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Introduction to Computers
Q 1: What is Computer? Ans: Introduction: The word computer is derived from the word “compute”. Which mean “to calculate”. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic and logical operations at a very high speed. Computer is a device that can compute at great speed. Actually, the main purpose of making computer was to invent a machine which could make calculations at very high speed. Definitions: “A Computer is an electronic device that can accept data, store it arithmetically and logically, process that information and give result from that processing.”
Input / Data
Output / Result
Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
“Computer is an electronic device that is used to solve various problems according to a set of instructions given to it. A computer can accept data, process data into useful information and store it for later use.” OR “A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its memory that can accept data, work on the data according to given commands, produce results and store the results for future use.” Q2: write down the Advantages of Computers. Ans: Advantages of computers: Following are the Advantages of Computers: 1-Speed: Computer is a very fast speed device. It can perform a task in few seconds. A computer can perform billions of calculation in a second. The time used by a computer to perform an operation is called the processing speed. Computer speed is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz) or Giga Hertz (GHz) 2-Data Storage: A computer has too much storage capacity. Once recorded, a piece of information can never be forgotten. 3-Accuracy:
The accuracy of computer is always high. A computer can be considered as 100% accurate. The degree of a particular computer depends upon its design. But for a
Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
particular computer each and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. 4-Efficiency: Efficiency is one of the most wonderful things about the computer. Computer can perform multiple tasks simultaneously. For example preparation of the result of examination, communicating on network and storage and retrieval of information etc. 5-Processing: A computer can process the given instructions. It can perform different types of processing like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also perform logical functions like comparing two numbers to decide which one is the bigger etc. 6-Retriving: A computer can recall (retrieve) the stored data and information as and when required. The data stored in the computer can be used at later time. A computer can recall the required data in a few seconds. 7-Control Sequence: A computer works strictly according to the given instructions. It follows the same sequence of execution that is given in a program. 8-Versatility:
A computer can perform any task, provided it can be reduced to a series of logical steps.
Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
We can use a computer in hospital, bank or at home. We can use it for calculating our budget or can play games. A variety of facilities are available through computers. 9-Decision making capability: A computer can take simple decisions, such as less than, greater than or equal to. It also determines whether a statement is true or false. 10-Diligency: Computer can never get tired. It performs more boring, repetitive and monotonous task.
Computer has taken the business activities to new horizons, today it very possible to commence business on a table using a single computer. Thanks to internet that now we can get any kind of information we needed in just few seconds. Q3: Give some examples of computer applications. Ans: Here some examples of computer application are: Controlling space flight Printing books Checking out groceries at the checkout counter Landing airplanes Tracking inventory Turning on lights at specified time
Q4: What is the History of computers? Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Ans: History and Development of computers: At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers. The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,
Dark age 300 BC to 1890 AD Middle age 1890 AD to 1944 AD Modern age since 1944 AD
Q5: Write down the ages of computers? Ans: Ages of Computer At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers. The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,
1. 2. 3.
Dark age - 300 BC to 1890 Middle age - 1890 AD to 1944 Modern age - since 1944 AD
Q5: What was Abacus?
