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cng n tp vin thm v Gis Phn 1 Gis Cu 1 .Gis l g?

H thng thng tin a l_Gis l mt h thng thng tin c kh nng nhp, truy tm, x l, phn tch v xut cc d liu tham chiu a l hoc d liu akhng gian phc v cho qu trnh ra quyt nh trong cng tc qun l, quy hoch ti nguyn thin nhin v mi trng. Cu 2. Cc thnh phn ca GIS Gm 5 thnh phn : phn cng, phn mm, c s d liu, phng php, con ngi. * Phn cng : l 1 h thng my tnh bao gm cc thit b ngoi vi(my in, my qut..) trn h thng GIS hot ng. Cc thnh phn trong h phn cng ca GIS gm my ch, my qut, mt my in,mt bng a, mn hnh hin th mu * Phn mm : l mt tp hp cc cu lnh, ch th nhm iu khin phn cng ca my tnh thc hin mt nhim v xnh * C s d liu : - c s d liu khng gian mang tnh a l th hin hnh dng v tr, kch thc v nt c trng ca b mt tri t. bao gm im, ng, vng - C s d liu thuc tnh ko mang tnh a l, th hin c tnh hay cht lng cc nt c trng ca b mt tri t. Bao gm tn l, loi cy trng, ch s hu, din tch, tr lng, tn ng, b rng ng. * Ngi s dng v phng php : cp nht d liu, phn tch khng gian, thc thi cc tc v, ra quyt nh. Cu 3. Cc chc nng, nhim v ca GIS Nhp d liu : - Bn giy - D liu s - GPS(h thng nh v ton cu)

- D liu ta Lu tr d liu : - Dnh dng vecto : s biu th ri rc ca th gii thc - Dnh dng raster :s dng vung m phng thc t - Thc t Truy vn d liu : - Xc nh i tng da vo c tnh c th - Xc nh i tng da trn cc iu kin c bit Phn tch d liu : - Khong cch
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Chng xp bn

- Mng li Hin th d liu : - Bn - Biu - Bo co Xut d liu : bn giy, internet, file nh, ti liu,bo co Cu 4 . Cc d liu cn thit cho GIS :

- Bn v cc s liu a hnh - S liu o c thc a - nh vin thm

Cu 5 . M hnh d liu vector( khi nim, c im, cc i tng c bn, quan h a l (topo) gia cc i tng.

-M hnh d liu vector s dng cc im ng vng ri rc th hin cho cc i tng ri rc thng qua thuc tnh tn hoc m s quy nh. -Mi i tng khng gian u c th hin thng qua cc phn t c bn l im, ng, vng. -i vi vic phn tch khng gian trong GIS, c tnh ca mt i tng trong khng gian c xnh bi ta ,hnh dng v kch thc trong mt h thng ta thng nht, v cc c tnh a hnh hc ca chng. -c tnh a hnh hc l cc mqh hoc cc mi lin kt gia cc thc th trong khng gian. - Cc i tng c bn l : kiu i tng im, kiu tng ng, kiu tng vng - Quan h a l gia cc i tng : + im vi im : nm trong, gn nhau + im vi ng : gn nht, trn ng + im vi vng : trong vng, trn vng + ng vi ng : giao ct nhau, cho nhau, nhp nhau + ng vi vng : giao ct nhau, ng bin + vng vi vng : gi nhau,nm trong, k nhau Cu 6 . M hnh d liu raster ( k/n, c im, cc i tng c bn) Khi nim : m hnh d liu raster phn nh ton b vng nghin cu di dng mt li cc vung hay im nh(pixel) c im : - cc pixel c xp lin tip t tri qua phi, t trn xung di - mi pixel cha mt gtri thuc tnh - tp ma trn cc pixel v cc gtri thuc tnh tng ng to thnh mt lp (layer) - c th c nhiu lp trong c s d liu

phn gii ca d liu raster ph thuc vo kch thc im nh. Kch thc cng nh phn gii cng ln.

Cc i tng c bn : - im trong m hnh raster : s hiu im, ta pixel, gtri thuc tnh. - ng trong m hnh raster : s hiu ng, dy ta cc im to nn ng, gtri thuc tnh - Vng trong m hnh raster : s hiu vng, nhm cc ta to nn vng, gi tr thuc tnh Cu 7. So snh m hnh raster vi vector (u, nhc im) M hnh vector u -biu din tt cc i tng a l -d liu nh gn -cc quan h topo c xnh bng mng kt ni -chnh xc v hnh hc Kh nng sa cha, b sung, chuyn i nhanh gn Nhc -cu trc d liu phc tp -kh khn khi chng xp bn -cp nht thng tin kh khn -thu thp thng tin u vo tn km M hnh raster -cu trc rt n gin -d dng chng xp v m hnh ha -thch hp cho vic thit lp m hnh 3D -d thc hin nhiu php ton phn tch d liu -chi ph thp cho vic thu thp thng tin u vo v c kh nng thc hin t ng -dung lng lu tr ln, chnh xc thp -kh khn vi cc bi phn tch mng li -thc thi v chuyn i d liu chm

