P. 1
BOOK - Das a. & Ferbel T. - Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

BOOK - Das a. & Ferbel T. - Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

|Views: 61|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Abdullah Al Bari Tusar on Oct 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Cockcroft-Walton machines are the simplest types of accelerators. They
are based on passing ions through sets of aligned electrodes that are op-
erated at successively higher fixed potentials. Usually, voltage-doubling
circuits are used for generating the high electric fields. A machine consists
of an ion source (often hydrogen gas) located at one end, and a target at



the other, with the electrodes arranged in between. First, electrons can
either be added to or stripped from the atoms of interest in order to pro-
duce ions, which are then passed through the series of accelerating regions.
The kinetic energy gained by an ion of charge q, passing through the volt-
age difference V, is given simply by T = qV. John Cockcroft and Ernest
Walton were the first to successfully apply these principles to particle accel-
eration, and used their device to disintegrate lithium nuclei using protons
of about 400 keV. Cockcroft-Walton machines are limited to about 1 MeV
energies because of the voltage breakdown and discharge that takes place
much beyond voltages of 1 MV. Currently, Cockcroft-Walton accelerators
are available commercially, and are often used as the first-step high-current
injectors (of the order of 1 mA) in the multi-stage process of accelerating
particles to high energies.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->