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AIR

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BACH
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R AVINA
R D BHA
M G KA
S NARE
S NARM
VIMAL R

ARTMEN
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BONAFIDECERTIFICATE

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the project work done by


RAVINASH (20053003)
RDBHARATHAN (20053005)
MGKAMATCHI (20053011)
SNARENDRAN (20053020)
SNARMADA (20053021)
VIMALRAJ (20053038)

during the period December 2007 to December 2008.


Dr.SELANGOVAN
Professor
DepartmentofAerospaceEngineering
MITCampus
AnnaUniversityChennai
Chromepet,Chennai600044

Ms.MFLEELAVATHY
Lecturer
DepartmentofAerospaceEngineering
MITCampus
AnnaUniversityChennai
Chromepet,Chennai600044

Dr.BTNSRIDHAR
ProfessorandHead
DepartmentofAerospaceEngineering
MITCampus
AnnaUniversityChennai
Chromepet,Chennai600044


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are grateful to our faculty members Dr. S Elangovan


and Ms. M F Leelavathy for guiding us throughout the
course of our project work.

We are thankful to our Head of the Department,
Dr. B T N Sridhar for inspiring us and enlightening our
way.

We are also greatly indebted for all the support and help
given to us by the faculty members of the department at
various stages of our project.

INDEX

Part1:AerodynamicAnalysis,PerformanceAnalysisandStabilityand
ControlAnalysis
DataforExistingAircraft. 2
Graphs. 12
WeightEstimationandEngineSelection... 20
CalculationofWingDimensions. 23
EstimationofRunwayLength.. 26
CalculationofEmpennageDimensions.. 27
PositioningofLandingGearandTireSelection. 30
3ViewDiagramoftheAircraft 32
SeatingConfigurationoftheAircraft 35
BalanceDiagram 37
DragEstimationoftheAircraft. 43
PerformanceAnalysisoftheAircraft 47
AnalysisofStabilityandControloftheAircraft. 62
Part2:StructuralAnalysis
EstimationofLoadFactorLimitsandVnDiagram104
LiftDistributionfortheAircraftSchrencksCurve.109
ShearForceandBendingMomentDiagramsoftheWing..113
TorqueDiagramfortheWing..120
CriticalShearForce,BendingMomentandTorqueCalculations123
MaterialSelectionfortheAircraft.127
StructuralDesignoftheAircraftBasicWingDesign.131
StructuralDesignoftheAircraftFuselageDesign..145
Conclusion...157
References158

1
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT
CRUISING
SPEED
RANGE CRUISINGMACHNUMBER CRUISINGALTITUDE
UNITS km/hr km

m


AROSPATIALE/BRITISHAEROSPACE
CONCORDE
2179 6228

15635
AROSPATIALECARAVELLEMk12 825 3465 0.74 7620
AIRBUSA319100 837 6800 0.78 10670
AIRBUSA320200 903 5263 0.78 8530
BOEINGB720B(707020B) 896 6687 0.81 8190
BOEINGB707120B 1000 6820 0.93 9900
BOEINGB707320C 885 9262 0.83 10500
BOEINGB727200 917 4002 0.81 7530
BOEINGB727287 915 4818

7530
BOEINGB727300 950 4800 12192
BOEINGB737400 796 4262 0.73 9145
BOEINGB737700 850 6230 0.79 12497
BOEINGB737800 938 5425 0.79 11491

2
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT
CRUISING
SPEED
RANGE CRUISINGMACHNUMBER CRUISINGALTITUDE
UNITS km/hr km

m


BOEINGB767200 852 12235

11887
BOEINGB767300 852 9667

13137
DASSAULTMERCURE 858 756 0.79 9145
ILYUSHINIl62 900 7800 0.85 11000
McDONNELDOUGLASMD11COMBI 876 9270 0.82 10670
McDONNELDOUGLASMD82 815 3800 0.80 10688
McDONNELDOUGLASMD83 811 4635 10668
McDONNELDOUGLASMD88 811 3798 10668
McDONNELDOUGLASMD9030 811 4329 0.76 10670
TUPOLEVTu154B 850 3500 10670
TUPOLEVTu154M 950 6600 11900
TUPOLEVTu204 830 3500 11500
VICKERSVC101151 885 7596 11580

3
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT
Wp(Payload
Weight)
Wo(TakeoffGross
Weight)
We(Empty
Weight)
We/Wo
UNITS kg kg kg



AROSPATIALE/BRITISHAEROSPACE
CONCORDE
13380 185066 78700 0.4253
AROSPATIALECARAVELLEMk12 9100 58000 24185 0.4170
AIRBUSA319100 18800 75500 40600 0.5377
AIRBUSA320200 19220 77000 42400 0.5506
BOEINGB720B(707020B) 7711 106141 46785 0.4408
BOEINGB707120B 19280 116570 55589 0.4769
BOEINGB707320C 20955 151318 55580 0.3673
BOEINGB727200 14263 95027 45360 0.4773
BOEINGB727287 12500 95027 45360 0.4773
BOEINGB727300 16148 56472 58390 1.0340
BOEINGB737400 19900 68050 34827 0.5118
BOEINGB737700 17544 70080 38147 0.5443
BOEINGB737800 21319 79016 41413 0.5241

4
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT
Wp(Payload
Weight)
Wo(TakeoffGross
Weight)
We(Empty
Weight)
We/Wo
UNITS kg kg kg



BOEINGB767200 32568 142881 85595 0.5991
BOEINGB767300 44497 159755 86955 0.5443
DASSAULTMERCURE 56500 31800 0.5628
ILYUSHINIl62 23000 165000 67500 0.4091
McDONNELDOUGLASMD11COMBI 55655 273300 132800 0.4859
McDONNELDOUGLASMD82 19709 67900 26070 0.3839
McDONNELDOUGLASMD83 18721 72575 36530 0.5033
McDONNELDOUGLASMD88 19709 67812 37925 0.5593
McDONNELDOUGLASMD9030 15649 70760 39990 0.5651
TUPOLEVTu154B 18000 98000 50700 0.5173
TUPOLEVTu154M 18000 100000 50700 0.5070
TUPOLEVTu204 21500 93500 58300 0.6235
VICKERSVC101151 22860 151953 63278 0.4164

5
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT T/W W/S AR
FUSELAGE
LENGTH
FUSELAGEDIAMETER TAILHEIGHT
UNITS

kg/m
2

m m m


AROSPATIALE/BRITISHAEROSPACE
CONCORDE
0.373 516.6 1.82

AROSPATIALECARAVELLEMk12 0.227 395.4 8.01
AIRBUSA319100 0.311 539.0 9.38 33.84 3.95 11.76
AIRBUSA320200 0.294 588.0 9.39 37.57 3.95 11.76
BOEINGB720B(707020B) 0.308 453.2 6.79 41.25 3.76 12.65
BOEINGB707120B 0.265 515.1 7.03 44.07 3.76 12.93
BOEINGB707320C 0.228 534.0 6.96 46.61 3.76 12.93
BOEINGB727200 0.208 601.7 6.86 46.70 4.32 10.30
BOEINGB727287 0.208 601.7 7.07

BOEINGB727300 0.321 528.1 7.80
BOEINGB737400 0.267 645.6 9.16 36.50 3.76 11.10
BOEINGB737700 0.388 560.6 9.45 33.60 3.76 12.50
BOEINGB737800 0.344 632.1 9.42 39.50 3.76 12.50

6
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT T/W W/S AR
FUSELAGE
LENGTH
FUSELAGEDIAMETER TAILHEIGHT
UNITS

kg/m
2

m m m


BOEINGB767200 0.305 504.3 7.99

BOEINGB767300 0.276 563.8 7.99

DASSAULTMERCURE 0.249 487.1 8.05 34.84 11.35
ILYUSHINIl62 0.259 349.0 6.68 53.12 4.10 12.35
McDONNELDOUGLASMD11COMBI 0.305 806.4 7.86 61.23 6.02 17.60
McDONNELDOUGLASMD82 0.267 575.4 9.12
McDONNELDOUGLASMD83 0.250 615.0 9.62
McDONNELDOUGLASMD88 0.267 574.7 9.16
McDONNELDOUGLASMD9030 0.320 630.1 9.58
TUPOLEVTu154B 0.321 486.4 7.00
TUPOLEVTu154M 0.315 496.4 7.00
TUPOLEVTu204 0.342 512.6 9.67 46.10 4.18 13.90
VICKERSVC101151 0.270 534.0 7.49 48.36 3.90 12.04

7
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT l/dmax WINGSPAN SWEEPBACKANGLE No.OFENGINES
UNITS

m deg



AROSPATIALE/BRITISHAEROSPACE
CONCORDE
13.650 25.55 70
4XOlympus593Mk610
turbojets(RR/SNECMA)
AROSPATIALECARAVELLEMk12 34.29 2XJT8D9(P&W)
AIRBUSA319100 8.567 33.91

2XCFM565A1(CFMIntl)
or
2XV2500A1(IAE)
AIRBUSA320200 9.511 33.91 30
2XCFM565A1(CFMIntl)
or
2XV2500A1(IAE)
BOEINGB720B(707020B) 10.971 39.90 35 4XJT3D3(P&W)
BOEINGB707120B 11.721 39.90 35 4XJT3D1(P&W)
BOEINGB707320C 12.396 44.42 35
4XJT3D3(P&W)
or
4XJT3D7(P&W)
BOEINGB727200 10.800 32.92 32
3XJT8D8(P&W)
or
3XJT8D9(P&W)
or
3XJT8D17R(P&W)
BOEINGB727287

32.92 32
3XJT8D9A(P&W)
or
3XJT8D15(P&W)
or
3XJT8D17R(P&W)
BOEINGB727300 28.88 32 2XCFM563B1(CFMIntl)
BOEINGB737400 8.881 28.90 25 2XCFM563B2(CFMIntl)
BOEINGB737700 8.175 35.70 25.02 2XCFM567B26(CFMIntl)
BOEINGB737800 10.497 34.31 25.02 2XCFM567B(CFMIntl)

8
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT l/dmax WINGSPAN SWEEPBACKANGLE No.OFENGINES
UNITS

m deg



BOEINGB767200 9.644 47.57

2XJT9D7R4D(P&W)
or
2XPW4052(P&W)
or
2XCF680A(GE)
or
2XCF680C2B2(GE)
BOEINGB767300 10.922 47.57

2XJT9D7R4D(P&W)
or
2XCF680A2(GE)
or
2XRB211524H(RR)
DASSAULTMERCURE 30.56 2XJT8D15(P&W)
ILYUSHINIl62 12.956 43.20 4XD30KU(Soloviev)
McDONNELDOUGLASMD11COMBI 10.170 51.60

3XCF680C2D1F(GE)
or
3XPW4460(P&W)
McDONNELDOUGLASMD82 10.010 32.80 2XJT8D217(P&W)
McDONNELDOUGLASMD83 10.010 32.87 2XJT8D219(P&W)
McDONNELDOUGLASMD88 10.010 32.87 2XJT8D217(P&W)
McDONNELDOUGLASMD9030 10.177 32.80 2XV2525D5(IAE)
TUPOLEVTu154B 9.776 37.55 35 3XD30KU154D(Soloviev)
TUPOLEVTu154M 12.605 37.55 35 3XD30KU154D(Soloviev)
TUPOLEVTu204 11.029 42.00 2XD90A(Soloviev)
VICKERSVC101151 12.405 44.55 4XMk.301(RRConway)

9
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT No.OFSEATS
No.OF
CLASSES
UNITS



AROSPATIALE/BRITISHAEROSPACE
CONCORDE
144

AROSPATIALECARAVELLEMk12 140
AIRBUSA319100 142 1
AIRBUSA320200
180
150
1
2
BOEINGB720B(707020B) 140
BOEINGB707120B 179 1
BOEINGB707320C 147 2
BOEINGB727200 149

BOEINGB727287 163 2
BOEINGB727300 149 1
BOEINGB737400 168 1
BOEINGB737700 149 1
BOEINGB737800
162
146
1
2

10
NAMEOFTHEAIRCRAFT No.OFSEATS
No.OF
CLASSES
UNITS



BOEINGB767200 174 3
BOEINGB767300 174 3
DASSAULTMERCURE 156
ILYUSHINIl62 176
McDONNELDOUGLASMD11COMBI 176

McDONNELDOUGLASMD82 146
McDONNELDOUGLASMD83 172
McDONNELDOUGLASMD88 172
McDONNELDOUGLASMD9030 158
TUPOLEVTu154B 180
TUPOLEVTu154M 164
TUPOLEVTu204 170
VICKERSVC101151 151

11

0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
R
A
N
G
E

(
k
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
RANGEvsCRUISINGSPEED
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
C
R
U
I
S
I
N
G

A
L
T
I
T
U
D
E

(
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
CRUISINGALTITUDEvsCRUISING
SPEED
12

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
T
A
K
E

O
F
F

G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
k
g
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
TAKEOFFGROSSWEIGHTvs
CRUISINGSPEED
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
P
A
Y
L
O
A
D

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
k
g
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
PAYLOADWEIGHTvsCRUISING
SPEED
13

0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
E
M
P
T
Y

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
k
g
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
EMPTYWEIGHTvsCRUISINGSPEED
0.0000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
0.8000
1.0000
1.2000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
W
e
/
W
o
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
EMPTYWEIGHTRATIOvsCRUISING
SPEED
14

0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
T
/
W
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
T/WvsCRUISINGSPEED
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
W
I
N
G

L
O
A
D
I
N
G

(
k
g
/
m
2
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
WINGLOADINGvsCRUISINGSPEED
15

0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
W
I
N
G
S
P
A
N

(
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
WINGSPANvsCRUISINGSPEED
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
S
W
E
E
P
B
A
C
K

A
N
G
L
E

(
d
e
g
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
SWEEPBACKANGLEvsCRUISING
SPEED
16

0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
A
S
P
E
C
T

R
A
T
I
O
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
ASPECTRATIOvsCRUISINGSPEED
0.000
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
16.000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
F
I
N
E
N
E
S
S

R
A
T
I
O
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
FINENESSRATIOvsCRUISINGSPEED
17

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
F
U
S
E
L
A
G
E

L
E
N
G
T
H

(
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
FUSELAGELENGTHvsCRUISING
SPEED
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
F
U
S
E
L
A
G
E

W
I
D
T
H

(
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
FUSELAGEWIDTHvsCRUISINGSPEED
18

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
T
A
I
L

H
E
I
G
H
T

(
m
)
CRUISINGSPEED(km/hr)
TAILHEIGHTvsCRUISINGSPEED
19
WEIGHTESTIMATIONANDENGINE
SELECTION

No.ofcrewmembers : S (cockpit ciew)


4 (cabin ciew)
Seatingconfiguration : Economy class:
162 passengeis in 27 iows
Single aisle configuiation (S + S)
1
st
Weightestimationoftheaircraft:
Weight of ciew, Wc = 7uuu N
Weight of passengeis, Wp = 162uuu N
Fiom the mean value taken fiom giaph, empty weight iatio
W

W
u
= u.6
Assuming a fuel fiaction of u.1SS, we have
W
I
W
u
= u.1SS

W
o
=
W
c
+ W
p
1 -
W
I
W
o
-
W
c
W
o

0sing the above equation,
Wo = 68979S.9184 N

Engineselected : CFNS67B (CFN Inteinational)
No.ofEngines : 2

20
EngineSpecifications:
Sea level Thiust : 2SSuu lbs
Specific Fuel Consumption : u.S8 lblbhi
Engine Biy Weight : S2uS lb
Engine Length : 98.7 in
Engine Biametei : 6S in


W
I
=
No. of Engines x Thiust at altituue x Range x SFC
Ciuising Speeu
x 1.2

wheie Wf (fuel weight) is in lb
Range is in km
Thiust is in lb
SFC is in lblbhi
Ciuising speeu is in kmhi

Thiust at altituue = T
o
x
1.2

wheie To : Sea level thiust in lb
: Bensity iatio at altituue


Consiueiing mean ciuising altituue fiom giaph,
CruisingAltitude = 11uuu m
At this altituue, = u.2971
Consiueiing mean ciuising speeu fiom giaph,
CruisingSpeed = 91S kmhi
Assuming Range = 44Su km
Foi CFNS6SB2, To = 2SSuu lbs
21
0sing the above uata anu equations,
Wf = 24Su4.6S11S lb
= 1u81S1.Su4 N
Check:
Wf/Wo = 1u81S1.Su468979S.9184
= u.1S6

Assuming specific weight of fuel (aviation gasoline) to be u.u2SS ft
S
lb,
volume of fuel, Vf = S71.u64 ft
S

= 16.17u7 m
S

22
CALCULATIONOFWINGDIMENSIONS

Length of fuselage, lfus= S8 m
Wo = 68979S.9184 N
Fiom the mean value taken fiom giaph,
Wing loauing, W/S = 4Suu Nm
2

Sweepback angle, = S2

0sing the above values,
Wing aiea, S= 1SS.288 m
2


Fiom the mean value taken fiom giaph,
Wingspan, b= S6 m

0sing the above values,
Aspect iatio, AR = 8.4S4

c
r
=
2S
b(1 + )

wheie S : Wing aiea in m
2

b : Wingspan in m
z : Wing tapei iatio
=
c
t
c
r

wheie ct : Wing tip choiu
ci : Wing ioot choiu
23
0sing the above foimulae anu uata, assuming a tapei iatio z = u.S,
cr = 6.SSu8 m
ct = 1.96S2 m
Nean choiu, = 4.67 m
v
I
= |u.S -
t
c
- b - - u.S
2
| - u.7S - 2
wheie vf : volume of fuel in m
S

: Nean choiu in m

t
c
: Thickness to choiu iatio
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
t

= u.1u98 = 1u.98 %
Fiom the giaph plotteu between
t
c
cos anu Nci (ciitical Nach numbei),
Mcr = u.89
Fiom NACA aiifoil uata consiueiing the iequiieu peifoimance paiameteis,
the selecteu aiifoil is NACA 2Su116S (S seiies).
Foi this aiifoil,
Zeiolift angle of attack, o = 1.17S
Fiom leauing euge, Xcop = 28.S %
Xac = 26.S %
Fiom lift cuive, Cl(max) = 1.49S at = 14.S
Fiom uiag polai, Cd(min)= u.uu6S
Fiom uiag bucket, opeiationalCl = u.S8

24
25
ESTIMATIONOFRUNWAYLENGTH

W/S=4500N/m
2
Cl(max)=1.495
Sealeveldensity,o=1.2256kg/m
3
Usingabovedata,
Vstall =70.0852m/s
=252.31km/hr
VT.O =1.3Vstall
=91.1m/s
=328km/hr
V
T.O

2 a S
T.O

where a :decelerationvalue(=0.25gwiththrustreversers)
ST.O :takeoffdistance
Usingtheaboveformulaanddata,
ST.O =1700m =5580ft
Runwaylength=ST.O/0.6=2833m=9300ft
Fromthedataondoubleslottedflaps,
Assumingflapwidth=0.2c,
Foramaximumflapdeflection,(flap)max=40,
Fort/c=0.11,
Cl(max)=0.635
Flaplength =0.4b
=4.5moneachwing
26
CALCULATIONOFEMPENNAGEDIMENSIONS

HORIZONTALTAIL:

v
HT
=
S
HT
- l
HT
S - c

wheie vBT : Boiizontal tail volume iatio
SBT : Boiizontal tail aiea in m
2

lBT : Boiizontal tail aim in m
S : Wing aiea in m
2

c : Wing choiu in m
0sing the above foimula, anu assuming
SHT/S = u.12
lHT/c = 4,
vBT = u.48
SHT = 19.161 m
2

lHT = 18.68 m
ARHT = u.6 * ARwing
= S.u724
AR
HT
=
b
HT
2
S
HT

0sing the above foimula,
Boiizontal tail span, bHT = 9.8S9 m


27
The symmetiical aiifoil NACA uu12 is selecteu foi the hoiizontal tail.
Assuming zHT = u.S,
cr(HT) = 2.99 m
ct(HT) = u.897 m

HT
=
2
S
- c
r(HT)
-
1 + +
2
1 +


Y
HT
=
b
HT
6
-
1 + 2
1 +

wheie YBT : Spanwise location of mean choiu
0sing the above foimulae,
HT = 2.1S1 m
YHT = 2.u22 m

VERTICALTAIL:
v
VT
=
S
VT
- l
VT
S - c

wheie vvT : veitical tail volume iatio
SvT : veitical tail aiea in m
2

lvT : veitical tail aim in m
S : Wing aiea in m
2

C : Wing choiu in m
0sing the above foimula, anu assuming
vvT = u.uS
lVT = u.9S * lBT = 17.7S m
SVT = 16.1S m
2

28
Assuming
ARVT = 1.S
AR
VT
=
h
VT
2
S
VT

0sing the above foimula,
veitical tail height hVT = 4.9S1 m

The symmetiical aiifoil NACA uu12 is selecteu foi the veitical tail.
Assuming zVT = u.S,
cr(VT) = S.uu7 m
ct(VT) = 1.S2S m

VT
=
2
S
- c
r(VT)
-
1 + +
2
1 +


Z
VT
=
2 - h
VT
6
-
1 + 2
1 +

wheie ZvT : Beightwise location of mean choiu
0sing the above foimulae,
VT = S.619 m
ZVT = 2.uS1 m