Cu 8. Qu trnh raster ha (khi nim, v d)

Raster ha (hay qu trnh chuyn i t vector sang raster) l tin trnh chia ng hay vng thnh cc vung pixel Raster ha rt hu ch trong vic ng dng GIS trong cng ngh vin thm Vd : Cu 9. Qu trnh vector ha (khi nim,vd) Vector ha (hay qu trnh chuyn i t raster sang vector) l tin trnh tp hp cc pixel to thnh ng hay vng (tin trnh vector ha phc tp hn nhiu tin trnh raster ha ; tin trnh vector ha yu cu bc nh raster u vo phi r rng khng c nhiu (noise) hay khng r rng Vd : nh gc => lc bt v m ha => d liu vector Cu 10 . M hnh d liu thuc tnh(khi nim ,vd) M hnh d liu thuc tnh l nhng m t v c tnh, c im v cc hin tng xy ra ti cc v tr a l xc nh. Cc loi d liu thuc tnh : - c tnh ca i tng : mu sc, cht liu.. - S liu tham kho a l : s kin, hin tng.. - Ch s a l : tn, a ch, phng hng - Quan h gia cc i tng trong khng gian VD : Cu 11. Khi nim phn tch khng gian Phn tch khng gian l s ng dng k thut GIS nhm tr li cc cu hi v th gi thc nh l trng thi hin ti ca mt khu vc hay mt thc th, s thay i ca hin trng cng nh xu th thay i v s nh gi v mc v kh nng xy ra trng qua cc k thut chng xp m hnh ha hoc d on. Cu 12. Cc php phn tch khng gian (lit k v m t vn tt) - Truy vn : l cc php ton logic v s hc trn d liu thuc tnh.

- Phn cp : phn loi li d liu thuc tnh - Ti cu trc lp ph : ti cu trc li d liu khng gian v cc mi quan h topo - Chng xp: chng xp 2 hay nhiu lp d liu khc nhau - Phn tch s lin kt: phn tch s lin kt gia im, ng, vng v mt khong cch, din tch, thi gian, mng li Cu 13. Php truy vn l g?(khi nim, vd) +truy vn l qu trnh thu thp d liu thuc tnh m ko lm thay i cc d liu hin c theo nhng kin c bit do ngi thc hin ra +cc kin c bit gm 3 yu t : tn thuc tnh, bng d liu, kin c th

Cu 14. Kh nng phn cp l g ?(kn,vd) +phn cp l qu trnh ch ra mt nhm thuc tnh thuc v mt cp nhm no . Mt lp bn mi s c to ra mang gtri hoc m ha mi m n c to thnh da vo bn gc. +vic phn cp c th c thc hin trn mt hoc nhiu t bn khc nhau +cc trng hp thng gp : khi qut ha, xp hng, ti chn lc

Cu 15. Kh nng ti cu trc lp ph l g ?(kn,vd) +ti cu trc lp ph phn tch l mt hng ng bin nhm to ra mt lp ph mi da trn nhng la chn t ngi sdung +cc hng ny bao gm 6 kiu : clip, erase, update, split, append, join Cu 16. Kh nng chng xp l g? (kn,vd)

+chng xp l kh nng c bit ca GIS cho php chng xp nhiu lp thng tin (>=2) to thnh mt bn mi mang cc c tnh hon ton khc vi bn trc y. +cc k thut chng xp: phng php cng, tr, nhn, chia, tnh trung bnh, etc Cu 17. Kh nng phn tch lin kt l g? (kn,vd) +phn tch lin kt l vic phn tch cc mi lin kt gia im, ng v vng v mt khong cch, din tch, thi gian di chuyn, l trnh ti u.. +cc phng thc phn tch lin kt: phn tch vng m, phn tch khong cch, phn tch mng li Cu 18. Bn s l g? Tnh cht ca bn s (c s so snh vi bn giy truyn thng) Bn s l mt tp hp c t chc cc d liu bn c lu trn thit b c kh nng c bng my tnh v c th hin di dng hnh nh bn . Tnh cht ca bn (c s so snh) : - Mi bn c mt h quy chiu nht nh - Mc y cc thng tin v ndung v chnh xc cc yu t trong bn s hon ton p ng yu cu cc tiu chun bn theo thit k ban u - T l ca bn khc vi bn thng thng. N ko c nh m c th thay i ty theo yu cu ca ng sdung - H thng k hiu trn bn s thc cht l cc k hiu ca bn thng thng c s ha - Bn c tnh linh hot hn hn bn truyn thng c th d dng thc hin cc cviec :cp nht v hiu chnh thng tin - chng xp hoc tch cc lp thng tin theo mun - d dng bin tp v to ra bn mi theo mun -d dng in ra vi s lng v t l ty - c kh nng lin kt v sdung trong mng my tnh
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Khi thnh lp bn s cc cng on ban u nh thu thp v x l s liu i hi k thut v tay ngh cao

