to compact to an equilibrium density. Cracking of reinforced concrete members reduces the effective cross-sectional area and second moment of area. It is required to determine the effects of the temperature change if it is simply supported on one fixed and one sliding bearing. The reverse effect tends to take place in the evening when the deck is warm in the middle but is cooling down at the top and bottom surfaces. The coefficient of thermal expansion is 6 12×10− and the modulus of elasticity is 35000 N/mm2. As for uniform changes in temperature. the baseline temperature distribution is important. no such distribution is typically specified in codes. A distribution of stress is calculated corresponding to the specified change in temperature. There is an ‘equivalent’ axial force and bending moment associated with any distribution of temperature.e.4(a) by multiplying by the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus of elasticity. However. The effects of both uniform and differential temperature changes can be determined using the method of ‘equivalent loads’. Example 2. These distributions can be resolved into axial. bending and residual distributions as will be illustrated in the following examples. In addition to uniform changes in temperature. After some time. one corresponding to the heating-up period and one corresponding to the cooling-down period. Transverse temperature differences can occur when one face of a superstructure is subjected to direct sun while the opposite side is in the shade.
2.81/35000=23×10− .4(b). (c) bending component. (d) residual stress distribution
This corresponds to a uniform axial stress of 579600/(600× 1200)=0. The equivalent bending moment is found by taking moments about the centroid (positive sag):
The corresponding extreme fibre stresses are:
. 2.81 N/mm2 as illustrated in Fig.4 Components of imposed stress distribution: (a) total distribution.Page 48
Fig. there is in fact no axial stress but a strain of magnitude 6 0.3 Beam subject to differential temperature change
Fig. this beam is supported on a sliding bearing at one end and is therefore free to expand. 2. Thus. (b) axial component. However.
11/35 000=±32×10− .5(a).890α E 0. bending moment and residual stresses are required due to the differential temperature increases shown in Fig.
Example 2.080α E 1. 2. illustrated in Fig.Page 49
as illustrated in Fig. The coefficient of thermal expansion is α the modulus of elasticity is E. 2. 2.5 Beam and slab bridge subject to differential temperature: (a) cross-section. 2. and
Fig. 2. As the beam is simply supported. The difference between the applied stress distribution and that which results in axial and bending strains is trapped in the section and is known as the residual stress distribution.2 Calculation of force
a b c d
3α (2. a strain distribution is generated which varies linearly in the range 6 ±1.15)= E
1.150α E 0.220α E
. (b) imposed distribution of temperature Table 2.2: Differential temperature II For the beam and slab bridge illustrated in Fig.5(b). 2.4(b) and (c) from 2.100α E
3.4×0.4(c).4(a). the equivalent axial force. It is found simply by subtracting Figs. it is free to rotate and there is in fact no such stress. Instead.4(d).
The bridge is split into two halves. below the 2 top fibre.22α corresponds to an axial tension of 3.064 86 m 4.70= 4.3 (positive sag).718α corresponds to E stresses (positive tension) of:
Table 2.262α E − 0. the centroid of the bridge is found to be. 0.012α E 0.70 m and second moment of area. The total moment of − 0.6 and divided into rectangular and triangular blocks.22α E E/0.60α E. 0.6 Division of section into blocks: (a) cross-section. 2. 2.2.506α E − 0. The total tensile force per half is then found by summing the products of stress and area for each block as shown in Table 2. (b) corresponding imposed stress distribution
By summing moments of area.718α E
. The temperature distribution is converted into a stress distribution in Fig.Page 50
Fig. each of area. Similarly moment is calculated as the sum of products of stress. area and distance from the centroid as outlined in Table 2.3 Calculation of moment
a b c d
− 0.062α E
− 0. The total force of 3.
To overcome the resulting complications. 2.2)
2. 2. The residual distribution is found by subtracting the distributions of Figs. This section considers the basis on which these forces are derived. 2. (d) residual stress distribution
Hence the applied stress distribution can be resolved as illustrated in Fig. codes of practice often greatly simplify the procedure by specifying equivalent static forces.5 Impact loading
Most bridge analysis is based on static linear elastic principles. 2. this is converted into strain energy in the spring. the collision of a vehicle with a bridge is highly non-linear. The simple case illustrated in Fig. v.8 Impact of undeformable sphere with spring
.7(a). However. collides with a spring of stiffness. An undeformable sphere of mass. (b) axial component. which causes a deflection. 2.Page 51
Fig. K. bending and residual components: (a) total distribution. (2. travelling at a velocity. The kinetic energy of the sphere is: (2. Peq . A static force. Δ generates a strain energy of: .8 is considered first.7.7 Resolution of stress distribution into axial. (c) bending component. m. 2.7(b) and (c) from the applied distribution of Fig.1) On impact.
5) on the outer surface of a structural element. the situation is simplified by treating the vehicle as undeformable and the structural element as a spring. mass has a significant effect on the response of the structure to a given load and computer models must incorporate a representation of mass as well as stiffness.9(a) could be represented by the lumped mass
. This is frequently done by ‘lumping’ the distributed mass of a bridge at a finite number of nodes. a force P eq generates a deflection: (2.3) For a spring of stiffness. the draft Eurocode specifies that the impact force due to a truck be applied at a specified height above the road surface. An impact force is also specified for a derailed train colliding with a pier. A table of design static forces is specified in the draft Eurocode based on the expected masses and velocities of trucks on roads of various class. in the draft Eurocode. K. For these reasons.6 Dynamic effects
Vibration can be a problem in slender bridges where the natural frequency is at a level which can be excited by wind or traffic. Such a possibility can be investigated by means of a dynamic analysis.Page 52 Hence the equivalent static force is: (2. On bridge piers. because only the top of the vehicle is likely to impact on the bridge. it can be used as a basis for determining equivalent static forces. It is not necessary. E k. In dynamics. Similar equivalent static loadings are specified in the AASHTO standard and in BD37/88.6) While this is a very simple case. On bridges over road carriageways. However.5) Substituting for E k in this equation gives the equivalent force in terms of mass and velocity: (2. to consider collision of trains with bridge decks overhead. The mechanics of a collision between a vehicle and a structure are quite complex. Further. there is a possibility that trucks passing underneath will collide with the bridge deck. will generate the equivalent force given by equation (2.4) Substituting for Δin equation (2. the simply supported beam bridge of Fig. It follows from these assumptions that a vehicle with kinetic energy. a substantial reduction factor applies.3) gives an alternative expression for P eq: (2. 2. a small difference in the impact location or the impact angle can result in a substantial change in the effect. For example.
wind. (b) typical second mode shape
. However. Even when the frequencies are not close. say. a suddenly applied load generates significantly more stress than a statically applied one. 2. If the excitation frequency is close to one of the natural frequencies of the bridge. 2. Common forms of excitation are truck vibration. it may vibrate at one of these frequencies. 2.9 Idealisation of beam for dynamic analysis: (a) original beam. The shape of the structure during such vibration is known as the mode shape. as would often be the case for a road bridge excited by traffic. In such an analysis.10. 2. In the simplest form of dynamic analysis. (b) lumped mass model
Fig. the source of excitation of the bridge is not considered and only the natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined. Dynamic amplification can be defined as the ratio of the actual stress to that due to the corresponding static load.Page 53 model of Fig. the interaction of the
Fig. by wind.9(b). All structures have a number of natural frequencies at which they tend to vibrate. there may be no need for further dynamic analysis. further analysis is required to determine the dynamic amplification in what is known as a ‘forced vibration’ analysis.9 is excited. the equivalent static loads specified in codes of practice take account of this phenomenon and incorporate a ‘dynamic amplification’ factor. 2. If it can be shown that the natural frequencies of the bridge are not close to the frequency of all expected sources of excitation. If the bridge of Fig. and jogging or walking pedestrians.10 Mode shapes of simply supported beam: (a) typical first mode shape. as illustrated in Fig.
5. For such cases. Examples of analysis using equivalent prestress loads are given in Chapter 3. Furthermore. as the ≈ forces are eccentric to the centroid at the ends. However.1 Equivalent loads and linear transformation
The equivalent loading due to prestress can generally be found by simple equilibrium of forces. for the externally prestressed bridge illustrated in Fig. there are concentrated
. For example. the applied loading is a truck or trucks of considerable mass. For a qualitative understanding of the effects of prestress. this can be approximated as: . Like temperature. the draft Eurocode specifies an equivalent static force.7) It also follows from the small angle that the horizontal force is P cosθ P. In the case of road traffic. The combined effect of a number of tendons can then be found by simply combining the loadings. Finally. Such a loading can readily be specified in a computer model and the maximum distribution of stress determined.7. design for the impact of vehicles colliding with bridges was discussed. vibrating on their own tyres and suspensions. methods will be given for the calculation of their magnitudes. Such an analysis is currently only possible with specialist computer programs which incorporate the complexities of truck rocking and bouncing motions and the variations in truck dynamic characteristics which may be expected in typical traffic. even for simply supported slab or beam-and-slab bridges. 2. prestress can be handled using the method of equivalent loads.Page 54 applied loading and the bridge is taken into account. equilibrium of vertical forces gives an upward force at B of:
As the angle. equivalent loadings can be found for individual tendons. In such cases. the equivalent force is assumed to increase from zero to its full value over a very short time (measured in milliseconds) and to maintain a constant value for a further short time (of the order of 200 ms). Whether the bridge consists of beams or a slab. In this section.11(a). the concept of linear transformation is also introduced. it is often convenient to treat it as a loading for analysis purposes. θis generally small. the code allows for the carrying out of a dynamic analysis.7 Prestress loading
While prestress is not in fact a loading as much as a means of resisting load.
2. Such a method is only necessary in the case of indeterminate bridges. it is often necessary to analyse to determine the degree to which prestressing of one member affects others.
2. (2. the trucks are moving so the location of their masses are changing with time. In Section 2. As an alternative.
It can be shown that the equivalent loading due to prestress is always self-equilibrating. (b) equivalent loading due to prestress
moments there of magnitude (Pcosθ 2 ≈ 2. (b) equivalent loading
Fig. Hence the total equivalent loading due to )e Pe prestress is as illustrated in Fig.11 Prestressed concrete beam with external post-tensioning: (a) elevation showing tendon. 2.12 Segment of parabolically profiled tendon: (a) elevation. A parabolically profiled prestressing tendon generates a uniform loading which again can be quantified using equilibrium of vertical forces. 2.11(b). 2. A small segment
where x1 is the X coordinate at point 1.
. 2.12) where s is referred to as the sag in the tendon over length l as indicated in the figure. 2.3: Parabolic profile The beam illustrated in Fig.10) where F 2 is downwards when the slope is positive.11)
The equivalent loads on the segment are illustrated in Fig.12(a). Example 2. The intensity of uniform loading on this segment is: (2. At point 1.8) As the angles are small: (2.13 is prestressed using a single parabolic tendon set out according to the equation: (2. It is required to determine the equivalent loading due to prestress. Similarly the vertical component of force at 2 is: (2. there is an upward vertical component of the prestress force of: (2.Page 56 of such a profile is illustrated in Fig.12(b). 2. This force is upwards when the slope is positive.
13 Beam with parabolic tendon profile: (a) elevation. the equivalent point load at A would be upwards and of magnitude P(eB− A− e 4s)/l. the slope is negative and the force is downwards of magnitude P(−B +e A+4s)/l. e The slope at B is calculated similarly:
. 2. in this case.Page 57
Fig.12) gives: (2. (b) equivalent loading due to prestress
Differentiating equation (2. However.13) As θ is small: A
For a positive slope.
the change only results in adjustments to the equivalent point loads at A and B and to the equivalent loading near B.13): (2.13(a) can be adjusted by changing the end eccentricities. A profile such as that illustrated in Fig. A more appropriate revision is illustrated in Fig. stress at the top fibre can be increased by moving the prestressing tendon upwards to increase the eccentricity locally. 2.13(b). In a determinate structure.11) where the second derivative is found by differentiating equation (2. unchanged. they do not significantly affect the distribution of bending moment induced by prestress. 2.14. illustrated in Fig. increasing the eccentricity locally at B without changing the sags. Such an adjustment is known as a linear transformation and will have no effect on the intensity of equivalent uniform loading as can be seen from equation (2. This is because the eccentricity at B has been increased without increasing the tendon sag in the spans.3 illustrates the fact that the intensity of equivalent uniform loading due to a parabolic tendon profile is independent of the end eccentricities. 2. The preliminary profile for the tendons. the equivalent point loads are as illustrated in Fig. increases the (sagging) moment due to prestress. As these forces are at or near supports. In the structure of Fig.14)
This too is illustrated in the figure. However. Example 2.Page 58
As B is on the right-hand side. the equivalent uniform loading due to prestress is a function only of the sag and is. Thus. As was seen above. This increase in tendon eccentricity.14(b).4: Qualitative profile design A prestressed concrete slab bridge is to be reinforced with 10 post-tensioned tendons. unaffected by eccentricity at the ends of the span.14(c) where the profile is lowered in AB and BC while maintaining its position at the support points. Such a uniform upward loading in a two-span beam generates sagging moment at the interior support which has the desired effect of increasing the top-fibre stress there. this force is downwards when positive. 2. as illustrated in Fig. results in insufficient compressive stress in the top fibres of the bridge at B. Pe. This has the effect of increasing the tendon sag which increases the intensity of equivalent uniform loading. Hence.
. in an indeterminate structure. in fact. This phenomenon is particularly useful for understanding the effect of prestressing in continuous beams with profiles that vary parabolically in each span. The intensity of uniform loading is given by equation (2. e A and eB while keeping the sag. s. which increases the compressive stress at the top fibre. the response of a structure to such changes is not so readily predictable. e. Example 2.14). It is required to determine an amendment to the profile to increase the stress at this point without increasing the prestress force.14(a). 2. 2. does little to increase the compressive stress at the top fibre at that point.
Example 2. half of which is illustrated in Fig. 2. It is required to determine the equivalent loading due to prestress assuming that the prestress force is constant throughout the length of the bridge.5: Tendon with constant prestress force A three-span bridge is post-tensioned using a five-parabola symmetrical profile.15(a). (c) lowering of profile in AB and BC to increase sag
Most prestressing tendons are made up of a series of lines and parabolas and the equivalent loading consists of a series of point forces and segments of uniform loading.11). The intensities of loading are found from equation (2. 2. This can be seen in the following example. (b) raising of profile at B by linear transformation. For the first parabola:
Fig.14 Adjustment of tendon profile: (a) original profile.
5: (a) partial elevation showing segments of parabola. 2. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. 2. This is necessary to ensure that the tendon does not generate concentrated forces at these points. it has been ensured that the parabolas are tangent to one another at the points where they meet. the intensities of loading in the second and third parabolas are respectively:
The point load at the end support is the vertical component of the prestress force.15 Tendon profile for Example 2.Page 60
Fig. Verifying that these forces are in equilibrium can be a useful check on the computations.16(a)
.7. Note that in selecting the profile. (b) equivalent loading due to prestress
Similarly. prestress forces are not constant through the length of bridges because of friction losses. Differentiating the equation for the parabola gives the slope.
2. from which the force is found to be:
All of the equivalent loads due to prestress are illustrated in Fig.2 Prestress losses
In practical post-tensioned construction.15(b).
Fig.5 is subject to friction losses which result in the prestress forces presented in Fig. Example 2. A useful method of checking the equivalent loads is to apply them in the analysis of a determinate beam.11). In such a case. The resulting loading is illustrated in Fig. The use of equivalent loads which do not satisfy equilibrium can result in significant errors in the calculated distribution of prestress moment. (b) equivalent loading (Pav=(P1+P2 )/2)
where the forces at points 1 and 2 are different. the difference between prestress forces at adjacent points is generally not very large.6 that this equivalent loading satisfies equilibrium of forces and moments.9)–(2. 2.5.16 Equivalent loading due to varying prestress force: (a) segment of beam and tendon. 2. The eccentricities given in this figure have been calculated from the equations for each parabola given in Example 2.17. a sensible approach to the derivation of equivalent prestress loading is to start by substituting the average prestress force for P in equations (2.
. the moment due to the equivalent loading should be equal to the product of prestress force and eccentricity at all points. However. It is required to determine the equivalent loading due to prestress taking account of the loss of force.6: Tendon with varying prestress force The post-tensioning tendon of Example 2.16(b). 2. It will be seen in Example 2. Therefore. The bridge is post-tensioned from both ends with the result that the prestressing forces vary symmetrically about the centre.
the slope is − 0. the equation for the parabola is:
At A.Page 62
Fig.16(b).5 but using average prestress forces.1322 and the upward force is:
. 2. the equivalent intensities of uniform loading are:
In addition. In segment AB.17 Tendon profile showing varying prestress force (in kN) and eccentricity (in m)
With reference to Example 2. point loads must be applied at the end of each segment in accordance with Fig. 2. x=0.
In such a beam. the slope of the profile is:
giving a downward force at the right end of magnitude:
The corresponding point load components for the other segments of parabola are calculated similarly and are presented.
. This clearly affects the eccentricity and hence the moment due to prestress. It can be verified that the forces and moments on each segment are in equilibrium. (b) total
the minus sign indicating that the force is actually downwards. 2.3 Non-prismatic bridges
The eccentricity of a prestressing tendon is measured relative to the section centroid. the location of this centroid varies along the length of the bridge.7. 2. The resulting equivalent loading is illustrated in Fig. 2. in Fig. In nonprismatic bridge decks. 2. together with the other equivalent uniform loads.19(a).18(b). 2.Page 63
Fig. the prestress forces are resolved parallel and perpendicular to the centroid and the eccentricity is measured in a direction perpendicular to it. At B. The forces and moments at the ends of each segment are summed and the result is illustrated in Fig.19(b) where s is distance along the centroid. A segment of beam with a curved centroid is illustrated in Fig.18(a).18 Equivalent loading due to prestress: (a) loading on each segment.
2.19 Equivalent loading due to variation in location of centroid: (a)segment of beam and tendon. The beam is divided into just two segments. there are friction losses of 12% which vary linearly between A and C (friction losses generally do not vary linearly but this is a widely accepted approximation).20 has a non-prismatic section. In addition.3.e.12). It is required to determine the equivalent loading due to prestress.Page 64
Fig. i. It is prestressed with a tendon following a single parabolic profile from A to C. the centroid changes depth linearly between A and B and between B and C. (b) equivalent loading
Example 2. With reference to Example 2.:
. it is defined by an equation of the same form as equation (2. 2. The definition of the parabola is independent of the section geometry.9: Equivalent loading due to change in geometry The beam illustrated in Fig. AB and BC.
the derivatives are:
. Hence for segment AB:
Similarly for segment BC. 2. it can be found as the difference between y and the line representing the centroid. for BC.20 Elevation of beam and tendon profile
If the eccentricity is approximated as the vertical distance. the eccentricity is given by:
Differentiating the equation for segment AB gives:
2. The resulting equivalent loading due to prestress is illustrated for each segment in Fig.21 Equivalent loading: (a) loading on each segment. The forces are combined in Fig. where P is the jacking force. for both segments:
The average values for prestress force in segments AB and BC are 0. 2.21(a).Page 66
Fig. (b) total
Differentiating again gives.
. 2.21(b).91P respectively.97P and 0.
2 Moment distribution
Moment distribution can be used to check computer output and to develop insight into the behaviour of a great range of bridge types subjected to many different types of action. The approach to moment distribution used in this book is a little different in its presentation to that used traditionally. i. In this section. actions other than forces that can induce stress in a bridge. a knowledge of such methods is extremely useful for developing a complete understanding of the nature of bridge behaviour under load. of course. the method is illustrated using some simple examples. Analysis for the equivalent loads can be carried out by conventional computer methods or by moment distribution. It is. familiar to most engineers.
. Moment distribution is a convenient hand method that can be used in many cases. The method is also useful for checking computer output as it provides approximations of increasing accuracy throughout the analysis process. Moment distribution has been selected as there is a physical action corresponding to each stage of the calculation which makes it easier to develop a qualitative understanding of the phenomena.
Chapter 3 Introduction to bridge analysis
3. the method of equivalent loads is presented as a means of analysing for the effects of ‘indirect actions’. In addition to moment distribution. is performed not by adding numbers in a table but rather by adding bending moment diagrams. However.e. The process of releasing joints. This may be slower to perform in practice but provides a much clearer explanation of the process and is less prone to error. The method consists of determining loads which have the same effect on the structure as the indirect action.1 Introduction
Two approaches to bridge analysis are presented in this chapter. moment distribution and the method of equivalent loads. not practical in most situations to analyse bridges by hand.
The bending moment diagram (BMD) The 3 members are isolated by applying fixities at B and C as shown: due to the applied loading on the resulting ‘fixed’ structure is sketched. The fixities are numbered and the direction of each is defined.1 and are illustrated using the example presented in the right-hand column.1 Moment distribution
Step 1: All members of the structure are isolated from one another by applying a number of fixities.
Table 3. Appendix A gives the BMDs for members with a range of end conditions.Page 68 The analysis procedure consists of four steps. These are presented in the left-hand column of Table 3. This fixed structure is equivalent to:
The resulting bending moment diagram (BMD) is found (with reference to Appendix A):
The total discontinuity at B is 3EI/l+4EI/(1. Appendix B gives the BMDs for a wide range of such displacements. Dividing the BMD by this gives the normalised version.Page 69 General Example
Step 2: The BMDs due Unit rotation at B induces a BMD of (refer to Appendix B): to application of unit displacements at each of the fixities are found.e. i. boxed below. a BMD with a unit discontinuity at B which results from some applied rotation at B:
The corresponding BMD for rotation at C is found similarly:
. These BMDs are then normalised to give a unit value at each point of moment discontinuity.2EI/l.25l)=6.
This is performed simply by adding or subtracting the normalised bending moment diagrams.005wl2 . For this particular example.131–0. as adding it would increase the discontinuity). Hence.
. factored by the discontinuities. to get an exact answer. there is generally a lack of equilibrium of bending moment at the fixing points. factored by 0.130wl 2) by 0. scaled in each case by the appropriate discontinuity. the first iteration has resulted in a BMD which is sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes.005wl 2.125)wl2=0.006wl 2.006wl2 (the BMD is subtracted.125wl 2 is less than that just right of B (0. such discontinuities are successively removed by applying ‘rotations’. factored by 1.Page 70 General
Step 3: In the fixed BMD (Step 1). This discontinuity is removed by adding the normalised BMD corresponding to rotation at B (2). This is the final solution. the correction of the discontinuity at C had the effect of reintroducing a discontinuity at B. must be repeated until no discontinuity remains. The resulting BMD is:
The discontinuity at C is now (0. often characterised by discontinuities in the BMD.
The correction of the discontinuity at B had the effect of increasing the discontinuity at C. The resulting BMD is:
Step 4: The process described in Step 3 is repeated until a BMD is arrived at in which equilibrium is satisfied everywhere. the process of adding normalised BMDs.
The moment just left of B in the fixed BMD (1) of 0. In this step. Similarly. This is removed by subtracting the normalised BMD corresponding to rotation at C (3).
The arrows indicate the directions of positive rotation for Step 2.Page 71
Example 3. (d) normalised BMD
.1(d) (boxed). Hence. The beam is fixed simultaneously at B and C as illustrated in Fig. 3. 3. (c) BMD due to unit rotation. no iteration is required for this example and the BMD of Fig. 3.2 is. 3. The fixed bending moment diagram (BMD) (Step 1) is unaffected by the symmetric system of fixities but. it is possible to isolate members from each other by the simultaneous application of a pair or pairs of equal and opposite fixities. is illustrated in Fig. scaled by 0. in fact. as illustrated in Fig.1(a).
Fig. 3. Step 3 consists of removing these two discontinuities (simultaneously) by adding the BMD of Fig.1: Continuous beam using symmetry Concepts of symmetry can be used to great effect when analysing by moment distribution. in Step 2. (b) unit rotation simultaneously at B and C. exact. As will be demonstrated in this example. which gives a unit discontinuity of moment at B and C. 3. The resulting BMD (from ) is illustrated in Fig. 3.1(d). 0.005wl2.2. this time using symmetry.1 is analysed again. The discontinuities at B and C in the fixed BMD are.1(b). As there are no further discontinuities. 3. as before.1 Moment distribution using symmetry: (a) symmetrical system of fixities. The beam of Table 3.005wl 2.1(c) and the normalised version. two equal and opposite rotations must be applied simultaneously at B and C. The resulting BMD is illustrated in Fig.
4(a). Symmetry is exploited by simultaneously fixing A and B and simultaneously fixing C and D as shown. 3. 3. 3.Page 72
Fig. This is corrected by applying the BMD of Fig.5(a).3 Box culvert example
. 3. factored by Pl/8. 3. 3.4(f). Step 3: The discontinuity at A and B in the fixed BMD (Fig. 3. 3.2 Final BMD for three-span beam
Example 3.4(c)) results in the BMD illustrated in Fig. 3. which gives the BMD of Fig.4(f). The discontinuity now present at C and D is 0. The fixed BMD is. factored by that amount.4(b). this culvert is assumed to be supported at two discrete points under the walls and to have constant flexural rigidity throughout. as illustrated in Fig.
Fig. from . The resulting BMD is illustrated in Fig.4(Pl/8). When normalised.2: Box culvert The application of moment distribution to a two-dimensional frame type of structure is demonstrated using the box culvert illustrated in Fig. and D as illustrated in Fig. The normalised BMD due to rotation at C and D is found similarly and is as illustrated in Fig.3.5(b). 3.4(e).4(e). 3. This is corrected by adding the BMD of Fig. 3.4(d).4(b)) is Pl/8. this becomes the BMD of Fig. Step 2: Applying unit rotation simultaneously at A and B (Fig. For simplicity. 3. B. Step 1: The members are isolated by applying fixities at A. C. 3.
(f) normalised BMD for rotation at C and D
Fig. (c) a after second correction at A and B.4 Analysis of box culvert (a) system of fixities. 3. 3. (b) after correction of discontinuity at C and D.5 BMD after successive corrections: (a) after correction of discontinuity at A and B. (e) normalised BMD for rotation at A and B. (c) moments required to induce unit rotation at A and B. (d) BMD associated with unit rotation at A and B. (d) after second correction at C and D
Fig. (b) fixed BMD.
3. 3. Finally.064(Pl/8).Page 74
Step 4: The correction at C and D has reintroduced a discontinuity at A and B of 0.
Fig.4(e). Earth pressure on a structure of this type generates an additional distribution of moment. 3. Adding the BMD of Fig. A higher hogging moment (0. A more typical situation would be that of continuous support from granular material throughout the length of the base and side walls. 3. 3. The interaction of bridges with the surrounding soil is considered further in Chapter 4.5(c). This box culvert of Example 3.2 was assumed to be supported at two discrete points. (b) resulting BMD
. gives the BMD of Fig. 3.5(d) is deemed to be the final solution.6 Finite-element model of box culvert and surrounding soil: (a) finite-element mesh.5(d). 3.6(b). A more realistic finite-element (FE) model taking account of these effects and assuming typical soil properties is illustrated in Fig. the BMD of Fig.16(Pl/8). The discontinuity now existing at A and B is considered to be sufficiently small for the purposes of this example and the BMD of Fig. 3.6(a) and the resulting BMD in Fig. is added to give the BMD of Fig.4(f).825(Pl/8)) is found with a corresponding reduced sagging moment. factored by 0. factored by this amount.
following example serves to demonstrate the effect of a differential settlement on a continuous beam bridge. 3. 3. The disadvantage of this is that differential settlement is more often caused by a relatively weak patch of soil under one support rather than by a non-uniform distribution of applied loads.8.9(d). this becomes the BMD of Fig. The system of fixities cannot be symmetrical as the ‘loading’ is not symmetrical.3: Differential settlement by moment distribution The continuous beam illustrated in Fig.Page 75
3. EI. 3.7 is subjected to a settlement at B of Δrelative to the other supports. 3. is to assume that a foundation support settles by a specified amount. the structure and the surrounding soil may be represented using non-linear computer models.7 Three-span beam example: (a) geometry. distributions of bending moment and shear are induced in the deck. frequently adopted by bridge engineers.9(c). Example 3. the beam is fixed as illustrated in Fig. 3. the discontinuity at C is of the /l same magnitude. a rotation at C results in the normalised BMD of Fig. 3. as the effect is often not very significant.
Fig. 3. Clearly soil deforms under the vertical forces applied through bridge piers and abutments. Step 1: Referring to (4th and 5th BMDs). To accurately analyse for this effect. However. When normalised. The . The discontinuity of moment at B is 1. Δ relative to the others and to determine the effects of this on the structure.3 Differential settlement of supports
There is considerable research and development activity currently taking place in the field of soil/structure interaction. many structural engineers treat the soil as a spring or a series of springs in the numerical model. Similarly. If the deformation is not uniform. 3. Step 2: Applying a unit rotation as illustrated in Fig. the fixed BMD is as illustrated in Fig. Hence.5EI∆ 2.9(b). Thus. The resulting BMD is required given that the beam has uniform flexural rigidity.9(a) results in the BMD illustrated in Fig. By coincidence. (b) imposed support settlement
.8(a). an alternative approach.
(c) normalised version of BMD associated with rotation at B. (b) BMD associated with unit rotation at B.9 Effect of rotations at points of fixity: (a) unit rotation at B. 3.8 First step in analysis of three-span beam: (a) system of fixities. 3. (b) fixed BMD
Fig. (d) normalised BMD associated with rotation at C
Fig. Adding the BMD of Fig. /l factored by this amount.10(a). which are typical of differential settlement: 1. It is interesting to note two additional things about the final BMD illustrated in Fig. gives the BMD of Fig. l. Differential settlement has the effect of generating sagging moment at the support which settles.10 BMD after successive corrections: (a) after correction at1. As the second moment of area is proportional to the cube of
. 3. Step 4: One further iteration gives the BMD of Fig. This is corrected by adding the BMD of Fig.9(c).10(b). (c) after second corrections at1 and 2
Step 3: The discontinuity at B in Fig. This correction at B has the effect of increasing the discontinuity at C to 1. divided by the square of the span length. 3.e. 3. /l 3. depth=l/k for some constant. 3. 3. k). 3. 3.10(c). The moment at the support which settles is proportional to the second moment of area. It is usual to size a bridge by selecting a depth which is proportional to span length (i.5 EI∆ 2.8 EI∆ 2. (b) after correction at 2. This is important as supports in continuous beams are generally subjected to hogging moment and are often not designed to resist significant sag.10(c) which is deemed to be of sufficient accuracy. I.9(d) factored by this amount to give the BMD of Fig.8(b) is 1.
the maximum moment due to differential settlement is roughly proportional to (l/k)3/l2=l/k3. restrained against contraction. The implication of this is that. (b) fully fixed
. A widely accepted approximate way to model the effect of creep is to reduce the elastic modulus. the span/depth ratio is particularly important. In this section. it is reasonable to anticipate some reduction in moment due to concrete creep. on the other hand. no stresses are generated as no restraint is (∆ offered to the contraction. analysis for the effects of axial expansion/contraction due to temperature changes is considered. moment is proportional to span length. 3. There cannot be any strain as the beam is totally T. axial expansion/contraction and differential changes in temperature through the depth of the bridge deck. Unlike BMDs due to applied forces. in practice. 2.e. values are often specified which are independent of span length. 3.11(b). It might be expected that for longer spans.