Ans: Abacus: (Dark Age- 3000 BC to 1890 AD)
About 3000 years BC, Chinese developed the first calculating machine named Abacus or Soroban. Abacus consists of a rectangular wooden frame having rods which carry round beads. Counting is done by shifting the beads from one side to another. Q6: Describe Napier’s bones history? Ans: Napier’s bones: (1550-1617) John Napier was a Scottish mathematician. He made the first calculating device after abacus. It was called John Napier’s bone or cardboard multiplication calculator. In addition to multiplication this machine was also used to calculate square roots and cube roots. Q7: Describe Pascal’s Pascaline Calculator. Ans: Pascal’s Pascaline Calculator: Blasé Pascal (1623-1662), the 18 years old son of a French tax collector, developed the first mechanical calculating machine in 1642. This machine consists of gears, wheels and dials. This device was known as “pascaline” and it was capable of adding and subtracting operations. Q8: Describe the Charles Babbage work in the history of computers? Ans: Computer was invented because “Necessity is the mother of invention”. Man always searched for a first calculating device it took a long time to invent the digital computer. Brief history of Charles Babbage behind the invention of computer is as follows
Charles Babbage: (1791-1871) Charles Babbage an English mathematician also called Father of modern computer. As he gave the true concept of computer at Cambridge University, he developed Babbage Difference Engine in 1823 and Babbage Analytical Engine in 1833. After 10 years, in 1842, he made a general-purpose computer named “Analytical Engine”. This analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in automatic sequence at a rate of 60 additions per second. Lady Ada Augusta an assistant of Babbage is called the first programmer. Q9: Describe Herman Hollerith and also write down the use of Punched Cards? Ans: Herman Hollerith: (1862-1929) In 1890, an American inventor Herman Hollerith applied the idea of punch boards in the form of punch cards in computers for input and output. He invented a punched card tabulating machine. This machine could add, multiply and sort numbers. Data were feed and results were produced on punched cards. As compared to today’s machines, these computers were slow, usually processing 50-220 cards per minute, each card holding about 80 decimal numbers (characters). At that time, however, punched cards were a huge step forward. They provided a means for Input / Output (I/O) and memory storage on a huge scale. Q10: Give Von Neumann theory.
Ans: Von Neumann:
Von Neumann contributed a new awareness of how practical and fast computers should be built. These ideas, usually refer to as the stored – program technique, because essential for future generations of high speed digital computers and were universally adopted. According to Von Neumann theory “Data and program can be stored in the same memory. Thus the machine can itself alter either its program or internal data”. As a result of the ideas, computing and programming became much faster, more flexible and efficient. Q11: Write a note on different computer generations, briefly explaining their features. Ans: 1. First Generation: (Vacuum Tubes 1942-1953)
Computers of this generation used Vacuum tubes to perform calculations. Vacuum tubes were used as the principle of electronic component. Each computer had a different binary coded program called machine language that told it to how to operate. This made the computer difficult to program and limited its versatility and speed. Main features: The distinct features of first generation computers were: Major Innovation - Vacuum Tube Main Memory - Punched Cards Input Output Devices - Punched cards and papers Languages - Low level machine language Operating System - No operating system, human operators to set
Computer Model: EDVAC, ENIAC, UNIVAC-I etc belongs to first generation computers. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Vacuum tubes were used as electronic component. Electronic digital computers were developed for the first time. These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time. Computations were performed in millisecond.
Disadvantages: 1. Too large in size 2. Unreadable 3. Non-portable 4. Limited commercial use 5. Air conditioning required 2. Second generation: (Transistors 1955-1964) In 1948 with the invention of transistors, vacuum tubes were replaced with transistors. As a result, the size of electronic machinery has been shrunk. Second generation computers replaced machine language with Assembly language allowing abbreviated programming codes to replace long difficult binary codes. More sophisticated high level languages such as COBOL (Common Business Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Transistor) came into common use during this time.
Main features: Major Innovation - Transistors as main component.
Main Memory - RAM and ROM. External Storage - Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk. Input Output Devices - Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk. Languages - Assembly language, some high level languages for Example BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN. Operating System - Human handles punched card. Size - Main frame for example IBM-1401, NCR-300, IBM-600 etc. Computer Model: IBM 700 Series, IBM 1400 Series, IBM 1600 Series were developed in that period. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. More reliable Less heat generated Small in size as compared to first generation computers Better portability Less prone to hardware failures
Disadvantages: 1. 2. 3. 3. Air conditioning required Software production was difficult and costly Very costly for commercial use Third generation: (Integrated Circuits 1964-1975)
The major invention of third generation computers was developed of the silicone IC (Integrated Circuits). A single IC chip contains thousands of transistors. These computers used magnetic core memory as internal storage. This technology was Small-scale integration (SSI). Magnetic storage disks were Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
used as secondary storage device. Procedural languages were used in these computers. Main features: Major Innovation - Integrated circuit (ICs) as basic electronic component. Main Memory - PROM and DRAM. External Storage - Improve disk (Floppy Disk) Input and Output Devices - Keyboard for input, monitor for output. Languages - More high level languages. Operating System - Complete operating systems were introduced. Size - Mini, for example: IBM SYSTEM / 360, ICH-360, HONEY WELL-316 etc.
