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CHAPTER 7 CLIMB PERFORMANCE PAGE 7.1 7.2 7.3 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF TEST THEORY 7.3.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7.3.2 STEADY STATE APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE 184.108.40.206 FORCES IN FLIGHT 220.127.116.11 CLIMB ANGLE 18.104.22.168 CLIMB GRADIENT 22.214.171.124 RATE OF CLIMB 126.96.36.199 TIME TO CLIMB 188.8.131.52 SUMMARY OF STEADY STATE CLIMB 184.108.40.206 THRUST EFFECTS 7.3.3 TOTAL ENERGY APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE 220.127.116.11 TIME BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE 18.104.22.168.1 SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS TOTAL ENERGY 22.214.171.124 FUEL BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE 126.96.36.199.1 TIME VERSUS FUEL BASED CLIMB 188.8.131.52.2 MAXIMUM RANGE CLIMB SCHEDULE TEST METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 7.4.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB 184.108.40.206 DATA REQUIRED 220.127.116.11 TEST CRITERIA 18.104.22.168 DATA REQUIREMENTS 22.214.171.124 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 7.4.2 CHECK CLIMB TEST 126.96.36.199 DATA REQUIRED 188.8.131.52 TEST CRITERIA 184.108.40.206 DATA REQUIREMENTS DATA REDUCTION 7.5.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB 220.127.116.11 SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CORRECTION 18.104.22.168 DRAG CORRECTION 22.214.171.124 THRUST LIFT CORRECTION 126.96.36.199 ALTITUDE CORRECTION 7.5.2 COMPUTER DATA REDUCTION 188.8.131.52 ENERGY ANALYSIS 184.108.40.206 SAWTOOTH CLIMB DATA ANALYSIS 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.9 7.10 7.12 7.13 7.15 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.25 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.33 7.33 7.33 7.36 7.36 7.37 7.37 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.50 7.54
58 7.9 MISSION SUITABILITY SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE GLOSSARY 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7.9.58 7.8 7.60 7.10 7.60 7.ii .7 7.2 GREEK SYMBOLS REFERENCES 7.56 7.9.1 NOTATIONS 7.55 7.
21 7.3 7.5 7.17 7.4 7.19 7.10 7.22 7.1 7.19 7.18 7.13 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE CHAPTER 7 FIGURES PAGE 7.7 7.9 7.23 CLIMB CORRECTION FACTOR FORCES IN CLIMBING FLIGHT CLIMB VECTORS WIND EFFECT ON CLIMB ANGLE THRUST AND DRAG POWER AVAILABLE AND REQUIRED TIME TO CLIMB INTEGRATION CLASSIC RATE OF CLIMB PERFORMANCE HODOGRAPH THRUST EFFECTS FOR JETS THRUST EFFECTS FOR PROPS SUBSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE MINIMUM TIME TO CLIMB SUPERSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE TYPICAL ENERGY LEVEL CLIMB PATH SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CURVE REFERRED FUEL FLOW ACTUAL FUEL FLOW MINIMUM FUEL CLIMB SCHEDULE OPTIMAL TIME AND FUEL CLIMBS SAWTOOTH DATA CARD CHECK CLIMB STANDARD DAY RATE OF CLIMB 7.4 7.27 7.15 7.20 7.11 7.27 7.8 7.23 7.14 7.6 7.12 7.7 7.44 7.29 7.13 7.iii .18 7.34 7.5 7.31 7.11 7.9 7.14 7.22 7.24 7.15 7.30 7.16 7.2 7.17 7.8 7.28 7.
29 7.46 7.51 7.48 7.24 7.iv .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7.30 ENERGY RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMB INTEGRATION RESULTS FOR DISTANCE REFERRED FUEL USED STANDARD DAY FUEL USED FUEL USED IN CLIMB RATE OF CLIMB FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS CLIMB ANGLE FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7.49 7.50 7.28 7.25 7.47 7.27 7.26 7.52 7.
5 (Eq 7.4) 7.5 7.D .5 (Eq 7.T .6 = T cos α .7) 7.W sin γ = g =0 G j R dt T Nx (Eq 7.8) 7.W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j T cos α .12) 7.3 dh = Ps dt (Eq 7.3 CCF = 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.D .9) (Eq 7.2) (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE CHAPTER 7 EQUATIONS PAGE V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7.6) 7.2 7.T G j R 7.v .6 7.2 V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt dV dV dh = dt dh dt dV dh Ps = dh + V g dh dt dt Ps = dh 1 + V dV g dh dt 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.T .3 L .3 (Eq 7.W sin γ = W ax g G j R L = W cos γ dV W T T cos α .10) 7.3) (Eq 7.11) (Eq 7.1) 7.2 7.5) 7.
20) 7.10 h 1 dh = h 1 t= ∫ dh ∫ 0 dh 0 ROC dt (Eq 7.vi .13) -1 Nx 7.6 -D V= T ROC = dh = dt Nx W (Eq 7.19) 7.21) 7.21 7.17) (Eq 7.20 dh + V dV g T dt = Ps dE = dh + V dV g h dE dt = h (Eq 7.24) 7.14) -D V = dh = Vv dt Nx W T Nx 7.16) 7.6 T γ = sin Nx -D (Eq 7.D = W sin γ (Eq 7.21 Ps (Eq 7.12 7.14 7.20 h Time to Climb = ∫ h 2 1 (Eq 7.14 Vv = V sin γ T V hor = V cos γ T Rate of Climb = Ps ( ( 1 dV V T 1+ g dh dV T 1+ V g dh Ps ) ) dh (Eq 7.22) (Eq 7.Preq A W 7.18) (Eq 7.15) V-DV W = P .23) 7.21 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE T .6 V sin γ = W T (Eq 7.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE E h Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.dW = .1 = .25 W W Fuel to Climb = ∫ dW = .dW dt = f dE dE dt dE Ps h h h dW E h 2 W .26 V E h 2 T =h Test Test + Test 2g ( dh ) dt Ps = Ps Test Test ( 1 V 1+ V T ref dV T g V + dh T ) (∆T Nx (Eq 7.29) 7. f 1 (Eq 7.27) 7.33) 7.∫ 1 2 2 E 1 dE dE h h h 1 dW (Eq 7.37 (Eq 7.vii .26) 7.30) 7.32) 7.25) V dV dh T T = + g dW dW E h 1 = d dW dW h dE ( ) V h+ 2 T 7. (Eq 7.38 2 W ∆D = D Std -D Test = ( 2 2 -W Std Test ) 2 π e AR S γ Pa M (Eq 7.∆D) (Eq 7.25 .25 Fuel to Climb = ∫ E h W .39 7.21 2g (Eq 7. f Ps 1 dE = ∫ h E h 1 dE Ps h W .38 W Std = Ps Test Std T Std Std Test W V T W Test Std 7.28) E h 2 7.31) .
42 7.41 7.41) W P sin α j (Eq 7.42 L = W cos γ .34) (Eq 7.44) t t 2 .40 2 ∆D = ( W ) (Eq 7.273.37) 7.46 Fuel Used = ∫ W dt f 1 (Eq 7.45) (Eq 7.40) (Eq 7.W cos2γ Std Std Test Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl 2 2 2 n -W n2 Std z Std Test z Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl 7.40 (W ) (Eq 7. ∆T a N t t 2 ( ) Distance = ∫ V cos γ dt T 1 (Eq 7.46) 7.T nz = L W nz = cos γ T G G sin α (Eq 7.39) j 7.41 dh dt V T (Eq 7.52 ˚C = ˚K .36) 7.15 7.40 ( dh ) dt γ Std = Ps Std = sin -1 ( ( ) Std 1 V dV T 1 + gT dh ) (Eq 7.42 7.40 7. 7.38) 7.42) (Eq 7.43) 7.35) 2 2 cos2γ .viii .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE L = nz W nz = cos γ 2 ∆D = (Eq 7.44 ∆Τ = f ∆H .47 7.
48) 7.49) (Eq 7.47) (Eq 7.52 7.52 7. M ( ) (Eq 7.50) 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE OAT = f Ta.53 7.ix .53 Ta = f ( OAT. M T ( T ) h=H P +∆ H c ref Pc ( ) Ta T std (Eq 7. M ) V = f OAT.
