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BOOK - Das a. & Ferbel T. - Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

BOOK - Das a. & Ferbel T. - Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

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Published by: Abdullah Al Bari Tusar on Oct 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • Rutherford Scattering
  • 1.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 1.2 Rutherford Scattering
  • 1.3 Scattering Cross Section
  • 1.4 Measuring Cross Sections
  • 1.5 Laboratory Frame and the Center-of-Mass Frame
  • 1.6 Relativistic Variables
  • 1.7 Quantum Treatment of Rutherford Scattering
  • Nuclear Phenomenology
  • 2.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 2.2 Properties of Nuclei
  • 2.2.1 Labeling of Nuclei
  • 2.2.2 Masses of Nuclei
  • 2.2.3 Sizes of Nuclei
  • 2.2.4 Nuclear Spins and Dipole Moments
  • 2.2.5 Stability of Nuclei
  • 2.2.6 Instability of Nuclei
  • 2.3 Nature of the Nuclear Force
  • Nuclear Models
  • 3.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 3.2 Liquid Drop Model
  • 3.3 The Fermi-Gas Model
  • 3.4 Shell Model
  • 3.4.1 Infinite Square Well
  • 3.4.2 Harmonic Oscillator
  • 3.4.3 Spin-Orbit Potential
  • 3.4.4 Predictions of the Shell Model
  • 3.5 Collective Model
  • 3.6 Superdeformed Nuclei
  • Nuclear Radiation
  • 4.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 4.2 Alpha Decay
  • 4.3 Barrier Penetration
  • 4.4 Beta Decay
  • 4.4.1 Lepton Number
  • 4.4.2 Neutrino Mass
  • 4.4.3 The Weak Interaction
  • 4.5 Gamma Decay
  • Applications of Nuclear Physics
  • 5.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 5.2 Nuclear Fission
  • 5.2.1 Basic Theory of Fission
  • 5.2.2 Chain Reaction
  • 5.3 Nuclear Fusion
  • 5.4 Radioactive Decay
  • 5.4.1 Radioactive Equilibrium
  • 5.4.2 Natural Radioactivity and Radioactive Dating
  • Energy Deposition in Media
  • 6.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 6.2 Charged Particles
  • 6.2.1 Units of Energy Loss and Range
  • 6.2.3 Energy Loss Through Bremsstrahlung
  • 6.3 Interactions of Photons with Matter
  • 6.3.1 Photoelectric Effect
  • 6.3.2 Compton Scattering
  • 6.3.3 Pair Production
  • 6.4 Interactions of Neutrons
  • 6.5 Interaction of Hadrons at High Energies
  • Particle Detection
  • 7.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 7.2 Ionization Detectors
  • 7.2.1 Ionization Counters
  • 7.2.2 Proportional Counters
  • 7.2.3 Geiger-Miiller Counters
  • 7.3 Scintillation Detectors
  • 7.4 Time of Flight
  • 7.5 Cherenkov Detectors
  • 7.6 Semiconductor Detectors
  • 7.7 Calorimeters
  • 7.8 Layered Detection
  • 8.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 8.2 Electrostatic Accelerators
  • 8.2.1 Cockcroft-Walton Machines
  • 8.2.2 Van de Graaff Accelerator
  • 8.3 Resonance Accelerators
  • 8.3.1 Cyclotron
  • 8.3.2 Linac or Linear Accelerator
  • 8.4 Synchronous Accelerators
  • 8.5 Phase Stability
  • 8.6 Strong Focusing
  • 8.7 Colliding Beams
  • Properties and Interactions of Elementary Particles
  • 9.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 9.2 Forces
  • 9.3 Elementary Particles
  • 9.4 Quantum Numbers
  • 9.4.1 Baryon Number
  • 9.4.2 Lepton Number
  • 9.4.3 Strangeness
  • 9.4.4 Isospin
  • 9.5 Gell-Mann-Nishijima Relation
  • 9.6 Production and Decay of Resonances
  • 9.7 Determining Spins
  • 9.8 Violation of Quantum Numbers
  • 9.8.1 Weak Interactions
  • Hadronic Weak Decays:
  • Semileptonic Processes:
  • 9.8.2 Electromagnetic Processes
  • 10.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 10.2 Symmetries in the Lagrangian Formalism
  • 10.3 Symmetries in the Hamiltonian Formalism
  • 10.3.1 Infinitesimal Translations
  • 10.3.2 Infinitesimal Rotations
  • 10.4 Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics
  • 10.5 Continuous Symmetries
  • 10.5.1 Isotopic Spin
  • 10.6 Local Symmetries
  • Discrete Transformations
  • 11.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 11.2 Parity
  • 11.2.1 Conservation of Parity
  • 11.2.2 Violation of Parity
  • 11.3 Time Reversal
  • 11.4 Charge Conjugation
  • 11.5 CPT Theorem
  • Neutral Kaons, Oscillations, and CP Violation
  • 12.1 Introductory Remarks
  • L2.2 Neutral Kaons
  • 12.3 CP Eigenstates of Neutral Kaons
  • 12.4 Strangeness Oscillation
  • 12.5 K° Regeneration
  • 12.6 Violation of CP Invariance
  • 12.7 Time Development and Analysis of the K°-K° System
  • 12.8 Semileptonic K° Decays
  • Formulation of the Standard Model
  • 13.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 13.2 Quarks and Leptons
  • 13.3 Quark Content of Mesons
  • 13.4 Quark Content of Baryons
  • 13.5 Need for Color
  • 13.6 Quark Model for Mesons
  • 13.7 Valence and Sea Quarks in Hadrons
  • 13.8 Weak Isospin and Color Symmetry
  • 13.9 Gauge Bosons
  • 13.10 Dynamics of the Gauge Particles
  • 13.11 Symmetry Breaking
  • 13.12 Chromodynamics (QCD) and Confinement
  • 13.13 Quark-Gluon Plasma
  • Standard Model and Confrontation with Data
  • 14.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 14.2 Comparisons with Data
  • 14.3 Cabibbo Angle and the "GIM" Mechanism
  • 14.4 CKM Matrix
  • 14.5 Higgs Boson and sin2 9w
  • Beyond the Standard Model
  • 15.1 Introductory Remarks
  • 15.2 Grand Unification
  • 15.3 Supersymmetry (SUSY)
  • 15.4 Gravity, Supergravity and Superstrings
  • Index*

