# The Fourier Transform

Assessment Problems
AP 17.1 [a] F (ω) = 

0

−jωt

−τ /2

(−Ae

) dt + 

τ /2
0

Ae−jωt dt

A
[2 − ejωτ /2 − e−jωτ /2 ]
jω  

ejωτ /2 + e−jωτ /2
2A
1−
=

2
ωτ
−j2A
[1 − cos
]
=
ω
2
=

[b] F (ω) =
AP 17.2 f (t) =
=

1
2π 

0

−at −jωt

te 

−2
−3

e

dt =

4ejtω dω + 

2
−2 

0

te−(a+jω)t dt =

ejtω dω + 

3
2

4ejtω dω 

1
{4e−j2t − 4e−j3t + ej2t − e−j2t + 4ej3t − 4ej2t }
j2πt 

1 3e−j2t − 3ej2t 4ej3t − 4e−j3t
+
=
πt
j2
j2
=

1
(a + jω)2 

1
(4 sin 3t − 3 sin 2t)
πt

AP 17.3 [a] F (ω) = F (s) |s=jω = L{e−at sin ω0 t}s=jω
=  

ω0
ω0 

= 

(s + a)2 + ω02 s=jω (a + jω)2 + ω02 

[b] F (ω) = L{f (−t)}s=−jω

1
=
(s + a)2

17–1 

=
s=−jω

1
(a − jω)2

17

17–2

CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform
[c] f + (t) = te−at ,

f − (t) = teat
1
,
(s + a)2

L{f + (t)} =

.·.

2A
,
τ

−τ
< t < 0;
2

f  (t) =

2A
2A
[u(t + τ /2) − u(t)] −
[u(t) − u(t − τ /2)]
τ
τ

f  (t) =

[b] F{f  (t)} =

f  (t) =

−2A
,
τ

  

2A
2A
τ
4A
τ
δ t+
δ(t) +
δ t−

τ
2
τ
τ
2

2A jωτ /2 4A 2A −jωτ /2
e
+
e

τ
τ
τ  

[c] F{f  (t)} = (jω)2 F (ω) = −ω 2 F (ω);
1
F (ω) = − 2
ω

Thus we have
AP 17.5 v(t) = Vm u t + 
  

 

τ
F u t+
2
τ
F u t−
2  

τ
τ
−u t−
2
2     

 

4A
ωτ
cos
τ
2 

−1

F (ω) = −

therefore  

ωτ
4A ejωτ /2 + e−jωτ /2
4A
−1 =
=
cos
τ
2
τ
2



τ
2

0<t<

2A
4A
2A
u(t + τ /2) −
u(t) +
u(t − τ /2)
τ
τ
τ

=
.·.

−1
(s + a)2

1
1
−j4aω

= 2
2
2
(a + jω)
(a − jω)
(a + ω 2 )2

Therefore F (ω) =
AP 17.4 [a] f  (t) =

L{f − (−t)} = 

−1 

1
= πδ(ω) +
ejωτ /2

1
= πδ(ω) +
e−jωτ /2
jω 

Therefore V (ω) = Vm 

1 jωτ /2
πδ(ω) +
e
− e−jωτ /2
jω 

ωτ
= j2Vm πδ(ω) sin
2
=

(Vm τ ) sin(ωτ /2)
ωτ /2  

ωτ
2Vm
sin
+
ω
2 

1
F{f  (t)}
ω2

Problems
AP 17.6 [a] Ig (ω) = F{10sgn t} =

20

Vo
Ig
Using current division and Ohm’s law,

[b] H(s) =

Vo = −I2 s = −
H(s) =

4
4s
Ig
(−Ig )s =
4+1+s
5+s

4s
,
s+5

H(ω) =

[c] Vo (ω) = H(ω) · Ig (ω) =

j4ω
5 + jω

j4ω
5 + jω 

20
jω 

=

80
5 + jω

[d] vo (t) = 80e−5t u(t) V
[e] Using current division,
1
1
i1 (0− ) = ig = (−10) = −2 A
5
5
[f] i1 (0+ ) = ig + i2 (0+ ) = 10 + i2 (0− ) = 10 + 8 = 18 A
[g] Using current division,
4
i2 (0− ) = (10) = 8 A
5
[h] Since the current in an inductor must be continuous,
i2 (0+ ) = i2 (0− ) = 8 A
[i] Since the inductor behaves as a short circuit for t < 0,
vo (0− ) = 0 V
[j] vo (0+ ) = 1i2 (0+ ) + 4i1 (0+ ) = 80 V
AP 17.7 [a] Vg (ω) =
H(s) =

1
1
+ πδ(ω) +
1 − jω

1
0.5(1/s)
Va
=
,
=
Vg
1 + 0.5(1/s)
s+3

H(ω) =

1
3 + jω

Va (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω)
1
πδ(ω)
1
+
+
=
(1 − jω)(3 + jω) jω(3 + jω) 3 + jω
1/4
1/3
1/3
πδ(ω)
1/4
+
+

+
=
1 − jω 3 + jω

3 + jω 3 + jω
1/3
1/12
πδ(ω)
1/4
+

+
=
1 − jω

3 + jω 3 + jω
1/3
1/12
1/4
+

+ πδ(ω)
=
1 − jω

3 + jω

17–3

769 J 8π 6 √3  ω ω 8 + tan−1 W1Ω (total) = 2 π ω +1 1 Therefore % = AP 17.9 |V (ω)| = 6 −  |V (ω)|2 = 36 − W1Ω 0 ∞ 0 8 π = 0+ = 4J π 2 3. 2000π   0 ≤ ω ≤ 2000π   72 36 ω+ ω2 2000π 4π 2 × 106   36 × 10−6 2 1  2000π 72ω + = 36 − ω dω π 0 2000π 4π 2  36 × 10−6 ω 3 1 72ω 2 + = 36ω − 4000π 12π 2 π  2000π 0 1 72 36 × 10−6 (2000π)3 = 36(2000π) − (2000π)2 + π 4000π 12π 2  .769 (100) = 94.17–4 CHAPTER 17.23% 4  6 ω. V (ω) = Therefore |V (ω)| = W1Ω 4 (1 + jω)2 4 1 + ω2 2 √  4 1 3 = dω π 0 (1 + ω 2 ) 16 = π  1 ω ω + tan−1 2 2 ω +1 1 √  3 1 + = 16 = 3.8 v(t) = 4te−t u(t). The Fourier Transform 1 1 1 1 V Therefore va (t) = et u(−t) + sgn t − e−3t u(t) + 4 6 12 6 [b] va (0− ) = 1 1 1 1 − +0+ = V 4 6 6 4 va (0+ ) = 0 + 1 1 1 1 − + = V 6 12 6 4 va (∞) = 0 + 1 1 1 +0+ = V 6 6 3 AP 17.

