This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

BOOK - Das a. & Ferbel T. - Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics|Views: 61|Likes: 7

Published by Abdullah Al Bari Tusar

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/111279022/BOOK-Das-a-Ferbel-T-Introduction-to-Nuclear-and-Particle-Physics

01/31/2013

text

original

Both parity and time reversal are discrete space-time symmetry transforma-

tions, and it is natural to ask whether there are any discrete transformations

in the internal Hilbert space of a quantum mechanical system. Charge con-

jugation is, in fact, this kind of transformation, under which the space-time

coordinates are unchanged and the discrete transformation affects only the

internal properties of the state.

Let us recall that the classification of the electron as particle and

positron as antiparticle is arbitrary. In fact, the definition of positive and

negative electric charge, positive and negative strangeness, the assignment

of baryon number, etc., as we have stated before, are all a matter of con-

vention. Once a choice is made, however, we can measure the quantum

numbers of other particles relative to the defined assignments. The charge

conjugation operation inverts all internal quantum numbers of states, and

thereby relates particles to their antiparticles. Classically, one can represent

charge conjugation as the following transformation on electric charge Q

gA-Q.

(11.52)

Since electric charge is the source of electric and magnetic fields, it follows

that under such a transformation

E A -E,

B A -B.

(11.53)

(This is simply because both E and B are linear in electric charge.) It is

straightforward to show that Maxwell's equations are invariant under such

a transformation.

For a quantum mechanical state \tp(Q,r,t)), where Q represents all the

internal quantum numbers such as electric charge, lepton number, baryon

number, strangeness, etc., charge conjugation reverses all the charges,

MQ,?,t)) A \ip(-Q,r,t)).

(11.54)

Consequently, a state can be an eigenstate of the charge conjugation op-

erator C if, at the very least, it is electrically neutral. Thus, for example,

the photon (7), the atom of positronium (e~ - e+), the n° meson, etc., can

282

Nuclear and Particle Physics

be eigenstates of C. However, not all charge-neutral states are eigenstates

of C since they may carry other internal quantum numbers. For example,

the following are, clearly, not eigenstates of C

\n) —> \n),

|TT p) —> |TT+P),

\K°) A \K°).

(11.55)

Because two consecutive charge conjugation transformations will leave a

state unchanged, it follows that the eigenvalues of C, or the charge parities

of an eigenstate, can be only ±1. Thus, for example, from Eq. (11.53) we

conclude that the photon, the quantum of the electromagnetic field, must

have a charge parity of — 1,

»7c(7) = -l-

(H-56)

If charge conjugation is a symmetry of the theory, that is, if H and C

commute

[C,H] = 0,

(11.57)

then the charge parity for any given process must be conserved. Because

Maxwell's equations do not change under C, electromagnetic interactions

should therefore be invariant under charge conjugation. Consequently, from

the decay of the n° into two photons

7f° —>7 + 7,

(H-58)

we conclude that the TT° must be even under C, if charge parity is to be

conserved in the decay

Va (T°) = Vc (l)Vc (7) = (-1)2 = +1-

(H-59)

In variance under charge conjugation therefore leads to restrictions on

the kinds of interactions or decays that can take place. For example, a

7T° cannot decay to an odd number of photons because that would violate

conservation of C-parity

*Discrete TYansformations
*

283

7r°/>n7,

for* n* odd.

(11.60)

And, in fact, the experimental upper limit on the branching ratio

TT°->27 1S ~ iU •

While charge conjugation is known to be a symmetry of electromag-

netic and strong interactions, we can argue, as follows, that it must be

violated in weak interactions. As we have emphasized, charge conjugation

does not change space-time properties, and therefore the handedness of a

quantum state is insensitive to such a transformation. Thus, under charge

conjugation, we obtain

*\VR)* A* \VR),
*

**(11.61)
**

where the subscripts* L* and* R* refer to left and right handed neutrinos (or

antineutrinos), respectively. But we pointed out previously that there is

no evidence for the existence of right handed neutrinos or left handed an-

tineutrinos. Consequently, the charge conjugate process of /3-decay cannot

take place, and charge conjugation therefore cannot be a symmetry of such

interactions. Nevertheless, although both* P* and* C* symmetry are violated

in /? decay, the combined transformation of* CP* appears to be a symmetry

of such processes. One can see this heuristically as follows

**K) -A- \vR) -£» \VR),
**

*\VR)* A |F£)-£> |I/L>,

(11.62)

that is, the combined operation of* CP* takes a physical state to another

physical state, which is not what the* C* or* P* operations do individually.

Nevertheless, the* CP* operation is not a symmetry of all weak interactions,

as we will discover in the following chapter.

International Journal of Damage Mechanics 2014 Abdollahzadeh 3 24

Corrosion and Fracture presentation

Failure Behavior of Zircaloy-4 Cladding After

Shale gas situation in Europe

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

1107034264_Particle

Subatomic Physics

ParticlePhysics

Quantum Physics - A First Encounter - Interference, Entanglement and Reality - V. Scarani (Oxford, 2006) WW

Concepts Modern Physics

06002000 Particle Physics

7 Physics

Quarks and Leptons An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics~tqw~_darksiderg

Physics of the Universe

Group Theory - The Application to Quantum Mechanics [Meijer-Bauer]

Numerical Relativity

Modern Physics Text

Quantum Concepts in Physics

Lectures on Quantum Theory

[C. Piron] Foundations of Quantum Physics(BookFi.org)

Quantum Implications

Applied Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics Foundations and Applications

Physical Mathematics

Relativity Gravitation and Cosmology

Energy and Mass in Relativity Theory

A New Perspective on Relativity

1604132949_Relativity

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Physics Lecture Notes (Queensland University 2004)

Gravitation by Paddy

Physics and Whitehead - Quantum, Process, And Experience

Quantum Mechanics Basic Field Theory Desai

Understanding the Universe and the Elegant Universe

Statistical Physics

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->