Conditions for the shortest time to climb. Conditions for minimum fuel used to climb. Climb schedules for the above conditions. An interceptor launching to take over a particular combat air patrol (CAP) station is primarily interested in climbing to altitude with the minimum expenditure of fuel. 3. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Climb performance is evaluated in various ways depending on the aircraft mission. Different missions may require optimization of other factors during the climb. the sawtooth climb method can be used successfully for lower performance aircraft during climb speed determination and is also suited for single engine climb performance evaluation in the takeoff or wave-off configuration. the desire is to reach intercept altitude with the best fighting speed or energy in the minimum time. 2. 7. Conditions for best climb rate.2 PURPOSE OF TEST The purpose of this test is to determine the following climb performance characteristics: 1. Conditions for best climb angle.1 . 7. However. Primary emphasis in this chapter is on energy analysis since measuring climb performance in jet aircraft and determining climb performance for various climb schedules is best done through energy methods. This chapter also discusses the sawtooth climb as an alternate test method of determining specific excess power.CHAPTER 7 CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7. If launching on an intercept. Evaluate the requirements of pertinent military specifications. An attack aircraft launching on a strike mission is primarily interested in climbing on a schedule of maximum range per pound of fuel used. 5. 6.
The sawtooth climb is more time consuming than the level acceleration run. Climbing at constant indicated airspeed is not constant VT. If true airspeed is constant. which is rarely the case. then dVT/dt in Eq 7.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMBS The primary method of determining specific excess power (Ps) is the level acceleration.2) The only time P s is equal to rate of climb is when the climb is done at a constant true airspeed.5. except when climbing in the stratosphere on a standard day.2.3.3 and substituted into Eq 7.1) V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt (Eq 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. There are conditions where the sawtooth climb is more applicable.3) 7.3 THEORY 7. dV/dt can be expressed as in Eq 7. true airspeed (VT) must be evaluated in the climb. Sawtooth climb is a secondary method of determining Ps. Ps is calculated by measuring energy height as in Eq 7.2 . Climbing at constant Mach number is not constant VT either. especially in determining single engine wave-off for multiengine airplanes or climb in the approach configuration for a jet. The sawtooth climb is one method of obtaining the airspeed schedule for maximum rate of climb.1 then taking the time derivative as in Eq 7.4 and Eq 7. V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7. The results of tests are derived from a series of short.1 to derive Eq 7. dV dV dh = dt dh dt (Eq 7.2 is zero. To express rate of climb potential in terms of P s. From the chain rule. timed climbs through the same altitude band. The test provides limited information on overall climb performance but does establish the best airspeed at which to climb at a specific altitude.
If the aircraft is accelerating during the climb as in a constant indicated airspeed schedule.7) Where: CCF Eh g h Ps t V VT Climb correction factor Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed There are three cases to consider about the CCF. but the actual rate of climb is adjusted by the velocity change along the climb path (dVT/dh). 1.6) Specific excess power is nearly independent of the climb or acceleration path for modest climb angles. A term called the climb correction factor (CCF) represents the values within the brackets of Eq 7. ft ft/s2 ft ft/s2 s ft/s ft/s.4) Ps = (Eq 7. 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE dV dh Ps = dh + V g dh dt dt dh 1 + V dV g dh dt (Eq 7.6 and is useful in evaluating rate of climb. the rate of climb potential is: dh = Ps dt 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7. CCF < 1 and rate of climb is less than Ps.5) Knowing Ps and the climb schedule.3 . CCF is defined as follows: CCF = 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.
2.000 ft 0 . The following paragraphs are intended to present a quick overview of the classical approach.5 Climb Correction Factor CCF 2. For a low speed aircraft the factor does not have much significance.3.2 STEADY STATE APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE The classical approach to aircraft climb performance problems was to use the static or steady state case. This approach was derived before the total energy theory was developed.4 . the influence of the CCF on rate of climb is significant. 7. CCF =1 and rate of climb equals Ps.0 1. 3. as in a constant Mach number through decreasing temperature. If the aircraft is decelerating while climbing.1 CLIMB CORRECTION FACTOR 7.0 Mach Number M 1.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 2. If the aircraft is climbing at a constant true airspeed. True airspeed had to be held constant.5 0 i Constant M h < 35.1 illustrates CCF as a function of Mach number.5 h = 20.5 2.0 Figure 7. CCF > 1 and rate of climb is greater than Ps. One major assumption was the aircraft had no acceleration along the flight path.5 1.0 Constant V . Figure 7.000 ft 1. and is inadequate for analyzing climb profiles of supersonic aircraft where both true airspeed and altitude change rapidly. For supersonic aircraft however.
or at a constant true airspeed.3.1 FORCES IN FLIGHT The forces acting on an aircraft in a climb are presented in figure 7.2 FORCES IN CLIMBING FLIGHT Forces perpendicular to the flight path are: L .9) By assuming angle of attack (α) is small. L αj γ Flight Pat Horizon D T G T sin α G TR j γ TG cos α W j W cos γ W sin γ Figure 7.W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j Forces parallel to the flight path are: T cos α .8) (Eq 7. the equations reduce to: L = W cos γ (Eq 7.2 for review and can be resolved perpendicular and parallel to the flight path.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7.2. and the aircraft is in a steady climb where acceleration parallel flight path (ax) is zero.W sin γ = W ax g G j R (Eq 7.D . the engines are closely aligned with the fuselage reference line.5 .10) 7.T .
and is graphically shown in figure 7.11) Nx R (Eq 7.15) Nx W Angle of attack Thrust angle Acceleration parallel flight path Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Drag Rate of climb Flight path angle Lift Gross thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Ram drag Velocity True airspeed Vertical velocity Weight 7. By maximizing specific excess thrust.T .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE dV W T T cos α . If both sides of Eq 7.W sin γ = g =0 G j R dt T = T cos α .D . the climb angle is greatest.6 . T V sin γ = Where: α αj ax az D dh/dt γ L TG TNx TR V VT Vv W -D V = dh = Vv dt deg deg ft/s2 ft/s2 lb ft/s deg lb lb lb lb ft/s ft/s ft/s lb.D = W sin γ (Eq 7.13 are multiplied by V an expression for rate of climb is developed.13) With true airspeed held constant.T G j (Eq 7. a useful expression for γ can be found: T -D (Eq 7. (Eq 7. as Eq 7.14) γ = sin -1 Nx W The term in brackets is specific excess thrust.12) T Nx .3.15.
2 CLIMB ANGLE hor As seen in Eq 7.15 shows if net thrust is greater than drag.CLIMB PERFORMANCE V Vv γ V Figure 7. dh/dt is positive and a climb results. Wind is also a factor.2. depends on specific excess thrust (TNx D)/W. However. As the aircraft climbs. The prime reason for optimizing climb angle might be to gain obstacle clearance during some portion of the flight.3 CLIMB VECTORS Eq 7. γ. climb angle decreases as weight increases. 7. The effect of increasing weight on climb angle can be evaluated from Eq 7. Increasing altitude decreases specific excess thrust and the climb angle.7 .3. the propulsive thrust decreases. Since climb angle is inversely proportional to weight. Winds do affect this distance and give apparent changes in γ as depicted in figure 7. There is an absolute ceiling where TNx = D and γ = 0. the maximum climb angle must give the most altitude gained for horizontal distance covered.14.14. A steady wind has no effect on the climb angle of the aircraft relative to the moving air mass. the climb angle. 7.4. Drag remains essentially constant.
the maximum excess thrust at military thrust occurs close to VL/Dmax. A jet lacking thrust augmentation usually climbs at the velocity for minimum drag or minimum thrust required to achieve the maximum climb angle. γmax may occur over an airspeed band. In general. is a function of airspeed. This is a classical result and leads to the assumption γmax occurs at VL/Dmax. But.4 WIND EFFECT ON CLIMB ANGLE Excess thrust. the same can be said for a turbofan.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE V γ Head Wind No Wind Tail Wind Figure 7. 7. thrust available varies with airspeed and γmax occurs at other airspeeds.8 .D. TNx . The net thrust available from a pure turbojet varies little with airspeed at a given altitude. With thrust augmentation. The aircraft must be flown at the velocity where maximum excess thrust occurs to achieve the maximum climb angle.5. In figure 7.
whether specific excess thrust is measured directly or calculated from independent estimates of thrust.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 L D 1 max TN max Thrust or Drag .2.5 THRUST AND DRAG Specific excess thrust determines climb angle.9 . and weight. 7.3 by dividing Vv by Vhor or by measuring tan γ. or tan γ = 1 (45 deg).3.3 CLIMB GRADIENT Climb gradient is the altitude gained for the distance traveled. drag. The gradient can be determined from figure 7.lb x 10 T or D 3 TN Buffet Limit mil 100 200 300 400 True Airspeed . 7.kn V T 500 600 Figure 7. The gradient is usually expressed in percent where 100% occurs when Vv = Vhor.