Computer Model: IBM 360, PDP series, ICL 1900, CDC 6600 were developed in that period. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Smaller in size as compared to previous generation computers Easily movable More reliable. Portable Less electricity consumption. Heat generation was rare. General purpose computer.
1. Air conditioning was required in many cases due to ICs. 2. Very advance technology was required to make the ICs. Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
4. Fourth generation:
In this generation IC’s used very large scale integration (VLSI) technology is using. In this technology circuits density approaching 10,000 components per chip. Its memory access time was expressed in nanoseconds. A variety of storage device were used for storing data. There was a great versatility of input and output devices. Main features: Major Innovation - LSIC and VLSIC (Micro Processor) Main Memory - EPROM and SRAM. External Storage - Floppy Disk and Hard Disk. Input and Output Devices - Monitor for output. Languages - Languages and application software. Operating System - MS-DOS and PC-DOS Size - Micro computer e.g. IBM-PC, Apple Macintosh etc.
Computer Model: IBM 303, IBM 4300, CYBER 205 series, Intel 4004, XT, 4x86, Pentium I, II, III, IV Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Smaller in size Very reliable Heat generation is low Big memory Totally general purpose Cheapest among all generations
Disadvantages: 1. Very advanced technology was required to fabricate to the ICs. 5. Fifth generation: (Present - Beyond) Scientists claimed a challenge about an intelligent computer also known as LOGICAL COMPUTER. It is a promise that such computers will real genuine real intelligence. They will work logically and having own decision making power. Scientists are working to increase the speed of computers. They are trying to create a computer with real IQ with the help of advanced programming and technologies. Main Features: 1. 2. 3. 4. Major Innovations - ULSIC (Ultra large scale integrated circuit) Main Memory - EEPROM, SIMM and DIMM. External Storage - Modified magnetic and Optical disks. Input/output Devices - Keyboard, Pointing Device, Scanner as input and Monitor as main output. 5. Languages - AI (Artificial Intelligence) Expert systems. 6. Operating System - GUI based e.g. Windows 95, Windows NT. 7. Size - Very small in size example: Laptop, Note book, Digital Diary, Palm top and Pocket PC. Computer Model: Hall 9000
Advantages: 1. Very large storage capacity. Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
2. Long bit processor builds. 3. Artificial Intelligence Language developed. Q12. What are the types of computer? Ans: There are three types of computers: Types of computers
Analog Computers: Computers which measures variable quantities along a continuous scale are called analog computers. Analog computers do not operate directly with numbers or digits. The output can be obtained in analog signals that are in the form of graph or wave. Its can store limited amount of data. Processing speed of these computers is slow. These are being manufactured in small sizes. Results obtained by analog computers are not accurate. Its readability is low due to output in the form of signals. These computers can be used to measure variable quantities such as weigh, height and temperature etc. Analog computers are mainly used in the field of Engineering, Medicine and Research centers. Thermometer, analog watch and weight machine are the examples of analog computers.
