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Control Engineering (Sept 2012)

Control Engineering (Sept 2012)

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CTL1209_Cover_V6msFINAL.indd 2 8/31/12 3:13 PM
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input #1 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 2 8/31/2012 5:10:42 PM
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CONTRLENG_0912_Layout 1 8/28/12 3:14 PM Page 1
input #2 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 1 8/31/2012 5:12:12 PM
2 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Vol. 59
Number 9
Applying industrial Ethernet
Selecting industrial networking protocols, industrial Ethernet included, helps improve production
efficiency and quality with enterprise connectivity.
Program drives in control software packages
Integrated programming environments incorporate drive programming and other motion control functions.
Smarter and safer recovery from mature and remote assets
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Machine vision, ID-reader network integration
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CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 59, No. 9, GST #123397457) is published 12x per year, Monthly by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher
/Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2011 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Peri-
odicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Telephone: 630/571-4070 x2220. E-mail:
customerservice@cfemedia.com. Postmaster: send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable
Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: customerservice@cfemedia.com. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $ 145/yr; Canada, $ 180/yr (includes
7% GST, GST#123397457); Mexico, $ 172/yr; International air delivery $318/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $20.00 US and $25.00 foreign.
Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability
to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever.
CTL1209_TOC_V6msFINAL.indd 2 8/31/12 3:45 PM
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input #3 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 3 8/31/2012 5:15:54 PM
input #4 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 4 8/31/2012 5:17:19 PM
Protection options, good and bad
Hub/switch PLC 3
Embedded firewall
Server PC PC
www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 5
Inside the box
Soft starters
Consensus standards and
OSHA compliance
When outsourcing is slow-
Industrial Ethernet switches:
trends, applications
Pampering the maintenance
Operator interface in redesigned
machine uses icons
Physical aspects of cyber security
20 Industrial PC-based growth
22 Selecting a control system
23 News briefs
94 NI LabVIEW 2012; wireless
discrete sensor system
Inside Process
Starts after p. 51. If not, see www.controleng.com/archive for September.
Industrial gas producer standardizes
control strategy for multiple plants
Using a common integrated DCS, SCADA, and asset management
platform at its hydrogen plants will help Praxair save on
engineering, commisisoning, and maintenance.

Beyond the network firewall
Since many industrial devices are soft targets for hackers, placing
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Distillation columns —
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Considering one of the sources of distillation column instability
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CTL1209_TOC_V6msFINAL.indd 5 8/31/12 3:46 PM
Ⅲ Channels and new product areas
Visit our specialized microsites
providing feature articles, news,
products, applications, tutorials,
research, and more gathered for
engineering professionals.
Ⅲ New site search engine
Find content from Control Engineering
magazines from 1997 to the present.
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• Machine Control, including motors and drives, motion control,
embedded control and machine vision
Go to www.controleng.com and find:
• Entries for Engineers’ Choice are open. It never hurts to get your submission in
early. Entries close October 19. Engineers’ Choice is your opportunity to include your
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• Are you looking for products? You can find hundreds of new product announcements
and company news at www.controleng.com/new-products. Online announcements
often have photos and videos to increase the amount of information available.
• Webcasts on demand: Have you watched a Webcast lately? Check out the growing list
of topics available for viewing right now at www.controleng.com/media-library.
6 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Video: Returning from NIWeek,
how much instrumentation can
you pack into a Smart Car?
National Instruments annual user group, NIWeek,
is known for its innovative displays
demonstrating the company’s
technologies. Check this out!
Exclusive blogs at www.controleng.com/blogs
• Real World Engineering—Software for managing manufacturing operations
• IMS Research Analysts—AT&T is shutting down 2G. Will this affect you?
• Ask Control Engineering—SIC and NAICS numbers for system integrators
• Machine Safety—Consensus standards and OSHA compliance
• Pillar to Post—Triumph of the iPad
Join the discussions at www.linkedin.com/
Chat with peers and get real-world control questions answered:
• Machine mounted vs. centralized automation hardware
• I need to learn HMI programming—what’s a good resource?
• How should I characterize my automation experience on my resume?
Don’t leave your Engineers’ Choice entry to
the last minute. Deadline: Oct. 19, 2012.
CTL1209_TOC_V6msFINAL.indd 6 8/31/12 3:46 PM
■ ■
Graphical Software
■ ■
Sensor Connectivity
■ ■
Signal Analysis
■ ■
Control Algorithms
■ ■
Custom Timing
■ ■
Custom Triggering
■ ■
Actuator Connectivity
■ ■
Embedded Storage
■ ■
Industrial Networks
■ ■
Expansion Systems
All the Tools you Need for Embedded
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you don’t have to spend time developing a custom solution. The range of high-quality
measurements, coupled with an extremely rugged design and the ability to modify
the hardware using NI LabVIEW system design software, gives you all the benefts of
customization with the convenience of an off-the-shelf platform.
To learn more about CompactRIO, visit ni.com/compactRIO 800 891 2755
©2012 National Instruments. All rights reserved. CompactRIO, LabVIEW, National Instruments, NI, and ni.com are trademarks of National Instruments.
Other product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. 05310
05310 cRIO Ad.indd 1 3/6/12 1:11 PM
input #5 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 7 8/31/2012 5:17:52 PM
Content Specialists/Editorial
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2214, MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Peter Welander, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2213, PWelander@CFEMedia.com
Patrick Lynch, Project Manager/Engineers’ Choice
630-571-4070, x2210, PLynch@CFEMedia.com
Bob Vavra, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2212, BVavra@CFEMedia.com
Amara Rozgus, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2211, ARozgus@CFEMedia.com
Amanda McLeman, Project Manager
630-571-4070, x2209, AMcleman@CFEMedia.com
Chris Vavra, Content Specialist
630-571-4070, x2219, CVavra@CFEMedia.com
Brandon Marcellis, Content Specialist
Contributing Content Specialists
Frank J. Bartos, P.E.,
Jeanine Katzel jkatzel@sbcglobal.net
Vance VanDoren Ph.D., P.E.,
Suzanne Gill, European Editor
Michael Majchrzak, Control Engineering Russia
Katarzyna Jakubek, Poland Editor-in-Chief
Milan Katrusak, Czech Editor-in-Chief
Andy Zhu, Control Engineering China
Publication Services
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2203; JLanghenry@CFEMedia.com
Steve Rourke, Co-Founder, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2204, SRourke@CFEMedia.com
Trudy Kelly, Executive Assistant,
630-571-4070, x2205, TKelly@CFEMedia.com
Elena Moeller-Younger, Marketing Manager
630-571-4070, x2215; EMYounger@CFEMedia.com
Michael Smith, Creative Director
630-779-8910, MSmith@CFEMedia.com
Paul Brouch, Web Production Manager
630-571-4070, x2208, PBrouch@CFEMedia.com
Michael Rotz, Print Production Manager
717-766-0211 x4207, Fax: 717-506-7238
Maria Bartell, Account Director, U.S. Sales
630-288-8310; mbartell@mardevdm2.com
Rick Ellis, Audience Management Director
Phone: 303-246-1250; REllis@CFEMedia.com
Letters to the editor
Please e-mail us your opinions to
MHoske@CFEMedia.com or fax us at 630-214-4504.
Letters should include name, company, and address,
and may be edited for space and clarity.
For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar,
email Trudy Kelly at TKelly@CFEMedia.com.
For custom reprints or electronic usage, contact:
Wright’s Media – Nick Lademarco
Phone: 877-652-5295 ext. 102
Email: niademarco@wrightsmedia.com
Publication Sales
Barb Hoffman, Midwest/South East
248-538-8804 BHoffman@CFEMedia.com
Bailey Rice, Midwest
630-571-4070 x2206 BRice@CFEMedia.com
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858-270-3753 ISeibert@CFEMedia.com
Julie Timbol, East Coast
978-929-9495 JTimbol@CFEMedia.com
Stuart Smith, International
Tel. +44 208 464 5577 stuart.smith@ssm.co.uk 8 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
ere are five things you should
know about automation design,
but may have forgotten along the
1. Scalability. If only you had a nickel
for every time you’ve heard, “Think outside
the box!” For some applications, this rep-
resents one of the core pieces of the PLC
(many boxes) versus PC-based control (one
box) debate. If you design with a PLC,
then wind up needing more axes of control
or additional control loops, you may need
to buy more CPUs, communication cards,
hardware, software, and integration time. A
multi-core industrial PC (IPC) can be more
scalable, adding control loops as needed.
2. Integrated control programming
environment. Most programming software
touts various easy-to-use features. Many
programming packages offer capabilities
to incorporate control, motion, human-
machine interface and operator interface,
I/O, communications, and other program-
ming in one system. Libraries of pre-assem-
bled code are very helpful, as are those that
offer all IEC 61131-3 languages, since some
are better than others for certain program-
ming challenges. However, especially since
we’re interested attracting younger engi-
neers, software that also integrates C/C++,
.NET, and simulation may be especially
3. Closed versus open. We did an article
years ago on what openness means. There’s
little consensus, but some suggest that IPCs
are generally more open and supportable in
the long run, compared to PLCs. More than
15 years ago, some predicted the demise of
PLCs, and PLCs are going strong, evolving
with the rest of us. Even so, it seems that
electronics and software make an increas-
ingly greater contribution to automation
engineering creativity. Platforms that pro-
mote greater scalability, flexibility, and
preservation of programming assets may
have an edge by interesting and attracting
the best and brightest of new engineering
4. Application experience. Ensure that
the application/sales engineers, distributors,
or system integrators you’re working with
have applied the hardware and software
to implementations with elements similar
to yours, with measurable results. No two
applications are exactly alike, unless you’re
printing money by applying a cookie-cutter
design across multiple sites. Even across
industries, there are many more similarities
than you might think, especially with the
right tool sets.
5. Usability. Engineers should be
required to use the products they design.
Security should be built in and set as the
default. Elements that can wear out sooner
or require maintenance should be easy to
access and fix. Mission-critical components
should offer diagnostics, alerts, and redun-
dancy, as needed. Optimization, self-config-
uration, interoperability, and wizards should
be more than marketing phrases. We need
to design products to help get the world
out the messes we’ve gotten ourselves into,
using creative and elegant engineering, not
complexities heaped on conundrums.
(And if there’s redemption, the engineers
who designed that car with the inaccessible
final spark plug have selected every slowest
checkout line since then.) ce
Inside the box
Think out of the box, we’re told, but for many
engineering applications, thinking inside the box
might be more scalable. Learn what five pieces
of automation design wisdom can mean for you.
Catch a sixth, online.
1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523
630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
Content Specialists/Editorial
Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2214, MHoske@CFEMedia.com
Peter Welander, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2213, PWelander@CFEMedia.com
Patrick Lynch, Project Manager/Engineers’ Choice
630-571-4070, x2210, PLynch@CFEMedia.com
Bob Vavra, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2212, BVavra@CFEMedia.com
Amara Rozgus, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2211, ARozgus@CFEMedia.com
Amanda McLeman, Project Manager
630-571-4070, x2209, AMcleman@CFEMedia.com
Chris Vavra, Content Specialist
630-571-4070, x2219, CVavra@CFEMedia.com
Contributing Content Specialists
Frank J. Bartos, P.E.,
Jeanine Katzel jkatzel@sbcglobal.net
Vance VanDoren Ph.D., P.E.,
Suzanne Gill, European Editor
Siergiej Guszczin, Control Engineering Russia
Marek Kelman, Poland Editor-in-Chief
Milan Katrusak, Czech Editor-in-Chief
Andy Zhu, Control Engineering China
Publication Services
Jim Langhenry, Co-Founder/Publisher, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2203; JLanghenry@CFEMedia.com
Steve Rourke, Co-Founder, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2204, SRourke@CFEMedia.com
Trudy Kelly, Executive Assistant,
630-571-4070, x2205, TKelly@CFEMedia.com
Elena Moeller-Younger, Marketing Manager
630-571-4070, x2215; EMYounger@CFEMedia.com
Michael Smith, Creative Director
630-779-8910, MSmith@CFEMedia.com
Paul Brouch, Web Production Manager
630-571-4070, x2208, PBrouch@CFEMedia.com
Michael Rotz, Print Production Manager
717-766-0211 x4207, Fax: 717-506-7238
Karie Burt, Account Director, U.S. Sales
212-584-9374; kburt@mardevdm2.com
Rick Ellis, Audience Management Director
Phone: 303-246-1250; REllis@CFEMedia.com
Letters to the editor
Please e-mail us your opinions to
MHoske@CFEMedia.com or fax us at 630-214-4504.
Letters should include name, company, and address,
and may be edited for space and clarity.
For a Media Kit or Editorial Calendar,
email Trudy Kelly at TKelly@CFEMedia.com.
For custom reprints or electronic usage, contact:
Wright’s Media – Nick Iademarco
Phone: 877-652-5295 ext. 102
Email: niademarco@wrightsmedia.com
Publication Sales
Patrick Lynch, AL, FL
630-571-4070 x2210 PLynch@CFEMedia.com
Bailey Rice, Midwest
630-571-4070 x2206 BRice@CFEMedia.com
Iris Seibert, West Coast
858-270-3753 ISeibert@CFEMedia.com
Julie Timbol, East Coast
978-929-9495 JTimbol@CFEMedia.com
Stuart Smith, International
Tel. +44 208 464 5577 stuart.smith@ssm.co.uk
Ⅲ See a sixth critical point; link to a few of my
favorite related articles: read this under Sept. ’12 at
Ⅲ Share your automation design wisdom:
Go Online
CTL1209_Think_V3msFINAL.indd 8 8/31/12 3:15 PM
The Sign of Quality
• Energy Efficient
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• Superior Reliability
• Quickest Delivery Available
For almost 100 years, Baldor•Reliance
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highest quality industrial electric motors available.
Beneath the nameplate of every Baldor•Reliance
motor, you will find the best industrial electric motor
you can buy.
When reliability counts, accept nothing less than the
Sign of Quality from Baldor•Reliance.
©2012 Baldor Electric Company
input #6 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 9 8/31/2012 5:18:58 PM
Soft starters enable advanced
protection, monitoring
aton Corp., a diversified indus-
trial manufacturer, is expanding
its soft starter solutions to help
industrial and original equip-
ment manufacturer (OEM) customers
by announcing S811+/S801+ soft start-
ers. Providing smooth acceleration and
deceleration of the load, S811+ and
S801+ products provide advanced moni-
toring, protection, and communication—
helping customers reduce installation
time and avoid downtime, in one of the
smallest footprints in the industry.
“With powerful configuration capa-
bilities, an intuitive user interface, and
diagnostics information, the Eaton
S811+/S801+ soft starters help custom-
ers reduce commissioning time, maxi-
mize system performance, and minimize
downtime,” said Ram Tenneti, product
manager at Eaton. Engineered for con-
stant and variable torque applications,
the soft starters provide power and
power factor monitoring capability, ana-
log input, fault warnings, fault trips, and
Modbus RTU communications. Stream-
lined digital interface for S811+ allows
customers to configure, monitor, and
enable protection and reduces commis-
sioning time. Copy-paste function eases
commissioning multiple soft starters.
The soft starters integrate bypass
contactor and overload, eliminating the
need for an external bypass contactor.
The inputs and relays are programmable,
providing flexibility. Available in open
and packaged control configurations,
the family has five frame sizes, current
ranges of 11 A to 1000 A. It can take 230
V to 600 V, and up to 690 V from 180
A–850 A, with power up to 850 hp.
Eaton S811+/S801+ Soft Starters enable advanced protec-
tion and monitoring, helping industrial customers and OEMs
improve system reliability and maximize system performance.
Ⅲ See more automation products at
www.controleng.com/products and in this issue
in the software and products section.
CTL1209_ProdExcl_V3msFINAL.indd 10 8/31/12 3:15 PM
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Optional space for serial or fieldbus interface
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Embedded PC with

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EtherCAT and Ethernet
input #7 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 10 8/31/2012 5:21:31 PM
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input #8 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 11 8/31/2012 5:23:47 PM
12 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
ey, in our plant
we comply 100%
with the OSHA
regulations of 29
CFR 1910.xxx for machine
guarding and personnel
safety. Accordingly, OSHA
would have no grounds to
cite us for violations, right?
In fact, there is no guar-
antee! Here’s why in my
OSHA openly consid-
ers its regulations to be the
law and frequently uses the
term “de minimis,” which
means “the bare mini-
mum.” Because of this, it
also acknowledges that
most of its regulations are
30 to 40 years dated, and
that certain consensus stan-
dards represent state-of-
the-art machine guarding
thinking. Understanding
that, OSHA has the capabil-
ity to step beyond its own regulations in
two important ways:
a. “Incorporation by Reference” is
specifically mentioned by OSHA at
29 CFR 1910.6, where it lists over 100
“incorporated by reference” consensus
standards. Some of these consensus stan-
dards are also fairly old. However, they
have been ruled to be enforceable as
OSHA regulations.
b. OSHA reserves the right to issue
citations for violations under the General
Duty Clause [(5)(a)(1)] and references
consensus standards evidencing that cer-
tain hazard(s) are present and that there
are various means available to mitigate
those hazard(s). Since consensus stan-
dards have update cycles of every 3 to
5 years, many of these standards have
added the risk assessment requirement
(hazard identification) and
mitigation steps for reduc-
ing the identified hazards.
Therefore, in my opinion,
the General Duty Clause
has grown in strength over
the past 10 years regarding
OSHA’s ability to use this
clause for enforcement of
Safety networks
Control Engineer-
ing recently ran three
articles on Safety Certi-
fied Networks. These are
great examples of how
far machine safety has
advanced over the past ten
years. I recommend you
take time to read them:
http://bit.ly/OwMoYq. In
my opinion, safety automa-
tion has accomplished in 10
years what standard auto-
mation accomplished in
30 years. Are you using safety certified
networks to advance your business? ce
- J.B. Titus, Certified Functional
Safety Expert (CFSE), writes the Control
Engineering Machine Safety Blog. Reach
him at jb@jbtitus.com; www.jbtitus.com.
Consensus standards,
OSHA compliance

OSHA has the
capability to
step beyond its
own regulations
in two important

If a plant complies with the OSHA regulations of 29 CFR
1910.xxx for machine guarding and personnel safety, an
OSHA violation and citation is still possible. Here’s how.
Ⅲ Have you received or heard of any OSHA guid-
ance using the “Incorporation by Reference”
and/or the “General Duty Clause” as tools for
citing violations under its enforcement capabil-
ity? Please leave a comment in the blog com-
ment area http://bit.ly/NCIcnT to let us know if
you’ve seen or heard of this activity in industry.
If you do respond, please do not include any
confidential information or company names.
Go Online
J.B. Titus, CFSE,
Certified Functional
Safety Expert (CFSE)
CTL1209_Safety-V3msFINAL.indd 12 8/31/12 3:16 PM
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Industrial Automation
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input #10 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 13 8/31/2012 5:28:22 PM
14 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
ost large and many medium-sized
companies are outsourcing stan-
dard IT tasks to centralized support
groups. The tasks include infra-
structure elements such as server builds, desk-
top builds, database support, firewall support,
user account management, router configura-
tion, and anti-virus support. Outsourced support
groups are also used for application specific
support such as email, messaging, office tools,
R&D tools, engineering tools, and ERP support.
Even medium-sized companies may end up with
six or more independent outsourced support
The upside of outsourced support is the 24x7
availability of expert support. With outsourced
support there are experts who have the knowl-
edge and the access rights to quickly diagnose
and solve your problems. Other advantages of
centralized outsourcing are the consistency of
server and desktop builds and the consistency
of application tool installation. With a well-run
centralized support organization the majority of
tasks, such as adding application access through
a firewall, creating a standard desktop system,
or adding a database account, can be handled in
Unfortunately, there are also downsides to
centralized support, especially when there are
multiple independent outsourcing organizations.
When problems occur that are not typical or not
previously seen, then finding the right support
organization and the right people in the organiza-
tion can be a “Voyage of Discovery” rather than
a single phone call. For example, an application
interface problem that requires a configuration of
a firewall port change and would take less than
30 minutes of actual work, might take weeks of
discovery, negotiation, and escalation.
You have the problem of outsourcing turning
to slow-sourcing when tasks which used to take
minutes now take days or weeks, or when you
need to discover who you need to talk to when
you encounter a problem that doesn’t fit into any
of the specific support organizations charter. If
your outsourcing is now slow-sourcing, then
there are several steps you can take.
1. First, try to minimize the number of inde-
pendent support organizations. Unfortunately,
this is often a CIO-level decision and is hard to
justify only for manufacturing system support.
2. A second alternative is to define a master
support organization to take over whenever a
problem is unresolved after a specific period of
time and give the master organization the rights
to use experts from any support organization to
resolve the problem. This may be an organiza-
tion in IT that is focused just on production and
manufacturing support, so that it may not require
a CIO-level decision.
3. A third alternative is to create an ombuds-
man position within the company’s IT organiza-
tion that can escalate support problems and call
in resources to get them fixed. The worst solution
is to create an ombudsman position that focuses
on explaining away support deficiencies rather
than fixing them.
As control engineers, we know that you can-
not improve what you don’t measure, so at the
very least it is important that every outsourced
support organization includes a measurable
feedback policy for each issue. The feedback
policy should include a measure of the lost time
and impact of the problem, including the time
required to find the right support organization. If
only the actual “fix” time is measured, as is typi-
cal in support organizations, then the real cost of
the problem is hidden. Outsourcing of IT support
tasks can be a big benefit to a company and pro-
vide better service. But if your outsourcing is not
meeting your support needs and is slowing down
complex support, then address the problem early
before it becomes a major project problem, and
all of your deployment schedules start to slip. ce
- Dennis Brandl is president of BR&L Con-
sulting in Cary, N.C., www.brlconsulting.com.
His firm focuses on manufacturing IT. Contact
him at dbrandl@brlconsulting.com.
When outsourcing
is slow-sourcing
Dennis Brandl