Problems = 36(2000) − 72(2000)2 36 × 10−6 (2000)3 + 4000 12 = 24 kJ W6kΩ = 24 × 103 = 4J 6 × 103 17–5 .

F (0) = 0 [c] When A = 1 and τ = 1  ω cos(ω/2) − 2 sin(ω/2) F (ω) = j2 ω2 |F (ω)| = F (0) = 0    2ω cos(ω/2) − 4 sin(ω/2)        ω2    .2  2 [a] F (ω) = A sin  ωτ 4A 1 − cos ω2τ 2  τ /2 −τ /2  2A −jωt te dt τ  τ /2 2A e−jωt = (−jωt − 1) τ −ω 2  −τ /2    jωτ −jωτ 2A + 1 − ejωτ /2 +1 = 2 e−jωτ /2 ω τ 2 2  2A −jωτ /2 ωτ  −jωτ /2 jωτ /2 jωτ /2 F (ω) = 2 e −e +j e +e ω τ 2  2A ωτ cos(ωτ /2) − 2 sin(ωτ /2) F (ω) = j τ ω2  [b] Using L’Hopital’s rule.  ωτ (τ /2)(− sin ωτ /2) + τ cos ω(τ /2) − 2(τ /2) cos(ωτ /2) F (0) = lim j2A ω→0 2ωτ  −ωτ (τ /2) sin(ωτ /2) = lim j2A ω→0 2ωτ   −τ sin(ωτ /2) = lim j2A =0 ω→0 4 .1   π −j4πA t e−jωt dt = 2 sin 2ω 2 π − 4ω 2 −2     0  τ /2  2A −2A t + A e−jωt dt + t + A e−jωt dt [b] F (ω) = τ τ −τ /2 0 [a] F (ω) = = P 17.·.17–6 CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform Problems P 17.

12 |F (6)| =  36 |F (8)| =  64    18 cos 4.10 |F (12)| =    24 cos 6 − 4 sin 6      = 0.30 |F (4)| =    8 cos 2 − 4 sin 2      = 0.17 |F (14)| =    28 cos 7 − 4 sin 7      = 0. ωo −ωo /2 ≤ ω ≤ 0 0 ≤ ω ≤ ωo /2 elsewhere ∼ =0 17–7 .Problems |F (2)| =    4 cos 1 − 4 sin 1      = 0.25 2A ω.5 − 4 sin 4.75 − 4 sin 7.09 100 |F (15.35    16 cos 4 − 4 sin 4    = 0.5)| = P 17.3 ∼ =0 [a] F (ω) = A + 144 196    31 cos 7.75      240. ωo F (ω) = A − F (ω) = 0 2A ω.5    |F (9)| =  81 |F (10)| =    20 cos 5 − 4 sin 5      = 0.44 4 16    12 cos 3 − 4 sin 3    = 0.

17–8 CHAPTER 17.·. The Fourier Transform   2A 1 0 A+ ω ejtω dω f (t) = 2π −ωo /2 ωo   2A 1  ωo /2 A− ω ejtω dω + 2π 0 ωo 1 f (t) = 2π  0 −ωo /2  ωo /2 + 0 jtω jtω Ae dω + Ae dω −  ωo /2 0  0 −ωo /2 2A jtω ωe dω ωo 2A jtω ωe dω ωo 1 [ Int1 + Int2 + Int3 − Int4 ] 2π = Int1 = Int2 = Int3 = Int4 =  0 −ωo /2  0 −ωo /2  ωo /2 0  ωo /2 0 Aejtω dω = A (1 − e−jtωo /2 ) jt 2A jtω 2A tωo −jtωo /2 e ωe dω = (1 − j − e−jtωo /2 ) 2 ωo ωo t 2 Aejtω dω = A jtωo /2 (e − 1) jt 2A jtω 2A tωo jtωo /2 e ωe dω = (−j + ejtωo /2 − 1) 2 ωo ωo t 2 Int1 + Int3 = 2A sin(ωo t/2) t Int2 − Int4 = 4A 2A sin(ωo t/2) [1 − cos(ω t/2)] − o ωo t2 t 1 4A f (t) = (1 − cos(ωo t/2)) 2π ωo t2 . = .

2A 2 2 sin (ω t/4) o πωo t2 = 4ωo A sin2 (ωo t/4) 2 2 πωo t  ωo A sin(ωo t/4) = 4π (ωo t/4) [b] f (0) = 2 ωo A 2 (1) = 79.58 × 10−3 ωo A 4π .

ωo = 2 rad/s  sin(t/2) f (t) = 10 (t/2) P 17.4 [a] F (s) = L{te−at } = F (ω) =   F (s) s=jω 2 1 (s + a)2 + F (s)       s=−jω  1 1 F (ω) = + 2 (a + jω) (a − jω)2 =   F (ω) = F (s) 6 (s + a)4   s=jω + F (s)  F (ω) = = s=−jω 6 6 a2 − ω 2 − = −j48aω (a + jω)4 (a − jω)4 (a2 + ω 2 )4 [c] F (s) = L{e−at cos ω0 t} = F (ω) =  2(a2 − ω 2 ) 2(a2 − ω 2 ) = (a2 − ω 2 )2 + 4a2 ω 2 (a2 + ω 2 )2 [b] F (s) = L{t3 e−at } = F (ω) = 17–9   F (s) s=jω s+a 0.5 0.5 0.5 = + 2 2 (s + a) + ω0 (s + a) − jω0 (s + a) + jω0 + F (s)     s=−jω 0.5 0.5 + (a − jω) − jω0 (a − jω) + jω0 a2 a a + 2 2 + (ω − ω0 ) a + (ω + ω0 )2 .Problems [c] A = 20π.5 + (a + jω) − jω0 (a + jω) + jω0 + 0.