3. A (negative) strain will occur of magnitude α T) where α the T. As moment is proportional to this modulus. for those with short ones. This beneficial effect of the creep in concrete is countered by the fact that the magnitude of the differential settlement itself often increases with time due to timedependent behaviour in the supporting soil. However. As there is no stress. the differential settlement should be larger as the supports are further apart and soil conditions are more likely to be different. the beam is fixed at both ends as illustrated in Fig. Further. if the specified settlement is deemed to include such time-dependent effects. there can be no tendency to crack. However. it follows that creep has the effect of reducing the moment due to differential settlement over time. However. namely. If. i. and its temperature is reduced by Δ then there will be no strain. a modest increase in slenderness can considerably reduce the moment due to differential settlement. This is particularly significant for concrete bridges where considerable creep occurs. This total restraint generates a stress of magnitude Eα T). (∆ is coefficient of thermal expansion (strain per unit change in temperature).4 Thermal expansion and contraction
As discussed in Chapter 2. If a beam is on a sliding bearing as illustrated in Fig.
Fig. 3. The beam then contracts by α T)l where l is its length. the distribution of moment due to differential settlement is proportional to the elastic modulus.11 Extreme restraint conditions For axial temperature: (a) free. (∆ where E is the elastic modulus. there are two thermal effects for which bridge analysis is required. for a given settlement Δ the induced moment is more critical for bridges with long spans than .Page 78
the depth.11(a) and the temperature is reduced by Δ it will contract freely. The stress is manifested in a tendency to crack.
Fig.12(a). where a beam is partially restrained. It also happens in frame bridges where the piers offer some resistance to expansion or contraction of the deck. 3.13 First step in analysis of frame: (a) fixing system. Example 3.Page 79 The most common case requiring analysis is the one in between the two extreme cases described above. (b) deformed shape after expansion of deck
Fig. 3. it is required to find the bending moment.30). shear force and axial force diagrams due to an increase in deck temperature of Δ T. This happens for example in arch bridges where contraction is accommodated through bending in the arch (Fig.4: Restrained axial expansion by moment distribution For the bridge illustrated in Fig. (b) fixed axial force diagram
.12 Frame subjected to axial change in temperature: (a) original geometry. 1.
The deck is supported on a bearing at B which prevents relative translation between it and the supporting pier but allows relative rotation. 3. (b) associated axial force diagram.14 Effect of translation at fixing point: (a) forces required to induce unit translation.12(b). Thus. a thermal expansion tends to bend the pier as illustrated in Fig. (e) normalised free body diagram
Fig. (d) free body diagram showing lack of equilibrium of forces at B. 3. In addition. BD. As the pier is fully fixed at its base. bending moment is generated in the pier. its resistance to bending restrains the expansion a little and generates a small compressive stress in the deck between A and B. (c) associated shear force diagram.
The normalised version of Fig. The lack of force equilibrium in this diagram corresponds to the moment discontinuity in the BMDs of the usual moment distribution problems.14(a). Step 2: To apply a unit translation at B requires a force to compress AB of E(area)/(length)=1500EI/h3 as illustrated in Fig. 3. 3. 3. a force is required to bend BD (. is illustrated in Fig.14(d).14(e). Hence the axial force diagram is as (∆ (∆ illustrated in Fig.) There is no bending moment or shear force in the fixed structure. 3.13(b). where α the coefficient of thermal expansion and E is the elastic modulus. corresponding to unit discontinuity of force at B. 3. (While a rotational fixity at this point is also possible. 4th case) of 3EI/h3 giving a total required force at B of 1503EI/h3. (b) axial force diagram. the stress in AB is α T)E. (c) shear force diagram. However. The associated axial force and shear force diagrams are illustrated in Figs.13(a). The required external force at B can be seen in the free-body diagram of Fig. 3.15 Results of analysis: (a) free body diagram with restored equilibrium at B.Page 81
Step 1: The substructure and superstructure of the bridge are isolated from one another by the imposition of a translational fixity at B as illustrated in Fig. such a fixity is not necessary to isolate the members in this case.14(d). The (∆ is corresponding force is α T)E(area)=6000α T)EI/h2. 3. 3.14(b) and (c).
Fig. (d) bending moment diagram
. In addition.
13(b). 3. The final axial force and shear force diagrams are illustrated in Figs. 3. (∆ There are some points of interest about axial temperature effects apparent from this simple example. The result is illustrated in Fig. It is subjected to a uniform reduction in temperature through the depth of the deck (ABC) of 20°C and no change in temperature elsewhere. However.Page 82
Step 3: There is a lack of force equilibrium in the fixed structure at B (Fig. i. 3. It is also of interest to note that.14(e) factored by 6000α T)EI/h2. 3. 3.16 Integral frame of Example 3. The relative 2 flexural rigidities are given on the figure and the area of the deck is 500I0/l . 3. by adding an axial tension in AB of 0. The sustained stresses generated by the subsequent contraction of the concrete as it cools can be relieved substantially by creep.e. (∆ As there is no further force discontinuity. This situation is corrected at B by subtracting the forces illustrated in Fig. the moments and forces due to changes in temperature are proportional to the elastic modulus. This means that such stresses.15(b) and (c). 3.15(d). Most noteworthy is the effect of the relative values of deck area and pier second moment of area. As a result. if sustained in a concrete structure.5: Thermal contraction in frame bridge by moment distribution The frame structure illustrated in Fig.13(b)) as there is no axial force in BC and no shear force in the pier to correspond to the axial force in AB. thermal contraction or expansion induces bending moment as well as axial force and shear.16 is integral having no internal bearings or joints.002×6000α T)EI/h2 to Fig. Substantial temperature changes occur on a short-term basis during which the effects of creep do not have a significant ameliorating effect.
Fig. Example 3. may be relieved by the effect of creep. 3. As the shear force across the pin at B is 12α T)EI/h2.998×6000α T)EI/h 2 and a shear (∆ (∆ force in BC of 0. as for differential settlement. in-situ concrete bridges generate significant quantities of heat while setting and consequently have their initial set when the concrete is warm. The resulting distribution of bending 6 moment is required given that the coefficient of thermal expansion is 12×10− .5
. The area of the deck is typically numerically much larger than the second moment of area of the pier with the result that the restraint to deck expansion is relatively small. the bending moment in BD varies from zero at this point (∆ to a maximum of 12α T)EI/h at D as illustrated in Fig. this is the final free body diagram.15(a). Hence the rise in temperature results in a lot of strain and in very little stress in the deck.
there is a lack of force equilibrium at A and C which. No distribution of bending moment is present in the fixed structure but the axial force diagram is as illustrated in Fig.18(c). as points A and C will tend to rotate as well as translate. However. there is a shear force just below A and C which is unmatched by an axial force in AB or BC.2EI0/l and is illustrated in Fig. 3. 3. Hence. Step 2: Applying a unit rotation in Direction 1 (Fig. is as illustrated in Fig. two fixities are needed at each.18(b).17(a). 3. In the fixed structure.12EI 0/l .17(c). 3. As the rotation is applied while fixing against translation. 3.17(a)) requires the moments and forces illustrated in Fig. Applying a unit translation in Direction 2 (while preventing rotation) requires the moments and forces illustrated in Fig. there is a lack of force equilibrium at A and C as illustrated in Fig.2EI0 /l. (b) fixed axial force diagram. 3. Due to symmetry.17 First step in analysis of frame: (a) system of fixities. one translational and one rotational as illustrated in Fig.Page 83
Fig. 3. there is no tendency for point B to rotate and this point can be considered fixed without applying a fixity. The normalised version is found by dividing by 7. As there is axial force in ABC but no corresponding shear force in AD or CF. (c) free body diagrams showing shear and axial forces in fixed frame
Step 1: Due to symmetry. 3.19(a) and generates the BMD illustrated in
. 3. when divided by 7. no axial forces are generated in the members.17(b).18(d). 3. the attempt to contract generates a tensile stress in ABC of 6 6 (12×10− )(20°)E and an axial force reaction at each end of (12×10− )(20°)(500EI0/l2)− 2 0. However.18(a) and generates the BMD illustrated in Fig. the fixities at A and C are taken to be equal and opposite as illustrated.
Fig. It can be seen in Fig. 3.20(a) by 0.20(a) and (b). The normalised lack of joint equilibrium is illustrated in Fig.19(c).17(c) is corrected by factoring Fig. 3. as there is no moment induced in the fixed structure. 3. In addition. Normalising with respect to this value gives Figs.19(b). 3. 3. The discontinuity or lack of equilibrium at A is 538. 3. adding it to a BMD of zero.20(c)
. Step 3: The lack of force equilibrium in the fixed structure illustrated in Fig. (b) BMD associated with unit rotation.20(c). 3. a distribution of axial force is generated which is illustrated in Fig. 3.12EI0/l 2 and.18 Effect of rotation at A and C: (a) moments and forces required to induce unit rotation.19(d) that there is a shear force just below A which is not matched by the axial force to its right. 3.4EI 0/l3. (c) normalised BMD associated with rotation. In addition. the joint forces of Fig. (d) normalised shear and axial forces associated with rotation
must be factored by 0.22(b) of magnitude. 3.00285EI0/l2. Figures 3. 3.17(c). (c) axial force diagram associated with unit translation. (b) BMD associated with unit translation.18(c) and (d) by 0.12EI 0/l2 and added to those of Fig. 3.21(a). 3.19 Effect of translation at A and C: (a) forces and moments required to induce unit translation. The results are illustrated in Fig. There is a discontinuity in the BMD (or lack of moment equilibrium) at A and C evident in Fig.00214EI0/l and adding them to Figs. This is corrected by scaling Figs. 3.20(a) and (c) are
Fig. 3. Step 4: The removal of the moment discontinuity reintroduces a lack of force equilibrium which is evident in Fig. The results are illustrated in Fig.22.21. 3. 0. (d) free body diagram at joint A showing lack of equilibrium
.21(a) and (b) respectively.
3.21 Effect of correcting for lack of force equilibrium: (a) corrected BMD.20 Normalised effect of translation at A and C: (a) normalised BMD.Page 86
Fig. 3. (b) normalised axial force diagram. (c) free body diagram showing unit discontinuity of forces
Fig. (b) corrected free body diagram
3.18(c) and (d). Figure 3. 3. (b) corrected free body diagram
Fig.22 Effect of correcting for discontinuity in BMD: (a) corrected BMD. (b) free body diagram
scaled by this amount and added to Figs.23 where the lack of force equilibrium is deemed to be sufficiently small.Page 87
Fig. 3.22(a) and (b).23(a) is therefore adopted as the final BMD.23 Results of analysis for effects of thermal contraction: (a) BMD. 3. The resulting moment discontinuity is corrected by factoring and adding Figs. 3. This leads to Fig.
The equivalent force. Stage A—Calculate the equivalent loads and the associated stresses: The loading is found which would generate the same strain in an unrestrained member as the distribution of temperature. where:
where α the coefficient of thermal expansion. 3. that distribution of stress which is inadvertently introduced into the structure by the equivalent loads. Stage B—Analyse for the effects of the equivalent loads: The beam is analysed for the loading illustrated in Fig. on the other hand.Page 88 Example 3. this distribution of stress must be subtracted to determine the stresses generated indirectly by the change in temperature. i. a more important effect of the moment connection is the bending moment induced in the deck by thermal movement.25(b). An axial expansion can be generated in an unrestrained beam by applying an axial force. it is particularly useful when a computer is available to carry out the analysis but the program does not cater directly for temperature effects.24 which is subjected to an axial increase in temperature of Δ The expansion is partially restrained by a spring of stiffness AE/(2l) where A is crossT.4. This can become a significant factor in bridge deck design. thermal movement is resisted by bending in both the piers and the deck. Normally this stage would be done by computer but it
Fig. 3.25(a).5 serves to illustrate the effect of a moment connection between the bridge deck and the piers.
3. While the method may not at first seem to be any simpler to apply than the procedure used above. In such a case.24 Beam on rollers with partial (spring) restraint
. 3. it is necessary to identify the ‘associated stresses’.1 Equivalent loads method
The method of equivalent loads is a method by which a thermal expansion/contraction problem can be converted into a regular analysis problem. 3. 3. even on an unrestrained beam. will generate both.25(a) and the associated stress distribution in Fig. To some extent this alters the resistance to contraction or expansion. F 0. Example 3. The equivalent loads for this example are illustrated in Fig. sectional area and E is the elastic modulus of the beam. The equivalent loads method consists of three stages as follows.6: Introduction to equivalent loads method The equivalent loads method will first be applied to the simple problem of the partially restrained beam illustrated in Fig. temperature on an unrestrained is member generates strain but not stress.e. In Stage C. However. Therefore. However.
For this example.
3. Stage C—Subtract the associated stresses: The distribution of associated stresses is subtracted from the stresses generated by the equivalent loads.5 Differential temperature effects
When the sun shines on the top of a bridge. (b) associated stress distribution. the beam acts as a spring of stiffness AE/l. The result is an axial compression of F0/(3A) throughout the beam.Page 89
Fig. strain is generated but also some compressive stress. This corresponds to the case of a beam on rollers subjected to an axial increase in temperature in that strains take
. In this case. 3. 3. (d) stress distribution due to temperature change
is trivial for this simple example. a differential temperature distribution develops which tends to cause the bridge to bend.25(d). If a linear distribution of this type is applied to a simply supported single-span beam. when a load is applied to two springs. The distribution of stress due to application of F 0 is an axial tension throughout the beam of magnitude 2F0/(3A) as illustrated in Fig. Thus. the top tends to increase in temperature faster than the bottom. this consists of subtracting the axial stress distribution of Fig. This is the final result and is what one would expect from a thermal expansion in a partially restrained beam.25(c). 3. Hence the force is taken in the ratio 1:2 as illustrated in Fig.25(b) from that of Fig.25 Analysis by equivalent loads method: (a) equivalent loads. 3. it is resisted in proportion to their stiffnesses. the bending takes place freely and the beam curves upwards as the top expands relative to the bottom.25(d). 3. It is well known that. (c) equilibrium of forces at spring.
7 and applied distribution of temperature
. 3. The centroid of the beam is at mid-height. 3. It is required to determine the BMD due to the temperature change given that the coefficient of thermal expansion is α . partial restraint against bending is present as will be seen in the following examples. The BMD will be determined using the method of equivalent loads. Stage A—Calculate the equivalent loads and the associated stresses: The temperature change would generate a distribution of strain varying from 5α the top to − at the bottom at 5α of an unrestrained beam. If such a differential temperature distribution is applied to a beam in which the ends are fixed against rotation. the elastic modulus is E and the second moment of area is I.26 Beam of Example 3.
Example 3.7: Differential temperature in two-span beam The two-span beam illustrated in Fig. The temperature change varies linearly from an increase of 5° at the top to a decrease of 5° at the bottom. R is radius of curvature. is
where ε strain. σ stress and y is distance from the centroid. In multi-span beams and slabs. the free bending is prevented from taking place and the situation is one of stress but no strain. temperature generates a curvature of:
The corresponding equivalent moment is:
Fig.26 is subjected to a change of temperature which is non-uniform through its depth.Page 90 place but not stress. κIn this case. The ratio 1/R is known as the curvature. Consider the familiar flexure formula:
where M is moment. the change in is . where αis the coefficient of thermal expansion.
Fig. 3. it is necessary to identify the ‘associated BMD’. (c) BMD after subtraction of associated BMD
. The equivalent loads and associated BMD are illustrated in Figs. (b) associated BMD
Temperature on an unrestrained structure generates strain and curvature but not bending moment or stress.Page 91
Fig.27 Application of equivalent loads method: (a) equivalent loads.27(a) and (b) respectively. even on unrestrained beams. (b) BMD due to application of equivalent loads. Therefore. that distribution of moment which is inadvertently introduced into the structure by the equivalent loading. i. The equivalent moment on the other hand will generate both curvature and bending moment.28 Stages in equivalent loads method: (a) applied equivalent loads.e.
8: Differential temperature change in continuous beam The three-span beam illustrated in Fig.28(b) gives the final result illustrated in Fig. 3.30. It is required to determine the BMD due to the temperature increase given that the coefficient of thermal expansion is α .30 Resolution of applied change in strain into axial and bending components
. 3. a strain but no stress. The BMD will be determined using the method of equivalent loads.Page 92
Stage B—Analyse for the effects of the equivalent loads: Analysis of a symmetrical two-span beam is trivial because. axial strain and bending strain. The temperature distribution is first converted into a strain distribution by multiplying by the coefficient of thermal expansion.28(b). Stage A—Calculate the equivalent loads and the associated stresses: In this example.27(b) from Fig. as illustrated in Fig.29 Differential temperature example
Fig. The bending component will result in some moment but not as much as would occur if the beam were totally prevented from bending. does not rotate. Stage C—Subtract the associated stresses: Subtracting the associated BMD of Fig. the axial component will result in a free expansion. The BMD due to the applied equivalent loading is as illustrated in Fig. As the beam is free to expand.28(a) and the solution can be determined directly from Appendix B. it is effectively fixed as illustrated in Fig. B. Hence. 3.
Example 3. 3. a. 3. 3.28(c).29 is subjected to an increase in temperature which varies linearly from a maximum of 20° at the top to 10° at the bottom.e. the elastic modulus is E and the second moment of area is I. the central support point. 3. The depth of the beam is h and the centroid is at mid-depth. i. 3. The distribution is then resolved into two components. due to symmetry. 3. from Fig. 3. the curvature is.
Hence. (b) applied loading on fixed structure.31. the equivalent moment becomes:
Thus.31 Application of equivalent loads method: (a) equivalent loads. (c) BMD in fixed structure
Fig. 3. (b) associated BMD
Stage B—Analyse for the effects of the equivalent loads: The frame is analysed for the loading of Fig.
Fig. the equivalent loads and associated BMD are as illustrated in Fig. 3.32 First step in analysis by moment distribution: (a) system of fixities. 3. 3. Normally this stage would be done by computer but it will be done using moment distribution for this simple example.
Fig.33 Effect of rotation at fixing points: (a) moments required to induce unit rotation. As the ‘loading’ is symmetrical.32(c).34 Completion of equivalent loads method: (a) BMD due to analysis by moment distribution. The applied loading on the fixed structure is illustrated in Fig. (b) BMD associated with unit rotation.32(a). 3.32(b) and the resulting BMD (Appendix B) in Fig. (c) normalised BMD associated with rotation
Fig. 3.Page 94
Step 1: The beam is fixed at B and C in order to isolate the three spans. the fixities at B and C are equal and opposite as indicated in Fig. 3. 3. (b) BMD after subtraction of associated BMD
3.33(b).1 (Chapter 2). the equi ivalent loading is a force of 580 kN and a moment of 160 kNm of which only the mome is of relevance.Page 95
Step 2: Unit rotation at B and C requires the application of the moments illustrated in Fig. (c) applied temperature distribution
.9: Bridge diaphragm The bridge diaphragm illustrated in Figs.
Example 3. 3.33(a) and generates the BMD illustrated in Fig. 3.33(c).35(c).
Fig.34(a) gives the final result illustrated in Fig. The normalised version is illustrated in Fig.33(c) factored by 5EIα The result is illustrated in Fig. Referring to that example. 3. (b) section through diaphragm. 3. 3. 3. The cross-section and temperature distribution for this examp le are identical to those of Example 2. /h. This is the BMD due to the differential temperature increase. the coefficient of thermal expa is 12×10 − and the modulus of 2 elasticity is 35 000 N/mm .32(c) is corrected by adding Fig. 3.34(b). 3. 3. The upward reaction from the bearing due to 6 the dead load is 300 kN.35 Bridge diaphragm example: (a) plan of geometry. Step 4: As no discontinuity now exists.35(a) and (b) is subjected to the differential increase in temperature shown in Fig.34(a). 3. Step 3: The discontinuity of moment at B and C evident in Fig. Stage C—Subtract the associated stresses: Subtracting the associated BMD of Fig. no further iteration is required.31(b) from Fig. It is required to determ if there will be uplift at B c due to combined temperature and dead load. 3.
Fig.36(b). 3. the structure is analysed for the loading illustrated in Fig. 3. 3. 3. Hence (as in Example 3.7) the BMD due to applied loading is as illustrated in Fig.37:
Hence the reaction at B is 80+80=160 kN. The associated BMD is illustrated in Fig. 3.36 Analysis to determine effect of imposed differential temperature: (a) equivalent loading.
. 3.37 Free body diagram for diaphragm beam
To determine the reaction due to this moment.36(c). (b) associated BMD.36(d).36(a). The reactions at A and C can be found from the free body diagram illustrated in Fig. there is no uplift of this bearing due to the differential temperature change. Point B does not rotate and is effectively fixed. 3. As the reaction due to dead load exceeds this value. (d) final BMD
Fig. (c) results of analysis. Subtracting the associated BMD gives the final BMD illustrated in Fig. By symmetry.
Fig.38α and E − 5. B.87α E. (c) results of analysis. 3. (b) associated BMD. 3. In Example 2. 3.38(b) from Fig. the total E stress at the top fibre is − 5.2 that the residual stresses are − 5.Page 97
Example 3. a sagging bending moment is induced over the central support.32α 5.38(a) and the associated BMD in Fig. (d) final BMD
Thus.38(b).67α At the bottom fibre the total stress is E− E=− E.45α E− E=5. 3. 3.29α 5. It was established in Example 2.718α for half of the bridge.2. of 1. Stage C: Subtracting the associated BMD of Fig. Stage B: Analysis by computer or by hand gives the BMD illustrated in Fig.32α at the top and bottom fibres E E respectively.38 Analysis to determine effect of differential temperature change: (a) equivalent loading.38α 10.29α and 11. Using the method of equivalent loads: E Stage A: The equivalent loads are illustrated in Fig.
.10: Differential temperature in bridge of non-rectangular section The beam-and-slab bridge whose section and temperature loading is described in Example 2. 3. 3.45α (restraint to expansion induces compression at the extreme fibres). It is required to determine the maximum stresses due to the differential temperature change.38(d). 11. it was established that the equivalent moment due to the temperature change is − 0.077α which E gives stresses (tension positive) of − 5.38(c) gives the final distribution of moment due to restrained bending illustrated in Fig.2 consists of two 10 m spans. Hence.38(c).
(d) section C—C
. It is required to determine the equivalent loading and the associated stress distributions given a coefficient 6 of thermal expansion.39(b). (b) section A—A and corresponding imposed temperature distribution. (c) section B—B and corresponding imposed temperature distribution.11: Variable section bridge Figure 3.
Example 3.39 Pedestrian bridge: (a) elevation.39(a) shows the elevation of a pedestrian bridge while Figs. α =12×10− /°C and a modulus of elasticity. (c) and (d) show sections through it. E=35×106 kN/m 2. The bridge is first restrained when its temperature is somewhere between 5°C and 25°C and the minimum temperature attained during its design life is − 15°C. 3. The deck is subjected to the differential decreases in temperature shown in the figure. 3.
(c) associated axial force diagram.033 m below the top fibre for the solid and hollow sections respectively (Figs. Summing products of stress and area in Fig.5 m and 1.39(b) gives the equivalent force (positive tension) on the solid section due to the differential temperature distribution:
The corresponding equivalent moment (positive sag) is:
Fig. 3. 3. 3.39(b)–(d)). (b) equivalent loading. (d) associated BMD
By summing moments of area it is found that the centroids are 0.40 Model of pedestrian bridge: (a) geometry showing differences in level of centroids.
ten times) generally provides sufficient accuracy without causing such problems. 3. a second moment of area several times as large as the maximum used elsewhere in the model (e. 3.41 is articulated as shown in Fig. However. Similarly.6 m 2 giving E. Note that the short vertical members at b and c could be assumed to have effectively infinite stiffness. 3. However. 3.39(b) and (d).40(c) and (d).64 m 2 and the equivalent force is:
A model which allows for the difference in the level of the centroids is illustrated in Fig.g. Therefore. the area is 2.40(a). If there is restraint to either or both rotations. The bending moment and axial force distributions due to the temperature decreases can be found by analysing for the equivalent loading illustrated in Fig. the particle tends to expand in all three directions. 3. 3. The associated axial force and bending moment diagrams are illustrated in Figs.Page 100
In the hollow section. Noting that the axial effects apply to all members while the differential temperature distributions only apply to the deck (abcd).41(a) to allow axial expansion in both the X and Y directions.
3.1 Temperature effects in three dimensions
When the temperature of a particle of material in a bridge is increased.40(b). the equivalent force due to the differential temperature distribution is:
and the equivalent moment is:
The maximum axial decrease in temperature is (25− (−15))=40°C and the corresponding stress is 40α For the solid section of Figs. an equivalent force of:
For the hollow section. the equivalent loads are illustrated in Fig.5. the area is 2.6×1=2. for rotation. using members with very large stiffnesses can generate numerical instability in a computer model.40(c) and (d) from the results. 3. the bridge is two-span
. Example 3. respectively. when a differential distribution of temperature is applied through the depth of a bridge slab. 3.40(b) and subtracting the associated distributions of Figs. it tends to bend about both axes. bending moment results about both axes as will be illustrated in the following example.12: Differential temperature The slab bridge of Fig.
The location of this centroid is:
below the top surface.Page 101
Fig.12: (a) plan showing directions of allowable movement at bearings. It is required to determine the equivalent loading and the associated 6 BMD due to this temperature change. The deck and cantilevers are subjected to the differential temperature increases illustrated in Figs. the bridge will tend to act as one unit and bending will take place about the centroid. 3.41(c) and (d) respectively. 3.41 Slab bridge of Example 3. The coefficient of thermal expansion is 9×10 − /°C and the modulus of elasticity is 32×106 kN/m 2. The specified temperature distributions are different in the cantilevers and the main deck of this bridge. (b) section A-A. However. (c) imposed temperature distribution in deck (section 1− 1). Further. there are three bearings transversely at the ends so that it is not able to bend freely transversely either. The bridge deck is divided into parts as illustrated in Fig. 3. (d) imposed temperature distribution in cantilever (section 2–2)
longitudinally and is therefore not able to bend freely.42 corresponding to the different parts of the temperature distribution and the temperature
. for longitudinal bending.
3. 3. Taking moments about the centroid gives a longitudinal bending moment per metre on the main deck of:
The corresponding bending moment per metre on the cantilever is:
These equivalent longitudinal moments are illustrated in Fig. 3. The transverse direction is different from the longitudinal in that the cross-section is rectangular everywhere. (b) cantilevers
changes are converted into stresses. In the cantilever region.Page 102
Fig.42 Cross-section with associated distribution of imposed stress: (a) deck.43 Equivalent loading due to temperature
.43. bending is about the centroid of the
Fig. 3. (b) section B–B.44. The applied stress distribution is resolved into axial and bending components as illustrated in Fig. The axial expansion is unrestrained while the bending stress distribution generates a moment of:
Fig. (c) section A–A.44 Resolution of imposed stress in cantilever into axial and bending components
cantilever.45 Associated BMDs: (a) plan showing section locations. (d) section C–sC
. 3. 3.
An unrestrained change in temperature results in a change in strain only and no change in stress. 3.47(c) and (d) (unit discontinuity in force).46(a). However.
. prestressing that beam does (as is the objective) induce a distribution of stress. there are many bridge forms where the effects of prestress are restrained to some degree or other and where analysis is necessary. is subjected to a prestressing force along the centroid of the deck. For example. 3. 3. It is required to determine the net prestress force in the deck and the resulting BMD. As for the previous example.5 is used again here as illustrated in Fig.Page 104
In the main deck.
3. there are two associated BMDs as illustrated in Fig. Step 2: The effects of inducing rotations or translations at the fixing points are the same as for Example 3. results in changes of both stress and strain. the stress distributions are easily calculated and analysis is not generally required. The normalised versions are presented here in Figs.13: Frame subject to axial prestress by moment distribution The frame of Fig. P.8 m deep rectangular section giving a moment about the centroid of:
As M3 is applied to the outside of the cantilever. reproduced here as Fig. ABC. When the movements due to prestressing are unrestrained. only (M4− 3) needs to be applied at the M deck/cantilever interface as illustrated in Fig.46(b). 3.16. there is one important distinction.6 Prestress
The effects of prestress in bridges are similar to the effects of temperature and the same analysis techniques can be used for both. 3. However.43.45.47(a) and (b) (unit discontinuity in moment) and in Figs. of magnitude. if a beam rests on a sliding bearing at one end. the differential distribution is applied to a 0. As these applied moments generate distributions of longitudinal and transverse moment. However.5. Prestress.
Example 3. it can undergo axial changes in temperature without incurring any axial stress. on the other hand. The frame is analysed by moment distribution. Step 1: The system of fixities used in Example 3. 3. 3. The BMD due to applied ‘loading’ on the fixed structure is zero everywhere as the prestress forces are applied at fixing points. the problem is completed by analysing the slab (by computer) and subtracting the associated BMDs from the solution.
Fig. (c) normalised BMD due to translation. 3. 3.47 Effect of displacements at fixing points: (a) normalised BMD due to rotation.46 Frame subjected to prestress force: (a) geometry and loading. (b) normalised forces due to rotation. (b) system of fixities
Fig. (d) normalised forces due to translation
Step 4: As force equilibrium in Fig.48(d) is satisfied to a reasonable degree of accuracy.48(c) and (d).47(c) and (d) by P.
Fig. illustrated in Figs. 3. 3. 3. 3.47(a) and (b) by 0.48 Effect of prestress force: (a) BMD after correction for force equilibrium. (d) internal forces after correction for moment equilibrium
Step 3: The translational fixity is released first to apply the prestress force.0178Pl and adding to give Figs. 3. no further iteration is deemed necessary. This consists simply of factoring Figs. The discontinuity of moment which results is removed by factoring Figs. 3. that equilibrium of forces at A and C is then satisfied. (b) internal forces after correction for force equilibrium. (c) BMD after correction for moment equilibrium.48(a) and (b). It can be seen in the results.
is not so straightforward as the beam is not free to lift off the supports at B and C. (b) axial force diagram due to prestress
. a prestressed deck will continue to shorten with time due to creep. Example 3. To determine the bending moment diagram. The analysis to determine the BMD will be carried using moment distribution.50 First stage in equivalent loads method: (a) equivalent loads. 3. P. the bending stresses induced by this shortening are also relieved by creep with the result that creep has little net effect on the bending moment due to prestress. The method of equivalent loads is applicable to prestress just as it is to temperature.Page 107 Example 3. 3. the prestress force is applied at an eccentricity to the centroid.13 serves to illustrate the ‘loss’ of prestress force that occurs in a frame due to the restraint offered by the piers. However. The only difference is that. however. this bending moment is independent of the elastic modulus and is therefore unaffected by creep. 3. 3.50(a). it is not appropriate to deduct the associated stresses from the analysis results as was necessary in temperature analysis. e. as prestress generates stress as well as strain.14: Analysis for eccentric prestressing The beam illustrated in Fig. 3. In this example. It is required to determine the induced distributions of axial force and bending moment. The axial force diagram is clearly as illustrated in Fig. It is also of importance to note the bending moment that is inadvertently induced by the prestress.50(b).49 Beam subjected to eccentric prestress force
Fig.49 is prestressed with a straight tendon at an eccentricity. about 5% of the applied force is lost as shear force in the piers. This is equivalent to applying a moment alongside the force as illustrated in Fig. from the centroid with a prestress force.
Fig. In this example. In a concrete frame. Interestingly.
51(a). 3.52(a). 3. 3. 3. 3.51(b) is removed by factoring Fig.52 Effect of rotation of fixing points: (a) moments required to induce unit rotation. the resulting BMD in Fig. Step 2: The moments required to induce unit rotation at B and C are illustrated in Fig. 3.52(b) and the normalised BMD in Fig. 3.53.52(c) by Pe/2 and adding.Page 108
Step 1: The beam is fixed as illustrated in Fig.51(b). (b) fixed BMD
Fig. (c) normalised BMD
. (b) BMD associated with unit rotation. As there is no further discontinuity.