An application
interface problem
that requires a
configuration of
a firewall port
change (less
than 30 minutes
of actual work)
might take weeks
of discovery,
negotiation, and

You cannot improve what you don’t measure, so at the very least it is
important that every outsourced support organization includes a mea-
surable feedback policy for each issue. Also consider these three steps.
IT & engineering
Ⅲ Read more IT & Engi-
neering Insight columns:
atop www.controleng.com
search: “Brandl”
Go Online
CTL1209_Insight_V3msFINAL.indd 14 8/31/12 3:18 PM
Simple and secure Ethernet-based
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CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 15 8/31/2012 5:29:54 PM
16 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
n February 2012, Control Engineering China
did the “2012 CEC Industrial Ethernet Switch
Application Trend Analysis” by sending con-
trol engineers a questionnaire about industrial
Ethernet switches. Respondents totaled 375 from
20 industries, and 64% are end users of industrial
Ethernet switches, 26% are system integrators or
agents, and 10% others.
According to the survey, 63% of the compa-
nies in which the respondents work plan to pur-
chase industrial Ethernet switches within a year.
The high expense of implementing and lack of
understanding of
Ethernet and switch
technology are two
main reasons why
industrial Ethernet
switches haven’t
been more widely
used in the industri-
al field, respondents
When consider-
ing buying a new
Industrial Ether-
net switch, 76%
expressed concern
about its stability,
the most important
consideration, by far, when purchasing. The sec-
ond biggest concern is low maintenance cost at
Types of industrial Ethernet switches selected
differ by industry. Users prefer purchasing modu-
lar Ethernet switches, managed Ethernet switches,
and rack-mounted Ethernet switches. For demand-
ing applications, the modular Ethernet switch was
most widely selected, at 60%. Managed Ethernet
switches represented 56% of responses, double
that of unmanaged Ethernet switches.
The survey involved more than 30 industri-
al Ethernet switch brands. The leading five are
manufactured in non-China-based enterprises.
The two most popular brands were attractive to
nearly half of respondents.
Modular, managed switches
The following are modular, managed indus-
trial Ethernet switches.
Ⅲ Siemens Modular and Powerful Indus-
trial Ethernet Switch Scalance X-300 with
Ⅲ Schneider Industry Ethernet Switch Con-
neXium series, such as TCSESM 163F2CU0
Ⅲ Advantech EKI-7659CI 8+2G Combo Port
Gigabit Managed Industrial Ethernet Switch:
EKI-7659C/CI support 8 Fast Ethernet ports and
2 Gigabit combo ports. To create reliability in
your network, the EKI-7659C comes equipped
with a proprietary redundant network protocol—
X-Ring that was developed by Advantech, which
provides users with an easy way to establish a
redundant Ethernet network with ultra-high-
speed recovery time less than 10 ms.
Ⅲ Rockwell Stratix 8300 Layer 3 Modular
Managed Ethernet Switches. Stratix 8300 is an
Industrial Ethernet switch jointly launched by
Cisco and Rockwell Automation. It uses the cur-
rent Cisco Catalyst switch architecture and fea-
ture set along with powerful configuration tools,
helping to provide secure integration with the
enterprise network using tools familiar to IT pro-
fessionals. It is said to provide easy setup and
Ⅲ Moxa EDS-611/619 Series: 8+3G/16+3G-
port compact modular managed Ethernet Switch-
es. When used with the new MOXA 1-port fast
Ethernet SFP modules SFP-1FE Series, they can
meet the needs of fiber-level applications.
Ⅲ Belden Hirschmann Open Rail Series
Ⅲ Henrich HES10M-2G / HES18M-2G Series
Ⅲ InHand DIN-rail mount ISM 3019D Man-
aged Gigabit Ethernet Switch
Ⅲ Mexontec Coal-specific 4 Light 4 power
Switch Industrial Ethernet Fiber-Optic Switch
MIE-5408 Series ce
- Control Engineering China March 2012 arti-
cle edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager,
Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.
See more industrial network products at
Industrial Ethernet switches:
trends, applications
In February 2012, Control Engineering China sent control engineers a questionnaire about
industrial Ethernet switch applications and trends; 375 readers from 20 industries responded;
63% expect to purchase Ethernet switches this year.
At a glance
Ⅲ Control engineers in
China express concern
about cost and under-
standing Ethernet switch
technologies. Cover story
in this issue includes a
review of how Ethernet
switches work.
Source: Control Engineering China online survey
on industrial Ethernet, March 2012
High cost of application
Lack of understanding of
Ethernet and switch technology
Existing equipment’s
Uncertainty of the Ethernet
technology and its usefulness
What’s hindering use of the industrial
Ethernet switches?
CTL1209_CEInternational_V4msFINAL.indd 16 8/31/12 3:19 PM
www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 17
Papering the
maintenance relationship
Mark Voigtmann
Automation providers cover the “maintenance and service”
relationship in three basic ways. Learn the five basic legal clauses,
starting with payment.
ow does an automation provider put in
writing the “maintenance and service”
relationship? As I see it, there are three
types of maintenance and service agree-
ments. The first is an alternate within the origi-
nal design and installation agreement. Check the
box, pay this amount, and the “maintenance and
service” scope is added. The second is via an
independent written contract (the best choice if
you were polling attorneys).
The third option—and far and away the most
common—involves simply picking up the phone,
listening to the immediate issue, and jumping
into the fray whenever it makes sense to do so
(call this a “callback” relationship). The agree-
ment? There is not much of one to speak of—you
are the customer, your satisfaction is important
to us, and we will try to get the thing up and run-
ning to do what you want it to do. Never mind
that there may be some muddiness as to whether
this is original scope, a warranty call, a retrofit,
an upgrade, or maintenance for a fee.
Each of these arrangements has its strengths
and weaknesses from the perspective of the
automation provider. First-rate maintenance and
service agreements are not off the shelf, but tai-
lored to the application in question—rarely will a
generic master service agreement do the job well.
The must-have “legal clauses” fall into two cate-
gories: those that are specific to the maintenance
relationship and those that are not.
Legal clauses
The sections particular to maintenance con-
tracts deal with payment, definitions, warranties,
exclusions, and what I call “response boundar-
ies.” Those of a general character (call these “the
usual suspects”) address limitations on liability,
termination, confidentiality, force majeure, dis-
putes, and completeness. Only the former set of
five legal clauses will be discussed here.
1. Payment. The payment terms available for
maintenance and service agreements are superfi-
cially the same as those for automation contracts
generally—lump sum, guaranteed max, and cost
plus—with two important forewarnings. The first
is that there is inherently an open-ended quality
to the scope of these agreements that argues for
time and material billing. The second is a com-
peting dynamic—the fact that end users (like car
owners) view the maintenance and service rela-
tionship as a sort of protective shield, arguing
for closure (pay this fee and you do not need to
worry any more). Given these opposing forces,
the guaranteed max (or some variation on that
theme) or lump sum with hours threshold and
fixed rates are acceptable compromises.
2. Definitions. Certain contractual terms can-
not be left to themselves in a successful mainte-
nance and service relationship. Most important
are defining the precise extent of the “covered
system” in question, the boundaries between
“customized” and “third-party” software, and the
scope and nature of the services themselves.
3. Warranties. Of all the boundaries between
original scope (design/installation) and mainte-
nance, none is more fraught with difficulty than
the line involving warranties. No end user wants
to be invoiced for that which would be free in the
absence of the extended service agreement; no
integrator wants to be denied payment for addi-
tional work because the end user is unfairly rais-
ing the warranty flag.
4. Exclusions. Related to this is the need to
carve out what is not covered by the maintenance
agreement. Services provided to someone other
than the end user certainly are not. So is migra-
tion from one platform to another. Upgrades are
either in or out depending on the system (and
what type of upgrade we are talking about).
5. Response boundaries. Inherently the
maintenance relationship has a response-reac-
tion facet that is minimized if the integrator has
a facility presence but is maximized if there is
none. How quickly is a response required? It
depends on the correct response. One way of
structuring this aspect of the relationship is to
define degrees of magnitude right there in the
agreement (defining the difference between an
emergency and a low-priority fix—and calibrat-
ing the sometimes considerable distance between
them). ce
- Mark Voigtmann leads the automation prac-
tice at Faegre Baker Daniels, a law firm with
offices in the U.S., the U.K., and China.

End users (like
car owners) view
the maintenance
and service
relationship as a
sort of protective
shield. Of all
none is more
difficult than the
line involving

Ⅲ Get 3 more important exclu-
sions in the online version of
this article. Search Legalites
atop www.controleng.com
Ⅲ See related video clip
Go Online
CTL1209_Legalities_V3msFINAL.indd 17 8/31/12 3:20 PM
18 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
achine builder CMD Corp. extended
ease-of-use by designing an icon-
based operator interface on its lat-
est machine. Results include 40%
fewer words to translate to other languages,
easier training, and, after setting parameters,
transition from stop to full production by press-
ing just four buttons.
In a Rockwell Automation RSTechED pre-
sentation in June called, “Strategies for Emerg-
ing Market Opportunities,” Dave Kuchenbecker,
PE, project engineer, CMD
Corp., said his company
sought to expand by offer-
ing lower-end machines.
Cross-functional groups
were formed with people
from engineering, sales,
purchasing, manufacturing,
and accounting, explained
Kuchenbecker, lead electri-
cal engineer in the convert-
ing R&D group at CMD for
8 years. CMD is an original
equipment manufacturer of
bag pouch and film convert-
ing equipment.
Diverse discussions in the cross-functional
group brought interesting insights, he said, with
discussions of financing structures abroad, a
smaller box for easier shipping, and a simpler
design. Some ideas didn’t fly, Kuchenbecker
noted, such as wood frames, hand-cranked oper-
ation, and no machine guarding.
Many discussions covered how much tech-
nology to include, he said, since the company is
well-known for high-end machines.
Technologies used in the new CMD 864,
“an affordable, continuous-motion bag-making
machine,” include a CompactLogix L3y con-
troller, Kinetix 6500 drives with CIP motion,
and PanelView Plus 700 HMI from Rockwell
Automation with EtherNet/IP communica-
tions. (Common Industrial Protocol, CIP, and
EtherNet/IP, an industrial Ethernet protocol,
are ODVA technologies.) Technology selection
and simplification reduced controls cost by 4%,
Kuchenbecker said.
New design advantages include automating
numerous steps in making a good bag. After
the machine is threaded, pressing just four but-
tons brings the machine into full production,
Kuchenbecker said, with excellent tension con-
trol through the line and flexibility to add more
A simpler operator interface (OI) design
is easier to operate, learn, and use in other
Because of advanced features on CMD
machines, new customers often require a lot
of training, which is a challenge when people
with less experience or formal skills are run-
ning machines. That was even more apparent
after visiting a new customer facility, Kuchen-
becker said.
Simplifying the screen became a project goal.
“Translations are expensive and seldom fit in the
allotted screen space. Many industry terms do
not translate well,” Kuchenbecker said.
Few international standard icons in the ISO
7000 specification fit machine functions. To
streamline design and operation, icons were
Operator interface in
redesigned machine uses icons
A major machine redesign and automation upgrade included an icon-based human-machine
interface that eased training and simplified machine operation, according to CMD Corp., an
original equipment manufacturer of bag pouch and film converting equipment.
Mark T. Hoske
CMD Corp. designed operator interface icons for the CMD 864 bag-making
machine that look a lot like the parts of the machine they represent.
Courtesy: CMD Corp.
An icon-based operator screen for the CMD
864 bag-making machine simplifies training
and operation. Courtesy: CMD Corp.
Ⅲ Discuss on LinkedIn:
Could use of icons, instead
of words, help with HMI or
operator interface design?
CTL1209_AU_V3msFINAL.indd 18 8/31/12 3:21 PM
developed representing major machine func-
tions, Kuchenbecker said, based on the parts of
the machine involved. Photos show the similar-
ity of the icons to the parts of the machine they
Now 27 icons relating to items on the
machine represent most tasks operators need to
do daily. Other functions that used to be on main
screens are hidden.
“All operator screens were converted to
graphics. We ruthlessly separated operator tasks
from other functions. Less common tasks were
put on password-protected screens,” mostly used
by service technicians and engineers. These
still use words, but fewer, and they are largely
unavailable to operators, he added.
Company engineers and technicians (29 total)
scored an average of 33% after the first attempt
at icon-based OI design. After reworking a num-
ber of icons, the average correct score was 75%.
Also, alarm management was simplified.
Now, for an alarm, an on-screen yellow or red
dot appears on the area of the cabinet with the
fault. Text is displayed with multiple alarms.
Final costs were under budget. CMD intro-
duced the design at a spring trade show. The first
machine was sold in the U.S. to a customer who
had liked CMD equipment but typically pur-
chased used machines. Training was completed
in less than a day, and the graphic-based touch-
screens were well received, especially by the sec-
ond shift, with few English-speaking employees,
Kuchenbecker said.
Advanced controls, simpler designs, and icon-
based operator interfaces are expected to go into
more advanced machines as well, Kuchenbecker
added. More photos: http://bit.ly/MCq4xV ce
- Mark T. Hoske is content manager, Control
Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.
HMI design webcast
Optimizing your HMI
Video game or HMI?
Newly designed CMD 864,
an affordable, continu-
ous-motion bag-making
machine, has upgraded
automation, simpler design,
easier alarms, and icon-
based HMIs. Courtesy:
CMD Corp.
Go Online
CTL1209_AU_V3msFINAL.indd 19 8/31/12 3:21 PM
input #12 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 19 8/31/2012 5:32:41 PM
20 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
social media
news, trends
Interactive More automation
Smarter engineering tools will help
manufacturing serve a growing mid-
dle class. By 2030, the world population
will be 8.3 billion total, up from 7 billion
today, with double the number living at
Western levels of consumption, according
to Hans Beckhoff, man-
aging director and owner
of Beckhoff Automa-
tion. Because the num-
ber of consumers will
double, “to compensate,
engineers have to design
ways to supply those
products sustainably,
and automation technol-
ogy is urgently needed
to do that. Automation
will help create the man-
ufacturing, new wealth,
and the infrastructure for
the growing population.
Engineers will have to be
creative because we can-
not use double the resources,” he said.
Beckhoff Automation, with $582 mil-
lion (465 Euro) in 2011 sales, up 34%
from 2010, hopes to exceed $2.5 billion
in sales (2 billion Euro) by 2020. That
growth will help manufacturing serve that
burgeoning global middle class by con-
tinuing to promote efficiency with indus-
trial PC-based control, an integrated pro-
gramming environment, and a broader,
integrated offering of automation and con-
trols. Beckhoff Automation sold $21.3
million (17 million Euro) in China in
2011, driven by the wind business. Half of
new wind power in China uses Beckhoff
Automation, as do one quarter of all wind-
mills globally, Beckhoff said.
“We don’t want to be just a niche
company, but offer a broad range of auto-
mation, across machine automation,
building automation, and process con-
trols.” Among areas of expansion is Fertig
Motors, a Beckhoff Automation compa-
ny started in 2010 (Beckhoff owns 90%),
which provides a growing number of lin-
ear and rotary motor technologies. Fertig
Motors was co-founded with Erwin Fer-
tig, the entrepreneur who began the for-
mer packaging automation vendor, Elau.
“The future of automation is in the
electronics and software. Customers are
looking for ways to implement their own
processing know-how,
right down to the motor
algorithms, providing
up to a 3% performance
increase and differentia-
tion for future growth,
as opposed to a closed
architecture [PLCs].
Customers need plat-
forms to implement their
own know-how.” Beck-
hoff Automation’s plat-
form, what it calls “Sci-
entific Automation,”
offers PLC capabilities,
human-machine inter-
face (HMI), motion,
safety, input/output
(I/O) and other functionality such as
measurement, condition monitoring and
robotics in one PC-based programming
“Beckhoff Automation systems are
software based and promote open control
architectures. The largest PLC vendors
cannot, or will not, do what we do. Their
systems are typically more closed by
design. We can sell into their markets with
higher value, a more advanced systems
approach, and an open platform,” Beck-
hoff said. Traditional thinking can cre-
ate a tangle of networks, many software
platforms, layers of complexity, complex
licensing, and programming differences.
With an industrial PC platform, less is
more, Beckhoff suggested.
Read more online, “Engineering
industrial PC-based growth.”
Industrial PC-based growth
New Beckhoff Automation
headquarters in Verl, Ger-
many, is near other Beckhoff
manufacturing and R&D build-
ings. It previously belonged to
a telecommunications com-
pany. CFE Media photo by
Mark T. Hoske.
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Ⅲ Seal Tech http://bit.ly/NsjKcI
Ⅲ Husky http://bit.ly/TjPhud
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CTL1209_News_V3msFINAL.indd 20 8/31/12 3:24 PM
The more you know...
The more you can expand
your options.
SmartWire-DT has expanded to
include the new EtherNet Gateway
modulethat allows any
EtherNet/IP or Modbus TCP
master to fully control
SmartWire-DT devices.
That is innovation.
Learn more at

Now with EtherNet/IP
input #13 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 20 8/31/2012 5:37:56 PM
Working Together in Harmony
Representing two decades of R&D investment and
refinement, the next-generation MR-J4 servo series offers
more than just a few new splashy features. It delivers
a tightly integrated motion control solution that boosts
productivity with speed, safety and performance.
• Industry-leading 2500Hz speed frequency response
to significantly reduce settling time.
• 4 million pulses/rev absolute encoder as standard
for improved positioning accuracy.
• Dynamic vibration suppression control II to
extend machine life.
• Advanced functions for greater operator
and machine safety.
Integrated motion control solutions
that work perfectly together.
NEW MR-J4 Servo System
An Mag-MR-J4-Dolph2.2-CE.indd 1 6/12/12 4:10 PM
input #14 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 21 8/31/2012 5:39:29 PM
explored before making a final decision.
“Engineers need to do their research,
be knowledgeable of each type of control
system, and have a good understanding of
how and when to use each type of control
system. Design-critical decisions should
not be based on personal opinions formed
on an overabundance of sales pitches and
recommendations by so called “experts”
in the field. Rather, these decisions should
be based on solid knowledge of the pro-
cess, the control methods available, and
the control methods most suitable for
their applications.
“Some factors that should be consid-
ered in these decisions are initial cost,
expandability, spare part availability, ease
of implementation, longevity, application,
location, environments, I/O types and
counts, specialty modules, programming
options, vendor support, performance
guarantee, etc. The better informed one is,
the better the chance of implementing the
best type of control system for your appli-
cation. Never forget that control system
selection can be a “once in a generation”
decision for many facilities. Depending
on how you implement the project, the
engineer making these decisions may not
be at the facility or associated with the
project once the equipment is up and run-
ning. In any case, the operators running
the equipment and the overall perfor-
mance of the equipment or process will
either benefit or suffer based on the origi-
nal design and the decisions made by the
engineers for many years to come.
- Art Howell, senior engineer, Maver-
ick Technologies, a system integrator.
Read more: http://bit.ly/RjyqWB or
browse under www.controleng.com/blogs.
22 ● SEPTEMBER 2012
news briefs
Because control systems remain in
place for many years, a bad control sys-
tem selection could haunt you for a long
time, according to the July 21, 2012,
“Real World Engineering” blog post,
“Selecting a control system.”
There’s less differentiation between
new programmable logic controllers
(PLCs) and distributed control systems
(DCSs) and “new systems are much more
compatible and interlaced than most engi-
neers are aware of. For example, some
PLC manufacturers provide DCS control-
lers that fit in their PLC rack and replace
the PLC processor. These similarities and
interrelations need to be considered and
Control system selection considerations

Consider initial cost,
expandability, spare
part availability, ease of
implementation, longevity,
application, location,
environments, I/O types
and counts, specialty
modules, programming
options, vendor support,
and performance