therefore the second integral in the sum is zero.8 F (ω) = −j2 . ω thus we have   1  ∞ −2 1  ∞ sin tω dω sin tω dω = 2π −∞ ω π −∞ ω sin tω ω is even. From Problem 17. therefore f (t) = 2  ∞ sin tω dω π 0 ω .CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform 17–10 ω0 −j0. we have ∞ −∞ A(ω) cos tω dω must be zero. f (t) = −f (−t).6 1 ∞ [A(ω) + jB(ω)][cos tω + j sin tω] dω f (t) = 2π −∞ = 1 ∞ [A(ω) cos tω − B(ω) sin tω] dω 2π −∞ j ∞ [A(ω) sin tω + B(ω) cos tω] dω 2π −∞ But f (t) is real. the integral f (t) is real and odd. ω f (t) = − But therefore B(ω) = −2 . we have 1 ∞ f (−t) = [A(ω) cos tω + B(ω) sin tω] dω 2π −∞ For f (t) = −f (−t). + P 17.5 F{sin ω0 t} = F = ejω0 t 2j   −F e−jω0 t 2j  1 [2πδ(ω − ω0 ) − 2πδ(ω + ω0 )] 2j = jπ[δ(ω + ω0 ) − δ(ω − ω0 )] P 17.5 = + 2 2 (s + a) + ω0 (s + a) − jω0 (s + a) + jω0 [d] F (s) = L{e−at sin ω0 t} = F (ω) =   F (s) − F (s) s=−jω −ja ja + a2 + (ω − ω0 )2 a2 + (ω + ω0 )2 F (ω) = [e] F (ω) = s=jω      ∞ −∞ δ(t − to )e−jωt dt = e−jωto (Use the sifting property of the Dirac delta function.7 By hypothesis.5 j0.6. Therefore. if −1  ∞ f (t) = B(ω) sin tω dω 2π −∞ P 17.)  P 17.

 Therefore F df (t) dt  = let dv = [df (t)/dt] dt. then v = f (t).11 A(ω) =  0 −∞  ∞ 0 f (t) sin ωt dt f (t) cos ωt dt +  ∞ 0 f (t) cos ωt dt = 0 since f (t) cos ωt is an odd function.10 A(ω) = =  ∞ −∞  0 −∞  ∞ =2 0 f (t) cos ωt dt f (t) cos ωt dt + f (t) cos ωt dt. F (ω) → 0 everywhere except at ω = ±ω0 . then du = −jωe−jωt . At ω = ±ω0 .Problems 17–11 Therefore.  2 f (t) = π 2 f (t) = π π   · =1 t > 0  2 from a table of deﬁnite integrals    −π   · = −1 t < 0  2 Therefore f (t) = sgn t P 17.12 [a] F = dt dt −∞ dt Let u = e−jωt . P 17.   ∞ df (t) df (t) −jωt e P 17. that is  ∞ −∞  ∞ dω dω = =π 2 + (ω − ω0 )2 −∞ 2 + (ω + ω0 )2 F (ω) → πδ(ω − ω0 ) + πδ(ω + ω0 ) Therefore as  → 0. B(ω) = 0. ∞  −jωt  f (t)e  −∞ = 0 + jωF (ω)  ∞ − −∞ f (t)[−jωe−jωt dt] .  ∞ 0 f (t) cos ωt dt since f (t) cos ωt is also even. since f (t) sin ωt is an odd function and  0 −∞ f (t) sin ωt dt = − P 17. The area under each bell-shaped curve is independent of . F (ω) = 1/. B(ω) = −2   ∞ 0 f (t) sin ωt dt.4[c] we have F (ω) = 2   + 2 2 + (ω − ω0 )  + (ω + ω0 )2 Note that as  → 0. since f (t) sin ωt is an even function.9 From Problem 17. therefore F (ω) → ∞ at ω = ±ω0 as  → 0.

13 [a] F dn f (t) dtn  t = (jω)n F (ω).17–12 CHAPTER 17.  F [c] To ﬁnd  F Then  d2 f (t) .. then v= then du = f (t)dt e−jωt −jω Therefore. f (∞) = f (−∞) = 0. F{f (at)} = f (x) dx  ∞  −jωt  e ∞    f (x) dx = 0 −∞  ∞ t  ∞ −∞ −jωu/a f (u)e du a  1 = F a  t = ±∞  ω .e. i.14 [a] F{f (at)} = Let −∞ u = at. u = ±∞ when Therefore. −∞ − −∞ −∞ −jω F (ω) jω e−ax u(x) dx = 1 = 0 a f (at)e−jωt dt du = a dt. dt2 d2 f (t) dt2  =F  G(ω) = F But  df (t) dt dg(t) dt  = jωG(ω)   Therefore we have F df (t) dt g(t) = let = jωF (ω) d2 f (t) dt2  = (jω)2 F (ω) Repeated application of this thought process gives  F P 17. dv = e−jωt dt. The Fourier Transform [b] Fourier transform of f (t) exists.  −∞  ∞  t f (x) dx = Now let Let  u=  t −∞ −∞ f (x) dx e−jωt dt −∞ f (x) dx. because P 17. F  t  e−jωt  f (x) dx = −jω −∞ = 0+  ∞ [b] We require −∞  ∞ [c] No. a a>0 f (t) dt .

then du = dt. F{f (t − a)} =  ∞ −∞ f (u)e−jω(u+a) du = e−jωa [b] F{ejω0 t f (t)} =  ∞ −∞  ∞ −∞ f (u)e−jωu du = e−jωa F (ω) f (t)e−j(ω−ω0 )t dt = F (ω − ω0 )   ejω0 t + e−jω0 t [c] F{f (t) cos ω0 t} = F f (t) 2 P 17.15 [a] F{f (t − a)} =  ∞ −∞ f (t − a)e−jωt dt Let u = t − a.5|t| } = 4 .Problems [b] F{e−|t| } = 17–13 1 1 2 + = 1 + jω 1 − jω 1 + ω2 Therefore F{e−a|t| } = (1/a)2 (ω/a)2 + 1 Therefore F{e−0. P 17. yes as “a” increases. t = u + a. +1 F{e−|t| } = 4ω 2 ω2 2 +1 F{e−2|t| } = 1/[0.16 Y (ω) = =  ∞  ∞ −∞  ∞ −∞ −∞ x(λ)  1 1 = F (ω − ω0 ) + F (ω + ω0 ) 2 2 x(λ)h(t − λ) dλ e−jωt dt  ∞ −∞ h(t − λ)e−jωt dt dλ .25ω 2 + 1]. the sketches show that f (t) approaches zero faster and F (ω) ﬂattens out over the frequency spectrum. and u = ±∞ when t = ±∞. Therefore.