Fig. The BMD in the fixed structure due to the equivalent loading is as illustrated in Fig. The result is illustrated in Fig. 3.52(c). 3. 3. this is the final BMD due to prestress. Step 3: The discontinuity of bending moment evident in Fig.51 First step in analysis by moment distribution: (a) system of fixities.
P. it is required to find the BMD due to a prestress force.14 that the effect of the tendon below the centroid is to generate sagging moment in the central span.15: Profiled tendons In most post-tensioned bridges the tendons are profiled using a combination of straight portions and parabolic curves. A parabolic profile generates a uniform loading. For preliminary design purposes.Page 109
Fig. 3. 3. For this beam. the actual profiles are sometimes approximated by ignoring the transition curves over the internal supports as illustrated in Fig. In a simply supported beam.) For the parabola in Span AB. (This was covered in greater detail in Chapter 2. the intensity of which can be determined by considering equilibrium of forces at the ends of the parabola. the slope is found by differentiating the equation as follows:
Fig.54. a tendon below the centroid generates hogging moment. 3.53 Final BMD due to eccentric prestress force
It is interesting to note from Example 3.54 Beam with profiled prestressing tendon
. Example 3.
56 Equivalent loads method: (a) system of fixities for analysis by moment distribution. 3. (b) summary of all equivalent forces on beam
Fig. (b) equivalent loads and BMDs due to prestress in fixed structure. (c) BMD after correction for discontinuity in BMD
Fig. 3.55 Equivalent loading due to profiled tendon: (a) equivalent forces in span AB.
This bridge is long and narrow so it can be idealised by two beam members as illustrated in Fig.7 Application of moment distribution to grillages
A great many bridges are analysed by computer using the grillage analogy. The result is illustrated in Fig.52(c). Similarly.1P and the intensity of loading is.56(b).56(b). In most practical grillages. Hence. the intensity is.08. is 1.52(c) is factored by this amount and added to Fig. the 1 P 1 slope is 0. wCD =wAB=0. x=0 and the slope becomes − 0.
. 3. The torsional rigidity.56(c). 3. significant vertical translational displacements occur at the joints. 3. Step 3: To remove the moment discontinuity of 0. vertical loading induces torsion as will be demonstrated in this example.56(b). which is illustrated in Fig.08P.00833Pl in Fig. In this chapter.2P/l. by symmetry. wBC=0. In this method. Thus. Fig. As there is a support there already. it is not necessary to provide a vertical translational fixity.12 and the vertical component of prestress is 0. As there is no further discontinuity. moment distribution is applicable to the analysis of grillages but is tedious to apply for most examples.57(b). this is the final BMD due to prestress in this beam. Example 3. The beam is analysed for this loading using moment distribution. The obvious difference is that typical prestress loading is in the opposite direction to loading due to self weight. EI. They are both equal to 0. the continuous bridge slab is represented by a mesh of discrete beams.
3.56(a) and the associated BMD (Appendix A) is given in Fig.2P/l. GJ. The bridge is subjected to uniform vertical loading of intensity. coincidentally. 3. 3. From Fig.57(a). In CD.Page 111
At A. only those grillages are considered in which there is no such joint displacement. 3.16:Torsion due to vertical loading When bridges are curved or crooked in plan. Step 1: The two members are isolated from each other by the fixing of point B. the vertical components can be found similarly.55(b). the complete equivalent loading due to prestress is as illustrated in Fig. As a result. 3.15 serves to illustrate that the effect of profiled prestressing tendons can be quite similar to the effect of self weight in that it applies a uniform loading throughout the beam. 3. equilibrium of vertical forces requires a uniform loading of intensity:
In BC.5 times the flexural rigidity. 3.12P. 3.55(a) it can be seen that the vertical component of the prestressing force at A is P sin θ≈ tan θ=0. 3. described in detail in Chapters 5 and 6.14 and illustrated in Fig. Example 3. at x=l. w. Step 1: The symmetrical system of fixities is illustrated in Fig. Step 2: The BMD associated with simultaneous rotations at B and C is identical to that derived for Example 3.
58(a).57(c) (rotation about two axes). there is a 1/√ discontinuity in torsion of wl2/(8√ 2). 3. However. At B. the BMD for the two beams are illustrated in Fig. the BMDs for each of these beams is about the axis of that beam so the discontinuity of moment at B is not apparent from the diagram. This is done in Fig. 3. two rotational fixities are required in orthogonal directions as illustrated in Fig. (c) plan view of system of fixities. Vertical loading on AB in the fixed structure is applied to a beam which is fixed at one end. 3. (b) plan view of idealisation.57(d).293wl2 /8. In plan.58(b) and it can be seen that there is a discontinuity of moment at B of (1− 2)wl2/8=0.Page 112
Fig. the bending moment diagram is as illustrated (in elevation) in Fig. (d) elevation of applied loading and resulting BMD in AB while fixed. 3. The double headed arrows indicate rotational fixities where the positive direction is clockwise when looking in the direction of the arrow. From Appendix A. In addition.57 Analysis of crooked bridge: (a) plan view of geometry.57(e). (e) plan view of fixed BMD
However. 3. there is a transition between bending moment and torsion in the members. it needs to be resolved into components parallel and perpendicular to AB. Step 2: The second step in moment distribution is to find the bending moment and torsion diagrams due to unit rotation at each of the points of fixity. 3. In order to compare this moment to that just left of B. A unit rotation is first applied
. The internal bending moment at the left end of BC is wl 2/8 as illustrated in Fig.
60(b). 3. (b) resolution of end moment in BC parallel and perpendicular to AB
in Direction 1 (Fig.Page 113
Fig.60(c).59(b).59(c) can be seen when the moments are resolved in Fig. the rotation at the joint must be resolved into components as illustrated in Fig. Hence the BMD due to unit rotation at B is as illustrated in Fig.59(d). 3.57(c)). is illustrated in Fig. 3. As there is no resistance to twisting at C. 3. Applying a unit rotation in Direction 2 (Fig. The
.60(a) and it can be seen that it generates no torsion and the BMD illustrated in Fig.59(e). 3. To determine the effect on member BC. The discontinuity parallel to Direction 2 at B is GJ/l+3EI/2l=3EI/l. 3. 3. dividing by this value gives the normalised version illustrated in Fig. 3. Unit rotation at the end of AB results in the deformed shape and BMD illustrated in elevation in Fig. the discontinuities in the fixed bending moment and torsion diagrams are removed by scaling and adding the diagrams derived in Step 2. the application of a twist of 1/√ at B does 2 not generate any torsion in BC. The discontinuity of moment at the joint can be seen by resolving the internal moments and torsions in Fig. 3. It is (3+3/2)EI/l=9EI/2l. it is necessary to resolve the rotation into components parallel and perpendicular to that member as illustrated in Fig. the normalised version of Fig. 3. 3. normalised for moment. 3.58 Plan views showing internal moment: (a) end moment in BC.59(c).59(d). Step 3: In the third step.60(d). In BC. 3.59(a).57(c)) generates no bending but a torsion of GJ/l in AB. The discontinuity of moment at B in the BMD of Fig. 3.
61(a).59 Effect of rotation in direction 1 at B: (a) elevation of AB showing imposed unit rotation and associated BMD. 3.61(d). 3.293wl2 /8. 3. 3. 3.59(e) scaled by minus this value gives the moments and torsions illustrated in Fig.58(b) is (1− 2)wl2/8=0.60(d) to give the diagram illustrated in Fig. While the discontinuity parallel to Direction 1 (Fig.57(c)) has now been removed at B. Adding the BMD 1/√ of Fig.
.61(e) and (f). there is still a discontinuity parallel to Direction 2 of 0. 3. 3. (b) resolution of rotation parallel and perpendicular to BC. scaled by minus this value to give the diagram illustrated in Fig. This is removed by adding the diagram of Fig. The corresponding bending moment and torsion diagrams are illustrated in Figs. 3. (d) free body diagram showing lack of equilibrium of moments at B. The new discontinuity now introduced parallel to Direction 1 is removed by adding a diagram proportional to Fig. (e) normalised free body diagram
discontinuity in the fixed BMD of Fig.Page 114
Fig. 3. 3.805wl2/8.61(b).60(d).59(e) to give Fig. 3.61(c) and the discontinuity in that is removed by adding a diagram parallel to Fig. 3. (c) BMD due to unit rotation.
(d) normalised free body diagram
. (c) free body diagram showing lack of equilibrium of moments at B.60 Effect of rotation in direction 2 at B: (a) resolution of rotations parallel and perpendicular to BC. 3.Page 115
Fig. (b) BMD due to unit rotation.
(b) after correction of moments in direction 2. (c) plan view of idealisation
. (c) after second correction in direction 1.62(a) and (b) is long relative to its width and can be modelled using a single longitudinal member and a pair of outriggers at the ends as
Fig.61 Successive corrections to internal moments and torsions: (a) after correction of moments in direction 1. 3.62 Long skewed bridge: (a) plan view. 3. the process must be continued until no discontinuity remains. 3.17: Torsion due to skew supports The skewed bridge illustrated in Figs. (f) final torsion diagram
Step 4: To get an exact answer. (e) final BMD. (d) after second correction in direction 2. (b) cross-section.Page 116
(c) fixed BMD.
Fig. 3.8.6 and torsional rigidities of (GJ)ABC =(GJ)DEF=2. it is necessary to fix against vertical translation and against rotation about both axes.62(c). total fixity must be imposed at B and E.63 First step in analysis by moment distribution: (a) complete system of fixities with two rotations and one translation. (EI)BE=3.0. (d) free body diagram showing lack of moment equilibrium in fixed structure
. The symmetry of the system is exploited recognising that the three fixities at B are identical to the corresponding fixities at E. 3.e. The circles in this figure indicate translational fixities with a direction of positive upwards. (GJ)BE =4. This is represented diagrammatically in Fig. This deck has flexural rigidities of (EI)ABC = (EI) DEF=0. 3. i.0.Page 117
illustrated in Fig. It is subjected to vertical uniform loading of intensity w. Step 1: To isolate the members from one another. (b) simplified system of fixities.63(a).
3. Applying a unit rotation to ABC and DEF about their own axes requires no moment as no torsional resistance would be offered by the bearings. There is no torsion in the bridge in its fixed state. BE is fixed at each end and the BMD (Appendix A) is as illustrated in Fig. This can be seen by resolving the unit rotation into directions parallel and perpendicular to the member as illustrated in Fig.63(b). 3. As the two bearings are relatively close together (i. The member must also undergo bending in order to rotate at each /l end through cos θThe elevation showing the . The required twist of one end relative to the other is 2 sin θ the torsion required to generate such a twist (Appendix B) is (2 . Therefore it is sufficient to fix the bridge as illustrated in Fig. By the same token.64(a). 12<<l 1). but unnecessary in practice. Step 2: The second step consists of applying a rotation at B and E. 3. 3. (b) elevation showing moments required to induce rotations in BE. to rotate member BE in Direction 1 requires it to be rotated and twisted. The discontinuity of moment parallel to the direction of fixity is found by resolving the moment reaction of wl2/12 parallel to the direction of fixity as illustrated in Fig. In the fixed structure.Page 118
The system of fixities illustrated is adequate.63(c).64 Effect of rotations at B and E: (a) plan showing resolution of rotations into components parallel and perpendicular to BE.
Fig. the rotation in Direction 2 will be small. However. The discontinuity is (wl 2/12) cos θ there is a moment of this amount to the right of as B and zero moment/ torsion on the other side of it.e. the vertical deflection at B and E will be relatively small and can be neglected. sin θ )(GJ)BE/l1=8 sin θ 1. (c) BMD associated with unit rotations at B and E
. as to apply a unit rotation there would require a moment that is very large.63(d). 3.
3. /l The internal moments and torsions at B and E are illustrated in Fig.63(d). 3.
Fig. results in the internal moments and torsions illustrated in Fig. . The resulting diagram is illustrated in Fig.Page 119
required deflected shape is illustrated in Fig. 3.64(c). 3. 3. (b) normalised free body diagram
. the discontinuity in moment parallel to Direction 1 in the fixed structure is (wl2/12) cos θThis is removed by adding Fig. Thus.65 Internal moments associated with rotations at B and E: (a) free body diagram with resolution of moments parallel and perpendicular to direction of fixity. 3.66(a).65(a). Resolving parallel to the direction of fixity gives the discontinuity of moment corresponding to unit rotation:
Normalising with respect to this discontinuity.64(b). 3. Step 3: As stated in Step 1 and illustrated in Fig.65(b) scaled by that amount.65(b). last BMD) is illustrated in Fig. the corresponding BMD (Appendix B. 3. to apply a unit rotation in the direction of fixity generates this BMD plus a distribution of constant torsion throughout member BE of magnitude 8 sin θ1 .
Fig. 3.66 Corrected internal moments: (a) free body diagram showing moments after correction for discontinuity at B and E; (b) plan showing final BMD; (c) plan showing final torsion diagram
There is no discontinuity remaining in this diagram as the torsion and moment components are in equilibrium. Hence, no further distribution of moment is required. The final moment and torsion diagrams are illustrated in Figs. 3.66(b) and (c) respectively. It can be seen in Example 3.17 that the skew supports have the effect of introducing a small hogging moment at the ends of the bridge. If the skew, θwere zero, the bridge would in , effect be simply supported and the moment would be positive everywhere (sagging). On the other hand, if the skew were very large, the end hogging moment would be correspondingly large approaching a maximum of wl2/12. The skew also has the effect of introducing a significant distribution of torsion into the bridge.
Chapter 4 Integral bridges
Integral bridges are those where the superstructure and substructures are continuous or integral with each other. While the concept is well established, many bridges built in the 1960s and 1970s were articulated with expansion joints and bearings to separate the superstructure from the substructure and the surrounding soil. In the 1980s and 1990s, many of these required rehabilitation due to serviceability problems associated with the joints. As a result, integral construction has recently received a great deal of attention and this form is likely to become much more widespread in the future. In the UK in particular, designers are now required to consider the use of the integral form for most shorter bridges (up to 60 m span and 30° skew).
4.1.1 Integral construction
There are many variations on the basic integral bridge. In the bridge of Fig. 4.1(a), the deck is composed of separate precast beams in each span. While in the past such a deck might have had a joint over the central support, a more durable form of construction is to make it continuous over the support using in-situ concrete, as illustrated. A bridge is shown in Fig. 4.1(b) in which the deck is continuous over the internal support and integral with the abutments at the ends. Figure 4.1 (c) illustrates another variation; this bridge is integral with both the abutments and the intermediate pier. While there are considerable durability advantages in removing joints and bearings, their removal does affect the bridge behaviour. Specifically, expansion and contraction of the deck is restrained with the result that additional stresses are induced which must be resisted by the bridge structure. The most obvious cause of expansion or contraction in bridges of all forms is temperature change but other
Fig. 4.1 Integral bridges: (a) precast beams made integral over the interior support; (b) deck continuous over interior support and integral with abutments; (c) deck integral with abutments and pier
causes exist, such as shrinkage in concrete bridges. In prestressed concrete decks, elastic shortening and creep also occur. A simple integral bridge is illustrated in Fig. 4.2(a). If the bases of the abutments are not free to slide, deck contraction induces the deformed shape illustrated in Fig. 4.2(b) and the bending moment diagram of Fig. 4.2(c). Partial sliding restraint at the bases of the abutments results in the deformed shape of Fig. 4.2(d) and a bending moment diagram which is similar in shape to that of Fig. 4.2(c), but of a different magnitude. Time-dependent contractions in concrete bridge decks induce bending moments in integral bridges. While the magnitude of creep contraction is time dependent, creep also has the effect of relieving the induced bending moments over time. The net effect of this is that moments induced by creep contraction are small. Shrinkage strain increases with time but the resulting moments are also reduced by creep. Elastic shortening occurs in post-tensioned prestressed concrete decks during the application of prestress. If the deck is integral with the supports at the time of stressing, bending moments are induced. On the other hand, many integral bridges are constructed from precast pretensioned beams and the bridge is not made integral until after the pretensioning process is complete. In such cases, no bending moments are induced by the elastic shortening. Temperature changes are another major source of deck expansion and contraction. Temperature can be viewed as having a seasonal and hence long-term component as well as a daily or short-term component. The resistance of an integral bridge to movement of any type depends largely on the form of construction of the substructures. Three alternative forms are illustrated in Fig. 4.3. In each case, a run-on slab is shown behind the abutment. These are commonly placed over the transition zone between the bridge and the
Fig. 4.2 Frame bridge subject to contraction: (a) geometry; (b) deformed shape if bases are restrained against sliding; (c) bending moment diagram if bases are restrained against sliding; (d) deformed shape if bases are partially restrained against sliding
adjacent soil which generally consists of granular backfill material. Figures 4.3(a) and (b) show two bridges which are integral with high supporting abutments and piled foundations. In such a case, a reduction in lateral restraint can be achieved by using driven H-section piles with their weaker axes orientated appropriately. An alternative form of integral construction is one in which abutments sit on strip foundations like the small bank seat abutment illustrated in Fig. 4.3(c). Minimising the sliding resistance at the base of these foundations helps to reduce the lateral restraint. Care should be taken in the design to ensure that bank seats have sufficient weight to avoid uplift from applied loads in other spans.
Fig. 4.3 Ends of integral bridges: (a) deep vertical abutment; (b) deep inclined abutment; (c) bank seat abutment
4.1.2 Lateral earth pressures on abutments
The lateral earth pressures (σ that the abutments of integral bridges should be designed for h) are those that take place during the maximum expansion of the bridge deck combined with any additional surcharge. The expansion has the effect of pushing the abutment laterally into the backfill. The resulting earth pressures developed on the abutment are dependent on the stiffness and strength of the backfill and on the amount of movement of the abutment. The maximum lateral earth pressure that can be sustained by the backfill is termed the passive pressure (σ ) which, for dry backfill at a depth z and no surcharge at ground level, is hp given by the expression: (4.1) where K p is the coefficient of passive pressure and γ is the unit weight of the backfill. The soil coefficient Kp may be estimated from Fig. 4.4 for a given angle of internal friction of the backfill and a given ratio, where δis the angle of interface friction between the a abutment and backfill. One design approach would be to use equation (4.1) directly to determine the maximum lateral pressure distribution on the abutment. This approach, however, is generally overly conservative as abutment movements are usually significantly less than those required to generate passive pressures. The preferred approach is one
It follows that lateral pressures may be related approximately to the average displacement of the abutment over the retained height (δ ). or to a wall translation of Hret /20. A third (and commonly used) approach relates the pressure distribution on the abutment to the degree of mobilisation of its maximum (or passive) lateral capacity.Page 125
Fig.2) where (4.4)
(4. av Expressions for σ emerging from this rationale are given below. Hret/10.3) and (4. 4. (4.5) It will be seen later that the actual thermal expansion in integral bridge decks is closely comparable to that which occurs in a similar unrestrained deck (as the
. This method is based on experimental observations which indicate that movements to develop full passive pressures typically correspond to an abutment rotation equal to one-tenth of the retained height of soil. Such an approach is described later in this chapter. these are in keeping with the h general guidelines set out in BA42/96 (1996).4 Coefficients of passive earth pressure (horizontal component) for horizontal retained surface (after Caquot and Kersiel (1948))
involving an appropriate soil/structure interaction analysis which takes due account of the stiffness of the soil.
The peak angle of friction of the fill is 45° and its dry density is 1900 kg/m3.5) when the depth exceeds approximately 1.3) gives:
. therefore. for a bridge deck of length L which experiences an increase in temperature of Δ δ may be calculated T. Example 4.Page 126 restraint offered by typical abutments and backfill is relatively small). av as: (4.7):
Figure 4. As Hret=6 m and δ <Hret/20.2 Hret . For most cases.7) is the assumption that a bank seat experiences a lateral translation while a deeper abutment bends and rotates about a point just below the ground level on its inner face.7) where α the coefficient of thermal expansion of the deck.6)
(4.4 indicates that Kp=17. is Implicit in equations (4. For the latter case. Assume α the deck is 12×10− per °C and for From equation (4. it is reasonable to assume that horizontal stress acting on both sides of the abutment are given by equation (4. it is necessary to quantify
.1. Therefore.5 for equation (4. av
The unit weight of the soil (γ ) is soil
Therefore for z<6 m (Hret ):
4.3 Stiffness of soil
The longitudinal expansion of integral bridge decks is resisted not just by the abutment supports but also by the backfill soil behind the abutments and the natural/imported soil beneath them.1: Determination of design abutment earth pressures A 50 m long integral bridge has deep wall abutments which retain 6 m of well compacted granular fill. The design extreme event for the determination of maximum abutment pressures is a 40° 6 increase in temperature.6) and (4.
000 05 6 (50×10− ) and it is therefore common to refer to a secant modulus defined as the ratio of stress to current strain. the level of confining stress and the loading history.Page 127 the restraint provided by the soil.65) (after Lehane et al. which is related to the void ratio. by the expression: d (4. ρ.9) where Gs is the specific gravity of the soil particles (typically 2. e is the void ratio of the soil. A typical approximate relationship has been proposed by Lehane et al. a higher soil stiffness will lead to higher axial forces and bending moments in the deck due to its longitudinal expansion or contraction. The stress-strain relationship for soil is non-linear at strains in excess of about 0. (1996))
. The degree of compaction of backfill on site is often specified in terms of the dry density. used as a reference stress and γ the shear strain which is taken to lie within the is 6 range 50×10 − to 0. This can only be achieved with a knowledge of the appropriate soil stiffness parameters.8) where E s is the secant Young’s modulus in kN/m2. 4. The design stiffness used for the calculation of such forces and moments should therefore be a maximum credible value. (1996): (4. p' is the mean confining stress less the pore water pressure in the soil. patm is the atmospheric pressure (100 kN/m 2).5 Secant Young’s modulus for granular soil (assuming Gs=2. e. The value of the secant modulus at a given strain for a typical cohesionless soil (such as the granular type generally used for backfill) depends primarily on its density (or void ratio).01.65) and ρ is the w
Guidance on appropriate values for ρ p' and γ specific cases is given in subsequent for d.5 for a range of in-situ dry densities (ρ).1 Contraction of bridge fully fixed at the supports
The case is first considered of an integral bridge in which no translational movement can occur at the base of the abutments. sections.8) ).Page 128 density of water. is plotted in Fig. and shear strains (γ Equation (4. d or Fig. These conditions are applicable if the abutment foundations are cast in very dense soil or rock. derived using equation (4. (b) bending moment diagram from example 3. This means that. in an analysis to determine the effects of elastic shortening. specification of the dry density effectively dictates the void ratio.
Fig. the principal uncertainty relates to the resistance to movement at the bases of the piers and abutments.
4.8). The secant Young’s modulus.6 Contraction of frame rigidly fixed at supports: (a) geometry. Thus. e.
4. 4. 4.2 Contraction of bridge deck
There is generally a lesser height of soil in front of bridge abutments than behind them. the resistance provided by such soil to the contraction of a bridge deck is usually small.5
.5 can be used to estimate the secant Young’s modulus for cohesionless soil. 4. mean confining stresses (p'). an analysis of this type is often used as a first step to determine a limit on the stresses induced by deck contraction when the supports are partially fixed. As a result. However.2. and/or shrinkage. creep.
embedded to a depth of between 0.8) assuming a p' value equivalent to the foundation bearing pressure and a shear strain (γof 0. In that case.6(b).0 m below the ground level on the inside of the abutment as illustrated in Fig.2 Contraction of bridge on flexible supports
Most bridges are constructed on supports which have some degree of flexibility. 3. Quantification of the pile resistance is beyond the scope of this text and interested readers are referred to books such as that of Tomlinson (1994). )
.10): (4. Abutments and piers are generally either supported on foundations bearing directly on the ground below or on pile caps underlain by piles. the resistance of the abutments to movement was considerably less than the axial stiffness of the deck (Fig.0 m below the ground level are given in equation (4. The end result for that example was a relatively small axial tension in the deck.5). k hori and krot are the stiffnesses per metre length of strip foundation for vertical. due to the integral nature of the bridge. The axial contraction induced bending in the abutments and.6(a) was considered in Chapter 3 for an axial contraction due to temperature of 20° in the deck (ABC) (Example 3. bending in the deck also. The complete bending moment diagram is illustrated in Fig. upper bound estimates of the secant Young’s modulus of elasticity.5–1.
4. If the ends of the deck were fully prevented from contracting.5 m and 1. some movement of the deck was possible through bending in the abutments. However. Design spring stiffnesses on the inside of the abutment for a strip foundation of width B. that resists bridge contraction. 4. and a relatively large contraction.7. the decrease in temperature would generate a large tensile force in the deck and there would be no contraction. 4. The soil around the strip foundation can be idealised by a number of linear elastic springs. only 5% of the potential level.Page 129 The bridge illustrated in Fig. Strip foundations or pile caps are commonly founded at around 0.10)
where kvert. the bridge was fully restrained at the base of each abutment and pier. Es. horizontal and rotational displacement respectively. Expressions for the stiffness of such springs have been deduced here from relationships provided by Dobry and Gazetas (1986) for an elastic soil. It is this small depth of soil.001. there was a much greater tendency for the temperature decrease to cause the abutments to bend than to cause an axial stress in the deck. together with sliding resistance at the base of the pad. Thus. However. Conservative. 4.2.20(c) shows that only 7% of the potential force is applied to the abutments). may be calculated using equation (4.
Inverting equation (4.65. gives a void ratio of:
. (b) deep abutment
Example 4. ρ.2: Contraction for shallow strip foundation
6 The bridge illustrated in Fig.8 is subjected to a shrinkage strain of 200×10− .9) and assuming Gs=2. The foundation is assumed to be working under a bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 and the breadth of the strip foundation is 2.7 End of integral bridge showing shallow depth of soil on inside: (a) bank seat. d of 1900 kg/m 3. It is required to determine the distribution of bending moment and axial force generated in the deck given that the Young’s modulus for the concrete is 30×10 6 kN/m2. 4. 4.5 m. The degree of compaction has been controlled by specifying a dry density of backfill.Page 130
2: (a) elevation.Page 131
Fig.8) then gives:
Equation (4.10) then gives spring stiffnesses per metre run for the supports of:
6 The equivalent load for a shrinkage strain of 200×10− is the product of the strain. (b) detail at abutment
Substituting in equation (4. the modulus of elasticity of concrete and the cross-sectional area (per metre run):
.8 Bridge of Example 4. 4.
2: (a) equivalent loading and springs.
Fig. 4. (d) corrected axial force diagram
. 4.Page 132
The equivalent loads and the associated axial force diagram are illustrated in Fig. (c) bending moment diagram.10 Analysis results: (a) deflected shape. Subtracting the associated axial force diagram gives the actual distribution of axial force generated by the shrinkage. axial force and bending moment diagrams illustrated in Fig.10(a)–(c). 4. No adjustment is necessary for the deflected shape or bending moment diagram. 4. (b) axial force diagram from computer analysis.9. The frame was analysed using a standard analysis package which gave the deflected shape. 4. (b) associated axial force diagram
Fig. illustrated in Fig.9 Computer model for bridge of Example 4.10(d).
4. The horizontal stresses acting on an abutment following cyclic expansions and contractions of the deck remain approximately constant to depths of up to 6 m and typically have magnitudes of between 25 kN/m2 and 50 kN/m 2 (depending on the type of compaction plant used). 3. However. to tend to an equilibrium density compatible with the strain amplitude that it is regularly subjected to. 2.3 mm does generate distributions of stress in the frame. will be affected significantly by the properties of the soil behind the abutments. To adopt a single soil /H.2 is interesting in that it gives an indication of the magnitude of bending moments and axial forces that can be generated by a restrained shrinkage. This observation suggests that the use of a constant soil stiffness value with depth (for a given strain) is reasonably realistic. The stiffness of the soil is influenced by the shear strain in the backfill. Such a model is imperfect as it does not allow for shear transfer within the soil as there is no interaction between the
. Nonlinear elastic finite-element analyses by Springman et al. Assuming uncracked conditions. However the restraint which prevents the remaining 0. this corresponds to a maximum flexural stress of 2. The maximum shear strain induced in the backfill as the deck pushes out the abutment a distance δ is approximately 2δ where H is the height of the retained fill. the bending moment at the ends are more significant at 568 kNm. for example. an average shear strain must be assumed.Page 133 Example 4.3 N/mm 2. The average shear strain in the backfill must be less than 2δ and could conservatively be assumed as about 2δ /H /3H. with time. stiffness value. Thus. Some notable features have been observed from experimental studies by Springman et al. There is some evidence to suggest that the granular backfill at this stage will have increased in density by a maximum of about 20% from its as-placed density for loose fills and by a maximum of about 10% for well compacted fills. The axial tension is relatively small at 337 kN corresponding to a stress in the deck of less than 0.7).3 Conventional spring model for deck expansion
Soil generally provides considerably more resistance to deck expansion than contraction as abutments are generally backfilled up to the level of the underside of the run-on slab (Fig. Out of a total potential 6 shortening of 6 mm (200×10− ×30000 mm) at each end. (1996) support the validity of this assumption.4 N/mm 2.
4. (1996). The conventional spring model represents the backfill soil and soil beneath the abutment by a series of spring supports. and others: 1. the stresses generated by an increase in deck temperature. 5.7 mm is predicted to actually occur. The selection of a suitable soil stiffness value (Es) is essential for appropriate modelling of the backfill. Cyclic variations in temperature (and associated expansions and contractions of the deck) cause the backfill to compact and.
assuming linear elasticity. The resulting distribution of bending moment is required given that the culvert is made from concrete with an elastic modulus of 28×106 kN/m 2 and a coefficient of thermal expansion of 6 12×10− per °C. 4. L: (4.e. An approximate expression.3
. It is assumed that the density of the backfill reaches an equilibrium value 20% in excess of that specified. It does. has been specified as 1600 kg/m 3. The dry density of the backfill. ρ.:
Inverting equation (4.11) The application of equation (4. The d piles are assumed to provide insignificant lateral restraint to the deck. i. 4. gives a void ratio of:
Example 4. however.Page 134 springs. of the backfill behind an abutment of depth H and transverse length.11) is illustrated in the following example.9) and assuming Gs=2.11 Culvert of Example 4.3: Conventional spring model The culvert illustrated in Fig.11 is subjected to an increase in temperature of 20 °C. have the advantage of simplicity and is considered here because it remains a popular approach among bridge engineers. has been developed for the horizontal spring stiffness per square metre.
4.e. The equivalent loading is:
and the associated distribution of axial force is illustrated in Fig.Page 135
To estimate the average shear strain induced in the backfill. The bending
. i.12(b). the expansion of the culvert is estimated as its unrestrained value. the coefficient of thermal expansion and the distance of the abutment from the stationary point (the centre of the culvert):
In accordance with Note 3 above. 4.8) gives:
The horizontal spring stiffness is then given by equation (4. the product of the temperature increase. the average shear strain in the affected backfill is then:
On the basis of Note 2.11):
The model for a 1 m strip of the frame is then as illustrated in Fig.12(a). Then equation (4. a horizontal stress of p'=50 kN/m2 is assumed.