29
POSITIONINGOFLANDINGGEARANDTIRE
SELECTION

Foi the aiiciaft, the commonlyuseu tiicycle lanuing geai configuiation is
useu.
The nose geai is of uoublebogey type with two wheels. The main geai
consists of two sets of wheels (wingietiacteu) each of multibogey type
with 4 wheels each.
NOSEGEAR:
Loau on nose geai = u.1Wo
= 1SSu1.9S2S7 lb
Bence, loau pei tiie, Lt = 77Su.966287 lb
Wheel uiametei = 1.S1 - L
t
0.347

Wheel wiuth = u.7S - L
t
0.312

0sing the above empiiical ielations,
Wheel uiametei = SS.7741 in
Wheel wiuth = 12.26141 in
Selecting DUNLOP

tiie 33X9.7511,
Tiie uiametei, d = SS.4 in
Tiie wiuth, w = 9.6S in
Rolling iauius, Rf = 14.S in
Footpiint aiea, A
p
= 2.Sw - u - (u.Su - R
I
)
0sing the above foimula,
Ap = 99.1in
2

Tiie piessuie = 78.21S2 psi
30
MAINGEAR:
Loau on nose geai = u.9Wo
= 1S9S17.S9S1 lb
Bence, loau pei tiie, Lt = 8719.8S7u7S lb
Wheel uiametei = 1.S1 - L
t
0.347

Wheel wiuth = u.7S - L
t
0.312

0sing the above empiiical ielations,
Wheel uiametei = SS.18S in
Wheel wiuth = 12.72u4 in
Selecting DUNLOP

tiie 36X10.7516.5,
Tiie uiametei, d = SS.6 in
Tiie wiuth, w = 1u.6 in
Rolling iauius, Rf = 1S.2S in
Footpiint aiea A
p
= 2.Sw - u - (u.Su - R
I
)
0sing the above foimula,
Ap = 11S.9S2in
2

Tiie piessuie = 76.SSS psi

Fiom the mean value taken fiom giaph anu extiapolateu,
Wheelbase = 14.26S m
Wheeltrack = u.2S * b
= 9 m

31
32
33
34
35
36
BALANCEDIAGRAM

The balance uiagiam is useu to estimate the weight uistiibution in the
aiiciaft anu to appioximately locate the centie of giavity of the aiiciaft. The
weights of the inuiviuual components in the fuselage anu theii centeis of
giavity aie tabulateu below.
S.No COMPONENT WEIGHTWi (Xcg)i(from
nose)
Wi(Xcg)i
0nit N m Nm
1 Fixeu Equipment
(u.u4 Wo)
27S91.84u 2 SS18S.68
2 Pilots
(S Wp)
24uu.uuu 2.8 672u.uuuu
S Nose Lanuing ueai
(u.u1 Wo)
6897.96u 4.466 Su8u6.2894
4 Cabin Ciew (Fiont)
(2 Wp)
16uu.uuu 14.694 2SS1u.4uuu
S Passengeis
(162 Wp)
1296uu.uuu (uistiibuteu
loau)
1944uuu.uuuu
6 Caigo S24uu.uuu S1 1uu44uu.uuuu
7 Fuselage Stiuctuie
(u.1 Wo)
68979.S92 18.SS8 1264947.7S8u
8 Cabin Ciew (Reai)
(2 Wp)
16uu.uuu 24.811S S9698.4uuu
9 Lavatoiies
(u.u8Wo)
SS18S.67u (uistiibuteu
loau)
97796S.u6uu
1u veitical Tail
(u.u2Wo)
1S79S.92u S4.768 4796S6.SSuu
11 Boiizontal Tail
(u.uSWo)
2u69S.88u S6.2 749118.4S6u
Total 360742.862 6576006.5900

0sing the above tabulateu values, we obtain the location of the centei of
giavity of the fuselage section fiom the nose of the aiiplane.
X
IuscIagc
IuII payIoad
=
W
I
(X
cg
)
I
W
I
=
6S76uu6.S9
S6u742.862
= 18.229u7m
37
38
Similaily, the weights of the inuiviuual components in one wing anu theii
centeis of giavity aie tabulateu below.
S.No COMPONENT WEIGHTWi (Xcg)i(from
leadingedge)
Wi(Xcg)i
0nit N m Nm
1 Wing Stiuctuie
(u.uS Wo)
S4489.796 6.746 2S2668.16S8
2 Fuel
(Wf)
S4u6S.6S2 S.6S7 SuS849.S9S4
S Nain Lanuing ueai
(u.u2 Wo)
1S79S.918 7.1u9 98u9S.1811
4 Engine
(Weng)
2SS7u.4Su 4.1u1 9S842.21SS
Total 125721.816 732454.9537

0sing the above tabulateu values, we obtain the location of the centei of
giavity of the fuselage section fiom the nose of the aiiplane.

X
wIng
IuII IucI
=
W
I
(X
cg
)
I
W
I
=
7S24S4.9SS8
12S721.816
= S.82S8S8m

Foi the othei configuiation of the aiiplane baseu on weight, the following
locations aie ueteimineu.
X
IuscIagc
zcro payIoad
= 18.2S276m
X
IuscIagc
haII payIoad
= 18.2S749m
X
wIng
rcscrvc IucI
= S.914S88m




39
40
0sing the equation
(W
Iuslag
+W
wtng
)(X + X
3
)
= (W
Iuslag
- X
Iuslag
) + IW
wtng
- (X + X
wtng
)]
wheie
X : Bistance of wing ioot leauing euge fiom fuselage nose
XS : Bistance of aiiciaft C.u fiom wing ioot leauing euge
We obtain
X = 12. 35m
Bence,
X
C.C
(Irum nus) = 18. 21153m
The uiffeient locations of the aiiciaft C.u foi uiffeient configuiations of
weight aie tabulateu below.
CONFIGURATION Wfuselage Xfuselage Wwing Xwing
X(c.g)
aircraft
Full payloau +
Full fuel
S6u742.862 18.u494 2S144S.6S2 S.82S8 18.211S
Full payloau +
Reseive fuel
S6u742.862 18.u494 1649S8.S89 S.9144 18.2S81
Zeio payloau +
Reseive fuel
198742.862 18.2S28 1649S8.S89 S.9144 18.SuS4
Zeio payloau +
Full fuel
198742.862 18.2S28 2S144S.6S2 S.82S8 18.22u9
Balf payloau +
Full fuel
279742.862 18.1217 2S144S.6S2 S.82S8 18.2149
Balf payloau +
Reseive fuel
279742.862 18.1217 1649S8.S89 S.9144 18.2749

The movement of the aiiciaft C.u between extieme cases is evaluateu.
X
c.g
most Iorward
- X
c.g
rcarmost

= u.u2uu9418
41
Bence, the aiiciaft C.u is founu to move by 2.u1% of the wing mean
aeiouynamic choiu between extieme weight configuiations.

42
DRAGESTIMATIONOFTHEAIRCRAFT

The uiag coefficients at zeiolift conuition of the uiffeient components of
the aiiciaft aie estimateu using uiffeient foimulae chaiacteiistic of them.
An example of the calculation involveu is fuinisheu below:
Wing:
0sing the foimulae
C
D

C
I
= 4 +2 I
c
t
] + 12u |
t
c
1
3

C
I
=
u.427
(ln R
c
- u.4u7)
2.64

R
c
=

cr
- v
cr
-

cr

anu the values
pci = u.S6S924 kgm
S

vci = 91S kmhi
= 4.67 m
ci = 1.4216 * 1u
S
Nsm
2

tc = u.1u97
we obtain the following values
Re = SuS84Su9
Cf = 2.47788 * 1u
4

C
D
u
= S.S48 - 1u
-3


The vaiious foimulae useu foi calculating uiag coefficients aie the
following:
43

Fuselage :
C
D

C
I
= SI
I
d
] +4.S I
d
I
]
0.5
+ 21 I
d
I
]
2

wheie
I
d
= fineness iatio
Boiizontal anu veitical Tail : same as wing
Retiactable Lanuing ueai : fiom the giaph plotteu between CB anu eu,
wheie e is the length of the exposeu poition of the lanuing geai, anu u is
the uiametei of the wheel.
The values of the inuiviuual component uiag coefficients aie tabulateu as
follows:

S.No COMPONENT S CD CD*S
0nit m
2
m
2
1 Canopy Nax. Cioss Sectional
Aiea
u.u7S u.8u44
2 Fuselage Nax. Cioss Sectional
Aiea
u.uu7SS1 u.u9229
S Wing Planfoim Aiea (Sw) u.uuSS48 u.8Su44
4 Boiizontal Tail Planfoim Aiea (Sh) u.uuS172 u.1uu12
S veitical Tail Planfoim Aiea (Sv) u.uuS172 u.u9211
6 Poweiplant Nax. Cioss Sectional
Aiea
u.u468S4 u.2u477
Total X 2.u67979S
7(a) 0nueicaiiiage
Nose ueai
veitical Cioss Section
of Tiie
u.9 a=u.S7429
7(b) 0nueicaiiiage
Nain ueai
veitical Cioss Section
of Tiie
1 b=u.97S8S
8(a) Flaps
Takeoff (4S
o
)
Planfoim Aiea u.u4S c=u.4221
8(b) Flaps
Lanuing (6u
o
)
Planfoim Aiea u.u4S d=u.298SS
The net uiag coefficients of the aiiplane in vaiious phases of flight aie
calculateu:

44
Takeoff : CB * S = X + a + b + c = S.8S82u42
Ciuise : CB * S = X = 2.u67979S
Lanuing : CB * S = X + a + b + u = S.7146S42

Accounting foi the auuitional component foi uiag contiibuteu by
inteifeience, using the foimulae
C
D
0
=
ZC
D

S
v

CBo net = CBo * 1.uS
we have

Takeoff : CDo = u.u2629116
Ciuise : CDo = u.u1416SSS
Lanuing : CDo = u.u2S4446S

Fiom the plot of (NLB)max vs N typical of a 16useatei aiiciaft, using
the ciuising mach numbei of u.86, we obtain
(L/D)max=15.4023
0sing the foimulae

L
D
max
=
1
.
4-k-C
D
o

k =
1
-c-AR
wheie e 0stwalu planfoim efficiency factoi
we have
k=0.071093
e=0.53
45
0sing these values we obtain the uiag polai equation.
C
D
= C
D
O
+ KC
L
2

C
D
= C
D
D
+ . 7193 - C
L
2

Foi vaiious phases in flight the uiag polai equation ieuuces to the
following:

Takeoff : C
D
= u.u2629116 + u.u71u9S - C
L
2

Ciuise : C
D
= u.u1416SSS + u.u71u9S - C
L
2

Lanuing : C
D
= u.u2S4446S + u.u71u9S - C
L
2


0sing these equations the uiag polai is plotteu foi vaiious flight phases.


0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
L
i
f
t

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

C
L
DragCoefficientC
D
DRAGPOLAR
CruiseFlight
TakeOff
Landing
46
PERFORMANCEANALYSISOFTHEAIRCRAFT

Peifoimance analysis of the aiiciaft is caiiieu out by plotting the vaiious
peifoimance cuives foi the aiiciaft at vaiious altituues foi uiffeient phases
of flight, i.e. ciuise flight, takeoff, lanuing etc.

STEADYFLIGHTAIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE:
In this analysis, the aiiciaft velocity is constant, i.e. this analysis ueals with
unacceleiateu flight of the aiiplane. The vaiious phases analyseu aie climb
anu level ciuise flight.

STEADYCLIMBPERFORMANCE:
In the analysis of steauy climb, cuives aie obtaineu showing the vaiiation
of peifoimance paiameteis like thiust anu powei iequiieu against velocity
anu Nach numbei at uiffeient altituues.
The vaiious foimulae useu in the analysis aie the following:
v = N - a
C
L
cuse
=
2 - W
- S - v
2

C
L
como
=
C
L
ncomo
.(1 - N
2
)

C
D
tot
= C
D
o
+ kC
L
2

B =
W
C
L
C
D
]

T
rcqd
= B
P
rcqd
= T
rcqd
- v
47
P
av
(aIt)
P
av
(5.L)
=
m

=

aIt

S.L

Rate of climb,
R
C
] =
(P
av
-P
eqd
)
W

0sing the above foimulae, a sample calculation is fuinisheu below:
At altituue 4uuum,
p4uuu = u.8191SS kgm
S

a4uuu = S24.6 ms
At Nach u.6,
v = 194.76 ms
CLcomp = u.28966uu19
CBtot = u.u2u1Su461
CLCB = 14.S8914uuS
B =479S8.64791 N
=Tiequ
Piequ = 9SS6SS1.u67 W
Foi most tuibofan engines, the value of m is veiy close to 1. We theiefoie
make a ieasonable assumption that m=1.
Pav = 2722S1Su.86 W
R/C = 2S.9Su2778 ms

In this way, the climb peifoimance paiameteis aie ueteimineu foi Nach
numbeis u.1 to 1.S at sea level, as well as altituues 4uuum, 8uuum anu
11uuum. The vaiiation of the paiameteis with Nach numbei anu altituue
aie plotteu as ClimbPerformanceCurves.
48

0
20000000
40000000
60000000
80000000
100000000
120000000
140000000
160000000
180000000
200000000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
P
o
w
e
r

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

(
W
)
MachNumber
PowervsMachNumber
PowerRequiredSea
Level
PowerRequired
4000m
PowerRequired
8000m
PowerRequired
11000m
PowerAvailableSea
Level
PowerAvailable
4000m
PowerAvailable
8000m
PowerAvailable
11000m
0
20000000
40000000
60000000
80000000
100000000
120000000
140000000
160000000
180000000
200000000
0 200 400 600
P
o
w
e
r

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

(
W
)
Velocity(m/s)
PowervsVelocity
PowerRequiredSea
Level
PowerRequired
4000m
PowerRequired
8000m
PowerRequired
11000m
PowerAvailableSea
Level
PowerAvailable
4000m
PowerAvailable
8000m
PowerAvailable
11000m
49

0
200000
400000
600000
800000
1000000
1200000
1400000
1600000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
T
h
r
u
s
t

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

(
N
)
MachNumber
ThrustvsMachNumber
ThrustRequiredSea
Level
ThrustRequired
4000m
ThrustRequired
8000m
ThrustRequired
11000m
TrustAvailableSea
Level
ThrustAvailable
4000m
ThrustAvailable
8000m
ThrustAvailable
11000m
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
1000000
1200000
1400000
1600000
0 200 400 600
T
r
u
s
t

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

(
N
)
Velocity(m/s)
ThrustvsVelocity
ThrustRequiredSea
Level
ThrustRequired
4000m
ThrustRequired
8000m
ThrustRequired
11000m
ThrustAvailableSea
Level
ThrustAvailable
4000m
ThrustAvailable
8000m
ThrustAvailable
11000m
50

Fromtheplotofmax.climbratevsaltitude,
Absoluteceiling =13610m
ServiceCeiling(R/C=100ft/min) =13395m
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
R
a
t
e

o
f

C
l
i
m
b

(
m
/
s
)
Velocity(m/s)
RateofClimb
vs
Velocity
SeaLevel
4000m
8000m
11000m
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
10 0 10 20 30 40 50
A
l
t
i
t
u
d
e

(
m
)
MaximumRateofClimb(m/s)
MaximumRateofClimb
vs
Altitude
51
CRUISEFLIGHTPERFORMANCE:
Ciuise flight peifoimance of the aiiciaft incluues ueteimining the ciitical
speeus of the aiiplane the minimum powei anu uiag speeus, as well as
the maximum iange anu enuuiance of the aiiplane. The peifoimance of the
aiiplane optimizeu foi maximum iange anu enuuiance, unuei vaiying
payloau conuitions is also analyseu.

C
D
0
mnmum dap
= KC
L
2

v
mInImum drag
=
2 - W
S -
-
K
C
D
o

|
L
B
1
max
=
1
.
4 - K - C
D
o

0sing the above foimulae,
Vminimumdrag= 2SS.S771261 ms
(L/D)max = 1S.7SS778S7
SC
D
0
mnmum oove
= KC
L
2

v
mInImum powcr
=
2 - W
S -
-
K
SC
D
o

0sing the above foimulae,
Vminimumpower= 1SS.89Su471 ms

Since the peifoimance of the tuibofan engine can be closely appioximateu
to a jet engine, we have the following ielations
R = 2 -
2
S -
-
1
c
- |
C
L
1
2
]
C
D
- |.W
T.O
-

W
dry
1
52
E =
1
c
- |
C
L
C
D
1 - ln|
W
T.O
W
dry
+
Foi maximum iange,
C
D
o
= SKC
L
2

Foi maximum enuuiance,
C
D
o
= KC
L
2

0sing the above foimulae,
C
L
max rang
= u.2S771676S9
Rmax = 6S44.S88SS8 km
(L/D)maximumrange = 1S.6449u4S2
C
L
max nduran
= u.446S78SS26
Emaximumrange = 6.122 his
Emax = 7.u69 his
(L/D)maximumendurance = 1S.7SS778S7
Rmaximumendurance = S742.1u844S km
v
maxImum rangc
=

2 - W
S - - C
L
max anpe

v
maxImum cndurancc
=
2 - W
S - - C
L
max enduance

The vaiiation of velocity, iange anu enuuiance of the aiiplane optimizeu foi
maximum iange anu maximum enuuiance, foi uiffeient weight
configuiations of the aiiplane aie plotteu.


53

500000
550000
600000
650000
700000
5000 6000 7000 8000
A
i
r
p
l
a
n
e

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
N
)
Range(km)
VariationofRangewithAirplane
Weight
MaximumRange
MaximumEndurance
500000
550000
600000
650000
700000
5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5
A
i
r
p
l
a
n
e

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
N
)
Endurance(hrs)
VariationofEndurancewithAirplane
Weight
MaximumRange
MaximumEndurance
500000
550000
600000
650000
700000
100 150 200 250 300 350
A
i
r
p
l
a
n
e

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
N
)
Airspeed(m/s)
VariationofAirspeedwithAirplane
Weight
MaximumRange
MaximumEndurance
54
ACCELERATEDFLIGHTAIRCRAFTPERFORMANCE:
This analysis ueals with the acceleiateu phases of aiiciaft flight. The
vaiious phases analyseu aie takeoff, lanuing anu tuin.

TAKEOFFANDLANDINGPERFORMANCE:
This analysis mainly focuses on ueteimining the uistance iequiieu foi take
off anu lanuing.
TakeOffPerformance:
v
staII
=
2 - W
S -
S.L
- C
L
max

Beie, CLmax is evaluateu with flaps ueployeu. In this conuition,
C
L
max
= 2.1S
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
Vstall = S8.716u8S1S ms
v
T.O
= v
staII
- 1.1
C
L
T.O
=
2 - W
S - - v
T.O
2

C
D
T.O
= C
D
o
T.O
+ KC
L
T.O
2

B
T.O
=
C
D
T.O
- - v
T.O
2
- S
2

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
VT.O = 64.S8769147 ms
C
L
T.D
= 1.76uSSuS79
C
D
T.D
= u.246Su1S71
55
DT.O = 96628.S7274 N
Fiom the uata on the engine useu,
TT.O = 1712SS.7u1S N
The angle of climb is given by
sin =
T
T.O
- B
T.O
W

0sing the above foimula,
siny = u.1u81SS6SS8
y = u.1u8S676S27 iau
= 6.196
v
avg
= u.7 - v
T.O

L
avg
=
C
L
T.O
- - v
avg
2
- S
2

B
avg
=
C
D
T.O
- - v
avg
2
- S
2

S
ground-roII
=
1.21 - W
2
g - - S - C
L
max
- |T
T.O
- {B -
r
(W -L)
avg
]]

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
Vavg = 4S.211S84uS ms
Lavg = SS8uuu.u4u1 N
Davg = 46S47.9u26S N
Assuming r=u.2,
Sgroundroll = 112u.2SS678 m
R
transItIon
=
v
T.O
2
u.2 - g

S
transItIon
= R
transItIon
- sin
56
h
transItIon
= R
transItIon
- (1 - cos )
S
cIImb
=
B
obst
- h
transItIon
tan

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
Rtransition = 22S8.u86748 m
Stransition = 242.u617SSS m
htransition = 1S.1286792S m
Assuming scieen height, Hobst =1S m,
Sclimb = 17.2uu61289 m

S
Takc-OII
= S
ground roII
+S
transItIon
+S
cIImb


0sing the above foimula, we obtain
STakeOff = 1S79.498u28 m

LandingPerformance:
v
staII
aoooach
=
2 - W
IandIng
S -
S.L
- C
L
max

0sing the values,
Wlanding = S81664.6144 N
C
L
max
=2.1S
We obtain,
V
stall
appruah
= SS.9179117 ms
v
approach
= v
staII
aoooach
- 1.S
57
C
D
Iandnp
= C
D
o
Iandnp
+ KC
L
max
2

v
avg
= u.7 - v
approach

L
avg
=
C
L
max
- - v
avg
2
- S
2

B
avg
=
C
D
Iandnp
- - v
avg
2
- S
2

T
rcvcrscr
= u.12S - T
T.O

R
fIarc
=
v
approach
2
u.2 - g

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
Vapproach = 7u.u9S28S21 ms
Vavg = 49.u6S2996S ms
Lavg = 481676.4672 N
C
D
landtng
= u.S479864817
Davg = 7869S.S7988 N
Treverser = 214u4.21266 N
Rflare = 2Su4.1124S2 m
S
approach
=
B
obst
- h
fIarc
tan
approach

S
fIarc
= R
fIarc
- sin
approach

S
ground-roII
=
1.69 - W
2
g - - S - C
L
max
- |T
rcvcrscr
+ {B +
brakcs
(W- L)
avg
]]

0sing the above foimulae anu uata, anu assuming
yappioach = 2.S
58
ubiakes = u.2S
We obtain
Sappioach = 288.968S6uS m
Sflaie = 1u9.2278S11 m
Sgiounu ioll = 1164.S61421 m
S
IandIng
= S
approach
+ S
fIarc
+S
ground roII

0sing the above foimula anu uata,
Slanding = 1S62.SS78S2 m


59
TURNINGPERFORMANCE:
Tuining peifoimance of the aiiciaft is analyseu by obseiving the vaiiation
of paiameteis like velocity, tuin iate, tuin iauius, etc.
Since tuin is an acceleiateu phase of flight, loau factoi uuiing tuin is of vital
impoitance.
Loau Factoi,
n =
L
W

The values of the tuin paiameteis aie analyseu in the thiee most ciitical
tuin maneuveis explaineu below.
Naximum Sustaineu Tuin Rate:
It is the tuin executeu with maximum angulai velocity, with the
auuitional constiaint that the aiiplane uoes not lose any altituue. In othei
woius, it is the tuin executeu in a hoiizontal plane with maximum angulai
velocity.
Shaipest Sustaineu Tuin:
It is the tuin executeu with minimum tuining iauius. Beie, theie is no
iestiiction on the altituue of the aiiciaft.
Naximum Loau Factoi Tuin:
It is the tuin executeu while simultaneously sustaining the maximum
loau factoi peimissible on the aiiplane.
Tuin peifoimance is analyseu with the help of ceitain nonuimensional
paiameteis, uefineu below:
E
m
= |
C
L
C
D
1
max

Z =
T
W
- E
m

n =
L
W

60
u =
v
v
rcIcrcncc

Beie, we use
v
rcIcrcncc
= v
mInImum drag
=
2 - W
S -
-
K
C
D
o
4

0sing the above foimula,
Vreference = 2SS.S771261 ms
Em =1S.7SS778S7
The vaiious values of velocity, tuin iauius anu iate, anu loau factoi aie
calculateu using the foimulae uesciibeu below:
CASE u n m(iaus) R(m)
MSTR 1
2Z - 1
g2Z - 2
v
rcI

v
rcIcrcncc
2
g2Z -2

SST
1
Z

2Z
2
- 1
Z

g
v
rcIcrcncc

Z
2
-1
Z

v
rcIcrcncc
2
gZ
2
- 1

nmax Z
Z
g
v
rcIcrcncc

Z
2
-1
Z

Z - v
rcIcrcncc
2
gZ
2
- 1

0sing the above foimulae, the vaiious values aie obtaineu.