17 F{f1 (t)f2 (t)} =  ∞ −∞ −∞  ∞ −∞ −∞ 1 = 2π −∞ 1 = 2π P 17. The Fourier Transform Let u = t − λ. when t = ±∞. du = dt.18 [a] F (ω) = dF = dω  ∞ −∞  ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ −∞ ∞ −∞  ∞ −∞ du dλ −jωu h(u)e du dλ x(λ)e−jωλ H(ω) dλ = H(ω)X(ω) 1 2π ∞ h(u)e −jωλ x(λ) e  ∞  ∞ 1 = 2π −jω(u+λ) −∞  ∞  ∞ x(λ)  ∞ F1 (u)ejtu du f2 (t)e−jωt dt −jωt jtu F1 (u)f2 (t)e  ∞ F1 (u) −∞ e −j(ω−u)t f2 (t)e du dt dt du F1 (u)F2 (ω − u) du f (t)e−jωt dt  ∞ . Therefore Y (ω) = = = P 17.17–14 CHAPTER 17. and u = ±∞.

d −jωt f (t)e dt = −j tf (t)e−jωt dt = −jF{tf (t)} dω −∞ Therefore j dF (ω) = F{tf (t)} dω d2 F (ω)  ∞ = (−jt)(−jt)f (t)e−jωt dt = (−j)2 F{t2 f (t)} 2 dω −∞ Note that (−j)n =  Thus we have [b] (i) jn F{e−at u(t)} =  1 jn  dn F (ω) = F{tn f (t)} dω n 1 = F (ω). a + jω  dF (ω) 1 = Therefore j dω (a + jω)2 Therefore F{te−at u(t)} = 1 (a + jω)2 dF (ω) −j = dω (a + jω)2 .

f2 (t) = 1.19 [a] f1 (t) = cos ω0 t.Problems (ii) F{|t|e−a|t| } = F{te−at u(t)} − F{teat u(−t)} 1 d = −j 2 (a + jω) dω 1 a − jω  F{te−a|t| } = F{te−at u(t)} + F{teat u(−t)} 1 d = +j 2 (a + jω) dω = P 17. the amplitude of F (ω) increases at ω = ±ω0 and at the same time the duration of F (ω) approaches zero as ω deviates from ±ω0 . f1 (t)f2 (t) → cos ω0 t and F (ω) → π[δ(ω − ω0 ) + δ(ω + ω0 )] . that is  ∞ τ  ∞ sin[(ω − ω0 )(τ /2)] sin[(ω − ω0 )(τ /2)] dω = [(τ /2) dω] = π 2 −∞ (ω − ω0 )(τ /2) (ω − ω0 )(τ /2) −∞ Therefore as t → ∞. and f2 (t) = 0 elsewhere τ sin(uτ /2) uτ /2 F2 (u) = Using convolution. Thus 1 1 + (a + jω)2 (a − jω)2 = (iii) 17–15 1 a − jω  1 1 − 2 (a + jω) (a − jω)2 F1 (u) = π[δ(u + ω0 ) + δ(u − ω0 )] −τ /2 < t < τ /2. The area under the [sin x]/x function is independent of τ. 1 F (ω) = 2π = 1 2π τ = 2 + = ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ τ 2 F1 (u)F2 (ω − u) du π[δ(u + ω0 ) + δ(u − ω0 )]τ δ(u + ω0 ) ∞ −∞ sin[(ω − u)τ /2] du (ω − u)(τ /2) sin[(ω − u)τ /2] du (ω − u)(τ /2) δ(u − ω0 ) sin[(ω − u)τ /2] du (ω − u)(τ /2) τ sin[(ω + ω0 )τ /2] τ sin[(ω − ω0 )τ /2] · + · 2 (ω + ω0 )(τ /2) 2 (ω − ω0 )τ /2 [b] As τ increases.

17–16 CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform P 17.20 [a] vg = 100u(t)  1 Vg (ω) = 100 πδ(ω) + jω H(s) = 10 2 = 5s + 10 s+2 H(ω) = 2 jω + 2 Vo (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) =  200 200πδ(ω) + jω + 2 jω(jω + 2) = V1 (ω) + V2 (ω) v1 (t) =   1 200π 1  ∞ 200πejtω δ(ω) dω = = 50 (sifting property) 2π −∞ jω + 2 2π 2 V2 (ω) = K2 100 100 K1 + = − jω jω + 2 jω jω + 2 v2 (t) = 50sgn(t) − 100e−2t u(t) vo (t) = v1 (t) + v2 (t) = 50 + 50sgn(t) − 100e−2t u(t) = 100u(t) − 100e−2t u(t) vo (t) = 100(1 − e−2t )u(t) V [b] .

6 Io = RTh = 6012 = 10 kΩ 2sVTh VTh = 6 10.21 [a] From the solution to Problem 17.20 H(ω) = 2 jω + 2 Now.·.22 [a] Find the Thévenin equivalent with respect to the terminals of the capacitor: 5 vTh = vg . Vo (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = . = VTh s + 50 H(ω) = jω × 10−4 jω + 50 .000 + 10 /2s 20. Vg (ω) = 200 jω Then.000s + 106 H(s) = Io 10−4 s . K1 K2 200 200 400 = + = − jω(jω + 2) jω jω + 2 jω jω + 2 vo (t) = 100sgn(t) − 200e−2t u(t) V [b] P 17.Problems 17–17 P 17.

6 Io = H(ω)VTh (ω) = 60 jω VTh =  60 jω jω × 10−4 jω + 50  = 6 × 10−3 jω + 50 io (t) = 6e−50t u(t) mA [b] At t = 0− the circuit is At t = 0+ the circuit is ig (0+ ) = 30 + 36 = 5. .5 mA 60 io (0+ ) = 5. Thus our solution makes sense in terms of known circuit behavior.·. .000)(2 × 10−6 ) = 20 ms. τ which also agrees with our solution. 1 = 50. which agrees with our solution.17–18 CHAPTER 17. τ = (10.5 + 0. We also know io (∞) = 0.5 = 6 mA which agrees with our solution.5 mA 12 i60k (0+ ) = 30 = 0. The time constant with respect to the terminals of the capacitor is RTh C Thus. The Fourier Transform 5 vTh = vg = 30 sgn(t).

vo (∞) = 30 V This agrees with vTh (∞) = 30 V. As in Problem 17.Problems 17–19 P 17.5 + 0.01s + 4/s H(s) = s2 H(jω) = Vg (ω) = 400 400 = + 50s + 400 (s + 10)(s + 40) 400 (jω + 10)(jω + 40) 6 jω .24 [a] Vo 4/s = H(s) = Vg 0.22 we have Vo = 106 VTh · 104 + (106 /2s) 2s H(s) = 50 Vo = VTh s + 50 H(jω) = 50 jω + 50 VTh (ω) = 60 jω Vo (ω) = H(jω)VTh (ω) = = 60 jω  50 jω + 50 60 60 3000 = − (jω)(jω + 50) jω jω + 50 vo (t) = 30sgn(t) − 60e−50t u(t) V [b] vo (0− ) = −30 V vo (0+ ) = 30 − 60 = −30 V This makes sense because there cannot be an instantaneous change in the voltage across a capacitor.23 [a] From the solution of Problem 17.22 we know the time constant is 20 ms. P 17.