13. The deflection found from the computer analysis was 1. 4.
. As there was no associated distribution of bending moment. this is the final distribution of moment due to the expansion.12 Computer model for culvert of Example 4.3
moment diagram was found from a computer analysis and is illustrated in Fig. iteration was not considered necessary.3: (a) springs and equivalent loads.19 mm. 4.Page 136
Fig. The moment in the abutments can be seen to change sign through its length due to the flexible nature of the horizontal support.13 Bending moment diagram for Example 4. 4.20 mm assumed in the estimation of shear strain. As this is similar in magnitude to the deflection of 1. (b) associated axial force diagram
4. base sliding or slip on the abutment stem were not permitted).e. provide details concerning the distribution of moment in the abutment or the pressure distribution in the soil. The purpose of the analyses was to provide credible upper bound estimates of soil resistance. 4.3.1 Development of general expression
Lehane (1999) determined the forces and moments associated with lateral displacement and rotation of the top of an abutment with retained backfill.Page 137
4. described in Section 4. However. This method does not. The approach used to derive the spring constants represented the soil as a complete mesh of finite elements rather than a series of springs and is therefore considered theoretically more sound than the conventional spring model. (b) unit rotation
. i.g. 4.14 Stiffness components at top of abutment: (a) unit translation. and (ii) a rotation θ with zero horizontal displacement (Fig. however.14). no passive failure or abutment lifting were allowed) and that no slip between the abutment and the soil occurred (e. He conducted a series of finite-element analyses which involved the application at the top of the abutment of (i) a horizontal displacement δ with zero rotation. the forces and moments associated with passive movements which occur as a consequence of deck expansion. It was therefore assumed conservatively that the soil had limitless compressive and tensile strength (e.4 Modelling expansion with an equivalent spring at deck level
An alternative to the conventional spring model is presented here which has a number of advantages over the traditional approach. given that relatively small movements are required to reduce pressures to their minimum (active) values on the inner face of the abutment. the analyses assumed that any soil present on this side did not contribute to the resistance. This technique consists of modelling both the abutment and the surrounding soil with an equivalent lateral and rotational spring at deck level.4.
14). 4.14) for r>0. 4.05 1.13) where f 1 and f 2 are functions of the ratio. defined as: (4.14)
Fig.1 Range of parameters used in derivation of equation (4. Best-fit expressions were obtained for Fh and M for the range of parameter values given in Table 4.14) B (m) (Fig. r. (4.14)
. H/B which are given by equation (4.5×106 >0. 4.5− 12 0. 4.13)
Es(kN/m2 ) EI a(kNm /m)
2 3 r=Es/EIa(m− )
10000− 500000 1.15 End part of frame bridge showing locations and directions of fixity Table 4.Page 138 It was found that the flexural rigidity of the abutment (EIa ) and the ratio.05 3 m −.1.5–3.0×104− 2.5
H (m) (Fig. The values of Fh and M were also seen to increase systematically as the base width (B) increased and its height (H) reduced. They are given here in matrix form: (4. All values in this stiffness matrix can be reduced by 15% if friction between the abutment and soil is considered negligible.12) were the most important factors controlling the magnitudes of the lateral force (Fh) and moment (M) at the top of the abutment (Fig.
equation (4.17) where Heq and Ieq are the equivalent abutment height and second moment of area respectively. Alternatively.15) becomes: (4.15.1. the terms involving Ia and H are replaced with terms from equation (4.16)
A comparison of equations (4.Page 139 For the range of parameters listed in Table 4. the stiffness matrix.13) with the result that equation (4.16). This could readily be achieved in computer analysis programs by allowing the appropriate stiffness terms to be changed in the program to those given in equation (4.15)
where A d.15 is used. 4. second column) terms in equations (4.13) was found to predict values of F h and M to within 10% of the values given by the finite element analyses. equating the K12 (and K21) terms gives: (4. in the absence of soil.16) shows that the influence of soil can be taken into account by analysing a model of a form similar to that illustrated in Fig. When the bridge is embedded in soil and this is taken into account. is: (4. Similarly.15) and (4. it is possible to allow for soil in a conventional structural analysis program through the use of an equivalent abutment second moment of area and height and the addition of a horizontal (translational) spring at X. 4. span length and second moment of area of the deck respectively. When a frame bridge with an abutment height of H is fixed rigidly at the supports and the system of fixities illustrated in Fig.18)
. Ld and Id are the cross-sectional area.15) and (4. gives: (4. [K]. Equating the K22 (second row.16).
19) The equivalent abutment height is then: (4.Page 140 Equations (4.40 respectively.23) Finally.4.2 Expansion of frames with deep abutments
The equivalent single-spring model can be simplified for the case of deep abutments.24) These equations can be used to estimate the properties of an equivalent frame for an integral bridge with deep abutments.17) and (4. For values of (H/B) in excess of 10.20) To make the first terms (K11) equal requires a further adjustment which can be achieved by the addition of a linear horizontal spring at X of stiffness: (4.21)
4.20) gives an equivalent height of: (4.18) can be simultaneously satisfied by selecting an equivalent abutment second moment of area equal to: (4. substituting for f 1 and f2 in equation (4.33 and 0. As a result. the parameters f1 and f2 approach their minimum values of 0. the equivalent abutment second moment of area can be set equal to the actual second moment of area without great loss of accuracy: (4.22) Substituting for f 2 in equation (4.21) gives a spring stiffness of: (4.
The equivalent frame and loading are illustrated in Fig. is:
Fig. as for Example 4.4
. 4. 4.4: Equivalent single-spring model for frame with deep abutments The equivalent single-spring model is used to determine the maximum moment in the culvert illustrated in Fig.23):
The stiffness of the single spring on each side is given by equation (4.11 due to a temperature increase of 20°.12) is then:
The equivalent height of abutment is then.16 Computer model for bridge of Example 4.3 to be:
and the second moment of area of a 1 m strip of the abutment is:
The ratio defined by equation (4. The concrete has an elastic 6 modulus of 28×106 kN/m 2 and a coefficient of thermal expansion of 12×10− per °C. from equation (4. The magnitude of the equivalent loads. The elastic modulus of the soil is found as for Example 4. The dry density of the backfill has been specified as 1600 kg/m 3.16.Page 141
Example 4. 4.3.
18.17. 87 kNm.3. In Figure 4. is likely to be more reliable than the value found in Example 4.14) would suggest.14) imply that an abutment provides a greater resistance to deck expansion if it has a lesser depth of embedment (H).18. It is therefore recommended that this equation be used in preliminary analysis and that a finite-
. This implication arises because of the assumption that the soil is an elastic material with infinite strength and that no sliding along the abutment base can take place. of course. the deflections per unit load can be seen to be significantly greater. is that shallow abutments are more likely to slide than deep ones and will therefore offer less restraint to deck expansion than equations (4. It is not possible to generalise the observations made from calculations such as those summarised in this figure other than to say that the restraint provided by bank seats will be less than that predicted by equation (4. . In the example of Fig.13).12(b).3 Expansion of bank seat abutments
Equations (4.4. 4. the function is.
4. On the other hand. it can be seen that the effective lateral stiffness for a movement at the top of the abutment of 10 mm is only about half that of the purely elastic case. The model was analysed using a standard computer program and the resulting bending moment diagram is illustrated in Fig.13) and (4.4
The associated axial force diagram is as illustrated in Fig.Page 142
Fig. 4. the magnitude of moment in the deck. the true shape of this distribution will be similar to that given in Fig. of course. When the soil is linear elastic and infinitely strong. 4. It is important to remember that the distribution of moment in the abutment is not realistic.18(b). with a finite strength defined by its friction angle.13) and (4. Effective rotational stiffnesses at this lateral movement are about 75% of the purely elastic case. 4. 4. linear. However. Similar results can be shown for moment/rotation functions and for force/rotation and moment/deflection functions. predictions from finite-element analyses are presented of a horizontal force/deflection relationship.13. The reality. 4.17 Bending moment diagram from computer analysis of bridge of Example 4. when the soil is treated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. The influence of a limited soil strength on the resistance offered by a bank seat is illustrated in Fig.
. Ec=30×10 6 kN/m2 . 4.5: Equivalent single-spring model of bank seat The equivalent single-spring model is used to determine the maximum moment in the culvert illustrated in Fig. r=0.12) is then. soil friction angle. foundation bearing pressure= 200 kN/m2.31.18 Finite-element analysis results for bank seat abutment (E s= 100000 kN/m 2.3 but using the smaller abutment height.
Example 4. The elastic modulus for the soil is found in the same manner as for Example 4.018 m4.19 due to a temperature increase of 20°C. The concrete has an 6 elastic modulus of 28×106 kN/m 2 and a coefficient of thermal expansion of 12×10−/°C. The 3 dry density of the backfill has been specified as 1600 kg/m . The ratio defined by equation (4. (b) horizontal force/displacement relationship ): (a)
element soil/structure analysis incorporating a realistic constitutive model for the soil is performed if the effects of deck expansion have a significant influence on the final bridge design.Page 143
Fig. 4. section through bank seat.
and the second moment of area of a 1 m strip of the abutment is Ia =0.
The equivalent abutment second moment of area is given by equation (4.5/3=0.5
For this example.Page 144
Fig. 4. the ratio of embedment depth to foundation breadth. from equation (4.19):
The equivalent height is then calculated directly from equation (4. is 2. the spring stiffness is. H/B. f1 and f2 are calculated from equation (4.19 Bridge of Example 4.21):
4. Preventing relative horizontal translation is not so simple.
4.3 and 4. The effect of such a slab is to allow relative rotation between the deck and the run-on slab while preventing relative translation. In effect. The magnitude of the equivalent loads.5 Run-on slab
It has been seen in this chapter that soil provides some restraint against deck movement in integral bridges but that most of the movement still takes place. 4. the bridge still expands and contracts relative to the surrounding soil and the incorporation of a run-on slab does not prevent this. The maximum magnitude of moment in the deck due to the expansion is 114 kNm.5
The equivalent frame and loading are illustrated in Fig. it transfers the relative horizontal movement from the end of the deck to the end of
Fig.21 Bending moment diagram from computer analysis of bridge of Example 4.20 Computer model for bridge of Example 4. On a road bridge. Preventing relative vertical translation significantly improves the rideability for vehicles travelling over the bridge.20. Clearly. 4.4.21.Page 145
Fig. 4. This is achieved in many cases by the installation of a run-on slab as illustrated in Fig.18 that this result is quite conservative. this must be accommodated if premature deterioration of the pavement is to be avoided. It is clear from Fig. as for Examples 4.22. 4. is:
This model was analysed and the bending moment diagram is illustrated in Fig. 4.
Analytical prediction of the shapes and magnitudes of settlement troughs is. Such straining is imposed on the backfill by the abutment which moves in response to thermal movements of the deck. This approach is widely adopted as the failure of a joint at the end of a run-on slab is a minor maintenance problem whereas a leaking joint at the end of a deck can result in deterioration of the bridge itself. after many cycles of imposed lateral movement δδ varies . Settlement profiles may be approximated as having a triangular shape varying from a maximum settlement (δ ) at the abutment to zero at a distance Lt from it. Settlement troughs arise because of the tendency for cohesionless backfill. This is because existing models which attempt to simulate the soil’s response to a complex history of cyclic straining are very approximate. 4. to contract and increase in density in response to cyclic straining. max between about 10δ 20δ well-compacted fill for both deep abutments and bank seats.
. whatever its density. Both analytical and model test studies have shown that the surface settlement trough tends to an equilibrium profile after a large number of cyclic abutment movements of the same magnitude. could be assumed to vary approximately with the height of the retained fill (H). difficult to use and require measurement of a large range of representative geotechnical parameters from cyclic laboratory tests. Run-on slabs are designed to span the settlement troughs that develop behind the abutments of integral bridges. for a given movement of the top of the abutment. The extent of the settlement trough is also controlled by the amount of backfill subjected to cyclic abutment movements and therefore. not commonly attempted by bridge designers. (1996) that. An asphaltic plug joint positioned at the juncture between the run-on slab and the bridge approach road is commonly used to facilitate horizontal movements. and in The assessment of the required length of the run-on slab relies on observations of measured behaviour and engineering judgement. however. Much larger settlements occur in initially loose backfills where considerable volumetric contractions take place before an ‘equilibrium’ density is attained. It has been shown max by Springman et al.Page 146
Fig.22 Run-on slab
the run-on slab.
23 Composite integral bridge made from precast and in-situ concrete: (a) elevation.1(2.Page 147
Table 4. When the in-situ concrete
4.2.25 m. (1996) suggest that the length of the trough (Lt ) is unlikely to exceed the limits given in Table 4. 4. the precast beams are simply supported and the self weight of the bridge induces a sagging moment. 4.4H 2. As the backfill is loosely compacted (density= 1600 kg/m3) and the abutments are not deep. 4.2 Approximate upper limits on expected trough lengths
Granular fill Well compacted
Deep abutments Bank seats 0.9H
1.23. As an example.6H 0.5 (Fig.1H
These observations and those taken during centrifuge model tests by Springman et al. as illustrated in Fig.6 Time-dependent effects in composite integral bridges
Many integral bridges are constructed using a combination of precast prestressed beams and in-situ concrete such as illustrated in Fig.24(a). When the in-situ concrete is cast.2. the run-on slab should have a length of at least 2. Hence. (b) section A—A
.5)=5.19) is calculated. the length of run-on slab required for the bridge of Example 4. 4. a maximum trough length of 2.1H can be assumed from Table 4.
24(b)). (c) due to self weight plus traffic loading ((a) plus (b))
Fig. 4. However. 4. 4. Near the supports. the bridge acts as a frame and imposed traffic loading generates sagging near the centres of the spans and hogging over the supports (Fig. 4. making it very difficult to prevent tension in the beams. Further. This can be quite difficult at points such as A in the figure as these same pretensioned beams must be designed to resist substantial sagging moment near mid-span. Non-prestressed reinforcement is generally provided at the top of the deck over the supports to resist the hogging moment as illustrated in Fig. 4. The net result is substantial sagging near the centres of the spans and some hogging over the supports (Fig.25 Detail near support of composite integral bridge
.Page 148 subsequently sets. The problem can be countered by the debonding of strands near the ends to prevent the prestress force from acting there. the hogging prestress moment combines with hogging due to applied loading.25) to ensure a hogging prestress moment. current UK practice is to design to ensure no tensile stress whatsoever in the prestressed beams. The resultant prestress force is therefore designed to be below the centroid near mid-span (Fig.24 Bending moment diagrams due to short-term loading: (a) due to self weight.24(c)).
Fig. this can be quite uneconomical in its use of prestressing strand.25 and it is often necessary to provide great quantities of closely spaced bars to prevent excessive cracking. (b) due to imposed traffic loading. 4.
e: (a) complete prestress force applied at ends.27 Effects of prestress on composite integral frame: (a) equivalent prestress loading and bending moment diagram at time of transfer of prestress. P.26 Equivalent loading due to a prestress force. The equivalent loading due to prestressing strands below the beams’ centroid is illustrated in
Fig. 4. 4. (b) debonding near ends of beam
Fig. i. (c) total bending moment diagram due to prestress
. at a mean eccentricity. the period immediately following the construction of the bridge.Page 149 All of the above effects occur in the short term. (b) equivalent prestress loading and bending moment diagram due to creep strains after frame is made integral. the distributions of bending moment change due to creep in the prestressed beams.e. In the long term.
This phenomenon is particularly significant if the bridge is made integral when the precast concrete is young as this causes most of the creep strain to occur when it is in the integral form.28 Detail at support showing points where long-term cracking is likely to occur
Fig. 4. Clark and Sugie (1997) carried out a parametric study of the time-dependent effects in composite integral bridges. When prestress is first applied below the centroid. For smaller beams. the beams hog upwards as illustrated in Fig. 4. As they are simply supported.26(a).28.
.27(c).27(b). In a study of continuous bridges made integral at the interior supports. They suggest that there is little point in trying to determine the distribution of bending moment that develops in the long term as there are few creep/shrinkage computer models that give consistently reliable results. these hogging strains increase with time.27(a). particularly at the interface between the precast and insitu concretes. 4. 4. Due to creep. 4.26(b)).Page 150
Fig. The long-term result is a distribution of prestress moment such as that illustrated in Fig. They propose the assumption of a sagging moment of 750 kNm (per beam) for spans in the 20–36 m range where the beams are 1100 mm deep or greater. When the bridge is made integral. they calculated the maximum longterm sagging moment for beams made integral when between 21 and 100 days old. It can result in cracking at the bottom of the deck over the supports as illustrated in Fig. 4. the equivalent moments at the ends are less but a further increment of equivalent moment is applied at the points where debonding ceases (Fig. they suggest designing for a moment of 600 kNm. If some strands are debonded. further curvature is resisted and the resulting distribution of moment is as illustrated in Fig. such curvature is unrestrained so it results in instantaneous strain and a moment which is the simple product of prestress force and eccentricity. 4.
Chapter 5 Slab bridge decks—behaviour and modelling
5. but is generally impractical. Orthotropy represents the most general material behaviour usually considered for bridge decks. except that bending takes place in two mutually perpendicular directions in the plane of the plate. To understand the basis of such programs and their limitations.1 Introduction
The development of a closed-form solution for bridge slabs under the action of applied load is achievable for a limited number of cases. in a similar way to beams.1 Orthotropic and isotropic plates
A material in which the behaviour in each direction is independent of the others is referred to as anisotropic.
5. A subset of anisotropic materials are orthotropic materials in which the behaviour varies in mutually perpendicular directions (X and Y) only. Thick plates correspond to deep beams and are not considered here. it is necessary to first consider the theory of bending of plates.2 Thin-plate theory
Slabs used in the construction of bridge decks are generally thin relative to their span lengths. A further subset of orthotropic materials are isotropic
. slabs can readily be idealised using one of a number of well-proven methods and analysed using structural analysis programs. Fortunately.2. Thin plates get their strength from bending. Such slabs can be assumed to behave like thin plates which can be thought of as the twodimensional equivalent of beams.
the theory of materially orthotropic thin plates is developed.1 shows a portion of a thin plate in the X− plane. at which point. the points a.2. such as timber. a distance δ from a.
Hence the length of a'b' projected onto the X axis is:
.2 Bending of materially orthotropic thin plates
Figure 5. 5. Considering point b.3.
5. will be u plus the change in u over the distance δ i.: x. δ In this figure the thickness of the plate is taken to be d. 5. equations are derived assuming the plate to have a uniform depth but they are subsequently extended to decks which have different second moments of area in orthogonal directions. Z c and d shown in Fig. Figure 5. but the same geometric properties. This type of plate is not typical of that found in bridge decks but is frequently used as an approximation of actual conditions.e. it is common practise to extend it to include geometric orthotropy. While the theory is strictly only applicable to cases of material orthotropy. such as reinforced concrete slabs with significantly different amounts of reinforcement in the two directions or voided slabs.Page 152 materials in which the behaviour in all directions is the same. Considering initially the X− plane. Many bridge slabs possess different second moments of area in two directions.2 shows a small segment of plate with dimensions δ y and a cube of material in that segment a distance z above the origin which x×δ has a height of. the x displacement at that point in the X direction. The origin of the axis system is at Y mid-depth in the plate. c' and d' as illustrated in Fig. When a load is z. b.b'. In the following sections. Such a plate might be constructed of a material where the microstructure is orientated in two mutually perpendicular directions. A materially (or naturally) orthotropic plate is composed of a homogeneous material which has different elastic properties in two orthogonal directions. The displacement of point a in the X direction is denoted u. These types of slab are referred to as geometrically (or technically) orthotropic. This implies that the plate has a uniform thickness and hence the same second moment of area in both directions but different moduli of elasticity. Although this type of material is rarely found in bridge construction. the cube both moves and distorts.2 move to a'. applied. Thus. isotropic plate theory can be used with reasonable accuracy for the analysis of many bridges. z=0.
2 Segment of thin plate and elemental cube of material
. 5.Page 153
Fig.1 Portion of thin plate and co-ordinate axis system
3 Distortion of cube of material in X. it can be shown that: (5.2) and: (5.3)
. the strain in the X direction is: (5. 5.Page 154
Similarly. if v and w are the displacements in the Y and Z directions respectively.Z plane
there are two components.e.6) In thin-plate theory.Page 155 The shear strain in the X− plane is defined as the change in the angle. a number of assumptions are made to simplify the mathematics involved.7) This implies that w is independent of z. i. The first of these assumptions is that there is no strain in the Z direction. this reduces to: u/∂
The other component of strain can be found similarly to be:
Hence the shear strain is: (5. the difference between c'a'b' and cab. The physical meaning is
(5. α and βReferring to the figure: . or that w is a function of x and y only. . As can be seen in Fig. i.
As ∂ x is small.: (5. 5.3. Figure 5.e.4 illustrates the implications of this assumption.4)
Similarly the shear strains in the X− and Y− planes are respectively: Y Z (5. cab from the original Z 90°.
i. bridge slabs being relatively thin. and although shear strains are small. In other words.
. Clearly this is a simplification but the strains in the Z direction are generally so small that they have negligible effect on the overall behaviour of the bridge slab. the depth of the slab remains unchanged throughout. This assumption is again a simplification of the true behaviour. 5. Notwithstanding this. 5. Such a method is presented later in this section.: (5.4 Segment of plate showing uniformity of distortion in Z direction
that there is no compression or extension of the bridge slab in a direction perpendicular to its plane.5 where it can be seen that the 90° angle of cab is preserved in the distorted c'a'b'.Page 156
Fig. and all points deflect vertically by exactly the same amount as the points directly above and below them. a means for determining shear stresses will be required.e.8)
(5. concrete bridge slabs do not have great shear strength.9) The consequences of this are shown in Fig. their behaviour is dominated by bending rather than shear deformation. The second assumption which is made is that the deflection of the plate is caused by bending alone and that shear distortion makes no significant contribution. but is justified by the fact that.
10) where C is a constant of integration. Hence. Substituting this into equation (5.8) gives:
As w is independent of z.Page 157
Fig. at z=0. 5.10) implies that the constant C is zero giving: (5.11)
. As the origin is located at the centre of the plate and bending is assumed to occur about that point. u and v are both zero. this implies: (5.5 Segment of plate in X− plane showing assumed lack of shear distortion Z
Rearranging equation (5. there is no displacement in either the X or Y directions at z=0.
12) Substituting equations (5.15) In the flexural theory of beams.11) and (5.9).16)
(5.14) Similarly equation (5.5) gives: (5. a similar expression can be derived for v: (5.18) Substituting equations (5.19)
(5. In thin-plate theory.18) into equations (5.13)
(5. the curvature is defined as:
where κ the curvature and R is the radius of curvature. Y and XY directions which are given by: (5. the equations is are similar.16)–(5. but there are now curvatures in the X.12) into equations (5.17)
(5.1) and (5.13)–(5.Page 158 By rearranging equation (5.3) respectively gives: (5.20) (5.21)
.15) respectively then gives: (5.
In the three-dimensional case.22)
Fig.6 (a) shows a onedimensional bar subjected to a tensile force. Equation (5. . (b) three-dimensional body showing the effect of stress in the axial direction on strains in the orthogonal directions
. Expressions are now developed for the corresponding stresses.
5.19) shows that strain in the X direction is a linear function of z. σand modulus of . 5. Figure 5. This is generally a reasonable assumption for slab bridge decks. εis related to the stress. expressions were established for the various strains in a thin plate.2. The only significant strain in this system is in a direction parallel to the axis of the bar.6 Distortion in one. E. but some cases do exist where this is not so. Such cases are discussed further in Chapter 7. By defining the X axis as the direction of the applied force.20) shows that the same applies to the strain in the x x Y direction. From this. as is generally assumed in beam theory.Page 159 Examination of equation (5.6(b). strains in the other two directions become significant. as 2 κ=∂w/∂2 is independent of z. as is indicated in Fig.3 Stress in materially orthotropic thin plates
In the previous section. This strain. the strain in that direction is given by: (5. it follows that plane sections remain plane.and three-dimensions: (a) one-dimensional bar. elasticity.
each other. y z made of a homogenous material and that the elastic constants (Ex.Page 160 where E x.22) can be ignored.) are independent of x.22) assumes that the plate is x. ν etc.23)
(5. An expression for strain in the X direction for the case of an orthotropic material with the elastic constants varying in the X and Y directions is then given by:
and likewise the strain in the Y direction is given by:
In matrix format this becomes:
and by rearranging and inverting the matrix we get:
which yields expressions for the stresses as follows: (5. as is appropriate for the materially orthotropic (or anisotropic) case. For a thin plate in bending. Consequently the last term of equation (5. and ν νand νare the corresponding Poisson’s ratios.24)
. Equation (5. the stress in the Z direction is small and the Poisson’s ratio is generally small for bridge deck materials. E y and Ez are the moduli of elasticity in the X. Y and Z directions respectively.
Page 161 The shear modulus, Gxy, is defined as the ratio of shear stress, gives: to shear strain, γ, which xy
(5.25) Substituting equations (5.19)–(5.21) into equations (5.23)–(5.25) respectively gives expressions for the stresses in terms of curvature: (5.26)
5.2.4 Moments in materially orthotropic thin plates
Figure 5.7 shows a small cube taken from a thin plate with the associated normal stresses σ, x σ and σand shear stresses. It is well established that, to satisfy y z
Fig. 5.7 Elemental cube of material showing normal and shear stresses
Page 162 equilibrium, pairs of shear stresses must be equal as follows: (5.29)
Considering the normal stresses first, Fig. 5.8(a) shows a vertical line of cubes (such as that of Fig. 5.7) through the depth of the plate in the X− plane. Each of these cubes is subjected to a Z normal stress in the X direction as indicated in the figure. When there are no in-plane forces in a bridge deck, the sum of the forces in these cubes is zero. As each cube is of the same surface area, it follows that:
However, there is a bending moment caused by these stresses. The term mx is used to represent the moment per unit breadth due to the σ stresses, summed through the depth of the x deck. Figure 5.8(b) shows the depths of the cubes δ and their distances from the origin, z1, z2, z z3, etc. Each cube has a width perpendicular to the page of δ (not shown in the figure). The y forces F 1, F2, F 3, etc., due to each of the stresses are also shown. The ith cube contributes a component of hogging bending moment of magnitude (σδ y)zi. Taking sagging moment as xi zδ positive and summing over the depth of the plate gives: (5.30)
Substituting equation (5.26) into equation (5.30) gives:
which gives: (5.31)
Fig. 5.8 Vertical line of elemental cubes through the depth of a plate: (a) stresses on each cube; (b) forces on the cubes and distances from the origin
Page 164 Applying a similar method it can be shown that the stress σcauses a moment per unit breadth y my which is given by: (5.32) The second moment of area per unit breadth of the plate, i is defined by: (5.33) Therefore equations (5.31) and (5.32) can be rewritten in terms of the second moment of area as follows: (5.34)
(5.35) It is important to remember that mx is the moment per unit breadth on a face perpendicular to the X axis and not about the X axis, i.e. in a reinforced concrete deck it is the moment which would be resisted by reinforcement parallel to the X axis. Likewise, my is the moment per unit breadth on a face perpendicular to the Y axis. Referring to Fig. 5.7, it can be seen that the shear stresses result in forces parallel to the Y axis which will also cause a moment. The moment per unit breadth due to is termed mxy. Figure 5.9 shows a number of cubes through the depth of the plate in the Y− plane. The shear Z force on the face of each cube is given by:
and the moment per unit breadth due to this force is given by:
Taking anti-clockwise as positive on the +X face, the total moment per unit breadth due to is given by: (5.36) Substituting equation (5.28) into equation (5.36) gives:
Fig. 5.9 Stack of elemental cubes in the Y− plane showing shear stresses Z
which gives: (5.37)
Similarly the moment per unit length, myx, caused by
(on the Y face) can be shown to be: (5.38)
(5.39) However, as indicated in equation (5.29), equilibrium requires comparison of equations (5.36) and (5.38) yields: and to be equal and
(5.40) It follows from the definition of curvature (equation (5.18)) that the two twisting curvatures are the same: (5.41) so there is no contradiction between equations (5.37) and (5.39). These equations can be rewritten as: (5.42)
10 Bending and twisting moments in a plate: (a) segment of plate and directions of moments. 5. (b) associated distortions
there are two shear forces at each point.
. In thin-plate theory. Defining qx and qy as the downward shear forces per unit breadth on the positive X and Y faces respectively then gives: (5.7.e. The moment and shear force at the left end are M and Q respectively and at the right end are M+dM and Q+dQ respectively.11 shows a segment of a beam of length dx in bending.2. the same phenomenon exists and an expression is found from equilibrium of forces on a segment.9)) that shear deformations in the plate were negligible.43) The moment mxy (=myx ) is often referred to as a twisting moment and is distinct from the normal moments mx and my . Figure 5. shear stresses. while numerically small. 5. Unlike beams.10(a) shows the direction in which each of these moments acts while Fig. 5.46) i. Taking moments about the left hand end gives:
Rearranging and ignoring the term.Page 167 where j is known as the torsional constant and is given by: (5.45) It was assumed earlier (equations (5.44) and: (5. a similar expression can be derived. dQdx which is relatively small.8) and (5. can be significant. However.5 Shear in thin plates
Vertical shear forces occur in bridge decks due to the shear stresses.
5. gives an expression for the shear force Q: (5. In the simple flexural theory of beams.10(b) shows the type of deformation associated with each of them. and illustrated in Fig. one for each direction (X and Y). Figure 5. This is a reasonable assumption as shear deformation is generally small in bridge slabs relative to bending deformation. the shear force is the derivative of the moment. particularly in concrete slabs which are quite weak in shear.
Fig. 5.11 Equilibrium of small segment of beam
A small element from the plate of base dimensions dx×dy is shown in Fig. 5.12, with varying bending moment and shear force. The terms qx and qy refer to shear forces per unit breadth while mx, my and mxy refer to moments per unit breadth. This is different from the beam example above where Q and M referred to total shear force and total moment. Taking moments about the line a–b (Fig. 5.12) gives:
where F z is the body force acting on the segment of slab (for example, gravity). Dividing across by dx dy gives:
where f z is the body force per unit area. The second and third terms of this equation represent very small quantities and can be ignored giving: (5.47) By taking moments about the line b–c (Fig. 5.12), an equation for qy can be derived in a similar manner: (5.48) It can be seen that the expressions for the shear forces per unit breadth (equations (5.47) and (5.48)) are of a similar form to that for a beam (equation (5.46)) except for the addition of the last term involving the derivative of mxy or myx.
Fig. 5.12 Equilibrium of small segment of slab
5.3 Grillage analysis of slab decks
The idea of grillage analysis has been around for some time but the method only became practical with the increased availability of computers in the 1960s. Although computational power has increased many-fold since then, the method is still widely used for bridge deck analysis. Some of the benefits that have been quoted are that grillage analysis is inexpensive and easy to use and comprehend. These benefits traditionally favoured the method over finiteelement analysis which was typically only used for the most complex problems. In today’s environment of inexpensive, high-powered computers coupled with elaborate analysis programs and user-friendly graphical interfaces, the finite-element method has begun to replace the grillage method in many instances, even for more straightforward bridge decks. That said, the grillage method has proved to be a versatile tool for the analysis of many bridges and benefits from numerous favourable comparisons with experiments such as those of West (1973). The plane grillage method involves the modelling of a bridge slab as a skeletal structure made up of a mesh of beams lying in one plane. Fig. 5.13(a) shows a simple slab bridge deck supported on a number of discrete bearings at each end and Fig. 5.13(b) shows an equivalent grillage mesh. Each grillage member represents a portion of the slab, with the longitudinal beams representing the longitudinal
Fig. 5.13 Grillage idealisation of a slab: (a) original slab; (b) corresponding grillage mesh
Page 171 stiffness of that part of the slab and the transverse grillage members representing the transverse stiffness. In this way, the total stiffness of any portion of the slab is represented by two grillage members. The grillage mesh and individual beam properties are chosen with reference to the part of the slab which they represent. The aim is that deflections, moments and shears be identical in both the slab and the grillage model. As the grillage is only an approximation, this will never be achieved exactly. Clearly different levels of accuracy are acceptable for different applications. For example, a crude representation might be sufficient at the preliminary design stages.
