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Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB

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Chng 9
H THNG TRUYN DN BNG SIU RNG UWB
9.1. GII THIU CHUNG
Cc ch c xt trong chng
\ Cc tnh cht c bn ca tn hiu v h thng UWB
\ To tn hiu UWB, m hnh to tn hiu UWB in hnh
\ Knh UWB v my thu UWB.
Mc ch chng
\ Nm cc khi nim, tnh cht, c im ca truyn thng bng siu rng.
\ Hiu qu trnh to tn hiu UWB, m phng tn hiu UWB in hnh.
\ Hiu knh truyn sng UWB, m hnh v cc tham s c trng ca knh UWB.
\ Hiu qu trnh thit k v m hnh ha my thu cho knh UWB.
9.2. CC TNH CHT C BN CA TN HIU V H THNG UWB
V tuyn bng siu rng (UWB) c da trn s pht x cc dng sng, c c
trng bi rng bng tn nng lng tc thi ln hn khong 0,20-0,25. Trong phn ny,
ta s phn tch nguyn l rng bng tn nng lng phn on v nh ngha v v
tuyn bng siu rng.
H s bng tn
Vic chp nhn chung thut ng bng siu rng UWB xut pht t lnh vc radar
bng siu rng v ni v cc dng sng in t c c trng bi h s bng tn nng
lng tc thi ln hn khong 0,20-0,25. hiu r nh ngha ny, trc ht ta nh
ngha rng bng tn nng lng ca dng sng. Gi E l nng lng tc thi ca dng
sng, rng bng tn nng lng c xc nh bi tn s
L
f v
H
f trong khong tn s
ny hu nh nng lng ca dng sng nm trn (c 90%).
Trong lnh vc radar, v tuyn bng siu rng da vo vic pht x cc dng sng
c cu thnh t chui xung c thi gian rt ngn (khong vi trm ps). Trong cc h
thng ny, thng tin c truyn dng chui nh phn v thng tin ca mi bit (0 hoc 1)
truyn i dng mt hoc nhiu xung theo kiu m lp li. Vic th hin mt bit bng cch
pht lp xung lm tng mc chc chn. Nguyn l truyn dn xung c p dng cho
s pht tn hiu UWB. Ngi ta m rng khi nim UWB cho cc k thut truyn dn
lin tc. Trong phn ny, ta xt cho tn hiu dng xung.
Ta lu rng, E c dng ch nng lng tc thi, tc l n phi c tnh trn
khong thi gian ca xung. Nu quan tm vic quyt nh mt bit bao gm vic x l
nhiu xung, th trong hu ht cc trng hp E c coi l nng lng tng ca tt c cc
xung c . y l khi nim quan trng: Nu mt s xung c s dng truyn dn
mt bit, th ta c bit lu n nng lng ca nhm cc xung trong vic quyt nh mt
bit v nh hng ca tp m my thu phi c c lng theo nng lng ca tn hiu
hu ch.
Hnh 9.1 minh ha khi nim rng bng tn nng lng. Lu rng, nu
L
f l gii
hn di v
H
f l gii hn trn ca mt ph nng lng (ESD), th tn s trung tm ca
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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ph c nh v ti
( )
H L
f f 2 + . H s bng tn (hay rng bng tn phn on) c
nh ngha l t s gia rng bng tn nng lng v tn s trung tm, n c biu din
nh sau:
( )
H L
H L
f f
FB
f f
2
| |
|
\ .