- Cc yu t bn gi nguyn c chnh xc ca d liu o c ban u, khng chu nh hng ca sai s ha Cu 19. Cc bc c bn thit k bn s t s liu o c ngoi lm nghip ? 1. Chun b : lu chn h quy chiu cho ph hp (hnay l VN2000) 2. Nhp s liu vo phn mm GIS : qua cng kt ni hoc qua bn phm 3. Bin tp cc i tng khng gian : s ha cc lp thng tin trn c s s liu iu tra 4. Xy dng c s d liu thuc tnh : xy dng cc trng d liu, mu bng biu
5. Thit k bn chuyn : t c s d liu thuc tnh cc thng tin theo

tnh chuyn s c th hin r trn bn y l sp ca s kt hp gia thng tin khng gian v thng tin thuc tnh 6. Chng xp cc lp thng tin v thit k, bin tp trang in 7. Xc nh t l bn v in n Cu 20. Cc bc c bn thit k bn s t bn giy truyn thng ? mc ch ca cng tc ny ? 1. Qut bn : nhm mc ch lu tr di dng nh raster trong my tnh. Cht lng nh, cht lng bn giy, phn gii, nh dng lu tr) s qnh c cht lng thng tin khng gian thu thp c
2. nh v bn v mt h quy chiu chun : l qu trnh tm mi quan h

tng quan gia ta nh v ta a l ca bn


3. Tch lp thng tin v s ha tng lp thng tin ring bit : cc i tng

khng gian trn bn cn c nhm gp theo cc nhm i tng gi l cc lp thng tin. Yu cu : tin cho qu trnh bin tp, chnh sa, cp nht 4. Xy dng c s d liu thuc tnh cho cc lp thng tin khng gian 5. Thit k bn chuyn

6. Chng xp cc lp thng tin v thit k trang in 7. Xc nh t l bn v in n Mc ch ca cng tc ny : + thun tin cho qu trnh qun l + d dng chnh sa cp nht thng tin sau ny Cu 21. Trn bn s cc i tng a l c th hin ntn ? - Cc i tng s trong c s d liu khng gian l s phn nh li cc thc th trong th gii thc cng vi thuc tnh tng ng - Bn th hin cc i tng a l thng qua m t bng tp hp cc thnh phn nh ng, mu sc, k hiu v t ng. - Cc thng tin ha v m t cho chng ta bit v v tr a l v cc thuc tnh ca cc i tng a l - M hnh d liu s phn nh li cc v tr, tnh cht v cc quan h khng gian di dng s
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Bn s lu tr d liu theo loi i tng : im, ng, vng

Cu 22. Cu trc phn lp thng tin trong bn c thc hin ntn ? - Mt trong nhng bc quan trng xdung CSDL GIS l phn loi cc lp thng tin - H thng GIS lu tr cc i tng a l theo cc lp thng tin
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Mi lp thng tin lu tr mt nhm i tng a l c chung mt tnh cht( cng l im, ng hay vng)

- Cc phn lp thng tin s nh hng rt ln n tnh hiu qu, kh nng x l, v s dng lu di ca c s d liu kgian Cu 23. Cc nguyn tc khi thit k cc lp thng tin trn bn - Mt s nguyn tc khi thit k cc lp thng tin +cc lp thng tin c bn : lp thng tin c s ton hc bn ( im khng ch, khung vin..), lp thng tin v a hnh, lp thng tin h thng thy vn, lp thng tin h thng ng giao thng

+cc lp thng tin chuyn : hin trng ti nguyn rng, hin trng s dng t +gp cc i tng a l thnh mt lp thng tin sao cho khng qu chi tit(kh qun l) cng ko qu tng qut (kh x l ring) Cu 24. Cc chun thng tin cn tun th khi bin tp bn s - Chun v h thng ta - Chun v cc sai s - Chun v phn mnh, nh phin hiu mnh bn s
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Chun v phn lp thng tin

- Chun v m hnh lu tr v m t thng tin Cu 25. Cc ng dng ca GIS trong lm nghip


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Xy dng, lu tr v qun l thng tin ti nguyn rng

- Thnh phn ca CSDL lm nghip - La chn vng t thch hp cho canh tc nng, lm nghip - Xy dng bn vng l lt - M hnh gi lp vng ngp lt - M hnh gi lp vng t l - M hnh gi lp vng thit hi do chy rng - Thit k mu iu tra

PHN II

VIN THM

Cu 26. Khi nim vin thm ? nguyn l c bn ca vin thm Vin thm l mt mn khoa hc v cng ngh m nh n cc tnh cht ca vt th quan st c xnh, o c hoc phn tch m khng cn tip xc trc tip vs chng.