5.3.1 Similitude between grillage and bridge slab
It is necessary to achieve correspondence or similitude between the grillage model and the corresponding bridge slab. A point p is illustrated in Fig. 5.13 corresponding to the junction of longitudinal beams b1 and b2 and transverse beams b3 and b4. Figure 5.14 shows an enlarged view of the junction along with the forces and moments acting on beams b1 and b3 in the grillage. The forces and moments have not been shown on beams b2 and b4 for clarity. The moments at the ends of beams b1 and b2 adjacent to p in the grillage give a measure of the moment mx in the slab while the moments at the ends of beams b3 and
Fig. 5.14 Segment of grillage mesh showing forces and moments on members b1 and b3
Page 172 b4 give a measure of the moment my . The moments in the grillage members are total moments while those which are required in the slab are moments per unit breadth. Therefore, it is necessary to divide the grillage member moments by the breadth of slab represented by each. This breadth is indicated in Fig. 5.13 as sx and sy for the longitudinal and transverse beams respectively. Unfortunately, in the grillage, the moments at the ends of beams b1 and b2 adjacent to p are generally not equal, nor are those in beams b3 and b4. For a fine grillage mesh, the difference is generally small, and it is sufficiently accurate to take the average moment at the ends of the beams meeting at the junction. The magnitude of this difference is often used as a check on the accuracy of the grillage, but it should be borne in mind that a small inequality does not necessarily mean an accurate grillage, as other factors may be involved. The moments per unit breadth in the slab at point p are therefore obtained from the grillage using the following equations, with reference to Figs. 5.13 and 5.14:
or: (5.49) Similarly: (5.50) The moments at any other point in the slab can be found in a similar way. If the point is not at the intersection of longitudinal and transverse grillage members, it is necessary to interpolate between adjacent beams. Care should be taken while doing this, especially if a coarse grillage mesh is used. Some computer programs carry out this interpolation automatically, in which case it is necessary to confirm that the program has interpolated the results in a sensible manner. It is often more convenient to start by considering the locations at which moments will be required and to formulate the grillage mesh in such a way as to avoid the need for interpolation between beams. The twisting moments per unit breadth in the slab, mxy and myx, are found from the torques in the grillage members in a similar manner. These moments at point p (again with reference to Figs. 5.13 and 5.14) are given by: (5.51) and: (5.52)
namely. 5.46). E the modulus of elasticity and R the radius of curvature. This may be quite unsatisfactory. This technique is discussed further in the next section.48 gave expressions for the shear forces per unit breadth in the slab. (Figs.14. Examining. Therefore the twisting moment in the slab is arrived at by averaging the torques per unit breadth in all four beams meeting at the point p. However.13 and 5.3.55) where M is the moment. The situation can be improved by choosing torsion constants for the longitudinal and transverse beams which promote similar levels of torque per unit breadth in both. qx and qy. unless myx is particularly large.14) these are given by: (5. The shear forces per unit breadth in the slab. This could be calculated in the grillage by finding the derivative of the torques in b3 and b4 with respect to y. particularly for orthotropic plates with significantly different flexural stiffnesses in the two directions.Page 173 Equation (5. 5. but there is no account taken in the grillage analysis of the second term.56) where i is the second moment of area per unit breadth. the derivative of myx with respect to y. the moment per and unit breadth. are found from the shear forces in the grillage members in a similar manner to the moments.47 and 5.
5.54) Equations 5. the shear force Vb1 in Fig.
. This accounts for the first term of equation (5.2 Grillage member properties—isotropic slabs
A grillage member in bending behaves according to the well-known flexure formula: (5. At point p. but the torques in grillage members b1 and b2 will not necessarily be equal to the torques in b3 and b4. for example. this is not normally done as the resulting inaccuracy in the shear forces tends to be small. m is found: (5. it can be seen that this shear force will be equal to the derivative of the moment Mb1 with respect to x as this beam will comply with equation (5.40) stated that mxy and myx are equal for materially orthotropic plates.47). I the second moment of area. By substituting the curvature 1/R with κ rearranging. as large variations of torque may exist between the longitudinal and transverse beams.53) and: (5.
Page 174 Equation (5. This can be justified by the fact that Poisson’s ratio is small. T is the torque. The moment/curvature relationship then becomes: (5.2 for concrete). if this approximation is applied to both mx and my. The displacement in the Z direction is given by w and the angle x of twist over the length δ is given by: x
Hence: (5. A grillage member in torsion behaves according to the well known equation: (5. it is common practice to ignore the second term in this equation. is relatively small in bridge slabs (approximately 0. Venant constant).57) To achieve similitude of moments between a slab and the corresponding grillage. As it is the relative values of stiffness that affect the calculated bending moments and shear forces. giving:
A further simplification is made by equating the term below the line to unity. the stiffness terms of equations (5.58) where is the angle of twist. This can clearly be achieved by adopting the same elastic modulus and second moment of area per unit breadth in the grillage as that of the slab. G is the shear modulus and J is the torsion constant (St. Figure 5. such an adjustment has very little effect on the final results. there is only one value for E and νSubstituting E for Ex and ν .34) gives an expression for the moment per unit breadth in the X direction in the slab.59)
. Further. For an isotropic slab. for νand νin that equation gives: x y
As Poisson’s ratio. v.57) must be equated. l is the length of the beam.56) and (5.15 shows a portion of a beam of length δ in torsion. they are both affected by the same amount.
15 gives: (5. 5.60) into equation (5.58) to the beam of Fig.61) gives: (5.15 Segment of beam subjected to torsion
Substituting equation (5.18) into equation (5.62)
.60) Applying equation (5.59) gives: (5.61)
Substituting equation (5.Page 175
it will not generally be necessary to specify Gxy for the grillage model.65) where d is the slab depth.42) gives an expression for the twisting moment per unit breadth in the bridge slab: (5. in the grillage members.67) Typically. The behaviour of a grillage member is essentially one dimensional and consequently its shear modulus can be derived from the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio directly using the wellknown relationship: (5. Torsion in beams is complicated by torsional warping (in all but circular sections) and formulas have been developed to determine an equivalent torsional constant for non-rectangular sections such that equation (5. they will not necessarily have the same total torsional constant as they may represent different breadths of slab if the grillage member spacing in the longitudinal and transverse directions differ.66) Although equations (5.65) and (5. Equating this to jgril gives: (5. t: (5. The preceding derivation of grillage member torsional properties is applicable to thin plates of rectangular cross-section where equation (5.43) for the torsional constant is valid. The torsion constant for the grillage member can alternatively be expressed in terms of the slab second moment of area: (5. Equation (5. Equation (5. Equation (5. the stiffness terms of equations (5.43) gives an expression for the torsion constant of the slab. mxy. this is carried out automatically by the grillage program. This can clearly be achieved by adopting the same shear modulus and torsion constant in the grillage member as is in the slab.64) To achieve similitude of moments.Page 176 This can be rewritten in terms of torque per unit breadth.63) where j gril is the torsion constant per unit breadth in the grillage member.
.65) ensures that the grillage members in both directions will have the same torsional constant per unit breadth.58) can be applied.63) and (5. in the slab and torques. However. t.66) are based on the grillage member having the same shear modulus as the slab.64) must be equated.
69) In the slab. Further. many bridges are geometrically orthotropic. only). the second moments of area per unit breadth for the grillage and the slab are equated.68) It can be seen that equation (5. It has been recommended that the edge grillage members be placed at 0.
5.68) predicts a torsion constant for the beam which is twice that predicted by equation (5.16 shows a portion of a beam of breadth b and depth d in torsion.3 Grillage member properties—geometrically orthotropic slabs
Equation (5.3.3 times the slab depth from the edge so as to coincide with the resultant of the shear stresses.17. The torque in the beam results from both of these shear stresses and is given by: (5.e. Consequently the torsion constant for a grillage member representing a portion of an isotropic slab is only half that of a regular beam (or a grillage member representing a regular beam). most bridges have the same modulus of elasticity. This is achieved in a grillage by basing the second moment of area per unit breadth of the grillage members in the X direction on that of the slab in that direction. equation (5. It is common practise to use the equations developed for materially orthotropic thin plates to represent geometrically orthotropic bridges. the torsional constant may be approximated with: (5. applies to materially orthotropic slabs:
However. The shear stresses set up in the beam are shown. reproduced here. 5.36) shows that the moment mxy is arrived at by summing only the shear stresses in the horizontal direction (i.e. they have different second moments of area per unit breadth in the orthogonal directions. for both directions. in the Y direction. i. Similarly. The reason for this lies in the definition of torsion in a beam and of moment mxy in a slab.
.Page 177 For rectangular beams with depth d and a breadth of greater than 10d. in both the horizontal and vertical directions.34). The vertical shear stresses are accounted for in the grillage in the same manner by the shear forces qy in the transverse beams. the shear stresses in the vertical direction are accounted for by the shear force per unit breadth. E.66) for isotropic slabs. In the slab. Figure 5. qx as illustrated in Fig.
Further.41).40) stated that the two twisting moments at a point in a materially orthotropic slab are equal to each other.Page 178
Fig. the two twisting curvatures are the same.16 Beam subjected to torsion showing resulting shear stresses
Equation (5. curvatures in the orthogonal directions at a point will be approximately equal. it follows from equation (5. Then. If it is assumed that the same conditions hold for geometrically orthotropic slabs.
.42). i. 5.e. as stated in equation (5. However.:
There is no facility in a grillage model to ensure that the two curvatures at a point are equal. if the same shear modulus and torsional constant are used in the two directions. in a fine grillage mesh.
νIt is generally calculated internally in computer programs using .17 Slab with vertical shear stresses and corresponding grillage members with shear forces per unit breadth
reproduced and adapted here as equation (5. is a function of the elastic modulus. The shear modulus for a slab made from one material. G.70) Hambly (1991) recommends using such a single torsional constant for both orthogonal directions: (5. equation (5.66) for an isotropic slab.71) It can be seen that this equation is consistent with equation (5.4 Computer implementation of grillages
There are many computer programs commercially available which are capable of
Fig. E. 5.67).70). and Poisson’s ratio. that the twisting moments are equal: (5.
inplane axial forces are not modelled by the grillage. The nodes are therefore said to have three degrees of freedom. the product of which gives the shear area. to locate nodes at the centres of the bearings or supports. some grillage programs do allow for shear deformation. These nodal supports may be rigid.5 Sources of inaccuracy in grillage models
It should always be borne in mind that the grillage analogy is only an approximation of the real bridge slab. Some grillage programs allow. There is no facility for the nodes to deflect in either of the inplane directions or to rotate about an axis perpendicular to the plane. when formulating the grillage. the definition of a cross-sectional area for the beams. it should improve the accuracy of the results if it is allowed for in the computer model. The points at which these beams are connected are referred to as nodes. These programs are generally based on the same theory.3. this approximation may be quite inaccurate. Where the grillage is formulated without regard to the nature of the bridge slab. These facilities may be used to model the soil/structure interaction as discussed in Chapter 4. Most grillage programs will allow the use of spring supports. care should be taken to ensure that the self weight is not applied twice by applying it to both the longitudinal and transverse beams. allowing no displacement or rotation in either of the two directions. or may allow one or more of these degrees of freedom. However. In such cases.Page 180 analysing grillages. two rotations and one translation. This inhibits the calculation of in-plane effects such as axial thermal expansion or contraction or in-plane prestressing. but when used correctly it will accurately predict the true behaviour. Some programs which allow the modelling of shear deformation will only give results of shear stresses when this option is invoked. or require. Some programs also use the cross-sectional area definition to model shear deformation.2 assumed that there was no shear deformation. Grillage programs model the supports to the bridge slab as restraints at various nodes. some inherent inaccuracies exist in the grillage. Consequently. This may be used to define the bridge self weight. It therefore makes sense. and the imposition of specific support settlements. While shear deformation is generally not very significant in typical bridges. This is generally achieved by defining a cross-sectional area and a shear factor.
5. with some variations from program to program. Each node has the capability to deflect vertically out-of-plane or to rotate about each axis of the plane. It has been pointed out that the moments in two longitudinal or two transverse grillage members meeting end to end at a node will not necessarily be equal. Such effects are normally determined separately (often by hand due to their simplicity) and added to results from the grillage. that of the stiffness method. The discontinuity between moments will be balanced by a discontinuity of torques in the beams in the opposite direction to preserve moment equilibrium at
. a number of which are described here. Even though the thin plate behaviour considered in Section 5. The computer implementation of a plane grillage consists of defining a mesh of interconnected beams lying in one plane. according to the principle of superposition. even if due care is taken.
The opposite of this is not necessarily true. Equation (5. and requires the addition of more beams. corresponds to the discontinuity between the moments Mb1 and Mb2 in the longitudinal beams. When deriving the properties of a grillage member parallel to the X axis. excessively large discontinuities in moments.57)). such as where two longitudinal beams along the edge of a grillage meet only one transverse beam. which should be treated in the same manner. the effect of curvature in the Y direction was ignored (see equation (5.34) gave an expression for moment per unit breadth. 5. Torsions per unit breadth of similar magnitude in both directions in a grillage can be promoted by choosing the same torsional constant per unit breadth for the longitudinal and transverse beams. Where only three beams meet at a node. As a result of this. The magnitude of these discontinuities can be reduced by choosing a finer grillage mesh. As was mentioned earlier. 5. This potential inconsistency is reduced by the low Poisson’s ratio of bridge slab materials which limits the influence of curvatures in one direction on moments in the orthogonal direction. Equation (5. This is illustrated in Fig. The required moment is arrived at by averaging the moments on either side of the node. as are the corresponding curvatures in the two directions. However. in the slab. the curvatures in the grillage members in one direction do not effect the moments in the beams in the other direction in the same manner as they do in the bridge slab.
Fig. A similar simplification was made for my .40) stated that the moments mxy and myx are equal in a slab. having no other transverse beam to balance it. as other factors may also have an effect. mx.18 Distribution of bending moment in a segment of grillage mesh showing discontinuity in moment (T b3=Mb1− b2 ) M
.Page 181 the node. The same phenomenon causes discontinuities in torques and shears. significant differences can remain. torques or shears indicate a grillage mesh which is too coarse.18 where it can be seen that the torque T in the transverse beam. this discontinuity will be exaggerated. There is no mathematical or physical principle in the grillage to make this so. This expression involved terms accounting for the curvature in the X and Y directions.
O’Brien (1997) found that the grillage member spacing had a much reduced influence on the results for shear at distances of more than a deck depth from the support. then grillage member spacing would assume a much reduced importance. Thus the designer would design for the shear force calculated at a deck depth from the support. These should not be viewed as absolute. except for bridges with high skew. such as those relating to voided or skewed bridge decks. mxy or myx. If it were assumed that shear enhancement was sufficient to cater for local concentrations of shear near a support. Each grillage member represents a strip of slab with the result that a point support at a node in a grillage model has an effective finite breadth. The first of these equates the shear force per unit breadth qx to the sum of two derivatives:
In the grillage. the magnitude of these moments is generally relatively small. and should be used in the context of good engineering judgement.7 Recommendations for grillage modelling
It is difficult to make specific recommendations on the use of a technique such as grillage modelling.
5.Page 182 Equations (5. qx and qy . the grillage member spacing has to be fixed near the support so that it gives the correct result. if the grillage mesh density increases. whichever direction the beam lies in. if reasonably accurate results are to be obtained.3. This direct relationship between mesh density and the calculated maximum shear intensity means that. When bridges are supported at discrete intervals. which is applicable to such a wide variety of structural forms. However. There is no account taken of the derivative of the twisting moments. Greater shear forces at points closer to the support would be ignored on the basis that load would be carried by direct compression rather than shear mechanisms. Some more specific recommendations. the effective breadth decreases and the calculated concentration of shear adjacent to the support increases. It will be seen from the recommendations given here that the traditional need for economy in the
. the shear force in a longitudinal or transverse beam will simply be the derivative of the moment in that beam with respect to X or Y.47) and (5. are given in Chapter 6. some general recommendations are valid for most grillage models.3.6 Shear force near point supports
There is a particular problem in using grillage models to determine the intensity of shear force (shear force per unit breadth) near a discrete bearing. there are sharp concentrations of shear intensity near each support.48) provide expressions for the shear forces per unit breadth. Fortunately. It follows that.
Lines of strength may consist of concentrations of reinforcement. significantly greater spacings are often possible without great loss of accuracy. 3. no additional accuracy will be achieved. should these exist. particularly in wide bridge slabs. there is no advantage in providing excessive numbers of grillage members as the amount of output data will be excessive. Transverse beams should have a spacing which is similar to that of the longitudinal beams. should be avoided if possible.19(a). (b) non-constant mesh spacing
. 1. as the computational power available to today’s engineers is well in excess of that available when earlier recommendations were made. Longitudinal grillage members should be provided along lines of strength in the bridge slab. beyond a certain point. A choice of between one and three times the longitudinal spacing would be reasonable. The transverse grillage members
Fig. or precast beams in beam-and-slab bridges. 2. The procedure of moving nodes locally to coincide with supports. However. location of prestressing tendons. as the magnitude of moment in the transverse beams is generally relatively small. and. 5. illustrated in Fig.Page 183 numbers of grillage members no longer applies.19 Alternative grillage meshes near point supports: (a) local adjustment to mesh near supports to maintain constant spacing of members elsewhere. 5. as this may result in skewed members which complicate the interpretation of results. Spacing will often be dictated by the location of supports or lines of strength in the bridge slab. Where possible. grillage members should be located such that nodes coincide with the locations of supports to the bridge slab. Nonetheless. 4. A reasonable spacing of longitudinal beams is between one and three times the slab depth. There is little point in having longitudinal beams too closely spaced. Often this spacing will be greater than that of the longitudinal beams.
e. 6. so that the span length between supports in the grillage and the bridge slab are the same.3d from the end. Supports to the grillage should be chosen to closely resemble those of the bridge slab.3d from the edge except for the end transverse members
.17. . For bending moment results. 5. in the bridge slab as illustrated in Fig. 7. It has been recommended by Hambly (1991) that the row of longitudinal beams at each edge of the grillage should be located in a distance of 0. increasing the mesh density tends (up to a point) to increase the accuracy. The objective is to locate these beams close to the resultant of the vertical shear stresses. however. The second moments of area of these beams are calculated using the full breadth of slab in the normal way.Page 184 should also be chosen to coincide with lines of transverse strength in the bridge slab. for example. Figure 5.20 illustrates an example where a member is correctly placed more than 0. If the spacing of grillage members is in doubt. such as heavily reinforced diaphragms above bridge piers. The validity of this recommendation has been confirmed by the authors through comparisons of grillage analysis results with those of elaborate three-dimensional finite-element models. Care should be taken. i.3d should be ignored. should they exist. when determining the torsional constant of these longitudinal grillage members.3d from the edge of the slab.20 Segment of grillage mesh showing longitudinal members 0. 5. the breadth of slab outside 0. This may involve. a check can be performed by comparing the output of a grillage with that from a more refined grillage. where d is the slab depth. 5. It has also been recommended that. one with more longitudinal and transverse beams at a closer spacing. that this recommendation does not result in supports being placed in the wrong locations. the use of elastic springs to
where shear enhancement occurs. The authors have used the method extensively for the analysis of bridge decks and have found it to be an excellent analysis tool in many cases. Beyond a deck depth from the face of the support. Sometimes it is more convenient to carry out an FE analysis with out-of-plane deformation only and to add the in-plane effect of prestress afterwards (which may often be determined by hand). Finiteelement models in which the elements are not all located in the one plane can be used to model bridge decks which exhibit significant three-dimensional behaviour.
5. Some of these types of model are discussed in Chapter 7. Much development has taken place since this pioneering work and many texts now exist which give a comprehensive description of the method (see.4 Planar finite-element analysis of slab decks
The finite-element (FE) method was pioneered in the mid 1950s for use mainly in the aeronautical industry. 8. the grillage method. and rotation about both in-plane axes.
. Finite-element analysis is well known to bridge designers. All of the elements generally lie in the one plane and are interconnected at a finite number of points known as nodes. but the support arrangement chosen for the model must be such that the model is restrained from free body motion in either of the in-plane directions or rotation in that plane. and often more accurate than. There is a risk that inexperienced users will attempt to analyse complex bridges without understanding the true nature and behaviour of the structure. grillage analysis is much less reliable. such as axial prestress. This said. Originally it was used for in-plane analysis of structures but it was soon extended to the problem of plate bending by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1964). Closer to the support. The most common types of element used are quadrilateral in shape although triangular elements are sometimes also necessary. No particular problem arises from using elements which allow in-plane deformations in addition to out-of-plane bending. for example. Some elements do not model in-plane distortion and consequently the nodes have only three degrees of freedom. Finite-element analysis is relatively easy to use and comprehend and. reasonable accuracy can be achieved with most sensible member spacings.Page 185 simulate deformable bearings or ground conditions as discussed in Chapter 4. some of whom consider it to be the most general and accurate method available for bridge deck analysis while others view it with a degree of scepticism. the FE method involves the modelling of a continuous bridge slab as a finite number of discrete segments of slab or ‘elements’. namely out-ofplane translation. When applied to the analysis of slab bridge decks. that of Zienkiewicz and Taylor (1989)). A useful method of gaining familiarisation with a specific FE program is to begin by analysing simple structures. when applied correctly. and then to progress to more complex structures. Such analyses are only necessary if it is specifically required to model in-plane effects. is at least as accurate as. the behaviour of which is known. the scepticism expressed by some bridge designers is quite often well founded as the perceived accuracy of the method often overshadows the importance of using it correctly.
These expressions involve derivatives of the direct moment mx (or my ) and the twisting moment myx (or mxy).47) and (5. The twisting moment term can readily be accounted for.Page 186
5.67). it is advisable to determine whether or not shear forces are calculated correctly using equations (5. are output directly by FE programs. E and νThe shear modulus. shear force per unit breadth can be calculated. Where the twisting moments are significant. The finite elements will behave according to these equations. and the problem inherent in grillage modelling of torques per unit breadth not being equal in orthogonal directions does not arise. It was shown above that a grillage model does not take account of the derivative of the twisting moment. E y. ν and ν typically need to be specified. Each of these expressions involves terms relating to the curvature in both the X and Y directions. These are plate elements which can model out-of-plane bending. If this facility is used. and unlike a grillage analysis. programs assume a value for Gxy based on the values input for the other four elastic constants. in-plane distortion or a combination of both of these. Many programs provide the ability to determine these values at any arbitrary point using interpolation. Finally. When materially orthotropic finite elements are used. In FE analysis. These are generally given at the element centres and/or corners.1 Similitude between finite-element model and bridge slab
The moments per unit breadth. only two elastic constants need to be defined for the finite elements. y. G. If this is the case. E x. Gxy. program from these constants directly according to equation (5. is determined by the . equations (5. the validity of this relationship should be checked for the particular plate under consideration.4.48) give expressions for the shear force per unit breadth in a thin plate. a check is useful to ensure that the values given are consistent with those at the neighbouring nodes.2 Properties of finite elements
The types of finite element considered here are those used for the modelling of slab bridge decks. The material properties of the elements are defined in relation to the material properties of the bridge slab. the second moment of area per unit breadth is given by equation (5. Equation (5.47) and (5.35) give expressions for the moments mx and my in a thin plate. Equations (5. Isotropic bridge slabs In the case of bridges which are idealised as isotropic plates. mx. This is a significant advantage of the FE method over the grillage approach. Some x.48). my and mxy . five elastic constants.
5.4. As the element is of constant depth. The finite elements will satisfy this equation.34) and (5. will account for the effect of curvature in one direction on the stiffness in the other direction.33):
. although not all programs offer this facility.42) gave an expression for the moments mxy and myx in a thin materially orthotropic plate. although in some programs it may not be.
and .76) and (5.74) gives: (5. similitude between the finite element and the bridge slab can be achieved by keeping the products of elastic modulus and second moment of area equal: (5.73) and (5. In most geometrically orthotropic bridge slabs. This problem can be iy overcome by determining an equivalent plate depth and altering the moduli of elasticity of the element to allow for the differences in second moments of area.Page 187 In a typical program. E slab. mx . which will be satisfied by a materially orthotropic finite element:
where and ielem are the element elastic modulus and second moment of area per unit breadth respectively. i.34) gives an expression for the moment. Equation (5. However.72). but there are two second moments of area per unit breadth. In such cases.72)
Geometrically orthotropic bridge slabs Geometrically orthotropic bridge decks are frequently modelled using materially orthotropic finite elements.: (5. there is only one modulus of elasticity.e. but only one depth can be specified.73)
(5. the user simply specifies the element depth as: (5.74) The modulus of elasticity of the element in the X direction may be chosen arbitrarily to be equal to the modulus of elasticity of the bridge slab.35) gives a similar expression for my . ix ≠ .75) Substituting this into equations (5. Equation (5. for both directions.77) The equivalent element depth can be calculated from equation (5.
80) and analysing again using a shear modulus of half this value. an arbitrary depth of finite element could be chosen (say. As an alternative. has been suggested by Troitsky (1967): (5. Instead of arbitrarily equating the modulus of elasticity of the finite element in the X direction to the corresponding modulus of the slab.78) For a geometrically orthotropic slab with a single modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio.79) becomes: (5.5 and 0. Alternatively. that the shear modulus given by the above expression may need to be reduced by a factor of between 0. the orthotropic nature of the plate might be better handled using a combination of elements and beam members or a three-dimensional model. the modulus of elasticity of the element in the X direction is taken to be equal to the modulus of elasticity of the bridge slab.80) Equation (5.3. the moment/curvature relationship for the twisting moment. is given by equation (5.78) was derived by assuming an average value of the elastic moduli in the two directions and an average Poisson’s ratio. To determine if the influence of the shear modulus on the analysis is significant.42). the moduli in the Y direction could be equated. This would lead to alternative expressions to the above.Page 188 For a materially orthotropic slab. In such cases the shear modulus may need to be reduced.74) to give: (5. a similar expression can be determined by substituting from equations (5. Consequently the accuracy of this and equation (5. from the results of analysis and experimentation on steel orthotropic bridge decks. the authors would suggest analysing the orthotropic plate using a value predicted by equation (5. It was reported by Troitsky (1967). An approximate expression for the constant.73) and (5.3 was reported to come from an extreme case where the flexural stiffness in the two directions varied by a factor of 20. Then. Gxy. The lower value of 0. mxy .
. These types of model are discussed further in Chapters 6 and 7. a depth that would result in a second moment of area equal to the average of the second moments of area of the bridge slab in the two directions) and expressions determined for the corresponding values of the moduli of elasticity of the element.76) applies and equation (5.79)
To be consistent with the equations for and i elem derived above.80) diminishes as the variation in the elastic properties in the two directions increases. equation (5.
it may become necessary to limit the number of elements.Page 189 The expressions given above relate to bridge slabs with the same modulus of elasticity in both directions. Unlike the grillage method.21(b). the finite element response to applied loading is based on an assumed displacement function. One variation between the two methods is that the FE model may allow for in-plane deformations and consequently the nodes will often have five or six degrees of freedom. for example. As with grillage modelling.22(a) where elements (1) and (2) are connected to each other at point P but are not connected to element (4). In general. Once again these should not be viewed as absolute. considerable deviation from these shapes may be permissible and the documentation provided with the program should be consulted for specific recommendations. Quite often the same program can be used for grillage and FE analysis which saves the user having to become familiar with two separate programs. 5. The implementation of the FE model is carried out in a similar manner to a grillage and many of the comments in Section 5. This type of model is useful where in-plane effects (such as axial prestress) are to be considered. quadrilateral elements with nodes at the four corners. a typical program may be able to deal with elements of the type shown in Fig.4. More specific recommendations are given below and further guidance. applicable to voided and skewed bridge decks. is given in Chapter 6. Many engineers use denser meshes of elements in those parts of a bridge where bending moment changes rapidly such as near an interior support. and quite often the program will allow the user to define elements which do not conform to this shape. Regularly shaped finite elements should be used where possible. This function may be applicable to elements of a certain shape only. two rules commonly applied to quadrilateral elements are that the ratios of the perpendicular lengths of the sides should not exceed about 2:1 and that no two sides should have an internal angle greater than about 135°. but can easily be modified where this is not the case.3 apply. Considering. more elements tend to result in greater accuracy although this is by no means guaranteed.
5. it is often more convenient if a consistent mesh density is used throughout a bridge. 1. Obviously.21(a) but may give an inaccurate representation for the elements shown in Fig. 5. it is difficult to make specific recommendations relating to FE modelling of bridge slabs but some general guidelines are given here. 2.3 Recommendations for finite-element analysis
There are many commercially available computer programs for FE analysis of bridge decks. Some elements have mid-side nodes so that it is possible for example to have
. 5. Mesh discontinuities should be avoided. However. These may occur when attempting to refine the mesh such as in Fig. In contrast to grillage modelling. as some programs may not be able to deal with excessive numbers. These should tend towards squares in the case of quadrilateral elements and towards equilateral triangles in the case of triangles. In the absence of information to the contrary.
(b) potentially problematical shapes
Fig. 5.22 Meshes of finite elements at transition between coarse and dense mesh: (a) potentially problematic arrangement.Page 190
Fig.21 Possible shapes of quadrilateral finite elements: (a) generally good shapes. (b) good arrangement
A small segment of slab is illustrated in Fig. The results of such analyses give three components of bending moment at each point. N–T. a second axis system. . This may involve. mx.5 Wood and Armer equations
Much of this chapter has been concerned with methods of analysis of slab bridges. 5. 5. Resultant moments can be calculated at any angle of orientation and can. This will be complied with if the first recommendation is adhered to. 5. Similar results from both would suggest that the mesh was sufficiently dense. The twisting moments per unit length. as can to be seen in the figure. There is little point in using too many elements as an excessive number slows the running of the program and may not result in significantly greater accuracy.
. are also illustrated in this figure. 6. As bending moment is a vector. A mesh is shown in Fig. 3. This section addresses the design problem of how the engineer should calculate the moment capacity required to resist such moments. where the moment is about the axis of the arrow. results at more than a deck depth away from the support have been found in many cases to be reasonably accurate (O’Brien et al. mxy and myx. result in yield of the slab at any such angle.22(b) where mid-side nodes are not needed and all elements are connected. The vectors representing the moments are resolved to determine the moments on the face AB.Page 191 elements (3) and (4) connected to the mid-side node of element (1) at Q. This is generally easily achieved. 7. for example. The spacing of elements in the longitudinal and transverse directions should be similar. Supports to the finite-element model should be chosen to closely resemble those of the bridge slab. 5. my and mxy . the use of elastic springs to simulate deformable bearings or ground conditions as discussed in Chapter 4. The length of the face AB is l and. AB. at an angle of θ the Y axis. For convenience. The direct moment per unit length on AB is denoted mn and the twisting moment per unit length is denoted mnt. 5. 4. All vectors are resolved parallel and perpendicular to AB in Fig. it is useful to compare the output of a model with the chosen mesh density to that of a model with a greater density. If mesh density is in question. if excessive. . Shear forces near points of support in finite-element models tend to be unrealistically large and should be treated with scepticism. 1997).23(b) using double headed arrows to denote bending moment.24.23(a) and the possibility is considered of failure on a face. is introduced where N is normal to the face AB and T is parallel (tangential) to it. the projected lengths on the X and Y axes are l sin θ l cos θ and respectively. However. Elements should be located so that nodes coincide with the bearing locations. The moment per unit length on the X face is mx so the moment on BC is mxl cos θThe corresponding moment on AC is my l sin θThese moments are illustrated in Fig. the three components can be combined using vector addition in a manner similar to the concept of Mohr’s circle of stresses.