This is similar to excess thrust. 7.15 can be rewritten as Eq 7.16. Then Eq 7. Figure 7.4 RATE OF CLIMB Eq 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. depends upon specific excess power.3.16) Drag Rate of climb Net thrust parallel flight path Power available Power required Rate of climb Velocity Weight lb ft/s lb ft-lb/s ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s. Excess power is also defined as the difference between the power available to do work in a unit of time and the work done by drag per unit time. dh/dt is rate of climb at constant airspeed.Preq A W Nx Nx W (Eq 7.6 depicts a typical curve of power available and required. T ROC = dh = dt Where: D dh/dt TNx PA Preq ROC V W -D V= T V-DV W = P . Power available can be expressed as net thrust times velocity (TNx x V) and power lost to drag as drag times velocity (D x V). kn lb.2 shows rate of climb. In specific excess power.10 .2. which was defined as the difference between net thrust available and drag (thrust required) at a specific weight. dh/dt.
kn V T Figure 7.6 POWER AVAILABLE AND REQUIRED The power required curve is derived by multiplying V by the drag at that speed. The slope of the curve is directly proportional to the magnitude of thrust.6. Depending on the exact shape of the turboprop thrust curve. For the turboprop.11 P R Bo t h . Propeller efficiencies also account for part 7. the thrust tends to decrease with an increase in velocity as also seen in figure 7. the thrust is nearly constant so power available is a straight line originating at V=0. For the military power turbojet. The power available curve is derived by multiplying V by the thrust at that speed.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Prop And Jet At Same Weight P A P rop Power Max ROC Jet AJ et Max ROC Prop L D P max True Airspeed . the maximum value of excess thrust might occur at a speed less than VL/Dmax and close to the speed for minimum thrust horsepower required.
The service ceiling and combat ceiling. Weight affects rate of climb directly and in the same manner as it does climb angle. Increasing weight with no change in excess power reduces rate of climb. At each altitude.3.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE of the curve shape. Wind affects rate of climb negligibly unless gradient and direction changes are large within the air mass. Rate of climb at the absolute ceiling goes to zero when TNx = D and excess power is minimum.17.2.17) Where: h ROC t Tapeline altitude Rate of climb Time ft ft/s s. and specific excess power directly depends upon true airspeed according to Eq 7. defined as the altitudes where 100 ft/min and 500 ft/min rates of climb can be maintained. 7. are also finite altitudes. 7.15. there is one velocity which yields maximum rate of climb. The slope of the curve for power available changes as the true airspeed changes. True airspeed strongly affects rate of climb performance since thrust and drag are functions of velocity. Altitude has an effect on rate of climb similar to its effect upon climb angle. Maximum rate of climb for the jet occurs at much higher true airspeed than that for L/Dmax. That value pertains only to the corresponding altitude. h h t = ∫ 1 dh = ∫ 1 dh 0 dh 0 ROC dt (Eq 7.5 TIME TO CLIMB The rates of climb discussed are instantaneous values.12 . Continuous variations in rate of climb must be attained through integration as in Eq 7.
Both altitude and airspeed must be specified.6 SUMMARY OF STEADY STATE CLIMB A curve of vertical velocity versus horizontal velocity can be used to summarize the steady state performance.17 is not usually available as an analytical function of altitude.ft h Figure 7.3.2. 7.13 . A more accurate method to determine time to climb is discussed in section 7. A rate of climb curve is shown in figure 7.3. 1 dh/dt ∆h Tapeline Altitude . as well as the climb path itself and actual rate of climb at every point.CLIMB PERFORMANCE The term dh/dt in Eq 7. The determination of time to climb then can only be determined graphically as in figure 7.7.7 TIME TO CLIMB INTEGRATION The method is limited by the fact that more information is needed than just the altitude change with time.8.3 7.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE
Rate of Climb - ft/min ROC
Max Rate Of Climb
in rig hO ug o hr Speed For tT Maximum en g Climb Angle an T
Speed For Maximum Rate Of Climb
Maximum Level Flight Airspeed
True Airspeed - kn V
Figure 7.8 CLASSIC RATE OF CLIMB If figure 7.8 is converted into vertical velocity versus horizontal velocity using Eqs 7.17 and 7.18, climb performance can be summarized graphically as in figure 7.9 for the same speed range. Vv = V sin γ
(Eq 7.18) (Eq 7.19)
= V cos γ
Where: γ Vhor VT Vv
Flight path angle Horizontal velocity True airspeed Vertical velocity
deg ft/s ft/s ft/s.
3 Vertical Velocity - ft/s Vv
Horizontal Velocity - ft/s V
Figure 7.9 PERFORMANCE HODOGRAPH A radius vector from the origin to any point on the plot represents the true airspeed and makes an angle to the horizontal equal to the actual climb angle at that speed. From figure 7.9: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 Point 6 220.127.116.11 Maximum level flight airspeed Climb speed at the given rate of climb Speed for maximum rate of climb Speed for maximum climb angle Stall speed Descent THRUST EFFECTS VH VT Vy Vx Vs NA.
The discussion to this point deals with one set of power parameters; however, rate of climb is calculated using Eq 7.16 and changes with throttle position or net thrust parallel to the flight path, TNx.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE T ROC = dh = dt Where: D TNx h PA Preq ROC V W -D V=
V-DV W =
P - Preq A W
Drag Net thrust parallel flight path Tapeline altitude Power available Power required Rate of climb Velocity Weight
lb lb ft ft-lb/s ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s lb.
From a study of drag characteristics for jets, the maximum climb angle speed (Vx) C occurs at L CD max, which is the minimum drag condition. The speed is independent of power setting. The speed for best climb rate, Vy, increases with increasing thrust. Figure 7.10 illustrates the effects discussed.
The speed for maximum climb angle.11 shows the result.17 . does not change with increasing power.CLIMB PERFORMANCE C C L D max Vx Vy Rate of Climb . 7.ft/s V T Figure 7. Vx decreases with the increased power setting as the climb progresses.ft/s ROC Vy Vx Min Drag True Airspeed . the best rate of climb speed. Vy.10 THRUST EFFECTS FOR JETS For the propeller aircraft. Figure 7.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 3 C 2 L D max C Vy Vx Rate of Climb . Schedules based on less information would yield poor results.18 .ft/s ROC Vy Vx True Airspeed . The treatment starts with the subsonic jet and advances to supersonic speeds.3 TOTAL ENERGY APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE Climb schedules can be determined by randomly flying a large number of climb schedules and picking the best schedule based on the flight results.11 THRUST EFFECTS FOR PROPS 7. There are more scientific approaches and this section uses the information attained from the excess power chapter to determine climb performance. the results could be quite good. Each flight requires a climb and if a schedule is selected based on measured Ps data. and specifically climb schedules.ft/s V T Figure 7. 7.3.
Maximum Energy Constant Ps Tapeline Altitude .19 . acceleration is required along the flight path. which is seen as an increase in total energy as shown in Eq 7. or true airspeed.ft h Max Rate Maximum Energy Constant Ps Constant Eh Max Rate Tapeline Altitude . The maximum points occur at increasing airspeed. as altitude increases. sawtooth climbs. 7.ft h Constant E h True Airspeed . Each peak is also the speed for maximum instantaneous rate of climb at that altitude for an aircraft flying at constant true airspeed.12.3.3. thus.12 SUBSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE The peaks of the curves represent the speed at which the maximum specific excess power occurs at each altitude.1 TIME BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE Ps data taken from acceleration runs. Excess power must be divided between the requirements of climbing and acceleration.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7.ft/s V T Specific Kinetic Energy .1. or other methods can be worked up on a cross-plot of altitude and Mach number.ft 2 V 2g Figure 7. with lines of constant energy height as shown in figure 7.