CASE u n m(iaus) R(m)


NSTR 1 2.92471 u.114S49 2uS4.81696
SST u.4S7SSS 1.S986S4 u.u89u74 12u9.uSSSS
nmax 2.18S626 4.77696S u.u89u74 S77S.Su84S

61
ANALYSISOFSTABILITYANDCONTROLOF
THEAIRCRAFT

STATICSTABILITYANDCONTROLOFTHEAIRCRAFT:
LongitudinalStickFixedStability:
Foi the aiiciaft configuiation auopteu,
xC.G = u.Su498uS
= 4.67 m
|
dC
m
dC
L
1
Iuslag,nall
= u.u42

dc
du
= u.4
vH.T = u.48
nt = u.9
Foi the wing, NACA 2Su116S aiifoil is selecteu. Foi this aiifoil,

dC
L
du
= u.12S ueg
1

xa.c = u.26S
Foi the tail, NACA uu12 aiifoil is selecteu. Foi this aiifoil,

dC
L
du
= u.1 ueg
1

Foi the longituuinal stickfixeu static stability of the aiiciaft, we have the
expiession
|
C
m
C
L
1
stIck-fIxcd
=
x
C.G
-x
a.c

+ |
C
m
C
L
1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
-
a
t
v
H.T

H.T
a
w
|1 -

1


62
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
I
dC
m
dC
L
]
stth-Itxd
= u.12SS79S
The negative value of I
0C
m
0C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
inuicates that the aiiplane has
longituuinal stickfixeu static stability.

Beteimination of StickFixeu Neutial Point:
When the value of I
0C
m
0C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
ieuuces to zeio, the location of the
C.u is calleu the NeutralPoint. Fiom the above foimula,
N
o
=
x
a.c

- |
C
m
C
L
1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
+
a
t
v
H.T

H.T
a
w
|1 -

1
Static maigin = N
o
-
x
C.G


0sing the above foimula anu uata, we obtain
No = u.4SuS6
(xC.G)neutral = 2.uu97812 m (fiom leauing euge of wing at NAC
section)
Staticmargin = u.12SS19S
The locations of the aiiciaft C.u as well as static maigins foi vaiious
configuiations of aiiciaft weight aie tabulateu below.
S.No WEIGHTCONFIGURATION
C.GLOCATION
(%OF)
STATIC
MARGIN
1. Full payloau + Full fuel Su u.1SuS6u
2. Full payloau + Reseive fuel Su.9961 u.12uS99
S. Zeio payloau + Reseive fuel S2.uu94 u.11u266
4. Zeio payloau + Full fuel Su.2u2u u.128S4u
S. Balf payloau + Full fuel Su.u71S u.12964S
6. Balf payloau + Reseive fuel S1.SS61 u.116799
63
Beteimination of the ZeioLift Pitching Noment:
The vaiiation of Cm with CL is a lineai vaiiation, given by the ielation
C
m
= C
m
o
+ |
C
m
C
L
1
stIck-fIxcd
- C
L

Foi ciuise fight conuitions,
(CL)cruise = u.S8282
I
dC
m
dC
L
]
stth-Itxd
= u.12SS79S
At tiim conuition, Cm=0
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
(C
m
u
)
ruts
= u.u4799778

Beteimination of Tail Setting Angle:
(C
m
o
)
cruIsc
= a
t
-v
H.T
-
H.T
- (i
w
+
o
- i
t
)
Foi the aiiciaft,
at = u.1 ueg
1

vH.T = u.48
nH.T = u.9
iw = 1

o
=
2 - C
L
o
- AR

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
so = u.6299
it = u.S1884 (upwaiu)

64
LongitudinalStickFixedControl:
Foi the aiiciaft, we assume the following values
e = u.4
vH.T = u.48
nH.T = u.9
The iate at which the pitching moment coefficient of the aiiciaft changes
with change in elevatoi ueflection is calleu the ELEvAT0R C0NTR0L
P0WER.
C
m

c
= -a
t
-v
H.T
-
H.T
-
c

0sing the above foimula,

dC
m
d6

=u.u1728 ueg
1


Beteimination of the Extieme Elevatoi Beflections:
Foi calculating the extieme elevatoi ueflections iequiieu foi maintaining
tiim, we assume that when the aiiplane is flying level at uesign conuitions,
zeio elevatoi ueflection is iequiieu.
6

ruts
= u
Elevatoi ueflection has a lineai vaiiation, given by

c
=
c
o
-
I
C
m
C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
|
C
m

c
1
- C
L

In ciuise flight, the minimum value of CL is encounteieu when the
geometiic angle of attack is zeio.
C
L
mtn
= u.146
65
I
dC
m
dC
L
]
mtn
= u.1SuS6
(C
m
u
)
mtn
= u.u19uS2S6
C
m
= C
m
o
+ |
C
m

c
1 -
c

0sing the tiim conuitions (Cm=u) foi both C
L
mn
anu ciuise conuitions,

c
max
=
I(C
m
o
)
mIn
- (C
m
o
)
cruIsc
]
C
m

c

0sing the above foimula,
6

max
= 1.6762228u1
Bence,
MaximumDownElevator = 2.S
In ciuise flight, the maximum value of CL is encounteieu uuiing lanuing.
C
L
max
= 2.1S
I
dC
m
dC
L
]
max
= u.11u266
(C
m
u
)
max
= u.2S48666
C
m
= C
m
o
+ |
C
m

c
1 -
c

0sing the tiim conuitions (Cm=u) foi both C
L
mn
anu ciuise conuitions,

c
max
=
I(C
m
o
)
max
- (C
m
o
)
cruIsc
]
C
m

c

0sing the above foimula,
6

max
= 1u.8141678
66
Bence,
MaximumUpElevator = 1S
Beteimination of StickFixeu Stability Chaiacteiistics:
(C
m
o
) = a
t
-v
H.T
-
H.T
- (i
w
+
o
- i
t
-
c

c
)
0sing the above foimula, the vaiiation of I
0C
m
0C
L
] anu C
m
o
with elevatoi
ueflection is tabulateu below.
6


()
Location of C.u
Besign Nost Foiwaiu Nost Reaiwaiu
dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u

dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u
dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u
1S u.12S u.Su71978 u.1Su u.Su71978 u.11u u.Su71978
12.S u.12S u.26S9978 u.1Su u.26S9978 u.11u u.26S9978
1u u.12S u.22u7978 u.1Su u.22u7978 u.11u u.22u7978
7.S u.12S u.177S978 u.1Su u.177S978 u.11u u.177S978
S u.12S u.1S4S978 u.1Su u.1S4S978 u.11u u.1S4S978
2.S u.12S u.u911978 u.1Su u.u911978 u.11u u.u911978
u u.12S u.u479978 u.1Su u.u479978 u.11u u.u479978
2.S u.12S u.uu47978 u.1Su u.uu47978 u.11u u.uu47978

The vaiiation of Cm with CL foi vaiious elevatoi ueflections is tabulateu anu
plotteu below.
CL
ElevatorDeflection()
1S 12.S 1u 7.S S 2.S u 2.S
Cm
u.2S u.SS8S u.29SS u.2S21 u.2u89 u.16S7 u.122S u.u79S u.uS61
u u.Su72 u.264u u.22u8 u.1776 u.1S44 u.u912 u.u48u u.uu48
u.2S u.27S9 u.2S27 u.189S u.146S u.1uS1 u.uS99 u.u167 u.u26S
u.S u.244S u.2u1S u.1S81 u.1149 u.u717 u.u28S u.u147 u.uS79
u.7S u.21S2 u.17uu u.1268 u.u8S6 u.u4u4 u.uu28 u.u46u u.u892
1 u.1818 u.1S86 u.u9S4 u.uS22 u.uu9u u.uS42 u.u774 u.12u6
1.2S u.1SuS u.1u7S u.u641 u.u2u9 u.u22S u.u6SS u.1u87 u.1S19
1.S u.1191 u.u7S9 u.uS27 u.u1uS u.uSS7 u.u969 u.14u1 u.18SS
1.7S u.u878 u.u446 u.uu14 u.u418 u.u8Su u.1282 u.1714 u.2146
2 u.uS64 u.u1S2 u.uSuu u.u7S2 u.1164 u.1S96 u.2u28 u.246u
2.2S u.u2S1 u.u181 u.u61S u.1u4S u.1477 u.19u9 u.2S41 u.277S
67


0n vaiying the C.u location foi uesign conuitions, the value of C
m
o
iemains
constant but the slope of the cuive
0C
m
0C
L
changes. The vaiiation of Cm with
CL foi uiffeient C.u locations is tabulateu anu plotteu below.
C
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C

dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

0.3 0.1304 0.305 0.1254 0.31 0.1204 0.315 0.1154 0.3201 0.1103
C
m
0.25 0.080599778 0.079349778 0.078099778 0.076849778 0.075574778
0 0.047999778 0.047999778 0.047999778 0.047999778 0.047999778
0.25 0.015399778 0.016649778 0.017899778 0.019149778 0.020424778
0.5 0.01720022 0.014700222 0.012200222 0.009700222 0.007150222
0.75 0.04980022 0.046050222 0.042300222 0.038550222 0.034725222
1 0.08240022 0.077400222 0.072400222 0.067400222 0.062300222
1.25 0.11500022 0.108750222 0.102500222 0.096250222 0.089875222
1.5 0.14760022 0.140100222 0.132600222 0.125100222 0.117450222
1.75 0.18020022 0.171450222 0.162700222 0.153950222 0.145025222
2 0.21280022 0.202800222 0.192800222 0.182800222 0.172600222
2.25 0.24540022 0.234150222 0.222900222 0.211650222 0.200175222
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
C
m
C
L
StickFixedStabilityCharacteristicsat
DesignConditions
15deg
12.5deg
10deg
7.5deg
5deg
2.5deg
0deg
2.5deg
Elevator
Deflection
68


In oiuei to finu the vaiiation of elevatoi ueflection with the tiim value of
lift coefficient, we fiist evaluate the elevatoi ueflection iequiieu at zeio
tiim lift coefficient.

c
o
=
C
m
a.c
- a
t
v
H.T

H.T
(
o
- i
w
+ i
t
)
-|
C
m

c
1

Foi the NACA 2Su116S aiifoil,
uo = 1.2
C
m
a.
= u.uu9
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
6

u
= S.682

c
=
c
o
-
I
C
m
C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
|
C
m

c
1
- C
L

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
C
m
C
L
StabilityCharacteristicswithrespect
toLocationofC.G
0.3c
0.305c
0.31c
0.315c
0.32009c
LocationofC.G
69
0sing the above foimula, the vaiiation of elevatoi ueflection with the tiim
value of lift coefficient is tabulateu anu plotteu below.
C
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

x
C.C


dC
m
dC
L

0.3 0.1304 0.305 0.1254 0.31 0.1204 0.315 0.1154 0.32 0.1103
ElevatorDeflection()
0.25 5.568574074 5.496236111 5.423898148 5.351560185 5.277775463
0 3.682 3.682 3.682 3.682 3.682
0.25 1.795425926 1.867763889 1.940101852 2.012439815 2.086224537
0.5 0.09114814 0.053527778 0.198203704 0.34287963 0.490449074
0.75 1.97772222 1.760708333 1.543694444 1.326680556 1.105326389
1 3.86429629 3.574944444 3.285592593 2.996240741 2.701101852
1.25 5.75087037 5.389180556 5.027490741 4.665800926 4.296877315
1.5 7.63744444 7.203416667 6.769388889 6.335361111 5.892652778
1.75 9.52401851 9.017652778 8.511287037 8.004921296 7.488428241
2 11.4105925 10.83188889 10.25318519 9.674481481 9.084203704
2.25 13.2971666 12.646125 11.99508333 11.34404167 10.67997917



15
10
5
0
5
10
0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
o
e

)
C
L
VariationofElevatorDeflectionAngle
withTrimC
L
0.3c
0.305c
0.31c
0.315c
0.32009c
LocationofC.G
70
Beteimination of StickFixeu Naneuvei Point:
The stickfixeu maneuvei point is of vital impoitance in acceleiateu
maneuveis of the aiiciaft. Beie, the loau factoi plays a majoi iole.
Elevatoi Angle Requiieu pei g:
The elevatoi angle iequiieu pei unit loau factoi is useu in ueteimining the
stickfixeu maneuvei point.

c
=
c
o
-
I
C
m
C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
|
C
m

c
1
- C
L
-
6S.uSgl
t
(n -1)

c
v
2

c
n
= -
I
C
m
C
L
]
stIck-fIxcd
|
C
m

c
1
-
2W
Sv
2
-
6S.uSgl
t

c
v
2

Foi the aiiciaft,
lt = 18.68 m
0sing the above foimula anu uata, the vaiiation of elevatoi ueflection
iequiieu pei g with the location of the C.u is plotteu below.

40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
0 20 40 60 80
E
l
e
v
a
t
o
r

A
n
g
l
e

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

p
e
r

)
X
C.G
(%ofchord)
DeterminationofStickFixed
ManeuverPoint
100m/s
200m/s
300m/s
Velocity
71
The location of the C.u at which elevatoi ueflection pei g is zeio is calleu
the StickFixedManeuverPoint. Fiom the giaph,
Nm = u.4SuS8
(xC.G)maneuver = 2.1u42u86 m

LongitudinalStickFreeStability:
In this section, the contiol column of the aiiciaft is fiee. Bence, the effect of
elevatoi hinge moments (C
h
e
) in uiffeient situations is to be consiueieu.
The auuitional factoi that comes into pictuie when the stick is fiee is the
FreeElevatorFactor.
F = 1 - |
1
a
t
-
C
L
t

c
-
C
h
e

t
C
h
e

c

Foi the aiiciaft, we assume

dC
h

du
t
= u.uu2 ueg
1


dC
h

d6

= u.uuS ueg
1

0sing the above foimula anu uata,
F = u.84
Foi the stick fiee case, the stability ciiteiion is the following equation.
|
C
m
C
L
1
stIck-Ircc
=
x
C.G
-x
a.c

+ |
C
m
C
L
1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
-
a
t
v
H.T

H.T
a
w
|1 -
e

1 F
0sing the above foimula,
I
dC
m
dC
L
]
stth-Ir
= u.u922u19
72
The negative value of I
0C
m
0C
L
]
stIck-Ircc
inuicates that the aiiplane has
stickfiee longituuinal static stability.

Beteimination of StickFiee Neutial Point:
When the value of I
0C
m
0C
L
]
stIck-Ircc
ieuuces to zeio, the location of the
C.u is calleu the NeutralPoint. Fiom the above foimula,
N
o
i
=
x
a.c

-|
C
m
C
L
1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
+
a
t
v
H.T

H.T
a
w
|1 -

1 F
0sing the above foimula,
No

= u.S971824
NoNo

= u.uSS1776

LongitudinalStickFreeControl:
Beteimination of StickFiee Stability Chaiacteiistics:
The vaiiation of I
0C
m
0C
L
] anu C
m
o
with elevatoi ueflection is tabulateu
below.
6


Location of C.u
Besign Nost Foiwaiu Nost Reaiwaiu
dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u

dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u
dC
m
dC
L
C
m
u
1S u.u92 u.Su71978 u.u97 u.Su71978 u.u77 u.Su71978
12.S u.u92 u.26S9978 u.u97 u.26S9978 u.u77 u.26S9978
1u u.u92 u.22u7978 u.u97 u.22u7978 u.u77 u.22u7978
7.S u.u92 u.177S978 u.u97 u.177S978 u.u77 u.177S978
S u.u92 u.1S4S978 u.u97 u.1S4S978 u.u77 u.1S4S978
2.S u.u92 u.u911978 u.u97 u.u911978 u.u77 u.u911978
u u.u92 u.u479978 u.u97 u.u479978 u.u77 u.u479978
2.S u.u92 u.uu47978 u.u97 u.uu47978 u.u77 u.uu47978

73
The vaiiation of Cm with CL foi vaiious elevatoi ueflections is tabulateu anu
plotteu below.
C
L

ElevatorDeflection()
15 12.5 10 7.5 5 2.5 0 2.5
C
m
0.25 0.3302 0.2870 0.2438 0.2006 0.1574 0.1142 0.0710 0.0278
0 0.3072 0.2640 0.2208 0.1776 0.1344 0.0912 0.0480 0.0048
0.25 0.2841 0.2409 0.1977 0.1545 0.1113 0.0681 0.0249 0.0183
0.5 0.2611 0.2179 0.1747 0.1315 0.0883 0.0451 0.0019 0.0413
0.75 0.2380 0.1948 0.1516 0.1084 0.0652 0.0220 0.0212 0.0644
1 0.2150 0.1718 0.1286 0.0854 0.0422 0.0010 0.0442 0.0874
1.25 0.1919 0.1487 0.1055 0.0623 0.0191 0.0241 0.0673 0.1105
1.5 0.1689 0.1257 0.0825 0.0393 0.0039 0.0471 0.0903 0.1335
1.75 0.1458 0.1026 0.0594 0.0162 0.0270 0.0702 0.1134 0.1566
2 0.1228 0.0796 0.0364 0.0068 0.0500 0.0932 0.1364 0.1796
2.25 0.0997 0.0565 0.0133 0.0299 0.0731 0.1163 0.1595 0.2027



0.3000
0.2000
0.1000
0.0000
0.1000
0.2000
0.3000
0.4000
0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
C
m
C
L
StickFreeStabilityCharacteristicsat
DesignConditions
15deg
12.5deg
10deg
7.5deg
5deg
2.5deg
0deg
2.5deg
Elevator
deflection
74
Stick Foice uiauients:
In this section, an analysis is uone to ueteimine the stick foice giauients in
nonacceleiateu flight.
Foi nonacceleiateu flight,
F
S
=
Kv
2
2
|A +
C
h
c

t

t
+ -K
W
S

C
h
c

c
C
m

c
|
C
m
C
L
1
stIck-Ircc

F
S
v
= Kv|A +
C
h
c

t

t
+
A = C
h
o
+
C
h
c

t
(
o
- i
w
+ i
t
) +
C
h
c

c

c
o

K = -uS
c
c
c

t

Foi the aiiciaft, we assume
C
h
u
= u

dC
h

d6
t
= u.u12 ueg
1

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
A = u.u1Su4768
K = 21S.S47SS2 m
2

|
C
h
c

t

t
+
trIm
=
2
W
S
v
trIm
2
C
h
c

c
C
m

c
|
C
m
C
L
1
stIck-Ircc
-A
Assuming that the aiiplane neeus to be tiimmeu out at ciuise velocity,
I
dC
h

d6
t
6
t
]
trtm
= 4.8S4SuS289*1u
S

0sing the above uata,
75
(ot)trim = u.4u287S
I
dF
S
dV
]
trtm
= 2uS.62S96u9 Nsm
0sing the above uata, the vaiiation of stick foice with velocity at ciuise
conuition is plotteu below.