Fig. 5.81) Considering components perpendicular to AB gives: (5. (b) applied bending and twisting moments
Considering components parallel to AB first: (5.23 Segment of slab: (a) geometry.25 where resolution of components gives: (5. 5.84)
.82) The components of moment on a face perpendicular to AB are considered in Fig.83) and: (5.
Fig. 5.24 Resolution of moments on a segment of slab parallel and perpendicular to AB
Fig. 5.25 Resolution of moments on a face perpendicular to AB
A comparison of equations (5.82) and (5.84) verifies that mnt and mtn are equal. Equations (5.81)–(5.84) can be used to resolve all components of moment on a small segment of plate into a new axis system as illustrated in Fig. 5.26. In an orthotropic steel plate, moment capacity is generally provided in the two orthogonal directions. In a concrete slab, ordinary or prestressing reinforcement is provided in two directions, which are not necessarily orthogonal. In this section, only orthogonal systems of reinforcement are considered; similar equations for non-orthogonal systems are given by Clark (1983). Furthermore, only the case in which mn is positive is considered here. The case when mn is negative is also treated by Clark.
Fig. 5.26 Transformation of applied moments to an alternative co-ordinate system: (a) moments in X-Ysystem; (b) moments in N-T system
An orthogonal system of reinforcement provides moment capacity in two perpendicular directions which are taken here to be parallel to the co-ordinate axes. Hence, the moment capacities per unit length can be expressed as and as illustrated in Fig. 5.27. This figure is different from Fig. 5.26(a) in that there are no twisting moment terms; no capacity to resist twisting moment is assumed to be provided. Equation (5.81) gives the moment on a face at an angle θ the Y axis. A corresponding equation can readily be derived for the moment to capacity. Leaving out the mxy term in equation (5.81) leads to: (5.85)
Fig. 5.27 Segment of slab illustrating the moment capacities provided
While no capacity to resist twisting moment is explicitly provided, capacity can be shown to exist on face AB (Fig. 5.23(a)) by considering equation (5.82) which gives: (5.86) Similarly, from equation (5.83): (5.87) To prevent failure on face AB of Fig. 5.23, the moment capacity must exceed the applied moment. As only the case for which mn is positive is being considered, this becomes:
Substituting from equations (5.81) and (5.85) gives:
Dividing the equation by cos 2 θ gives:
This can be expressed as:
where (5.88) and
Page 196 The function, f(k), is the excess moment capacity for the angle θi.e. the amount by which the , moment capacity exceeds the applied moment for that angle. To prevent failure of the slab, it is clearly necessary that this function exceeds zero for all values of θThe most critical angle . will be that for which f(k) is a minimum. This minimum value is found by differentiating the function and equating to zero, that is:
As k=tan θdifferentiating with respect to θ , gives:
which is never zero. Hence the minimum value for f (k) occurs when: (5.89)
where is a critical value for k. For this to be a minimum excess moment capacity rather than a maximum, the second derivative of f (k) must be positive, i.e.: (5.90)
Taking equations (5.89) and (5.90) together, it can be seen that and mxy must be of the same sign. This fact will be shown to be of significance later in the derivation.
Example 5.1: Moment capacity check At a point in a bridge slab, the moments per unit length due to applied loads have been found to be, mx=190, my=80 and mxy=20. It is required to determine if it is sufficient to provide moment capacities of, and Equation (5.89) is used to determine the angle for which the excess moment capacity is minimum:
i.e. the critical angle is 29.7°. The minimum excess capacity is then found by substitution in equation (5.88):
As the excess capacity is negative, the slab will fail for this value of θ . When new bridges are being designed, the moment capacities are not generally known in advance and the problem is one of selecting sufficiently large values for and . It can be seen from equation (5.89) that effectively dictates the value for for a particular set of moments, i.e. choosing amounts to choosing . Thus the designer’s problem can be viewed as one of choosing a suitable value for provided that equation (5.89) is satisfied, i.e. choosing such that: (5.91) It is, of course, also necessary to have a positive excess moment capacity. The minimum required excess moment capacity is:
Substituting from equation (5.91), this becomes:
92) and (5. 1968). Example 5. then ρ and equations (5. The cost of providing moment capacity in the two coordinate directions may not necessarily be equal as a bridge may. In general.93) become: (5.
.92) Similarly.89) and (5.90)) that and mxy were of the same sign.94)
This can be used to find an economical value for in equations (5. my=80 and mxy=20.Page 198 It was established earlier (by comparing equations (5.93)
Any value for can be selected by the designer and these equations used to determine the minimum required moment capacities. the cost of providing moment capacity at a point may be taken to be proportional to:
The value for which results in minimum cost is found by differentiating: (5. It is required to determine economical moment capacities given that providing costs twice that of providing .93). be prestressed in one direction and reinforced with ordinary reinforcement in the other.96) These are known as the Wood and Armer equations (Wood. for example.91) becomes: (5.95)
(5. equation (5. If the cost of providing moment capacity is the same in both directions.2: Wood and Armer equations II At a point in a bridge slab the moments per unit length due to applied loads have been found to be. mx=190.92) =1 and (5. Hence. their product is positive giving: (5.
i.5 and the minimum cost value for the .e.Page 199 As cost is proportional to critical angle is defined by: the constant.92) and (5. ρis 0.93) then give the required moment capacities:
For this reason.
6. with adaptation. non-planar models are considerably more accurate than planar models. They can. planar grillage and finite-element models are at present the method of choice of a great many bridge designers for most bridge slabs. more complex non-planar methods of analysis are considered.2 Simple isotropic slabs
When bridge slabs are truly planar. they can also be considerably more complex and can take much longer to set up. grillage and finite-element methods. For certain bridges. Planar methods are among the most popular methods currently available for the analysis of slab bridges.1 Introduction
In Chapter 5. This will be demonstrated in the following examples.Page 200
Chapter 6 Application of planar grillage and finite-element methods
6. Further. it is a simple matter to prepare a computer model following the guidelines specified in Chapter 5. their basis is well understood and the results are considered to be of acceptable accuracy for most bridges. the behaviour of bridge slabs is considered. both of which consist of members lying in one plane only. In Chapter 7. be applied to many different types of slab as will be demonstrated. Two methods of analysis are introduced. both of these planar methods of analysis are used to model a range of bridge forms. In this chapter. However.
1 Plan view of two-span bridge
Fig. 6. The deck is supported on four bearings at either end and on two bearings at the centre as illustrated in the figure.5. free-sliding and guided-sliding bearings is used so that the bridge can expand or contract freely in all directions in plane.3 times the depth from the edge of the slab.1: (a) plan. a row of longitudinal members has been placed at a distance of 0. 6.2 Grillage mesh for bridge of Fig. The longitudinal members have been placed along the lines of the bearings. Figure 6. The transverse members have been placed at a spacing of 1.3.1: Grillage model of two-span right slab A two-span bridge deck is illustrated in Fig. A combination of fixed.2 (a) shows a convenient grillage mesh for this bridge deck. with an additional line at the centre of the deck.5 m which gives a ratio of transverse to longitudinal spacing of between 1. 6.1.
Fig. (b) section
. 6. It is to be constructed of prestressed concrete and is to have a uniform rectangular cross-section of 0.2 and 1. The end rows of transverse members are taken through the centres of the bearings.Page 201
Example 6.8 m depth. It is required to design a grillage mesh to accurately represent the deck given that the concrete has a modulus of elasticity of 35×106 kN/m 2. As recommended in Section 5.
this is reduced by 0. when determining the value of the torsion constant of the longitudinal members in rows R1 and R9. Similarly.24)=0.0491 0. It can be seen that this breadth is taken to be from midway between adjacent members on either side. R6 R5 Transverse Members End members All intermediate members 0.2 (b) shows a cross-section of the slab with the grillage members superimposed.0537 0.0964 0. The breadths of the elements are chosen such that nodes coincide with the locations of the supports.
Example 6.2 (b). 6. This is used to determine the breadth of slab attributable to each longitudinal grillage member.0470 0.0640 0. a reduced breadth of (0. in keeping with recommendation number 6 of Section 5.0534 0.1 Grillage member properties for Example 6. Figure 6.0862 0.5 m past the centre of the bearing.24 m for the calculation of the torsion constant.87− 0.63 m was used.0483 0.5/2+0.1. The two rows of
.5 as the slab extends 0.2.3.3d=0. R8 R3.66):
The second moments of area and torsion constants of the grillage members are then determined by multiplying these values by the relevant breadth of each member as given in Fig. For the transverse end members.3 shows a convenient finite-element mesh.2: Finite-element model of two-span right slab A planar finite-element model is required for the bridge deck of Example 6. R9 R2. These values are presented for all of the grillage members in Table 6.0981 0. The longitudinal members have been grouped by row as R1 to R9 and the transverse members have been grouped as end members and all intermediate members as illustrated in Fig.1. The bridge slab is assumed to be isotropic and the second moments of area per unit breadth are taken to be equal to those of the slab:
The torsion constants per unit breadth are calculated according to equation (5.1 and Fig. 6.0938 0.7. the breadth is 1. R7 R4.0938 0.1
Second moment of area (m4)
Longitudinal members R1. However.0470
Torsion constant (m4)
Table 6. 6.0371 0.1280
6. In some bridge decks. 6.4. may be precast to ensure a good quality of finish. either to stiffen the edge. Upstands or downstands. 6. and had the length been taken as.Page 203
Fig. such as those illustrated in Figs.8 m which is equal to the actual depth of the bridge slab. equal to the average breadth of the elements. Figure 6. in the case of concrete bridges. All of the elements are assigned a depth of 0. say. Only decks where the neutral axis remains substantially straight are considered here. the neutral axis will not remain straight as the upstand tries to bend about its own axis. If they are made integral with the deck.5 m breadth. In slab bridges. but the extra number of elements in the model chosen is not considered to be excessive. causing the bridge neutral axis to rise. or simply for aesthetic reasons.
6. the elastic modulus is taken to be that of the slab.3 Finite-element mesh for bridge of Fig. Bridge decks of this type are discussed further in Chapter 7. The effect of an edge cantilever or an integral upstand/downstand is to change the stiffness of the bridge deck. 6. This is a somewhat arbitrary choice.1. These are frequently important aesthetically and. In such cases.4(c) and (d). to carry a protective railing. where the edge cantilever is relatively short or stocky
. Cross-sections of typical slab decks with edge cantilevers are illustrated in Fig.4. The length of the elements along the span of the bridge was chosen as 1.5 shows the cross-section of a deck with a long slender edge cantilever with an upstand at its edge.2 m which is equal to the breadth of the widest element. The properties of each part are then calculated about this axis. the appropriate stiffness is determined by first finding the neutral axis location for the complete deck. E=35×10 6 kN/m2. As this is an isotropic bridge slab. In such a case. It is not necessarily conservative to ignore the additional stiffness provided by them.1
elements at each edge of the model could be replaced with one row of 1.3 Edge cantilevers and edge stiffening
Slab bridge decks often include a portion of reduced depth at their edges known as an edge cantilever. the only geometric property which has to be assigned to the elements is their depths. are often included at the edges of the slab.8). finding the location of the neutral axis may not be straightforward. This type of construction is chosen partly for its reduced self weight and partly for its slender appearance (see Section 1. These will be similar to those illustrated in Fig. a similar degree of accuracy could be expected. 6. then the increased stiffness which they provide generally needs to be considered. the upstand may not be integral with the bridge deck and can simply be considered as an additional load on it. As for Example 6.
6. spans 20 m and is simply supported on three bearings at each end as indicated in the figure. 6. Example 6. The first task is to determine the location of the deck neutral axis which is taken to be straight and to pass through the centroid. 6.
Fig.3: Grillage analysis of slab with edge cantilever The cross-section of a prestressed concrete bridge slab with edge cantilevers is illustrated in Fig. which has a constant cross-section through its length.4 Typical cross-sections of slab decks showing cantilevers and upstands
Fig. The bridge deck. It is required to design a suitable mesh of grillage members to model the structure. In this case. This can be determined by hand or by using one of many computer programs available for such purposes. the neutral axis is found to be 563 mm below the top of the bridge deck. Details of a general approach to this calculation are given in Appendix C.5 Cross-section of slab deck with slender cantilever and upstand
or where the upstand is not excessively stiff.6. The neutral axis is then taken to be straight across the complete deck and to pass through its centroid.
3 times the average depth of cantilever. R3. The reasons for this particular arrangement are as follows: • Each edge cantilever is modelled with two separate rows of members so that the reduced depth towards the edge can be allowed for. but that chosen here seems reasonable. R4. Note that row R4 is not exactly at the centre of the portion it represents. • Two rows of grillage members. This distance corresponds to 0. The location from which this distance is taken is somewhat arbitrary. The spacings of longitudinal grillage members is given in Fig. • The outermost row of grillage members. Figure 6. • The fourth row. is placed at a distance of 0.3 (dimensions in mm): (a) section. 6.3. each of which is represented by a row of grillage members. • The second row of grillage members from the edge. R2. 6. of grillage members are located to coincide with the supports to the bridge deck. R5 and R6 (and R8 and R9).6 Bridge deck of Example 6. these members represent a portion of bridge slab of breadth 1000 mm and they are located at the centre of that portion.Page 205
Fig. • The third row of members from the edge.7(a) shows the divisions chosen and the corresponding grillage members. This is in keeping with recommendation number 6 of Section 5. In each case. and middle row. (b) plan
The cross-section is divided into a number of segments. R7.
. is placed at a distance of 90 mm from the edge of the cantilever. is located at the centre of the portion of cantilever which it represents.7(b).3 times the depth of the deck (0.3×1200=360 mm) from the midpoint of the sloping edge of the main deck.7. are chosen between the supports. Row R1.
The second moment of area relative to the centroid of the bridge is always greater than (or equal to) that relative to the centroid of the individual portion
. However.7 Grillage model (dimensions in mm): (a) cross-section showing grillage members and corresponding segments of deck. between 1:1 and 1:1. it gives a good longitudinal to transverse spacing ratio. This is a very dense mesh having a spacing less than the slab depth. For this example.27. Twenty one rows of transverse members with a spacing of 1000 mm were chosen. (b) schematic of cross-section showing spacing between members. each row of longitudinal grillage members is considered separately.7 (c) illustrates a plan of the grillage mesh with dimensions in mm.Page 206
Fig. The second moment of area about the centroid (of the bridge) of each portion of deck is determined. Due to the variation in depth between rows R2 and R3. (c) plan of mesh
Figure 6. 6. the transverse members between these rows have been modelled as two separate members with a row of nodes where they join.
131 0.144 0. i. These are labelled Tm in the figure. are also calculated about their own centroids as it is about these that they will bend. The transverse members are divided into two groups. R11 R4.002 0. R7.002 0. The second moment of area of the transverse members in the cantilever.7.143 0.2. R12 R3. The torsion constants for the members are determined in accordance with equation (5. The second moment of area per unit breadth of these members is therefore:
The second moment of area of the transverse grillage members in the main part of the deck.3
Second moment of area (m4)
Longitudinal members R1. R8.290 0. The second group are those in the main portion of the deck and account for all of the other transverse members.013 0.261 0. For example the second moment of area of row R7 is given by:
All of the longitudinal grillage member second moments of area are presented in Table 6. The second moment of area per unit breadth of these members is therefore:
The second moment of area of the transverse members is then found by multiplying these values by the breadth of the members (which for this example is 1 m). Tm.029 0.019 0.110 0. The first group are those in the cantilever portion.144 0. 6. The results are presented in Table 6.278
.7(c). 6.2 Grillage member properties for Example 6. R10 R5. Tc.010 0.2. The depth of these members is taken as the average depth of the cantilever.178 0. R9 Transverse members Tc—End members Tc—Intermediate members Tm—End members Tm—Intermediate members 0. R6. running from the edge as far as the row of nodes indicated in Fig.034 0.71) as this is an orthotropic deck :
Table 6. These are labelled Tc in Fig. are taken about their own centroids as they will bend (transversely) about their own centroids.Page 207
of deck.021 0.e. 300 mm. R13 R2.146
Torsion constant (m 4)
The torsion constant per unit breadth of the transverse grillage members. R2. the second moment of area per unit breadth of the longitudinal members (with reference to Table 6. and the transverse members. the average value is considered acceptable. is therefore:
Considering the longitudinal members in row R3 and the transverse members Tm. Tc. Tc.3. the condition of Section 5.002 m3. Tc. the X direction is arbitrarily chosen as the longitudinal direction. as the two distinct values are very close. To apply this equation. is given by:
Considering next the longitudinal members in row R2 and the transverse members Tc. and the transverse members. R1. the second moment of area per unit breadth of the longitudinal members (with reference to Table 6. Hence. In doing this. is given by:
This gives a value for the torsion constant per unit breadth for each of the longitudinal members R1 and R2 but there are two distinct values for the transverse members Tc.2) is given by:
Therefore the torsion constant per unit breadth of the longitudinal members. the second moment of area per unit breadth of the longitudinal members (with reference to Table 6. an approximation is made by taking an average value for the torsion constant per unit breadth of the transverse members.2) is given by:
The second moment of area per unit breadth of the transverse members is 0. Considering the longitudinal members in row R1 and the transverse members Tc.Page 208
where and are the second moments of area per unit breadth in the X and Y directions respectively.3 is not satisfied which required that the torques per unit breadth in the grillage members in the longitudinal and transverse directions be of the same magnitude.2) is given by:
. the torsion constant per unit breadth of the longitudinal members. At this stage. However.
and the longitudinal members in rows R1 and R13. The length of the elements (in the longitudinal direction) is taken as 1000 mm.2) which is:
Hence. R4 to R10.3×0. R4 to R10. is given by:
This value is adopted for the longitudinal members in row R3. The cross-section of Fig. have the same second moment of area per unit breadth (with reference to Table 6. the breadth is reduced by 0.2. Tm.3=0. R3. the division of the deck for the finite-element model varies somewhat from that of the grillage. Tm.
. As the nodes form the boundaries of the elements and the location of the supports must coincide with nodes.36 m.27 m. the breadth is reduced by 0.144 m3 and therefore the torsion constant per unit breadth of the longitudinal members. 6. the need to average two dissimilar values of torsion constant was avoided.Page 209
The second moment of area per unit breadth of the transverse members is 0. Figure 6.8(b) shows a cross-section through the finite-element model. and the transverse members. The average of the two values is taken for the transverse members Tm:
The torsion constant for each grillage member is then arrived at by multiplying the torsion constant per unit breadth by the breadth of slab represented by that member. Figure 6. This results in 20 elements in each of the 14 longitudinal rows.6(a) is divided into a number of segments in a similar manner to the grillage model.8(c) shows a plan of the finite element model with rows of elements labelled r1 to r14. For the end transverse members.4: Finite-element analysis of slab with edge cantilever It is required to prepare a finite-element model for the bridge deck of Example 6.3×0. For the end transverse members. Tc. the breadth is reduced by 0. These values are given in Table 6. 6. the torsion constant per unit breadth of the longitudinal members. The other longitudinal members. For the longitudinal members in rows R3 and R11. It can be seen that by splitting the transverse members running between rows R2 and R3 (and R11 and R12) into two separate transverse members.09 m.3×1. The depths of the elements have not been drawn to scale in this figure.6.2=0.
Example 6. and the transverse members.8(a) shows the division of the deck and Fig. is given by:
This value is adopted for longitudinal members R4 to R10.9=0. 6. Tm.3 and Fig.
the transverse stiffness is based on the average depth of that portion of cantilever. In the case of the elements representing the edge cantilevers (rows r1. these are calculated about the centroid of the bridge which was seen in Example 6. 6. The second moments of area per unit breadth for each row of elements are given in Table 6. r2. (c) plan of element mesh
The X axis is again chosen to be in the longitudinal direction and the Y axis to be perpendicular to this. In the X direction. In the Y direction. it is difficult to determine the transverse stiffness as the depth varies significantly. In the case of the elements in row r3. are determined for each portion of the bridge deck. A depth of 1000 mm is chosen as this seems to be a reasonable compromise and it is felt that the problem does not warrant an in-depth analysis.Page 210
Fig. the second moment of area per unit breadth of each portion is determined about its own centroid as it is about this that transverse bending occurs. The second moments of area per unit breadth. (b) schematic of cross-section showing breadths of elements.3 to be located 563 mm below the top surface.8 Finite-element model (dimensions in mm): (a) cross-section showing division of deck into elements. r13 and r14).
. and .3.
414 Ec 0. within the formwork before casting the concrete.732 Ec 0 . . Ec :
.3 Finite-element properties for Example 6. When the void diameter is less than about 60% of the slab depth. Ec .80) by substituting values for the Poisson’s ratio.838 0. values of were arrived at for each row of elements. r7. r9. r12 r4. is calculated using equation (5. In the finite-element program. to be used for the finite elements is found by equating the second moments of area of the element and the slab (equation (5.876 1. Assuming a Poisson’s ratio of 0. to be equal to the elastic modulus of the concrete.77) then gives an expression for the elastic modulus in the Y direction.1440 Ec 0.109 1.3.204 1. These values are also given in Table 6.4
Finite element row number
r1. It is common practice to discontinue the voids over the supports which has the effect of creating solid diaphragm beams there. r11 r5 r6. . 106 Ec 0. delem .204 0 . then the equivalent depth.
6. it is modelled as materially orthotropic with a single value for element depth. as the second moments of area vary in two orthogonal directions. 356 Ec 0. The shear modulus. r14 r2.0833 Ec 0.3. the elastic modulus and the second moments of area per unit breadth.76)):
Equation (5.064 Ec 0. Figure 6.Page 211
Table 6.0036 Ec 0.1138 0.0013 Ec 0. r8. Arbitrarily choosing the elastic modulus in the X direction.9 shows a cross-section through a typical voided slab bridge deck with tapered edges.1456 0. usually made from polystyrene. These are created by placing void formers.989 Ec 0.1440 Ec
0.0561 0. r10
0. it is common practice to model the voided slab using the same methods as are used for
.4 Voided slab bridge decks
Longitudinal voids are often incorporated into concrete slab bridge decks to reduce their self weight while maintaining a relatively large second moment of area.1456
The elastic moduli in the two directions and the equivalent depths of each row of elements are given in Table 6.0490 0. 068 Ec 0.989 Ec 0. r13 r3. 414 Ec
The bridge deck is geometrically orthotropic. terms of the elastic modulus of the concrete. The variation of second moment of area in the two directions is allowed for by specifying two different elastic moduli.027 Ec 0 .2 for concrete.
9 Cross-section through voided slab bridge
solid slab decks. The first step in the modelling of a voided slab deck is to determine the location of the neutral axis.10 and. (1981) reviewed many methods of analysing voided slab bridges. 6. For the
Fig. such slabs can be analysed using the same techniques as those used for solid slab decks but with modified member properties.10 which can be modelled using a variation of the conventional grillage or FE methods known as ‘shear flexible’ grillage or FE.10 Characteristic behaviour of cellular bridge deck: (a) original geometry. This is generally taken to be at a constant depth transversely and to pass through the centroid of the deck. 6. Bakht et al. Even if the voids are large. is straightforward. a voided slab deck is less likely to distort than the box girder section of Fig. Determination of the longitudinal second moment of area per unit breadth of a voided slab. (b) deformed shape showing characteristic cell distortion
. the properties of each part of the deck are then calculated relative to the neutral axis of the complete deck. They propose that.Page 212
Fig. Determination of the transverse second moment of area and the torsional rigidity are not so simple. . the behaviour becomes more ‘cellular’. The stiffness of the voided portion is simply subtracted from the stiffness of the solid slab. Cellular decks are characterised by the distortional behaviour illustrated in Fig. For planar grillage or finite-element models. regardless of the size of the voids. when the void diameter exceeds about 60%. On the other hand. If the bridge deck has edge cantilevers or if the voids are not located at the centre of the deck. such a shear flexible model would be difficult to implement. without specific guidance. 6. 6. then the position of the centroid may not be at mid-depth and should be calculated in the usual way.
0.64 0. islab (from Bakht et al.1)
Equation (6.80 0. This equation assumes that the centre of the voids and the deck centroid (for transverse bending) are located at mid-depth.79 0.64 0.86 0.60 0.70 0.87
0.56 0. When the void diameter to slab depth ratio is 0.71 0.9
0.51 0.90 0.62 0.45 0.75 0.82 0. the transverse stiffness can be approximated as being equal to the longitudinal stiffness.84 0. Clearly this equation is only applicable to slabs with a sensible void spacing.58 0. d.89
0. This is quite often a reasonable assumption when considering transverse bending. Examination of equation (6.81 0.85 0.48 0.75 0.72 0.66 0.11): (6.1) does not take into account the spacing of the voids as the authors maintained that this was not a significant factor. iv-slab.
Fig. to that of solid slab.69 0.Page 213 transverse second moment of area.77 0.7
0. A slab where the voids were spaced three to four times the slab depth apart would have a transverse rigidity in excess of that predicted by equation (6.76 0.6
0. 6.6 or less.90
.4 Ratio of torsional stiffness of voided slab.1981)
0.88 0.68 0. Bakht et al.61 0.85
0.55 0.1).1) shows that the presence of the voids reduces the transverse stiffness by only 12% for a ratio of 0.84 0.74 0.70 0. dv (Fig.82 0.11 Cross-section through segment of voided slab bridge Table 6.80 0.78 0. and the diameter of the voids. (1981) recommend using the method of Elliott which gives this quantity in terms of the depth of the slab. 6.
Bakht et al. The neutral axis passes through the centroid of the deck which is located at mid-depth as the voids are located there. The deck spans 24 m between the centres of supports and is supported on four bearings at either end as illustrated in the figure.65) or (5.5
. jslab can be determined from equations (5.6
Fig. (1981) recommend using the method of Ward and Cassell.4 are only applicable to internal voids in an infinitely wide slab because those at the edges possess much lower torsional rigidities. 6.5 and 6. 6. However.12 shows the cross-section of a prestressed concrete bridge deck which incorporates circular voids along its len gth. j slab. to that of a solid slab of the same depth.71) and Table 6. The layout and member properties are required for a grillage model. in most practical cases. Bakht et al. For a grillage model.
Example 6.12 Cross-section through bridge of Examples 6. This gives the values presented here in Table 6.4 for the ratio of torsional stiffness of the voided slab jv-slab.
Fig. reduction of the torsional rigidity for the edge voids is not warranted as voided slab bridge decks are usually tapered at their edges or have substantial edge beams. Thus the total bridge is 25 m long consisting of 23 m of voided section and two 1 m diaphragms . conclude that. It was suggested that the values given in Table 6. jv-slab.5: Grillage model of voided slab bridge Figure 6.Page 214 For the torsional stiffness of voided slabs per unit depth.13 Grillage mesh for bridge of Example 6.4 can then be used to determine jv-slab. The voids stop short at each end forming solid diaphragm beams 1 m wide over the supports.
6.3 times the depth of the slab from the edge as this location is within the void. the slab is treated as an orthotropic plate and the properties of the longitudinal and transverse members are determined separately. 1.Page 215
Fig. It is not considered appropriate to locate these grillage members at 0. The transverse grillage members are located in 17 rows. 6. The longitudinal direction is taken to be the X direction. the supports coincide with the locations of nodes in the grillage mesh. the second moment of area is:
. i. The second moment of area of this member is found by subtracting the second moment of area of the circle from that of the rectangle.14.1):
Hence.5 m apart.13 shows a suitable grillage mesh. As the void diameters are in excess of 60% of the slab depth. The longitudinal members are located midway between voids. By using this arrangement. with the exception of the outer row on each side where they are located midway between the edge of the outermost void and the edge of the deck. The internal longitudinal grillage members represent the portion of deck illustrated in Fig.e.14 Segment of voided slab
The edge longitudinal grillage member represents a portion of deck equal to exactly half that of the internal members with the result that its second moment of area is given by:
The second moments of area of the internal transverse members are determined using equation (6. for the internal transverse members.
The torsion constant per unit breadth for the diaphragm is given by equation (5. as illustrated in Fig.67. Each longitudinal row of elements represents a strip of the deck from midway between one void to midway between the next.3 m wide in order to make up the correct total length. Both the ratio dv/sv and dv/d are 0. are used to represent the diaphragm.12.71):
Example 6.2 m square elements is chosen.5 m. will be 1.5 and Fig. For convenience.4.15.6: Finite-element model of voided slab bridge A finite-element model is required for the 25 m long voided slab deck of Example 6.Page 216
For the 1m wide end diaphragms. a mesh consisting largely of 1. the second moment of area is simply:
As the diaphragm is only 1 m wide and the transverse members are spaced at 1. the next row of transverse members.5 m wide. Interpolating in the table gives a ratio for the torsion constants per unit breadth of:
Taking equation (5. 6. At the ends. each 0. two transverse rows of elements. adjacent to the diaphragm. The second moment of area per unit
.65) to calculate the torsion constant per unit breadth for a solid slab then gives:
The torsion constants for both the longitudinal and transverse members in the voided slab are then found by multiplying this value by their respective breadths.75 m wide and will have a second moment of area of:
The torsion constant for the grillage members is found from Table 6. The transverse rows of elements adjacent to the diaphragms at each end are 1. 6.
then equation (5. The total second moment of area of this strip is again calculated by subtracting the second moment of area of the void from that of the equivalent rectangular section:
Hence. To model this as a materially orthotropic plate.15 Finite element mesh for bridge of Example 6.Page 217
The slab is geometrically orthotropic. the second moment of area per unit breadth is:
For the transverse direction. as the second moments of area (rather than the moduli of elasticity) are different for the longitudinal and transverse directions.77) gives an expression for the elastic modulus in the Y direction:
. it is necessary to calculate a single equivalent value for slab depth. equation (6.6
breadth in the longitudinal direction can be found by considering a 1. equal to the modulus for the concrete.76) implies a depth of element of:
Equation (5.2 m wide strip of the deck. 6. Selecting the modulus of elasticity in the X direction. de . E x.