CTL1209_News_V3msFINAL.indd 22 8/31/12 3:24 PM
Communicate With Confdence
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input #15 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 22 8/31/2012 5:41:38 PM
SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 23
Ⅲ Manufacturing
A joint Georgia Tech-Council on
Competitiveness Report says U.S. man-
ufacturing is growing stronger. Main-
taining and strengthening America’s
competitiveness in the global market
will require a tremendous measure of
planning, effort, and focused financial
investment. The report finds that manu-
facturing, which accounts for 12% of the
U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), is
supporting a slow U.S. economic recov-
ery. By 2020, the report said, growth
in manufacturing will increase freight
volumes by 19% and increased truck
tonnage by 28%. The report attributes
U.S. manufacturing growth to reasons
including a declining quality in compet-
ing countries, increased cash flow, and
manufacturing operations that are more
streamlined and efficient thanks to tech-
nology advances. http://bit.ly/PYwupB
Ⅲ Powerful standard
IEEE 1547, Standard for Intercon-
necting Distributed Resources with
Electric Power Systems, can iden-
tify what functionalities need to be in
related control systems. It can help as
industrial and large commercial facili-
ties continue to use distributed energy
resources (DERs) for reliability and
sustainability, and in interconnecting
those resources with the local electric
utility. IEC recently announced plans for
an IEC document based on IEEE 1547,
according to the CSE blog post, by
Sam Sciacca, “Industrials and the Util-
ity: Standards for Interconnection Save
Money.” http://bit.ly/PYvgLc
Ⅲ Control system
A new program helps clients mod-
ernize and improve the performance of
their aging control systems and other
plant assets. The program guides cli-
ents in justifying modernization costs,
reducing risk, deploying advanced
technology, and approaching plant
upgrades strategically and systemati-
cally, according to Invensys Operations
Management. Link to more info and two
videos. http://bit.ly/PYvgLc
Ⅲ Ethernet advice
Control Engineering Industrial Eth-
ernet webcast on Sept. 18 (archived
viewing later) offers a global industrial
Ethernet market overview; industrial
Ethernet cable categories and stan-
dards; Ethernet auto-negotiation best
practices; and advice about network
topologies, copper, fiber, transceivers,
speed, latency, jitter, ports, packets,
protocols, power, environment, mount-
ing, monitoring, security, and expan-
sion. www.controleng.com/webcast
Image copyright: NASA / JPL-Caltech
Ⅲ Roving successfully
For the Mars Rover Curiosity,
Siemens product lifecycle manage-
ment (PLM) software was used
throughout the development pro-
cess to digitally design, simulate,
and assemble the Rover before any
physical prototypes were built. See
the online article, more images at
CTL1209_News_V3msFINAL.indd 23 8/31/12 3:24 PM
we guarantee it won’t.
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input #16 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 23 9/4/2012 10:54:08 AM
industrial Ethernet
24 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
electing industrial networking pro-
tocols, industrial Ethernet included,
helps improve production efficien-
cy and quality with enterprise con-
nectivity, although Ethernet of the
industrial kind requires specialty knowledge
and practices beyond Ethernet for home and
office. When installing or operating an indus-
trial Ethernet network, there are five need-to-
know essentials about cabling, signal quality,
ground loops, switches, and traffic.
Case studies provide examples on how indus-
trial Ethernet can be applied. Saugatuck Brew-
ing used industrial Ethernet to help expand beer
output fourfold in two years. A newly designed
packaging machine from VC999 Packaging Sys-
tems uses a Gigabit Ethernet bus network.
For many applications of TCP/IP network-
ing, the 100-meter range limit of copper Eth-
ernet cable becomes a problem. Five methods
can extend Ethernet networks, some more than
9 miles.
- Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manag-
er, Control Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.
Industrial networking
improves system
To help manufacturers accommodate evolving
networking requirements, such as decentraliza-
tion of control, integrated diagnostics, and sim-
plified maintenance, network protocols integrate
with industrial equipment and control systems to
communicate crucial status updates and produc-
tion data. A powerful industrial tool to streamline
manufacturing production is reliable, enterprise-
wide connectivity, providing the highest level
of visibility, control, and flexibility—helping to
increase productivity and reduce operating costs.
With the migration away from point-to-point
connection, advanced networking architectures
ensure connectivity, collaboration, and integra-
tion from the device level to enterprise business
systems. By maximizing production control,
enterprise connectivity can improve product

Ensure signal quality
when using Ethernet for
industrial applications,
such as the i-Series
Thermoformer from
VC999 Packaging
Systems using a Gigabit
Ethernet for communica-
tions. Ethernet Cat 5e
cable and connector
photo is courtesy TriCore
Inc.; machine image,
Mitsubishi Electric,
CC-Link Partner
Association – Americas;
cover design by Michael
cover story
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 24 8/31/12 3:26 PM
quality, customer satisfaction, and company
When choosing a networking solution, users
must understand the individual communication
requirements as well as any environmental chal-
lenges present in each application. Evaluating the
performance capabilities, features, and character-
istics of industrial protocols can assist manufac-
turers in selecting the ideal networking solution
for critical communication needs.
The Ethernet physical layer was developed
with the primary purpose of conveying large
amounts of information. Applied first to office-
level networks, where multiple clients use the
network to share information, Ethernet has
expanded beyond traditional usage to the plant
floor, especially with the advent of industrial
Ethernet protocols. Ethernet communications can
be used for industrial data collection, transmis-
sion, and monitoring.
Online: more about Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), EtherNet/
IP, Profinet, DeviceNet, Profibus, and connector-
ized networks. http://bit.ly/OlceNy
- Bob Kollmeyer is business development
manager—networks, Turck; www.turck.us.
Industrial Ethernet
essentials: What you
need to know
Unlike the old comfortable office and home
Ethernet, Ethernet of the industrial kind is a new
breed, requiring specialty knowledge and prac-
tices. If you are installing or operating an indus-
trial Ethernet network, here are some essentials
you need to know about cabling, signal quality,
ground loops, switches, and traffic.
Cabling matters
Like all networks, your industrial Ethernet is
only as good as its cabling. In addition to high
electromagnetic interference (EMI), industrial
environments are subject as a class to tempera-
ture ranges, dust, humidity and a host of other
factors not normally found in a home or office.
So, what’s the right choice of cable? In your
office, commercially rated cable like Catego-
ry 5 is good for up to 10 MB, and Category 5e
is good for up to 100 MB. The ANSI/TIA-1005
standard states that Category 6 or better cabling
should be used for hosts or devices that are
exposed to an industrial environment. Category
6 cable is good for up to 1 GB at 100 meters and
10 GB at 55 meters. Category 6e cable can do up
to 10 GB at 100 meters.
Category 6 cable is generally less susceptible
to cross talk and external EMI noise than Catego-
ry 5 and 5e cables. Industrial Ethernet cables are
designed to be less susceptible to physical dete-
rioration in the harsher industrial environments.
When installing Category 6 cable, ensure that the
RJ45 ends and jacks are also rated for Category
6. For the best results, use premade patch cables
for short runs, with factory installed connectors.
For long runs install jacks.
Cables, shielding, ground loops
Some applications require shielding, but
improperly installed shielded cable can create
more problems than it solves.
Shielded Ethernet cable may perform better in
high EMI environments if run outside of conduit.
Proper grounding is key with shielded cable. One
ground reference is essential. Multiple ground
connections can cause ground loops, where the
difference in voltage potential at the ground con-
nections can induce noise on the cable.
A ground loop can wreak havoc on your net-
work. To get this right, use a grounded RJ45 con-
nector on only one end of the cable. On the other
end use a nonconductive RJ45 connector to elim-
inate the possibility of ground loops.
If the Ethernet cable crosses power lines,
always cross at right angles. Separate parallel
Ethernet and power cables at least 8 to 12 in.,
more for higher voltages and longer parallel runs.
If the Ethernet cable is in a metal pathway or
conduit, each section of the pathway or conduit
must be bonded to the adjacent section for elec-
trical continuity along its path.
In general, route Ethernet cables away from
equipment that generates EMI, such as motors,
motor control equipment, lighting, and power
conductors. Within panels, separate Ethernet
cables from conductors by at least 2 in. When
routing away from EMI sources within a panel,
follow the recommended cable bend radius.
Switches and hubs
To put it simply, never use a hub in an indus-
trial Ethernet environment. Hubs are nothing
more than multiport repeaters. Eliminating use
of hubs leaves the choice between managed and
nonmanaged (or unmanaged) switches. While
www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 25

Network protocols connect the office with the
plant floor, providing secure, seamless interoper-
ability among manufacturing enterprise networks
for constant internet and enterprise connectivity.
Courtesy: Turck
Ⅲ More industrial Ethernet:
Ⅲ Is it practical to use Ethernet for
all industrial networking? Leave
your opinion on this “Ask Control
Engineering” blog entry:
Ⅲ Industrial network products:
Ⅲ System integration and indus-
trial networking articles:
Ⅲ Benefits, cautions of
industrial Ethernet use
Ⅲ Industrial Ethernet
physical layer tips, trouble-
Ⅲ How Ethernet is used in
a packaging machine and
brewery applications
Ⅲ How to extend Ethernet
beyond 100 m
Go online
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 25 8/31/12 3:26 PM
26 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
managed switches
are generally pref-
erable, they are
also more expen-
sive than nonman-
aged switches.
Every device
on a network has
a unique identi-
fier, referred to
as a media access
control (MAC)
address. This is
the key to the
much more dis-
criminating behav-
ior of a switch
compared to a hub. When a switch first powers
up, it initially behaves like a hub broadcasting all
traffic everywhere. As devices pass information
between ports on a switch, it watches this traf-
fic, figures out which MAC address is associated
with which port, and places this information in a
MAC address table. Once it figures out the MAC
address of a device connected to a particular
port, it will watch for information intended for
that MAC address, and transmit such information
only to the port associated with that address.
An industrial Ethernet network carries three
types of traffic. Unicast traffic routes from one
point to another point. Multicast traffic routes
from one point to many points. Broadcast traffic
routes from one point to all points.
Once a switch has built its MAC address
table, managed and unmanaged switches treat
unicast and broadcast traffic identically. Gener-
ally, keep broadcast traffic under 100 broadcasts
per second, at a bandwidth of 100 Mb. A little
bit of broadcasting is an integral part of any net-
work. An examples of devices that may initiate
broadcasts are print servers, announcing them-
selves periodically to the network.
Snooping: Not just nosy
One of the primary differences between
managed and unmanaged switches is how they
treat multicast traffic. Multicast traffic typi-
cally comes from smart devices on plant floor
process networks, in a connection-oriented
producer-/consumer-based technology. In this
context a connection is simply a relationship
between two or more nodes across a network.
A device needs to be a member of a mul-
ticast group to receive group data. All mem-
bers of the group receive data. You do not need
to be a member of a group to send data to the
group. The main problem with multicast traf-
fic in a producer/consumer model is that traffic
grows exponentially with the number of hosts.
This is where the managed switch comes in.
A managed switch has the ability to turn on
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
Snooping. Here’s how it works. When enabled,
IGMP Snooping sends out broadcast traf-
fic to determine the members of any multi-
cast groups. Using this information, combined
with the MAC address table, allows a managed
switch to route multicast traffic only to those
ports associated with members of a multicast
group. A nonmanaged switch treats multicast
data the same as broadcast data and sends it
If the network uses producer/consumer
technology or has multicast traffic, a managed
switch is a must and worth the price premium.
Mirrored ports, troubleshooting
There are other reasons to consider a managed
switch. This class of switches usually provides
error logs, control of individual port speeds,
duplex settings, and the ability to mirror ports.
These extra capabilities allow more precise con-
trol of network behavior and can be an invalu-
able aide in troubleshooting issues that will
certainly occur on the network at some point.
When network performance issues occur,
the first suspect often is the switch, though the
switch rarely is the core of most network per-
formance problems. Switches tend to be the
lowest latency points in a system, typically oper-
ating 10 to 50 times faster than all other network
While there is excellent software to help trou-
bleshoot network performance issues, most of
it can only see broadcast and multicast traffic.
That’s fair enough, because many performance
issues are caused by unrestrained multicast traf-
fic or excessive broadcast traffic. If you need to
examine unicast traffic for any reason, port mir-
roring is the only way.
It is OK to use a nonmanaged switch if there
is no multicast traffic on the network. On very
small, simple networks with a few devices, many
people use nonmanaged switches. Sometimes
they take half-steps and combine the two, having
a few remote devices on a nonmanaged switch,
which then feeds into a managed switch. As a
general practice for networks of more than a few
nodes, if cost is not a primary concern, go with
a managed switch, often a much better choice in
For info on analyzers and monitors with dia-
grams, read online: Industrial Ethernet essentials:
What you need to know. http://bit.ly/Pz65P9
- David McCarthy is president and chief exec-
utive officer, TriCore Inc., www.tricore.com.
Industrial switch
from N-Tron uses gigabit
Ethernet cables. Cour-
tesy: TriCore Inc.
cover story
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 26 8/31/12 3:26 PM
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input #17 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 27 8/31/2012 5:48:38 PM
28 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Brewing more
with industrial
Saugatuck Brewing makes sev-
eral classic beers, such as pilsner,
ale, hefeweizen, porter, stout, and
IPA (India Pale Ale), with some bal-
anced, modern refinement. The brew-
ery, based in Douglas, Mich., has
made significant production gains in
2011 and 2012, with expansions of
fermenter and bright tank (beer fin-
ishing tank) equipment. Saugatuck
achieved just under 500 barrels of
production capacity in 2009. Expan-
sion doubled output to approximately 1,000
barrels in 2010, and more than 2,000 barrels in
2011. The ambitious goal of 4,200 barrels in
2012 would continue the doubling trend for the
third year in a row, if the brewery can do it.
The reality for U.S. microbreweries is that
expansion can come at a rapid pace, but it is
also realized in several increments. This calls
for a modular automation system that can flex-
ibly expand in multiple phases that occur in rapid
succession. For Saugatuck, the solution for main-
taining ideal carbonation levels and accommo-
dating further brewery expansions came from
PC-based control and an industrial Ethernet com-
munication system.
Today, Saugatuck Brewing uses EtherCAT
throughout its brewing process as the network-
ing system with cabinet-mounted IP20-rated I/O
terminals and IP67 EtherCAT I/O box modules
mounted outside the cabinet in plant areas. For
the process controller, Saugatuck uses a com-
pact control panel with 5.7-in. touchscreen with
Ethernet interface to the brewery’s updated car-
bonation system. The control panel has an Intel
IXP420 processor with Intel XScale technology
and 533 MHz clock frequency.
The control panel also runs the Saugatuck
Brewing human-machine interface (HMI) so
brewery staff can adjust carbonation parame-
ters and change other settings. Saugatuck Brew-
ing programmed its HMI using one integrated
programming software platform for the control-
ler and HMI, instead of relying on a stand-alone
HMI software package.
Using PC- and EtherCAT-based technology,
Saugatuck Brewing improved product quality
and consistency, and drastically reduced produc-
tion equipment cost.
The control system is “50% less expensive
Control Panel/Ether-
CAT Box at Saugatuck
Brewing provides Ether-
CAT industrial Ethernet
protocol connectivity. The
PC-based Beckhoff Auto-
mation CP6607 Control
Panel (as the interface
to the updated carbon-
ation system) allows fast
expansion without added
cost of more stand-alone
controllers for each
expansion. Initial cost
savings of 50% grows
with each expansion.
Courtesy: Beckhoff Auto-
If Saugatuck Brewing produces 4,200 barrels of beer in
2012, it will be the third year the brewery has doubled capac-
ity. Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation, Saugatuck Brewing
cover story
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 28 8/31/12 3:26 PM
input #18 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 29 8/31/2012 5:50:24 PM
30 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
The back view of the
VC999 i-Series Thermo-
former shows the closed
form, seal, and dis-
charge enclosures, left
to right; CC-Link Gigabit
Ethernet connect the
three enclosures. Cour-
tesy: Mitsubishi Electric,
CC-Link Partner Asso-
ciation – Americas
per tank compared to an alternative controller
architecture Saugatuck Brewing considered,”
according to Ron Conklin, Brewmaster at Sau-
gatuck Brewing. “The other system was ruled
out as soon as we determined we would have
to purchase a new hardware controller every
time we expanded. Standardizing on one PC-
based system that controls all brewing tanks
makes plant operation, maintenance, and further
upgrades much easier.”
Also read: Technologies used at Sau-
gatuck Brewing industrial Ethernet upgrade.
See Saugatuck Brewing Ethernet/automation
photo gallery. http://bit.ly/NlHbQK
- Shane Novacek is marketing communica-
tions manager, Beckhoff Automation.
Gigabit Ethernet used
in packaging machine
The i-Series Thermoformer from VC999
Packaging Systems is a new generation in pack-
aging technology using a Gigabit Ethernet
industrial network for communications. Modu-
lar design objectives had to easily and quickly
facilitate changes in length, width, and options;
allow for post installation expandability based
on customer demands; and reduce
assembly, shipping,
and installation
VC999 also
specified that the
new design would
use leading-edge
and best-in-class technol-
ogy where possible, if deter-
mined to be beneficial and cost-effective.
In response to VC999’s requirements, Power
Motion Inc. helped develop a control solution that
met design objectives, incorporating a program-
mable logic controller (PLC), servo motors, and
variable frequency drives (VFDs), and CC-Link
IE Field Ethernet bus network.
Machine design, segments
The i-Series machine is built, shipped, and
installed based on these three segments (form,
seal, and discharge); each segment has its own
control enclosure connected by the Ethernet
network. Servos are being controlled via ana-
log signal or a proprietary motion control bus
network, depending on the specific axes, and
the VFDs are being controlled via analog sig-
nal. Future designs may incorporate all CC-
Link IE Field network communications. VC999
specified that the control system bus network
be Ethernet-based and connect the main elec-
trical enclosure (seal station) with the electri-
cal enclosures located at the form and discharge
stations to simplify wire management, reduce
wire cost, reduce wiring labor, simplify
machine breakdown for shipment, and simplify
machine installation at the customer site.
In addition, Ethernet bus networks are the
preferred choice for new machine designs. CC-
Link IE Field Ethernet based bus network is
the fastest and the first 1 Gigabit per sec Eth-
ernet based network for automation control.
Other networks operate at 10/100 Mbps. (Gbps
is 1000 Mbps, 100 or 10 times faster.)
See more details, photos, technologies
inside: Gigabit Ethernet, PLC, servos, and
drives. http://bit.ly/O2MowF
- Terry Carson is vice president of Sales-
Power Motion Inc., a multi-vendor automation
distributor and system integrator, www.power-
Best ways
to extend Ethernet
When TCP/IP networking moves out of the
home and office environment and into the real
world, the 100-meter range limitation of copper
Ethernet cable becomes a problem. The remote
sensors along an oil pipeline, for example, are
going to require a more range. With conversion
and extension, networks can cover distances that
are measured in kilometers rather than meters.
Ethernet extender
One easy solution is the Ethernet extend-
er. An Ethernet extender uses DSL technol-
ogy to extend range up to 1,900 meters, 1.18
miles (See diagram). And they’ll work with
all sorts of copper wire, which makes them
very cost-effective. The labor and cabling
involved in a network installation normally
represent a significant part of the expense, but
Ethernet extenders will make use of any leg-
acy cable already in place, like Cat5 cable or
even old telephone lines. The savings can be
Ethernet extenders are set up in pairs. The
VC999 Packaging
Systems i-Series Ther-
moformer packaging
machine uses CC-Link
IE Field Ethernet com-
munications to connect
the programmable logic
controller and other
automation in this seal
station enclosure with
the form and discharge
stations. Courtesy: Mit-
subishi Electric, CC-Link
Partner Association –
cover story
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 30 8/31/12 3:26 PM
first extender converts the Ethernet data for
transmission over DSL. The second converts it
back again. Throughput may be up to 50 Mbps,
depending upon the range. Data signals attenu-
ate over copper wire, of course, but even at the
full 1,900 meters, Ethernet extenders can still
provide throughputs of 1 Mbps. Some Ethernet
extenders are also equipped to provide Power
over Ethernet (PoE), which overcomes the
challenge of powering remote devices placed
away from a power source by providing power
directly from the extended Ethernet port.
For best performance, ensure extender wire
is free of load coils, filters, and splitters.
Fiber optics: single-mode, multi-mode
When 1,900 meters isn’t enough, or enor-
mous bandwidth is required, larger networks
will typically employ fiber optic cable. There are
two kinds. The cheaper option, multi-mode fiber
optic cable, uses LED light and can carry data
several kilometers. It is often used as the back-
bone infrastructure for office building and fac-
tory networks.
The telephone and cable companies, with
their need for great range, are more likely to
use single-mode fiber optic
cable. Single-mode cable
transmits with a laser rath-
er than an LED, and it lets
the telephone companies
(telcos) transmit data across
continents. Just as multi-
mode fiber and its asso-
ciated equipment is more
expensive than copper wire,
single-mode fiber optic
installations are more costly than multi-mode.
But many network designers still specify the
more expensive single-mode fiber optics at the
outset, reasoning that labor costs will represent a
large part of the installation expense in any case,
and that the great bandwidth and range provided
by single-mode fiber ensure that the installation
won’t become obsolete at any time in the fore-
seeable future.
More about radio and cellular networking,
with more diagrams, read online: 5 Best Ways to
Extend Ethernet. http://bit.ly/OSPTZ9
- Mike Fahrion is data communications
expert and the director of product management
for B&B Electronics; www.bb-elec.com. ce

An Ethernet extender uses
DSL technology to extend
range up to 1,900 meters,
more than a mile. Courtesy:
B&B Electronics
Consider this...
Ⅲ How far will industrial Ethernet
extend into your next industrial
implementation or machine design?
How can these cabling and design
tips for the Ethernet physical layer
help ensure your signal quality?
CTL1209_F0_Ethernet_V6msFINAL.indd 31 8/31/12 3:26 PM
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input #19 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 31 8/31/2012 5:54:09 PM
32 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Less programming,
firmware downloads
During motion-control programming, users
want to concentrate on application tasks while
letting the software take care of the rest (such
as drive firmware downloads and configura-
tion), and an integrated software programming
environment can help, said Robert Muehlfellner,
B&R Industrial Automation director of automa-
tion technology. Muehlfellner’s views follow.
For machine automation, everyone needs to
integrate movement and path control, connect
drives, and have functions such as visualization,
I/O processing, and communication available to
them. In the past, this created some difficulty
because suitable systems for this type of homog-
enous integration were not available. Now, even
anthropomorphic robots, complex computer
numerical control (CNC) 3D processing, and
multiple linked axis movements down to single-
axis positioning can be modified in real time—
and each of these tasks can be accomplished
within one software programming environment.
The programming software and real-time
operating system create the versatile environ-
ment needed for high-precision positioning tasks.
Generated set positions can be transferred to the
drive without jitter via real-time Ethernet net-
works like Powerlink. Additionally, the required
I/O points can be added to the system in an
extremely flexible manner.
Predefined visualization components can also
be used to create complex machine functions. In
addition to “classic” components, such as param-
eter configuration and movement program oper-
ation, this includes tools for simulation, logging,
and process diagnostics. This is the foundation
for all custom visualization solutions of motion-
control applications. The flexible system archi-
tecture and the large number of functions make it
possible to customize and modularize a machine
line to meet specific customer requirements.
Such software makes it easier for the user to
use and choose different motor technologies as
required for the desired machine performance
and minimize hardware costs, without adding
engineering complexity.
An integrated platform can include drives,
movement and path control, visualization, and
I/O handling, as well as path control with CNC
functionality, with tools for all project phas-
es. Open-loop controllers, closed-loop control-
lers, drives, CNCs, robotics, communication and
visualization, and programmable safety functions
can all be configured in one place, reducing inte-
Program drives
in control software
Integrated programming environments incorporate drive pro-
gramming and other motion control functions with controllers, I/O
modules, human-machine interfaces, and other configuration, with
less actual programming. (Who wants to learn one less software
package?) Three competitors describe similar advantages.
- Edited by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Control Engineer-
ing, mhoske@cfemedia.com.
drive programming
Generic motion control
User layer operation
PLC open
Functional range for industries
CNC Robotics Motion control
Inverter Hydraulic Powerlink Stepper Servo