Digital computers work with digits. These computers measure any Physical quantities along discrete or fixed scale. A digital computer is based on the rule of counting. In fact, digital computers used digital signals, which can distinguish between just two values 0 and 1. These computers can store large amount of data. Processing speed of these computers is fast. These are being manufactured in a wide variety of sizes. Results obtained by digital computers are accurate. Its readability is high. These computers can be used to perform mathematical and logical operations such as Addition, Multiplication, Division, Subtraction, Less than, Equal to etc. These computers are commonly used in offices, others institutions and even at home for personal use. Calculators, digital watch, personal computer are the examples of digital computers. Hybrid Computers: Hybrid computers have combined features of both analog and digital computers. Hybrid computers can get input and give results either in analog form or in digital form. These computers can stores large amount of data as compared to analog computers. Calculation speed of these computers is also slow but fast than analog computers. These are being manufactured in various varieties of sizes. Accuracy of these computers is high when output in digital form and low when output in analog form. Its readability is high when output in digital form and low when output in analog form. These computers can be used to measure variable and physical quantities. Hybrid computers are mainly used in engineering field and medical sciences. Medical Instruments, ECG Machines and Petrol Pump Machines are the examples of hybrid computers.
Q13. What is the difference between analog and digital computers? Ans: Difference between Analog and Digital Computers
These computers accept data in continuous form and represent it in Suitable form to perform scientific operation. Analog data include distance, speed, pressure, temperature, and current etc. They are used for complex scientific and mathematical operations. These are also used in industrial units. Analog computers are very fast but not accurate.
These are general purpose computers in many sizes and shapes.
• These computers accept data in the form of digits. These computers are used for arithmetic and logic operations. Modern digital computers can store large amount of data. They are used in almost every field of life like research, business, education, health, supermarkets, factories, banking etc.
Q13. Write down the classification of computers according to purpose. Ans: Classification of Computers According to Purpose: 1. General Purpose Computers General purpose computers are designed to solve a large variety of problems. The different programs can be used to solve many problems. Most digital computers are general purpose computers and used in business and commercial data processing.
2. Special Purpose Computers A computer designed for machine control or process control would be different than a general purpose computer. The special purpose computers are designed to solve specific problems. The computer program for solving a specific problem is built right into the computer. Most analog computers are special purpose computers. These special purpose computers are widely used in industrial robotics. Q14: Write down the Classification of Computers According to Size. Ans: Classification According to Size: Computers are classified according to sizes, speed and memory capacity. Computers are of different types: 1. SUPER COMPUTERS Super computer are the largest, fastest and the most expensive computer systems in the world. They are used to process complex scientific jobs. These computers are very expensive and the speed is measured in billions of instructions per seconds. Supercomputers are manufactured using thousands of processors. Its size is equal to full room. These computers are used in Applications in medicine, Aerospace, Online banking and weather forecasting etc. There are very few companies in the world produce super computers. Cary research and ETA system Inc.
are two primary manufactures of super computers in United States. Fujitsu Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Hitachi NEC These are the companies in Japan, which produce super computers. Famous supercomputers are: Cray-1 Cray-2 Cray-3 Cray XMP ETA-10 2. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS Mainframe computers are large, expensive and very powerful computers that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously. These computers are capable of processing data at very high speed, millions of instructions per second and have access to billions of characters of data. The size of Mainframe is equal to door size or half room size. Mainframes store large amounts of data, instructions and information. Many people can make use of the same machine at the same time. These computers are used in banks, educational institutions, insurance companies and airlines etc. Mainframes are manufactured by IBM (International Business Machine), NEC (National Electronics Corporation), HP (Hewlett Packard). Following are the different models of Mainframe Computers available in the market: Mark I Whirlwind IBM 701 IBM 360
3. MINI COMPUTERS Mini computers were introduced in the 1960s. Mini computers are smaller than mainframes, both in size and other facilities such as speed, storage capacity and other services. They are versatile that they can be fitted where ever they are needed. Their speeds are rated between one and fifty million instructions per second (MIPS). They have primary storage in hundred to three hundred megabytes range with direct access storage device. These computers are often used by Small and medium-sized companies or University departments. IBM, DEC and HP are the famous companies of Minicomputers. Following are the models of minicomputers: 4. DEC PDP HP3000 series IBM midrange computers MICRO COMPUTERS