The Fourier Transform Vo (ω) = Vg (ω)H(jω) = Vo (ω) = K2 K3 K1 + + jω jω + 10 jω + 40 K1 = 2400 = 6.5 + 0. .75 = s + 50 4 s(s + 50) Vo = K1 K2 K3 1200 − 3s2 − 150s = + + s(s + 10)(s + 40) s s + 10 s + 40 K1 = 1200 = 3. 400 K3 = 1200 − 4800 + 6000 =2 (−40)(−30) K2 = 1200 − 300 + 1500 = −8 (−10)(30) vo (t) = (3 − 8e−10t + 2e−40t )u(t) V [e] Yes.17–20 CHAPTER 17. 400 K3 = 2400 =2 (−40)(−30) Vo (ω) = 2400 jω(jω + 10)(jω + 40) K2 = 2400 = −8 (−10)(30) 8 2 6 − + jω jω + 10 jω + 40 vo (t) = 3sgn(t) − 8e−10t u(t) + 2e−40t u(t) V [b] vo (0− ) = −3 V [c] vo (0+ ) = 3 − 8 + 2 = −3 V [d] For t ≥ 0+ : (Vo + 3/s)s Vo − 3/s + =0 0.01s 4 Vo s 100 300 + − 0.

R + 1/sC RCs + 1 106 1 = = 40.5 + 0. P 17.26 [a] Io = RCsIg Ig R = .01s + 4/s s + 50s + 400 = 600 20 20 = − (s + 10)(s + 40) s + 10 s + 40 io (t) = (20e−10t − 20e−40t )u(t) A [e] Yes. 2 Ig = (200 × 10 ) jω −6  = 400 × 10−6 jω 17–21 .5 + 0.Problems P 17.01s + 4/s H(s) = 100s 100s Io = = 2 Vg s + 50s + 400 (s + 10)(s + 40) H(ω) = 100(jω) (jω + 10)(jω + 40) Vg (ω) = 6 jω Io (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = = 600 (jω + 10)(jω + 40) 20 20 − jω + 10 jω + 40 io (t) = (20e−10t − 20e−40t )u(t) A [b] io (0− ) = 0 [c] io (0+ ) = 0 [d] Io = 6/s 600 = 2 0.25 [a] Io = Vg 0. RC 25 × 103 H(s) = H(ω) = Io s = Ig s + 1/RC jω jω + 40 ig = 200sgn(t) µA.

That is. Ig R Ig R(1/sC) = R + (1/sC) RCs + 1 H(s) = 1/C Vo 2 × 106 = = Ig s + (1/RC) s + 40 H(ω) = 2 × 106 . 40 + jω Vo (ω) = H(ω)Ig (ω) = = Ig (ω) = 400 × 10−6 jω 400 × 10−6 jω  2 × 106 40 + jω  20 20 800 = − jω(40 + jω) jω 40 + jω vo (t) = 10sgn(t) − 20e−40t u(t) V [b] Yes. at t = 0− . positive at the lower terminal.5 × 10−6 ) = 25 ms.27 [a] Vo = 1 = 40 τ . at the time the source current jumps from −200 µA to +200 µA the capacitor is charged to (200)(50) × 10−3 = 10 V.·. vo (0− ) = (50 × 103 )(−200 × 10−6 ) = −10 V. io = 400e−40t µA for t > 0. .17–22 CHAPTER 17. P 17.·. at the time the current source jumps from −200 to +200 µA the capacitor is charged to −10 V. The circuit at t = 0− is At t = 0+ the circuit is The time constant is (50 × 103 )(0. The Fourier Transform Io = Ig [H(ω)] = jω 400 × 10−6 400 × 10−6 · = jω jω + 40 jω + 40 io (t) = 400e−40t u(t) µA [b] Yes. .

vo (∞) = (50 × 103 )(200 × 10−6 ) = 10 V The time constant of the circuit is (50 × 103 )(0.5e−t − 7. so 1/τ = 40.5 (4)(6) K2 = 300 = −7.28 [a] ig = 3e−5|t| .5 5 12.5 × 10−6 ) = 25 ms.·. The function vo (t) is plotted below: P 17. = H(s) = Ig s+1 . Vo (ω) = Ig (ω)H(ω) = = H(ω) = 10 jω + 1 300 (jω + 1)(jω + 5)(−jω + 5) K1 K2 K3 + + jω + 1 jω + 5 −jω + 5 K1 = 300 = 12.Problems At t = ∞ the capacitor will be charged to +10 V. Ig (ω) = 3 30 3 + = jω + 5 −jω + 5 (jω + 5)(−jω + 5) Vo Vo s + = Ig 10 10 10 Vo .5 (−4)(10) K3 = 300 =5 (6)(10) Vo (ω) = 7.5e−5t ]u(t) + 5e5t u(−t) V 17–23 . That is.·.5 − + jω + 1 jω + 5 −jω + 5 vo (t) = [12.

s+5 t ≥ 0+ H(s) = vo (0+ ) = 5 V.5e−5t )u(t) V P 17.5 10 10 Vo (s + 1) = Vo = 5 30 + (s + 5)(s + 1) s + 1 = .·. 30 +5 s+5 −7.29 [a] Vo − Vg Vo Vo =0 + + sL1 sL2 R .5 7.5e−t − 7. for t ≥ 0+ the solution in part (a) is also vo (t) = (12.5e−5t )u(t) V [e] Yes.5 = 5 V [d] ig = 3e−5t u(t).5 7. Vo = RVg   1 1 s+R + L1 L2 L1 .5 5 12.·. 10 s+1 γC = 0.17–24 CHAPTER 17.5 − 7.5 Vo Vo s + = Ig + 0.5e−t − 7. The Fourier Transform [b] vo (0− ) = 5 V [c] vo (0+ ) = 12. Ig = 3 .5 + + = − s+5 s+1 s+1 s+1 s+5 vo (t) = (12.

000t −j40. R = 12 × 105 L1 L2  1 1 R + L1 L2 .000 + j40.000t + −j(3 − j4) j(3 + j4) e−j40.13◦ = 0.075 cos(40.000t e−j40.000t − 143.000(30.000t + j40.000t ej40.13◦ ) mA   17–25 .000t + 5/− 143.000(30.000) 75 × 106 = 4 × 108 75 = 400    ej40.000 − j40.·.13◦ ) A io (t) = 75 cos(40.·.000) ej40.Problems Io = Vo sL2 R/L1 L2 Io = H(s) = Vg s(s + R[(1/L1 ) + (1/L2 )]) .13◦ 5/143.000t − 143. H(s) = H(ω) =  = 3 × 104 12 × 105 s(s + 3 × 104 ) 12 × 105 jω(jω + 3 × 104 ) Vg (ω) = 125π[δ(ω + 4 × 104 ) + δ(ω − 4 × 104 )] Io (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = 1500π × 105 [δ(ω + 4 × 104 ) + δ(ω − 4 × 104 )] jω(jω + 3 × 104 ) 1500π × 105  ∞ [δ(ω + 4 × 104 ) + δ(ω − 4 × 104 )]ejtω dω io (t) = 2π jω(jω + 3 × 104 ) −∞  io (t) = 750 × 105 e−j40.