12.1) Where: Eh g h VT Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude True airspeed ft ft/s2 ft ft/s. This curve may be useful if the points of tangency are not well 2g defined. The integration requires determining the actual rate of climb at every point. To put Eq 7. The integration will not work for any portion of the schedule where altitude is not increasing.17 in more useful terms the following equations are used: V dV dE T T h = dh + g dt dt dt Ps = (Eq 7.3.1 SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS TOTAL ENERGY Time to climb is given in Eq 7.17.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 2 T V E =h+ h 2g (Eq 7.2) Rate of Climb = Ps ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh ) dh (Eq 7. 7.21) 7. a schedule for the minimum time to achieve an energy state. or maximum rate of total energy addition. which cannot be easily obtained from figure 7.1. The plot is also shown as a function of specific potential energy (h) and specific V2 kinetic energy ( ).20) h Time to Climb = ∫ h 2 ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh Ps ) (Eq 7.3.20 . is developed as the optimum energy climb schedule. By flying the points where the Ps contours are tangent to the lines of constant energy height.
7. Results for both the maximum rate of climb schedule and the maximum energy climb schedule are shown in figure 7.22) Using the differential form of Eq 7.24) Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.21 .12.13.21. dE = dh + V dV g h dE dt = (Eq 7.23) h Ps E h (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE dh + V dV g T dt = Ps (Eq 7.25) 1 Where: Eh Eh1 Eh2 g h h1 h2 Ps ROC t V VT Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Tapeline altitude start of climb Tapeline altitude end of climb Specific excess power Rate of climb Time Velocity True airspeed ft ft ft ft/s2 ft ft ft ft/s ft/s s ft/s ft/s.1 and substituting it into equation 7. time to climb can be expressed in terms which can be graphically integrated from figure 7.
7. the potential gains by flying this schedule can be negated by the real process of exchanging kinetic and potential energies.13 MINIMUM TIME TO CLIMB The maximum energy climb schedule gives a path defined by altitude and Mach number for transitioning from one energy level to a higher level in the minimum time. and without loss. Theoretical treatments usually assume an ideal model in which the airplane can translate instantaneously.s/ft 1 Ps Climb te Of a um R Maxim Climb nergy um E Maxim Time To Climb E h1 Energy Height . The ideal model works well when the end points of the energy climb are near the maximum energy climb schedule. however.ft E h E h2 Figure 7. The maximum energy climb schedule will give the minimum time between two energy levels. However. The climb schedule actually recommended is often a compromise between the theoretical maximum rate and maximum energy schedules. the maximum energy climb schedule is nearly optimal and is recommended for jets climbing to high altitude.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Inverse of Specific Excess Power . Every point on the maximum energy climb schedule represents the maximum P s for that energy height which will get the aircraft to an energy level faster than any other schedule.22 . along lines of constant energy height. but breaks down when they are not. particularly if the energy levels are close together. For transitions between widely separated energy levels. and may be further modified by considerations such as providing an airspeed or Mach number profile which is easy to fly. the potential energy is lower than in the maximum rate of climb with kinetic energy making up the difference.
Note in this example the optimum climb path includes an acceleration in a dive. Note D Optimum Energy Climb Constant E h Tapeline Altitude . Figure 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE and/or providing a Mach number relative to maximum range or maximum endurance airspeed.14 SUPERSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE If the final speed is near the aircraft’s maximum speed.23 .14) consists of four segments to reach energy state E in minimum time. The path (Figure 7.ft h A 7. the energy schedule becomes more significant. The subsonic climb segment follows a path similar to the one illustrated to the tropopause at state C. Segment DE is the supersonic climb to the final energy state desired at E. after its developer.14 illustrates a typical climb schedule for a supersonic aircraft. An ideal pushover or dive is carried out at constant Eh from C to D. the large speed increase necessary renders the conventional method of using the peaks of the Ps curves useless. The acceleration in the dive is actually part of the optimum climb path. However. This optimum energy climb path is also known as the Rutowski climb path. the energy method works well. Constant Ps E 0 200 100 C 200 300 400 500 B Mach Number M Figure 7. Segment AB represents a constant altitude acceleration from V = 0 to climb speed at state B. This subsonic climb is usually a nearly constant Mach number schedule. For a supersonic aircraft.
8 1. A climb schedule defined by the conventional method of the peaks of the Ps curves at each altitude is undesirable because of the large speed change involved if a speed near the maximum is desired at the end of the climb.4 0.2 0.0 2.ft x 10 3 h 60 50 40 30 20 10 Constant Ps Optimum Energy Climb Path 0.2 Mach Number M Figure 7.8 2.24 .15 illustrates the difficulty in choosing the transition paths when Ps contours become irregular in the transonic region. However.14 illustrates a typical transition using this idea.6 1. the conventional schedule may still be useful if a profile is desired to reach maximum range airspeed at altitude.15 TYPICAL ENERGY LEVEL CLIMB PATH 7.0 1. Constant E h 70 Tapeline Altitude . Figure 7.2 1. Perhaps the most expeditious path is the one toward the highest Ps contour available without decreasing Eh. There is no complete agreement on when to start the pushover. one in a subsonic region and the other in the supersonic region.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE segments BC and DE pass through points on Ps contours which are tangent to lines of constant Eh. The assumption implies the climb should be subsonic until intercepting an Eh level tangent to two Ps contours of equal value. When and how to transition from the subsonic segment to the supersonic segment may be an issue if the Ps contours near M = 1 are poorly defined. Path CD in figure 7.4 1.6 0.
dW dt = f dE dE dt dE Ps h h h dW W . dE = d dW dW h ( ) V h+ 2 T 2g V dV T = dh + gT dW dW (Eq 7. 7.26 as was done in determining time to climb. The energy approach to climb performance can also be used to determine how much total energy is added per pound of fuel consumed.2 FUEL BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE The aircraft mission may require the expenditure of minimum fuel to achieve a given energy level. Change in altitude per pound of fuel used is dh/dW in climbs.26. The sum of both terms equals the change in specific energy with respect to fuel used as in Eq 7.15. real transitions as opposed to ideal zooms and dives.3. where transitions are assumed to be instantaneous.dW = . . This requires specific energy to be differentiated with respect to the change in aircraft gross weight due to fuel used.27) A relationship of fuel flow to specific excess power can be written as Eq 7.∫ 1 2 E 1 dE dE h h h 1 dW (Eq 7.28) 7.28.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Notice in figure 7.3.26) Fuel burned in a climb can be determined by integrating Eq 7. result in a climb path with the corners rounded off. W W E 2 h Fuel to Climb = ∫ dW = . (Eq 7.25 . and the change in airspeed per pound of fuel in accelerations is dV/dW.1 = . The abrupt discontinuities in angle of attack and attitude are avoided in the actual climb.
26 W .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Eq 7. Evaluating Eq 7.ft/s Ps Figure 7. and referred fuel flow curve. From acceleration run data.16 7.ft/s lb/h to Fuel Flow Ps Mach Number M Specific Excess Power . f 1 (Eq 7.29) Where: Eh g h Ps t V VT W ˙ Wf Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed Weight Fuel flow ft ft/s2 ft ft/s s ft/s kn lb lb/h.29 requires combining P s and fuel flow data from other tests.27 can be rewritten as follows: E h Fuel to Climb = ∫ E h 2 W .16. can be generated. similar to figure 7. E h f Ps 1 dE = ∫ h E h 2 1 dE Ps h W . the Ps curve similar to the solid line in figure 7. Ratio of Specific Excess Power .17. f .
the outside air temperature (OAT) and referred fuel flow can be determined versus Mach number.18. For the same acceleration run. 7.lb/h .CLIMB PERFORMANCE SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CURVE Fuel Flow Referred To Total Conditions . the actual fuel flow for standard conditions can be determined as shown in figure 7.27 . W f δ T θ T Outside Air Temperature OAT Figure 7.17 REFERRED FUEL FLOW For a given altitude (δ) and temperature (θ).
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Fuel Flow . ˙ Wf P To develop the minimum fuel climb schedule. the peak of P the s curve occurs at a slower speed than the peak of the Ps curve in figure 7.18 and plotting s versus Mach number as the ˙ Wf dashed curve in figure 18.104.22.168 .16 by P the corresponding points on figure 7. The results are cross-plotted as shown in figure 7. Since fuel flow increases with increasing speed. all the s curves for each altitude are ˙ Wf determined.lb/h .18 ACTUAL FUEL FLOW ˙ The ratio of Ps to Wf can be determined by dividing each point on figure 7. W f Mach Number M Figure 7.16. 7.