These are the smallest range of computers. They were introduced in the early 70’s having less storing space and processing speed. Micro computers of today are equivalent to the mini computers of yesterday in terms of performing and processing. They are also called “computer of a chip” because its entire circuitry is contained in one tiny chip. These are single user computers. These are less expensive computers. It has affordable price. Almost everyone can afford it. There are several companies of Micro computers. The famous are Intel, IBM, Compaq and Acer. Here are the models of Microcomputers: 486 Pentium I Pentium II, III, IV
AMD 500 Microcomputers are available in different type i.e. desktop computers, laptop computers and palmtop computers etc. Q15: Explain the types of Microcomputers. Ans: Types of Microcomputers: Following are the three types of Microcomputers: Desktop Computer: Desktop or PCs (Personal Computers), are used by one person at a time. They are usually user machines but can be interconnected among themselves to from a local area network. Their speed depends upon the processor installed in the computer. They are cheaper and have been sold in millions. Laptop Computer: The smallest computer in size has been developed. This type of small computers look like an office brief case and called "LAPTOP" computer (also notebook computer or notebook). The laptops are also termed as "PORTABLE COMPUTERS." Due to the small size and light weight, they become popular among the computer users. The businessmen found laptop very useful, during traveling and when they are far away from their desktop computers. A typical laptop computer has all the facilities available in microcomputer. Its cost varies from several thousand dollars or less.
Palmtop Computer: A small computer, that literally fits in your palm. Compared to full-size computers, palmtops are severely limited, but they are practical for certain functions such as Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
phone books and calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather than a keyboard for input are often called hand-held computers or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) Because of their small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives. However, Many contain PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association slots in which you can insert disk drives, modems, memory, and other devices. Q16. Describe the Impact of computers and Internet on society. Ans: Computers and the internet allows society to communicate with each other quickly and easily, provides society with a huge information database and multiple sources to get information and allows humanity to do things that were not possible before the invention of both the computer and the internet. Probably the most important on our society is on information sharing. Education: Computers are very helpful in education. Educational institutes, from primary university level, are using computers for various learning activities. Students can prepare their projects easily with the help of computers. Many websites provides online education. The user can download educational material, books and tutorials. Some universities provide online lectures for the students. Business: Computer is now being widely used in business and industry. Any business organization can use computers for marketing their products. Computer is also used to manage the distribution system, advertising and selling activities. It can also be used in deciding pricing strategies. These are also widely used in business community to reduce the administrative paperwork and cost. Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Online Banking: The advent of the internet and the popularity of personal computers presented an opportunity for the banking industry. The use of computer at banks has provided many benefits. It saves time and provides convenience for customers. Many banks provide the facility of ATM machines that is used to withdraw cash directly from machine. Banks provide credit cards for purchasing things using internet. You can access and manage all of your banks accounts, from one site. Most of the banks now work on online banking system. Stock Exchange: Stock Exchange is the most important place of businessmen. Many stock exchanges use computers to conduct bids. The stock brokers perform all trading activities electronically. They connect with computer where brokers match buyers with sellers. It reduces cost as no paper or special building is required to conduct these activities. CRUX Computers has taken the business activities to new horizons, today it is very possible to commence business on a table using a single computer. Thanks to internet that now we can get any kind of information we need in just few seconds. A technological revolution is changing our way of life; the way we live, work and play. Q17. What is computer language? Write a note on computer languages.
Ans: Language: “Way of communication is called language”
Programming Languages / Computer Languages: “A computer language is a way of communication between user and the computer”. Each computer language has certain rules. These rules are called the syntax of that language. There are two types of computer languages: Low Level Language High Level Language Low Level Language: “A Language that is closed to computer and easily understandable by the computer is called Low Level Language”. There are further subdivided into two types. Machine Language Assembly Language Machine Language: “A language which is directly understandable by the computer without being translated is called machine language”. Characteristics: I. II. III. IV. It is a machine dependent Language. It is also called first generation Language. It is written in the form of binary numbers that is in the form of 1 and 0. Program written in the machine language is run very fast.
Program development in machine language is very difficult.