17–26 CHAPTER 17.13◦ ) mA P 17.13◦ V 15 + j20 Vo = 75 × 10−3 /− 143. The Fourier Transform [b] In the phasor domain: Vo − 125 Vo Vo + + =0 j200 j800 120 12Vo − 1500 + 3Vo + j20Vo = 0 Vo = Io = 1500 = 60/− 53.000t − 143. Vg (s + 5)(s + 20) H(ω) = (jω)2 (jω + 5)(jω + 20) vg = 25ig = −450e10t u(−t) − 450e−10t u(t) V Vg = − 450 450 − −jω + 10 jω + 10 Vo (ω) = H(ω)Vg = −450(jω)2 (−jω + 10)(jω + 5)(jω + 20) + −450(jω)2 (jω + 10)(jω + 5)(jω + 20) = K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K1 + + + + + −jω + 10 jω + 5 jω + 20 jω + 5 jω + 10 jω + 20 .30 [a] Vg s Vg s2 Vo = = 2 25 + (100/s) + s s + 25s + 100 H(s) = Vo s2 = .13◦ A j800 io (t) = 75 cos(40.

. Now v1 (0+ ) = v1 (0− ) because the inductor will not let the current in the 25 Ω resistor change instantaneously. At t = 0+ the circuit is From the circuit at t = 0+ we see that vo must be −100 V. which is consistent with the solution for vo obtained in part (c).01 F capacitor change instantaneously. the solution predicts v1 (0− ) will be −350 V.Problems K1 = 450(100) = −100 (15)(30) K2 = 450(25) = −50 (15)(15) K3 = 450(400) = 400 (30)(−15) Vo (ω) = K4 = K5 = 17–27 −450(25) = −150 (5)(15) −450(100) = 900 (−5)(10) K6 = −450(400) = −1200 (−15)(−10) −200 −800 900 −100 + + + −jω + 10 jω + 5 jω + 20 jω + 10 vo = −100e10t u(−t) + [900e−10t − 200e−5t − 800e−20t ]u(t) V [b] vo (0− ) = −100 V [c] vo (0+ ) = 900 − 200 − 800 = −100 V [d] At t = 0− the circuit is Therefore. and the capacitor will not let the voltage across the 0.

000ω ω 2 [δ(ω + 5000) + δ(ω − 5000)] jtω e dω −∞ (25 × 106 − ω 2 ) + j12.·.000ω Vg (ω) = 300π[δ(ω + 5000) + δ(ω − 5000)] Io (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = io (t) = −2.000s + 25 × 106 ) −8 × 10−3 ω 2 H(ω) = (25 × 106 − ω 2 ) + j12.5[e−j(5000t+90 ) + ej(5000t+90 ) ] io (t) = 1 cos(5000t + 90◦ ) A  .000)(5000) 6 = 12  e−j5000t ej5000t + −j j ◦  ◦ = 0.31 Vo s Vo − Vg 100Vo + =0 + 25 s 100s + 125 × 104 .000)(5000) j(12. The Fourier Transform 17–28 P 17.CHAPTER 17.000ω ∞ 25 × 106 ej5000t 25 × 106 e−j5000t + = −1.4πω 2 [δ(ω + 5000) + δ(ω − 5000)] (25 × 106 − ω 2 ) + j12. Vo = Io = s(100s + 125 × 104 )Vg 125(s2 + 12.2 −j(12.000s + 25 × 106 ) sVo 100s + 125 × 104 Io s2 H(s) = = Vg 125(s2 + 12.4π  2π  −2.

Problems 17–29 P 17. vo (0− ) = −10 V There cannot be an instantaneous change in the voltage across a capacitor. so vo (0+ ) = −10 V [b] io (0− ) = 0 A At t = 0+ the circuit is 30 − (−10) 40 = = 8A 5 5 [c] The s-domain circuit is io (0+ ) =  Vg Vo = 5 + (10/s)  Vo 2 = H(s) = Vg s+2  10 2Vg = s s+2 . Therefore .·.32 [a] From the plot of vg note that vg is −10 V for an inﬁnitely long time before t = 0.

33 [a] Vo (Vo − Vg )s Vo + =0 + 6 10 4s 800 . Vo (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = = 45.17–30 CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform H(ω) = 2 jω + 2 2 Vg (ω) = 5 jω  − 5[2πδ(ω)] + 10 30 30 = − 10πδ(ω) + jω + 5 jω jω + 5  10 2 30 Vo (ω) = H(ω)Vg (ω) = − 10πδ(ω) + jω + 2 jω jω + 5 = 20πδ(ω) 60 20 − + jω(jω + 2) jω + 2 (jω + 2)(jω + 5) = K0 K1 K2 K3 20πδ(ω) + + + − jω jω + 2 jω + 2 jω + 5 jω + 2 K0 = 20 = 10.·. 2 Vo (ω) = K1 = 20 = −10.000(jω)2 (jω + 250)(jω + 500)(jω + 1000)(−jω + 500) K2 K3 K4 K1 + + + jω + 250 jω + 500 jω + 1000 −jω + 500 . Vo = s2 Vg s2 + 1250s + 25 × 104 Vo s2 = H(s) = Vg (s + 250)(s + 1000) H(ω) = (jω)2 (jω + 250)(jω + 1000) vg = 45e−500|t| .000 (jω + 500)(−jω + 500) 45. −2 K2 = 60 = 20. 3  K3 = 60 = −20 −3 10 20 20πδ(ω) 10 10 20 10 + − − = + + − 10πδ(ω) jω jω + 2 jω + 5 jω + 2 jω jω + 2 jω + 5 vo (t) = 5sgn(t) + [10e−2t − 20e−5t ]u(t) − 5 V P 17.·. Vg (ω) = .