Beteimination of StickFiee Naneuvei Point:
Stick Foice Requiieu pei g:
The stick foice iequiieu pei unit loau factoi is useu in ueteimining the
stickfiee maneuvei point.
F
s
n
= u
t
S
c
c
c
l
l
l
l
l
|
W
S
1
`

C
h
e

c
I
C
m
C
L
]
stIck-Ircc
C
m

c
/

-
6S.uSgl
t
2
|
C
h
e

t
-
C
h
e


1
1
1
1
1

Foi the aiiciaft,
G = 2 iaum
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
5000
10000
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
S
t
i
c
k

F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Velocity(m/s)
VariationofStickForcewithVelocity
76
= 114.S92m
Se = 4.18 m
2

ce = u.S m
0sing the above foimula anu uata, the vaiiation of stick foice iequiieu pei g
with the location of the C.u is plotteu below.

The location of the C.u at which stick foice iequiieu pei g is zeio is calleu
the StickFreeManeuverPoint. Fiom the giaph,
Nm

= u.4141S


80000
60000
40000
20000
0
20000
40000
60000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
d
F
s
/
d
n
LocationofC.G(%ofchord)
DeterminationofStickFree
ManeuverPoint
77
DirectionalStability:
Biiectional stability of the aiiplane is a measuie of its tenuency to piouuce
iestoiing moments when uistuibeu fiom an equilibiium angle of siueslip
usually taken as zeio. It is measuieu quantitatively by the vaiiation of
yawing moment coefficient with siueslip angle.
C
n
=
N
q - S - b

In geneial,
0C
n
0q
shoulu be negative foi the aiiplane to have static
uiiectional stability. All the components of the aiiciaft contiibute to the
stability coefficient
0C
n
0q
.

Contiibution fiom Wing:
The wing contiibution to uiiectional stability is quite small, as the cioss
winu effects on the wing aie veiy small. The ciitical factoi is the sweepback
of the wing.
|
C
n

1
wIng
= -u.uuuu6 -
Foi the aiiciaft,
u = S2
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
I
dC
n
dd
]
wtng
= u.uuuSS9411 ueg
1


Contiibution fiom Fuselage anu Nacelle:
The contiibution fiom the fuselage anu nacelle is geneially uestabilizing.
|
C
n

1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
=
u.96k

S7.S
|
S
I
S
w
1 |
L
I
b
1 |
h
1
h
2
1 |
w
2
w
1
1
78
wheie k : Empiiical constant (fiom giaph)
Sf : Piojecteu aiea of fuselage in m
2

h1, w1 : Beight anu wiuth of fuselage at Lf4 in m
h2, w2 : Beight anu wiuth of fuselage at SLf4 in m
Fiom the giaph of k vs (uLf) foi vaiying fuselage fineness iatio,
k = u.12S
Foi the aiiciaft,
Sf = 1SS.149 m
2

h1=h2 = S.9S m
w1=w2 = S.9S m
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
I
dC
n
dd
]
Iuslag,nall
= u.uu2u271S ueg
1

Since the wing configuiation is lowwing,
AI
dC
n
dd
]
tntrIrn
= u

Contiibution of veitical Tail:
The veitical tail is the stabilizing component in the aiiciaft as fai as
uiiectional stability is conceineu.
|
C
n

1
vcrtIcaI taII
= -a
v
-v
v
-
v
- |1 -

1
|
C
n

1
vcrtIcaI taII
= |
C
n

1
V.T
+ |
C
n

1
sIIpstrcam IntcrIcrcncc

Foi the veitical tail,
79
av = u.1 ueg
1

vv = u.uS
nv = u.9
0sing the above foimula,
I
dC
n
dd
]
V.T
= u.uu4S
AI
dC
n
dd
]
sltpstram tntrIrn
= u.uuuS (fiom giaph)
I
dC
n
dd
]
vrttal tatl
= u.uu48 ueg
1


|
C
n

1
aIrpIanc
= |
C
n

1
wIng
+|
C
n

1
IuscIagc,naccIIc
+|
C
n

1
IntcrIcrcncc
+|
C
n

1
vcrtIcaI taII

0sing the above foimula anu uata,
I
dC
n
dd
]
atrplan
= u.uu2212261 ueg
1

DirectionalControl:
Beteimination of Biiectional Stability Chaiacteiistics:
C
n
= C
n
o
+ |
C
n

1
C
n
o
= -a
v
-v
v
-
v
-
r
-
r

80
Foi the iuuei, we assume
r = u.4
0sing the above foimulae anu uata, the vaiiation of C
n
o
with iuuuei
ueflection is tabulateu below.
oi C
n
u

Su +u.uS4
2S +u.u4S
2u +u.uS6
1S +u.u27
1u +u.u18
S +u.uu9
u u

The vaiiation of Cn with foi vaiious iuuuei ueflections is tabulateu anu
plotteu below.
()
RudderDeflection()
30 20 10 0 10 20 30
C
n
25 0.1093 0.0913 0.0733 0.0553 0.0373 0.0193 0.0013
20 0.0982 0.0802 0.0622 0.0442 0.0262 0.0082 0.0098
15 0.0872 0.0692 0.0512 0.0332 0.0152 0.0028 0.0208
10 0.0761 0.0581 0.0401 0.0221 0.0041 0.0139 0.0319
5 0.0651 0.0471 0.0291 0.0111 0.0069 0.0249 0.0429
0 0.0540 0.0360 0.0180 0.0000 0.0180 0.0360 0.0540
5 0.0429 0.0249 0.0069 0.0111 0.0291 0.0471 0.0651
10 0.0319 0.0139 0.0041 0.0221 0.0401 0.0581 0.0761
15 0.0208 0.0028 0.0152 0.0332 0.0512 0.0692 0.0872
20 0.0098 0.0082 0.0262 0.0442 0.0622 0.0802 0.0982
25 0.0013 0.0193 0.0373 0.0553 0.0733 0.0913 0.1093
81


The iate at which the yawing moment coefficient of the aiiciaft changes
with change in iuuuei ueflection is calleu the R0BBER C0NTR0L P0WER.
C
n

r
= -a
v
-v
v
-
v
-
r

0sing the above foimula,

dC
n
d6
r
=u.uu18 ueg
1


Beteimination of Asymmetiic Powei Conuition Contiol Chaiacteiistics:
The basic configuiation of the aiiciaft is twin tiactoi engine. When one
engine is inopeiative (0EI), we obtain a case of asymmetiic thiust oi
powei. The contiol of the aiiciaft unuei this conuition with the help of the
iuuuei is investigateu in this section.
The equation of moment equilibiium in yaw in case of 0EI is as follows
0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000
0.0500
0.1000
0.1500
30 20 10 0 10 20 30
C
n
()
DirectionalStabilityCharacterictics
30deg
20deg
10deg
0deg
10deg
20deg
30deg
Rudder
deflection
82
-IT -
y
c
2
] +|
C
n

r
-
r
-
1
2
v
2
Sb1 = u
The value of I
0C
n
08

-
r
] in this expiession is calleu the asymmetiicthiust
yaw coefficient C
n
T
.
Fiom the above equation,
C
n
T
=
IT -
y
c
2
]
1
2
v
2
Sb

Foi the aiiciaft,
ye = 1S m
Foi takeoff conuitions,
VT.O = 64.S8769147 ms
TT.O = 8S616.8S6uS N
0sing the above foimula anu uata,
(C
n
T
)takeoff = u.u47SS9uS81
or = 26.411
Foi ciuise conuitions,
Vcruise = 2S4.167 ms
Tcruise = 8S616.8S6uS N
pcruise = u.S6S924 kgm
S

0sing the above foimula anu uata,
(C
n
T
)cruise = u.u1uSS8S97u8
or = S.74SSS4
Foi full iuuuei ueflection,
(C
n
T
)fullrudder = u.uS4
83
The vaiiation of asymmetiicthiust yawing moment coefficient with
velocity at sea level is tabulateu anu plotteu below.
Velocity(m/s) (C
n
)
T
(C
n
)
FullRudder

40 0.123945955 0.054
80 0.030986489 0.054
120 0.013771773 0.054
160 0.007746622 0.054
200 0.004957838 0.054
240 0.003442943 0.054
280 0.002529509 0.054



The velocity at which the yaw coefficient uue to full iuuuei ueflection
equals the yaw coefficient uue to asymmetiic thiust is calleu the ciitical
velocity foi iuuuei contiol, oi the unstick speeu. Fiom the giaph,
Vcritical = 6u.6u1 ms


0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0 100 200 300
C
n
Velocity(m/s)
VariationofC
n
withVelocity
YawMoment
CoefficientRequired
FullRudderYaw
MomentCoefficient
84
Beteimination of Cioss Winu Conuition Contiol Chaiacteiistics:
When the aiiplane is in takeoff phase, a cioss winu can inuuce a yawing
moment. The contiol of the aiiciaft unuei this conuition with the help of
the iuuuei is investigateu in this section.
Accoiuing to FAR stanuaius, foi uesign we assume
Vcrosswind = 7.S ms
The siueslip uue to cioss winu is given by
= sin
-1
|
v
cross-wInd
v
T.O
1
0sing the above foimula,
= 6.668S
To maintain siueslip, we have

r
= -
|
C
n

1
I
C
n

r
]
-
0sing the above foimula,
or = 8.19S6


85
LateralStability:
When a small veitical uistuibance causes the aiiciaft to ioll to one siue, as
such, the aiiplane will continue to ioll at the same constant velocity. As
such, the aiiplane is neutially stable in ioll. Bowevei, uue to the
uevelopment of siueslip, the lift uistiibution ovei the wings is alteieu,
tenuing to piouuce iestoiing moments which iestoie the aiiciaft to its
oiiginal state. This effect is geneially calleu the Biheuial Effect. Lateial
stability of the aiiplane is a measuie of this tenuency to piouuce iestoiing
moments when uistuibeu in ioll. It is measuieu quantitatively by the
vaiiation of iolling moment coefficient with siueslip angle.
C
I
=
L
q - S - b

In geneial,
0C
I
0q
shoulu be positive foi the aiiplane to have static lateial
stability. All the components of the aiiciaft contiibute to the stability
coefficient
0C
I
0q
.

Contiibution fiom Wing:
The wing uiheuial angle has a lineai vaiiation with the stability coefficient.
Theie is also an auuitional component uue to the tip shape. The stability
coefficient is given by the following equation.
|
C
I

1
wIng
= u.uuu2 - + |
C
I

1
tIp-shapc
+|
C
I

1
swccpback

wheie : Biheuial angle in uegiees
Foi the aiiciaft,
= S.S
The tip shape useu is shown below.


86
Foi this tip shape,
AI
dC
l
dd
]
ttp-shap
= u.uuu2 ueg
1

|
C
I

1
swccpback
= -u.S - |
C
n

1
wIng

0sing the above foimula,
AI
dC
l
dd
]
swpbah
= u.uuu1697uSS ueg
1

0sing the above foimulae anu uata,
I
dC
l
dd
]
wtng
= u.uu1u697uS ueg
1

Since the wing configuiation is lowwing,
AI
dC
l
dd
]
tntrIrn
= u.uuu8 ueg
1


Contiibution of veitical Tail:
The veitical tail is stabilizing as fai as uiiectional stability is conceineu.
|
C
I

1
vcrtIcaI taII
= a
v
-v
v
-
v
-
Z
V
l
V

Foi the veitical tail,
av = u.1 ueg
1

vv = u.uS
nv = u.9
ZV = 4.78 m
lV = 17.7S m
87
0sing the above foimula,
I
dC
l
dd
]
vrttal tatl
= u.uu12118S
Since the wing configuiation is lowwing,
AI
dC
l
dd
]
tntrIrn
= u.uuu16 ueg
1

|
C
I

1
aIrpIanc
= |
C
I

1
wIng
+ |
C
n

1
vcrtIcaI taII
+ |
C
n

1
IntcrIcrcncc

0sing the above foimula anu uata,
I
dC
l
dd
]
atrplan
= u.uu1641SSS
Effective uiheuial =
|
C
I

1
wIng
u.uuu2

0sing the above foimula,
Effectivedihedral = 8.2u767S

LateralControl:
The angulai velocity, with which the aiiplane iolls unuei the combineu
effect of aileion ueployment anu uiheuial effect, is obtaineu using the stiip
integiation technique.
p = -
a
v
] cy uy
k
2
b 2
k
1
b 2
] cy
2
uy
b 2
0

The span wise vaiiation foi the wing choiu is given by
c = c
r
| +
2y
b
( - 1)|
wheie ci : ioot choiu in m
88
z : wing tapei iatio cict
y : span wise location of stiip
0sing the above ielation, the aileion iolling powei is given by the ielation
pb
2v
= 2
a
|
2(1 -)(k
2
3
- k
1
3
) + S(k
2
2
- k
1
2
)
+ S
| -
a
totaI

Foi the aiiplane,
a = u.S
k1 = u.78
k2 = u.84
z = S.SSSSSSS
0sing the above foimula anu uata,

pb
2V
6
a
tutal
= u.u66414S1S79
p = u.u66414S1S79 -
a
totaI
-
2v
b

0sing the above foimula, the vaiiation of iolling angulai velocity with
velocity foi uiffeient aileion ueflections is plotteu anu tabulateu below.








89
Velocity(m/s)
AileronDeflection()
5 7.5 10
RollingAngularVelocity(rad/s)
100 0.033666816 0.050500224 0.067333632
110 0.037033498 0.055550247 0.074066996
120 0.040400179 0.060600269 0.080800359
130 0.043766861 0.065650292 0.087533722
140 0.047133543 0.070700314 0.094267085
150 0.050500224 0.075750336 0.101000449
160 0.053866906 0.080800359 0.107733812
170 0.057233588 0.085850381 0.114467175
180 0.060600269 0.090900404 0.121200538
190 0.063966951 0.095950426 0.127933901
200 0.067333632 0.101000449 0.134667265
210 0.070700314 0.106050471 0.141400628
220 0.074066996 0.111100493 0.148133991
230 0.077433677 0.116150516 0.154867354
240 0.080800359 0.121200538 0.161600718
250 0.08416704 0.126250561 0.168334081
260 0.087533722 0.131300583 0.175067444




0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
R
o
l
l
i
n
g

A
n
g
u
l
a
r

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
a
d
/
s
)
Velocity(m/s)
VariationofRollingRatewith
Velocity
5deg
7.5deg
10deg
Aileron
Deflection
90
DYNAMICSTABILITYANDCONTROLOFTHEAIRCRAFT:
EstimationofMomentsofInertiaoftheAircraft:
Axis Befinition:

Foi the aiiciaft,
XC.G = 18.211SS m (fiom nose)
YC.G = u (Plane of symmetiy)
ZC.G = 1.692 m (geai uown)
= 1.971 m (geai up) (fiom the lowest point on the fuselage)

S.No Component Weight
W
Mass
M X Y Z
I
XX
=
MX
2

I
YY
=
MY
2

I
ZZ
=
MZ
2

Unit (*10
3
)
N
(*10
3
)
kg m m m
(*10
6
)
kgm
2

(*10
6
)
kgm
2

(*10
6
)
kgm
2

1 FixedEquipment 27.5918 2.8126 16.21 0.00 1.24 0.0043 0.7435 0.7392


2 Pilots 2.4000 0.2446 15.41 0.00 1.60 0.0006 0.0587 0.0581
3 Crew+Passengers 132.8000 13.5372 3.10 0.00 1.60 0.0347 0.1649 0.1302
4 Cargo 32.4000 3.3028 12.79 0.00 0.20 0.0001 0.5403 0.5401
5 FuselageStructure 68.9796 7.0316 0.13 0.00 0.88 0.0055 0.0056 0.0001
6 Lavatories 55.1837 5.6252 0.49 0.00 1.78 0.0178 0.0192 0.0014
7 NoseGear 6.8980 0.7032 13.74 0.00 3.11 0.0068 0.1396 0.1328
8 HorizontalTail 20.6939 2.1095 17.99 0.00 2.03 0.0087 0.6913 0.6826
9 VerticalTail 13.7959 1.4063 16.56 0.00 4.78 0.0321 0.4177 0.3856
10 WingStructure 68.9796 7.0316 0.90 7.70 0.80 0.4216 0.0102 0.4228
11 Fuel 108.1313 11.0226 0.19 6.23 0.80 0.4349 0.0074 0.4282
12 Engine 46.7409 4.7646 1.75 7.50 2.52 0.2982 0.0448 0.2826
13 MainLandingGear 27.5918 2.8126 1.26 4.08 3.11 0.0742 0.0317 0.0514
TOTAL
1.3395 2.8749 3.8551
91

Nultiplying by a factoi of 2 to account foi the moments about the
iespective centioiual axes, we have
IXX = 2.679u*1u
6
kgm
2

IYY = S.7498*1u
6
kgm
2

IZZ = 7.71u2*1u
6
kgm
2



92
LongitudinalDynamicStability:
In this section, we analyze the iesponse of the aiiciaft at uesign conuitions
aftei a uistuibance in pitch, with all contiols lockeu.
We uefine some paiameteis which aie useu fiequently in the uynamic
stability analysis.
Time Constant =
m
pSV

= 4.9S9229u16 s
Relative Bensity Factoi =
m
pS

= 269.9u8u746
Rauius of uyiation KY =
I
YY
m

= 9.u427S m
h =
2K
Y
2

2

= u.u2778S14996
Evaluation of Stability Beiivatives:

dC
L
du
= 7.1619724S9 iau
1


dC
D
du
=
2C
L
nAR
dC
L
du

= u.S89SSS446S iau
1

dC
m
du
=
dC
m
dC
L
-
dC
L
du

= u.897964S2S4 iau
1


dC
m
d(du)
= -
a
t
vn
t

l
t

ds
du

93
= u.u1467271Su9 iau
1

dC
m
d(d6)
= -
1.1-a
t
vn
t

l
t

= u.u4uS49966S1 iau
1


dC
m
d6

= atvnt
= u.99uu71u7 iau
1

dC
m
d(d6

)
= -
(A+Ba
t
)v
2

t


dC
h
d(d6

)
= -
(C+Da
t
)
2

t

Beie, A, B, C anu B aie evaluateu fiom a giaph given in NACA TR 7u9.


Foi a choiuwise hinge location at 8u% fiom leauing euge,
A = u.46
B = u.18
C = u.82
D = u.u4
0sing the above foimula anu uata,

dC
m
d(d6

)
= 6.uS1u947u2*1u
4
iau
1

dC
h
d(d6

)
= 8.86894SS84*1u
4
iau
1


dC
h
du
=
dC
h
du
t
I1 -
ds
du
]
= 1.2*1u
S
iau
1


dC
h

d6

= u.uuS iau
1

94

dC
h
d(d6)
=
dC
h
du
t
l
t

= 2.96S9721*1u
S
iau
1


Analysis of Longituuinal Bynamic Stability:
The longituuinal stability quaitic is given by

A
4
+ B
3
+ C
2
+ B + E = u
A = 1
B =
1
2
dC
L
du
+C
D
-
1
h
dC
m
d(d6)
-
1
h
dC
m
d(du)

= S.S86uu4uS6
C =
C
D
2
dC
L
du
+
C
L
2
2
-
1
2h
dC
m
d(d6)
dC
L
du
-
C
D
h
dC
m
d(d6)
-
C
L
2
dC
D
du
-
1
h
dC
m
du
-
C
D
h
dC
m
d(du)

=S7.67979774
D =
C
L
2h
dC
D
du
dC
m
d(d6)
-
C
D
2h
dC
L
du
dC
m
d(d6)
-
C
L
2
2h
dC
m
d(du)
-
C
L
2
2h
dC
m
d(d6)
-
C
D
h
dC
m
du

= u.9S9897SS97
E = -
C
L
2
2h
dC
m
du

= 2.S691SS982
0sing the above values, the stability quaitic is given as follows

4
+S.S86uu4uS6
3
+S7.67979774
2
+ u.9S9897SS97 + 2.S691SS982
= u
95
Rouths Bisciiminant R = BCDAD
2
B
2
E
= 127.186S1S2
The following infeiences aie maue fiom the above equation anu uata
Since all the coefficients in the stability quaitic aie positive, theie is
no possibility foi puie uiveigence.
Since the Rouths uisciiminant is positive, all oscillations aie
conveigent.
The ioots of the stability quaitic aie:
z1,2 = 2.7849 S.4S6Si
z3,4 = u.uu81 u.2S11i

Noues of Bynamic Response:
1. Phugoiu oi Long Peiiou Noue:
This is an oscillatoiy moue with long peiiou anu weak uamping. The ioot
foi this moue is u.uu81 u.2S11i
Time peiiou T =
2n
n
x
= 124.u9S s
Bamping Factoi = u.uS2241294
Fiom the above uata, the time peiiou of oscillations is veiy high, anu the
uamping is veiy low. This inuicates that no extia contiols aie iequiieu foi
uynamic stability.
2. Shoit Peiiou Noue:
This is an oscillatoiy moue with shoit peiiou anu heavy uamping. The ioot
foi this moue is 2.7849 S.4S6Si
Time peiiou T =
2n
n
x
96
= S.71u78476 s
Bamping Factoi = u.4S461
Fiom the above uata, the time peiiou is veiy low, anu the uamping is high.
This inuicates that the pilot is unawaie of any effects of this motion. Bence
no extia uamping neeus to be pioviueu.