Nguyn l c bn ca vin thm Cu 27. Cc loi vin thm ? Phn loi vin thm theo bc sng sdung - Vin thm nhn thy v hng ngoi - Vin thm hng ngoi nhit - Vin thm siu cao tn Phn loi theo cao bey chp - Vin thm hng khng: s dng cc vt mang bay cao di 100km
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Vin thm v tinh : s dng cc vt mang bay cao t 500km n 36000km Vdu: phi thuyn khng gian endeavour(1991), my bay DC-8(NASA)

Cu 28. B cm l g? Cc loi b cm ? B cm l thit b dng cm nhn sng in t phn x hay bc x t vt th. Cc loi b cm : - B cm b ng (vd : nh v tinh MODIS mang b cm b ng _di sng nhn thy, hng ngoi gn, hng ngoi nhit)
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B cm ch ng(vd : nh chp bng b cm ch ng_knh mu L c RGB=VV,HV,HH)

Cu 29. Cc tnh cht ca b cm quang hc ? cc v d v b cm quang hc ? Cc tnh cht : - Tnh cht ph : cc knh ph, b rng v nhy ca chng - Tnh cht bc x : phm vi bin ng ca bc x in t khi i qua h thng quang hc - Tnh cht hnh hc : mo ca ng knh, trng nhn (FOV), trng nhn khng i (IFOV)

Cu 30. Vt mang l g ? cc loi vt mang ? qu o bay ca v tinh ? Vt mang l phng tin dng mang cc b cm Cc vt mang ph bin hnay l v tinh v cc thit b bay hng khng. Cc nhn t nh hng n vt mang l cao bay chp, t th bay, qu o bay hay l trnh bay chp, trng ti

Cc loi vt mang : Vt mang V tinh a tnh V tinh quan st mt t Tu v tr Bng thm khng May bay phn lc May bay cao bay chp 36000km 500-1000km 240-350km 20km 10-12km 0.3-7.5km

Qu o bay v tinh: - Tp hp cc thng s c bn m t qu o chuyn ng ca v tinh c gi l qu o bay. - c im qu o bay v tinh: +hnh dng: elip,trn + nghing + chu k bay Cu 31. Cng ngh vin thm thng s dng cc loi t liu no? - D liu nh s - D liu thng tin mt t - H thng nh v ton cu (GPS) - D liu bn - M hnh s ha cao (DEM)

Cu 32. nh s l g? Cc c im ca nh s? trn nh s thng s no c trng cho pixel? nh s l s th hin v mt s ha (thng bng h nh phn) ca bc nh 2 chiu.

Cc c im ca nh s: - nh s thng thng c lu tr bng nh dng raster - nh raster l mt tp hp hu hn cc gi tr s ha c gi l cc thnh phn ca nh hay pixel - khi nim ly mu - cp xm c th hin trn nh s

Trn nh s thng s c trng cho pixel: mi pixel tng ng vi mt n v khng gian. Cc pixel thng c dng hnh vung. Mi pixel c xnh bng ta hng v ct. Cu 33. c tnh hnh hc ca nh s?

Trng nhn(FOV) : l gc nhn ti a m mt b cm c th thu c song in t. khong ko gian trn mt t do FOV to nn chnh l b rng tuyn bay

- Trng nhn ko i (IFOV): l gc ko gian tng ng vi mt n v chia mu trn mt t - Hng bay(V) - B rng vt qut (L) - phn gii mt t(g)

Cu 34. phn gii ca nh s? (khi nim v cc loi phn gii ca nh s) - phn gii khng gian th hin kch thc nh nht ca mt vt th c th c xnh trn mt t
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phn gii ph m t cc bc song c th m b cm c th thu nhn c trong ph in t. VD: knh IR c bc sng t 0,7 n 1 um.