Assembly Language: “A language which has same features as machine language but uses symbols instead of 1 and 0 and also need to be translated before execution is called assembly language”. Characteristics: I. II. III. IV. It was developed in 1950. It is classified as second generation language. We use symbols or mnemonics code, so it is called symbolic language. The program used to translate assembly code into machine language is called Assembler.
Assembly Code High Level Language:
“The language, which is closed to human language, is called high-level language”. High level languages are close to human languages and far from the machine language. These are also called “English Oriented Language”. These are difficult for machine. These are machine independent languages which are also known as “third generation languages”. It is easy to operate, easy to understand and easy for programming. Examples of High-level languages are C, C++, COBOL, PASCAL, and FORTRAN etc.
There are further two types of high-level language. Procedural Language Object Oriented Language Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Data Base Query Language Procedural Language: “Computer program follows a predetermined procedure”. The computer instructions are executed by the order in which they are written. These instructions tell the computer “what to do” and “how to do”. These languages are called third generation languages (3GL). The most popular procedural language is: FORTRAN stands for “Formula Translation” BASIC stands for “Beginner all-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code” Object Oriented Language: Object Oriented Programming is latest technology for writing computer program. A computer program is written as a collection of number of objects. Each object performs specific task. It consists of data and function. The most commonly used object oriented languages are C++, Java with object etc. Data base Query Language: These languages are based on special kind of database called a relational database. These languages are used to store and retrieve data from a database. The most commonly used Relational data bases are SQL Server
ORACLE MS-ACCESS Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Q17. What are language translators / Processors? And also describe their types. Ans: Language Translators: Programs written in high level languages must be converted into machine language for execution by the computer. Special program are used to convert a source code into machine code. These programs are called Language Translators or Processor. There are three main types of language translators. 1. Compiler Interpreter Assembler Compiler:
The language processor that translates programs written in high-level language as a whole is called Compiler. The compiler translates the source code into object code. The computer directly executes the object code. If there is any error in the source program, the compiler specifies the error at the time of compilation. All errors must be removed before the compiler can successfully compile the source program. Source program
The language that executes a source program by translating and executing one instruction at a time is called Interpreter. If there is any error in the program it
indicates the error and stops the program execution. It does not create any object file. It translates the source program each time the program is executed. 3. Assembler : A program that translates an assembly code into machine code is called Assembler. The assembler is a system program that is supported by the computer manufacturer. It is written by system programmer with great care. It also assembles the machine code in the main memory of the computer.
Q1: Define Assembler. Ans: The program used to translate assembly code into machine language is called Assembler. OR An assembler is a program that translates an assembly language program into machine code. OR Assembler is a type of translator. It also works in the same way as compiler and interpreter. OR Assembler is a program, which translate an assembly language program to its machine language equivalent. Q2: Define Compiler. Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Ans: The language processor that translates programs written in high-level language as a whole is called Compiler. OR A compiler is a program that translates the source program (source code) into machine language (machine/object code). A compiler first reads the whole program before executing it. Q3: Define Interpreter. Ans: The language that executes a source program by translating and executing one instruction at a time is called Interpreter. OR An interpreter is another type of translator used for translating high-level language into machine code. It takes one statement of a high level language and translates it into a machine instruction, which is immediately executed. Q4: Define Pascal. Ans: A French mathematician Blaise Pascal introduced a programming language by the name of PASCAL. It is a highly structured programming language. It was developed in 1970's after the concept of structured programming. OR In 1642 Balise Pascal, the 18 year old son of a French tax collector, invented a numerical wheel calculator to help his father in calculation. This device was known as “Pascaline” and was only able to add two numbers. Q5: What was difference engine? Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Ans: Charles Babbage a mathematician professor. He began to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine which he called difference engine. OR An English mathematician, Professor Charles Babbage made a “Difference Engine” in 1833, which was powered by steam to solve mathematical equations. Q6: What was analytical engine? Ans: In 1842, Charles Babbage made a general-purpose computer named “Analytical Engine”. The analytical engine could add, subtract, multiply and divide in automatic sequence at a rate of 60 additions per second. OR The construction of what would now be called a general purpose fully program controlled automatic mechanical digital computer, Babbage called this idea an Analytical engine. Q7: What was Punched card? / Define Herman Hollerith. Ans: In 1890, an American inventor Herman Hollerith applied the idea of punch boards in the form of punch cards in computers for input and output. He invented a punched card tabulating machine. OR In 1890, Herman Hollerith developed the first electro-mechanical punched card tabulator. The tabulator could real information that had been punched into cards. These cards were maintained in stack form solutions to different problems could be stored on different problems could be stored on different stacks of cards and accessed when needed. Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
Q8: Write short on the following: BASIC: • BASIC was developed in 1964. • It was close the English. • A person having no knowledge of programming can learn it easily. • It can be used for business and scientific applications. PASCAL: • It was named due to a scientist name Blaise Pascal. • It was developed in early 70’s. • It is highly structured programming language. • It is very popular in computer science. FORTRAN: • It as developed in 1957 for IBM computers. • It was designed to solve mathematical, scientific and engineering problems. • It has been revised many times. • Its latest version is FORTRAN 90. Q9: What are high level programming languages? How they differ from Assembly language?
Ans: There are many high level programming languages. For example; BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, ADA, C, C++ etc. Difference: They differ from Machine Languages because they are easy to understand and write. The words and phrases used in high level languages are simple English words. Q10: Why machine and assembly languages are called low level languages? Ans: They are called low level languages because they are very difficult to understand. They can only be understood by the computers. Q11: Define a computer program. Ans: • Computer program is a series of instructions to carry out any particular task with the help of computer. • The computer program is prepared by computer programmer. Q12: What is meant by CMI? Ans: • CMI means computer managed instructions. • In this system, computer assigns students different tasks i.e. read certain book, listened certain tape, attend certain lecture etc. Q13: What is UPC? Ans: • UPC means Universal Product Code. • It is black and white bar code printed on most of the products. Q14: What is ENIAC?
Ans: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was the first electronic computer made in 1946 by John Presper Eckert and John Williams Mauchly, at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. This was based on decimal number system and it has no memory. It could perform 5000 additions or 350 multiplications in one second. It contained 18000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and 60,000 switches and occupied a two room car garage. It consumed 150 kW of power. It weighed 27 tons. Q15: What is EDSAC? Ans: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer (EDSAC) was first computer based on stored program concept. It was completed by Mourice Wilkes at Cambridge University in 1949. Q16: What is EDVAC? Ans: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) was built by John Williams Mauchly, John Presper Eckert at Moore School, Pennsylvania in 1951. Q17: What is UNIVAC? Ans: Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was the first commercially used computer made by John Presper Eckert and John Williams Mauchly in June 14, 1951. Q18: What is ABC (ATANASOFF BERRY COMPUTER)? Ans: ABC a special purpose computer was developed in 1938 by Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State College, USA. Q19: Write down the Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers? Ans: Following are some advantages and disadvantages of computer in our life. Advantages: 1. Computers make us more productive in many of our jobs. 2. In education they can help us for better understanding faster learning and broaden our thinking. 3. In hospitals we have better diagnosis, proper treatment and better healthcare. 4. In business, they are used to record stocks of raw materials as well as finished products, making customer's bill, analyzing sales of various products etc. 5. In banks, they are used for day-to-day processing of customer's accounts and Written by: Maryem Javed (Computer and Math’s teacher) The Educators School Kasur Campus E-mail: Princesmary92@yahoo.com Computer Notes for 9th Class (Unit 1)
payments. 6. In manufacturing, they provide ways to develop a representation of the product and to test it in a variety of simulated environments. Disadvantages: 1. Unemployment due to automation. 2. Wastage of time and energy in useless computer activities. 3. Data security 4. Privacy 5. Computer Crimes
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