97
DirectionalLateralDynamicStability:
In this section, we analyze the iesponse of the aiiciaft at uesign conuitions
aftei a uistuibance in coupleu yaw anu ioll, with all contiols lockeu.
Rauius of uyiation KX =
I
XX
m

= 6.17249 m
Rauius of uyiation KZ =
I
ZZ
m

= 1u.4714S m
Time Constant =
m
pSV

= 4.9S9229u16 s
Relative Bensity Factoi =
m
pSb

= S6.6u966SSS
JX =2I
K
X
b
]
2

=u.u6428u129u9
JZ =2I
K
Z
b
]
2

=u.184999u921

Evaluation of Stability Beiivatives:

dC
y
d
= u.28 iau
1


dC
n
d
= u.1267SS218S iau
1

98

dC
l
d
= u.u94uSSu2742 iau
1

dC
l
dp
= u.48 iau
1
(fiom giaph)

dC
n
dr
= -
C
D
4
-
2a
v
S
v
n
v
S
w
I
l
v
b
]
2

= u.S1SS74S28 iau
1


dC
l
dr
=
C
L
4

= u.u9S7uSuu14S iau
1


dC
n
dp
= -
C
L
8

= u.u478S2Suu7S iau
1


Analysis of BiiectionalLateial Bynamic Stability:
The uiiectionallateial stability quaitic is given by

A
4
+ B
3
+ C
2
+ B + E = u
A = 1
B = -
1
2
|
dC
y
d
+
1
I
Z
dC
n
dr
+
1
I
X
dC
l
dp
1
= 4.689S1SS6S
C =
1
4I
X
I
Z
I
dC
l
dp
dC
n
dr
-
dC
n
dp
dC
l
dr
] +
1
4
dC
y
d
I
1
I
X
dC
l
dp
+
1
I
Z
dC
n
dr
] +

I
Z
dC
n
d

=28.98S1S814
99
D = -

2I
X
I
Z
|
dC
l
dp
dC
n
d
-
dC
n
dp
dC
l
d
1 -
1
8I
X
I
Z
dC
y
d
|
dC
l
dp
dC
n
dr
-
dC
n
dp
dC
l
dr
] -
C
L
2I
X
dC
l
d

= 1uS.Su46SuS
E =
C
L
4I
X
I
Z
I
dC
l
d
dC
n
dr
-
dC
n
d
dC
l
dr
] = 2.u847S6967
0sing the above values, the stability quaitic is given as follows

4
+ 4.689S1SS6S
3
+28.98S1S814
2
+1uS.Su46SuS +
2.u847S6967 = u

Rouths Bisciiminant R = BCDAD
2
B
2
E
= S177.774u2
The following infeiences aie maue fiom the above equation anu uata
Since all the coefficients in the stability quaitic aie positive, theie is
no possibility foi puie uiveigence.
Since the Rouths uisciiminant is positive, all oscillations aie
conveigent.
The ioots of the stability quaitic aie:
z1 = u.u199
z2 = S.997
z3,4 = u.SS6S S.1u77i

Noues of Bynamic Response:
1. Conveigent Noues:
These aie apeiiouic moues which aie puiely conveigent. The ioots foi
these moues aie u.u199 anu S.997. The fiist moue is miluly conveigent
while the seconu moue is heavily conveigent.
100
2. Butch Roll Noue:
This is an oscillatoiy moue with shoit peiiou anu moueiate uamping. The
ioot foi this moue is u.SS6S S.1u77i
Time peiiou T =
2n
n
x
= 6.1uuS4 s
Bamping Factoi = u.u6S699S14
Fiom the above uata, the time peiiou is low, anu the uamping is moueiate.
In the stickfixeu case, the case is toleiable as the oscillation uamps out
quite quickly, but in the stickfiee case, the uamping is veiy weak, iesulting
in piolongeu oscillations. This inuicates that aileion anu iuuuei balancing
is iequiieu. Balancing is pioviueu using tabs.
0nuei ceitain cases, the fiist ieal ioot can be positive inuicating milu
uiveigence. This is calleu the Spiial Biveigence moue.
The stability bounuaiies foi puie uiveigence (spiial) anu uiveigent
oscillations aie obtaineu using the following conuitions
E=u
R=u
0sing the fiist conuition, we have
C
I

C
n
i
-
C
n

C
I
i
= u
0sing the conuition
0C
I
0r
=
C
L
4

we have
C
n

=
4
C
I

C
n
i
C
L

Fiom the above conuition, we see that spiial uiveigence occuis foi the
following conuition
101
C
L
~ u.8u274
0sing the seconu conuition, we have
BCB -AB
2
- B
2
E = u
0sing the above foimulae, the uiiectionallateial stability bounuaiies aie
obtaineu anu plotteu below.

10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
20 15 10 5 0

C
n

C
l
StickFixedLateralStability
Boundaries
DivergenceBoundary
OscillatoryBoundary
102

103
ESTIMATIONOFLOADFACTORLIMITSAND
VnDIAGRAM

In acceleiateu flight, the lift becomes much moie compaieu to the weight of
the aiiciaft. This implies a net foice contiibuting to the acceleiation. This
foice causes stiesses on the aiiciaft stiuctuie. The iatio of the lift
expeiienceu to the weight at any instant is uefineu as the LoadFactor.
n =
- v
2
- C
L
2 -
W
S
]

In this section, we estimate the aeiouynamic limits on loau factoi, anu
attempt to uiaw the vaiiation of loau factoi with velocity, commonly
known as the Vn Diagram. The vn uiagiam is uiawn foi Sea Level
Stanuaiu conuitions.
0sing the above foimula, we infei that loau factoi has a quauiatic vaiiation
with velocity. Bowevei, this is tiue only up to a ceitain velocity. This
velocity is ueteimineu by simultaneously imposing limiting conuitions
aeiouynamically ((CL)max) as well as stiuctuially (nmax). This velocity is
calleu the CornerVelocity, anu is ueteimineu using the following foimula.
v
corncr
=
2 - n
max
- W
S - - C
L
max

(CL)max is a piopeity of the aiifoil selecteu. Foi the NACA 2Su116S,
C
L
max
= 1.49S
nmax is ueteimineu using maximum conuitions of (LB) anu (TW).
n
max
= |
T
W
1
max
- |
L
B
1
max

0sing the above foimula,
nmax = 4.77696S
104
Vcorner = 1SS.18uuS49 ms
In the vn uiagiam, a hoiizontal line is uiawn at this velocity. This loau
factoi is a limit loau factoi, beyonu which stiuctuial uamage occuis to
aiiciaft components if loau factoi is exceeueu. The plot is extenueu upto
the maximum ciuise velocity possible foi the thiust anu wing loauings of
the aiiciaft. Both these speeus aie gieatei than the uesign ciuise speeu of
the aiiciaft.
v
maxImum,cruIsc
=
`
1
1
1
1
|
T
A
W
|
max
I
W
S
] +I
W
S
]

|
(T
A
)
max
W
|
2
- 4KC
D
o

- C
D
o
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
]

0sing the above foimula,
Vmaximum,cruise = S94 ms
We also uefine a new speeu calleu the uive speeu, uefineu as 1.S times the
maximum ciuise velocity. 0sing the above stanuaiu,
Vdive = S91 ms
At this speeu, the positive loau factoi is assumeu to be S.S.
The vn uiagiam is also extenueu foi negative loau factois, i.e. when the
aiiciaft is in uives. Foi this case,
C
L
max
= u.9
nmax = 1.91u78S2u1
Vcorner = 124.862S6SS
In oiuei to calculate the gust loau factois, the following FAR stanuaius aie
useu.
Foi velocities up to vmaximum, ciuise, a gust velocity of Su fts at sea level is
assumeu. Foi vuive, a gust velocity of 66 fts is assumeu.

105
n
gust
= 1 +
K
g
- 0
gc
- v
E
- a
498 -
W
S

uust Alleviation Factoi K
g
=
u.88
S.S +

Aiiplane Nass Ratio =
2 -
W
S
- - a - g

wheie 0ge : equivalent gust velocity (fts)
: mean geometiic choiu (ft)
g : acceleiation uue to giavity (fts
2
)
vE : aiiplane equivalent speeu (knots)
a : wing lift cuive slope (iau
1
)
Foi the aiiciaft at sea level,
p = u.uu2S77 slugft
S

W/S = 9S.984S lbft
2

= 1S.S21S ft
g = S2.18S fts
2

a = 7.162 iau
1

= 22.S4S1
Kg = u.711278
Noimal gust equivalent velocity is Sufts fiom sea level up to 2uuuu ft,
ieuucing lineaily to 2S fts at Suuuu ft. The iough gust velocity is 66 fts
fiom sea level up to 2uuuu ft, ieuucing lineaily to S8 fts at Suuuu ft.
Since the uive velocity is iaiely achieveu, we assume the gust velocity to be
half the noimal value at this speeu.
The vaiiation of gust velocity with altituue is plotteu below.
106


0sing the above obtaineu values, the cooiuinates of vaiious points in the v
n uiagiam maneuveiing envelope anu gust envelope foi the aiiciaft at sea
level aie computeu anu tabulateu, anu the vn uiagiams aie uiawn.
Point LoadFactor E.A.S(m/s)
ManeuveringEnvelope
A 4.776963 153.1800549
C 4.776963 394
D 3.5 591
E 0 591
F 1.910785201 394
G 1.910785201 124.86235655
GustEnvelope
B 3.64736 112.13632
C 5.10225 394
D 4.07669 591
E 2.07669 591
F 3.10225 394
G 1.64736 112.13632

0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
G
u
s
t

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)
Altitude(m)
VariationofGustVelocitywithAltitude
NormalGust
RoughAirGust
107


3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
L
o
a
d

F
a
c
t
o
r
Velocity(m/s)
V nDiagram Maneuvering
Envelope
V
S
V
A
V
C
A
D
E
G
+ n
max
n
max
C
S
F
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
L
o
a
d

F
a
c
t
o
r
Velocity(m/s)
V nDiagram GustEnvelope
B'
C'
D'
E'
F'
G'
108
LIFTDISTRIBUTIONFORTHEAIRCRAFT
SCHRENCKSCURVE

While peifoiming a stiuctuial analysis of the aiiciaft, it is of essence that
we investigate the effects of vaiious loaus acting on uiffeient paits of the
aiiciaft. As such, the lift foice is the most impoitant foice acting on the
aiiciaft specifically the wing anu the lift uistiibution on the wing is
ciitical in ueteimining seveial factois such as the sheai foice anu benuing
moment uistiibution along the span of the wing, the toique uistiibution on
the wing anu so on.
The Schiencks cuive is useu to appioximate the lift uistiibution along the
span of the wing. In obtaining the Schiencks cuive, we assume that the
actual lift uistiibution can be appioximateu by consiueiing the aveiage of
two types of uistiibutions one is a tiapezoiual lift uistiibution, in which,
the lift pei unit span at any section of the wing is assumeu to be
piopoitional to the choiu of the wing at that section: the othei is an elliptic
lift uistiibution, which iepiesents an iueal case of maximum wing planfoim
efficiency (0stwalu planfoim efficiency, e=1).
Tiapezoiual Lift Bistiibution:
In this uistiibution, we assume section lift pei unit span to be piopoitional
to the section wing choiu. As such,
Lift pei unit span,
I
i
=
I
w
=
C
L
- - I
2
- S
2 - b

This, in tuin, ieuuces to
I
i
=
C
L
- - I
2
- c
2

At ciuise conuitions,
CL = u.S82S
= u.S6S924 kgm
S

109
v = 91S kmhi
The uistiibution assumes the shape of a tiapezium with the enus
piopoitional to the ioot anu tip choius of the wing. At wing tip,
ct = 1.96S2 m
L

t = 88S6.uu76S Nm
Similaily,
ci = 6.SSu8 m
L

i = 294SS.9S8S Nm
Knowing the values of L

at the wing tip anu ioot, we obtain the equation of


the tiapezoiual lift uistiibution of the wing:
I
i
= 4496.2S8S7 - (1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6x) u x 18
I
i
= 4496.2S8S7 - (1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6 - (S6 - x))
18 x S6
The tiapezoiual lift uistiibution thus obtaineu is shown below:


0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
L
i
f
t

p
e
r

U
n
i
t

S
p
a
n

(
N
/
m
)
Distancealongspanfromwingtip(m)
LiftDistribution Trapezoidal
110
Elliptic Lift Bistiibution:
This lift uistiibution assumes an iueal anu efficient use of the wing aiea foi
lift geneiation. The wing aiea iequiieu to geneiate a iequiieu lift is founu
to be minimum when the planfoim is elliptic in shape.
In this uistiibution, we assume the lift pei unit span to vaiy in a semi
elliptic shape, with the majoi axis of the semi ellipse coinciuing with the
span of the wing. The aiea encloseu between the lift uistiibution cuive anu
the span axis is equivalent to the total lift, which in tuin is equal to the
weight of the aiiciaft. 0sing this, we obtain the length of the semiminoi
axis of the semiellipse. Thus, the elliptic lift uistiibution is obtaineu.
Foi the aiiciaft,
W = 68979S.9184 N
Span, b = S6 m = 2A
Fiom u.S**AB = W, we have
B = 24S96.S4uuS
0sing the above values, we have the equation of the elliptic lift uistiibution
as follows:
I
i
= 24S96.S4uuS - 1 -
(x-18)
2
324

The elliptic lift uistiibution thus obtaineu is shown below:

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
L
i
f
t

p
e
r

U
n
i
t

S
p
a
n

(
N
/
m
)
Distancealongspanfromwingtip(m)
LiftDistribution Elliptic
111
Schiencks Cuive:
Schiencks cuive is an appioximation foi the lift uistiibution along the span
foi the wing. The equation of the cuive is obtaineu by taking the aveiage of
the tiapezoiual anu elliptic lift uistiibutions. Thus, the equation foi
Schiencks cuive is given as follows
I
i
= u.S - |4496.2S8S7 - (1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6x) + 24S96.S4uuS -
1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
u x 18
I
i
= u.S - |4496.2S8S7 - {1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6(S6 - x)] +
24S96.S4uuS - 1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
18 x S6
In all the above expiessions, the oiigin (x=u) is assumeu to lie at the tip of
the poit wing.
The Schiencks cuive foi the wing is shown below, along with a compaiison
with the tiapezoiual anu elliptic uistiibutions.


0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0 10 20 30 40
L
i
f
t

p
e
r

U
n
i
t

S
p
a
n

(
N
/
m
)
Distancealongspanfromwingtip(m)
LiftDistribution Schrenck'sCurve
TrapezoidalLiftDistribution
EllipticLiftDistribution
Screnck'sCurve
112
SHEARFORCEANDBENDINGMOMENT
DIAGRAMSFORTHEWING

ueneially, the sheai foice anu benuing moment vaiiation along the span of
the wing aie of significance. The wing has the spais anu iibs as majoi
stiuctuial elements, along with stiingeis. Since the wing is subjecteu to
benuing as a iesult of all the foices acting on it, the sheai foice anu benuing
moment vaiiations help us to pieuict stiuctuially ciitical locations on the
wing, anu accoiuingly pioviue sufficient factoi of safety.
ShearForceandBendingMomentNormaltoChord:
In oiuei to ueteimine the sheai foice anu benuing moment uistiibutions
noimal to the choiu along the wingspan, we fiist ueteimine the noimal
loau uistiibution along the span. The majoi loaus acting on the wing aie as
follows:
Lift:
Lift contiibutes the most to the net loauing on the wing. Lift foice acts in a
uiiection peipenuiculai to the ielative winu uiiection. Foi small angles of
attack, we can appioximate the lift to act peipenuiculai to the wing choiu.
The lift uistiibution ovei the wingspan is appioximateu by the Schiencks
cuive ovei the wing. Foi the aiiciaft, the wingspan is 18 m. Assuming the
oiigin to lie at one of the wingtips (foi this entiie stage of estimation, the
equation foi the Schiencks cuive is given below:
I
i
= u.S - |4496.2S8S7 - (1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6x) + 24S96.S4uuS -
1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
u x 18
I
i
= u.S - |4496.2S8S7 - {1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6(S6 - x)] +
24S96.S4uuS - 1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
18 x S6
wheie x : uistance along the wingspan
113
Wing Stiuctuial Weight:
Foi this pieliminaiy analysis, the stiuctuial weight of the wing is assumeu
to vaiy paiabolically along the span, with zeio weight pei unit span at the
wingtips.
Again, the aiea encloseu between the weight uistiibution cuive anu the
span axis shoulu be equal to wing stiuctuial weight. With this
consiueiation, we assume the following weight uistiibution:
w
w
i
= kx
2

wheie x : uistance along wingspan
Satisfying the above conuition, we have
w
w
= |
kx
3
S
|
0
18

Foi the aiiciaft, Ww = S4489.796 N
0sing the above uata, we get
k = 17.7416646u9
w
w
i
= 17.7416646u9x
2

Engine Weight:
The engine is mounteu on the bottom of the wing thiough pylons. Bence,
the engine weight can be assumeu to be a point loau acting on the wing. Foi
the aiiciaft, the engine weight is S2uS lbs (2S1S7.u4S N) anu engine span is
1S m. Bence, the above point loaus act at 1u.S m fiom the wingtips.
Lanuing ueai Weight:
In the aiiciaft, the main lanuing geai is ietiacteu into the wing. Bence, at all
times, theie exists a point loau coiiesponuing to the geai. Bowevei, the
weight on each wing uue to lanuing geai is only 6897.9S N, anu moieovei,
this loau is a ielieving loau as fai as noimal sheai foice anu benuing
moment aie conceineu. Bue to these factois, the contiibution of the
lanuing geai is neglecteu in this section.
114
Fuel Weight:
Fuel is accommouateu in wingmounteu fuel tanks. In the fueloccupieu
iegion, the fuel weight can be assumeu to have an elliptic uistiibution. 0nce
again, the fuel weight on each wing is only S4u6S.6S2 N, anu this is a
ielieving loau. Bence, this loau is also neglecteu in this section.
Net Loau Bistiibution:
The net loau uistiibution is founu by consiueiing the contiibution of both
lift anu stiuctuial weight. Thus we obtain the expiession foi noimal loau
uistiibution along the span foi one wing as follows:
o
n
= 4418.uuS826 + S72.72u8S26x + 24S96.S4uuS1 -
(x-18)
2
18
2
-
17.741766Sx
2
u x 18
Sheai Foice:
The sheai foice vaiiation is obtaineu using the following expiession:
I = -Jo Jx
The contiibution of engine weight is consiueieu in the iequiieu iange.
0sing the above expiession, the noimal sheai foice uistiibution is obtaineu
as follows:
I
n
= 4418.uuS826x + 286.S6u426Sx
2
+ 677.11S298 |
(x-18)
2
S6x -x
2
+
162 sin
-1
(x-18)
18
+ 81n| - S.91S8882uSx
3
u x < 1u.S
I
n
= 4418.uuS826x + 286.S6u426Sx
2
+ 677.11S298 |
(x-18)
2
S6x -x
2
+
162 sin
-1
(x-18)
18
+ 81n| - S.91S8882uSx
3
- 2S1S7.u4S 1u.S x 18




115
Benuing Noment:
The benuing moment vaiiation is obtaineu using the following expiession:
H = JI Jx
0sing the above expiession, the noimal benuing moment vaiiation is
obtaineu as follows:
H = 22u9.uu191Sx
2
+ 9S.4SS27S4Sx
3
+ 677.11S298 |81nx -
(36x-x
2
)
3
2
+ 2916 - |
(x-18)
18
sin
-1
(x-18)
18
-
n
2
+ cos Isin
-1
(x-18)
18
]|
|
-
1.478472uS1x
4
u x < 1u.S
H = 22u9.uu191Sx
2
+ 9S.4SS27S4Sx
3
+ 677.11S298 |81nx -
(36x-x
2
)
3
2
+ 2916 - |
(x-18)
18
sin
-1
(x-18)
18
-
n
2
+ cos Isin
-1
(x-18)
18
]|
|
-
1.478472uS1x
4
- 2S1S7.u4S(x - 1u.S) 1u.S x 18

0sing the above expiessions, the vaiiation of sheai foice anu benuing
moment noimal to the choiu along the wingspan is obtaineu anu plotteu
below:


116


0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
N
o
r
m
a
l

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Distancealongwingspanfromwingtip(m)
NormalShearForcevariationalongwingspan
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
N
o
r
m
a
l

B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
m
n
t

(
N

m
)
Distancealongwingspanfromwingtip(m)
NormalBendingMomentvariationalong
wingspan
117
ShearForceandBendingMomentParalleltoChord:
In oiuei to ueteimine the vaiiation of sheai foice anu benuing moment in
the choiuwise uiiection, we fiist iesolve the aeiouynamic loaus on the
wing into components noimal to anu in the uiiection of the choiu.
Fiom the above uiagiam, we see that the noimal foice coefficient is given
by
C
N
= C
L
cos o +C

sino
wheie : angle of attack
Fiom the above expiession, we see that since the angle of attack is small foi
steauy, level flight anu CL >> CB, it is a justifiable appioximation to take only
the vaiiation of CL in the tiapezoiual uistiibution in the pievious section.
Bowevei, in the choiuwise uiiection, the choiuwise foice component neeus
to be useu, given by
C
C
= C

cos o -C
L
sino
This component is small, yet significant, anu must be computeu anu useu in
ueteimining the tiapezoiual foice uistiibution in the choiuwise uiiection.
0sing the above equation,
Cc = u.1u868SSS9S
Bence the tiapezoiual vaiiation of foice pei unit span in the choiuwise
uiiection is given by
o
c
=
C
c
- - I
2
- c
2

Again assuming ciuise conuitions foi the aiiciaft,
= u.S6S924 kgm
S

v = 91S kmhi
Assuming the oiigin to lie at one of the wingtips, we get the following
vaiiation:

118
o
c
= 1277.S822u7 - (1.96S2 +u.2S47SSSSSS6x) u x 18
o
c
= 1277.S822u7 - (1.96S2 +u.2S47SSSSSS6 - (S6 -x))
18 x S6
Sheai Foice:
0nce again we use the expiession
I = -Jo Jx
anu obtain the following choiuwise sheai foice vaiiation along the span
I = 1277.S822u7 - (1.96S2x +u.127S77778x
2
) u x 18
I = 1277.S822u7 - (1.96S2x +u.127S77778 - (72x - x
2
))
18 x S6
Benuing Noment:
The benuing moment vaiiation is obtaineu using the following expiession:
H = JI Jx
0sing the above expiession, the following choiuwise benuing moment
vaiiation is obtaineu
H = 1277.S822u7 - (u.9826x
2
+ u.u412S926x
3
) u x 18
H = 1277.S822u7 - Iu.9826x
2
+ u.127S77778 - (S6x
2
-
x
3
3
)]
18 x S6
0sing the above expiessions, the vaiiation of sheai foice anu benuing
moment paiallel to the choiu along the wingspan is obtaineu anu plotteu
below:


119






0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
h
o
r
d
w
i
s
e

S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Distancealongwingspanfromwingtip(m)
ChordwiseShearForcevariationalong
wingspan
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C
h
o
r
d
w
i
s
e

B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
N

m
)
Distancealongwingspanfromwingtip(m)
ChordwiseBendingMomentvariationalong
wingspan
120
TORQUEDIAGRAMFORTHEWING

In the aiiciaft wing, at any section, the net aeiouynamic foice always acts at
the centie of piessuie. Foi convenience, we assume the aeiouynamic foice
to act thiough the aeiouynamic centie since this point is fixeu foi a given
aiifoil section anu uoes not uepenu on factois like angle of attack. Along
with the foice, we also have a moment about the aeiouynamic centie Na.c
which has a constant value. Since the centie of piessuie is always locateu
behinu the aeiouynamic centie, Na.c is always a noseuown moment.
In this section, we analyze the toique oi twist uistiibution along the
wingspan. It is known that when a foice acts thiough the sheai centie of a
section, no iotation is piouuceu in the section. Applying this concept, we
shift the aeiouynamic foices to the sheai centie. In peifoiming this shift, in
auuition to the existing Na.c, an auuitional moment uue to the shifting is
also to be consiueieu. The vaiiation of net moment pei unit span about the
sectionwise sheai centie is investigateu in this section.
We iesolve the aeiouynamic foices acting on each section of the wing into
components noimal anu paiallel to the choiu. Since the paiallel component
passes thiough the sheai centie, it uoes not contiibute to any toique. 0nly
the noimal foice component contiibutes to section toique. Foi the
pieliminaiy analysis, we assume the sheai centie to lie at u.SSc fiom the
leauing euge. Since this location is veiy close to the C.u location (u.S2c), anu
because weight is a ielieving foice as fai as section twist is conceineu, we
neglect the contiibution of weight towaius toique uistiibution.
Foi the aiiciaft, at ciuise
CL = u.S8282
CB = u.u24S84S11u8
= u.S6S924 kgm
S

v = 91S kmhi
= 2.uS
Foi the wing, aiifoil section is NACA 2Su116S. Foi this,
121
xa.c = u.26Sc
CNa.c = u.uu9
The noimal foice coefficient is given by
C
N
= C
L
cos o +C

sino
wheie : angle of attack
0sing the above expiession,
CN = u.S8S4S4412S
We have the expiession foi toique pei unit span, given by
I
i
=
C
M
c.c
- - I
2
- c
2
2
+
C
N
- - I
2
- c - (x
s.c
- x
u.c
)
2

Foi the wing, we have the vaiiation of choiu given by
c = 1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6x
0sing the above uata anu integiating the above equation, we have the span
wise toique vaiiation foi one wing, given by
I = S62.88S8S22 - (1.96S2 +u.2S47SSSSSS6x)
3
u x 18
0sing the above expiession, the toique uiagiam foi the wing is obtaineu
anu plotteu below:

0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T
o
r
q
u
e

(
N

m
)
Distancealongwingspanfromwingtip(m)
Torquevariationalongwingspan
122
CRITICALSHEARFORCE,BENDINGMOMENT
ANDTORQUECALCULATIONS

In this section, we attempt to calculate the maximum oi limit values of
sheai foice, benuing moment anu toique pei unit span uevelopeu in the
wing. This enables us to pioviue sufficient factoi of safety in the foim of
mateiial selection at iequiieu aieas.
Initially, fiom the vn uiagiam uesciibeu foi the aiiciaft at sea level
conuition, we ueteimine the ciitical loauing points foi the aiiciaft by
compaiing coiiesponuing points fiom the maneuveiing anu gust
envelopes. Refeiiing to the vn uiagiam, the following coinei points aie
iuentifieu anu tabulateu below:
Point LoadFactor E.A.S(m/s) CL CD
ManeuveringEnvelope
A 4.776963 153.1800549 1.495 0.17306
C 4.776963 394 0.22597 0.01779
D 3.5 591 0.0735845 0.01455
E 0 591 0 0
F 1.910785201 394 0.090388 0.014746
G 1.910785201 124.86235655 0.9 0.07175
GustEnvelope
B 3.64736 112.13632 2.13 0.33671
C 5.10225 394 0.241358 0.0183
D 4.07669 591 0.085709 0.01468
E 2.07669 591 0.04366067 0.02771
F 3.10225 394 0.146749 0.01569
G 1.64736 112.13632 0.962032 0.07996

Fiom the above table, the ciitical flight conuitions aie iuentifieu anu
tabulateu below:

123

CriticalFlight
Condition
Point(n,E.A.S) Description
n
max
C(5.10225,394)
+vehighAOA A(4.776963,153.18)
Compressivestressisadditiveinupperflange
offrontspar
+velowAOA D(4.07669,591)
Compressivestressisadditiveinupperflange
ofrearspar
vehighAOA G(1.91,124.86)
Compressivestressisadditiveinlowerflange
offrontspar
velowAOA E(2.07669,591)
Compressivestressisadditiveinlowerflange
ofrearspar

In the following section, we attempt to estimate the maximum sheai foice,
benuing moment anu toique pei unit span foi one of the above ciitical
flight conuitions mentioneu above, namely, the positive high angle of attack
conuition. This point is iepiesenteu by A (4.77696S, 1SS.18).
To ueteimine the loau intensity vaiiation noimal to the choiu in this
conuition, we once again assume that the noimal foice is appioximately
equal to the lift (foi small angle of attack). To ueteimine the lift pei unit
span vaiiation, we ueteimine the Schiencks cuive foi the point A. If L
iepiesents the total lift unuei +ve high A0A conuition, anu L iepiesents the
lift unuei ciuise conuition, we have
L = kL
We know
L = nA W wheie nA : Loau factoi at A
L = W
Fiom the above ielations we obtain
k = nA
Thus, to obtain the Schiencks cuive foi the +ve high A0A conuition, it is
sufficient to multiply the expiession iepiesenting lift intensity vaiiation by
nA. Thus, foi +ve high angle of attack conuition, lift pei unit span is given by
the following expiessions:
124
I
i
= 2.S88481S - |4496.2S8S7 - (1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6x) +
24S96.S4uuS - 1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
u x 18
I
i
= 2.S88481S - |4496.2S8S7 - {1.96S2 + u.2S47SSSSSS6(S6 - x)] +
24S96.S4uuS - 1 -
(x-18)
2
324
|
18 x S6
A compaiison between the Schiencks cuives foi ciuise anu +ve high A0A
conuition is shown below:


Fiom the pievious section on estimation of vaiiation of sheai foice,
benuing moment anu toique intensity along the wingspan, it is seen that
the maximum values foi all the above occui at the wing ioot (iepiesenteu
by x=18 in the appiopiiate expiessions). Nultiplying the appiopiiate teims
coiiesponuing to lift in the sheai foice, benuing moment anu toique
intensity expiessions by nA, anu evaluating them at the wing ioot, we
obtain the ciitical values listeu below:


0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
0 10 20 30 40
L
i
f
t

p
e
r

U
n
i
t

S
p
a
n

(
N
/
m
)
Distancealongspanfromwingtip(m)
LiftDistribution Schrenck'sCurve
CruiseCondition
+veHighAOACondition
125
(Noimal Sheai Foice)max = 1S88S4u.96 N
(Noimal Benuing Noment)max = 12uS7Su6.18 Nm
(Choiuwise Sheai Foice)max = 186287.S12 N
(Choiuwise Benuing Noment)max = 148u2u9.u89 Nm
(Toique)max = 1u2u11.86 Nm

126
MATERIALSELECTIONFORTHEAIRCRAFT

The aircraft industry is widely acknowledged as one the branches of


engineering which makes the most stringent demands as far as materials
areconcerned.Theveryessenceofaircraftconstructionliesinconstructing
an efficient flying machine with the least weight, whichmakes an indepth
knowledge of materials necessary. In addition, aircraft components are
subjecttoavastvarietyofstructuralandthermalloadingconditionswhich
necessitates the use of several classes of materials, including metals, non
metals, plastics and composites. However, unlike most other mechanical
engineering fields like civil engineering, the factor of safety involved in
aerospace construction is very rarely more than 2, so the limiting
properties required of the components closely match the properties of the
materialscommonlyused.
DesignCriteria:
There are 3 major criteria which govern material selection and airframe
design:strength,stiffnessandfatigueresistance.
Members such as wing spars are designed primarily on the basis of
strength.Intheengineersviewpoint,thereare2importantfactors:
It does not matter if the spar partially deforms in the process of
carryingload
Thereisacertainamountofstressoccurringinallflightconditions;it
is necessary that the material selected is capable of withstanding all
valuesofstresslikelytobeexperiencedbythememberwithouttotal
failure
Stiffnessbased design is customary in components which need not
necessarilyfailtowreakhavoc.Aslightdeformationcanbecatastrophicas
inturbineblades,whoseclearancewiththecasingisveryminute.Eventhe
slightest dimensional changes brought on by either aerodynamic or
centripetalloadscancausetheenginetocometoasuddenhalt.
Fatigue is a phenomenon which occurs due to repeated loading of a
member,whichcausesgradualfailure.Itiscommoninmemberssubjected
127
to cyclic or vibratory motion. Fatigue failure is one of the most
unpredictable forms since inservice analysis of a member for fatigue
damageisverydifficult.
TypesofLoads:
Loadsonaircraftmemberscanbebroadlyclassifiedasstaticanddynamic.
Staticloadsarethosewhichareappliedgraduallysuchthatthetimeeffects
oftheapplicationofloadsarenegligible.Dynamicorenergyloadsarethose
which are applied impulsively such that the energy with which the
structure is loaded also needs to be considered. The weights of different
componentsintheaircraftarestaticloads,whilegustandlandingloadson
theaircraftaredynamicloads.
MaterialProperties:
In aircraft construction, weight is a parameter that the engineer tries to
limit to a minimum, while strength is attempted to be maximized. Thus, a
higher strength to weight ratio is one of the most important properties
preferred by aerospace engineers. Strength is commonly determined by
tensile testing of a specimen and plotting a graph between the stress
applied and the strain developed in it. A common stressstrain curve
obtainedformetalsisshownbelow:
Inthisgraph,theinitiallinearpartcorrespondstotheelasticregion,where
loading and subsequent unloading causes the material to return to its
original state. When the curve fails to be linear by a strain of 0.001, the
corresponding stress marks the proportional limit. Immediately after this,
the yield stress is achieved. Loading of a member beyond its material
elastic limit will result in a certain amount of permanent deformation.
Finally, at the ultimate tensile stress, the material fails for good. The yield
strengthandultimatestrengthofthematerialarecrucialinstrengthbased
designs, and the stresses developed in the members should always be
withintheselimits.
The slope of the linear portion of the stressstrain curve is called the
Youngs Modulus of the material. Stiffness is defined as the ratio between
the load applied and the corresponding elongation. Stiffness is related to
128
Youngs modulus through volume. Hence, if it is necessary to have a stiff
member,itisnecessarytoselectamaterialwithahighYoungsmodulus.
Every time a material is loaded beyond its yield strength but below its
ultimatestrength,itundergoesacertainamountofplasticdeformationand
itspropertiesincludingyieldstrengthitselfgetmodified.Plasticitycoupled
withrepeatedloadingresultsininternalstressconcentration whichbuilds
up with each loading. After certain number of loading cycles, cracks start
propagating causing the material to eventually fail. Hence, the plastic
region characteristics are critical in members prone to fatigue failure.
Fatigueiscommonlyanalyzedusingthestressintensityfactork.
Creepisahighlytemperaturedependentphenomenon.Itisoneofthemost
common modes of failure in thermally highlystressed members, such as
turbinebladesandcombustorlinings.Inordertoanalyzecreep,knowledge
of the thermal properties like thermal expansivity is required, in addition
to carrying out experiments simulating simultaneous thermal and
structural loading. Titanium alloys are very well known for their excellent
creepresistantthermalproperties.
In addition to resisting static loads, fatigue and creep, energy loads must
alsoberesisted.Theareaunderthelinearportionofthestressstraincurve
is called the resilience modulus, while the area under the whole of the
curve is called the toughness modulus. These moduli are indicators of the
energy the material can absorb before failure, and are determined using
standardtestsliketheIzodandCharpytests.
Compression failure is likely in members that are short and thick. The
compressioncharacteristiccurvesaresimilartothetensilecharacteristics,
and have corresponding proportional and ultimate limits. Compressive
limits have significance only related to bending stresses. All other
compression related failures are due to phenomena such as buckling or
crippling.
CommonAircraftMaterials:
Aluminumbasedalloyssuchasduraluminareconventionallypreferredfor
the skin and most other structural components of the aircraft. This is
because of its relatively high strength to weight ratio coupled with its
129
extreme lightness. Nowadays, composites have come to replace aluminum
largely due to their higher strength to weight ratio as well as other
attractive properties such as lower overall weight and easier component
tailoring. However, steel remains the standard material for crucial
componentslikesparsowingtoitshighstrengthandstiffness,predictable
behavior under loading and reliability. Steel is avoided for other
componentsduetoitsexcessiveweight.
Another useful class of metallic alloys is the titaniumbased ones, known
for their superior thermal properties. High Mach number aircraft make
extensive use of these alloys due to the high temperatures associated with
aerodynamicheating.
Glass and clear Perspex are also important in aircraft for windows and
viewing shields. The two common types of glass are electrical and
structural glass. Though structural glass is more favorable for aircraft
construction purposes, it is highly expensive compared to electrical glass.
Hencetheidealchoiceisacompromisebetweenthetwotypes.
Compositeslikeepoxyresinreinforcedwithglass,carbonoraramidfibers
arecommonlyusedfortheirlightness.Particulatecompositesandceramics
are used for parts required to resist high temperatures. The major
advantagesofusingcompositesaretheirexcellentstrengthtoweightratio,
easytailoringasperrequirementsandlowoverallweight.
Somecommonlyusedmaterialsandtheirpropertiesarelistedbelow:
MATERIAL 5CrMoVSTEEL Al2024 Al7075 Ti6Al4V GLASS
ULTIMATETENSILESTRESS
(MPa)
1654.7 530.896 228 900 89.6
YIELDTENSILESTRESS(MPa) 1378.9 455.05 103 830 75.8
YIELDCOMPRESSIVESTRESS
(MPa)
1516.8 525.1
YOUNGSMODULUS(GPa) 206.8 73.1 71.4 114 70
SHEARMODULUS(GPa) 75.84 21.48 26.95 44 26.9
ULTIMATESHEARSTRENGTH
(MPa)
999.7 206.84
DENSITY(kg/m
3
) 7790 2800 2810 4430 2500

130
STRUCTURALDESIGNOFTHEAIRCRAFT
BASICWINGDESIGN

In this section, we peifoim the stiuctuial uesign of the aiiciaft wing. This
incluues uesign of the vaiious stiuctuial membeis in the wing like spais
anu skin. Foi the wing, we auopt a 2spai configuiation foi the following
ieasons:
The single cell constiuction, which is otheiwise calleu the
monocoque wing constiuction, is geneially not piefeiieu as since the
skin is iequiieu to take all stiuctuial loaus, the skin thickness
iequiieu is veiy gieat, which incieases the weight gieatly.
The 2 cell constiuction making use of a single main spai is geneially
weak since the ieai poition of the wing, which contains contiol
suifaces, is unsuppoiteu. The ieaiwaiu C0P case becomes highly
ciitical in this kinu of constiuction.
The multiple cell constiuction involving moie than 2 spais also is
uisauvantageous in teims of weight, since highei numbei of spais
unnecessaiily incieases the weight.
In the 2spai constiuction, the fiont spai is geneially locateu between
u.1Sc anu u.2Sc, anu the ieai spai is sepaiateu by a uistance of
appioximately u.Sc. It is iequiieu that the fiont spai be locateu close to the
position of maximum thickness in the aiifoil in oiuei to iesist wing loaus
efficiently. The functions of the fiont anu ieai spais aie the following:
Fiont Spai:
The flange takes benuing loaus in the foiwaiu C0P case.
The web takes sheai loaus tiansfeiieu to it by the skin.
It tiansfeis wing loaus effectively to the fuselage.
Reai Spai:
The flange takes benuing loaus in the ieaiwaiu C0P case.
The web takes sheai loaus tiansfeiieu to it by the skin.
131
It suppoits the vaiious contiol suifaces locateu on the ieai poition of
the wing, seiving as a hinge.
Along with the fiont spai, it foims the bounuaiies foi the fuel tanks in
the wings.
Designofthewingsparcaps:
The loaus taken by the wing spais incluue benuing loaus mainly, as well as
pait of the sheai foice. The spai is iesponsible foi iesisting neaily 9u% of
the benuing. The common section foi the spai is the Isection, in which the
flanges iesist benuing moments while the webs iesist sheai foices. Foi the
fiont anu ieai spais in the wings, the mateiial useu is SCiNov steel. This
mateiial is selecteu foi its high stiength, ielatively high stiength to weight
iatio, as well as smooth elastic piopeities. Foi this mateiial, the piopeities
aie listeu below:
0ltimate tensile stiength : 16S4.7 NPa
Yielu tensile stiength : 1S78.9 NPa
Yielu compiessive stiength : 1S16.8 NPa
0ltimate sheai stiength : 999.7 NPa
Youngs mouulus : 2u6.8 uPa
Sheai mouulus : 7S.84 uPa
Bensity : 779u kgm
S

In the aiiciaft wing, we assume the fiont anu ieai spais to be locateu at
u.22c anu u.72c fiom the leauing euge iespectively. This location satisfies
the conuition of locating the fiont spai close to the maximum thickness
position in the wing as well as the fuel space iequiiement. In this section,
we uesign the spais foi the ciitical benuing moment uevelopeu in the wing.
As seen in the pievious section, the ciitical benuing moment is uevelopeu
at the wing ioot. Bence, we take a section close to the wing ioot anu uesign
the spai baseu on it.
The aiifoil selecteu foi the aiiciaft is the NACA 2Su116S. The section
selecteu foi this analysis has a choiu of 6.SS m, anu the ciitical benuing
moment uevelopeu at this section is appioximately 12uS7Suu Nm. At the
spai locations, the uistance between the top anu bottom suifaces of the
wing aie:
132
h1 = u.768427 m
h2 = u.472u26 m
The benuing moment is assumeu to be shaieu between the fiont anu ieai
spais in the iatio I
h
1
h
2
]
2
. 0sing this ielation, we have
N1 = 87642S6.4u4 Nm
N2 = S27Su6S.S96 Nm
We use the Eulei benuing theoiy to finu the aieas of the spai caps. The
uesign is caiiieu out assuming that when this moment is iesisteu, the stiess
in the mateiial ieaches the yielu stiess value. Also, we use the lumpeu mass
analysis with the assumption that the aieas of the top anu bottom caps aie
the same. With this assumption, the location of the neutial suiface of each
spai lies miuway between the top anu bottom suifaces. 0sing the above
assumptions, we have the following foimulae:
Fiont Spai:
87642S6.4u4 - u.S8421SS
2 - A
1
- u.S8421SS
2
= 1.S789S14 - 1u
9

Reai Spai:
S27Su6S.S96 - u.2S6u1S
2 - A
2
- u.2S6u1S
2
= 1.S789S14 - 1u
9

0sing the above equations, we obtain the following:
A1 = u.uu8271u8S44S m
2

A2 = u.uuS28S128S2 m
2

Foi both fiont anu ieai spais, each spai cap is uesigneu in two halves, each
of the following shape:

133
In this shape, assume the iatio l:b = S:1. With this assumption, we have the
following ielations:
Fiont spai:
b
1
2
- |
7
16
+
21
4
1 =
u.uu8271u8S44S
2