Drives, movement and path control, visualization, and I/O handling can
be integrated in one environment, such as the B&R Generic Motion Control
(GMC) platform, using B&R Automation Studio programming software.
Courtesy: B&R Industrial Automation
Key concepts
Ⅲ Cover functions of integrated drives,
motion, controller programming packages
Ⅲ Software tools can save engineering time
Ⅲ Machine design benefits from using such
CTL1209_F1_DriveProgram_V8msFINAL.indd 32 8/31/12 3:27 PM
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input #20 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 33 8/31/2012 5:55:46 PM
34 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
drive programming
gration time and maintenance costs for machine
builders and end users.
The modular architecture and structure of
the programming environment supports daily
programming workflow and gives develop-
ers more capacity for the core competencies of
the machine. Users are provided integrated and
standardized IEC 61131-3 languages and seam-
less ANSI-C and ANSI-C++ integration into the
IEC world. All motion control functions, such
as point-to-point movements, coordinated axis
movements, or complex robotics paths, are exe-
cuted using uniform function blocks.
Single-axis positioning, linked-axis move-
ments, CNC, and robotics can be combined into
one software system to ease integration of drive
technologies for dc motors, linear motors, step-
per motors, servo motors, and ac motors. The
same software can be applied with simple con-
figuration instead of programming.
For product details, see: “Integrated motion
control programming software, platform.”
configuration for
motion control
Perhaps the most significant improvement
to drive programming is the move to central-
ized programming platforms that cover an entire
automated system over software packages that
are dedicated to drive programming, noted Matt
Lecheler, motion specialist at Beckhoff Auto-
mation. With this modern approach, Lecheler
said, engineers can program programmable logic
controllers (PLCs), I/O devices, motion con-
trol, and drive functionality in one place with
one software platform. This can greatly reduce
costs because users reduce the number of soft-
ware packages they must purchase, license, and
learn, he said. Savings also extend to engineers
with decreased programming time and training
requirements. Lecheler’s views follow.
The benefits here aren’t just related to the
programming and software, but also to the cum-
bersome cables still required by some dedicated
drive programming environments. A centralized
automation programming platform that uses
standardized hardware components, such as Eth-
ernet-enabled drives, can eliminate special adapt-
ers and cables for programming and configuring
drives. Specialized equipment is still a common
requirement with many drives on the market.
These special cable components are not especial-
ly expensive, but they can cause massive head-
aches if a replacement cable or cable adapter is
required in drive fault, machine-down situations.
Of course, centralized programming environ-
ments for drives and all other automation devices
on a machine is not a new idea. The integrated
programming approach has been around for more
than 15 years. More machine builders and man-
ufacturers are embracing this way of program-
ming. With a comprehensive PC-based software
platform, users can program drives as part of the
overall automation system rather than individu-
ally with separate software.
Some software automatically identifies devic-
es on digital fieldbuses (such as the EtherCAT
industrial Ethernet protocol), including servo
drives from multiple vendors. This adds another
layer of time savings for engineers, which then
translates into faster design times, more effi-
cient commissioning, and faster time to market
for machine builders and their customers. The
all-in-one software platform permits the tuning
of drives and other automation devices in the
same system manager. The integrated software
includes the possibility to program advanced
motion functionality with specific libraries
devoted to numerical control (NC), comput-
TwinCAT software from Beckhoff Automation
is an integrated programming environment for
drive programming and other industrial devices.
It works with multiple vendors’ hardware.
Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation
n Machine Control Channel
n PLC/PAC products, software

CNC, and
robotics can be
combined into
one software

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CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 35 8/31/2012 5:57:17 PM
36 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
er numerical control (CNC), drive safety, and
additional areas. Significant drive programming
efficiencies can be created for any kind of drive
application from simple to complex.
For product details, read: Drive program-
ming software is an integrated programming
environment. http://bit.ly/RkQBBC
No pain system
design, start-up
Inverters, drives, variable frequency drives,
motor drives: whatever you call them, engi-
neers understand and accept their performance-
enhancing, energy-saving, and motor-protection
benefits. Drive offerings have proliferated; much
hardware is based on similar technology result-
ing in excellent or enhanced quality across lead-
ing brands, said Greg Mears, product manager,
drives software, Rockwell Automation. Views
from Mears follow.
Engineers considering drives options may
want to focus on the ease-of-use tools and fea-
tures provided by the configuration software
as much as the actual hardware. Examining the
whole drives package, especially the config-
uration software, engineers can make a more
informed decision that saves time and labor dur-
ing configuration, commissioning, and start-up.
Drives configuration software is easier to use and
more powerful. The most
profound advancements
involve integrating the
controller and drive. For
networked drives, inte-
gration capabilities help
lower programming,
installation, and overall
ownership costs by mini-
mizing the software tools
required. This speeds
startups, improve accura-
cy, and ease drive-system
Traditionally, adding
a drive to a control sys-
tem meant learning to
work with a new soft-
ware tool and managing
separate drive configura-
tion files. By using pro-
gramming software that
integrates drives and the
controller, users have
less of a learning curve
and can more easily manage the drive and the
control system since there is only one software
package to purchase and learn.
Reduce risk of mismatch I/O: When install-
ing drives, a major complexity is configuring the
settings to synchronize two programming envi-
ronments. For example, a conflict in the I/O con-
figuration setting can arise when the controller
and drive are configured at different times with
different tools. The controller expects one size of
I/O while the drive is configured for a different
size, which creates an I/O connection error in the
program. This nuisance for programmers often
falls into system start-up when time is limited.
With integrated drives configuration, users can
now configure both sides of the network connec-
tion at the same time with one tool, reducing the
potential for errors, which is especially benefi-
cial in applications with a large number of drives.
Streamline configuration: To ease mainte-
nance and improve access to information, some
software saves drive configuration data as part
of the controller’s project file and also stores it
in the controller. As a result, there is no need to
store and maintain multiple files—users need
only one file for the controller and all drive con-
figurations. In the event of a failure, replacement
and restoration of the original drive configura-
tion is a much easier process. The controller may
automatically download the configuration to a
replacement drive, further reducing downtime.
No cryptic parameters: Individually pro-
gramming parameters and tags when config-
uring drives can be a major challenge. Many
controllers store drive information in memory
as a contiguous block, where each drive param-
eter is represented by a physical address or num-
ber rather than a descriptive name. Typical tags
might read “.data3” or “.data4,” forcing users to
constantly refer to user manuals to interpret and
document the control program. This tedious task
is time-consuming and often must be repeated for
each drive in a system.
Simplify coding: When installing drives,
multiple engineers may develop different ver-
sions of the same code, adding complexity.
With numerous code variations, installation
and start-up become more tedious and complex.
User-defined add-on instructions encapsulate
drive-specific operations into a reusable module
of code, which reduces the development and val-
idation effort and promotes consistency among
projects since there’s no need to constantly rein-
vent commonly used control algorithms. ce
For more on I/O integration and simpler cod-
ing, read this online. http://bit.ly/NJpScC

Rockwell Software RSLogix 5000 v20
software from Rockwell Automation provides
an integrated control system for manufacturers
and machine builders requiring a smaller con-
trol system. It integrates motion capabilities on
the EtherNet/IP network with the Allen-Bradley
CompactLogix controller family and allows users
to scale from 200 to 10,000 I/O points. Add-on
profiles—such as the PowerFlex 755 drive add-
on profile opened in RSLogix 5000 illustrated
here—allow configuration of other manufacturer
devices. Courtesy: Rockwell Automation
Consider this...
Ⅲ How many control pro-
gramming and configura-
tion software packages
do you use? Is there room
for consolidation and sim-
plification with the next
technology upgrade?
drive programming
CTL1209_F1_DriveProgram_V8msFINAL.indd 36 8/31/12 3:27 PM
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input #22 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 37 8/31/2012 6:00:14 PM
38 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
he upstream oil and gas business con-
tinues to face challenges. One recent
report says that over the last decade,
global output has increased by 12%,
but costs related to production and
exploration quadrupled. As fields mature they
become marginal because production declines and
operational costs increase. Newer fields are often
in remote and harsh environments, such as arctic
climates or deep water, providing their own set of
challenges. Driving issues for change include:
Ⅲ Economic: Reduced operational expens-
es, increased reservoir recovery, and production
capacity increases
Ⅲ Geographic: Costs of operating in harsh envi-
ronments and remote locations, and
Ⅲ Safety and environmental: Exposure to haz-
ards, process integrity, and emissions control.
Technology advances are also changing the
game by continually expanding the technical capa-
bility envelope.
The challenges, combined with advances in
improvement-enabling technologies, have trig-
gered new approaches to oil and gas reserve
development. Examples are satellite fields and
subsea tie-ins, smart wells, and light well inter-
ventions, as well as an increased interest in remote
monitoring, organizational models with integrat-
ed asset management, and adoption of world-class
maintenance principles.
Integrated operations (IO) is a collective term
for some of these challenges, and it has been
advanced by various players in the sector under
such names as smart fields, digital oilfields, intel-
ligent energy, and so on. IO concepts can be uti-
lized from the earliest phases of field development
right up to the end of production.
The elements of IO
IO programs typically include a portfolio of
technology and services to optimize production
and facilities operation and maintenance from
wellbore to export. Key components are:
Ⅲ ICT (information and communications tech-
Katrine Hilmen, Espen Storkaas
Smarter and safer
recovery from mature
and remote assets
Upstream oil and gas production is becoming more difficult
as old fields are depleted and new fields are more remote.
Integrated operations can facilitate safer
and more profitable operation in
challenging situations.
upstream production
The technical capabili-
ties of offshore produc-
tion grow with the
challenges. All images
courtesy ABB
Ⅲ As oil and gas extraction
becomes more difficult,
effective automation can
improve production levels
and create a safer environ-
Ⅲ This type of approach
may require a cultural
change for companies that
think more in terms of cut-
ting costs.
Ⅲ Operators, maintenance
people, and other plant
personnel have responded
positively to the benefits of
this approach.
CTL1209_F2_UpStream_V3msFinal.indd 38 8/31/12 3:29 PM
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input #23 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 39 9/4/2012 3:27:46 PM
40 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
nology) infrastructure and security
 Data capture and access, including software
applications for remote support
 Production and operation intelligence and
optimization, and
 Condition monitoring, diagnostics, and
The solutions specific to the oil, gas, and petro-
chemicals industries need to be very comprehen-
sive and cover areas such as:
 Production and process optimization and
 Safety integrity and alarm management
 Integrated systems for remote control and
 IT security and communication network
 Condition monitoring systems and services
 Emission monitoring and energy efficiency
 Multiphase flow assurance and optimization
 Subsea intelligence
 Data capture and storage with collaborative
work environments
 Process control performance lifecycle servic-
es, and
 Wireless sensor systems.
Typical benefits of IO
When all of these tactical elements are used
in a larger strategic program, the greatest ben-
efits can be realized in ways that have a signifi-
cant financial impact. The additional capital cost
is generally paid back in the operational phase
through a variety of sources, including:
 Increased production, typically 3% to 5 %
 Improved safety through risk reduction and
improved work environments
 Reduced production losses, or increased oil
recovery rates, usually 20% to 40%
 Reductions of 15% to 30% in operation and
maintenance costs
 Logistics and transport benefits, and
 Reduced emissions, better energy efficiency,
improved environmental surveillance, and marine
operations monitoring.
ICT and system topology
The principal components in a system facilitat-
ing IO for an offshore asset comply with the ISA
95 Level 5 hierarchy standard:
 Efficient historian and data integration infra-
structure with connectivity and interface solutions
to gather and distribute all relevant data
 Efficient and secure IT and communication
Remote support and IO
are enabled by proper
asset infrastructure
and facilities design. In
particular, integration of
instrumentation, auto-
mation, information, and
communication tech-
nologies with the opera-
tion and maintenance
management system is
upstream production
CTL1209_F2_UpStream_V3msFinal.indd 40 8/31/12 3:29 PM
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input #24 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 41 9/4/2012 10:50:24 AM
42 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
networks infrastructure that facilitates remote
access, monitoring, and collaborative support
 Comprehensive asset management system
giving both maintenance and performance mea-
sures of all key systems and processing units
 Daily operations and optimization applications
 A common user interface, and
 Collaboration rooms and workstations.
In addition to these technical components,
associated work processes, operational philoso-
phies, and an organization with a mind-set and
culture suited to IO are all required to exploit the
opportunities. Cross-disciplinary decision-mak-
ing processes and collaboration between differ-
ent parts of the organization, or even between the
operating company and suppliers and service pro-
viders, are all essential ingredients.
So let’s look at how improvements in produc-
tion optimization, asset management, and safety
work together in a typical application.
Production optimization
Subsea developments are becoming ever
more important both in deepwater and for tying-
in smaller fields to existing infrastructure. As an
example, IO can help with the challenges to sub-
sea field production optimization since reservoir
recovery for subsea developments is typically
10% to 15% below that of platform wells.
One element that an IO strategy needs to
include is a flow assurance and optimization sys-
tem (FAOS). Components of a program include:
 Flow control and stabilization: Active control
stabilizes wells and pipelines to ensure consistent
and uninterrupted production.
 Production monitoring: Well and pipeline
monitoring can prevent blockages due to hydrate
FAOS delivers those and more in an integrated
system. This ensures that the synergies between
the various elements are fully utilized. For exam-
ple, virtual measurements from the monitoring
system can be used as secondary control vari-
ables. Furthermore, such integration ensures a uni-
fied user interface, for both a quick overview of
key data and for detailed analysis by expert users.
FAOS resides within the integrated operation
infrastructure and all information can be accessed
IT networking topology needs to follow the layers of integration outlined in ISA95.

processes and
between different
parts of the
organization, or
even between the
operating company
and suppliers and
service providers,
are all essential

upstream production
CTL1209_F2_UpStream_V3msFinal.indd 42 8/31/12 3:29 PM
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input #25 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 43 9/4/2012 3:46:06 PM
44 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
through the client’s corporate network.
An effective IO platform must include a com-
prehensive set of security strategies that focus on
protecting the confidentiality, availability, and
integrity of the local asset information and auto-
mation system network. Corporate, national, and
international standards must be adhered to and
good technical and procedural solutions devel-
oped. Large-scale system providers should be
able to include security solutions to help establish
baselines for addressing the risks associated with
plant automation systems.
Asset management and lifecycle
Predictive maintenance is key to cost-efficient
maintenance. The method implies that mainte-
nance operations are managed according to reli-
able prognosis of the equipment wear and tear.
Predictive maintenance also ensures the reliability
and integrity of the equipment. This is particular-
ly appreciated at offshore and remote installations
with high travel costs. The method also provides
cost reduction by reducing unplanned downtime,
allowing operation closer to the design limit, and
by facilitating more structured maintenance plan-
ning. A key to condition-based maintenance is
real-time monitoring and reporting technology.
An effective IO system provides common
infrastructure to integrate maintenance data from
individual systems. All major electrical, instru-
ment and control, and telecoms systems compo-
nents are available with intelligent monitoring and
diagnostic functions. These monitoring functions
deliver important information on equipment sta-
tus, tasks due, and possible performance improve-
ments. Third-party systems can also be integrated.
The asset management system should allow
real-time access to these functions, support mon-
itoring and diagnostics, and integrate planning
and enterprise-wide ERP connectivity. The main
advantage lies in the ability to display all relevant
maintenance data in a uniform user interface, sup-
porting informed decision-making as overlapping
monitoring functions can easily be compared.
An IO system is not complete without a port-
folio of lifecycle solutions and service offerings
within the area of safety and alarm management.
This should include awareness training and per-
formance benchmarks, improvement projects and
services, reporting applications, and system main-
tenance as well as integrated safety and control
system installations.
Integrated safety systems are typically used
for emergency shutdown, fire and gas, and other
critical applications, such as anti-surge, HIPPS
(high-integrity pipeline protection system), and
BMS (burner management system). All data from
the integrated safety system is available through
the control system infrastructure to the asset man-
agement system as well as to the operator envi-
ronment, enabling better decision making and
root-cause analysis.
Importance of “soft factors”
Experiences gleaned from IO deployments so
far indicate that organizational change and the
mind-set of individuals, especially as they acquire
new knowledge and skills, play a critical role in
the success of the enterprise. In fact, more than
80% of the effort involved resides in this area.
An early adopter of IO saw the lifting cost of a
small, tail-production North Sea field significantly
reduced. The main contributor was the “soft IO.”
While such organizational changes can be trau-
matic, in this case they were eagerly embraced
by the operators and other staff keen to see their
facility have a longer life. In this case, ABB was a
partner for the operator in the whole change pro-
gram, conducting interviews and handling change
management in addition to installing technology
to enable remote operation support. Since then,
this very significant customer has established
standard work processes, roles and responsibili-
ties, and introduced a new offshore organizational
model based largely on this pioneering work.
More recently, work carried out by a team spe-
cializing in process and production optimization
from ABB Integrated Operations has made a big
impact at the Shell Ormen Lange facility in the
areas of process control performance services,
simulation and tuning, commissioning, and start-
up support. Benefits were delivered in terms of
onstream days, fewer fluctuations, energy efficien-
cy, and reduced emissions. Uptime was increased
by four to five days per year. The magnitude of the
financial savings here can be guessed at by taking
into account that, at its plateau production, Ormen
Lange will process some 20 billion standard cubic
meters of gas annually, equivalent to Norway’s
entire energy consumption.
Effective IO should increase throughput, create
a safer environment, reduce energy consumption,
and reduce the cost of operation by advanced use
of available information, such as real-time process
data and asset condition monitoring. IO provides
an opportunity to optimize reserve exploitation
significantly. It has already proven itself in finan-
cial terms, and it will continue to grow in impor-
tance in the oil and gas sector as the industry
moves forward. ce
Katrine Hilmen and Espen Storkaas work in
ABB’s Integrated Operations Products and Solu-
tions Center, Oslo, Norway.
n Read more about Shell’s
production efforts in the U.S.
and Norway at http://www.
shell.us/ and http://www.shell.
no/ respectively
n Find out more about ABB’s
offerings at http://www.abb.
n Follow developments in
control system strategy with
our Process & Advanced Con-
trol eNewsletter. Subscribe at
Go Online
upstream production
CTL1209_F2_UpStream_V3msFinal.indd 44 8/31/12 3:29 PM
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input #26 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 45 9/4/2012 10:58:04 AM
46 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
he traditional approach to integrating
machine vision systems or image-
based ID (identification) readers
with factory automation involves
connecting to a personal comput-
er (PC) with a dedicated serial line or USB port
and running a translator program on the PC to
interface to the programmable logic controller
(PLC) running the line. The latest generation
of machine vision systems and ID readers offer
substantial improvements by providing Ethernet
connectivity and tools to communicate directly
with PLCs, robot controllers, PCs, and human
machine interfaces (HMIs).
Key benefits include elimi-
nating the need for the PC and
cabling from the PC to the vision
system or ID reader, eliminat-
ing the need for software on the
PC, and the ability to communi-
cate with the vision system or ID
reader from anywhere on the fac-
tory network. Interfacing factory
networks with vision systems and
ID readers has become easier with
new communications interfaces,
as examples show.
Device-level interfaces
Traditional methods of inter-
facing between factory networks
and ID readers and machine
vision systems use RS232 seri-
al lines or USB connections to
a personal computer. The per-
sonal computer runs translation
software or a custom script that
parses the data and pushes it to a
PLC and sometimes to other net-
work destinations. This approach
involves expenses such as purchasing and pro-
gramming the PC and providing cabling to the
ID reader or vision system. In the past, manufac-
turers would often multiplex vision systems from
one PC to distribute vision at multiple points on
the production line.
Traditional methods can involve consider-
able expense in purchasing the PCs and cabling
used to connect vision systems and ID readers.
Even greater expenses may be involved in devel-
oping or purchasing and configuring the trans-
lation software for the PC. The number of code
readers or vision systems that can be connected
to one PC is limited, so this approach is not easi-
ly scalable. Companies required to maintain good
manufacturing practices (GMP) incur additional
expenses for validation of the PC and software.
Another limit is that the ID reader or vision sys-
tem communicates only with the PC to which it
is directly connected. Thus, it can be challeng-
ing to interface with other applications, such as
statistical process control (SPC), or to download
configurations to multiple vision systems, such
as during model changeover.
Ethernet interfaces, control level
The latest generation of ID code readers and
machine vision systems incorporate Ethernet
ports to connect to any switch or hub on a factory
network and in turn communicate with all other
networked devices. The latest vision systems and
ID readers also include tools that make it easy to
interface directly to common factory automation
hardware, such as PLCs, robot controllers, HMIs,
and PCs. This eliminates the need for the PC and
cabling from the PC to the ID reader or machine
system, lowering cost.
Additional cost savings arise from the elimi-
nation of software on the PC and, for industries
subject to GMP, the elimination of the need to
John Lewis
Machine vision,
ID-reader network
Integrate Ethernet-based machine vision and image-based ID readers into
factory networks for more direct communications and less expense.
vision integration
Add-on profile (AOP) is loaded with
Rockwell Automation’s AOP setup
utility. Courtesy: Cognex
New module setup on PLC. Courtesy:
Key concepts
Ⅲ Traditional communications methods can
limit machine vision connectivity, add cost
Ⅲ Ethernet communications can ease machine
vision setup, share info with other systems
Ⅲ Application examples illustrate benefts of
easier machine vision integration
CTL1209_F3_Vision_V5msFINAL.indd 46 8/31/12 3:31 PM
PD-Unitronics-08-20-2012-PRINT.pdf 1 20/08/2012 16:12:28
input #27 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 47 9/4/2012 11:00:36 AM
48 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
vision integration
validate the PC and
its software. Direct
Ethernet commu-
nications between
the ID reader or
machine vision sys-
tem and the factory
network improve
scalability by mak-
ing it possible to
add ID readers
or vision systems
without more hard-
ware or soft-
ware. RS232 and
USB connectivity
enables direct con-
nection to a PC for setup and troubleshooting as
for legacy applications.
Because they can be easily linked and man-
aged as a system over a network, the overall cost
and effort involved in implementing and maintain-
ing vision is reduced. Networked vision systems,
vision sensors, and ID readers enable data and
images to be collected at a central point, viewed
on one monitor, and archived for trend analysis
and continuous process improvement. Network-
ing also allows vision systems to increase manu-
facturing agility by automating procedures, such
as changeovers for mixed-model processing.
Advanced vision systems and sensors offer
software tools to centralize application develop-
ment and network administration. An engineer
can set up and modify vision applications, share
applications with other plant sites, and remote-
ly troubleshoot problems with technicians, with-
out leaving the office. Such tools make it easy to
add new vision sensors to an existing line or copy
existing vision sensor applications to new vision
sensors for reuse on a new line.
Integrating vision, factory networks
To achieve these benefits, the ID reader or
machine vision system must communicate with
other factory automation devices such as PLCs
over the network. Various industrial Ethernet
protocols are commonly used:
n EtherNet/IP—This ODVA protocol enables
vision systems to be linked to compliant PLCs
and other devices over one Ethernet cable, elimi-
nating the need for complex wiring schemes and
costly network gateways. www.odva.org
n Modbus/TCP—This industrial network
protocol (Modbus Organization) permits direct
connectivity to Modicon PLCs and other devices
over Ethernet. www.modbus.org
n Profinet—This industrial communications
protocol is defined by Profibus International and
allows vision systems to communicate with com-
pliant PLCs and other factory automation devic-
es. www.us.profinet.com
Typical communications capabilities include
preconfigured drivers, ready-to-use templates,
and sample code to accelerate system setup
and ensure smooth communication with factory
automation robots and controllers. An array of
visualization options are typically provided for
integrating inspection images into a central oper-
ator interface. A point-and-click configuration
interface controls multiple vision systems from
a network PC and allows users to easily trans-
fer data and images to an enterprise file server or
display them in the user’s own operator interface.
New vision systems provide drivers, tem-
plates, and sample code for open standard indus-
trial Ethernet communications protocols such
as MC Protocol, EtherNet/IP, and Profinet for
connection to a wide range of PLCs and other
automation devices from Mitsubishi, Rockwell,
Siemens, and other manufacturers. Vision sys-
tems can communicate with almost any make or
model of robot. Preconfigured drivers, ready-to-
use templates, and sample code are available for
robots by ABB, Denso, Fanuc, Kawasaki, Kuka,
Motoman, and Staubli. Communication with
robots by Mitsubishi, Adept, Epson, and many
other manufacturers is also supported. Discrete
I/O and serial protocols can support older PLCs
and devices without network connectivity. Field-
bus support is provided for established standards,
including CC-Link, DeviceNet, and Profibus.
Visualization options are provided to integrate
inspection images, quality data, and interactive
controls into an operator interface. One typical
approach embeds the vision system image and
custom display into a NET or ActiveX compat-
ible custom application, or a PC-based HMI sys-
tem from Rockwell, Wonderware, Citect, and
others. OPC Servers (OPC Foundation) can
uplink vision data to HMI displays, SPC systems,
plant supervisory systems, and Microsoft Excel
to monitor operations and record statistical data.
Software development kits help create a custom
user interface for managing vision systems.
ID reader/PLC connectivity example
An add-on profile loaded with appropriate soft-
ware can be used for new module set up on a PLC
and to define input and output nodes.
The example (see screen shots) shows how
a vision system or ID reader can be connected
via EtherNet/IP using a Rockwell Add-on pro-
file (AOP). The first step is to load an electron-
ic data sheet (EDS) file supplied with the vision
system into Rockwell’s EDS wizard software,
RSLogix. EDS files are simple text files used by
Guided by vision system, a
robot picks clutch housing from
a conveyor. Courtesy: Cognex
n What is the GigE Vision stan-
dard? http://bit.ly/MqJVtN
n High-speed, long-distance
communications (CoaXPress,
CXP) http://bit.ly/RkIeDi
n Fixed mount industrial ID
reader http://bit.ly/NlKjuz
Go Online
CTL1209_F3_Vision_V5msFINAL.indd 48 8/31/12 3:31 PM
Comprehensive Systems To Meet Your Needs
Visit www.panduit.com/panel-ce today for free control panel reference documents that can help to lower your panel costs.
Reliable and Flexible
Panel Designs
Panduit provides high quality product systems that connect,
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the physical infrastructure – from on machine control panels
to facility electrical panels. Key product features include:
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design fexibility in control panel layouts with innovative
wiring duct
•High Quality Connections: Improve system
reliability with ferrules and tooling that provide
superior performance
•Safe and Secure Access: Maintain and
monitor industrial networks using
data access ports
input #28 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 49 9/4/2012 11:03:28 AM
network configuration tools to
help identify products and com-
mission them on a network. The
vision system or ID reader AOP
is then loaded using Rockwell’s
AOP setup utility. The third step
is to set up a new module on the
PLC, add a unique name, and set
the reader’s IP address. The final
step is defining the input and out-
put nodes. Then the engineer can
write the application and define
the associated logic in the Rock-
well Automation programming
Odyssey Machine
Before a foundry can deliver 40-lb alumi-
num clutch housings to its customer, it must saw
off the sprues and remove flash. Previously, one
operator loaded the castings into a machine that
sawed the sprue off and a second operator held
the castings while another cutter removed flash.
Odyssey Machine Company of Bowling Green,
Ohio, developed a vision-guided robot applica-
tion that eliminates these difficult and potentially
dangerous tasks. A machine vision system identi-
fies which of eight parts is on the infeed convey-
or and the location of that part. The robot then
picks up the part and loads it into the three-stage
sprue saw. Next, the robot takes the part from the
saw and moves it around a high-speed cutter in a
secondary fixture to remove flash.
Robot picks clutch housing
The workcell runs under the control of an
Allen-Bradley programmable logic controller
(PLC) connected to the vision system with an
Ethernet cable. The robot used (a Fanuc S900W )
had been previously retired by the customer then
rebuilt by Fanuc for this application. The PLC
was easily connected to the vision system via an
Ethernet connection because it contains protocols
needed to communicate with the PLC. The vision
system is connected to the RJ2 robot control with
digital input/outputs to communicate with the
robot controller. The vision system sends part
identification information and part coordinates to
the PLC, which sends info to the robot controller.
Verification, tracking
In the state of Texas, a tax stamp must be
ID reader reads tax stamp
barcode for verification and
tracking. Courtesy: Cognex
vision integration
CTL1209_F3_Vision_V5msFINAL.indd 50 8/31/12 3:31 PM
Control Engineering covers relevant
topical articles in a variety of e-Newsletters
each and every month:

Control Engineering Weekly

Energy Automation Monthly

Fieldbus Facts & Fieldbus Reports

Information Control Monthly

Machine Control Monthly

Process and Advanced Control Monthly

Process Instrumentation and Sensors

Product & Media Showcase

Safety & Security

System Integration

Whitepaper Connection
Subscribe today by going to
ctl201204_eNewsLtr_fillerHLF.indd 1 3/21/2012 11:47:49 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 50 9/4/2012 11:04:56 AM
SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 51
applied to each liquor bottle sold at the
wholesale level, such as to hotels and
restaurants. Good-Goody Liquor in Dal-
las wanted to automate the process of
reading the stamps to ensure each bottle
has a tax stamp and to store its number
in a database with the bottle number for
audit purposes. The application presents
a major barcode reading challenge. The
system processes bottles at the rate of
one per second, and the bottles have dif-
ferent shapes and backgrounds. In addi-
tion, the label position varies and the
lighting changes often.
Cisco-Eagle, the company that built
the automated system for applying the
stamps, worked with Goody-Goody
Liquor to develop a system that auto-
matically applies the tax stamps with 1D
barcodes and reads the barcode for veri-
fication and tracking. Machine vision is
used to identify bottles that do not have
a stamp on them so they can be removed
from the line. Machine vision is also
used to capture the tax stamp number so
it can be entered into a database along
with the bottle number in case of an
The ID reader communicates using
EtherNet/IP protocol and has a driver
for PLCs that simplifies the integration
task. Once the driver is installed in the
PLC, the camera shows up as a compo-
nent in the PLC. The PLC can then be
easily programmed to issue any com-
mands to the camera such as to capture
an image with minimal programming. In
this application, issuing the command to
the barcode reader to capture an image,
provide feedback on whether or not a
barcode was detected, and send the bar-
code number was accomplished with
three lines of code.
Streamlined communications
The need in the past to use PCs to
interface with vision systems and ID
readers required the purchase of expen-
sive hardware and development of some-
times complex software to interface with
factory networks. A new generation of
vision systems and ID readers with built-
in Ethernet connectivity and tools for
interfacing directly with common fac-
tory automation devices streamlines fac-
tory network integration. In addition to
reducing the time and cost required for
implementation, the new devices also
increase the value of vision systems and
ID readers by enabling the information
they generate to be more easily accessed
and used in other applications. ce
- John Lewis is market development
manager, Cognex, Natick, Mass. Edited
by Mark T. Hoske, content manager, Con-
trol Engineering, mhoske@cfemedia.com.
Consider this...
Ⅲ Does easier setup increase likelihood
of using machine vision technologies?
Ⅲ Can information integration of vision
results with other systems help quantify
the investment?
CTL1209_F3_Vision_V5msFINAL.indd 51 8/31/12 3:31 PM
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input #29 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 51 9/4/2012 11:07:24 AM
P1 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
inside process
s the world’s larg-
est producer of
industrial gases,
Praxair frequently
builds production
facilities at or adjacent to major
customer sites to assure unin-
terrupted product delivery. For
example, the company operates
40 hydrogen production facilities
and seven hydrogen pipeline sys-
tems worldwide that deliver near-
ly one billion standard cubic feet
of hydrogen per day to refineries,
chemical plants, food plants, and
other process industries that use high volumes
of industrial gases.
Satellite plants like this help Praxair main-
tain a continuous supply of prod-
uct to its customers, regardless of
circumstances. And by standard-
izing the design of such plants, it
is able to achieve efficient, disci-
plined project execution, which
was exemplified in one of its
recent facilities.
Praxair’s 200 million stan-
dard cubic feet per day hydrogen
facility in Whiting, Ind., serves
to demonstrate this strategy as it
works to develop high operating
efficiency and long-term reliabil-
ity. In planning and constructing
this large-scale hydrogen production facility to
serve a nearby refinery, Praxair worked for the
first time with a control system manufacturer,
Ashish Umbarkar,
George Foor
Industrial gas producer
standardizes control
strategy for multiple plants
Using a common integrated DCS, SCADA, and asset management platform at its
hydrogen plants will help Praxair save on engineering, commissioning, and maintenance.
Ⅲ This case study provides
a look at how two compa-
nies interacted to improve
process plant design and
performance through more
sophisticated technologies
and deeper control system
integration. Their solutions
may suggest ideas for
similar situations in differ-
ent applications.
CTL1209_InsideProc_01_Praxair_V3msFINAL.indd 1 8/31/12 3:33 PM
Copyright © 2012 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. AD RS2278-RFP
PlantPAx is a registered trademark of Rockwell Automation, Inc.
Optimize the use of resources, energy, manpower, and equipment.
With the PlantPAx™ process automation system. Tis fexible, scalable
plant-wide solution, based on a single open platform, features advanced
control and diagnostics. It provides business-level intelligence. And reveals hidden costs.
Connect productivity to cost recovery. Visit RockwellAutomation.com/go/ce12
Conventional process control withholds valuable
information. PlantPAx turns it into intelligence.
12-2065_RS2278-RFP_RA_ControlEng_ProdIntel_7.875x10.5.indd 1 5/30/12 10:26 AM
input #30 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 2 9/4/2012 11:11:39 AM
Emerson Process Management,
to develop a DCS (distributed
control system) to work with its
SCADA (supervisory control and
data acquisition) structure. The
result was a DeltaV field auto-
mation system integrated with
the SCADA structure used at
Praxair’s other plants to extend
process control to small pack-
aged units.
Additionally, Praxair engaged
Emerson to commission and start
up the new production facility.
This collaborative approach to
system design, construction, testing, and project
implementation produced a high level of execu-
tion efficiency. Some of this was attributed to
the use of HART-enabled field devices that con-
tributed to an easy start-up with a well-prepared
operations and maintenance force ready to run
the facility efficiently and with minimal intru-
sion. This approach will serve as a model for
multiple projects in the future, saving money on
engineering, instrumentation, start-up, opera-
tion, and maintenance.
The companies worked together on this proj-
ect beginning with the FEED (front-end engi-
neering and development) stage and continuing
through design, documentation, testing, and
implementation. Each project team had man-
agers who became liaison persons as the pro-
duction and control systems were developed
simultaneously. The scope of the project was
well-defined with a complete list of deliver-
ables. Emphasis on planning and construction
efficiency helped drive costs down on this and
future projects.
Praxair’s process engineering group is accus-
tomed to documenting design concepts in order
to standardize production components and con-
struction methods so that every plant is the
same. For example, every plant is wired exactly
the same way. The Emerson team followed this
example, specifying standard control system
components and a reproducible control strategy
so this hydrogen plant can be duplicated any-
where in the world.
The FEED effort required about six months,
during which time both companies worked
closely to identify every control loop and every
inside process

This approach will
serve as a model
for multiple projects
in the future, saving
money on engineering,
instrumentation, start-
up, operation, and

CTL1209_InsideProc_01_Praxair_V3msFINAL.indd 3 8/31/12 3:33 PM
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input #31 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 3 9/4/2012 11:13:36 AM

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Get Ready. Fall 2012.
4222621A_EN_Control.indd 1 7/19/12 1:31 PM
input #32 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 4 9/4/2012 11:15:03 AM
I/O point, enabling preliminary control strat-
egies to be developed at an early stage. Con-
flicting ideas were resolved in joint sessions
with a priority on best practices for greater
efficiency. By the end of the FEED period,
the project was well-defined and the Emerson
team had all the information it needed on the
production process to build and program the
control system.
The DCS interface in the new plant had to
match the look and feel of Praxair’s graphics
standards. When these were incorporated into
the DeltaV screens, the graphics were easily
recognizable by plant operators and mainte-
nance personnel. Integration of the AMS Suite:
Intelligent Device Manager asset management
software with the control system provides easy
access to the smart field devices and the diag-
nostics they generate, opening the door to cost-
saving predictive maintenance.
One design development that Praxair appre-
ciated was the remote instrument enclosure
(RIE), which made it possible to construct and
assemble all control system panels in a com-
pletely wired enclosure. The RIE could be
built and tested at the factory and then shipped
to the construction site without disassembly or
risk of errors occurring once on the site. Build-
ing and testing the RIE offsite and avoiding
disassembly and reassembly saved up to six
weeks. The RIE also reduced the amount of
space needed for the control function.
By participating in the factory acceptance
testing (FAT), Praxair operations personnel
became familiar with the DCS and helped train
others so that by the time the system was oper-
ational, the staff was well prepared.
Commissioning and start-up
Additional on-site training of maintenance
personnel occurred during instrument commis-
sioning and start-up conducted by the Emerson
team, so those individuals had a good under-
standing of the control system for which they
would be responsible.
The use of an integrated device manage-
ment platform to communicate with the field
instruments resulted in notable savings in
device configuration. Confirming instrument
calibration and loop integrity during com-
missioning can be a time-consuming activity.
However, using the AMS technology a sin-
inside process

interface in the
new plant had
to match the
look and feel of
Praxair’s graphics
standards. When
these were
incorporated into
the DeltaV
screens, the
were easily
recognizable by
plant operators
and maintenance

CTL1209_InsideProc_01_Praxair_V3msFINAL.indd 5 8/31/12 3:33 PM
input #33 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 5 9/4/2012 11:30:06 AM
Document Path DDB:Volumes:DDB:Emerson_Electric:Active_Work:EECRA_Rosemount_Analytical:P25329_EECRA_Climbers:Mechanicals:P25329_EECRA25329_SmartWireless.indd
P25329_CLIMBERS_V4_SIMPLE.psd (CMYK; 615 ppi; 107.21%), PROCESS_4C_Blue.ai (27.49%),
Emerson_CIS_ext_white_mac.ai (66.84%)
Revision # 4
Date Created 7-6-2012 8:45 AM
Saved 7-16-2012 3:34 PM
Printed 7-16-2012 3:35 PM
Print Scale None
Slug Font Myriad Pro Family
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Notes Due Date: 7/18
Ad # EECRA25329_SmartWireless
Job # P25329
Print_Magazine, Smart Wireless – Mountain Climbers, Page, 4C Bleed
M. Iacobucci, D. McCradden, G. Matusek, J. Loibl, R. Guagliardo, M. Wheeler, K. Siegal, S. Koller, S. Roseberry
to Client
Final Output Scale 100%
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The Emerson logo is a trademark and a service mark of Emerson Electric Co. © 2012 Emerson Electric Co.
See more, do more and be more profitable with the most trusted partner in wireless — Emerson.
Emerson is your proven partner with Smart Wireless in more customer sites and with more operating
hours than anyone else in the process industry. Smart Wireless has the widest range of technologies
to expand your vision into more places across your operations. And its self-organizing mesh network
delivers the highest reliability available. It is simply the most intelligent, secure and cost-effective
operation-wide wireless option available. See how Smart Wireless can empower your bottom line
at EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
Using wireless here and there is one thing.
But using it across my entire operation?
There’s no one I could trust to do that.
input #34 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 6 9/4/2012 11:36:40 AM
P7 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
gle technician can query each field instrument
directly from the RIE, assure that the device is
on-line, verify that device’s functionality, and
move on to another device without anyone hav-
ing to open instrument covers or look in an I/O
cabinet. In this way, the integrity of each loop
could be verified in minutes. In addition, the
calibration records for every device in the plant
are maintained in the AMS database for later
use by technicians for troubleshooting and pre-
dictive maintenance.
The start-up went easily with all field
devices functioning as intended and the con-
trol system running in automatic. As a result,
the plant went into production earlier than
Predictive maintenance
Predictive maintenance not only saves
money, it contributes to plant reliability. The
asset management application facilitates this
capability by providing access to diagnos-
tic data generated by smart field devices and
third-party package units integrated into the
DCS. Each device’s operating condition as well
as various performance characteristics can be
obtained easily using the AMS software. This
knowledge helps avoid reactive maintenance
when some component fails unexpectedly,
which cannot be permitted in a high-reliabili-
ty plant.
By tapping into the available device data,
maintenance personnel are able to predict with
reasonable accuracy how long an instrument or
control valve will continue to perform satisfac-
torily before repairs or replacement will be nec-
essary. In some cases, immediate action may be
required to keep the process running, but it is
often possible to delay service work until the
next regular maintenance shutdown. By then, all
the necessary repair parts can be staged, and the
technicians equipped with the right tools and
knowledge to make the necessary repair safely,
efficiently, and correctly.
Current and future operations
All of the methodology and standards devel-
oped and proved on the Whiting plant project
are now being applied elsewhere, saving time
and providing the design and construction effi-
ciency demanded by Praxair. ce
Ashish Umbarkar is an engineer for the
advanced control system HYCO team at
Praxair. George Foor is a control system
account manager for Northeast Controls, Inc.,
and works with Praxair’s technology center in
Tonomowoc, N.Y. He participated in the FEED
stage of this project.
inside process
From this centralized HYCO control room at the Whiting facility, a single operator can manage the entire plant. The control system
hardware was assembled at the factory into a single enclosure. Photos courtesy: Praxair
n For more information on
Praxair, visit: www.praxair.com
n Emerson Process Manage-
ment provided the control
system for Whiting: www.
n System integrator Northeast
Controls helped with the
design and implementation:
n Find more information on
distributed control systems at
www.controleng.com. Search
on “DCS” for a wide range of
n Control Engineering main-
tains a directory of control
system integrators at www.
Go Online
CTL1209_InsideProc_01_Praxair_V3msFINAL.indd 7 9/7/12 8:24 AM
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CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 8 9/4/2012 11:38:58 AM
P9 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
inside process
mall Internet-connected devices con-
trol our factories, manage the power
grid, dispense medicine via insulin
pumps, and affect our everyday lives
in countless ways. Yet many embed-
ded device developers do not include a fire-
wall to protect their devices from cyber attacks,
believing their devices are somehow immune
from attacks and that a firewall is not needed.
The majority of control system devices, con-
ventional and embedded, developed in the last
few years have an Ethernet network interface
that can connect to the Internet. Some include
password protection and perhaps encrypted pro-
tocols such as SSH or SSL, but these are not
enough. Some devices don’t even include these
simple protections and are supplied with user
names or passwords that cannot be changed. If
these approaches provided sufficient protection,
we would not be reading about security breaches
in the media. Older systems are even more vul-
nerable. Their original designs often assumed
they were part of an isolated network and omit-
ted security, but many are now connected to an
open network with no protection. The perception
of what represents sufficient security is outdated
and needs to change.
Real-world threats and solutions
Frequently engineers assume hackers will
not target devices deep within industrial net-
works, claiming criminals are only interested in
attacking PCs and enterprise networks. However,
you don’t have to look very hard to find recent
David West
Beyond the
network firewall
Since many industrial devices are soft targets for hackers, placing
smaller firewalls deeper in networks near PLCs or embedding them in
such controllers is a practical way to add a higher level of protection.
Protection options, good and bad
Hub/switch PLC 3
Embedded firewall
Server PC PC
Some of the PLCs shown above are better protected than others. PLC 1 is wide
open to attacks via the Internet, but PLC 2 and 3 have local defenses against
invasion. PLC 4, 5, and 6 are behind the enterprise firewall, but attacks can
come through other devices on the network. Something originating from one of
the PCs can go straight to PLC 4. Local firewalls are critical, and embedding
them can simplify programming. Courtesy: Icon Labs
Ⅲ Many industrial
devices buried deep
within industrial networks
have become targets for
Ⅲ Expectations that these
devices are safe thanks to
obscurity have proven to
be false.
Ⅲ Small device-level fire-
walls can be configured to
provide protection specifi-
cally for these devices.
CTL1209_InsideProc_02_IconLabs_V4msFINAL.indd 9 8/31/12 3:39 PM
input #36 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 10 9/4/2012 11:41:04 AM
reports of attacks against devices in
industrial applications that prove this is
simply not true. Many industrial PLCs,
PACs, and other control devices are soft
targets, and if they can be reached from
the outside through their networks, a
hacker can cause all sorts of trouble.
Industrial networking and embedded
device engineers can take a page from IT
security’s playbook and employ a multi-
layered security strategy using firewalls
and encryption protocols. A firewall pro-
vides a critical layer of
security for such devic-
es, along with authen-
tication and security,
blocking attacks that
authentication and
encryption can’t. A
firewall must be effi-
cient, consuming mini-
mal system resources,
and scalable to a wide
range of devices from
small 8-bit systems run-
ning a minimal or no
operating system, to a
sophisticated multicore
system running a com-
mercial RTOS (real-
time operating system).
Desktop firewalls used
with office IT systems
do not meet the needs
of these devices. Win-
dows- and Linux-based firewalls, while
effective, are large and not easily porta-
ble to embedded devices or those distrib-
uted around an industrial environment.
Network firewalls help, but—
Network or enterprise firewalls are
used to isolate private networks from the
Internet. All traffic between computers
inside the network and the Internet must
pass through the firewall. It is configured
with communication policies to protect
the machines inside the network from
attacks originating from the Internet.
Firewall policies control the protocols,
ports, and IP addresses allowed to pass
through. Network firewalls may also
perform deep packet inspection to block
viruses and malware targeting Windows
systems. Properly configured, they can
provide an effective layer of defense
against hackers, DoS (denial of service)
attacks, viruses, and malware.
However, network firewalls are
designed to provide protection for the
entire network with policies that make
sense for the network as a whole. The
communication requirements for an
individual controller or other embedded
device farther down in a network are fre-
quently very specific, with only a few
protocols and ports supported and often
with a limited number of IP addresses
communicating with the device. A fire-
wall embedded in the device or adjacent
to it provides protec-
tion at the device level
with policies specifi-
cally configured for that
device, allowing much
tighter control.
Attacks can also
originate from within a
network. These attacks
are not blocked by the
network firewall, and
without an embedded
firewall, devices on the
network are vulner-
able to these attacks.
These attacks can be
launched by insiders, or
from communications
that were not blocked
by the network firewall
or from communica-
tions that bypassed the
firewall. Stuxnet, for
example, attacked machines on a private
network after infiltrating the network via
(in all likelihood) USB flash drives.
To go a step farther, the assump-
tion that a controller or other embedded
device will always be deployed behind
a network firewall should also be care-
fully examined. Networks evolve over
time, firewalls can be compromised by
hackers, and the manner in which these
devices are deployed changes. Is it real-
ly possible to be absolutely certain that
an embedded device will always be
deployed behind a network firewall?
And even if the device is behind a net-
work firewall, do you want to trust the
firewall as the main and perhaps only
line of defense?
Device-level firewalls
A firewall embedded in a control
device or separate firewall appliance
connected to the controller enforces a set
inside process
P11 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com