3.20 depicts a typical result given the same aircraft following an optimal time climb and an optimal fuel climb. 7.29 .14.1 TIME VERSUS FUEL BASED CLIMB The climb path based on minimum fuel in figure 7.3.19 MINIMUM FUEL CLIMB SCHEDULE 7. s W f Minimum Fuel Climb Path Mach Number M Figure 7. Figure 7.19 appears very much like the time based climb in figure 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Tapeline Altitude .2.ft h Constant E h P Constant .
8 Mach Number M Figure 7.6 1.30 .ft x 10 h 3 50 40 30 20 10 Minimum Fuel Minimum Time 0. actual down range distance traveled 7. the optimal minimum time climb path.20 OPTIMAL TIME AND FUEL CLIMBS The optimal minimum fuel climb path lies above. In practice. an ideal dive.4 1.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 60 Tapeline Altitude .0 1.3. and an ideal zoom to reach the end point. However.2. 7. but roughly parallel. The initial point of the cruise leg is defined by an altitude and an airspeed for a particular gross weight. is close to the optimal time schedule. the optimal fuel path is easier to achieve since the optimal time case requires an ideal climb.3. the minimum fuel climb approximates the no-wind maximum range per pound of fuel.2 MAXIMUM RANGE CLIMB SCHEDULE The maximum range climb schedule should achieve maximum range for fuel used during the climb to a desired altitude and cruise speed. if the cruise speed is near the climb speed for an energy minimum fuel climb. The schedule which gets to that energy level with minimum fuel used. In reality. There are sophisticated mathematical techniques which can be used to determine a theoretical solution.
Power setting is defined by the scope of the test but is the same for each run. A typical flight data card is shown in figure 7. Target Vo Vo Initial HP Final HP ∆t Fuel OAT Misc Figure 7. becomes the test criterion. an incremental increase in speed for the climb schedule slightly improves the range Ps curves. which ever is less. Normally.CLIMB PERFORMANCE in the climb is considered when optimizing the overall range problem which also includes cruise and descent. choose the climb band symmetrically about the target altitude. For a tail wind. Speeds are chosen to bracket the expected best climb speed of the aircraft. The same altitude band is used for each climb. full power is used.4. 7. wind affects the range in a climb.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB A series of timed climbs are made at different speeds from a point below the test altitude to a point above it. until Ps decreases and time. The altitude increment is about 1000 ft either side of a target altitude.3).4. When time is the criterion. For a head wind.21. 7.31 .4 TEST METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 7.21 SAWTOOTH DATA CARD Climbs are performed at the same power setting and aircraft configuration as used in the check climb (paragraph 7. rather than altitude gain. are not characteristic provided the peaks of the ˙ Wf too sharp. or a height change attainable in two minutes. As in the cruise phase. with respect to energy height. an incremental decrease in speed increases range over that obtained from the no-wind schedule.
Power is applied and final trim adjustments are made before reaching the lower limit of the altitude band being measured. Climb perpendicular to the prevailing winds to minimize the effects of wind shear. and a descending turn is initialized to get the aircraft below the altitude band for another run. time.1. 7. a standard data card is prepared similar to figure 7. etc. and a maximum speed point are obtained at the test altitude in order to complete the curve. As many points as possible are flown at each altitude.21 with the target indicated airspeed included for each point. see paragraph 8. 7. For a description of the sawtooth descent flight test technique.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE The aircraft is first trimmed in the configuration desired while still well below the nominal altitude. The description above is only applicable when Ps is determined to be positive. and either outside air temperature or time of day so temperature can be obtained by other meteorological methods. W. except in reverse. For each altitude. Time: Record elapsed time from the beginning of the altitude band to the end. data are recorded. Record actual in-flight Vo. engine RPM. fuel counts or fuel remaining. The card can be expanded to record other parameters such as angle of attack. a full power unaccelerated minimum speed point. If Ps is negative and the airplane is descending.4. examine the plot for points which need repeating. torque. The exact time of entering and leaving the altitude band is recorded by a stopwatch or an instrumentation system. Confine the flights to the bounds of a limited geographical area since the primary concern is the shape of the curve obtained rather than the magnitude. On the back of the data card. or two minutes whichever comes first. Once through the altitude increment. then the same flight test technique applies.1.1 DATA REQUIRED 1.4. keep a running plot of observed time to climb versus Vo and before leaving the test altitude. Altitude: Record the observed pressure altitude HPo band for each point. In addition.32 . 2.
Consider low altitude stall potential in slow speed climb tests and Vmc for multi-engine aircraft.4.4. 3.2 TEST CRITERIA Allow sufficient altitude for the engine(s) to reach normal operating temperatures and the airplane to be completely stabilized at the desired airspeed before entering the data band.4 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS There are no unique hazards or safety precautions associated with sawtooth climbs. 6.1. Vo.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 3. Vo ± 1 kn with smooth corrections. DATA REQUIREMENTS Test altitude band ± 1000 ft about a target altitude. Normal acceleration ± 0.1. it is better to maintain the incorrect speed as accurately as possible. Observe airspeed limits when in the powered approach configuration and engine limits at the selected thrust setting.33 .1. 7. (May be obtained from direct observation). and torque for a turboprop. Velocity: Record observed airspeed. Miscellaneous: Record other information desired such as RPM. 7.1 g. OAT or Ta: Record ambient air temperature from on-board instrumentation at target altitude. 5. Fuel weight: Record the fuel remaining to determine aircraft gross weight. 7. 4. angle of attack. 2. 7.4. If a small airspeed error is made while setting the airplane up. Smoothness is just as important as in acceleration runs and for the same reasons.3 1. rather than try to correct it and risk aborting the entire run.
etc. a mechanical recording means is necessary to obtain simultaneous reading of the many parameters of interest. 2. These are useful to the analyst but are secondary to the three main parameters. and any other desired parameters. 7. For most jet aircraft. angle of attack. data cards are prepared to record the climb data as in figure 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. In addition. engine pressure ratio. Fuel used. Time to climb. After the schedule to be flown is determined. a schedule recommended by the manufacturer.4.34 . fuel flow. Distance traveled. or some other schedule for which climb performance is of interest. exhaust gas temperature. data may be obtained on various engine parameters such as engine speed. speed. 3. The general method is to climb the aircraft to just below the maximum ceiling while maintaining precisely a predetermined climb schedule. This schedule may be a best climb schedule as obtained by flight test.2 CHECK CLIMB TEST The check climb test is flown to compare the standard day climb performance of an aircraft in a specific configuration to results predicted from sawtooth climbs or acceleration runs. Specify the schedule flown on each climb performance chart. gross thrust.22. The three main areas of investigation are: 1. temperature. Record data at approximately equal increments of altitude and include time.
fuel weight. If the rate of climb is high. If the anticipated rate of climb is low. The test area can be sampled via a survey balloon or another aircraft for wind and temperature data. fuel and weigh the aircraft prior to commencement of tests. every 5000 ft is sufficient. The interval is adjusted as the rate of climb decreases with altitude. and acceleration to climb schedule whenever conditions permit. and stable temperature gradients from ground level to the aircraft’s maximum ceiling is desirable. data are recorded every 1000 to 2000 ft. 7. takeoff. and fuel density are extremely important to climb tests. Plan the flight to climb perpendicular to the wind direction. taxi. light winds.35 . Since gross weight.CLIMB PERFORMANCE t Prior to Start Start Taxi Takeoff t H Po NA Fuel temp Fuel density OAT or Ta Fuel remaining NA NA NA Vo target NA NA NA Vo actual OAT or Ta Fuel remaining Misc Figure 7. Record fuel remaining and time for start. An area of smooth air. Fuel samples are taken and tested for temperature and density.22 CHECK CLIMB Adjust target points for instrument error and position error for both the airspeed indicator and altimeter.