Beam and slab decks may be formed in a number of ways. the structural action of these decks is considered to be two-dimensional.2 m thick and have moduli of elasticity in both directions equal to that of the concrete.80):
Taking a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Many other methods exist. Load sharing between the beams may be provided by a top slab or by a combination of a top slab and a number of transverse diaphragm beams. it is important that the slab be idealised correctly in the model as. Consequently. the beams generally act alone and must be capable of carrying their self weight.16 (c). the weight of the slab and any construction loads present. 6.2. Transverse diaphragm beams can be used to provide additional load sharing between longitudinal beams.5 Beam and slab bridges
Beam and slab decks are used for a wide variety of modern bridges. Beam and slab bridges are generally suitable for similar span lengths as slab bridges but are often chosen in preference because of their ability to be easily erected over inaccessible areas such as deep valleys or live roads or railways. The main load-carrying component of a beam and slab deck is the longitudinal spanning beams. The shear modulus is calculated from equation (5. The shear modulus for the diaphragms is given by equation (5. an overly stiff slab may lead to a prediction of load sharing between adjacent beams which does not occur in reality. the slab provides a means for load sharing between longitudinal beams. the most obvious being the casting of an in-situ concrete slab on steel or precast concrete beams as shown in Fig. Wide diaphragms also serve to improve the shear
. Therefore they can be analysed by similar methods to those proposed for slab decks in the preceding sections.67). On completion. this gives:
The diaphragm beams are solid so the corresponding elements are 1. a precast concrete slab or even a completely in-situ beam and slab as illustrated in Fig.16 (a) and (b). During construction. In addition to this. The extent of this load sharing is largely dependent on the stiffness of the slab. 6. This phenomenon is indicated in Fig. 6.
where E v-slab is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the voided slab. The slab acts to transmit applied loads to the beams by spanning transversely between them. for example. such as steel beams with a composite steel and concrete slab.17. They differ from slab bridge decks in that a large portion of their stiffness is concentrated in discrete beams which run in the longitudinal direction.
6. (b) thick slab— increased load sharing
capacity by extending the portion of the bridge near a support which is solid.17 Load sharing in beam and slab decks: (a) thin slab—little load sharing. 6. continuity between adjacent spans may be provided by the slab alone. 6. The obvious exception is that grillage beams should normally be
.16 Forms of beam and slab construction: (a) in-situ slab on steel beams. a diaphragm beam is constructed over intermediate supports to provide additional continuity.5. In precast concrete beam construction.Page 219
Fig. but quite often. (b) in-situ slab on precast concrete beams.1 Grillage modelling
Grillage modelling of beam and slab decks generally follows the same procedures as for slab decks. (c) in-situ beam and slab
there will be a much greater variation in the depth of the neutral axis than in slab bridges. The properties of the transverse grillage members should be derived from the properties of the relevant diaphragm beam or slab as appropriate. Unlike slab decks. It is possible to use one grillage member to represent two or more actual beams but this complicates the calculation of properties and interpretation of the results with little saving in analysis time in most cases. This generally complies with the need to locate beams at the supports as.Page 220
Fig.3s for L-sections as illustrated in Fig. The properties of the longitudinal grillage members are determined from the properties of the actual beams and the portion of slab above them. Transverse grillage members should clearly be placed at the location of all diaphragm beams. In addition.
. where s is the spacing between beams. Hambly (1991) suggests an effective flange breadth of bw+0. transverse members are required to represent the transverse stiffness of the slab. Section 5. in beam and slab construction.18. Solid diaphragm beams. For slab decks. This spacing is also recommended for beam and slab bridges although greater spacings are possible without significant loss of accuracy. 1 m wide.3.18 Effective flange width of diaphragm beam: (a) plan at end. The slab will act as a flange to such beams making them T.7 stated that transverse member spacing should be between one and three times the longitudinal member spacing. 6. the section properties for beam and slab decks are generally calculated about the centroid of this composite section. A grillage model of the beam and slab deck is required. Each precast beam is supported on a bearing at each end and the deck has a single span of 20 m (centre to centre of bearings). due to the low stiffness of the slab. are provided at each end and no additional transverse beams are located between these. 6. supports are normally provided directly beneath the beams. (b) section through L-beam
positioned at the location of the longitudinal beams. each acting about its own axis. Example 6.or L-section in shape. not about the centroid of the whole bridge.19 shows the cross-section of a beam and slab bridge deck consisting of a cast in-situ slab on precast concrete Y-beams. The elastic modulus of the precast beams is 34 kN/mm 2 and that of the in-situ slab is 31 kN/mm2.7: Grillage model of beam and slab bridge Figure 6. This approach is justified on the basis that.
The torsion constant of a cross-section made up of rectangles is commonly estimated by calculating the torsion constants of the individual rectangles and summing.0265 m2 Height of centroid above soffit = 0. The torsion constant. J. in this case. For the purposes of determining the torsion constant.Page 221
Fig.374 m 2 Second moment of area = 0. The section properties of the precast beam are generally given by the manufacturer. for a rectangular section according to Ghali and Neville (1997) is: (6. 6. the properties are: Area = 0.19 Beam and slab bridge deck: (a) cross-section.19 (b) shows the exact dimensions of the precast beam.20.2)
.347 m The torsion constant is generally not given and must be determined by the analyst. 6. the beam cross-section is approximated as two rectangles as illustrated in Fig. Figure 6. (b) detailed dimensions of Y-beam
The modular ratio for the in-situ and precast concrete is:
The procedure adopted is to assign a modulus of elasticity of 34 kN/mm 2 to all of the grillage members (except for the end diaphragms). but to factor the stiffness of the slab by this modular ratio.
A longitudinal grillage member is positioned at the location of each Y-beam. ‘Dummy’ longitudinal members with nominal stiffness are provided at the edges and transverse members are continued past the ends of the edge Y-beams to connect to them.Page 222
Fig. A finite-difference technique was used to determine the constant in this case and a value was found as follows:
The simplified method can be seen to be accurate to within 7% for this section. consideration need not be given to in-plane horizontal movements at this stage. Supports are located at the ends of each longitudinal beam (other than the dummy beams). Additional transverse beams are located at 2 m centres between these to represent the transverse stiffness of the slab. 0. As the grillage model is planar. then these beams should be assigned very small section properties relative to those used elsewhere in the grillage (say. If this is not the case.20 Equivalent section made up of rectangles for determination of torsion constant
where b is the length of the longer side and a is the length of the shorter side. Applying this equation to the rectangles of Fig. Figure 6.20 gives a torsion constant for the Y-beam of:
The constant can be found more exactly by applying Prandtl’s membrane analogy as described by Timoshenko and Goodier (1970). Transverse members are positioned at each end to model the diaphragms. 6. 6. Some grillage programs allow the definition of ‘dummy’ beams.5%). This gives a transverse to longitudinal member spacing ratio of 2:1 which is acceptable. both
. the second moment of area is the sum of the second moment of area of the Y-beam plus the 1 m width of slab above it. This is a convenient method for applying loads such as those due to parapet railings.21 shows a suitable grillage layout for this bridge deck. For the interior longitudinal members.
Fig.2×0.3 m 2 upstand. This raises the centroid above that for the interior members.21 Plan view of grillage mesh
taken about the common centroidal axis of the section. Hence:
Each edge longitudinal member is similar to the interior members except for a 0. Hence the equivalent area of the combined section is:
The section centroid is found by summing moments of area about the soffit:
where yb is the distance of the centroid above the soffit. Summing moments of area about the soffit gives:
. 6. The stiffness of the slab is reduced by factoring it by the modular ratio. Hence:
The second moment of area of the combined section is:
The torsion constant is taken as the sum of the torsion constants of the Y-beam and the slab. The torsion constant of the slab is determined using equation (5.
3 times the beam spacing:
Hence the centroid is:
above the soffit. the properties are determined in the usual manner. The recommended flange breadth is the sum of the web breadth plus 0. 6. 6.22.Page 224
Fig. For the second moment of area:
The torsion constant is:
The slab acts as a flange to the diaphragm beams. For the slab bending about its own axis. the row of transverse members adjacent to the diaphragm accounts for the slab up to 1 m from the centre of the diaphragm as illustrated in Fig.
.22 Section through end diaphragm beam
Hence the second moment of area of the edge section is:
For the transverse members.
One possible solution to this is shown in Fig. It can be seen from this that the span of the slab in the model is too long. 6.23(c). a combined model is generally used which represents the slab with finite elements and the beams with grillage
Fig.5. If the web width at the top of the longitudinal beams in a beam and slab deck is large relative to their spacing.2) and (5.Page 225
This leaves 0.
6.23 Transverse modelling of decks with wide flanges: (a) in-situ slab on precast concrete Ubeams. Figure 6.5 m of flange from equations (6.65):
The modulus of elasticity for in-situ concrete is used for the diaphragm beams. 0.23(b) shows a grillage model with longitudinal grillage beams for the Ubeams and transverse beams spanning between them representing the slab. where the transverse grillage members have been subdivided to include much stiffer portions at their ends. This would lead to an excessively flexible slab which in turn would lead to the incorrect modelling of load sharing between the U-beams. (c) improved grillage model
. then the slab can inadvertently be modelled as having an excessively long transverse span. Figure 6.5 m of slab to be accounted for in the diaphragm stiffness.23(a) shows a deck consisting of a concrete slab on precast concrete U-beams.2 Finite-element modelling
In finite-element modelling of beam and slab decks. The second moment of area is thus:
The torsion constant is calculated allowing for 0. (b) conventional grillage model where slab has excessive transverse span. 6.2 m of which is deemed to be bending about its own axis.
They are also assigned the elastic properties of the slab. Grillage members are used for each of the Y-beams and for each of the end diaphragms. They are assigned a modulus of elasticity and a Poisson’s ratio equal to those of the concrete in the slab.16 m which is equal to the depth of the slab.7 and Fig. The stiffness of the slab which has already been applied through the finite element is subtracted. 6.Page 226 members. An element length of 1 m in the longitudinal direction results in a maximum element aspect ratio of 1:2 which is considered to be acceptable. Supports are provided at the ends of each longitudinal grillage member. The longitudinal grillage members are then assigned the stiffnesses of the combined beam and associated portion of slab minus those already provided through the finite elements. Figure 6. 6. the second moment of area of the combined section is:
Fig.24 Combined finite-element and grillage mesh
.8: Finite-element model of beam and slab bridge A finite-element model is required for the beam and slab bridge of Example 6.24 shows a suitable finite-element mesh incorporating grillage members longitudinally. The finite elements continue to the edge of the deck resulting in a row of elements 0. This is generally straightforward to implement and follows the recommendations made for slab bridge decks. For the longitudinal grillage members. In the second approach. The finite elements are assigned a thickness of 0. One of two approaches can be taken. The beams are then modelled by grillage members with the properties of the actual beams excluding the contribution of the slab. In the first approach.7.5 m wide at each side. the slab is modelled using isotropic elements which are assigned a thickness equal to the depth of the actual slab. Care should be taken when determining the properties of the finite elements representing the slab. The modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio for the beams are used for these members. the properties of the combined Y-beam and the 1 m width of slab above it are determined relative to the centroidal axis of the combined section. the slab is modelled using orthotropic finite elements with the true transverse and longitudinal properties applied in both directions.19. Example 6. From Example 6.
the elements are present up to the centre of the diaphragm to represent the transverse stiffness of the slab about its own axis. Hence.3 Transverse behaviour of beam and slab bridges
The top slab in a beam and slab bridge is often designed transversely as a one-way spanning slab supported by the longitudinal beams (Fig.7 by adding the individual torsion constants of the Y-beam and slab. 6. However. the stiffness of the slab bending about its own axis is not required and a small component of stiffness inadvertently contributed by the elements must be subtracted:
The torsion constant is that of a rectangular section less the portion inadvertently added through the elements.65):
6. As the slab is represented by the elements.2) and (5.7. such an approach results in a great quantity of reinforcement and has been shown to be
The second moment of area of the 0.16 m thick finite elements is then subtracted to give the second moment of area to be used for the grillage member:
The torsion constant for the combined section was arrived at in Example 6. 6.22):
For the finite-element model. From equations (6. the second moment of area for the end diaphragms in the grillage model was calculated as (refer to Fig.25).5. the torsion constant to be assigned to the grillage members is simply that of the Ybeam:
In Example 6.
6. with large diameter circular voids. The result is that load is transferred from the slab to the beams by arching action rather than bending action alone.4. The fourth form. 6. as illustrated in Figs.26 shows a number of commonly used cellular deck forms. as was discussed in Section 6. This distortion is caused by the localised bending of the webs and flanges of the individual cells. The beams have a considerable lateral stiffness and have the effect of confining the slab. Canadian bridges have been built without any transverse slab reinforcement but using steel straps to guarantee confinement. The most common type are box girder decks. alternative methods are available for their analysis which are generally more convenient. However.25 Detail of section in beam and slab deck
quite conservative. Clearly the provision of transverse diaphragms along the span of a cellular deck will significantly reduce the degree of transverse distortion. 6. the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code (OHBDC. the stiffness of the individual webs and flanges. 6.Page 228
Fig. There are four principal forms of structural behaviour associated with cellular bridges. is transverse cell distortion. It is the transverse distortional behaviour that makes the analysis of cellular decks different from other forms. The first two of these are longitudinal and transverse bending. The third form of behaviour is twisting. In two reported cases (Bakht and Jaeger. Voided slab bridges.
. the slab depth to beam spacing ratios were 1:12 and 1:13. 1992) allows for the provision of much less reinforcement than would be found by an assumption of bending. as indicated in Fig. In these cases. as indicated in Fig. which characterises cellular structures.5. To account for observed arching action.
6. Figure 6.6 Cellular bridges
Cellular bridge decks are formed by incorporating large voids within the depth of the slab. with single or multiple rectangular cells. The principal factors affecting the distortion are the dimensions of the cells relative to the deck depth.27(c). can also be considered to be of a cellular form. 1997).27(a) and (b). The behaviour is similar to that observed in Vierendeel girders. and the extent (if any) of transverse bracing to the cells.27(d).
6.27 Behaviour of cellular decks: (a) longitudinal bending. (c) twisting.Page 229
Fig. 6. (d) transverse distortion
. (b) transverse bending.26 Sections through alternative cellular bridge decks
3). In this method.28(a) shows a single cell of width l of a cellular bridge deck under the action (transversely) of a vertical load P. then the load acting on each can be taken as P/2. the deck is idealised as a grillage of beam members in the usual manner. except that the transverse members are given a reduced shear area such that they experience a shear distortion equal to the actual transverse distortion of the cells in the bridge deck. where d is their thickness. Hence. The flanges of a cell will act as beams transversely with a second moment of area per unit breadth equal to d3/12. If it is assumed for now that the webs are stiff and that transverse distortion is caused by bending of the flanges only. 6. The method is illustrated below by means of an example. 6. (b) distorted shape
6.1 Grillage modelling
Grillage modelling of cellular bridge decks can be achieved by use of what is commonly referred to as a ‘shear flexible’ grillage.28(b). If the flanges are of equal thickness. then the distorted shape of the cell is as shown in Fig. from equation (6. Clearly such a method requires a grillage program which models shear deformation as well as bending and which allows for the specification of a shear (or ‘reduced’) area for the members independently of the other section properties. Figure 6.6. the deflection due to flange distortion is: (6. is: (6. fixed against rotation at both ends and subjected to a vertical force P/2.3) where I is the second moment of area and E is the modulus of elasticity.28 Distortion of single cell with stiff webs: (a) applied loading.4)
Fig. The vertical deflection due to the bending of a beam of length l.
By equating the shear deformation in a transverse grillage member to the bending deformation of the cell flanges in the bridge.29 Cross-section through cellular deck showing dimensions of cell
. an expression for the required shear area per unit breadth of a shear flexible grillage member is found: (6. subjected to a vertical load per unit breadth of P at its free end is: (6. is small relative to the deflection due to bending. Assuming points of contraflexure at mid-height and equating the deflection of this cell to the shear deformation of a grillage member gives a more exact and general expression for shear area per unit breadth: (6. For cellular decks of other shapes. the webs of cellular decks are also flexible and consequently they too contribute to the overall transverse distortion.
Fig. However. Figure 6.Page 231 The total deflection in a cantilever of length l.5) where G is the shear modulus and as is the shear area of the section per unit breadth. In practice. it was assumed that transverse distortion was caused by the distortion of the cell flanges only. this may be difficult to carry out accurately in practice due to such factors as cracking in concrete sections.6) In this example. 6. The second term is the deflection due to shear deformation which.29 shows a single cell of a cellular bridge deck with a constant web thickness but different upper and lower flange thicknesses. it has been suggested by others that a plane frame analysis be carried out to determine the equivalent shear area of the transverse grillage members. for most structures.7) Details of the derivation of this formula are given in Appendix D.
The first term in equation (6.30 Longitudinal section through deck for transverse bending
Fig. As mentioned previously. For the transverse members. Such an equation is valid when the shear flows are opposing through the depth of the section as illustrated in Fig. the torsion constant for a thin rectangular section twisting about its own axis may be approximated by bd3/3. The torsion constants of the longitudinal and transverse grillage members are based on the portion of section represented by the members.Page 232 The second moments of area of the longitudinal members in a shear flexible grillage are determined in the same way as for slab decks. this is not the
Fig.30. 6. the neutral axis of the bridge deck is first determined and the second moment of area of the portion of deck represented by each longitudinal grillage member is determined about that axis.8) is generally small relative to the second and is often ignored. For a portion of box section.31 Shear stresses due to torsion: (a) rectangular section. the second moment of area of the top and bottom flanges is calculated about an axis at the bridge mid-depth as illustrated in Fig. (6.31(a). (b) portion of box section with cantilever
. 6. 6. 6. where b is the breadth and d the thickness. As for slab bridges.
the contribution of the webs is accounted for through the shear forces in the longitudinal beams and should not be accounted for again here.65 m
. There are 2 m thick solid diaphragms at the end and central supports.9: Shear flexible grillage model of a cellular bridge deck Figure 6.10)
where a is the area enclosed by the centre line of the wall. one at the centre of each web. Applying equation (6. 6. A formula suggested by Hambly (1991) halves the constant and removes the web term: (6. The torsion constant for a thin-walled box section is given by: (6. three-cell bridge deck with edge cantilevers.32).32 illustrates a two-span.9) to the single cell of Fig. Transverse grillage members are located at the ends and at the central support to represent the transverse diaphragms. Figure 6. The two edge members represent the portion of deck from the edge to halfway between the first and second webs (Fig. l i.Page 233 case as illustrated in Fig. A grillage model is required. The two internal members represent the portion of deck from halfway between the first and second webs to the centre. is an increment of length and di is the thickness of that increment.31(b) except in the edge cantilevers. 6.11.33 shows a convenient grillage mesh. 6. It is assumed that the deck is continuously supported transversely at each support. The first step in determining the grillage member properties is to find the neutral axis of the deck which is assumed to pass through the centroid.29 would give:
However. By summing moments of area about any point in the section. the centroid can be shown to be located at 0. Four longitudinal members are chosen. Additional transverse members are placed at 2 m centres giving a longitudinal to transverse member spacing ratio of 1:1.
Fig. 6.32 Cellular bridge of Example 6.8):
. the second moment of area per unit breadth.33 Plan view of grillage mesh
above the soffit. 6.9 (dimensions in m): (a) cross-section. itrans is given by equation (6. For the edge longitudinal members:
For the internal longitudinal members:
For the transverse members. The second moments of area for the longitudinal members about this axis are then determined. (b) longitudinal section
The torsion constant per cell is given by equation (6. a common approximation for I-sections. The edge members only represent half a cell and the contribution of the cantilever is added:
The torsion constant per unit breadth for the transverse members is taken to be equal to that of the longitudinal members:
The shear area per unit breadth of the transverse grillage members is given by equation (6.67) gives:
which results in a shear area of:
The breadth of the transverse members is 2 m.7):
For concrete. the shear area is taken as the area of the webs. a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Then equation (5.2 is assumed.10):
This gives a torsion constant for the interior longitudinal members of 0. giving:
For the longitudinal members.36 m4.Page 235
The breadth of the transverse members is 2 m.
An exception to this is in concrete decks where the transverse reinforcement is not
. For a rectangular section.2):
The shear area of the transverse diaphragm is taken as the actual shear area as no significant transverse distortion is assumed to take place.1 Grillage modelling
A suitable grillage model of a skew deck will depend largely on the angle of skew. The transverse grillage members should generally be oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal members. An important consideration is to place the grillage members in the directions of principal strength. A grillage or finite-element model can be formulated for such decks based on the recommendations given in earlier sections along with some additional considerations given here. the span length and the width of the deck. A high degree of twisting accompanied by large torsional moments (mxy ) are also associated with skew decks.7 Skew and curved bridge decks
Many bridge decks incorporate some degree of skew and others are curved in plan. Hence:
6. This deck will tend to span in the skew direction so the longitudinal grillage members are aligned in that direction. Care is needed in modelling the support system in such cases as any flexibility will cause a redistribution of reactions. the Wood and Armer equations can dictate a requirement for top reinforcement near supports where hogging would not normally be expected.2 m deep by 2 m wide. Significant skew in bridge decks leads to a non-uniform distribution of reactions between supports. in reinforced concrete. the shear area can be shown to equal 83. In highly skewed decks.34(a) shows a long narrow bridge deck with a high degree of skew and Fig.3% of the actual area. The second moment of area of the grillage members representing these is therefore:
The torsion constant for the diaphragms is determined using equation (6.
6. As a result. 6.Page 236
The end and central diaphragm beams are 1. uplift can occur at acute corners which is generally to be avoided.7. Figure 6. The greatest reactions will tend to occur at obtuse corners in skew decks and the smallest reactions at acute corners.34(b) shows a suitable grillage layout. Large reactions at obtuse corners lead to high shear forces which can also be difficult to design for.
6. 6. If significant edge beams or stiffening is provided to the bridge deck. Some analysis programs will allow the use of curved beams.34 and 6. then this should be allowed for when assigning the properties of the edge beams in the grillage. 6. wide bridge deck with small skew: (a) plan view. but straight beams will be sufficiently accurate if the grillage mesh is fine enough. Figure 6. (b) grillage layout
. the longitudinal grillage members are orientated in this direction. In such cases.35(b) shows a suitable grillage layout. although straight. follow the curved layout closely due to the fineness of the mesh.35 will require a greater amount of judgement by the analyst in choosing a suitable grillage layout.34(c). Once again. it is generally more appropriate to orientate the transverse members parallel to the transverse reinforcement as illustrated in the alternative grillage layout of Fig. Care should be taken with the edge grillage members which generally will have to be orientated in the skew direction. the transverse grillage members are orientated perpendicular to the longitudinal members. This deck will tend to span perpendicular to the supports rather than along the skew direction. highly skewed bridge deck: (a) plan view. narrow. (c) alternative grillage layout
Fig.34 Long. 6. Bridge decks which fall between the extremes of Figs.Page 237 perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement. wide bridge deck with a small angle of skew and Fig. Curved decks pose no particular problem for grillage modelling. (b) grillage layout. The
Fig. Figure 6.35(a) shows a short.35 Short. The longitudinal members. Consequently. 6.36 shows a suitable grillage mesh for a curved bridge deck.
they are approximately perpendicular to the longitudinal members. (b) alternative triangular elements
.37 Alternative finite-element meshes: (a) skewed quadrilateral finite elements. 6.Page 238
Fig. especially for
Fig. 6.2 Finite-element modelling
Finite-element modelling of skew or curved decks should be carried out according to the recommendations for right decks. In this way. Generally.7. This is an advantage that the finite-element method has over the grillage method. no special consideration need be given to directions of strength as the elements are two-dimensional and will model the twodimensional behaviour of the skew or curved slab.
6.36 Grillage layout for curved bridge deck
transverse members radiate from the centre of the curve.
6.37(b). may be more effective. 6. triangular elements. can give results which are just as accurate as those for rectangular elements and they are very easy to implement. However. highly skewed quadrilaterals may result in round-off errors due to calculations involving small angles. In such cases. as illustrated in Fig.
. as illustrated in Fig. Skewed quadrilateral elements.Page 239 inexperienced users who might not have the expertise to formulate a suitable grillage model.37(a).
the problems associated with bridge decks such as those with wide edge cantilevers are discussed. As the rejoined bridge bends. Thus. This phenomenon is known as ‘shear lag’ as it is associated with interface shear and is characterised by the lagging behind of axial stresses at the edges of cantilevers. the bridge deck has a noncontinuous neutral axis as indicated in the figure.Page 240
Chapter 7 Three-dimensional modelling of bridge decks
7. In this chapter.1. If a load were applied to the deck in this condition. the analysis of bridge decks using planar models is discussed. In this condition. longitudinal bending stresses are set up.2 Shear lag and neutral axis location
When a bridge deck flexes. the
7. each part would bend about its own centroid.2(a) shows a bridge deck with the edge cantilevers separated from the main part of the deck. If the bridge deck is now rejoined. when the bending moment in a flanged beam varies from one point to another. interface stresses are generated as illustrated in Fig. The theoretical background is reviewed and a number of solutions are suggested including three-dimensional methods of analysis. When flanges or cantilevers are wide and slender.2(b). independently of the rest. The extent of the reduction of stress is dependent on both the geometric shape of the bridge deck and the nature of the applied loading. Figure 7. the edges do not receive the same amount of axial stress as those near the centre of the bridge.1 Introduction
In Chapter 6. 7. 7. Bridge decks with edge cantilevers are considered but it is stipulated that only those with short cantilevers should be analysed by the methods proposed. a common centroid can be found and the entire bridge is often assumed to bend about a neutral axis passing through this point. This common neutral axis can be seen in Fig. These are distributed transversely from one part of the deck to adjacent parts by interface shear stresses.
Page 241 remote edges of the cantilevers. The effect of bending is not felt to the same extent in the edges of the cantilevers as it is elsewhere. do not experience the same amount of axial stress as the main part of the deck.1 Interface shear stresses in flanged beam subject to bending
Fig. 7. as can be seen in Fig. (d) actual neutral axis location
. (b) commonly assumed straight neutral axis.2(c). due to shear lag.2 Transverse variation in neutral axis location: (a) if cantilevers and main deck were free to act independently. This is because the edges of the cantilevers tend to bend about their own
Fig. (c) variation in longitudinal stress at top of deck. 7. 7.
7. as described in Chapter 6.3.Page 242 centroidal axes. It is possible to overcome this problem by assuming an ‘effective flange width’ for the edge cantilevers. a two-dimensional analysis. reproduced here as Fig. 7. A three-dimensional analysis can automatically account for shear lag as it allows for variations in neutral axis location directly.3 Effective flange width
In the design of bridge decks. There is a strong link between shear lag and neutral axis location. to the ratio of actual flange
Fig.2(d). as it is from these points that longitudinal stresses begin to spread out into the cantilevers. b. The effective flange width is also dependent on the form of the applied loading. can be used to determine the maximum stress in the cantilever. but this tendency causes the overall bridge deck neutral axis to move towards the centroid of the cantilevers at the edges. a two-dimensional model with an effective flange width. 7. as illustrated in Fig. The method uses a notional width of cantilever in the grillage or finite element model which has a uniform stress distribution equal in magnitude to the maximum stress in the actual cantilever. The correct effective flange width to be used for the cantilever is largely dependent on the ratio of the actual cantilever width to the length between points of zero moment (points of contraflexure). be . and actual flange width. It could be said that the variation in the neutral axis location in a bridge deck is caused by shear lag or that shear lag is caused by the tendency of each part of the bridge deck to bend about its own neutral axis.3 Actual and calculated distributions of longitudinal bending stress at top of flanged deck
. Obviously they are not free to do this. analysed with no allowance for shear lag. is often used which does not take account of shear lag. 7. relates the ratio of effective flange width. Hambly (1991) presents a chart for the determination of effective flange widths for beams subjected to distributed and concentrated loads. 7. Hence. The chart. Such a non-uniform neutral axis is illustrated in Fig.4.
(b) showing effective flange width
.5(a) shows the cross-section of a bridge deck with edge cantilevers. Also shown in the figure are the popular approximations for this relationship:
which can be seen to be reasonably accurate for relatively wide flanges.Page 243
Fig.4 m wide and the deck has a single simply supported span of 20 m. 7. and length between points of contraflexure. Example 7.1: (a) showing actual cantilever widths. b. 7. The cantilevers are 2. Figure 7.5 Cross-section of bridge deck of Example 7.4 Effective flange width for different loadings (solid line).1: Effective flange width
Fig. L. and common approximations (dashed line)
5(b) shows this effective flange width for one of these load cases. Figure 7. Unfortunately. From Fig. When the effects of shear lag are significant. Hence. This results in effective flange widths of 2. Figure 7.6 shows such a model of a portion of bridge deck with edge cantilevers. is 2. the use of such models is currently limited mainly to research and highly specialised
Fig.6 Portion of bridge deck modelled with solid brick elements
.4 the ratios of be/b are 0.67 for the uniformly and point loaded cases respectively. 7.12. the ratio of the cantilever width to this length. One such technique is three-dimensional finite-element analysis using solid ‘brick’ type elements. b/L. L.23 m and 1. a cellular structure or transverse diaphragms pose no particular problems.
7. Inclusion of voids.4/20=0. some form of threedimensional model is necessary to achieve an accurate representation of the behaviour of the structure. In addition to this. The benefit of this type of model is that it can be used to describe the geometry of highly complex bridge decks very accurately.61 m respectively. the model automatically allows for any variations in the location of the neutral axis and hence allows for shear lag in edge cantilevers.4 Three-dimensional analysis
The use of two-dimensional analysis methods with effective flange widths is approximate at best and does not address the issue of upstands which are often provided at the edges of bridge cantilevers. This example highlights the limitations of the effective flange width method as the nature of the loading causes a substantial variation in the effective flange width.Page 244
As the span is simply supported. A constant stress is assumed in the modelled portion of the cantilever and that part of it outside the effective flange width is ignored. 7. the length between points of contraflexure. is equal to the span length in this case.93 and 0.
Figure 7. is required. Consequently. That type of analysis is referred to as planar grillage as all of the grillage members are located in one plane. Consequently. In this. shear lag where it exists. grillage modelling is applied to bridge decks including those with edge cantilevers. be it straight or varying. it will automatically determine the location of the neutral axis. Some of these simplified models are discussed in the following sections. there is no need to make an assumption as to the location of the overall bridge neutral axis.5 Upstand grillage modelling
In Chapter 6. There is also no need to assume an effective flange width to allow for shear lag effects. but involves the modelling of each part of the bridge deck as a separate plane grillage located at the centroid of the portion of bridge deck which it represents. a three-dimensional technique. The plane grillage meshes are then connected using rigid vertical members. the edge cantilevers are modelled with grillage members which are located at the centroid of the cantilevers while the main part of the deck is modelled with grillage members located at the centroid of that part. for each load case considered. will be accounted for automatically. difficulties arise when in-plane effects are considered. The upstand grillage analogy is a direct extension of the planar grillage analogy.