Reai spai:
b
2
2
- |
7
16
+
21
4
1 =
u.uuS28S128S2
2

0sing the above ielations, we obtain the following:
b1 = u.u2498S69S m
b2 = u.u199727S4 m
0sing the above values, the spai caps aie sizeu. The spai webs take the
sheai foice acting on the wing section, as well as pait of the toisional loaus
(along with the skin). Since the sheai flow causes compiession in the webs,
they have to be uesigneu consiueiing stiength as well as stability. The
thickness which satisfies both these ciiteiia is then taken as the web
thickness.
Designofsparwebsandwingskin:
The majoi loau taken by the spai webs as well as the wing skin is sheai.
The sheai foices aie exeiteu as a iesult of the aeiouynamic foices acting on
the wing, incluuing lift, uiag anu toique. Bue to a highei amount of mateiial
useu foi the skin anu webs, we use Al 2u24 as the mateiial. This vaiiety of
aluminum has faiily goou stiength to weight iatio, is veiy lightweight, anu
has high sheai stiength. Foi this mateiial, the piopeities aie listeu below:
0ltimate tensile stiength : SSu.896 NPa
Yielu tensile stiength : 4SS.uS NPa
Yielu compiessive stiength : S2S.1 NPa
Youngs mouulus : 7S.1 uPa
Sheai mouulus : 21.48 uPa
0ltimate sheai stiength : 2u6.84 NPa
134
Bensity : 28uu kgm
S

ShearflowcalculationsforthewingandStringerdesign:
The wing section is the NACA 2Su116S aiifoil. The sheai flow in this
section neeus to be evaluateu in oiuei to iefine the spai web anu wing skin
thicknesses. In the aiiciaft wing, we assume the inteiiib spacing as u.6 m,
which is a stanuaiu value foi tianspoit aiiciaft. In the pieliminaiy analysis,
the section is stuuieu without any stiingeis anu the spai flanges aie
iuealizeu as concentiateu aiea booms. The skin is assumeu to be ineffective
in benuing. Initially, a cut is maue in the 2 box sections, using which the
open section sheai flow is computeu. The cut is closeu intiouucing a
constant toique, with which the net sheai flow in the section is computeu.
The sheai flow uue to benuing is calculateu using the foimula
q = |
v
x
I
xx
-v
y
I
xy
I
xy
2
- I
xx
I
yy
+ - Ax + |
v
y
I
yy
-v
x
I
xy
I
xy
2
- I
xx
I
yy
+ - Ay
Foi the section consiueieu, the values of the above paiameteis aie as
follows:
vx = 186287.S12 N
vy = 1S88S4u.96 N
Ixx = u.uuS18SSS1 m
4

Iyy = u.u69172Su4 m
4

Ixy = u.uu7417964 m
4

With these values, we have the equation foi open section sheai flow
thiough the sections as
q = -748714uu.u9 - Ax -67Su6u662.S - Ay
The above equation is mouifieu by auuing a constant teim while closing the
cuts. Apait fiom the sheai flow uue to benuing, we have an auuitional
constant sheai flow uue to toique, given by
T = 2 - A - q
The sheai flow fiom the two cases is supeiimposeu, using which the net
sheai flow thiough the wing section is computeu. 0sing this uistiibution,
we have the maximum value of sheai flow in the skin without any stiingeis
135
to be in the segment between the fiont anu ieai spai on the top suiface of
the wing.
qmax = 9uS7Su.79S7 Nm
With this value of sheai flow, we obtain the skin thickness iequiieu fiom
the stiength as well as buckling aspects. Foi stiength iequiiements, we
have the ielation

uIt
=
q
max
t

0sing the above ielation, we have
t = 4.S692S mm
Foi the buckling analysis, we consiuei the wing panel with the maximum
sheai flow. This panel has uimensions S.2848S m x u.6 m, anu is assumeu
to be simply suppoiteu on all 4 euges by the fiont anu ieai spais as well as
the iibs. The ielation useu to ueteimine the thickness iequiieu is
q
t
=

2
- K
b
- E
12 - (1 -
2
)
- |
t
b
1
2

Kb : constant baseu on the panel suppoits anu
aspect iatio
: Poissons iatio (u.SS foi the mateiial
consiueieu
b : shoitei euge of the panel
Foi the panel consiueieu,
Kb = 24.S
0sing the above ielation, we have
t = S.787116817 mm
Selecting the highei of the 2 values computeu we have the iequiieu
thickness of the wing skin without stiffening stiingeis as S.787 mm.
Foi the uetaileu analysis of the wing, we assume that stiingeis aie useu to
stiffen the skin panels. The intiouuction of stiingeis significantly alteis the
136
sheai flow pattein in the wing. Since the skin is stiffeneu, the thickness
iequiieu is also ieuuceu. The puipose of auuing stiingeis is to ieuuce the
skin thickness to a stanuaiu value below 2.S mm. In this section, we fiist
assume a fixeu numbei of stiingeis baseu on the size of the cioss section.
Then, we iteiate foi the cioss section aiea of the stiingeis analyzing the
sheai flow pattein in the wing section foi each aiea, anu select the aiea
which gives the minimum skin thickness.
The section selecteu foi the stiingeis is the Zsection with enu tabs. This
section is selecteu as it gives the maximum aiea moment of ineitia foi the
minimum cioss section aiea. The piopeities of the stiingei section selecteu
aie given below:

A = u.S8S82 in
2

Ixx = u.121S in
4

Iyy = u.u9SS8 in
4

Foi the wing ioot choiu of 6.SS m, we select the numbei of stiingeis to be
4u. Theie aie no stiingeis in cell S as the iegion has othei components like
contiol suifaces, anu the space iestiiction makes it uifficult to inseit
stiingeis in this poition.
The exeicise peifoimeu in the pievious section is iepeateu to compute the
new sheai flow pattein. It neeus to be noteu that the sheai flow uue to the
toique will suffei no change uue to the auuition of the stiingeis. Foi the
wing section with stiingeis, the values of aiea moments of ineitia aie
mouifieu as follows:
137
Ixx = u.u1u62291 m
4

Iyy = u.2227uS7S8 m
4

Ixy = u.u21768467 m
4

The mouifieu sheai flow equation uue to benuing is given below:
q = -19S24u1S.2S - Ax - 1891S79S2.8 - Ay
0nce again supeiimposing the sheai flows uue to benuing anu toision, we
evaluate the sheai flow anu iuentify the wing skin panel with the maximum
value of sheai flow. This panel is locateu between the ieai spai anu the
aujacent stiingei on the top suiface, anu is of size u.2S76 m x u.6 m. The
sheai flow in this panel is calculateu as
qmax = SS724u.7698 Nm
Fiom the stiength point of analysis, we have

uIt
=
q
max
t

0sing the above ielation, we have
t = 1.7271S6 mm
Foi the buckling analysis, using the ielation
q
t
=

2
- K
b
- E
12 - (1 -
2
)
- |
t
b
1
2

we have
t = 2.29uSS8SS8 mm
Again selecting the highei of the 2 values computeu we have the iequiieu
thickness of the wing skin without stiffening stiingeis as 2.29uS4 mm.
It is seen that theie is a 6u.4% ieuuction in skin thickness uue to the
auuition of stiffening stiingeis. The values of stiingei numbei anu
uimensions aie aiiiveu at aftei seveial iteiations, changing the aiea anu
section of each stiingei. An impoitant factoi to be consiueieu
simultaneously while uesigning the stiingeis is whethei the stiingeis will
buckle uue to the compiessive stiess which is exeiteu on them as a iesult
138
of wing benuing. To calculate the benuing stiess exeiteu at uiffeient
locations on the wing section, we use the ielation

cxcrtcd
= |
N
x
I
yy
- N
y
I
xy
I
xx
I
yy
- I
xy
2
+ - y - |
N
y
I
xx
-N
x
I
xy
I
xx
I
yy
-I
xy
2
+ - x
0sing the above ielation, the stiingei subjecteu to maximum stiess is
iuentifieu as the stiingei one away fiom the top flange of the ieai spai. The
stiess value acting on this stiingei is calculateu as
exeiteu = 679.7S621u7 NPa.
Since the stiingei is assumeu to be simply suppoiteu between iibs, the
buckling stiess foi each stiingei segment is calculateu using the foimula

cr
=

2
- E - I
A - L
2

0sing the uata foi stiingei uimensions anu the above equation, we have
ciitical stiess
ci = 686.SS69627 NPa
Since the exeiteu stiess is less than the bucking stiess, the chosen stiingei
section is iueal. The stiingei piopeities aie tabulateu below:
STRINGER AREA x y A*x A*y

m
2
m m m
3
m
3

1 0.000376257 0.2 0.243666 7.52515E05 9.16811E05


2 0.000376257 0.4 0.332168 0.000150503 0.000124981
3 0.000376257 0.6 0.388728 0.000225754 0.000146262
4 0.000376257 0.8 0.425013 0.000301006 0.000159914
5 0.000376257 1 0.446917 0.000376257 0.000168156
6 0.000376257 1.2 0.458742 0.000451509 0.000172605
7 0.000376257 1.8 0.464498 0.000677263 0.000174771
8 0.000376257 2 0.460796 0.000752515 0.000173378
9 0.000376257 2.2 0.455255 0.000827766 0.000171293
10 0.000376257 2.4 0.448003 0.000903018 0.000168564
11 0.000376257 2.6 0.439071 0.000978269 0.000165204
12 0.000376257 2.8 0.428535 0.00105352 0.000161239
13 0.000376257 3 0.416448 0.001128772 0.000156692
14 0.000376257 3.2 0.402865 0.001204023 0.000151581
15 0.000376257 3.4 0.387847 0.001279275 0.00014593
139
16 0.000376257 3.6 0.371451 0.001354526 0.000139761
17 0.000376257 3.8 0.353734 0.001429778 0.000133095
18 0.000376257 4 0.334755 0.001505029 0.000125954
19 0.000376257 4.2 0.314572 0.001580281 0.00011836
20 0.000376257 4.4 0.293242 0.001655532 0.000110334
21 0.000376257 0.2 0.111761 7.52515E05 4.20509E05
22 0.000376257 0.4 0.143583 0.000150503 5.40242E05
23 0.000376257 0.6 0.166394 0.000225754 6.2607E05
24 0.000376257 0.8 0.18697 0.000301006 7.03488E05
25 0.000376257 1 0.206225 0.000376257 7.75937E05
26 0.000376257 1.2 0.223486 0.000451509 8.40882E05
27 0.000376257 1.8 0.25482 0.000677263 9.58779E05
28 0.000376257 2 0.259801 0.000752515 9.7752E05
29 0.000376257 2.2 0.262958 0.000827766 9.89399E05
30 0.000376257 2.4 0.264403 0.000903018 9.94836E05
31 0.000376257 2.6 0.264184 0.000978269 9.94012E05
32 0.000376257 2.8 0.262369 0.00105352 9.87183E05
33 0.000376257 3 0.259014 0.001128772 9.74559E05
34 0.000376257 3.2 0.254176 0.001204023 9.56356E05
35 0.000376257 3.4 0.257917 0.001279275 9.70432E05
36 0.000376257 3.6 0.240293 0.001354526 9.0412E05
37 0.000376257 3.8 0.231365 0.001429778 8.70528E05
38 0.000376257 4 0.221189 0.001505029 8.3224E05
39 0.000376257 4.2 0.209824 0.001580281 7.89478E05
40 0.000376257 4.4 0.197329 0.001655532 7.42465E05

The values of stiesses uevelopeu in each stiingei aie tabulateu below:
STRINGER AREA xX
c
yY
c
A*(xX
c
)
2
A*(yY
c
)
2
A*(xX
c
)*(yY
c
) STRESS
m
2
m m m
4
m
4
m
4
N/m
2

1 0.000376 2.4624 0.2457 0.002281 0.000023 0.000228 9181174.977


2 0.000376 2.2624 0.3342 0.001926 0.000042 0.000284 147093459.4
3 0.000376 2.0624 0.3908 0.001600 0.000057 0.000303 257563319.5
4 0.000376 1.8624 0.4270 0.001305 0.000069 0.000299 338958863.6
5 0.000376 1.6624 0.4490 0.001040 0.000076 0.000281 399732077.8
6 0.000376 1.4624 0.4608 0.000805 0.000080 0.000254 446052023
7 0.000376 0.8624 0.4665 0.000280 0.000082 0.000151 542394862.4
8 0.000376 0.6624 0.4628 0.000165 0.000081 0.000115 566449115.7
9 0.000376 0.4624 0.4573 0.000080 0.000079 0.000080 587866246
10 0.000376 0.2624 0.4500 0.000026 0.000076 0.000044 606829805.3
11 0.000376 0.0624 0.4411 0.000001 0.000073 0.000010 623384247.3
12 0.000376 0.1376 0.4306 0.000007 0.000070 0.000022 637638556
13 0.000376 0.3376 0.4185 0.000043 0.000066 0.000053 649668733.4
140
14 0.000376 0.5376 0.4049 0.000109 0.000062 0.000082 659553649.2
15 0.000376 0.7376 0.3899 0.000205 0.000057 0.000108 667380777.5
16 0.000376 0.9376 0.3735 0.000331 0.000052 0.000132 673231856.1
17 0.000376 1.1376 0.3558 0.000487 0.000048 0.000152 677188622.9
18 0.000376 1.3376 0.3368 0.000673 0.000043 0.000170 679335683.8
19 0.000376 1.5376 0.3166 0.000890 0.000038 0.000183 679756210.7
20 0.000376 1.7376 0.2953 0.001136 0.000033 0.000193 678531941.6
21 0.000376 2.4624 0.1097 0.002281 0.000005 0.000102 518862896
22 0.000376 2.2624 0.1415 0.001926 0.000008 0.000120 535132675.5
23 0.000376 2.0624 0.1644 0.001600 0.000010 0.000128 538480696.2
24 0.000376 1.8624 0.1849 0.001305 0.000013 0.000130 538623730.6
25 0.000376 1.6624 0.2042 0.001040 0.000016 0.000128 536872453.2
26 0.000376 1.4624 0.2215 0.000805 0.000018 0.000122 532261783.2
27 0.000376 0.8624 0.2528 0.000280 0.000024 0.000082 489105941.5
28 0.000376 0.6624 0.2578 0.000165 0.000025 0.000064 466885772.1
29 0.000376 0.4624 0.2609 0.000080 0.000026 0.000045 442049989.7
30 0.000376 0.2624 0.2624 0.000026 0.000026 0.000026 414759202.2
31 0.000376 0.0624 0.2621 0.000001 0.000026 0.000006 385082241.6
32 0.000376 0.1376 0.2603 0.000007 0.000026 0.000013 353116619.6
33 0.000376 0.3376 0.2570 0.000043 0.000025 0.000033 318942640.2
34 0.000376 0.5376 0.2521 0.000109 0.000024 0.000051 282642041.3
35 0.000376 0.7376 0.2559 0.000205 0.000025 0.000071 258643713.9
36 0.000376 0.9376 0.2383 0.000331 0.000021 0.000084 204008012.5
37 0.000376 1.1376 0.2293 0.000487 0.000020 0.000098 161842360.5
38 0.000376 1.3376 0.2192 0.000673 0.000018 0.000110 117887078.5
39 0.000376 1.5376 0.2078 0.000890 0.000016 0.000120 72226772.56
40 0.000376 1.7376 0.1953 0.001136 0.000014 0.000128 24946048.51
The web thickness is calculateu baseu on 2 ciiteiia:
Stiength to withstanu the sheai flow uue to benuing anu toision
Stability unuei compiession
Fiom the sheai flow pattein obtaineu the sheai flow in the fiont anu ieai
spai webs aie founu to be 1748418.192 Nm anu 92764.698u1 Nm
iespectively. Fiom the stiength point of analysis, using these values anu the
ielation

uIt
=
q
t

we have
t1 = 8.4S2998414 mm
141
t2 = u.44848S29S mm
Foi the buckling analysis, we use the ielation
q
t
=

2
- K
s
- E
12 - (1 -
2
)
- |
t
b
1
2

Ks : constant baseu on the panel suppoits anu
aspect iatio
Assuming the web panels to be simply suppoiteu at the iibs anu clampeu at
the spai caps, we have the values of Ks foi the fiont anu ieai spai webs as 9
anu 6.6 iespectively. 0sing the above ielation, we have
t1 = 9.71SS82SS2 mm
t2 = S.766S96698 mm
Taking the highei of the above 2 sets of values, we have the web
thicknesses as
t1 = 9.714 mm
t2 = S.766 mm
A calculation is also maue to ueteimine the peicentage of benuing stiess
that can be taken by the stiingeis. This is uone to evaluate the potential
ieuuction in the spai cap aieas possible.
The Eulei benuing theoiy is useu again to compute the benuing moment
taken by the stiingeis.
=
N - y
I

Assuming the stiess to be the ciitical yielu stiess of the stiingei mateiial,
the above foimula ieuuces to
N =
y
- 2 - A
strIngcr
- |
h
2
1
strIngcr

0sing the above ielation, we obtain the moment taken by the stiingeis as
Nstiingeis = 211SSSu.199 Nm
142
Since this is the moment ieuuction fiom the loau to be taken by the spai
caps, the iatio in which this ieuuction is shaieu between the two spais is
given by I
h
1
h
2
]
2
. 0sing this ielation, we have
N1 = 1SS4S21.986 Nm
N2 = S79u28.2128 Nm
0sing the Eulei benuing theoiy again to compute the ieuuction in aieas of
the spai caps, we have
A1 = u.uu1448176644 m
2
A2 = u.uuu889S796S9 m
2

These iepiesent possible ieuuctions of appioximately 17.S% anu 16.8% in
the fiont anu ieai spai cap aieas iespectively. 0sing the uimensions
obtaineu above, the spais as well as the wing section with stiingeis aie
shown to scale below:









Fiont Spai



143


Reai Spai


Wing Cioss Section
144
STRUCTURALDESIGNOFTHEAIRCRAFT
FUSELAGEDESIGN

Similai to the pievious section, heie we peifoim the stiuctuial uesign of
the aiiciaft fuselage. Theie aie two types of fuselage constiuctions using
metals:
Nonocoque constiuction
Semimonocoque constiuction
In the monocoque constiuction, the fuselage is a puie metal shell, with no
stiffening membeis in the axial uiiection. In this type of constiuction, all
loaus on the fuselage aie taken by the skin alone. This implies a veiy thick
skin, which potentially incieases the aiiciaft weight gieatly.
In the semimonocoque constiuction, the skin is ielatively thin. It is
stiffeneu using long, thin membeis iunning along the length of the fuselage
calleu stiingeis (longeions if fewei in numbei). These membeis take, apait
fiom stiffening the skin, also uiiectly take some of the benuing loaus acting
on the fuselage.
Designofthefuselage:
Since the uemeiits of a monocoque constiuction have uiscouiageu
engineeis fiom using this methou foi a long time, we uesign a semi
monocoque fuselage foi the aiiciaft. Foi caiiying out this stiuctuial uesign,
the foices acting on the fuselage aie iequiieu. The weights of vaiious
components in the fuselage aie alieauy known fiom the balance uiagiam.
The foice acting on the wing anu hoiizontal tail aie tiansmitteu to the
fuselage thiough theii iespective mounting points, which aie assumeu to
be locateu at 14
th
the ioot choiu. Foi simplicity, we only analyze the
ciitical symmetiical loauing conuition (aiiciaft is pitching), wheie the
maximum loau factoi is involveu.
Foi the aiiciaft,
nmax = 4.77696S
145
When the aiiciaft achieves this flight conuition, it is in some type of
maneuvei. The foice acting on all components in the fuselage in nmax times
theii iespective weight. We impose moment equilibiium to compute the
wing anu tail ieactions. 0sing this pioceuuie, the foice uistiibution foi the
ciitical case is obtaineu as below:

0sing this foice uistiibution, the sheai foice anu moment vaiiation along
the length of the fuselage is obtaineu anu plotteu below:
146



StructuralDesignoftheFuselage:
0sing the sheai foice anu benuing moment uiagiams plotteu above, we
obtain the maximum sheai foice anu benuing moment acting on the
fuselage. 0sing these values, the sheai flow in the fuselage is computeu.
0nlike the analysis foi the wing, since only symmetiic loauing case is
consiueieu, the sheai flow at any section of the fuselage is uevelopeu only
uue to benuing: theie is no contiibution fiom toique.
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
200000
400000
600000
800000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
S
h
e
a
r

F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
Distancealongfuselagefromnose(m)
ShearForce
6000000
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0
1000000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
N

m
)
Distancealongfuselagefromnose(m)
BendingMoment
147
Foi the aiiciaft, fuselage uiametei
B = S.9S m
We assume the numbei of stiingeis as 96. 0nce again, the section assumeu
foi the stiingeis is the Zsection with enu tabs. The piopeities of the
stiingei section assumeu aie given below:

A = u.2u2248 in
2

Ixx = u.u47S42886 in
4

Iyy = u.uS724Su7 in
4

The above piopeities aie aiiiveu at aftei an iteiative pioceuuie to obtain
the minimum skin thickness with the minimum stiingei cioss section aiea.
The stiingei mateiial is Al 2u24. The sheai flow is ueteimineu in a similai
mannei, by fiist making a cut in the fuselage section, ueteimining the open
sheai flow pattein, anu then closing the cut by auuing a constant sheai flow
anu obtaining the net sheai flow pattein.
Foi the fuselage section with the stiingeis, the section piopeities aie given
below:
Ixx = u.u244Su2uS m
4