As the desired power setting is reached.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Establish level flight as low as possible on climb heading. When preparations are complete and the aircraft is trimmed. A rapid cross-check between external horizon and the airspeed indicator is required. Maneuver as required and re-intercept the climb schedule as soon as possible to minimize gross weight change. If corrections become necessary. Trim the aircraft for hands-off flight. a better entry can be achieved by stabilizing on the target speed 1000 ft below entry altitude. the best entry is achieved by first stabilizing in level flight with partial power at some speed below the scheduled climb speed. and rotate the aircraft simultaneously to maintain airspeed. A slight rate of change of indicated airspeed implies a much larger rate of change of kinetic energy. Any undesirable trend is difficult to stop since the aerodynamic controls are less effective. and constant attention to trim. If the wind gradient effect subsides.36 . it may be necessary to substitute the aircraft attitude indicator for the external horizon during initial portions of the climb. and distance if available. avoid over controlling due to the hysteresis in the airspeed indicator. When all preparations are complete and the data recorder is running. If the climb must be interrupted. maintaining a precise speed schedule becomes difficult. noting Vo. advance the power smoothly. time. if possible. the appropriate corrective action is a small. stop the climb at a given pressure altitude. apply an appropriate corrective action. fuel. If rate of climb is fairly low. If the pitch attitude is very steep. precise control. Maintain the climb schedule to within 5 kn. Descend below the altitude at which the climb was stopped. The best way to cope is to avoid large corrections by a rapid cross-check. During the climb. and as the climb speed is approached. 7. but immediate attitude correction. At high altitudes. rotate to intercept and maintain the climb schedule. trim the aircraft. Intercept the climb at the break off pressure altitude and airspeed after re-establishing attitude and stabilizing the climb. apply power. If the rate of climb is high. stop the rotation. If these affect the climb speed schedule. at which time the aircraft is approximately established on the climb schedule. Wind gradients appear as sudden airspeed changes.
5.2 1. Observed airspeed (Vo). Time (t). Observed pressure altitude (HPo). 2. Fuel remaining (Wf). nz ± 0. 2.1 DATA REQUIRED Record the following data at each climb increment which should be as often as possible but no greater than each 5000 ft or 2 minutes for hand held data: 1. 3. Distance (d). 2.1 g. DATA REDUCTION 7.01 M.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB The sawtooth climb data is reduced similar to the acceleration runs.0. 5. Temperature (OAT or Ta). 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE The test for a turboprop aircraft is identical to the jet test. 4.2. Keep turns to a minimum and use less than 10 degrees bank to keep nz near No more than 30 degrees heading change. 7.2.5 Airspeed ± 5 kn or 0. 1. or start and end fuel weight. 6.4.3 DATA REQUIREMENTS 1. engine torque and engine shaft horsepower (ESHP) are adjusted in the climb. TEST CRITERIA Maintain coordinated wings level flight. In this case however.4.37 . 7. but there are some additional correction factors necessitated by this test method. 7. The engine controls have to be managed to ensure optimum climb power is maintained.2. 7. 3. Miscellaneous as desired.4. 7.
dVT/dh is computed from VT(end) .20 yields: ( dh ) dt Where: Eh EhTest g h hTest Ps = Ps Test Test ( 1 V 1+ T ref dV T g dh ) ft ft ft/s2 ft ft ft/s (Eq 7.38 .31) Energy height Test energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Test tapeline altitude Specific excess power 7. In a similar way.20) Recall: V dV dE T T h = dh + g dt dt dt Ps = (Eq 7.2) Eh for the end points of each sawtooth climb segment are determined from: V E h 2 T =h Test Test + Test 2g (Eq 7. Rate of Climb = Ps ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh ) (Eq 7.VT(start) divided by altitude change. Substituting these values into Eq 7. since a small altitude band is chosen.30) The slope of Eh versus time as the climb passes through the reference altitude (HPref) is P s(Test).20 expresses test day rate of climb in terms of Ps (which is independent of the climb path) and dVT/dh (which defines the climb path). True airspeed is obtained at the reference altitude (VTRef) by linear interpolation between the end points. the average slope is defined by Eh(end) .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Eq 7.Eh(start) divided by elapsed time. In practice.
32) Where: ∆D ∆TNx PsStd PsTest VTStd VTTest WStd WTest 7.5.39 . The drag correction used in the level acceleration data reduction is as follows: 2 W ∆D = D Std -D Test = ( 2 2 -W Std Test ) 2 π e AR S γ Pa M (Eq 7.1.∆D) (Eq 7. SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CORRECTION PsTest is next corrected to standard conditions.CLIMB PERFORMANCE PsTest t V VT VTref VTTest 7.1 Test specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed Reference true airspeed Test true airspeed ft/s s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s. The correction is carried out exactly as it was for the level acceleration data with the exception of the correction for the change in induced drag: W Ps Std V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx .2 Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Standard specific excess energy Test specific excess energy Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed Standard weight Test weight DRAG CORRECTION lb lb ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s lb lb. standard weight and temperature at HP ref.1.33) 7.5.
W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j For TG sin αj = 0.34) (Eq 7.W cos2γ Std Std Test Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl ) (Eq 7.2 shows in a climb. the normal load factor is the cosine of the climb angle: nz = cos γ (Eq 7. L = W.36) Or: 7. since: L = nz W For straight flight. Figure 7. 2. nz = 1 (level flight).35) (Eq 7. and zero acceleration: L = W cos γ Also. Summing the vertical forces: L . even if the thrust vector is aligned with the flight path (TNx sin αj = 0) the lift is not equal to the weight.40 . assuming a parabolic drag polar. T sin αj = 0 (no thrust lift).FIXED WING PERFORMANCE The following assumptions are made: 1.10) (Eq 7. 3. as: 2 ∆D = (W 2 2 cos2γ .8) The drag correction for a climb can now be written.
32 to yield the first iteration of PsStd. The induced drag correction obtained is substituted in Eq 7. the requirement is to find the drag correction in order to compute the corrected rate of climb.37) In applying either Eq 7. However.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 2 ∆D = ( W 2 2 2 n -W n2 Std z Std Test z Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl ) (Eq 7.37.36. γStd in Eq 7.41 . which is in turn substituted in Eq 7. the corrected rate of climb is implicit in the γStd (standard flight path angle) term of the equation. For the first approximation set γStd = γTest.39: ( dh ) dt = Ps Std Std γ Where: αj AR az D DStd DTest e γ g Std = sin -1 ( ) ( ) 1 V dV T 1 + gT dh dh dt V T (Eq 7.36 or Eq 7.39) deg ft/s2 lb lb lb deg ft/s2 Thrust angle Aspect ratio Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Drag Standard drag Test drag Oswald’s efficiency factor Flight path angle Ratio of specific heats Gravitational acceleration 7. Therefore. an iterative method is necessary to solve Eq 7.38 to give the first iteration value of rate of climb and the first iteration of standard day climb angle. in applying Eq 7.36. In other words. and calculate the induced drag correction from Eq 7. where γTest is computed from the test results.36.38) (Eq 7. the standard rate of climb is a function of itself.
8 yields: 7. 7. However. as shown in figure 7. this situation is not likely to occur under the conditions in which sawtooth climbs test techniques are chosen. γ is small and the iteration closes quickly. though the errors introduced by this assumption are small enough to be neglected for most cases.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE γStd γTest L M nz nzStd nzTest π Pa ρssl S TG Ve VT W WStd WTest Standard flight path angle Test flight path angle Lift Mach number Normal acceleration Standard normal acceleration Test normal acceleration Constant Ambient pressure Standard sea level air density Wing area Gross thrust Equivalent airspeed True airspeed Weight Standard weight Test weight deg deg lb g g g psf 0.0023769 slug/ft3 ft2 lb ft/s ft/s lb lb lb.42 . thrust lift must be taken into consideration. For steep climb angles the situation is different and as γ approaches 90˚ the iteration may become unstable. Eq 7.1.3 THRUST LIFT CORRECTION All the previous corrections assumed no contribution to lift from the inclination of the thrust line to the flight path. For airplanes with modest climb capabilities.5. at low speed and high angle of attack. This condition is not generally true. However. This value of γ then becomes γStd in the induced drag correction and the iteration is repeated until γStd is no longer changing.2.
both the ∆TNx and ∆D terms are affected by thrust lift.T G j R (Eq 7.T sin α G j (Eq 7.41) sin α nz = cos γ - G W j (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE L = W cos γ .43 .32. W Ps Std V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx .40) Since induced drag depends on normal acceleration: nz = L W T (Eq 7.42) The equation for the sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is affected since: T Nx = T cos α .12) In Eq 7.∆D) (Eq 7.32) Where: αj ∆D ∆TNx γ L nz PsStd PsTest TG TNx TR VTStd VTTest Thrust angle Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Flight path angle Lift Normal acceleration Standard specific excess power Test specific excess power Gross thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Ram drag Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed deg lb lb deg lb g ft/s ft/s lb lb lb ft/s ft/s 7.