=
+
(9.1)
Tns
Phnnglng
0
L
f
H
f
2
L H
f f +
H L
f f

Hnh 9.1. rng bng tn nng lng
Nu h s bng tn ln hn 0,20-0,25, th ta ni tn hiu l bng siu rng UWB. V
d mt tn hiu c rng bng tn nng lng 2MHz c gi l tn hiu bng siu rng
nu tn s trung tm ca ph nng lng nh hn 10MHz. Lu rng, vic xc nh tn
hiu UWB l tng i theo tn s trung tm.
Thng thng, thut ng phn trm bng tn c s dng. Phn trm bng tn
n gin ch l h s bng tn n v phn trm. V d, mt tn hiu c rng bng tn
nng lng l 1MHz v tn s trung tm l 2MHz th phn trm bng tn l 50%. N l
mt tn hiu bng siu rng v h s bng tn l 0,5 ln hn gii hn di 0,2-0,25.
Cng c th s dng rng bng tn tng i, bng mt na gi tr ca h s bng
tn. Bng tn tng i biu din t s ca mt na bng tn nng lng v tn s trung
tm.
Gii hn rng bng tn nh nht 500MHz t ra mt ngng ti 2,5GHz. Dui
ngng ny, cc tn hiu l UWB nu h s bng tn ln hn 0,2; trong khi trn ngng
ny, cc tn hiu l UWB nu rng bng tn ca chng ln hn 500MHz.
9.3. TO TN HIU UWB
Cch thng thng v truyn thng nht pht x mt tn hiu UWB l pht x cc
xung thi gian rt ngn (v tuyn xung kim IR Impulse Radio). Cc s iu ch xung
tn hiu c dng l: iu ch v tr xung (PPM) v iu ch bin xung (PAM). Ngoi
vic iu ch, nh dng ph ca tn hiu pht, cc k hiu d liu c m ha bng
cch s dng cc m gi ngu nhin (hay gi tp m PN). Hai tiu chun cng ngh UWB
ang c nghin cu v xut l:
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\ UWB n bng trn c s k thut tri ph chui trc tip DS-UWB v tri ph
nhy thi gian TH-UWB.
\ Cng ngh UWB a bng da trn OFDM.
V nguyn l, TH-UWB v DS-UWB c th chp nhn PPM hoc PAM iu ch
d liu. Tuy nhin, phng php iu ch c th ty vo vic nh dng ph v c tnh
ph. Chi tit qu trnh to tn hiu UWB c cho Ph lc 9 A.
9.4. KNH UWB V MY THU UWB
9.4.1. M u
Phn trn v ph lc 9 A ta xt cc c tnh ca tn hiu v tuyn xung kim IR-UWB,
to tn hiu IR-UWB (gm tn hiu DS-UWB v TH-UWB) vi cc c tnh ph tn nh
hng ln hiu nng h thng UWB. Di y, ta phn tch tn hiu ti my thu. Mun
vy, ta xt cc nhn t nh hng ln hiu nng mt cch h thng: t m hnh knh, m
hnh my thu ti u, v x l tn hiu thu UWB. Trc ht l, ta xt trng hp n gin
nht (truyn tn hiu DS-UWB v TH-UWB qua knh AWGN), phn tch tn hiu v xy
dng my thu ti u. Sau l, vn dng nguyn l hot ng ca my thu UWB ti u
trong mi trng knh AWGN xy dng my thu UWB cho knh a ng. Khi ny ta
dng knh a ng IEEE 802.15.3a (knh c IEEE chp nhn), ni dung ny c xt
ph lc 9C.
Do truyn lan a ng, nng lng ca cc xung UWB b phn tn trn nhiu ng
truyn n my thu, nn ta dng my thu RAKE (gm nhiu b tng quan tng ng vi
cc nhnh ca a ng). My thu RAKE s tn dng hiu qu u im ca tn hiu a
ng, khai thc trit tnh cht phn tp thi gian ca tn hiu thu. Tn hiu thu kh
phn gii t cc nhnh c kt hp trc khi thc hin quyt nh. Khi dng my thu
RAKE lm tng mc phc tp pha thu, mc phc tp ny s tng theo s lng
cc thnh phn a ng kh phn gii. Tuy nhin, khi s lng cc thnh phn a ng
kh phn gii m gim lm gim nng lng tn hiu thu. Di y, ta phn tch my thu
tn hiu DS-UWB v TH-UWB ri rc vi gi thit ng b hon ho gia pht thu tn
hiu. My thu trong mi trng knh AWGN l rt n gin bi l tn hiu thu khng cha
thnh phn nhiu gia cc k hiu ISI v nhiu a truy nhp MAI.
V truyn sng a ng gia my pht v my thu lm phc tp c cu trc my thu
v m hnh knh. Hn na, cc tham s knh a ng li thay i theo thi gian v vy
tnh cht ny phi c xt trong qu trnh m hnh ho knh. Do mo, nn dng sng tn
hiu thu khc vi dng sng tn hiu pht. iu ny c bit ng i vi truyn dn trong
nh, ni m truyn lan b dao ng bi mt s i tng nhiu. Truyn lan a ng lm
hn ch hiu nng my thu, nh hng ny c th c gim nh nu c c c trng
chi tit ca knh a ng ti my thu. L thuyt chung v vic c trng ho cc knh a
ng c trnh by trong phn ny.
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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My thu
UWB
My pht
UWB
S D
Anten Anten
Knh
v
tuyn