A firewall
in the device
or adjacent
to it provides
protection at
the device level
with policies
configured for
that device,
allowing much
tighter control.

CTL1209_InsideProc_02_IconLabs_V4msFINAL.indd 11 8/31/12 3:40 PM
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input #37 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 11 9/4/2012 11:44:57 AM
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input #38 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 12 9/4/2012 11:47:55 AM
of policies designed to create a safe zone where
the device may operate. Embedded firewalls
are becoming more common as growing num-
bers of manufacturers understand the need for
this type of protection. Firewall policies govern
allowable protocols and ports which may com-
municate with the device. Such firewalls are
integrated directly with the TCP/IP stack of the
device and filter packets at the IP protocol layer.
They block unwanted packets, unfriendly login
attempts, and DoS attacks before authentication
is allowed to begin.
One or more strategies are used to enforce
firewall policies. Common filtering methods are:
 Rules-based filtering: Compares each pack-
et to a set of preset static rules determining if the
packet is blocked or allowed. All decisions are
made based on the information in the packet.
 Stateful packet inspection (SPI): Maintains
information regarding the state of each connec-
tion and uses that information when making fil-
tering decisions.
 Threshold-based filtering: Maintains statis-
tics on received packets and monitors threshold
crossings to detect packet floods and DoS attacks.
Rules-based filtering enforces policies by
blocking unused protocols, closing unused ports,
and enforcing IP address whitelists and black-
lists. For some devices, rules-based filtering is all
that’s required. Consider a hacker trying to reach
and manipulate a pump controller from outside
via the Internet. In normal operation, that pump
controller would only have reason to communi-
cate with a small set of known IP addresses. A
rules-based firewall configured with a trusted list
of IP addresses would block this attack.
SPI provides protection against packets
received with invalid TCP state information, a
common web-based attack. SPI can also be used
to create a lockdown mode where all connections
must originate from the embedded device.
Threshold-based filtering is more complex
and requires significant system processing time
and memory, but provides a powerful tool for
detecting packet floods and DoS attacks.
Hackers are actively targeting embedded devic-
es. News articles recently reported attacks against
thermostats, car computer systems, medical devic-
es, and SCADA systems. The question really
should be, “Why wouldn’t I include a firewall?” ce
David West is vice president of engineering at
Icon Labs. Reach him at david.west@iconlabs.com
inside process
 Maybe you don’t believe
industrial targets are soft.
Watch discussions with cyber
security students at DePaul
University as they dissect PLCs
and other industrial devices at
 Get more information on
embedded firewalls at
 Control Engineering writes
extensively about cyber secu-
rity. Search on that term at
 Also search on author Matt
Luallen at
Go Online
CTL1209_InsideProc_02_IconLabs_V4msFINAL.indd 13 8/31/12 3:40 PM
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CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 14 9/4/2012 11:51:04 AM
P15 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
inside process
istillation columns are unit operations most often
used for separation and purification in process
industries. They can also be some of the most
complex to operate and control, because they
involve two-phase, multi-stage, counter-current
mass and heat transfer, with each tray or segment of pack-
ing representing a theoretical equilibrium stage. The greater the
number of trays, the longer the time constants related to com-
position changes.
For a two-product distillation column (top and bottom prod-
uct), there are typically five degrees of control freedom (con-
trol valves):
Ⅲ Reflux flow
Ⅲ Top product flow
Ⅲ Reboiler heat input flow
Ⅲ Bottom product flow, and
Ⅲ Pressure control valve, the specific location of which
depends upon how the pressure is controlled.
Three of these valves are needed for inventory control
(reflux drum, column bottom, and vapor inventory or pres-
sure control). That leaves two valves for achieving the primary
operating and control objective, namely product composition
control. These two valves are normally the reflux flow and the
reboiler heat source flow. For many columns, the P&ID’s will
specify a top or upper tray temperature controller that adjusts
the reflux flow in a straightforward cascade for top product
composition control.
Unfortunately, this type of cascade does not always perform
very well, and often operators will end up breaking the cascade
and using the reflux flow control in AUTO mode rather than
CASC. There are several reasons for poor control loop perfor-
mance – this discussion addresses one of the less recognized
and often over-looked sources of process disturbance.
There are at least seven or eight ways to control pressure
on a distillation column, and several of these will result in
sub-cooled reflux. Sub-cooled means that the temperature of
the reflux exiting the overhead condenser is below its bub-
ble point, the temperature at which the first bubble of vapor
boils off the liquid. From a process and control standpoint,
what are the implications of returning sub-cooled reflux to
the column?
The purpose of reflux is to provide down-flowing liquid
throughout the rectification section to contact with the up-flow-
ing vapor in order to achieve stage-by-stage equilibrium heat
and mass transfer and, hence, purification of the top product.
When sub-cooled reflux is introduced to the top tray, it must
be heated up to its bubble point before the lighter components
will vaporize. Where does the heat come from? The only place
it can come from is from condensing vapor that is approaching
the top tray from below. When this vapor condenses, it adds
to the total liquid flowing from tray 1 down the column. In
other words, a sub-cooled reflux introduces a greater volume
(or mass or molar) flow of reflux than is delivered to the col-
umn by the external reflux flow controller.
If the degree of sub-cooling was constant, then this
wouldn’t be such a big source of disturbance; however, this
is usually not the case. The amount of sub-cooling will vary
with the temperature of the cooling medium (ambient air, cool-
ing water, another process stream, etc.), rainstorms, and so on.
To achieve satisfactory composition control, the most common
approach is to employ an advanced regulatory control (ARC)
technique referred to as internal reflux control. The internal
reflux, that is, the actual flow of liquid from tray 1 to tray 2,
can be calculated as follows:
IR = R * (1 + C
* (T
– T
) / Λ)
R = External reflux flow
= Heat capacity of the reflux (e.g., BTU/lb-°F)
= Overhead vapor temperature (entering the condenser)
= Reflux temperature
Λ = Heat of vaporization of the reflux (e.g., BTU/lb)
An internal reflux controller uses this equation to solve for
the external reflux flow required to maintain a constant internal
reflux at each control execution. In effect, it compensates for
changes in the sub-cooled reflux temperature at each control
execution. The final step is to rebuild the cascade for composi-
tion control, namely, to re-introduce the temperature-to-inter-
nal reflux cascade, with the likelihood that this cascade will
be more stable, will control composition better, and will enjoy
greater operator acceptance. ce
Dr. Jim Ford, PE. is a process control consultant at
Maverick Technologies. www.mavtechglobal.com
Read the Real World Engineering blog each Tuesday at
Jim Ford, PE, PhD
Distillation columns –
internal reflux control
A view from the trenches considering one of the sources of distillation
column instability that is often overlooked.
CTL1209_InsideProc_03_Maverick_V6msFINAL.indd 15 8/31/12 3:42 PM
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input #41 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 67 9/4/2012 11:53:22 AM
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As part Emerson, the planet’s largest process automation supplier, our experienced representatives
provide the industry’s best technical support and service, around the clock — and around the globe.

With our deep applications expertise and global service, ASCO is the fuid automation supplier of
choice for customers desiring the lowest cost of ownership, greatest asset availability, and
highest productivity.

ASCO’s product lines include:

RedHat Solenoid Valves: largest selection of 2-, 3-, and 4-way solenoid valves, designed to
handle the most demanding fuid control applications

ASCO Scientifc: highest-quality micro-miniature solenoid valves and accessories for industrial,
medical, and analytical applications

Valve Monitoring Systems: integrated visual indication technology with network communication
capabilities for position indication solutions

Process Automation: pilot valves and control accessories for reliable process solutions

Pressure/Temperature Switches & Sensors: devices for pressure and temperature monitoring

ASCO S Series: compact valve solutions for commercial applications
1-800-972-ASCO (2726) | info-valve@asco.com | www.ascovalve.com
ctl201209_intProfl_asco.indd 1 8/17/2012 1:09:58 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 72 9/4/2012 12:23:54 PM
AutomationDirect is a distributor of 12,000+
industrial automation products including
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs),
Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs),
AC drives/motors, operator interface panels/HMI,
power supplies, DC motors, sensors, push
buttons, NEMA enclosures, pneumatic supplies,
and much more. In business since 1994, the
company headquarters is located just north of
Atlanta, Georgia.
Our prices are low.
Our prices are well below the list price of more
traditional automation companies because with
our business model and focus on effciency,
AutomationDirect has the lowest overhead in
the industry.

We make ordering easy and our service is exceptional.
Shop online with our exhaustive product listings or browse our online catalog; fax or phone us – you’ll get
friendly, effcient service from the most helpful sales team in the business. Independent surveys completed
by readers of Control Design magazine placed us at the top of the list for service 10 years in a row in their
Readers’ Choice awards. Other surveys by magazines such as Control Engineering and Control have echoed
the results.
We ship super fast (and FREE 2-day transit on orders over $49).
The majority of our products are stocked for same-day shipping. Orders placed by 6 p.m. EST will ship the
same day with approved company credit or credit card. LTL items require 5 p.m. order cutoff and some
limitations apply as 2-day transit time does not apply for LTL shipping of heavy itmes. See Terms and
Conditions online for full details.
We guarantee it.
We want you to be pleased with every order. That’s why we offer a 30-day money-back guarantee on almost
every stock product we sell, including our software (see Terms and Conditions for certain exclusions).
For more information, contact us at 800-633-0405 or visit www.automationdirect.com.
ple201208_AutoDrct_IntPrf.indd 1 7/17/2012 4:00:39 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 73 9/4/2012 12:25:01 PM
EZAutomation, a division of the AVG Group, is a
manufacturer of industrial automation products
including, HMI/Operator Interface Panels,
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Power
Supplies, Sensors, Industrial PCs, Programmable
Encoders, all-in-one HMI-PLC combo units and much
more. AVG Automation, and its three divisions, Autotech
Controls, Uticor Technologies and EZAutomation, have
been in business serving the automation industry since
1968. AVG is proud to be one of the only remaining few
automation suppliers that continues to manufacture in
the United States!
Innovation at its Best
We are always at the fore-front of technology innovating
new concepts based on industrial automation needs.
With our Exclusive White LED backlights on our HMIs
for extreme temperature & humidity conditions,
Unique Integrated TouchPLC combo units for small
space enclosures, Field Programmable Encoders with
digital readout, and Smart Power Supplies with a
display for voltage, current and maintenance alerts,
AVG Automation has taken industrial automation equipment to the next level. No wonder why we continue
to be awarded Control Engineering’s Engineer’s Choice Award winners and fnalists since 2008.
Most competitive prices in the market
With all the latest and greatest technology and features across the entire AVG product line, we guarantee
that our customers will have the lowest cost of ownership in the industry when using our products.

Customer Service & Technical Support:
Our business model focuses on providing customers with the best quality of service that will put a smile on
your face. With customer service available from 6:00 a.m to 7:00 p.m (CST), we have you covered from the
West Coast to the East Coast. Technical Support is available from 6:00 a.m to 12:00 (midnight), and also
weekend emergency support. It is our mission to make sure the customer is never down.

New Ideas?
At EZAutomation, we strive to have the latest technology available in the market. We value customer
feedback on new ideas. We are always excited to hear about customer applications, giving us new ideas
for products that may be lacking in the industry, or just helping fnd the best automation solution for your
application, so please feel free to contact us anytime.
sales@avg.net | www.ezautomation.net
ctl201209_intProfl_AVG.indd 1 8/26/2012 6:08:06 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 74 9/4/2012 12:25:48 PM
New Automation Technology
from Beckhoff - Online

Beckhoff Automation provides advanced, open
automation products based upon proven industrial
technologies. Manufacturers and machine builders
can implement high performance Beckhoff control
systems more effciently and at a lower overall cost
than traditional PLC and motion control systems.
Beckhoff has been a long-time proponent of open
controls architectures, full system interoperability,
seamless machine-to-machine communication and
lean automation solutions. As more technology
companies are calling for these types of cost-effcient
solutions, Beckhoff is well-positioned today to support
them. Beckhoff sales and service are handled directly,
with no intermediaries involved for exceptional
customer service and consultation.

Problem-Solving Technologies
On Beckhoff’s website, visitors will learn more about
the complete Beckhoff product range via informative multimedia content, digital brochures, technical
documentation and more. This includes PC-based control, Industrial PCs, Embedded PCs, programmable
automation controllers (PACs), PLCs, operator interfaces, I/O compatible with over 15 different feldbuses,
EtherCAT (next generation Ethernet feldbus technology), TwinSAFE safety solutions, servo drives and motors.
Another advanced solution from Beckhoff is TwinCAT 3, which represents a convergence of automation and
the IT world; this is referred to as eXtended Automation Technology (XAT).
Feature-Laden Solutions
While supporting all IEC 61131 programming languages and providing active support of multi-core systems,
Beckhoff advances leading edge automation solutions that deliver high performance at a low cost.
This includes Scientifc Automation, which merges automation, PLC and motion control with advanced
condition monitoring and precise measurement technologies. This can be handled all on one powerful,
PC-based automation controller and cost-effective EtherCAT Terminals, eliminating the need for many
expensive “black boxes.”
Worldwide Presence
Beckhoff Automation North American headquarters is located in Burnsville, Minn. (Minneapolis area). At this
location, administration, product and engineering management, warehousing and training occurs. There are
also regional technical centers located in San Diego, Calif.; Charlotte, NC; Mill Creek, Wash.; Fond du Lac,
Wisc. and Mississauga, Ontario. Beckhoff’s global headquarters, including product design and assembly
facilities, is located in Verl, Germany. Between direct owned subsidiaries and world-wide co-operation with
partners, Beckhoff is represented in 60+ countries.
Email: beckhoff.usa@beckhoff.com | Phone: 1-877-TwinCAT | www.beckhoffautomation.com
ctl201209_intProfl_Bckhff.indd 1 8/23/2012 10:57:02 AM
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The CC-Link Partner Association (CLPA) has announced its Gateway to China program. CC-Link
automation networking is especially strong in Asia. On a global basis, more than 9 million CC-Link-
compatible automation devices have been installed.

The Gateway to China program is intended to help American automation equipment manufacturers
take advantage of CC-Link’s position as a key enabling technology for the Chinese automation
market. The program is already supported by key U.S. and European device manufacturers such
as 3M, Cognex, Molex, Frontline Test Equipment, Mitsubishi Electric, ABB, Datalogic, Balluff,
Pepperl+Fuchs, Wago, Hilscher, Weidmuller, and Bihl+Wiedemann.

The CC-Link Partner Association offers a package of engineering development and marketing
services to help American automation equipment manufacturers. Development support includes
free-of-charge development device samples, network cable and local technical support to assist
in the development process. Once the automation device is developed and conformance tested,
CLPA assists the manufacturer with marketing it in China. This takes the form of a variety of
promotional outlets, including: advertising in key Chinese media (print and on-line), webinars,
road-shows, trade shows and other activities.

A document describing the Gateway-to-China program can be ordered or downloaded from this
website: www.g2c.cclinkamerica.org.
info@cclinkamerica.org | 847-478-2341 | www.cclinkamerica.org
CC-Link’s Gateway-to-China Program
ctl201209_intProfl_CClinkR1.indd 1 8/21/2012 2:48:33 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 76 9/4/2012 12:27:17 PM
A Safe and Reliable Solution
For 79 years, Danfoss has been focused on developing
new technologies for sustainable business growth
through engineering innovation, energy effciency and
environmental responsibility – a principle we call
.” We are committed to producing
safe and reliable products that help our customers
maintain productivity and improve their business.
Today, Danfoss manufactures a wide range of high
effciency electronic and mechanical components and
controls for air-conditioning, heating, refrigeration,
industrial automation, and motion control systems.
This includes, among others, scroll, reciprocating
and variable speed compressors for air conditioning, refrigeration and heat pumps; electronic controls for the food
retail/supermarket industry; heat exchangers; radiator thermostats; automatic and pressure-independent balancing
and control valves; and variable frequency drives.
Providing High Effciency Drives, Local Support
Danfoss also has more than 40 years of experience manufacturing VLT
drives – our line of high effciency variable
frequency drives that help you save energy costs and improve performance. Every variable frequency drive we
manufacture is designed to meet the specifc motor, pump and process control needs of a wide range of industries,
including oil and gas, chemical, material handling, food and beverage, HVAC, water/wastewater and irrigation.

Learn more: http://www.danfoss.com/North_America/BusinessAreas/DrivesSolutions/Industries/.
Plus, with local production facilities, service and support, Danfoss has the readily-available expertise unique to your
application. Danfoss VLT Drives has sales and application support throughout the United States, with central offces
and production facilities in Loves Park, IL, and Milwaukee, WI.
Meeting Specifc Application Demands
At Danfoss, we know that you’re focused on maintaining plant uptime and safety, so we factory-test every one of our
drives at full load – including the advanced Danfoss VLT
AutomationDrive. The VLT AutomationDrive is a fexible and
cost-effective drive suitable for all industry applications – from simple speed control to dynamic servo applications,
which enables precise acceleration, positioning and synchronization, while using up to 50% less energy.

Learn more: http://www.danfoss.com/North_America/BusinessAreas/DrivesSolutions/Products/Frequency+Drives.htm.
Saving Money with Service and Replacement Plans
Danfoss also offers its DrivePro

SmartStep Program, which combines professional service support with a
comprehensive equipment mitigation strategy. The program replaces every drive on a customer’s site with a
single brand, simplifying ongoing operation and ensuring long-term reliability. Customers gain the benefts of
the most recent drive advances while meeting the cost targets of today’s maintenance budgets.
For more information, please
visit www.danfossdrives.com.
Danfoss VLT Drives | 4401 N. Bell School Road | Loves Park, IL 61111
ctl201209_intProfl_danfoss.indd 1 8/23/2012 9:54:32 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 77 9/4/2012 12:28:08 PM
Dataforth: Committed to
Online and On Site
Established in 1984, Dataforth Corporation today is the world
leader in data acquisition and control, signal conditioning, and
data communication products for industrial applications.
“From the start, our commitment has been to successfully meet
customer needs through ongoing design, development, and
manufacture of top quality, low cost industrial electronics,”
says Bob Smith, VP of Sales and Marketing. “Now, in addition to
enhancing and growing our product lines, we are using the latest
technologies to present our products to the global market.”