To apply this correction. the α j variation from test day to standard day is needed. These analytical corrections to thrust. An engine thrust model is used to calculate the change in net thrust due to changing altitude and temperature at constant Ve. For example single-engine climb or waveoff performance at 5000 ft can be used to compute data for standard conditions at sea level.e rate of climb corrected for increasing true airspeed) to be plotted for standard conditions. which will in turn affect the induced drag.1. This will again involve the climb angle iteration since the changes in rate of climb and true airspeed will change the climb angle. ∆T a N P ( ) lb ft ˚C.5.23. and the iterative corrections to drag. in the form of rate of climb potential (i. The climb angle. It may be necessary to refer these results to a new altitude. can be minimized by performing the tests as close to the reference altitude as safety and operational restrictions permit. both vary during the iteration process of determining standard day rate of climb. γ. To simplify things. Constant weight and constant Ve correction are used to minimize the change in drag.4 ALTITUDE CORRECTION The foregoing corrections allow Ps. (Eq 7.44 .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE W WStd WTest Weight Standard weight Test weight lb lb lb. α j. The corrected results are presented as shown in figure 7. ∆Τ = f ∆H .43) Where: TN HP Ta Net thrust Pressure altitude Ambient temperature The rate of climb is computed for the new altitude using this thrust correction. 7. 7. and the thrust angle. α j is assumed to be small enough to neglect its effect.
2. standard gross weight. 7. In any event. time and distance.5.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Rate of Climb . the operating system is invisible to the user.1 ENERGY ANALYSIS The purpose of the computer data reduction from energy analysis for climbs is to automatically calculate fuel. This section contains a brief summary of the assumptions and logic which might be used.2 COMPUTER DATA REDUCTION Various computer programs are in existence to assist in reduction of performance data. This program is a subset to an energy analysis program which also calculates Ps from level acceleration runs. however.kn VT Figure 7. energy analysis pertaining to climbs is reviewed. are entered.45 . Basic data such as aircraft type. The treatment is purposefully generic as programs change over time or new ones are acquired or developed.5. Time to climb is calculated as follows: 7.ft/min ROC Sea Level STD Weight STD Day 5000' True Airspeed . Detailed instructions on the use of the particular computer or program are assumed to be available for the computer program. etc.23 STANDARD DAY RATE OF CLIMB 7. Data reduction from Ps level flight acceleration runs are in Chapter 5.
03 .ft E h Figure 7. .44. t t 2 Distance = ∫ V cos γ dt T 1 (Eq 7.05 .04 . therefore the program plots the s function and asks for a curve fit.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE E h Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.02 . The curve appears similar to figure 7.06 Inverse of Specific Excess Power .24 ENERGY RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMB Distance flown in the climb is found by integration of the no wind ground speed with respect to time as in Eq 7.24.01 5000 10000 15000 2000 25000 30000 35000 Energy Height .s/ft 1 Ps .46 .44) 7.25) 1 1 The program must know P as a function of Eh.
t t 2 . The plot should appear similar to figure 7.ft/s 560 520 400 440 0 50 100 150 Time . Fuel Used = ∫ W dt f 1 (Eq 7. the program must know VT cosγ. the program must integrate standard day fuel flow with respect to time as in Eq 7.25 INTEGRATION RESULTS FOR DISTANCE To calculate fuel used.s t 200 250 300 Figure 7.45) ft ft ft deg Where: Eh E h1 E h2 γ Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Flight path angle 7.25 540 600 True Airspeed * cos γ .45.CLIMB PERFORMANCE To perform the integration.47 .
The program first models the engine using referred fuel flow versus OAT.27.48 . 7200 6800 Referred Fuel Flow . Wf 6400 δ θ 6000 5600 5200 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Outside Air Temperature .lb/h . as in figure 7.26 REFERRED FUEL USED From figure 7.26. as in figure 7.26.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Ps t VT ˙ Wf Specific excess power Time True airspeed Fuel flow ft/s s ft/s lb/h.˚C OAT Figure 7. 7. the program calculates standard day fuel flow and plots it versus time.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE 4400 Std Day Fuel Flow .s t 200 250 300 Figure 7.27 STANDARD DAY FUEL USED The program then performs the three integrations using the curve fits determined. W 4000 f 3600 3200 2000 0 50 100 150 Time .49 . and plots altitude versus fuel used. time and distance in the climb.28. 7. One possible example is shown in figure 7.lb/h .
7.ft H P 0 80 160 W 240 320 400 Fuel Weight . From a menu selection.2 SAWTOOTH CLIMB The purpose of the sawtooth climb data reduction program is to calculate rate and climb angle for any given gross weight. f. Target altitude. Bureau number. Standard gross weight. Data entry requirements for the program are as follows: 1. Basic data: a.5. the appropriate choices are made to enter the sawtooth climb program. Date of tests. e. Miscellaneous as allowed by the program. Type of aircraft. based on flight test data. altitude and temperature.50 .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Pressure Altitude . g. d.lb f Figure 7.2. Pilot’s name. c.28 FUEL USED IN CLIMB 7. b.
For each data point: a. e.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 2. Time required (s ). Optional data as allowed by the program.29 and 7. Fuel flow (lb/h). The program plots rate of climb and climb angle for the given altitude versus Vc. f. c.30.29 RATE OF CLIMB FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7. d. as in figures 7.ft/min ROC 2000 1600 1200 800 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 Calibrated Airspeed . 2800 2400 Rate of Climb . Gross weight (lb). b.kn Vc Figure 7. Initial indicated pressure altitude (ft). Indicated airspeed (kn).51 . OAT (˚C) or ambient temp (˚K). g. Final indicated pressure altitude (ft). h.
47) 7. M ) (Eq 7. If ambient temperature (˚K) was entered: ˚C = ˚K .48) (Eq 7. Obtain calibrated altitude (HPc) and calibrated airspeed (Vc) as in Chapter 2.52 .15 OAT = f Ta.273.46) ( ) (Eq 7.30 CLIMB ANGLE FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS The following equations are used for the computer data reduction.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 9 8 Climb Angle .deg γ 7 6 5 4 3 2 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 Calibrated Airspeed .kn Vc Figure 7. M If OAT (˚C) was entered: Ta = f ( OAT.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE True airspeed: V = f OAT.∆D) (Eq 7.53 lb lb lb ft ft ft ft .1) Test day Ps: V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt Standard day Ps: W Ps Std (Eq 7.32) Where: D ∆D ∆TNx Eh h H Pc HPc ref M Drag Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Energy height Tapeline altitude Calibrated pressure altitude Reference calibrated pressure altitude Mach number 7. M T ( T ) (Eq 7.2) V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx .50) Energy height: V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7.49) Altitude: h=H P +∆ H c ref Pc ( ) Ta T std (Eq 7.
are compared with predictions. though they should certainly be determined for high elevation airports and should cover possible emergency diversion with the landing gear stuck down. The theoretical optimum climb schedules are determined as described in section 7.3. The data from the sawtooth climb tests are intended to provide information for use in a far more restricted portion of the flight envelope than from level accelerations. and are modified if necessary to make them flyable with the least penalty in climb performance. the climb schedules are flight-tested and the results. corrected to standard conditions. The airspeed and Mach number schedules represented by these paths are then evaluated to determine whether they can be flown without undue difficulty. The analysis of Ps data is directed towards determining the airplane optimum climb schedules. 7.6 True Mach number Outside air temperature Standard specific excess energy Test specific excess energy Ambient temperature Net thrust parallel flight path Standard temperature True airspeed Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed Standard weight Test weight DATA ANALYSIS ˚C ft/s ft/s ˚K lb ˚K ft/s ft/s ft/s lb lb. The best climb speeds for the landing or single-engine wave-off configurations are unlikely to have much application above a few thousand feet. Finally. The shape of these curves indicate the sensitivity of achieving the desired performance to airspeed errors.54 .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE MT OAT PsStd PsTest Ta TNx TStd VT VTStd VTTest WStd WTest 7. A peaked curve implies small inaccuracies in airspeed result in large performance penalties. by joining the points of maximum Ps (for a “minimum time” schedule) or points of maximum Eh (for a “maximum energy” schedule).