000) (jω + 250)(jω + 500)(jω + 1000)(−jω + 500) = K4 = K1 K2 K3 K4 + + + jω + 250 jω + 500 jω + 1000 −jω + 500 (0.000(−500)2 = −90 (−250)(500)(1000) K3 = 45.25)(500)(45.000(−1000)2 = 80 (−750)(−500)(1500) K4 = 45.Problems K1 = 45.e.000) = 45 mA (−250)(500)(1000) K3 = (0.000) = −20 mA (−750)(−500)(1500) .000) = −20 mA (250)(750)(750) K2 = (0.25)(−250)(45.25sVg Vo = 4s (s + 250)(s + 1000) H(s) = 0..25s IL = Vg (s + 250)(s + 1000) H(ω) = 0.25(jω)(45. vo (t) = [20e−250t − 90e−500t + 80e−1000t ]u(t) + 10e500t u(−t) V [b] vo (0− ) = 10 V.000) = 5 mA (750)(1000)(1500) iL (t) = 5e500t u(−t).25)(−500)(45. Vo (0+ ) = 20 − 90 + 80 = 10 V vo (∞) = 0 V [c] IL = 0. .25)(−1000)(45.000(−250)2 = 20 (250)(750)(750) K2 = 45.·. iL (0+ ) = K1 + K2 + K3 = −20 + 45 − 20 = 5 mA Checks. i. iL (0+ ) = iL (0− ) = 5 mA 17–31 . iL (0− ) = 5 mA K1 = (0.·.000(500)2 = 10 (750)(1000)(1500) .25(jω) (jω + 250)(jω + 1000) IL (ω) = 0.·.

·. Our circuit becomes Vo (Vo − Vg )s Vo 5 × 10−3 −6 + =0 + + 35 × 10 + 106 s 800 4s . (s + 250)(s + 1000)Vo = 45 s + 500 45s2 − (35s + 5000)(s + 500) (s + 500) 10s2 − 22.17–32 CHAPTER 17.500s − 250 × 104 .34 [a] Vg (ω) = 36 36 72jω − = 4 − jω 4 + jω (4 − jω)(4 + jω) . Vg = . (s2 + 1250s + 25 × 104 )Vo = s2 Vg − (35s + 5000) vg (t) = 45e−500t u(t) V. Vo = (s + 250)(s + 500)(s + 1000) = 90 80 20 − + s + 250 s + 500 s + 1000 .·.·. vo (t) = [20e−250t − 90e−500t + 80e−1000t ]u(t) V This agrees with our solution for vo (t) for t ≥ 0+ .·. The Fourier Transform At t = 0− : vC (0− ) = 45 − 10 = 35 V At t = 0+ : vC (0+ ) = 45 − 10 = 35 V [d] We can check the correctness of our solution for t ≥ 0+ by using the Laplace transform. P 17.

H(s) = 40(s + 10) (s + 20)(s + 30) .35 Vo (s) = 30 40 600(s + 10) 10 + − = s s + 20 s + 30 s(s + 20)(s + 30) Vo (s) = H(s) · 15 s .·. vo (t) = 8e4t u(−t) + [72e−4t − 32e−2t − 32e−8t ]u(t)V [b] vo (0− ) = 8 V [c] vo (0+ ) = 72 − 32 − 32 = 8 V The voltages at 0− and 0+ must be the same since the voltage cannot change instantaneously across a capacitor.·. H(ω) = 40(jω + 10) (jω + 20)(jω + 30) .·. P 17.·. Vo (jω) = 8 72 32 32 + − − 4 − jω 4 + jω 2 + jω 8 + jω .Problems Vo (s) = (16/s) Vg (s) 10 + s + (16/s) H(s) = 16 16 Vo (s) = 2 = Vg (s) s + 10s + 16 (s + 2)(s + 8) H(ω) = 16 (jω + 2)(jω + 8) Vo (ω) = H(ω) · Vg (ω) = = 17–33 1152jω (4 − jω)(4 + jω)(2 + jω)(8 + jω) K2 K3 K4 K1 + + + 4 − jω 4 + jω 2 + jω 8 + jω K1 = 1152(4) =8 (8)(6)(12) K2 = 1152(−4) = 72 (8)(−2)(4) K3 = 1152(−2) = −32 (6)(2)(6) K4 = 1152(−8) = −32 (12)(−4)(−6) .

25 × 10−6 ) = 125 × 10−3 . 1 − e−2ω1 = 0. The Fourier Transform 40(jω + 10) 1200(jω + 10) 30 · = jω (jω + 20)(jω + 30) jω(jω + 20)(jω + 30) Vo (ω) = vo (ω) = 60 80 20 + − jω jω + 20 jω + 30 vo (t) = 10sgn(t) + [60e−20t − 80e−30t ]u(t) V 1 P 17.9. CHAPTER 17.36 [a] f (t) = 2π [b] W = 2 [c] W = 1 π  0  ∞ 0  ∞ 0 ω jtω −∞ e e dω +  ∞ 2 (1/π) 2 dt = 2 2 2 (1 + t ) π e−2ω dω = −2ω 1e π −2 0 e  ∞ 0 −ω jtω dω = 1/π 1 + t2 dt 1 J = 2 2 (1 + t ) 2π ∞   =  0 e  1 J 2π 1  ω1 −2ω 0.125 .9 [d] . H(s) = s .37 Io = Ig R RCsIg = R + (1/sC) RCs + 1 H(s) = s Io = Ig s + (1/RC) RC = (100 × 103 )(1. e dω = π 0 2π ω1 = (1/2) ln 10 ∼ = 1.·. s+8 Ig (ω) = 30 × 10−6 jω + 2 H(ω) = Io (ω) = H(ω)Ig (ω) = jω jω + 8 30 × 10−6 jω (jω + 2)(jω + 8) 1 1 = =8 RC 0.17–34 .15 rad/s e2ω1 = 10 P 17.

= Vg s + 0.5 −jω + 1 H(ω) = vo (t) = [−24e−t + 32e−t/2 ]u(t) + 8et u(−t) V .38 [a] Vg (ω) = 60 (jω + 1)(−jω + 1) 0.14 (100) = 15.5)(−jω + 1) Vo (ω) = 32 8 −24 + + jω + 1 jω + 0.4 (jω + 0.Problems 17–35 ω(30 × 10−6 ) √ |Io (ω)| = √ 2 ( ω + 4)( ω 2 + 64) |Io (ω)|2 = K1 K2 900 × 10−12 ω 2 = 2 + 2 2 2 (ω + 4)(ω + 64) ω + 4 ω + 64 K1 = (900 × 10−12 )(−4) = −60 × 10−12 (60) K2 = (900 × 10−12 )(−64) = 960 × 10−12 (−60) |Io (ω)|2 = W1Ω = 960 × 10−12 60 × 10−12 − ω 2 + 64 ω2 + 4 60 × 10−12  ∞ dω 1∞ 960 × 10−12  ∞ dω − |Io (ω)|2 dω = π 0 π ω 2 + 64 π ω2 + 4 0 0  = =  120 × 10−12 ω ∞ 30 × 10−12 ω ∞ tan−1  tan−1  − 8 0 π 2 0 π   120 π 30 π × 10−12 = (60 − 15) × 10−12 = 45 pJ · − · π 2 π 2 Between 0 and 4 rad/s W1Ω = %= 120 1 30 tan−1 − tan−1 2 × 10−12 = 7.4 .5 Vo (ω) = 24 (jω + 1)(jω + 0.14 pJ π 2 π 7.86% 45 P 17.5) H(s) = Vo 0.