- phn gii thi gian l s m t v tn sut m b cm c th thu nhn c bc nh ti cng mt v tr c th trn mt t. VD: v tinh Landsat c chu k lp l 16 ngy trong khi v tinh RapidEye ch mt 5,5 ngy. - phn gii bc x biu th s lng gi tr cp xm c th c th hin trong mt knh ph . v tnh l bit. Cu 35. D liu thng tin mt t c sdung lm g? - Lm t liu thit k b cm - Kim nh cc thng s k thut ca b cm
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Thu thp cc thng tin b tr cho qu trnh phn tch v hiu chnh s liu

Cu 36. Bc x in t l g? Cc thnh phn c bn? Cc loi bc x in t ? -KN: l bc x truyn nng lng in t trn c s cc dao ng ca trng in t trong khng gian hoc trong lng cc vt cht. Bc x in t c tnh cht sng v ht. -Cc tp` c bn: Bc sng/ Tn s Hng truyn pht Bin dao ng Mt phng phn cc -Phn loi: Cc tm

nh sng nhn thy Hng ngoi: hng ngoi gn, hng ngoi sng ngn, hng ngoi trung, hng ngoi nhit, hng ngoi xa Sng vi ba: EHF,SHF,UHF

Cu 37. c tnh phn x ph ca thc vt? ng dng trong vin thm? nh sng nhn thy (0,4~0,7 m): im cc tiu c xc nh bi cc sc t trong l thc vt Cht dip lc hp th mnh nng lng trong di sng 0,45~0,65 m (knh hp th dip lc) Hng ngoi gn (0,7~1,3 m): phn x rt cao (50 %) Nng lng cn li truyn qua (b hp th rt t) Ph thuc cu trc l ng dng xc nh cc loi cy khc nhau Cu 38. c tnh phn x ph ca nc? ng dng trong vin thm? Hu ht nng lng ca cc tia bc x b nc hp th hoc truyn qua. nh sng nhn thy (0,4~0,7 m): Ch t nng lng c phn x trong di sng ny Nghin cu cht lng nc Phn bit nc nng v su, nc trong v c Hng ngoi gn NIR (0,7~1,3 m): Hon ton b hp th S dng xc nh khu vc c nc Cu 39. c tnh phn x ph ca t? ng dng trong vin thm? Cc nhn t nh hng phn x ca t: m Kt cu t (t l ct, st) Cu trc b mt Hm lng oxit st (gim s phn x) Hm lng cht hu c (gim s phn x) t kh c kt cu ht th s phn x mnh hn kt cu ht mn (ngc li nu c s xut hin ca nc)

: Mc phn x ph thuc vo thnh phn khong v s phong ho b mt Cu 40. Yu t thi gian v khng gian nh hng ti kh nng phn x ph ca cc i tng t nhin nh th no? Phng n khc phc. Yu t thi gian: Thc vt trn b mt t thng thay i theo ma (v d, ma ng cy rng l) do vy cn phi nhn bit r thi v, thi im nh chp v c im ca i tng khi gii on nh. Yu t khng gian: Yu t khng gian cc b Yu t khng gian a l Yu t khng gian cc b: c th hin cng mt loi i tng nhng c kt cu khc nhau. V d: cy trng theo lung, hng hay trng theo mng. Yu t khng gian a l: c th hin cng loi thc vt nhng phn b cc vng a l khc nhau s c hnh dng khc nhau do vy kh nng phn x ph cng khc nhau. Phng n khc phc: nh phi c chp nhiu thng xuyn v nh k trong mt khong thi gian nht nh La chn nh chp ti thi im cc i tng c mc chnh lch phn x ph l ln nht Chn nh chp iu kin mi trng ph hp nh t l my di 10%. Cu 41. Bu kh quyn nh hng ti kh nng phn x ph ca cc i tng t nhin nh th no? Bc x ph ca kh quyn ph thuc vo bc sng. Bc sng c % bc x cao c gi l ca s kh quyn. Vin thm ch c tc dng ti cc vng ca s kh quyn ny. Bu kh quyn nh hng ti s liu v tinh vin thm qua 2 con ng: Tn x Hp th S tn x (scattering): l s thay i ng i theo mi hng (vi cng khc nhau) ca tia bc x khi gp phi mi trng c s khng ng nht. C 2 loi tn x: Tn x Rayleigh Tn x Mie