New Website = Easy Access to 1000+ Products
Dataforth’s recently unveiled updated website is dynamic,
informative, and user-friendly. From details and specs on the full
product line to a rich library of Application Notes and the latest
enewsletters and product releases, it’s all available at
your fngertips.
Our products include:
• Isolated analog, process control, miniature, and
high performance DIN rail signal conditioners
• Miniature isolated digital I/O modules
• Loop isolators and transmitters
Dataforth products are all designed to provide rugged signal and data integrity and wide spectrum accuracy; we achieve
these goals through unmatched product isolation, reliability, and protection of measurement and control signals and con-
nected equipment from the degrading effects of noise, transient power surges, internal ground loops, and other hazards.
See what we’re so excited about at www.dataforth.com.
Outstanding Service & Support
Upon receipt of a quote or an order, our Customer Service Department provides one-day turnaround on delivery
information. For small quantity orders, we maintain ample inventory to ship from stock. If you have application questions,
our Tucson team of advanced degree application engineers is on hand to answer them. Around the world, we are
represented by 130+ sales people, including more than 50 international distributors.
Impeccable Quality Assurance
All Dataforth products are manufactured in the USA and have been RoHS Compliant since 2006.
The Dataforth Quality Management System is ISO9001:2008 registered.
Contact sales@dataforth.com | 800-444-7644 | www.dataforth.com
• Data acquisition and control systems, each with dedicated
software support, including our newest system, the MAQ
• DIN rail 2-wire transmitters
• Data communication line drivers and converters
ctl201209_intProfl_Dataforth.indd 1 8/16/2012 10:07:30 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 78 9/4/2012 12:29:38 PM
Eaton Lean Connectivity Solutions Transform Panel Wiring
Reduce your costs, improve system reliability
With state-of-the-art electrical components, Eaton is building sophisticated Lean equipment to run businesses
and processes with less waste: more effciently.
The SmartWire-DT
panel wiring system is designed to dramatically reduce assembly and commissioning time,
allowing an installer to duplicate panels seven to ten times faster than before. Replacing numerous wires used to
connect motor control components with a single cable, the SmartWire-DT system can transform how you build
your control panel.
Using an eight-pole fat cable located in the control cabinet, the SmartWire-DT wiring solution reduces panel
complexity by connecting to starters, contactors, pushbuttons, pilot lights, selector switches, relays and I/O
modules. The SmartWire-DT system automates, simplifes and expedites connecting control panel components –
establishing a new level of effciency, accuracy and reliability. SmartWire-DT is available with EtherNet/IP,
ModBus TCP, in addition to PROFIBUS-DP and CANopen. This added fexibility allows the SmartWire-DT system
to more easily integrate your preferred industrial network and third-party PLCs.
By replacing complex wiring inside control cabinets, the SmartWire-DT system automates, simplifes and
expedites connecting control panel components with fault free mounting and wiring. Furthermore, with the
addition of Ethernet/IP and Modbus TCP connectivity, the SmartWire-DT system provides versatile
connectivity options.
Eaton Corporation is a diversifed power management company with more than 100 years of experience providing
energy-effcient solutions that can help you effectively manage electrical, hydraulic and mechanical power.
Email: LeanSolutions@Eaton.com | Phone: 1-877-ETN-CARE or 1-877-386-2273 | www.eaton.com/smartwiredt
ctl201209_intProfl_eaton.indd 1 8/21/2012 8:44:32 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 79 9/4/2012 12:30:53 PM
It’s All Within Your Reach.
See more, do more and be
more proftable with the most trusted
partner in wireless — Emerson.
Emerson is your proven partner with Smart
Wireless in more customer sites and running more
operating hours than anyone else in the process
industry. Smart Wireless has the widest range of
technologies for monitoring your entire operation.
It deploys in minutes instead of days.

You can easily add sensors to the network — now
and in the future -with little training required. It
expands your vision into more places across your
operations than any other. And its self-organizing
mesh network delivers the highest reliability
available. It is simply the most intelligent, secure
and cost-effective operation-wide wireless option
available. See how Smart Wireless can empower
your bottom line at Emerson.com/SmartWireless
Getting Started With Wireless
Online Wireless Training Emerson’s market leading Smart Wireless technology is the easiest and fastest
way to gain the benefts of wireless using WirelessHART. Smart Wireless is interoperable, reliable and
secure. Learn more about how this technology works and how to easily deploy it in your site with these
easy to follow on-line training presentations. On-line Learning
Smart Wireless Field Starter Kit
Getting started with wireless technology has never been easier! Emerson has developed a complete
wireless automation kit you can order today. You can choose how many and what combination of
Emerson wireless devices comprise your Smart Wireless Field Network. Field Starter Kit

Wireless Planning Tool
Have you wanted to test out wireless technology in your facility before making an investment?
Now you can! With the Wireless Planning Tool, you can upload an aerial image of your facility (or a
segment of your facility) and design a wireless network. Then check the network against industry
best practices. There is no commitment on your part — other than taking the time to give wireless a try.
Wireless Planning Tool
For more information about Smart Wireless contact your local Emerson representative
or visit us online at Emerson.com/SmartWireless
ctl201209_intProfl_emerson.indd 1 8/24/2012 11:09:26 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 80 9/4/2012 12:32:14 PM
“The Most Trusted
Tools in the World” at

People who make their living with
electrical tools trust their jobs to Fluke,
and to www.fuke.com. The Fluke
website is the easiest way to fnd the
most trusted tools in the world.
The Fluke web site was designed by
customers, offering three key sections
in the hot corner of the home page:
Solutions Centers that give practical
answers to real-world measurement
problems, Products that are featured
in the Solution Center, and Where to
Buy, where customers can get price
and availability on tools to solve their
most urgent problems.

Front and center are the newest measurement solutions from Fluke:
• The 320 Series Clamp Meters. Fluke is the undisputed leader in clamp meter technology, producing
a line of tools that are as rugged and precise as they are easy to use. And with the introduction of
the new Fluke 320 Series, the world’s best clamp meter line just got better. Developed for commercial,
light industrial, HVAC, residential and DIY applications, the Fluke 323, 324 and 325 True-rms Clamp
Meters combine functionality with value.
• The easiest-to-use thermal imagers. Fluke’s thermal imagers incorporate IR-OptiFlex

system, IR-Fusion
technology, multi-mode video recording, IR-PhotoNotes

annotation system and
electronic compass. All this, plus lightweight, intelligent one-hand design, and rugged construction
give you the easiest-to-use professional cameras in the world
• Plus the Wireless Revolution, coming in the Fall of 2012. Are you ready to revolutionize the way you
work? The world’s most trusted tools. Working together. In real time. Sign up on the Fluke web site to
keep informed when the big news breaks.

It’s your doorway to the best in test tools … www.fuke.com.
Products. Accessories. Applications. Answers. From Fluke.
The Most Trusted Tools in the World.
1(800) 44-FLUKE | (1(800) 443-5853) | www.fluke.com
ctl201209_intProfl_fluke.indd 1 8/21/2012 11:21:27 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 81 9/4/2012 12:33:12 PM
file exchange, news, and blogs for
the MATLAB community
With over 1,000,000 monthly visitors from 180 countries,
MATLAB Central is a resource and community exchange
for MATLAB users worldwide.
In the MATLAB Central File Exchange, users upload
and download MATLAB code, Simulink models, and
documents. Users can contribute and download free
files, as well as rate files, comment, and ask questions
about them.
Over 10,000 files have been contributed to date, with more
than a half million total downloads per month, in categories
ranging from basic utilities to image processing, graphics,
statistics and communications. A few of the current “best
sellers” are
• Learning the Kalman Filter, by Michael Kleder
• 41 Complete GUI Examples, by Matt Fig
• MATLAB for Digital Communication, by Won Yang
• Image segmentation & Extraction, by Jeny Rajan
• ASK, OOK, FSK, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK modulations, by
Diego Orlando Barragan Guerrero
The newsgroup, “an open technical forum for everyone in the
MATLAB and Simulink universe,” has over 200 posts per day from
users discussing technical questions and programming techniques.
Key MathWorks developers who design and build MATLAB and
Simulink products maintain technical blogs at MATLAB Central.
Popular blogs include “Loren on the art of MATLAB Programming,”
“Steve on Image Processing,” and the File Exchange
“Pick of the Week.”
To visit MathWorks’ web site, go to:
The MathWorks, Inc.
Natick, MA | Phone: 508-647-7000
ctl1006_mathWrksPROF.indd 1 6/28/2010 8:28:48 AM
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The industry portal, www.MitsubishiPackaging.com, was introduced
for the packaging machine community. The Packaging site is a
dedicated resource that identifes common packaging challenges and
how Mitsubishi Electric solutions are designed to overcome them. The
website also features a blog to provide insights into today’s packaging
challenges, and for packaging professionals to share their comments.
The website is tablet-friendly so readers can access the content from
mobile platforms, and is the frst in a series of industry-tailored
micro-sites that will be released this year.
For Robots, www.MitsubishiRobotics.com, was introduced for its full
line of robots and their applications. The website is a hub of information
about robotic solutions for customers in diverse industries engaged
in a variety of processes. The new website also provides examples of
customer challenges successfully solved by Mitsubishi Electric robots.
Visitors will also fnd product news, videos, press releases, and
industry events that showcase Mitsubishi Electric robots.
www.MitsubishiAutomotiveSolutions.com, the portal for the
automotive industry displays the Mitsubishi Electric products and
technologies that can help automotive manufacturing plants be more
effcient, productive and safe. The new site shows how Mitsubishi
Electric’s integrated solutions can reduce cost of ownership in nearly
every area of automotive manufacturing including powertrain
machining and assembly, stamping, welding, painting, fnal assembly
and parts production.
For more information, please email info@meau.com. | www.meau.com
Portals Dedicated to Solving Industry-Specifc Applications
with Mitsubishi Electric Automation Solutions
Mitsubishi Electric Automation has launched new websites and micro sites fully dedicated to addressing industry-
specifc challenges, and how they can be solved using Mitsubishi Electric’s integrated factory automation and
control solutions. The new sites address applications such as: Packaging, Automotive and Robotics. In the near
future, Mitsubishi Electric Automation will roll out new portals for other key industries and markets including
Machine Tool, Logistics and Distribution, Process Control and HVAC.
ctl201209_intProfl_mitsubsh.indd 1 8/24/2012 12:11:37 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 83 9/4/2012 12:54:10 PM
Founded in 1987, Moxa is now one
of the leading manufacturers of
industrial networking, computing,
and automation solutions, offering over
a thousand hardware and
software products. 25 years of
accumulated expertise has enabled
Moxa to deliver network-centric
automation solutions that integrate
automation and IT systems into
a single network platform that
simplifes management, reduces
costs, and achieves greater reliability
and effciency.

Industrial Ethernet Solutions
Moxa offers a wide array of Industrial Ethernet products that feature open Ethernet infrastructure,
industry-proven standards, extended temperature tolerance, environmental protection, and network
redundancy to ensure network availability and reliability. Product lines include Industrial Ethernet
switches, industrial wireless devices, serial cards, serial device servers, embedded device servers,
and USB and feldbus components. All products are designed to stand up to harsh environments and
are ideal for deployment in mission-critical applications in felds such as maritime, oil and gas, power
and utilities, rail, and factory automation.
Industrial Computing Solutions
Moxa’s industrial embedded solutions are used to construct powerful front-end controllers that can
execute on-site data collection and control at widely distributed remote sites through Industrial
Ethernet or wireless backbones. We offer computers with rugged construction, fanless operation, and
an operating temperature range from -40 to 85°C, as well as a user-friendly environment that makes
application development easy.
In addition to a wide selection of ready-to-run products such as industrial computers, wireless comput-
ers, and wide temperature computers, prompt and extensive customization service is also available.
Remote Automation Solutions
Moxa has an extensive selection of intelligent and reliable RTU and remote I/O products, including
modular RTU controllers, cellular RTU controllers, Ethernet RTU controllers, modular remote I/Os,
and compact remote I/Os. With innovative features such as Click&Go

, a built-in control logic
that simplifes programming, and Active OPC Server™ for seamless communication with SCADA
systems, Moxa’s RTU and remote I/O products are the ideal choice for your data acquisition, remote
monitoring and alarm applications.
Tel: 1-888-669-2872 | Fax: 1-714-528-6778 | usa@moxa.com | www.moxa.com
Moxa, Inc. – A Leader and Trusted Partner
in Automation Solutions
ctl201209_intProfl_moxa.indd 1 8/21/2012 12:11:17 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 84 9/4/2012 12:54:57 PM
From Design to Deployment
With a Standard
Technology Platform

National Instruments provides graphical
system tools for engineers and scientists that
are developing next-generation control and
monitoring systems within industries such as
energy, industrial control, life sciences, and
transportation. NI reconfgurable I/O (RIO)
hardware and NI LabVIEW system design
software provide the best off-the-shelf platform
to solve any demanding control and monitoring
task. This NI platform-based approach gives
smaller design teams the confdence to build
innovative embedded systems without wasting
development time and cost on custom design.
Visit the National Instruments website,
www.ni.com/embeddedsystems, to learn more.

NI RIO Hardware and LabVIEW Software
National Instruments embedded systems combine LabVIEW software with off-the-shelf hardware to simplify
development and shorten time to market. All NI Reconfgurable I/O (RIO) hardware products are built on the NI
LabVIEW RIO Architecture that features foating point processors, reconfgurable FPGAs, and modular I/O. And
with LabVIEW, engineers can customize hardware and integrate custom timing, signal processing, and high-speed
control without requiring expertise in low-level hardware description languages or board-level design. NI offers a
variety of hardware platforms based on the LabVIEW RIO Architecture, including NI CompactRIO, NI Single-Board
RIO, NI R Series devices, and PXI-based NI FlexRIO modules. With varying degrees of performance, cost, I/O rates,
form factor, and ruggedness, NI RIO hardware devices can meet your unique needs of your embedded control and
monitoring applications.
Embedded Systems Outlook
Over 30,000 companies around the world use National Instruments tools. Additionally, NI collaborates with leading
technology providers such as Intel, Xilinx, and Analog Devices to ensure that NI embedded systems use the latest
and greatest technologies. Learn about some of the most pressing trends and challenges facing design teams
building embedded control and monitoring systems.
Understand the Hidden Cost of Embedded Design
Use an online calculate to help you understand the fnancial benefts and trade-offs between buying off-the-shelf
tools from National Instruments versus building a custom solution with traditional design tools.
U.S. Corporate Headquarters: 11500 N Mopac Expwy Austin, TX 78759-3504 | T: 512 683 0100 | F: 512 683 9300 | info@ni.com
International Branch Offices: ni.com/global
ctl201209_intProfl_NatlInst.indd 1 8/20/2012 12:49:33 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 85 9/4/2012 12:55:39 PM
The clear choice
Numatics Incorporated www.numatics.com, a division of Emerson Electric, is the clear choice for all your
packaging system requirements. Whatever you require in pneumatic/motion control components or application
solutions Numatics has the answer. We design, manufacture and assemble everything from air preparation to
valves, actuators and motion control components to a full offering of accessory products. Our worldwide network
of factory trained sales personnel and application specialists are readily available to assist you in application
solutions, product selection and optimization of your pneumatic/motion control system. And our worldwide
manufacturing and local/global inventory ensure you get what you need, when you need it.
Numatics continues to lead the industry in valve technology with innovations that reduce installation time
and are capable of incorporating advanced fieldbus electronic technologies and proven proportional valve
technology. Our full range of modular filtration, regulation and lubrication components including safety devices
exhibits a product breadth to meet your varied needs. Numatics actuator selection includes compact to large
bore cylinders in standard, NFPA or ISO, repairable or non-repairable, rotary, and rodless configurations. And a
range of grippers, slides, gantries, ball screw and rotary actuators, belt drives and servo controlled products that
encourage smooth integration and an easy way to create customized solutions.
The only valve manifold that tells it like it is… our new fieldbus electronics and I/O platform; Numatics “G3”. The
innovative graphic display on every module provides capability for on board configuration and diagnostics. The
platform is highly distributable and allows you easy access to connections; it’s easy to assemble and install. In
addition our newest cylinder line, Series 452 is an aluminum body cylinder that conforms to ISO 15552 & AFNOR
standards and is manufactured globally for rapid delivery. And our Numatics Express 2Day and 3Day Shipping
program includes the most comprehensive offering in the industry. RIGHT. NOW. www.numatics.com/g3
Numatics Inc. | 46280 Dylan Drive | Novi, Michigan 48377-4906 USA | Phone: 248-596-3200
ctl201107_numatics_IntPrfl.indd 1 6/15/2011 9:43:40 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 86 9/4/2012 12:56:33 PM
• Online Chat Help available for real time support!
• Fast Response pre-and post sales email & phone support from our Engineering, Sales, Service, and Web Teams!
• Fast Response ordering & shipping to support you’re “just in time” requirements
• Automated product suggestions to help you “round out” your selected products
• Free Gift offer for 1st time orders >$50
• Product of the Day
• Search by Part Number or All Omega with helpful “Top Related Categories”
• Extensive technical reference to help your understanding of process measurement and control
• Product manual library available for download
• Product Videos
With links to Dilbert of the Day you can stop by and get a laugh from a different Dilbert comic strip each day.
On this website Omega Engineering allows you to customize your own Thermocouple/RTD Probes using 3D graphics and
step-by-step instructions, Profile Probes, and Pressure Transducers with an easy step-by-step configurator. Ordering is
easy on the website and if Omega Engineering doesn’t have what you need…then we will create it for you.
To visit Omega Engineering’s
web site, go to:
Omega Engineering
One Omega Drive | Stamford, CT 06907
An established global leader in the
technical marketplace
Since its inception in 1962, OMEGA has grown from
manufacturing a single product line of thermocouples to
an established global leader in the technical marketplace,
offering more than 100,000 state-of-the-art products for
measurement and control of temperature, humidity,
wireless sensors and transmitters, sanitary sensors,
pressure, strain, force, flow, level, pH and conductivity.
OMEGA also provides customers with a complete line of
automation, data acquisition, electric heating and custom
engineered products. All products and literature available
through online shopping at omega.com!
Omega Engineering’s website features many areas where
you can get the latest information on Omega’s products.
One way is the browse products by handbook or category.
The What’s New! section is particularly useful showing
the latest products available from Omega Engineering for
each product category:
• Automation • Temperature
• pH, Flow, & Environmental • Data Acquisition
• Pressure, Strain, & Force • Electric Heater
ctl1006_omegaPROF.indd 1 6/25/2010 2:29:21 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 87 9/4/2012 12:57:23 PM
Build Your System Online
It works for cars; why not I/O? SNAP I/O Confgurator
(op22.co/ce_conf) is a fun way to build your
control system.
Pick your rack-mounted controller or brain for I/O
processing and put it on the rack. Then choose your
I/O by signal and number of points. Check the box for
FM approval or channel-to-channel isolation if you
need that. Add a power supply. Or not.
When all the parts are in place on the rack, you can
save your I/O unit, send it for a quote, add it to a bill
of materials, even send it to our engineers for review.
Try it!

Get Free Product Support
Included with all products: free Opto 22 product
support (op22.co/ce_support) from experienced
engineers in our Temecula, California offce.
You can also sign up for free hands-on training
or use our self-training guide.

After-hours help is available on our website, too—no registration required. You’ll fnd how-to videos, complete
documentation, the latest downloads, answers in our OptoForums, and the OptoKnowledgeBase.
See Applications
Explorer and flmmaker James Cameron relied on Opto 22’s SNAP PAC System to get him to the bottom of the Mariana
Trench and back. We can help with your automation application, too.
Check out our case study videos (op22.co/ce_casestudy) in the Watch tab and our written case studies in the Learn tab.
Also in the Learn tab: animated demos and white papers about energy monitoring, industrial wireless, PACs, and more.
Quickly Find Product Information
Drill down by category (controllers, I/O, SSRs) or search for the product you need. Opto 22 product pages (op22.co/
ce_product) include specifcations and all related documents and downloads. No registration required; all documents,
datasheets, and software are freely available.
Questions? Call our pre-sales engineering staff for answers. The call is free, and we’re glad to help.
About Opto 22
Control engineers worldwide have counted on Opto 22 products for more than 35 years for control, monitoring, and
data acquisition. All Opto 22 products are manufactured and supported in the U.S.A.
Call us or visit us on the web. We make automation simple. (op22.co/ce_simple)
systemseng@opto22.com | 800-321-6786 | www.opto22.com
ctl201209_intProfl_opto.indd 1 8/22/2012 5:00:30 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 88 9/4/2012 12:58:03 PM
Pepperl+Fuchs is a global market leader of industrial
safety equipment for intrinsic safety and explosion
protection technology. We offer a complete range
of solutions for the process automation industry that
includes intrinsic safety isolators, zener barriers,
signal conditioners, feldbus technology, remote I/O,
HART interfaces, Human Machine
Interfaces (HMI) for hazardous environments,
custom cabinets, junction boxes and separator
alarm systems.We also offer a complete line of
on-line corrosion & level measurement products
and purge & pressurization units.
We supply the world’s largest process industry
companies with proven components for a diverse
range of applications. These include the oil and gas
industry, petrochemical, chemical industry, pharma-
ceutical industry, as well as wastewater treatment
plants and power technology. And our website is as
robust as the solutions we provide to market.
In addition to providing instant access to in-depth
information on our entire family of process
automation and safety solutions, visitors to www.pepperl-fuchs.us can learn more about the technologies
that Pepperl+Fuchs is bringing to market to solve practical process automation challenges, including:
• Fieldbus in the Safe or Any Hazardous Area
• Industrial Ethernet for Process Automation
• Dynamic Arc Recognition and Termination (DART)
• WirelessHART
• Fieldbus: Commissioning with Advanced Diagnostic Tools
• Safety Integrity Level (SIL): Unit of Measurement for Risk Reduction
Visitors can also request literature and other resources including technical documents technology white
papers, posters, pocket guides and more, fnd a local distributor, subscribe to our monthly enewsletter, or Ask
an Expert about a technical, application or product question – and get a response in one business day.
Prefer to browse by market and application? Visit our Markets+Applications page to help identify solutions for
a wide variety of applications in offshore and marine, oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceutics, power, and water
and wastewater industries.
www.pepperl-fuchs.us | pa-info@us.pepperl-fuchs.com | 330.486.0002
Protecting your process
ctl201209_intProfl_PepprlF.indd 1 8/23/2012 9:18:01 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 89 9/4/2012 12:58:50 PM
Get protected, get connected
with FL mGuard
Companies are only successful if their systems operate
securely and without errors. Failure, sabotage or data loss
can cause large scale economic damage and, more
importantly, corporate image degradation.