17–36 CHAPTER 17. The Fourier Transform [b] |Vg (ω)| = [c] |Vo (ω)| = [d] Wi = 2 [e] Wo = 60 + 1) (ω 2 24 √ (ω 2 + 1) ω 2 + 0.25  ∞ 0  0 −∞ = 32 + −2t 900e 64e2t dt + ∞ 0 ∞ e−2t   = 900 J dt = 1800 −2 0  ∞ 0 (−24e−t + 32e−t/2 )2 dt [576e−2t − 1536e−3t/2 + 1024e−t ] dt = 32 + 288 − 1024 + 1024 = 320 J .

95% 900 576 (ω 2 + 1)2 (ω 2 + 0.2 × 100 = 99.·.53 J π 5 .2 J %= P 17.25 (ω 2 + 1)2 (ω 2 + 1)  2   2  1 ω 1 −1 + tan 1024 · 2 · tan−1 2ω  −768 ω Wo = π 2 ω2 + 1 0 0 −1 −1024 tan = ω 2     0  = 319.53 × 100 = 95. % =  [g] |Vo (ω)|2 = =  863.5s + 25 s + 50 H(s) = s Io = Ig s + 50 H(ω) = jω jω + 50 I(ω) =  2048 384 2 1024 tan−1 4 − + tan−1 2 − tan−1 2 π π 5 π 12 jω + 10 Io (ω) = H(ω)I(ω) = 12(jω) (jω + 10)(jω + 50) 17–37 .25) 768 1024 1024 − − ω 2 + 0.75% 320 sIg 0.5sIg = 0. +1 3600 (ω 2 + 1)2 dω 3600  2 π 0 (ω 2 + 1)2 3600 = π = |Vg2 (ω)| = ω2    2  1 ω −1 + tan ω  2 2 ω +1 0    1800 2 + tan−1 2 = 863.39 Io = 319.Problems [f] |Vg (ω)| = Wg = 60 .

the percent between 0 and 100 rad/s is 0.06 − 0.17–38 CHAPTER 17.5 − 0.2 P 17.6 −1 tan−1 tan −  π 50 0 π 10 0 = 1.2 J Wo (0–100 rad/s) = 3 0.28 = 0. ω2 |Vi (100)|2 = 4 × 104 = 4.3 = 1.78 J Therefore.6 tan−1 (2) − tan−1 (10) π π = 1.69% 1. 1002 |Vi (200)|2 = 4 × 104 =1 2002 .78 (100) = 64.40 [a] |Vi (ω)|2 = 4 × 104 . The Fourier Transform |Io (ω)| =  |Io (ω)|2 = = 12ω (ω 2 + 100)(ω 2 + 2500) 144ω 2 (ω 2 + 100)(ω 2 + 2500) ω2 Wo (total) = = 150 −6 + 2 + 100 ω + 2500 1 π ∞ 0 1 150dω − ω 2 + 2500 π ∞ 0 ω2 6dω + 100   ∞   ∞ 3 ω  ω  0.

4 × 104 = 2. 4 × 104 = 0. ω 2 + 104 |Vo (100)|2 = [c] W1Ω = 1 106 10−3 1000 = = = 100 RC (0.5)(20) 10 |ω| 200 200 √ ·√ 2 = |ω| ω + 104 ω 2 + 104 |Vo (ω)|2 = 100 ≤ ω ≤ 200 rad/s.66 J π 100 200 π [d] W1Ω 17–39 200  1  200 4 × 104 4 × 104 −1 ω  · tan = dω = π 100 ω 2 + 104 π 100 100 = 400 [tan−1 2 − tan−1 1] ∼ = 40. 104 + 104 |Vo (200)|2 = |Vo (ω)|2 = 0.8 5 × 104 1  200 4 × 104 4 × 104 1 200 dω = − π 100 ω2 π ω 100 1 4 × 104 1 200 ∼ − = = = 63.97 J π elsewhere .Problems [b] Vo = RCVi Vi R = R + (1/sC) RCs + 1 H(s) = s Vo . = Vi s + (1/RC) H(ω) = jω jω + 100 |Vo (ω)| = 4 × 104 .

the ratio is 0. s+α H(ω) = A + ω2 a2 jω .57% of the output energy lies in the frequency band between 0 and a/ 3.41 [a] Vi (ω) = H(s) = |Vi (ω)| = √ s .17% [b] When α = a we have WOUT (α) = ω 2 A2 dω 1 α π 0 (a2 + ω 2 )(α2 + ω 2 ) A2 = π where K1 = Therefore  α 0 K1 K2 + 2 dω 2 2 a +ω α + ω2 2 a a2 − α2 and K2 = −α2 a2 − α2   α A2 απ a tan−1 − WOUT (α) = 2 2 π(a − α ) a 4  π A2 π A2 − α WOUT (total) = a = π(a2 − α2 ) 2 2 2(a + α) Therefore   α απ 2 WOUT (α) · a tan−1 − = WOUT (total) π(a − α) a 4 √ For α = a 3.23% of the output energy lies in the frequency band between 0 and a 3. √ or 10. √ [c] For α = a/ 3.5 − = 0. this ratio is 0.1817 or WOUT (total) π 18. α + jω |H(ω)| = √ ω α2 + ω 2 ωA Therefore |Vo (ω)| =  (a2 + ω 2 )(α2 + ω 2 ) Therefore |Vo (ω)|2 = WIN =  ∞ 0 ω 2 A2 (a2 + ω 2 )(α2 + ω 2 ) A2 e−2at dt = A2 .2723.1057. 2a when α = a we have    a a2 dω A2  a ω 2 dω A2  a dω WOUT (a) = = − π 0 (ω 2 + a2 )2 π 0 a2 + ω 2 0 (a2 + ω 2 )2 = A2 4aπ   π −1 2   ω2 A2  ∞ A2 WOUT (total) = dω = π 0 (a2 + ω 2 )2 4a Therefore 1 WOUT (a) = 0.17–40 CHAPTER 17. a + jω P 17. √ or 27. The Fourier Transform A . .