Hnh 9.2: M hnh h thng cho truyn thng bng siu rng n ngi s dng
9.4.2. Thu v x l tn hiu trong mi trng knh AWGN
9.4.2.1. Thu tn hiu trong mi trng knh AWGN
Ta phn tch truyn tn hiu v tuyn xung kim IR qua knh AWGN. Tn hiu thu
c biu din l:
u
r(t) r (t) n(t) = + (9.2)
trong : tp m nhit n(t) l qu trnh ngu nhin Gaus trung bnh khng vi mt
ph cng sut PSD hai bn
0
N 2; tn hiu hu ch
u
r (t) l phin bn b suy hao v b tr
ca tn hiu pht s(t) , tc l
u
r (t) s(t ) =o t (9.3)
C hai tham s h s suy hao o v tr knh t u ph thuc vo khong cch truyn
sng D, trong o c biu din
0
c
D

o = (9.4)
trong : l s m suy hao cng sut;
0
c l hng s kh chnh t c tng ch tham
chiu
0
o ti khong cch tham chiu
0
D 1m = . Chn: =2 i vi mi trng khng gian
t do; >2 trong mi trng NLOS; <2 trong mi trng knh a ng LOS trn
khong cch ngn.
TX RX dB
A 10lg(E E ) = ti
0
D 1m = , th
0
c phi tha mn iu kin
dB
A 20
0
c 10

= (9.5)
theo D c t = (9.6)
trong c l vn tc nh sng trong mi trng chn khng. Khi ng b hon ho gia
pht/thu, th gi tr ca t tt nh my thu.
My thu ti u cho knh AWGN gm: b tng quan v b tch sng, trong b
tng quan chuyn tn hiu thu (9.2) thnh tp cc bin quyt nh { } Z , b tch sng da
trn quan trc { } Z quyt nh dng sng no c pht.
Nu pht dng sng
m
s (t) , m 0,1,..., M 1 = , th trong khong thi gian k hiu T ,
ch mt dng sng
m
s (t) trong s M dng sng c th c c pht. Dng sng
m
s (t) c
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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to ra bi N hm chc chun { }
k
(t) , k 0,1,..., N 1 = , khi ny
m
s (t) c biu din nh
sau:
N 1
m mk k
k 0
s (t) s (t)

=
=

, vi
| |
t 0, T e (9.7)
trong
T
m mk k
0
s s (t) (t)dt =
}
vi k 0,1,..., N 1 = .
T (9.7), nng lng
m
E ca
m
s (t) trong khong thi gian T l:
( )
2
N 1
T T
2
m m mk k
0 0 k 0
N 1
2
mk
k 0
E s (t) dt s (t) dt
s , m 0,1,..., M 1

=
| |
|
\ .
= =
} }
= =

(9.8)
T (9.7), (9.2) v (9.3), tn hiu thu trong khong thi gian | |
t 0, T e tng ng vi tn
hiu pht
m
s (t) l:
N 1
mk k
k 0
. r(t) .s (t ) n(t)

= o t +

(9.9)
Cu trc my thu tng quan cho tn hiu thu r(t) bao gm N b tng quan ng
vi N bin quyt nh
k
Z c biu din l:
T
k k mk k
Z r(t) (t )dt s n , k 0,1,..., N 1
+t
t
= t = o + =
}
(9.10)
vi
T
k k
n n(t) (t )dt
+t
t
= t
}

S cc b thu tng quan theo (9.10) c cho hnh 9.3.