Extending the quark model to all baryons, leads to a theoretical difficulty.
We have already discussed the A++ baryon, which is nonstrange, carries
two units of positive charge, and has spin angular momentum of §. Thus,
naively, we can conclude that the A++ can be described by three up quarks

A++ = uuu.


This substructure satisfies all the known quantum numbers, and, in the
ground state (where there are no contributions from relative orbital waves),
the three up quarks can have parallel spins to provide a resultant value of
J = |. However, the wave function for this final state, representing three
identical fermions, would therefore be symmetric under the exchange of
any two quarks. This is, of course, incompatible with the Pauli principle,
which requires a wave function containing identical fermions to be totally
antisymmetric. It would appear, therefore, that the quark model cannot
describe the A++. On the other hand, the model works so well for other


Nuclear and Particle Physics

hadrons that it would seem unwise to give it up entirely. An interesting
resolution can be attained if it is assumed that all quarks carry an additional
internal quantum number, and that the final state in Eq. (13.17) is, in fact,
antisymmetric in the space corresponding to this quantum number.
This additional degree of freedom is referred to as color, and it is believed
that each of the quarks comes in three different colors. Namely, the quark
multiplets take the form







a = red, blue, green. (13.18)




At this point of our development, color can be regarded as merely a new
quantum number needed for phenomenological reasons for understanding
the substructure of hadrons. However, we will see shortly that, in fact,
color is to the strong interaction what charge is to the electromagnetic
force, namely the source of the respective fields.
Hadrons do not appear to carry any net color, and therefore correspond
to bound states of quarks and antiquarks of zero total color quantum num-
ber, or, simply stated, hadrons are color-neutral bound states of quarks.
Under the interchange of any two quarks, the color singlet wave function
of three quarks changes sign, while that of a quark-antiquark color singlet
does not. This hypothesis leads to an excellent description of all known
baryons as bound states of three quarks, and of mesons as bound states of
quark-antiquark pairs. In particular, it also explains the structure of the
O~ baryon which has a strangeness of —3 and spin angular momentum of
|, and corresponds to the ground state of three strange quarks

fi~ = sss.


We see once again how the symmetry property in color space plays a crucial
role in assuring the overall antisymmetry of the fermionic wave function for
this state.

The theoretical postulate of color seems rather ad hoc, especially since
the observable hadrons do not carry a color quantum number. However, the
existence of color can be established as follows. Consider the annihilation of
an electron and positron, leading to the creation of a /U+/U~ pair or a quark-
antiquark pair. The reaction can be thought of as proceeding through the
production of an intermediate virtual photon, as shown in Fig. 13.1. The

Standard Model I


cross section for the production of hadrons in this process depends on the
number of ways a photon can produce a quark-antiquark pair. This must
therefore be proportional to the number of available quark colors. That is,
the ratio of production cross sections

= * hadrons)
a(e-e+ -» /o«+)

is proportional to the number of quark colors. And, indeed, this quantity
is consistent with exactly three colors. Because the production of hadrons
through the mechanism in Fig 13.1 depends, in addition, on the electric
charges of the quarks, such data also confirm the fractional nature of electric
charge carried by quarks.
In closing this section, we wish to point out that electron-positron anni-
hilation at high energies is one of the cleanest ways to establish the presence
of new quark flavors. For example, when the energy of the e+e~ system ex-
ceeds the threshold for production of hadrons containing some new quark,
the ratio in Eq. (13.20) must increase and display a step at that energy.
Of course, in addition, beyond that threshold, new hadrons containing the
new flavor can be observed in the final states of such collisions. This was
found to be the case for charm and bottom quarks, where after the initial
production of the analogs of positronium (the J/ip for cc, and the T for
bb), particles with open charm and open bottom flavor were observed to be
produced at somewhat higher energies. However, this is not likely to repeat
for the top quark, which, as we have indicated before, decays too rapidly
after its production to be able to form hadrons.


• M+ (?)

Fig. 13.1 The annihilation of e+e~ through a virtual photon into /i+/ti~ or qq pair.

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