7. such as upstand grillage modelling. particularly for post-processing of the large quantities of output data generated. When this is not the case. Unlike the plane
Fig. 7. Although the upstand grillage seems to be a relatively simple and powerful model. The properties of each part of the deck are determined relative to its own centroid. As the model is three-dimensional.7 Upstand grillage model
. It is only suitable for bridge decks where the neutral axis remains substantially straight across the deck and is coincident with the centroidal axis of the bridge.7 shows an upstand grillage model for a bridge deck with edge cantilevers.Page 245 applications due to excessive run times and computer storage requirements and due to a shortage of user-friendly software. The authors have used this type of model extensively to develop and test a number of simplified three-dimensional models which are suitable for everyday bridge design.
the imposition of rotational restraints will prevent this behaviour from occurring in the model which may significantly affect the accuracy of the results. 7.6. a three-dimensional finite-element analysis using solid ‘brick’ type elements. Figure 7. The upstand grillage predicts almost the same stress as the elaborate three-dimensional brick finite-element model at mid-span while the plane grillage predicts a higher stress in the cantilever and a lower stress elsewhere. the plane grillage model and the upstand grillage model. Only half of the width is shown and the crosssection is included for reference. Restraining in-plane rotations in the model may have adverse effects in some cases. the real problem is the occurrence of local in-plane distortions of the grillage members. Both of these measures will have similar effects. 7. which are clearly inconsistent with the behaviour of the bridge deck. However.Page 246 grillage. The members can be given very large in-plane second moments of area. Assuming the elaborate model
Fig. To test the accuracy of both models.10(b) shows the corresponding quantities at span. This results in a requirement to specify the cross-sectional areas of the grillage members as well as the second moments of area (about both axes) and the torsion constants.9(b) shows an exaggerated plan view of the deflected shape of the three-dimensional brick finite-element model (only one-half of the model is shown as it is symmetrical).8 m single-span bridge deck with wide edge cantilevers. If part of the actual bridge deck deforms in-plane. similar to that shown in Fig.8. was also carried out. 7. Such behaviour in the model can be avoided in one of two ways.9(a) shows the crosssection of a 24. as illustrated in Fig. Figure 7. Figure 7. as tends to occur at the ends of edge cantilevers. the three-dimensional nature of the model causes in-plane displacements in the grillage mesh.10(a) shows the longitudinal bending stress predicted along the top of this bridge deck at mid-span by the three-dimensional brick finite-element model. and it may even be prudent to adopt both. 1996). The in-plane distortion seen at the end of the cantilevers is made up of both in-plane shear distortion and in-plane bending. This bridge was analysed under the action of a constant longitudinal bending moment using a planar grillage model and an upstand grillage model (Keogh and O’Brien. Figure 7. or the nodes at the ends of the members can be restrained against in-plane rotation. It is the in-plane bending component which is not modelled by an upstand grillage with in-plane rotational restraints.8 In-plane distortion of members in upstand grillage model
One solution is to remove the rotational restraints only where the in-plane bending actually occurs but this method requires a degree of knowledge regarding the behaviour of the deck. the benefits of the upstand grillage can be seen at this location. Clearly this is not a satisfactory approach for many bridge decks. the complete removal of the rotational restraints resulted in the behaviour illustrated in Fig.Page 247
Fig.8 which caused inaccuracies elsewhere in the upstand grillage model. This inaccuracy in the upstand grillage is attributable to the use of inappropriate rotational restraints at the ends of the cantilevers. However. this is not the case at span where the upstand grillage in fact makes a poorer prediction of stress in the cantilever than the plane grillage. 7.
. (b) plan view of deflected shape (half)
to be accurate. Unfortunately. 7. which may not be available prior to analysis.9 In-plane deformation in cantilevers of deck: (a) cross-section.
An upstand grillage model is required.10 Calculated longitudinal bending stress on top surface of deck: (a) at mid-span. simply supported span between bearings of 24 m and is supported along the entire width of the main part of the deck at each end. (b) at span
Example 7.11(a) shows the cross-section of a bridge deck with edge cantilevers. 7.2: Upstand grillage model Figure 7.Page 248
. The deck is 25 m long with a single.
2 (dimensions in mm): (a) cross-section.2 m below the top.3.11(c) shows a plan of the upstand grillage mesh.6 m from the top.3 times the depth of the side (at that location) from the edge in accordance with the recommendations of Section 5. The grillage members representing the main part of the deck are located at the centroid of that part which is at 0. The members representing the edge cantilevers are located at the centroid of the cantilevers which is 0.4 m. (b) crosssection with grillage members superimposed.5 m. the portion of bridge deck associated with each grillage member is indicated by the broken lines.7.Page 249
Fig. The X direction is arbitrarily chosen to be parallel to the span of the bridge. The grillage members representing the cantilevers and the outermost members in the main part of the deck have been positioned at 0.11 Upstand grillage model of Example 7. This gives vertical members with a length of 0. the second moment of area per unit breadth is calculated
.11(b) shows the cross-section with a suitable upstand grillage model superimposed. 7. Figure 7. The properties of the members in the upstand grillage model are easily determined. Assuming the main deck slab to be isotropic. (c) plan view of grillage mesh
Figure 7. Seventeen rows of transverse members are provided at a constant spacing of 1.
25 m. giving member breadths of 1.Page 250
as for a beam:
The torsion constant per unit breadth for longitudinal and transverse members is calculated according to equation (5. the second moment of area is:
The torsion constant is:
and the area is:
At the ends.65):
The second moments of area and torsion constants for the grillage members are then determined by multiplying these values by the relevant breadths of the members shown in Fig. 7.11. the bridge extends 0. For the longitudinal members in the main deck.5 m past the centres of the bearings. this gives a second moment of area of:
and a torsion constant of:
except for the edge member in the main deck where the torsion constant is:
The area of the longitudinal members is also required and is given by:
For the transverse members other than those at the ends of the deck. resulting in a second moment of area of:
a torsion constant of:
and an area of:
For the edge cantilevers.0121 0.180 0.60 1.50 1.346 0.1 Upstand grillage member properties for Example 7.44 1.80 0.50
.276 0.3 times the depth (at that location) which gives:
The area of the longitudinal cantilever members is given by:
For the transverse cantilever members.432 0. the second moment of area is:
the torsion constant is:
Table 7.0073 0.0080 0.2
Longitudinal members Cantilever Main deck (interior) Main deck (edge) Transverse members Cantilever (interior) Main deck (interior) Cantilever (ends) Main deck (ends) 0.44 0.173 0.0161 0.32 1. other than those at the ends of the deck. the bridge slab is again assumed to be isotropic and the second moment of area per unit breadth is calculated according to the simple beam formula:
and the torsion constant per unit breadth is calculated according to equation (5. For the longitudinal cantilever members this gives a second moment of area of:
The torsion constant is based on the breadth excluding the portion outside 0.173
0.216 0.0066 0.256
The second moments of area and torsion constants for the grillage members are once again determined by multiplying these values by the relevant breadths of the members.0042 0.
In a series of tests. It benefits from being three-dimensional while being relatively simple to use.
7. The longitudinal member at the bottom is sufficient and the specification of members at one level only simplifies the determination of their properties and the interpretation of results. the second moment of area could be 22 m 4 (100×0. The values chosen are dependent on the computer and software used as excessively large values may result in round-off errors. However. When interpreting the results of an upstand grillage model. Figure 7. The finite-element meshes on each plane are connected by rigid vertical grillage members. In the authors’ experience. it is important to realise that the moments are not comparable to those in a planar grillage. the difference is accounted for by the presence of axial forces which the bridge must be designed to resist.216) and the torsion constant 43 m4 (100×0. as bending in the upstand model is not about the bridge neutral axis. a second moment of area and torsion constant of between 100 and 1000 times the largest values in the model is usually appropriate. the member properties are less. Some programs may have the facility to assign ‘rigid’ properties to members.432). A row of nodes is located at the junction of the edge cantilever and the main part of the deck (Fig. The grillage member properties are given in Table 7.
. Most significantly. so once again.1. it does not suffer from the problems of modelling in-plane behaviour associated with upstand grillages. It is of importance that no longitudinal grillage member be located at the top of the vertical members.12 shows an upstand FE model for a bridge deck with edge cantilevers. The upstand FE model consists of a number of planes of plate finite elements connected together by rigid vertical members.Page 252
and the area is:
At the ends. This approach may need to be verified for particular computers and software.6 Upstand finite-element modelling
Upstand finite-element (FE) modelling is an extension of plane FE modelling in the same way that upstand grillage modelling is an extension of plane grillage modelling. although not essential. that vertical beam members are used rather than vertical elements. Thus. The vertical members are given very large properties so that they will not bend or deform. for this example. the authors have found the upstand FE method to be very suitable for modelling bridge decks with wide edge cantilevers. It is generally more convenient. This is largely due to the well proven ability of finite-elements to model in-plane behaviour. the member breadths are less than those of the internal members. The cantilevers are idealised as finite elements located at the level of the centroids of the actual cantilevers while the main part of the deck is idealised using finite elements located at the centroid of that part. A useful way of achieving this is to increase the member properties in successive runs until just before the program becomes unstable due to round-off errors. 7.1(b)) so that the transverse members on the cantilever side can be given the properties of the cantilever and those on the other side can be given the properties of the main part of the deck. If this is available then it should be used for the vertical members.
13 shows the longitudinal stresses predicted along the top surface of the deck at of the span in the same format as that used in Fig.12 Upstand finite-element model
Fig.14(a) shows the cross-section of a bridge deck with wide edge cantilevers. An upstand FE model is required. Figure 7.13 Calculated longitudinal bending stresses at span on top surface of deck
The bridge deck of Fig.Page 253
Fig.10.8 m and is supported along the entire width of the main part of the deck at each support location. Similar results were found at midspan and for all other cases considered. 7.3: Upstand finite-element model Figure 7. 7. It can be seen that the upstand FE model predicts an almost identical stress distribution to the elaborate three-dimensional brick FE model. The distributions predicted by the elaborate three-dimensional brick FE model and the plane and upstand grillage models described previously are also shown. Example 7. 1998).
. 7. The deck is continuous over two spans of 24. 7. The interpretation of results from upstand FE models is not comparable to those from planar FE models (as is the case for upstand and planar grillage models).9 was analysed by the authors using an upstand FE model (O’Brien and Keogh.
24 m long (in the span direction). All of the elements are 1. only one span is shown in the figure.4 m.2 m wide and 1. Figure 7. 7. The main part of the deck and the edge cantilevers are both taken to be isotropic and consequently the only properties associated with the elements (other than their material properties) are their depths. A plane FE model (in accordance with the recommendations of Chapter 5) and a three-dimensional FE model using solid ‘brick’ type elements were also analysed. The elements representing the edge cantilevers are located at the centroid of the cantilevers which is 0. Figure 7. The three-dimensional brick FE and upstand FE models predict a very similar stress at all locations and the plane FE model is in reasonable agreement. The three-dimensional brick FE and upstand FE models once again predict very similar stress at all locations but the plane FE model is in poor agreement with these. As the model is symmetrical about the central support.15(a) shows the longitudinal stress distribution at the top of the bridge deck along the centreline of the deck as predicted by each of the models. zero stress close to span and maximum tensile stress above the central support. Those representing the main part of the deck are located at the centroid of that part which is 0.14 Upstand finite-element model of Example 7. This stress distribution follows the expected pattern with zero stress at the ends. This results in vertical members with a length of 0. The plane FE model predicts a significantly greater stress at both the mid-span and central support locations. This model was analysed by the authors under the action of self weight.Page 254
Fig. This is caused by the inability of the planar model to allow for the rising neutral
. maximum compressive stress close to span.14(b) shows a three-dimensional view of a suitable upstand finite-element mesh.6 m in from the edge of the cantilever.3: (a) cross-section (dimensions in mm).2 m and those in the edge cantilevers a depth of 0.6 m from the top of the deck.15(b) illustrates the corresponding distribution along a line 0.2 m below the top of the bridge deck. (b) finite-element mesh
Figure 7. The elements in the main part of the deck are given a depth of 1.4 m.
6 m in from edge of cantilever
axis in the edge cantilever. as the stiffness of each part of the deck is made up of a combination of both of these.15 Longitudinal bending stress at top fibre for bridge of Example 7. 7. This example shows the benefits of three-dimensional modelling over planar modelling for bridge decks of this type.Page 255
Fig.3: (a) at centre. Most FE programs only allow the specification of a depth for the finite elements which does not
7. Alternatively this can be viewed as the inability of the planar model to allow for shear lag. (b) 0.1 Upstand finite-element modelling of voided slab bridge decks
The three-dimensional nature of upstand FE modelling requires the specification of the correct area for the elements as well as the correct second moment of area.
They should also have zero in-plane second moment of area as the in-plane behaviour is still modelled by the finite elements. this could be done by incorporating additional grillage members into the model with a negative area and zero second moment of area. this will result in an overly stiff model. but causes problems when dealing with voided slabs. The X direction is chosen as the longitudinal direction. An upstand FE model is required. In this case the vertical members are 0. quite sensibly.Page 256 allow the independent specification of area and second moment of area.16(b) shows the cross-section of a suitable upstand FE model for this bridge deck. This is sufficient when dealing with solid slabs. As stiffness in the upstand FE model is made up of a combination of both the second moment of area and the cross-sectional area of the elements.16(a) shows the cross-section of a voided slab bridge deck with wide edge cantilevers. A solution to this problem is to reduce the area of the elements. Example 7. A more feasible alternative is to choose the depth of the finite elements so that they have the correct area and then to add additional grillage members to make up the shortfall in second moment of area.4: Upstand FE model of voided slab Figure 7. a finite element with a depth chosen by considering the second moment of area of the voided slab will have an excessive area. Figure 7. the equivalent depth of the elements will generally be quite close to (but smaller than) the actual depth of the voided slab. In theory. For the elements in the main part of the deck. 1. As the voids are generally located close to mid-depth of the slab.35 m long. The length of the rigid vertical members is equal to the distance between the centroid of the cantilevers and that of the main part of the deck.4. A choice of 20. the depth of the finite elements is determined by equating the second moment of area of the voided slab to that of an equivalent depth of solid slab. In other words. The additional grillage members should have zero area.2 m long elements in the longitudinal direction would be appropriate for this model. Clearly a member with negative area has no physical meaning and.2 m wide with one void. This is not the case when considering the cross-sectional area which is greatly reduced by the presence of the voids. Modelling of voided slabs by the plane FE method is discussed in Section 6. most computer programs will not allow this. The deck is simply supported with a 24 m span and is supported continuously across its breadth at each end. When considering the longitudinal direction. Therefore. the presence of the voids does not greatly affect the longitudinal second moment of area of the deck. each element represents a portion of deck 1. The second moment of area of this is:
and the area is:
(b) section through finite-element model
Equating this to an equivalent solid element with the same area gives an equivalent element depth.17.879 m and the longitudinal grillage members have second moments of area of 0. Ieq . .16 Upstand finite-element model of Example 7. 7. is:
To incorporate the additional members in the model. is:
This gives a shortfall in second moment of area which has to be made up by additional grillage members.Page 257
Fig. deq .4 (dimensions in mm): (a) cross-section.1):
. The required transverse second moment of area per unit breadth is given by equation (6. These elements have the same equivalent depth of 0. 7.093 m 4. each finite element in the main part of the deck is replaced by four elements and four grillage members as illustrated in Fig. of:
The second moment of area of this equivalent solid element. The second moment of area of these additional members.
7. the required additional second moment of area which is provided by the transverse grillage members is:
Fig. 7. (b) corresponding combination of elements and grillage members
Fig.17 Replacement of plate element: (a) original element.18 Upstand finite-element model with additional grillage members (half)
19 Upstand finite-element model of beam and slab bridge: (a) cross-section. Only one-half of the model is shown as it is symmetrical. The elements used for this example only had nodes at the corners with the result that they could only be joined to the vertical members at their corners.2 Upstand finite-element modelling of other bridge types
It is possible to extend the principles of upstand FE analysis to types of bridge other than solid and voided slabs.19(b). In such cases where the location of the neutral axis is unclear.6×0. However.2 elements in the cantilever were replaced with four 0. 7.6 elements to give nodes at 0. 7. this is clearly an approximation as the exact location of the neutral axis will depend on the flange widths and the relative stiffnesses of the members.18. the originally proposed 1.5 m which is equal to the actual depth of the cantilever. The properties of the remaining parts of the deck are then calculated.Page 259
The edge cantilevers are modelled as finite elements with a depth of 0. Therefore. The final upstand FE model with grillage members shown as dark lines is illustrated in Fig.19(a) shows a beam and slab bridge. This approach has the advantage of simplicity as there is a direct correspondence between each member and
Fig.6 m intervals to join the meshes on the different planes.6.2×1. Rigid.6 m intervals. Each beam in this bridge will act compositely with the slab above it and they are normally assumed to bend about their own centroid rather than that of the bridge as a whole. provided care is taken to ensure that good similitude exists between the model and the actual structure. or very stiff vertical grillage members are specified at 0. The slab can be represented in the model using finite elements located at its centroid of equal depth to it. Figure 7. The horizontal members at different levels are joined by stiff vertical members.
7. 7. each about its own centroid. an upstand FE analysis can be used to represent the behaviour more accurately than the alternative planar models. (b) section through upstand finite-element model
. and are represented by grillage members at the levels of those centroids as illustrated in Fig.
Fig.20(a) shows a cellular bridge deck and Fig. These effects are generally dealt with by calculating the equivalent loading due to prestress (Chapter 2) which is often based on an assumed neutral axis location.7 Prestress loads in three-dimensional models
When analysing for the effects of prestress in bridge decks. 7. then the total moment will have to be calculated taking account of the axial forces in the beam and the elements and the distance between them. However. it is usual to uncouple the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviours.
7. The bridge deck is then analysed to determine the effects of the equivalent loading. has the advantage of automatically allowing for transverse cell distortion as discussed in Section 6. Care should be taken with such a model to ensure that sufficient numbers of elements are provided through the depth of the webs. often rules out its use. Unfortunately. The stresses determined
. the interpretation of the output can be tedious. The in-plane behaviour is governed by the distribution of axial stress in the bridge deck and is often determined by a hand calculation. Transverse diaphragms could also be incorporated into this model with ease. (b) finite-element model
a part of the structure. the number of elements required to achieve this is very large and this.20(b) shows a suitable model based on a variation of the upstand FE analogy. Figure 7. The out-of-plane behaviour is affected by the vertical components of tendon force and by the moments induced by tendon eccentricity. The calculated moment for each beam member is only applicable to bending about its own centroid. combined with the tedium of interpreting the results. to correctly model longitudinal bending there.6. This model.20 Plate finite-element model of cellular bridge: (a) original bridge. If reinforcement is to resist the stresses in a beam and the adjacent elements. as well as dealing with a varying neutral axis.
Page 261 from this analysis are combined with the in-plane axial stresses to obtain the overall effect of the applied prestressing forces.21(a) shows a portion of a bridge deck with an edge cantilever. say. This prestress force has an unknown eccentricity. When using a three-dimensional model. Figure 7.
. the prestress force can alternatively be applied at the level of the elements along with an additional moment to allow for the difference in level between the true point of application and the element. the location which is applicable to. as the magnitude of the equivalent loading is itself dependent on the eccentricity of prestress and is therefore affected by the neutral axis location. The model is subjected to an axial force which generates a moment of:
To avoid the necessity of adding a large number of vertical grillage members to the model. There is no uncertainty concerning the location of the neutral axis about which eccentricity of prestress must be calculated.21 (c) shows this alternative model. In this way. are two fold. This method is often simpler to implement as there is no need to uncouple the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviours. such as the upstand grillage or upstand FE methods. It follows that the calculation of moments due to cable eccentricity are not dependent on any assumed neutral axis location. It should be mentioned that. P. with the equivalent loading calculated in the normal manner. In the latter. Many of the complications involved in determining equivalent loads due to prestress can be avoided in this way. The prestress force is applied directly to the model through a rigid vertical member of length h. Firstly. h. h. as discussed in previous sections. The additional moment is the product of the prestress force and the distance. The deck is subjected to a prestress force. In the three-dimensional approach. the independence of the prestress loading from the neutral axis location is retained but the necessity for a large number of vertical members is avoided. which is also indicated in the figure. below mid-depth of the main part of the deck. there is an additional error. The eccentricity of this force is once again e but a knowledge of the magnitude of the eccentricity is not necessary. the applied moment is:
which is equal to the applied moment of the former. as the neutral axis location is load dependent. the prestress forces are applied directly to the model at the correct vertical location by means of stiff vertical grillage members. 7. but it is unknown at this stage. e. the inability of the planar model to allow for the variation in neutral axis location may cause inaccuracies in the calculated response to equivalent loading.21 (b) shows the equivalent portion of an upstand FE model. The location of the neutral axis is indicated in the figure. The sources of error in a traditional planar model. Figure 7. Figure 7. the equivalent loading due to prestress can be applied in a three-dimensional manner. However.21(a) and (c) can be seen by considering the applied moment. at a distance. because they can be related directly to the design without the need to distinguish between primary and secondary effects. The equivalence of Figs. self weight may not be applicable to prestressing. There are also advantages to be gained in the interpretation of results.
(c) alternative upstand finite-element model
The authors have found this direct method of representing the effects of prestress to be the most accurate of many methods tested when compared to results from elaborate threedimensional finite-element analyses with brick type elements.
. 7.Page 262
Fig. (b) upstand finite-element model with vertical member at point of application of prestress. In particular.21 Portion of prestressed concrete deck: (a) original deck. upstand FE analyses with equivalent loading calculated in the traditional way (as described in Chapter 2) did not always give accurate results.
Appendix A Reactions and bending moment diagrams due to applied load
Appendix B Stiffness of structural members and associated bending moment diagrams
.93×10 9 0 0 − 20.
Table C.60×106 0 0 0. 6.6.1)
where xi and y i are the co-ordinates of point i and n is the number of co-ordinate points.1 Evaluation of equation (C.1)
0 5500 5500 1500 1200 0 0
1200 1200 0 0 800 1000 1200
(xi −i+1 ) x
− 5500 0 4000 300 1200 0 0 4320000 1440000 0 640000 2440000 3640000 4320000
yi +y i+1
2400 1200 0 800 1800 2200 2400 Sum=
− 23.48×106 0 0 − 32.1) are given in Table C. the co-ordinates are taken from the figure starting at the top left corner and specifying only half the section (which will have the same centroid as the full section). For the section of Fig. . of any section can be found from the co-ordinates of the perimeter points using the formula: (C.76×10
− 39. For the purposes of this calculation.Page 267
Appendix C Location of centroid of section
The centroid. point n+1 is defined as equal to point 1.19×10
2.72×106 6. The terms of equation (C.40×106 0 0
0.1 where Top and Bottom refer to the numerator and denominator respectively of the fraction specified in the equation.
.Page 268 The y coordinate of the centroid is then:
The same answer can be found by dividing the section into rectangles and triangles and summing moments of area about any common point.
(b) segment of cell between points of contraflexure
Appendix D Derivation of shear area for grillage member representing cell with flange and web distortion
The transverse shear force half way across the cell will be distributed between the flanges in proportion to their stiffness. D.1 Cell with flange and web distortion: (a) assumed distortion. Hence. the shear force in the top flange will be:
Page 270 where V is the total shear force and i t and ib are the second moments of area per unit breadth of the top and bottom flanges respectively. D. The total deflection in the top flange results from this rotation plus bending in the flange itself:
Similarly the deflection in the bottom flange can be shown to be:
The mean deflection is:
Equating this to the shear deformation in a grillage member gives:
. This force is illustrated in Fig.1 for a segment of cell between points of contraflexure. Hence the total moment at the top of the web is:
The rotation of the web due to this moment is:
where h is the bridge depth (centre to centre of flanges) and i w is the web second moment of area per unit breadth.
.Page 271 If the second moments of area per unit breadth are expressed in terms of the flange and web depths . this becomes equation (6.
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4–5 voided rectangular 4
. 17. 228 Box section 5–7 Bridge bashing see Loading. 18. 28. 169. 147–50 Computer implementation of grillages 179–80 Concrete.Page 274
Page numbers appearing in bold refer to major entries
AASHTO 40 Aesthetics 34–9 Aluminium deck 42 Analysis. 29–30 spherical 30 see also Supports Bending moments due to applied loading 263–4. 182. 180. 147–50 Cross-section 2–8 box 5–7 older concepts 7− 8 solid rectangular 2–4 T. 42. 265–6 Blister 16 Box culvert 21–3. 185 elastomeric 31 pot 30–1 sliding 17. 160 Application of planar grillage and finite element methods 200–39 Arch 18–20 Articulation 26–9 Asphaltic plug joint 32–3 Balanced cantilever 14–17 BD37/88 40 Beam and slab bridge 183. introduction to 67–120 Anisotropic 151. post-tensioning 14
Creep 12. 269–71 Cellular section see Cross-section. 231. box Centroid. 260. impact Buried joint 32 Cable-stayed 25–6 Cantilever 3 balanced 14–17 Cellular bridge 212. 82. 218–28 arching action of slab 228 finite element modelling 225–7 grillage modelling 219–25 transverse behaviour 227–8 upstand finite element model 259 Bearing 29– 31. 78. 13–18 Contraction of integral bridges 128–33 Coupler. impact Composite 25. location of 267–8 Collision loads see Loading. lightweight 42 Continuous beam/slab 10. 72–4 Box girder 212. 229. 228–36 grillage modelling 230–6 three-dimensional finite element model 260 transverse cell distortion 228.
178. 41. 88–9. 245–7. 95. sources of inaccuracy Incremental launch 17 In-plane effects 162. 177–9. 75–7 Differential temperature 47–51. 92. 253. 51–2. expansion FEA see Finite element analysis Finite element analysis (FEA) application of planar 200–39 beam and slab bridge 225–7 brick elements 244. 89–104 Downstand 203 Drop-in span 24–5 Dry density 127 Durability 1 Dynamic amplification 53 Dynamic effects 52–4 Earth pressure 124–6 Edge cantilever 203–11. 237. 230 similitude with bridge slab 171–3 sources of inaccuracy 180–2 U-beams. 184 recommendations for modelling 182–5 shear flexible 212. 88 Equivalent loads method 67. modelling of 225 see also Upstand grillage modelling Halving joint 24 Impact loading 41. 72–4 Curved bridge 236–9 finite element modelling 238–9 grillage modelling 236–8 Dead loading 40. dry 127 Diaphragm 10. 262 mesh 189–91 properties of elements 186–9 recommendations for modelling 189–91 similitude with bridge slab 186 slab bridges 185–91 see also Upstand finite element modelling Foundation. 42 Density. 260–1 Equivalent loading due to temperature/ thermal effects 47. 49. 180. 217 Grillage accuracy 171 analysis of slabs 169–85 application of moment distribution 111–20 application of planar 200–39 beam and slab bridges 219–25 cellular bridges 230–6 computer implementation 179–80 member properties 173–9 mesh 169–71. sources of see Grillage.Page 275
Culvert. box 21–3. 184. 240. 187–9. 189. 185. 121–50 contraction 128–33 cracking over supports 147–50 expansion 137–45 bank seats 142–5 deep abutments 140–2 time-dependent effects 147–50 Interface shear stress 240 Inverted T 3
. 246. 211. 218–19. 237 Effective flange width 242–4. 228 Differential settlement 9. 245 Elastomeric bearing 31 Elevations 8–26 Equivalent loading due to prestress 54–66. 211. 107 Eurocode 40 Expansion of integral bridge see Integral bridge. 260–1 Integral bridge 21–3. 180–2. 43–5 Inaccuracy. 244–6. 220. 252. dynamic Geometrically orthotropic 152. shallow strip 130 Forced vibration 53 Frame bridge 21–3 Frequency see Loading. 252 Edge stiffening 203–11. 40. 54 Imposed traffic loading 40. 90.
43 dead 40. 260–1 equivalent due to thermal effects 47. 42 dynamic 41. mesh. earth 124–6 passive 124 Prestress loading 54–66 loading in three-dimensional models 260–2 losses 60–3.Page 276
Isotropic 151–2. 212. 46–51 differential 47. 177–9. 186–8. 176. 217 materially 152–67. 252. 176. 40. 211. 217 Parapet 34. 107 parabolic profile 56–8 qualitative profile design 58–9 tendon 183
Materially orthotropic 152–67. 177–8. 173–7. incremental 17 Lightweight concrete 42 Linear transformation 54–8 Loading 40–66 abnormal traffic 44–5 cycle track 40. 176. 188 Pot bearing 30–1 Prandtl’s membrane analogy 222 Precast beam 183 Pressure. Grillage. 46 impact 41. 187–9. 45. 232. dynamic Neutral axis 203–4. 188. accommodation of 26 Natural frequency see Loading. 42 Partially continuous beam/slab 10–13 Passive earth pressure 124 Pavement 42 Pier 184 Poisson’s ratio 160. 179. 244–5. 104–11 rail traffic 45–6 road traffic 43–5 superimposed dead 40. 178. 89–104 uniform 46. 88 HA 43–4 HB 44–5 horizontal 40. 78–89 traffic 40. 174. 41. 177– 8. 186. 186. 107 Orthotropic 151–2. 236 Movement. 217 M-beam 7 Mesh see Finite element analysis. 54 normal traffic 43–4 pedestrian 40. 179. 259–61 Nosing joint 33 Notional lane 43
. 49. 182. 42 thermal 40. 178–9. 186. 200–3 Joint 13. 51–2. 220. 173. 193 geometrically 152. 240–2. 32–3 asphaltic plug 32– 3 buried 32 construction 13 halving 24 nosing 33 Key. notional 43 Launch. mesh Modulus secant 127 shear 161. 191–9. shear 15 Lane. 43 prestress 42. 52–4 equivalent due to prestress 54–66. prestress 60–3. 231 Moment capacity see Wood and Armer equations distribution 67–120 in orthotropic plates 161–7 twisting see 166–7. 173. 54–66. 172–3. 188. 43–5 wind 42 Losses. 188. 181. 211. 160. 186– 8. 173. 211.
145– 7 Secant modulus 127 Section see Cross-section Segment. 191–9. 176. 236–9 finite element modelling 238–9 grillage modelling 236–8 Slab bridge decks. 236 U-beam. 269–71 close to point support 182. 261 Road traffic loading 43–5 Run-on slab 23.Page 277
Pseudo-box construction 7 Push-launch construction 17–18 Rail traffic loading 45–6 Reactions due to applied loading 263–4 Recommendations for finite element analysis 189–91 for grillage modelling 182–5 Rectangular section see Cross-section. from grillage 173 key 15 key deck 8 lag 240–2. 184. 230–1. 74. 191. solid rectangular Remaining area 43 Rigid vertical members 245. linear 54–8 Twisting moment 166–7. differential 9. 29–30 Soil stiffness 126–8 Soil/structure interaction 41. 137 stiffness (for soil) 130 supports 180. 188. 40. 209. differential 47–51. 230 force. 176. 161 strength of concrete 156 in thin plates 167–9 Simply supported beam/slab 9. 43–5 Transformation. 220 see also Bearing. 122. 181. 178. 244–5 modulus 161. 122. 186. 183–5. Shear. 259. stitching 16 Series of simply supported beams/slabs 9 Settlement. 230–1. 24 Skew deck 116–20. 191 Steel deck 42 Stiffness of structural members 265–6 Stitching segment 16 Stress in orthotropic plates 159–61 Strip foundation 130 Structural form. thermal Terms 1 Thermal loading see Loading. 75–7 Settlement trough 146 Shallow strip foundation 130 Shear area 180. 185 flexible grillage 212. 184. 252. 189. 246 enhancement 182. 221–2. 172–3. 42 Supports 180. 191 distortion/deformation 156–7. close to point support Suspension bridge 26 Symmetry 71 T-section 4–5 Temperature. factors affecting 1–2 Superimposed dead loading 40. grillage modelling of 225
. 145–7 Sliding bearing 17. 178–9. 186. 173–9. 231 strain 155–6. 41. 188. behaviour and modelling 151– 99 run-on 23. thermal Thin plate theory 151–69 Three-dimensional modelling of bridge decks 240–62 Torsion constant 167. 182. 89–104 Temperature loading see Loading. 232–3 see also Prandtl’s membrane analogy moment distribution 111–20 Traffic loading 40. 125. 180. 180 Span-by-span construction 13 Span/depth ratios 36 Spring model (of soil) 133–6.
261 Vibration see Loading. 211–18. 228 torsional stiffness 214 WIM 43 Wing wall 35 Wood and Armer equations 191–9. 253. dynamic Voided slab 4.Page 278
Uplift 28 Upstand 34. 152. 244 Upstand finite element modelling 252–60. 203. 261 of other bridge types 259–60 of voided slabs 255–9 Upstand grillage modelling 245–52. 236 Y-beam 7