( )
T
dt
t+
t
-
}
0
Z
N 1
Z

( )
r t
( )
0
t t
( )
N 1
t

t
-
-
-
( )
T
dt
t+
t
-
}

Hnh 9.3. B tng quan tn hiu
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Da vo tp cc bin quyt nh { } { }
0 N 1
Z Z ,..., Z

= b tch sng c tnh dng sng
c pht. Thnh phn tp m
k
n trong (9.10) l bin ngu nhin Gaus khng tng
quan, trung bnh khng v ng phng sai
2
n 0
N 2 o = (9.11)
Khi thc hin b tch sng ti u cho tn hiu (9.9) theo chun kh nng ging nht
ML, th n la chn mt trong Mdng sng pht c sao cho ti a xc sut c iu kin
m
p(Z| s (t)) . Tng ng vi vic chn
m
s (t) ng vi
{ }
m m,0 m,N 1
s s ,...,s

= gn vi tp
{ } { }
0 N 1
Z Z ,..., Z

= nht. Theo chun ML, hm di y c gim thiu:
N 1
2
m k mk
k 0
N 1 N 1 N 1
2 2
k mk mk k
k 0 k 0 k 0
N 1 N 1 N 1
2 2
k mk k mk
k 0 k 0 k 0
2
2
E(r(t), s ) (Z s )
Z s s Z
1
Z s Z s
2

=

= = =

= = =
= +
| |

|
\ .
=
=



(9.12)
T (9.12), cho thy dng sng lm ti a
m
p(Z| s (t)) l dng sng ti a ha h s
tng quan C :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
N 1 N 1
2
m mk k mk
k 0 k 0
N 1
m
mk k
k 0
T
m
m

1
C r t , s s Z s
2
E
s Z
2
E
r t s t dt
2

= =

=
+t
t
=
=

= t

}
(9.13)

( )
T
dt
t+
t
-
}
( )
r t
( )
0
s t t
( )
M 1
s t

Chn
gitr
ln
nht
Khiu
ctnh
0
E 2
M 1
E 2

( ) ( )
0
C r t , s
( ) ( )
M 1
C r t , s

-
-
-
-
-
-
( )
T
dt
t+
t
-
}

Hnh 9.4. My thu ti u cho knh AWGN
V vy, b tch sng ti u la chn tn hiu ( )
m
s t sao cho ti a ha ( ) ( )
m
C r t ,s . T
(9.13) ta thy, my thu ti u trnh t hot ng nh sau: (i) tn hiu thu r(t) c tng
quan vi Mdng sng pht
m
s (t) ; (ii) mi u ra ca b tng quan c tr i mt
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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lng
m
E 2; (iii) chn gi tr ln nht trong s Mgi tr. Hnh 9.4 minh ha cu trc my
thu ny.
9.4.2.2. Cu trc my thu
Ta s s dng nhng phn tch trn cho trng hp tn hiu IR-UWB. V vy, trc
ht xt cu trc my thu cho tn hiu xung PAM v PPM trc giao/khng trc giao, sau
m rng cho trng hp a xung.
My thu tn hiu PPM nh phn trc giao
Trong iu ch PPM nh phn trc giao, 2 M = v hai tn hiu pht l:
TX 0
TX TX 1 0
E p (t), b 0
s(t)
b 1 E p (t) E p (t ),

=
=
= = c
(9.14)
trong :
0
p (t) l dng sng nng lng chun ho ca xung c s;
TX
E l nng lng
pht ca mi xung; c l dch thi gian trong PPM. Nu c ln hn thi gian ca mt xung
M
T , th tp cc hm trc chun s l
0
p (t) v
1
p (t) , v
m
s (t) c biu din l:
m m0 0 m1 1
s (t) s p (t) s p (t), m 0,1 = + = (9.15)
trong
TX 00
01
10
TX 11
s E
s 0
s 0
s E

=
=
=
=

S my thu ti u cho tn hiu ny c cho hnh 9.5.
Cc bin quyt nh ti u ra cc b tng quan l:
0 m0 0
1 m1 1
Z s n
Z s n
= o +
= o +
(9.16)
trong :
0
n v
1
n l hai bin ngu nhin Gaus c lp trung bnh khng v phng sai
0
N 2. Trng hp kt hp vi m ha nhy thi gian TH, s b tng quan hnh 9.5
c chuyn thnh hnh 9.6, trong
j
c l h s th j ca m TH c gn cho ngi
dng.