S hp th (absorption) din ra khi tia sng khng c phn x tr li m nng lng ca tia sng b vt th hp th. Cu 42. nh v tinh l g? Cc loi nh v tinh thng gp? -KN: l nhng bc nh c chp bi cc b cm mang trn cc vt mang. nh v tinh cng c phn loi da vo loi b cm, phn gii hoc bc sng s dng chp nh -Phn loi: Theo b cm: nh Landsat, nh SPOT, nh Modis, nh Ikonos,.. Theo phn gii: + nh v tinh phn gii thp (MODIS, ASTER) + phn gii trung bnh (Landsat, SPOT) + phn gii cao Theo di sng chp nh: + nh v tinh trong di nh sang nhn thy v hng ngoi + nh v tinh hng ngoi nhit + nh v tinh siu cao tn -Cc loi nh v tinh thng gp: V tinh SPOT, V tinh Landsat Cu 43. K thut on c nh vin thm l g? Cc k thut on c nh ph bin? Cho v d minh ho? -KN: l qu trnh tch thng tin nh tnh v nh lng t nh v v tr, hnh dng, cu trc, c im, cht lng, tnh trng cc mi quan h ca cc i tng da trn cc tri thc chuyn ngnh hoc kinh nghim ca ngi on c -Cc k thut on c nh ph bin: Phn loi nh. VD :Hin trng s dng t or hin trng s dng rng Theo di bin ng: Bin ng hin trng s dng t/ rng Trch xut c tnh vt l ca vt th: Nhit , cao Trch xut cc ch s: Ch s thc vt (NDVI) Xc nh cc tnh cht c bit: lp bn chy rng, vng l lt. Cu 44. Cc phng php on c nh v u - nhc im ca chng?

K thut on c nh bng mt K thut s l nh qua my tnh

u -Khai thc c kin thc chuyn ngnh v kinh nghim ca on c vin -X l tt nh c phc tp cao -Nng sut cao, thi gian x l ngn -Quy trnh x l c chun ha -Trch xut c cc thng tin t nhin

Nhc -Tn km thi gian -Kt qu ko ng nht -Ko d p dng kin thc chuyn ngnh -Kh kt hp vs kin thc chuyn ngnh -Cc thng tin phc tp kh trch xut

Cu 45. Cc yu t on c nh? -Yu t sc thi, mu sc (nc bin, nc trong b bi, rng, ng, mi nh), thng tin lp th -> yu t c s -Yu t kch thc, hnh dng (Kch thc, hnh dng khc nhau ca cc ngi nh, sn vn ng, bi cy, mt nc) -Yu t kt cu: Kt cu b mt mn v ng nht ca nc bin v ng c, t nng nghip, rng cy c kt cu b mt th. -Yu t kiu mu -Chiu cao, bng . Da trn phn tch cc yu t c s. -V tr v cc mi quan h -> Yu t ng cnh Cu 46. Hy nu mt vi ng dng ca k thut on c nh trong vin thm? -on c nh ASTER -Lp bn hin trng rng -on c khu vc b l lt -on c khu vc chy rng -on c ti nguyn m qung -nh gi tc ng mi trng -nh gi tc mt rng Cu 47. Cc bc c bn ca k thut x l nh v tinh - X l d liu vin thm + Hiu chnh nh : - Phc hi nh

- Hiu chnh bc x - Hiu chnh hnh hc - Mosia +Phn loi nh : - Phn mnh - Phn loi - Dnh gi chnh xc + Chuyn i nh : - Tng cng nh - Chuyn i khng gian - Chuyn di hnh hc - Nn d liu Cu 48. Khi la chn nh v tinh x l ta cn ch nhng vn g? Cu 49. Qu trnh hiu chnh nh v tinh v c bn bao gm nhng k thut no? - Phc hi nh : - Hiu chnh bc x - Hiu chnh kh quyn - Hiu chnh hnh hc - Mosia Cu 50. Mo hnh hc l g? Cc nguyn nhn gy ra mo hnh hc? -Mo hnh hc l s sai lch v v tr, t l gia ta nh thc so vi ta l thuyt -Nguyn nhn: +c tnh ca b cm (h thng ng knh) Mo quang hc (do cu trc ng knh) Mo t l S di chuyn lch ca gng xoay Li do b d tn hiu +c im a hnh (khu vc chp nh, cong tri t) Hiu ng ton cnh cong b mt tri t

+S di chuyn ca vt mang (thay i cao bay chp, v tr) Thay i v cao Thay i v tr +S di chuyn ca i tng chp nh (s quay ca tri t, cc vt th di chuyn khc) S quay ca tri t S di chuyn ca cc i tng trn b mt Cu 51. hiu chnh hnh hc cho mt bc nh v tinh ta cn thc hin cc bc k thut c bn no? -Hiu chnh hnh hc l cc hot ng c thc hin nhm phc hi hoc b tr s mo hnh hc ca nh -Cc bc thc hin: +Nhp nh +la chn li chiu. Ko c h li chiu no hon ho-> chp nhn sai s. Cc h li chiu thng dng: Mercator, UTM, Gauss-Kruger +La chn m hnh hiu chnh Cc im khng ch mt t(GCPs) l tp hp cc pixel c th xc nh c chnh xc trn nh v trn bn c s hoc ngoi thc a +Kim tra sai s +Ni suy v ti chia mu nh +nh hiu chnh