Iyy = u.u244Su2uS m
4

Ixy = u
The equation useu to ueteimine the open sheai flow uistiibution is
148
q = |
v
x
I
xx
-v
y
I
xy
I
xy
2
- I
xx
I
yy
+ - Ax + |
v
y
I
yy
-v
x
I
xy
I
xy
2
- I
xx
I
yy
+ - Ay
Beie, foi the symmetiic loauing case,
vx = u
vy = 1u66S69.1uS N (maximum sheai foice in the fuselage)
0sing the above values, the above equation is ieuuceu as follows:
q = 4S6S78u4.14 - Ay
0sing the equation, the open section sheai flow is computeu. The cut is
then closeu by auuing a constant sheai flow. It can be seen that since both
the section as well as the loauing is symmetiic with iespect to the noimal
axis, the sheai flow pattein is also symmetiic about this pattein. The sheai
flow vaiiation aiounu the fuselage is tabulateu below:
Fiom the table, it is seen that the maximum sheai flow is at the bottom, anu
has a value
qmax = 1718S7.1u86 Nm
0sing this sheai flow value, similai to the wing stiuctuial analysis, we
ueteimine the skin thickness iequiieu to sustain this sheai flow baseu on
stiength as well as stability points of analysis.
Fiom the stiength point of analysis, we have

uIt
=
q
max
t
- 1.S
The factoi of safety is incluueu heie since the sheai stiength consiueieu is
the ultimate sheai stiength of the mateiial.
0sing the above ielation, we have
t = 1.24616 mm
Foi the buckling analysis, we use the ielation
q
t
=

2
- K
b
- E
12 - (1 -
2
)
- |
t
b
1
2

149
Foi tianspoit aiiciaft, the bulkheau spacing is stanuaiu, given as 18 inches
(u.4S72 m). The panel with ciitical sheai flow is bounueu by a paii of
bulkheaus anu a paii of stiingeis. Thus, the uimensions foi the panel aie
u.12926 m x u.4S72 m. Foi this aspect iation, the value of Kb is S4. 0sing
this value in the above equation, we have
t = 1.u72u78 mm
Selecting the highei of the 2 values computeu we have the iequiieu
thickness of the fuselage skin without stiffening stiingeis as 1.24616 mm.
It neeus to be noteu that unlike the wing, in the fuselage, the stiength
ciiteiion becomes ciitical. 0nce again, we neeu to consiuei simultaneously
while uesigning the stiingeis whethei the stiingeis will buckle uue to the
compiessive stiess which is exeiteu on them as a iesult of fuselage
benuing. To calculate the benuing stiess exeiteu at uiffeient locations on
the fuselage section, we use the ielation

cxcrtcd
= |
N
x
I
yy
- N
y
I
xy
I
xx
I
yy
- I
xy
2
+ - y - |
N
y
I
xx
-N
x
I
xy
I
xx
I
yy
-I
xy
2
+ - x
Beie, Nx is the only moment acting on the section, anu the value of NX is the
maximum value of the benuing moment in the fuselage.
Nx = u
Ny = 4976S2S.1S2
0sing the above values, the maximum stiess acting on a stiingei is founu to
be
exeiteu = 4u1.4S74S1S NPa

Since the stiingei is assumeu to be simply suppoiteu between bulkheaus,
the buckling stiess foi each stiingei segment is calculateu using the
foimula

cr
=

2
- E - I
A - L
2

150
0sing the uata foi stiingei uimensions anu the above equation, we have
ciitical stiess
ci = 41u.u467Su6 NPa
Since the exeiteu stiess is less than the ciitical stiess, the chosen stiingei
section is iueal. The stiingei piopeities aie tabulateu below:

151
STRINGER AREA x y Ax Ay
m
2
m m m
3
m
3

1 0.000130482 0.12917118 1.970771373 1.68546E05 0.000257151


2 0.000130482 0.25778923 1.958103601 3.36369E05 0.000255498
3 0.000130482 0.385303386 1.937050929 5.02753E05 0.000252751
4 0.000130482 0.511167614 1.907703507 6.66983E05 0.000248922
5 0.000130482 0.634842944 1.870187006 8.28358E05 0.000244026
6 0.000130482 0.755799779 1.824662077 9.86185E05 0.000238086
7 0.000130482 0.873520163 1.771323665 0.000113979 0.000231126
8 0.000130482 0.9875 1.710400172 0.000128851 0.000223177
9 0.000130482 1.09725121 1.642152484 0.000143172 0.000214272
10 0.000130482 1.202303822 1.566872847 0.000156879 0.000204449
11 0.000130482 1.302207985 1.48488362 0.000169915 0.000193751
12 0.000130482 1.396535893 1.396535893 0.000182223 0.000182223
13 0.000130482 1.48488362 1.302207985 0.000193751 0.000169915
14 0.000130482 1.566872847 1.202303822 0.000204449 0.000156879
15 0.000130482 1.642152484 1.09725121 0.000214272 0.000143172
16 0.000130482 1.710400172 0.9875 0.000223177 0.000128851
17 0.000130482 1.771323665 0.873520163 0.000231126 0.000113979
18 0.000130482 1.824662077 0.755799779 0.000238086 9.86185E05
19 0.000130482 1.870187006 0.634842944 0.000244026 8.28358E05
20 0.000130482 1.907703507 0.511167614 0.000248922 6.66983E05
21 0.000130482 1.937050929 0.385303386 0.000252751 5.02753E05
22 0.000130482 1.958103601 0.25778923 0.000255498 3.36369E05
23 0.000130482 1.970771373 0.12917118 0.000257151 1.68546E05
24 0.000130482 1.975 0 0.000257703 0
25 0.000130482 1.970771373 0.12917118 0.000257151 1.68546E05
26 0.000130482 1.958103601 0.25778923 0.000255498 3.36369E05
27 0.000130482 1.937050929 0.385303386 0.000252751 5.02753E05
28 0.000130482 1.907703507 0.511167614 0.000248922 6.66983E05
29 0.000130482 1.870187006 0.634842944 0.000244026 8.28358E05
30 0.000130482 1.824662077 0.755799779 0.000238086 9.86185E05
31 0.000130482 1.771323665 0.873520163 0.000231126 0.000113979
32 0.000130482 1.710400172 0.9875 0.000223177 0.000128851
33 0.000130482 1.642152484 1.09725121 0.000214272 0.000143172
34 0.000130482 1.566872847 1.202303822 0.000204449 0.000156879
35 0.000130482 1.48488362 1.302207985 0.000193751 0.000169915
36 0.000130482 1.396535893 1.396535893 0.000182223 0.000182223
37 0.000130482 1.302207985 1.48488362 0.000169915 0.000193751
38 0.000130482 1.202303822 1.566872847 0.000156879 0.000204449
39 0.000130482 1.09725121 1.642152484 0.000143172 0.000214272
40 0.000130482 0.9875 1.710400172 0.000128851 0.000223177
41 0.000130482 0.873520163 1.771323665 0.000113979 0.000231126
42 0.000130482 0.755799779 1.824662077 9.86185E05 0.000238086
152
43 0.000130482 0.634842944 1.870187006 8.28358E05 0.000244026
44 0.000130482 0.511167614 1.907703507 6.66983E05 0.000248922
45 0.000130482 0.385303386 1.937050929 5.02753E05 0.000252751
46 0.000130482 0.25778923 1.958103601 3.36369E05 0.000255498
47 0.000130482 0.12917118 1.970771373 1.68546E05 0.000257151
48 0.000130482 0 1.975 0 0.000257703
49 0.000130482 0.12917118 1.970771373 1.68546E05 0.000257151
50 0.000130482 0.25778923 1.958103601 3.36369E05 0.000255498
51 0.000130482 0.385303386 1.937050929 5.02753E05 0.000252751
52 0.000130482 0.511167614 1.907703507 6.66983E05 0.000248922
53 0.000130482 0.634842944 1.870187006 8.28358E05 0.000244026
54 0.000130482 0.755799779 1.824662077 9.86185E05 0.000238086
55 0.000130482 0.873520163 1.771323665 0.000113979 0.000231126
56 0.000130482 0.9875 1.710400172 0.000128851 0.000223177
57 0.000130482 1.09725121 1.642152484 0.000143172 0.000214272
58 0.000130482 1.202303822 1.566872847 0.000156879 0.000204449
59 0.000130482 1.302207985 1.48488362 0.000169915 0.000193751
60 0.000130482 1.396535893 1.396535893 0.000182223 0.000182223
61 0.000130482 1.48488362 1.302207985 0.000193751 0.000169915
62 0.000130482 1.566872847 1.202303822 0.000204449 0.000156879
63 0.000130482 1.642152484 1.09725121 0.000214272 0.000143172
64 0.000130482 1.710400172 0.9875 0.000223177 0.000128851
65 0.000130482 1.771323665 0.873520163 0.000231126 0.000113979
66 0.000130482 1.824662077 0.755799779 0.000238086 9.86185E05
67 0.000130482 1.870187006 0.634842944 0.000244026 8.28358E05
68 0.000130482 1.907703507 0.511167614 0.000248922 6.66983E05
69 0.000130482 1.937050929 0.385303386 0.000252751 5.02753E05
70 0.000130482 1.958103601 0.25778923 0.000255498 3.36369E05
71 0.000130482 1.970771373 0.12917118 0.000257151 1.68546E05
72 0.000130482 1.975 0 0.000257703 0
73 0.000130482 1.970771373 0.12917118 0.000257151 1.68546E05
74 0.000130482 1.958103601 0.25778923 0.000255498 3.36369E05
75 0.000130482 1.937050929 0.385303386 0.000252751 5.02753E05
76 0.000130482 1.907703507 0.511167614 0.000248922 6.66983E05
77 0.000130482 1.870187006 0.634842944 0.000244026 8.28358E05
78 0.000130482 1.824662077 0.755799779 0.000238086 9.86185E05
79 0.000130482 1.771323665 0.873520163 0.000231126 0.000113979
80 0.000130482 1.710400172 0.9875 0.000223177 0.000128851
81 0.000130482 1.642152484 1.09725121 0.000214272 0.000143172
82 0.000130482 1.566872847 1.202303822 0.000204449 0.000156879
83 0.000130482 1.48488362 1.302207985 0.000193751 0.000169915
84 0.000130482 1.396535893 1.396535893 0.000182223 0.000182223
85 0.000130482 1.302207985 1.48488362 0.000169915 0.000193751
86 0.000130482 1.202303822 1.566872847 0.000156879 0.000204449
153
87 0.000130482 1.09725121 1.642152484 0.000143172 0.000214272
88 0.000130482 0.9875 1.710400172 0.000128851 0.000223177
89 0.000130482 0.873520163 1.771323665 0.000113979 0.000231126
90 0.000130482 0.755799779 1.824662077 9.86185E05 0.000238086
91 0.000130482 0.634842944 1.870187006 8.28358E05 0.000244026
92 0.000130482 0.511167614 1.907703507 6.66983E05 0.000248922
93 0.000130482 0.385303386 1.937050929 5.02753E05 0.000252751
94 0.000130482 0.25778923 1.958103601 3.36369E05 0.000255498
95 0.000130482 0.12917118 1.970771373 1.68546E05 0.000257151
96 0.000130482 0 1.975 0 0.000257703

The values of stiesses uevelopeu in each stiingei aie tabulateu below:
STRINGER AREA xX
c
yY
c
A*(xX
c
)
2
A*(yY
c
)
2
A*(xX
c
)*(yY
c
) STRESS
m
2
m m m
4
m
4
m
4
N/m
2

1 0.00013 0.12917 1.97077 0.00000 0.00051 0.00003 401437451.3


2 0.00013 0.25779 1.95810 0.00001 0.00050 0.00007 398857081.9
3 0.00013 0.38530 1.93705 0.00002 0.00049 0.00010 394568745.2
4 0.00013 0.51117 1.90770 0.00003 0.00047 0.00013 388590804.6
5 0.00013 0.63484 1.87019 0.00005 0.00046 0.00015 380948858.5
6 0.00013 0.75580 1.82466 0.00007 0.00043 0.00018 371675630.9
7 0.00013 0.87352 1.77132 0.00010 0.00041 0.00020 360810831.2
8 0.00013 0.98750 1.71040 0.00013 0.00038 0.00022 348400984.1
9 0.00013 1.09725 1.64215 0.00016 0.00035 0.00024 334499230.5
10 0.00013 1.20230 1.56687 0.00019 0.00032 0.00025 319165099.9
11 0.00013 1.30221 1.48488 0.00022 0.00029 0.00025 302464255.3
12 0.00013 1.39654 1.39654 0.00025 0.00025 0.00025 284468212.3
13 0.00013 1.48488 1.30221 0.00029 0.00022 0.00025 265254032.8
14 0.00013 1.56687 1.20230 0.00032 0.00019 0.00025 244903994.7
15 0.00013 1.64215 1.09725 0.00035 0.00016 0.00024 223505240.2
16 0.00013 1.71040 0.98750 0.00038 0.00013 0.00022 201149401.9
17 0.00013 1.77132 0.87352 0.00041 0.00010 0.00020 177932211.1
18 0.00013 1.82466 0.75580 0.00043 0.00007 0.00018 153953087.1
19 0.00013 1.87019 0.63484 0.00046 0.00005 0.00015 129314712.4
20 0.00013 1.90770 0.51117 0.00047 0.00003 0.00013 104122592.3
21 0.00013 1.93705 0.38530 0.00049 0.00002 0.00010 78484603.2
22 0.00013 1.95810 0.25779 0.00050 0.00001 0.00007 52510531.01
23 0.00013 1.97077 0.12917 0.00051 0.00000 0.00003 26311600.66
24 0.00013 1.97500 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000 0.00000 0
25 0.00013 1.97077 0.12917 0.00051 0.00000 0.00003 26311600.66
26 0.00013 1.95810 0.25779 0.00050 0.00001 0.00007 52510531.01
27 0.00013 1.93705 0.38530 0.00049 0.00002 0.00010 78484603.2
28 0.00013 1.90770 0.51117 0.00047 0.00003 0.00013 104122592.3
154
29 0.00013 1.87019 0.63484 0.00046 0.00005 0.00015 129314712.4
30 0.00013 1.82466 0.75580 0.00043 0.00007 0.00018 153953087.1
31 0.00013 1.77132 0.87352 0.00041 0.00010 0.00020 177932211.1
32 0.00013 1.71040 0.98750 0.00038 0.00013 0.00022 201149401.9
33 0.00013 1.64215 1.09725 0.00035 0.00016 0.00024 223505240.2
34 0.00013 1.56687 1.20230 0.00032 0.00019 0.00025 244903994.7
35 0.00013 1.48488 1.30221 0.00029 0.00022 0.00025 265254032.8
36 0.00013 1.39654 1.39654 0.00025 0.00025 0.00025 284468212.3
37 0.00013 1.30221 1.48488 0.00022 0.00029 0.00025 302464255.3
38 0.00013 1.20230 1.56687 0.00019 0.00032 0.00025 319165099.9
39 0.00013 1.09725 1.64215 0.00016 0.00035 0.00024 334499230.5
40 0.00013 0.98750 1.71040 0.00013 0.00038 0.00022 348400984.1
41 0.00013 0.87352 1.77132 0.00010 0.00041 0.00020 360810831.2
42 0.00013 0.75580 1.82466 0.00007 0.00043 0.00018 371675630.9
43 0.00013 0.63484 1.87019 0.00005 0.00046 0.00015 380948858.5
44 0.00013 0.51117 1.90770 0.00003 0.00047 0.00013 388590804.6
45 0.00013 0.38530 1.93705 0.00002 0.00049 0.00010 394568745.2
46 0.00013 0.25779 1.95810 0.00001 0.00050 0.00007 398857081.9
47 0.00013 0.12917 1.97077 0.00000 0.00051 0.00003 401437451.3
48 0.00013 0.00000 1.97500 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000 402298803.9
49 0.00013 0.12917 1.97077 0.00000 0.00051 0.00003 401437451.3
50 0.00013 0.25779 1.95810 0.00001 0.00050 0.00007 398857081.9
51 0.00013 0.38530 1.93705 0.00002 0.00049 0.00010 394568745.2
52 0.00013 0.51117 1.90770 0.00003 0.00047 0.00013 388590804.6
53 0.00013 0.63484 1.87019 0.00005 0.00046 0.00015 380948858.5
54 0.00013 0.75580 1.82466 0.00007 0.00043 0.00018 371675630.9
55 0.00013 0.87352 1.77132 0.00010 0.00041 0.00020 360810831.2
56 0.00013 0.98750 1.71040 0.00013 0.00038 0.00022 348400984.1
57 0.00013 1.09725 1.64215 0.00016 0.00035 0.00024 334499230.5
58 0.00013 1.20230 1.56687 0.00019 0.00032 0.00025 319165099.9
59 0.00013 1.30221 1.48488 0.00022 0.00029 0.00025 302464255.3
60 0.00013 1.39654 1.39654 0.00025 0.00025 0.00025 284468212.3
61 0.00013 1.48488 1.30221 0.00029 0.00022 0.00025 265254032.8
62 0.00013 1.56687 1.20230 0.00032 0.00019 0.00025 244903994.7
63 0.00013 1.64215 1.09725 0.00035 0.00016 0.00024 223505240.2
64 0.00013 1.71040 0.98750 0.00038 0.00013 0.00022 201149401.9
65 0.00013 1.77132 0.87352 0.00041 0.00010 0.00020 177932211.1
66 0.00013 1.82466 0.75580 0.00043 0.00007 0.00018 153953087.1
67 0.00013 1.87019 0.63484 0.00046 0.00005 0.00015 129314712.4
68 0.00013 1.90770 0.51117 0.00047 0.00003 0.00013 104122592.3
69 0.00013 1.93705 0.38530 0.00049 0.00002 0.00010 78484603.2
70 0.00013 1.95810 0.25779 0.00050 0.00001 0.00007 52510531.01
71 0.00013 1.97077 0.12917 0.00051 0.00000 0.00003 26311600.66
72 0.00013 1.97500 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000 0.00000 0
155
73 0.00013 1.97077 0.12917 0.00051 0.00000 0.00003 26311600.66
74 0.00013 1.95810 0.25779 0.00050 0.00001 0.00007 52510531.01
75 0.00013 1.93705 0.38530 0.00049 0.00002 0.00010 78484603.2
76 0.00013 1.90770 0.51117 0.00047 0.00003 0.00013 104122592.3
77 0.00013 1.87019 0.63484 0.00046 0.00005 0.00015 129314712.4
78 0.00013 1.82466 0.75580 0.00043 0.00007 0.00018 153953087.1
79 0.00013 1.77132 0.87352 0.00041 0.00010 0.00020 177932211.1
80 0.00013 1.71040 0.98750 0.00038 0.00013 0.00022 201149401.9
81 0.00013 1.64215 1.09725 0.00035 0.00016 0.00024 223505240.2
82 0.00013 1.56687 1.20230 0.00032 0.00019 0.00025 244903994.7
83 0.00013 1.48488 1.30221 0.00029 0.00022 0.00025 265254032.8
84 0.00013 1.39654 1.39654 0.00025 0.00025 0.00025 284468212.3
85 0.00013 1.30221 1.48488 0.00022 0.00029 0.00025 302464255.3
86 0.00013 1.20230 1.56687 0.00019 0.00032 0.00025 319165099.9
87 0.00013 1.09725 1.64215 0.00016 0.00035 0.00024 334499230.5
88 0.00013 0.98750 1.71040 0.00013 0.00038 0.00022 348400984.1
89 0.00013 0.87352 1.77132 0.00010 0.00041 0.00020 360810831.2
90 0.00013 0.75580 1.82466 0.00007 0.00043 0.00018 371675630.9
91 0.00013 0.63484 1.87019 0.00005 0.00046 0.00015 380948858.5
92 0.00013 0.51117 1.90770 0.00003 0.00047 0.00013 388590804.6
93 0.00013 0.38530 1.93705 0.00002 0.00049 0.00010 394568745.2
94 0.00013 0.25779 1.95810 0.00001 0.00050 0.00007 398857081.9
95 0.00013 0.12917 1.97077 0.00000 0.00051 0.00003 401437451.3
96 0.00013 0.00000 1.97500 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000 402298803.9

156
CONCLUSION

Thus,wecometotheendofaerodynamicandstructuralconceptualdesign
of the allocated 160seater passenger aircraft. Briefly, the design
commenced with the analysis of various aircraft the same class as ours, in
passengercapacity.Usingthisdata,arudimentarydesignwasarrivedupon
asanaverageoftheircharacteristics.
In the first section, this design was refined using exhaustive analysis and
iterative methods, to finally satisfy the requirements pertaining to
aerodynamics and flight mechanics. An analysis was also made into the
performanceaswellasthestabilityandcontroloftheaircraft.
In the second section the structural design of the aircraft was performed,
paying attention to the loads acting on the aircraft, and an attempt was
madetoensurestructuralintegrityoftheaircraftforallflightconditions.
It can be safely said that a sincere effort in this subject is more than
sufficient to understand the procedure involved in the actual design of an
aircraft. The challenges we faced at various phases of the project made
clear the fact that experience plays a vital role in successful design of any
aircraft or aircraft component. With the design project as a base, our
understandingofvariousconceptsinthefieldofaerospacedesignhasbeen
fortified. We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to all those who
havebeeninstrumentalinthesuccessfulcompletionofourAircraftDesign
Project.

157
REFERENCES

Aerodynamicdesign:

JanesAlltheworldsaircraft
AircraftdesignAConceptualApproachDanielP.Raymer
DesignofAircraftThomasCorke
AircraftPerformanceandDesignJ.D.Anderson
AircraftPerformance,StabilityandControlPerkinsandHage
FluidDynamicDragHoerner
SummaryofAirfoilDataAbbott,DoenhoffandStivers
www.airliners.net
www.wikipedia.org
www.aerospaceweb.org

Structuraldesign:

AnalysisofAircraftStructuresE.F.Bruhn
AircraftStructuresforEngineeringStudentsT.H.GMegson
AircraftStructuresPeeryandAzar
AirplaneDesignJanRoshkam

158