( ) ( ) ( )
n
r t s t n t = o t +
( )
1
p t t
Bit
c tnh
( )
s
T
dt
t
t
+
-
}
1
Z
0 1
0 1
Z Z , b 0
Z Z , b 1

> =

< =

b

( )
s
T
dt
t
t
+
-
}
( )
0
p t t
0
Z

Hnh 9.5. My thu ti u cho tn hiu PPM nh phn trc giao.
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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( ) ( ) ( )
n j c
r t s t c T n t = o t +
( )
1 j c
p t c T t
Bit
ctnh
( )
s
T
dt
t
t
+
-
}
1
Z
0
0
Z 0, b 0
Z 0, b 1

> =

< =

( )
s
T
dt
t
t
+
-
}
( )
0 j c
p t c T t
0
Z


Hnh 9.6. My thu ti u cho tn hiu PPM-TH nh phn trc giao.
Lu rng, c th rt gn s hnh 9.6 thnh s hnh 9.7 (ch s dng mt b
tng quan).

( )
s
T
dt
t+
t
-
}
( ) ( ) ( )
n j c
r t s t c T n t = o t +
( ) m t t
Bit
ctnh Z
Z 0, b 0
Z 0, b 1

> =

< =


Hnh 9.7. My thu ti u cho tn hiu PPM-TH nh phn trc giao dng mt b tng
quan
Trong s mt b tng quan hnh 9.7, tn hiu n c nhn vi m(t) , m(t)
c coi l mt n tng quan trong
c c 0 0 j j
m(t) p (t c T ) p (t c T ) = t t c
u ra ca b tng quan khi ny l:
m 0 1
Z s n n =o + (9.17)
vi
TX 0
m
TX 1
E
E
s , b 0
s
b 1 s ,

= + =
=
= =

Khi pht cc bit c cng xc sut v c lp thng k nhau, th xc sut li trung bnh
Pr
b
i vi my thu ti u s l:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
0 1
0 1
b
TX
RX

E
E
1 1
Pr Pr Z 0 b 1 Pr Z 0 b 0
2 2
Pr Z 0 b 0
Pr n n 0
Pr n n 0
> = + < =
= < =
= o + <
= + <
=
(9.18)
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB


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trong :
2
RX TX
E E = o l nng lng trn mi xung thu. Do
0
n v
1
n u l cc bin ngu
nhin Gaus c lp, nn (9.18) c vit li nh sau:
( ) RX b
E Pr Pr x = > (9.19)
trong
1 0
x n n = l bin ngu nhin Gaus trung bnh khng v phng sai
0
N . V vy
Pr
b
c biu din nh sau:
RX
b
0
E 1
Pr erfc
2 2N
| |
=
|
|
\ .
(9.20)
vi
( )
2
y
2
erfc y e d

=
t
}

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SNR (dB)
X

c

s
u

t

l

i

b
i
t
M phng xc sut li bit ti my thu tn hiu PPM-UWB

Hnh 9.8. Minh ha xc sut li trung bnh
b
Pr theo
RX 0
E N i vi tn hiu PPM
nh phn trc giao.
9.5. TNG KT
Chng ny ta xt cc tnh cht c bn ca tn hiu v h thng UWB. Sau tin hnh to
tn hiu UWB. Ph 9A xt chi tit qu trnh to: (1) tn hiu UWB nhy thi gian TH-UWB; (2).
tn hiu UWB chui trc tip DS-UWB; (3) tn hiu UWB a bng MB-UWB. Xt qu trnh xy
dng my thu UWB i vi cc loi tn hiu pht im hnh. Qu trnh thu v x l: (1) tn hiu
PPM nh phn khng trc giao; (2) tn hiu PPM trc giao M mc; (3) tn hiu PAM nh phn i
cc; (4) tn hiu M-PAM; (5) tn hiu a xung trong mi trng knh AWGN c xt ph lc
9B. Cui cng thu v x l tn hiu trong mi trng knh a ng c xt ph lc 9C, trong
xt m hnh knh UWB v my thu RAKE. Phn bi tp dng chng trnh m phng cho
php hiu r v m hnh truyn thng UWB c bn in hnh.