Compatibility of airspeeds / altitudes with the mission and location Performance sensitivities for schedule or airspeed deviations. 7. Still other types of mission may require. Mission suitability conclusions include the flying qualities associated with attaining specific airspeed schedules to climb.7 MISSION SUITABILITY The mission requirements are the ultimate standard for climb performance. The specifications set desired performance in the production aircraft. Consideration of the following items is worthwhile when recommending climb schedules or climb airspeeds: 1. optimization of other factors during the climb.55 . Flight path stability. 7. 3. An attack aircraft launching on a strike mission is primarily interested in climbing on a schedule of maximum range covered per pound of fuel burned. the pure numbers cannot be the only determinant to acceptance of the aircraft. An interceptor launching to intercept an incoming raid is primarily interested in arriving at the attack altitude with the best fighting speed and in the minimum time. 2. As in all performance testing. or desire. They are important in determining whether or not to continue the acquisition process at various stages of aircraft development. Overall performance including climbing flight. As stated in the beginning of the chapter. These specifications are important as measures for contract performance. Climb attitudes. In the case of single engine climb for multi engine aircraft or for wave-off. Field of view. Mission profile or requirements. restrictions. the mission of the airplane and specifically the mission of the flight to be flown determines the optimum condition for the climb. 5.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7. 4. 6. An interceptor is primarily interested in climbing to altitude with the minimum fuel if headed to a CAP station. the test results in sawtooth climbs can develop the appropriate climb speeds to maximize obstacle clearance.
A defined ceiling such as combat ceiling. c.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. standard gross weight. fuel quantity and type at engine start. Instrument departure. Rates of climb for alternate loadings are presented to show the effects of drag changes with various external stores and/or weight changes. The detail specification provides mission profiles to be expected and performance guarantees generically as follows: 1. drag index. The effect of weight reduction during the 7. Instantaneous single engine climb in a given configuration. 2 KIAS/1000 ft decrease to Mach number 0. Air to air combat (offensive and/or defensive) including weapons f. AS-5263. and methods of. Carrier suitability. presenting characteristics and performance data for Naval piloted aircraft. 2. transit. Type of air combat maneuvering. 3. and configuration. b. Generally climb performance is presented as a function of altitude. Wave-off rate of climb in a specific configuration. but in all cases must be approved by the procuring activity. engine(s) type. Deviation from this specification are permissible. Performance guarantees are based on: type of day. 2. Mission requirements. intermediate. loading. Ferry capable. Mach number 0. The type of climb is specified. d. for example: Climb on course to optimum cruise altitude with military power (320 KIAS at sea level.72. Guarantees for climb likely include: 1. and recovery. e.56 . a. AS-5263 further defines requirements for.8 SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE Climb performance guarantees are stated in the detailed specification for the model and in Naval Air System Command Specification. g. deployment. Low level navigation.72 constant to level off). or normal thrust (power). empty gross weight. plotting rate of climb at basic mission combat weight with maximum. Land or sea based.
Performance is based on the latest approved standard atmospheric tables as specified by the Navy. Enroute climb data is based on the appropriate configuration. 13. 7. weight. 4. and thrust (power). Mach number for jets. altitude. All speeds are presented as true airspeed in kn and Mach number. 11. and power. trainers) to cruise altitude is at intermediate (military) thrust. transport) use maximum continuous power.57 . Cruise altitude is the altitude at which the cruise portion of the mission is computed. 3.CLIMB PERFORMANCE climb is not considered. and engine thrust (power). Combat ceiling for subsonic vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 500 ft/min at the stated loading. configuration. weight. General provisions for the presentation of climb performance are as follows: 1. Propeller aircraft (patrol. Cruise ceiling for supersonic cruise vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 300 ft/min at normal (maximum continuous) engine ratting at stated weight and loading. Weight reduction as a result of fuel consumed is applied. Service ceiling is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 100 ft/min at a stated loading. 5. 8. Combat altitude is the altitude at the target for the specific mission given. Cruise ceiling for subsonic cruise vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 300 ft/min at normal (maximum continuous) engine ratting at stated weight and loading. attack. altitude. Optimum cruise altitude is the altitude at which the aircraft attains the maximum nautical miles per pound of fuel for the momentary weight and configuration. Combat climb is the instantaneous maximum vertical speed capability in ft/min at combat conditions. and engine thrust (power). 7. The time to climb to a specified altitude is expressed in minutes from start of enroute climb. 12. 2. The aircraft has the landing gear and flaps retracted and the airspeed for best climb for the applicable condition is presented. Climb speed is the airspeed at which the optimum rate of climb is attained for the given configuration. thrust (power) and weight. 10. weight. weight. weight. 9. 6. Combat ceiling for supersonic vehicles is the highest altitude at which the vehicle can fly supersonically and have a 500 ft/min rate of climb at the stated loading. Enroute climb power for jet aircraft (fighter. VT for propeller aircraft. and engine thrust (power).
9 GLOSSARY 7. In addition. All fuel consumption data.1 NOTATIONS AR ax az CAP CCF CD CL D d ∆D dh/dt DStd DTest ∆TNx e Eh Eh1 Eh2 EhTest ESHP g h h1 h2 Aspect ratio Acceleration parallel flight path Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Combat air patrol Climb correction factor Drag coefficient Lift coefficient Drag Distance Standard drag minus test drag Rate of climb Standard drag Test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Oswald’s efficiency factor Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Test energy height Engine shaft horsepower Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Tapeline altitude start of climb Tapeline altitude end of climb ft/s2 ft/s2 lb ft lb ft/s lb lb lb ft ft ft ft hp ft/s2 ft ft ft 7. 7. is increased by 5 % for all engine thrust (power) conditions as a service tolerance to allow for practical operation. or fans.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 14. unless authorized otherwise. corrections or allowances to engine fuel flow is made for all power plant installation losses such as accessory drives. ducts.58 . The term thrust (power) is used to mean thrust (jet engine) and/or brake horsepower (shaft engines). 15.9. regardless of source.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE HP H Pc HPc ref H Po hTest L M MT nz nzStd nzTest OAT PA Pa Preq Ps PsStd PsTest ROC S t Ta TN TNx TStd V Ve VH Vhor Vi Vmc Vo Vs VT VTref VTStd Pressure altitude Calibrated pressure altitude Reference calibrated pressure altitude Observed pressure altitude Test tapeline altitude Lift Mach number True Mach number Normal acceleration Standard normal acceleration Test normal acceleration Outside air temperature Power available Ambient pressure Power required Specific excess power Standard specific excess power Test specific excess power Rate of climb Wing area Time Ambient temperature Net thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Standard temperature Velocity Equivalent airspeed Maximum level flight airspeed Horizontal velocity Indicated airspeed Airspeed for minimum control Observed airspeed Stall speed True airspeed Reference true airspeed Standard true airspeed 7.59 ft ft ft ft ft lb g g g ˚C ft-lb/s psf ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft2 s ˚C lb lb ˚C ft/s ft/s kn ft/s kn kn kn kn ft/s ft/s ft/s .
AS-5263. U. July 1977.2 GREEK SYMBOLS ft/s ft/s kn kn lb lb lb lb lb/h α (alpha) αj δ (delta) γ (gamma) γStd γTest π (pi) θ (theta) ρssl (rho) Angle of attack Thrust angle Pressure ratio Flight path angle Ratio of specific heats Standard flight path angle Test flight path angle Constant Temperature ratio Standard sea level air density deg deg deg deg deg 0. 104.0023769 slug/ft3 7. MD. Naval Test Pilot School. Fixed Wing Performance. S.10 REFERENCES 1.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE VTTest Vv Vx Vy W Wf WStd WTest ˙ Wf Test true airspeed Vertical velocity Speed for maximum climb angle Speed for maximum rate of climb Weight Fuel weight Standard weight Test weight Fuel flow 7. Naval Air System Command Specification. 7. Patuxent River.9. 23 October.60 . Theory and Flight Test Techniques. Guidelines For Preparation Of Standard Aircraft Characteristics Charts And Performance Data Piloted Aircraft (Fixed Wing). USNTPS-FTM-No. 1986. Naval Test Pilot School Flight Test Manual. 2.
. USAF Test Pilot School. August 1991.61 . 7. 6. March 1954. 5. Volume I.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 3. Performance Flight Test Phase. Petersen.S. J. USAF Test Pilot School. 1958.. MD. USNTPS Patuxent River. July 1987. “Energy Approach to the General Aircraft Maneuverability Problem”. F. 4. Airplane Performance. Performance Planning Guide.. Edwards AFB. 7. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. No 3. USAF Test Pilot School. CA. Powell. CA. E. Edwards AFB.W. USAF Test Pilot School. MD. Patuxent River. Chapter 9. Naval Air Test Center. USNTPS Classroom Notes. Aircraft and Engine Performance.S. Rutowski. Vol 21.
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