To help prevent these problems, Phoenix Contact offers
the FL mGuard product line. The FL mGuard provides high
level networking and security functions in a variety of
industrially rugged form factors that help your industrial
Ethernet network operate more securely and more reliably.
Bringing “Layer 3” capability to your network provides
protection, fexibility and remote support capability into
installations that normal IT equipment can’t touch.

The mGuard stateful frewall can be used to protect
individual components or an entire production cell,
allowing only the communication to pass that is allowed
by you. With its easy and intuitive frewall setup and
pre-confgured rules, you can flter traffc by MAC address,
IP address or the type of traffc (e.g. http, Modbus, etc.).

With its routing and NAT (Network Address
Translation), the mGuard can also make it easier to connect
to an upstream IT or offce network. The NAT function also allows multiple machines or cells to reuse the
same IP address schemes without a confict. This permits the equipment to be programmed, maintained and
supported more easily.

Finally, the mGuard can be used to establish VPN (Virtual Private Network) tunnels between different
locations over the internet, using industry standard and battle-tested authentication and encryption
methods. The VPN allows you to communicate to your machines at remote locations to upload program
changes, pull diagnostics, monitor data and perform troubleshooting from your home or offce. Secure and
easy remote assistance enables machine builders or systems integrators to reduce travel costs and shorten
downtime, as well as improve service quality and customer loyalty.

With a broad range of logging capabilities, you can gain greater insight into what is happening on your
network and more easily complete the auditing requirements of many regulatory standards.

As a reminder, all of our FL mGuard functions can be used independent of one another or in combination with
one another. Regardless of which option is right for your industrial network, make sure you GET PROTECTED
and GET CONNECTED, with Phoenix Contact’s FL mGuard.
800-888-7388 | info@phoenixcon.com | www.phoenixcontact.com/etherneteasy
ctl201209_intProfl_phoenix.indd 1 8/16/2012 10:43:08 AM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 90 9/4/2012 12:59:49 PM
Cut time to market by up to 50%!
Schneider Electric is the global specialist
in energy management
As a global specialist in energy management with operations
in more than 100 countries, Schneider Electric offers
integrated solutions across multiple market segments,
including leadership positions in Utilities & Infrastructures,
Industries & Machine Manufacturers, Non-residential
Buildings, Data Centers & Networks and Residential.
Your customers are more demanding and
your machines more intelligent
As machine builder, Schneider Electric’s MachineStruxure can
help save up to 50 percent of design and implementation time
by allowing your customers to design, commission, and service
their machines in a single environment. MachineStruxure
is part of Schneider Electric’s broader approach to synchro-
nization — EcoStruxure. Today’s energy landscape requires
coordination across all segments, platforms, and providers
like never before. EcoStruxure is a solution architecture that
unites Schneider Electric’s unique expertise in power, data
centers, process and machines, building control, and physical
security, and enables intelligent energy management solutions
for customers seeking to optimize energy effciencies across
multiple domains of their business.
Improve your machine and business performance with MachineStruxure

helps you design more energy-effcient and cost-effective machines and installations whilst maximizing
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• Stay one step ahead - However complex your machine, you can rely on our team of dedicated experts and our
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• Save up to 50% of design and implementation time - Use the solid base of tested, validated, and documented
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• 100% fexibility and optimization of your machines - Our different machine control platforms include embedded
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Gain the competitive advantage today! Start designing, maintaining and commissioning your
machines in a single environment. Visit www.schneider-electric.com
For more information, contact us at 855-234-5451 or visit www.schneider-electric.com
ctl201209_intProfl_schneider.indd 1 8/16/2012 1:01:18 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 91 9/4/2012 1:00:42 PM
Contact us: usa.sales@unitronics.com | Tel: 866-666-6033 | Fax: 617-657-6598 | www.unitronics.com

Unitronics: The All-In-One
Control Solution
A complete PLC & HMI system – packed into a
single unit. For over 20 years Unitronics has
been globally developing and manufacturing
Programmable Logic Controllers with integrated
HMIs. Any OEM making a few hundred specialty
machines that wants to have a full, modern
control solution for a fair price is a good ft for
the Unitronics line. The Unitronics “all-in-one”
philosophy is the primary infuence of our
developmental process. This ultimately reduces
overall system costs by minimizing hardware
requirements, saving cabinet space—and,
above all—exempting the user from setting up
Panel-PLC communication.
Free Software Package Download
A large part of the development time and
effort is given to the complimentary software
package – which is a single, integrated
programming environment that can be downloaded
directly from the Unitronics support page: http://www.unitronics.com/Content.aspx?page=Downloads. This single
software package allows hardware confguration, ladder logic writing for the PLC and intuitive HMI design. You
can also fnd other useful support tools via the support page, which includes our technical forum, training seminar,
webinar schedules and content, frequently asked questions, and application stories & videos. The Technical Library
can be found on the support page as well, there you can fnd technical specifcations, installation guides, and much
more. Our technical support is free- you are welcome to call or email our team at any time at: support@unitronics.
com, or Toll Free: 866-666-6033.
What is The Unitronics Advantage?
• Panel-PLC communication is built in.
• Less wiring- less space required
• Saves I/O points and reduces hardware
Unitronics is a market driven company, proud of our reputation of excellent price / performance ratio. Offering our
customers the highest quality product while meeting their budgetary and system requirements to the fullest has
been, and always will be Unitronics’ top priority. Our PLCs are sold worldwide via a network of over 140 reputable
distributors. These distributors serve several industries that are heavily dependent on effcient automated
processes, such as HVAC, Oven and Boiler industries. They also serve a Machine Manufacturing ring of various
types; such as packaging machines, plastic extruders, vending machines and more.
• Reduced programming time- a single programming
environment for both PLC and HMI applications.
• Free software and free technical support.
ctl201209_intProfl_unitronics.indd 1 8/17/2012 1:54:42 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 92 9/4/2012 1:01:24 PM
We take quality personally at
Yaskawa America, Inc. - Drives
& Motion Division. Our drives
and servo packages offer the
highest MTBF in the world.
The relationships we have with
our customers ensure mutual
benefts. The partnerships we
cultivate with our distributors
add value to the way we work
with you. We hire great people
and continuously train them to be
able to serve your needs better.
We deliver product on time. It
works out of the box. We answer
questions promptly and never
back down from challenges.

To us, quality means doing everything we can to make our customer, partner and employee
experiences great ones. We commit to that philosophy every day. We make it happen. We can
because, to us, IT’S PERSONAL.

Yaskawa Industrial AC drives cover every automation application need in the industrial plant,
offering the greatest selection of size and performance available, with power ranges from
fractional HP to 1750HP.

Our Commercial AC drives for HVAC applications combine reduced size and cost with step
changes in performance and quality. They feature extensive parameter selection to enhance
energy effciency and closed loop control for Building Automation Systems.

Our broad product range of servo systems includes rotary, linear, and direct drive motors
matched with digital SERVOPACKS. The Sigma-5 servo family delivers the highest performance
in the industry due its unmatched frequency response, reduced settling times and more precise
control. In addition it provides a faster set up, simpler tuning, and vibration suppression.
With a wide range of models and options to it can match your individual application require-
ments. These best-in-class servo systems can be matched with our MP2000iec series machine
controllers featuring Yaskawa’s motion engine integrated within the IEC61131-3 and PLCopen
programming standards. MotionWorks IEC software which uses these standards, helps reduce
machine development time by allowing code to be easily encapsulated and reused.
For more information, contact us at 800-927-5292 or visit www.yaskawa.com.
The Yaskawa Quality Experience
ctl201209_intProfl_yaskawa.indd 1 8/7/2012 1:12:14 PM
CTL120901-MAG_Ads.indd 93 9/4/2012 1:02:22 PM
Place your Classified, Literature
Showcase or Product Mart ads today!
Contact: Iris Seibert at 858-270-3753 or
Banner Engineering has announced two
new members of its family of wireless prod-
ucts designed to provide a scalable network
for discrete sensors. When traditional wired
sensors are too difficult or expensive to in-
stall, these offer a reliable and less expensive
Banner calls the SureCross Q45 the
world’s first self-contained, wireless stan-
dard photoelectric sensor system designed
for control and monitoring applications. The
SureCross Q45 RD provides a transmitter
module to add wireless connectivity to tra-
ditional wired sensors with isolated dry con-
tacts or PNP outputs, allowing it to interface
with almost any digital sensor and NAMUR
inductive proximity sensors.
Banner says the devices in this series were developed
from the ground up for industrial automation. Propri-
etary power management delivers extended battery life
up to five years on two replaceable AA lithium batteries,
depending on the sensor and application. It communicates
up to 3,000 ft (1 km) line-of-sight minimum. Gateways
for Q45 sensors can support up to 47 devices.
Banner Engineering
Input #201 at www.controleng.com/information
NI LabVIEW 2012, the latest
version of the National Instru-
ments system design software for
engineers and scientists has been
released. Users gain ready-to-
run starting points for a breadth
of LabVIEW applications and
access to new training options that help improve the quality
of systems. New features aim to accelerate the success of any
measurement or control system.
“Building a system fast is important, but it’s equally im-
portant to build it right – that means using solid architectures
and proven development practices,” said Dr. James Truchard,
president, CEO and co-founder of National Instruments. “New
features and resources in LabVIEW 2012 promote training
and drive development practices to help our customers deliver
high-performance and high-quality systems in less time,
thereby minimizing development and maintenance costs.”
Features of the new release include templates and sample
projects, self-paced online training, improved stability, tools
for high-performance analysis and advanced image processing,
and mobile apps for display and control on an iPad.
National Instruments
Input #200 at www.controleng.com/information
Self-contained wireless photoelectric
sensor and remote transmitter device
New software update
improves the scalability
of measurement and
control systems
See the latest Control Engineering
Webcasts on-demand:
• Safety Integration
• Arc Flash University
• Wireless Technology
• Ethernet Technology
Visit www.controleng.com/webcast
94 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
software &
Acromag Signal Conditioners & Ethernet I/O
With more than 50 years of industrial
I/O experience, Acromag can help
you solve your process monitoring
and control challenges.
Get our new product guide today.
• NEW! Low-Cost Transmitters
• 4-20mA Isolators and Splitters
• Ethernet, Modbus Remote I/O

Acromag_CE_ProdLitShowcase2.indd 1 5/31/2011 5:25:27 PM
Input #101 at www.controleng.com/information
• ± 0.03 to ± 0.05% Accuracy
• 1500Vrms Isolation
• Up to 240Vrms Input Protection
More Models, More Protection, Less Noise, Lower Cost
580+ different 5B, 7B, and 8B signal conditioners provide accurate, isolated Instrument
performance to ensure the integrity of your industrial automation, data acquisition,
process control, and quality assurance systems. Custom modules available.
Call 800-444-7644 or visit www.dataforth.com
5B / 7B / 8B Signal Conditioning Solutions
• ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1 Transient Protection
• 3- to 6-Pole Low-Pass Filtering
• -40°C to +85°C Operating Temperature
• CSA C/US Certifed & ATEX Compliant
(5B, 7B)
• C-UL-US Listed (8B)
Input #100 at www.controleng.com/information
CTL1209_Products_V2msFINAL.indd 94 8/31/12 3:43 PM
Control Engineering
Advertising Sales Offices
(GA, MI, AL, FL)
Patrick Lynch
(630) 571-4070 x2210
Central Canada
Bailey Rice
(630) 571-4070 x2206
Western Canada
Iris Seibert
(858) 270-3753
VT, WV, DC, Eastern Canada
Julie Timbol
(978) 929-9495
www.controleng.com ● CONTROL ENGINEERING SEPTEMBER 2012 ● 95
Advertising Sales Offices
(GA, MI, AL, FL)
Patrick Lynch
(630) 571-4070 x2210
Central Canada
Bailey Rice
(630) 571-4070 x2206
Western Canada
Iris Seibert
(858) 270-3753
VT, WV, DC, Eastern Canada
Julie Timbol
(978) 929-9495
CFE Media Contributor
Guidelines Overview
Content For Engineers. That’s what CFE
Media stands for, and what CFE Media is all
about – engineers sharing with their peers.
We welcome content submissions for all
interested parties in engineering. We will use
those materials online, on our website, in
print and in newsletters to keep engineers
informed about the products, solutions and
industry trends.
www.controleng.com/contribute explains
how to submit press releases, products,
images and graphics, bylined feature articles,
case studies, white papers, and other media.
* Content should focus on helping engi-
neers solve problems. Articles that are com-
mercial in nature or that are critical of other
products or organizations will be rejected.
(Technology discussions and comparative
tables may be accepted if non-promotional
and if contributor corroborates information
with sources cited.)
* If the content meets criteria noted in
guidelines, expect to see it first on our Web-
sites. Content for our e-newsletters comes
from content already available on our Web-
sites. All content for print also will be online.
All content that appears in our print maga-
zines will appear as space permits, and we
will indicate in print if more content from that
article is available online.
* Deadlines for feature articles intended for
the print magazines are at least two months in
advance of the publication date. Again, it is best
to discuss all feature articles with the appropri-
ate content manager prior to submission.
Learn more at:
ABB Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . . . . 41 . . www.abb.us/drives
Allied Electronics . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13. . . . . . 9, 10 . www.alliedelec.com
ASCO Valve, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . 24 . . www.ascovalve.com/today
AutomationDirect . . . . . . . . . . C2, 16A-16D . . 1 . . . www.automationdirect.com
AVG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . 18 . . www.EZAutomation.net
B & R Industrial Automation . 37. . . . . . . . . . 22 . . www.br-automation.com
Baldor Electric Company . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . www.baldor.com
Beckhoff Automation LLC. . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . www.beckhoff.com
CC-Link Partner Association. . 35. . . . . . . . . . 21 . . www.cclinkamerica.org
Danfoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . 23 . . www.envisioneering.danfoss.com/industry
Dataforth Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . www.dataforth.com
Eaton Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 43. . . . . . 13, 25 . www.eaton.com
E-Newsletters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www.controleng.com/newsletters
Harting, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . 19 . . www.HARTING-usa.com
HMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . . . 29 . . www.anybus.com
ITSENCLOSURES . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . 16 . . www.itsenclosures.com
MathWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 . . . . . . . . . 43 . . www.mathworks.com/accelerate
Mitsubishi Electric
Automation Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . 14 . . www.meau.com
Moxa Technologies . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . www.moxa.com
National Instruments . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . www.ni.com
Numatics, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . 20 . . www.numatics.com/G3
Omega Engineering Inc . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . www.omega.com
OPTO 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . www.opto22.com
Panduit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . 28 . . www.panduit.com/panel-ce
Phoenix Contact . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . 11 . . www.phoenixcontact.com/etherneteasy
Schneider Electric . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . 26 . . www.SEreply.com
Schweitzer Engineering Labs 22. . . . . . . . . . 15 . . www.selinc.com/IEC61850
Siemens Industry Inc . . . . . . . C1, 27 . . . . . . 17 . . www.sea.siemens.com
Tapeswitch Corp . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . 12 . . www.tapeswitch.com
Unitronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . 27 . . www.unitronics.com
Yaskawa America, Inc. . . . . . . C3 . . . . . . . . . 42 . . www.yaskawa.com
Inside Process
Aaxeon Technologies, LLC . . . P10. . . . . . . . . 36 . . www.aaxeon.com
Emerson Process
Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P12. . . . . . . . . 38 . . www.DeltaVSIS.com/workbook
Emerson Process
Management Rosemount
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . P6. . . . . . . . . . 34 . . www.EmersonProcess.com/SmartWireless
Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P11. . . . . . . . . 37 . . www.flexim.com
Fluke Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P4. . . . . . . . . . 32 . . www.fluke.com
Load Controls Inc.. . . . . . . . . . P3. . . . . . . . . . 31 . . WWW.LOADCONTROLS.COM
Pepperl & Fuchs Inc . . . . . . . . P8. . . . . . . . . . 35 . . www.pepperl-fuchs.us
Rockwell Automation . . . . . . . P2. . . . . . . . . . 30 . . www.rockwellautomation.com/go/ce12
Testo Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P5. . . . . . . . . . 33 . . www.testoUSA.com/saveris
TriCore Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P14. . . . . . . . . 40 . . www.tricore.com
Winsted Corporation . . . . . . . P13. . . . . . . . . 39 . . www.winsted.com
Request more information about products and advertisers in this issue by using the
http://controleng.com/information link and reader service number located near each.
If you’re reading the digital edition, the link will be live. When you contact a company directly,
please let them know you read about them in Control Engineering.
Company Page# RSN Web
CTL1209_AdIndex.indd 95 9/4/12 4:42 PM
Go Online
96 ● SEPTEMBER 2012 CONTROL ENGINEERING ● www.controleng.com
Peter Welander

In order to get
inside, a hacker
has to be able to
connect directly
with the hardware.
If that connection
cannot be made
because servers
are behind
locked doors and
distributed control
and I/O devices are
in locked cabinets,
that task is much

hen we talk about cyber security, the
very name says that it is something
that exists in the artificial world of
computers. It enters the physical
world when money goes missing from a bank
account or a pipe explodes in a chemical plant.
Most of the time, cyber security measures
are technical. We protect a device behind a fire-
wall (see the article on page IP9), or create a
program to sniff out computer viruses. In some
cases they’re procedural. We tell our employees
to change their passwords regularly, not to visit
suspicious Web pages, or open email attachments
from unknown senders. These are strategies to
protect our systems from external and internal
threats that come through the network. But there
are times when we have to think more in terms of
who might be getting close to our equipment and
causing mischief the old fashioned way.
Severing cables or smashing a PLC with a
hammer does not require training in industrial
networking. Fortunately, those events are pretty
rare given the high risk of being caught. Hackers,
on the other hand, generally like to avoid attract-
ing attention. Just as clobbering a PLC requires
physical access, so do some cyber attack meth-
ods. Here are several examples:
Networks that have no wireless extensions
and effective perimeter protection may be dif-
ficult to reach from the outside. In order to get
inside, a hacker has to be able to connect directly
with the hardware. If that connection cannot be
made because servers are behind locked doors
and distributed control and I/O devices are in
locked cabinets, that task is much harder.
Plugging a laptop into a tightly protected net-
work is a textbook way of stealing information or
uploading malware. Smaller devices are easier to
smuggle in and just as effective. One solution is
to close the ports that make this kind of connec-
tion possible. If there are unused USB ports on
network devices, those can be filled with epoxy.
Maybe it sounds like an extreme measure, but
keep in mind that Stuxnet may have been deliv-
ered via an infected memory stick.
Some control devices like PLCs have their
programming uploaded via a USB stick, SD
card, or other similar method. Depending on
the manufacturer, these devices may not require
a password or other means of authentication to
verify that a change is permitted. The hacker
may only have to insert the new card to re-write
the program. The device may not even log that
a change has taken place. The change may take
effect immediately, or a more sophisticated hack-
er may build in a delay of an hour or even weeks
to ensure that he is not identified as the source.
Such devices need to be in locked cabinets.
Mobile devices used in the plant need to be
controlled very carefully. A hand-held com-
municator that interacts with the network will
invariably carry data that will be of great use to
a hacker. If he can spend a few minutes alone
with the gadget, it is not difficult to clone such
a device, capturing log-in names and passwords.
Such devices should be subject to a check in/
check out procedure, should not leave the plant,
and be locked up when not in use.
Remotely deployed network devices need
special consideration. Having an RTU out in the
middle of nowhere in an equipment shed may be
necessary from an operational standpoint, but it
is a security nightmare. In addition to appropri-
ate technical protections, physical barriers with
barbed wire, strong locks, and surveillance cam-
eras are an appropriate solution.
Your physical security devices can be coupled
to your larger automation system. Operators can
be notified of physical events such as abnormal
motion, cabinets opening, and facility access. Of
course, physical security cyber systems are also
at risk, but that is another discussion.
And last, but certainly not least, keep pass-
words secure. Individuals that have no reason to
interact with networks should not have access.
Dual authentication with a security device and
a password makes a lot of sense. It’s a cliché,
but the idea of writing the password for the con-
troller on the equipment cabinet door should be
grounds for suspension or dismissal.
It’s a jungle out there, so keep the bad guys
locked out. ce
Peter Welander is content manager for Control
Engineering. Reach him at pwelander@cfemedia.com.
Physical considerations
of cyber security
back to
Keeping some of our cyber assets safe can depend on basic
physical devices, such as locks.
For more on cyber security
go to www.controleng.com/
Zero-day attack,
August 2012
Dark side of mobility,
July 2012
Common-sense advice,
June 2012
Vulnerability assessment,
February 2012
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