Cu 52. khng ch mt t l g? Khi xy dng cc im khng ch mt t cn lu nhng vn g? im khng ch mt t CPGs l tp hp cc pixel c th xc nh chnh xc trn nh v trn bn c s v ngoi thc a. Vi mi im GCP ta ca pixel phi khp chnh xc vi ta cc im tng ng trn bn c s vs 1 h quy chiu no . -la chn cc im khng ch phi: +d dng xc nh trn nh v trn bn c s hoc ngoi thc da +cc im khng ch mt t phi phn b u trn nh

+s lng im khng ch mt t phi d ln +ta cc im ny c th xc nh dc vi ta chinh xc cao Cu 53. K thut bin i nh bao gm nhng k thut c bn no? -tng cng cht lng nh +bin i cp xm +bin i biu phn b +t hp mu +lc nh -chit tch c tnh +ch s thc vt +phn tch thnh phn chnh Cu 54. K thut tng cng cht lng nh c thc hin nhm mc ch g? Cc k thut tng cng c bn? MC CH : nhm cung cp nhng bc nh c tng phn cao ,d dng x l v phn tch bi cc phn mm hoc ngi on c CAC KI THUAT : -bin i cp xm -bin i biu phn b -T hp mu -lc nh Cu 55. Cc phng thc t hp mu? - T hp mu: t hp mu GRB (trn 2 mu thnh mt mu nht hn_ ch yu ti vi, mn hnh, my tnh); t hp mu CMY (trn hai mu thnh mt mu m hn_ch yu my in) - T hp mu thc RGB=red,green,blue
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T hp mu hng ngoi RGB= IR,Red,Green

- T hp mu gi (blue-green-red-yellow; cp xm)

Cu 56. Ch s thc vt l g?ch s thc vt no c sdung ph bin hnay? (cng thc tnh)

Ch s thc vt: l ch s c xc nh da trn s phn x khc nhau ca thc vt th hin gia knh ph thy c v knh ph cn hng ngoi. Dng biu th mc tp trung ca thc vt trn mt t.

Ch s thc vt c dung ph bin hnay l ch s thc vt NDVI .cng thc tnh: NDVI=(NIR-Vi)/(NIR+VI) Trong NIR l knh cn hng ngoi (knh 4) Vi : knh thy c y thng l knh Gi tr ca NDVI l dy s t -1 n +1 Cu 57. K thut phn loi nh s l g? S cn thit ca k thut phn loi nh s? phn loi nh s lm g?

K thut phn loi nh s: l phng php phn loi cc phn t nh thnh cc i tng trn mt t khc nhau thng qua vic sdung cc tham s thng k v gtri ph ca cc pixel trn nh trn mt knh ph hoc nhiu knh ph di s tr gip ca my tnh v cc phn mm chuyn dng.

S cn thit ca k thut phn loi nh s: Do phng php on c bng mt ko khch quan, tn thi gian, ko tn dng ht thng tin c th cung cp bi t liu nh s: nh 8bit c 256 cp xm nhng mt ng ch phn bit c 8-10 cp xm => lng ph thng tin trn nh. Cn nu sdung phng php phn loi nh s trn my tnh th tnh khch quan cao, tc x l nhanh, my tnh d dng phn bit 256 cp xm khc nhau => p dng thut ton thng k chnh xc. Phn loi nh s : - Lm t liu xy dng bn s dng t, bn hin trng t, bn hin trng rng.. - Xc nh cc loi thc vt, cc kiu rng.. - Nghin cu a cht, khong sn.. - Bin i kh hu

Cu 58. Cc nguyn l c bn ca k thut phn loi nh s? - S dng thng tin bc x ph t nh - Cc i tng khc nhau c thng tin ph khc nhau
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Gi thit: tt c cc pixel thc vt c chnh xc (100%) thng tin ph khc nhau. => ta c th ni rng bt k pixel no c thng tin ph nh vy s l thc vt. Tng t cho cc i tng khc nh t nc

- nh LANDSAT c 6 knh ph => khng gian ph 6 chiu; mi pixel s th hin l mt trong khng gian 6 chiu ny Tng qut mt nh v tinh bt k s c khng gian ph n-chiu Cu 59. Cc phng php phn loi nh s thng gp? Da vo nguyn l : thng k tham s v thng k phi tham s Da vo thut ton: phn loi khng kim nh v phn loi c kim nh

Da vo cc tham s ca tng pixel hoc da vo c trng i tng

Cu 60. K thut phn loi c kim nh?(khi nim, c im, nguyn l, cc bc thc hin) Khi nim : l k thut phn loi s dng cc vng mu phn loi cc pixel c cng c trng cc i tng . Ngi gii on bit trc cc i tng cn phn loi : + S lng cc i tng trong vng nghin cu + Phn b ca cc i tng Cc bc thc hin: nh s => xc nh lp i tng => la chn vng mu cho tng i tng => tnh ton cc ch s thng k => chn thut ton phn loi => kim nh kt qu => lp bn phn loi.

Cu 61. Khi la chn vng mu trong k thut phn loi c kim nh ta cn lu nhng v gi? Vng mu c th la chn da trn cc ngun b sung nh: bn , nh my bay, iu tra hin trng, c im trn nh t hp mu. Phi chc chn vng mu la chn chnh xc => hu qu nghim trng (sai lm) Din tch phi ln tnh ton c cc thng tin ( s pixel>=100) S lng vng mu cho mi i tng phi ln v bao hm tt c cc k khc nhau( 10 vng mu/ lp i tng). phi phn b u trong nh. Trnh la chn vng mu nhng khu vc, vng bin Cu 62. Thut ton phn loi l g? Cc loi thut ton phn loi?

Thut ton phn loi l cc phng php gn, phn loi cc pixel v mt i tng no thn qua cc tham s thng k, cc c trng ph ca nh. Cn c gi l lut ra quyt nh.

Cc loi thut ton phn loi gm: - Cc thut ton thng k tham s + gi thuyt: cc hm phn b mt ca mi nhm i tng cn phn loi tun theo quy lut phn b chun v c ranh gii tch bit. +bao gm thut ton xc sut cc i v thut ton phn nhm - Cc thut ton thng k phi tham s: + gi thuyt : cc hm phn b mt ca mi nhm i tng cn phn loi ko tun theo quy lut phn b chun v hnh thi ca quy lut phn b l ko xc nh. +bao gm: thut ton hnh hp, thut ton ngi lng ging gn nht, thut ton khong cch gn nht. +thut ton +thut ton theo mng thng minh

Cu 63. K thut phn loi khng kim nh?(khi nim, c im, cc bc thc hin) Phn loi khng kim nh l k thut phn loi ch s dng cc gtri ph t nh. c im: - S lng lp i tng do ng dung nh trc - Cc lp i tng c my tnh phn bit thng qua qu trnh nhm gp theo cm. - Sau ng dung s xc nh tn i tng tng ng( gn nhn cho i tng) Cc bc thc hin: nh s => xnh s lp i tng => tch bit d liu thnh cc nhm => phn nhm d liu => gn nhn cho tng cluster => kim nh kt qu => lp bn phn loi. Cu 64. Phn bit k thut phn loi c kim nh v khng kim nh? Phn loi c kim nh u im -ngi on c c th kim sot vic la chn vng mu, cc loi lp i tng nhm p ng 1 mc tiu hay 1 c ca khu vc nghin cu. -c th nh gi kt qu bng cc vng mu b sung. -gn kt cht ch vi cc vng n.cu bit trc cc c tnh Nhc im -ngi on c b rang Phn loi khng kim nh -khng i hi cc kin thc m rng v khu vc nghin cu -c hi gim thiu sai s do ngi on c -cc lp i tng ng nht c nhn bit ring bit -gim bt cc cng vic sau phn loi

-vic gp cc nhm ko

buc vo thut ton phn tng ng tt vi cc i loi la chn. tng ngoi t nhin -vng mu c xy dng da trn thng tin i tng ch ko phi thuc tnh ph nh. -la chn vng mu tn thi gian v cng sc -vng mu c th ko i din cho ton b i tng trong nh. -khng c s kim sot v vic la chn cc lp i tng v cc thng s ca chng -cc thng tin ph ca cc nhm i tng thay i theo thi gian => kh khn khi chng xp v nh gi bin ng.

Cu 65. Nguyn l nh gi chnh xc kt qu phn loi nh s? - La chon cc im mu trn nh sau xc nh hin trng chnh xc ngoi thc a( hoc c th xnh qua bn ) => im khng ch mt t. - Sau so snh hin trng thc t ti cc im mu ny vi kt qu phn loi - Kt qu so snh c th hin qua mt ma trn gi l ma trn sai s Cu 66. nh gi chnh xc ca kt qu phn loi ta thng s dng cc ch tiu no?( cng thc tnh v ngha). Cu 67. nng cao chnh xc cho kt qu phn loi nh s ta nn s dng nhng k thut no? - Lc nh : li b hin tng mui tiu - Giam cc lp thng tin bng cch gp cc lp thng tin c cng c im - Cung cp thm thng tin bng cch tng s lng vng mu - Thu thp d liu i chng - B sung cc thng tin thm ( cao , dc ...) tng mc hiu bit khi phn loi .