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CHAPTER 7 CLIMB PERFORMANCE PAGE 7.1 7.2 7.3 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF TEST THEORY 7.3.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7.3.2 STEADY STATE APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE 188.8.131.52 FORCES IN FLIGHT 184.108.40.206 CLIMB ANGLE 220.127.116.11 CLIMB GRADIENT 18.104.22.168 RATE OF CLIMB 22.214.171.124 TIME TO CLIMB 126.96.36.199 SUMMARY OF STEADY STATE CLIMB 188.8.131.52 THRUST EFFECTS 7.3.3 TOTAL ENERGY APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE 184.108.40.206 TIME BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE 220.127.116.11.1 SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS TOTAL ENERGY 18.104.22.168 FUEL BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE 22.214.171.124.1 TIME VERSUS FUEL BASED CLIMB 126.96.36.199.2 MAXIMUM RANGE CLIMB SCHEDULE TEST METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 7.4.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB 188.8.131.52 DATA REQUIRED 184.108.40.206 TEST CRITERIA 220.127.116.11 DATA REQUIREMENTS 18.104.22.168 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 7.4.2 CHECK CLIMB TEST 22.214.171.124 DATA REQUIRED 126.96.36.199 TEST CRITERIA 188.8.131.52 DATA REQUIREMENTS DATA REDUCTION 7.5.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB 184.108.40.206 SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CORRECTION 220.127.116.11 DRAG CORRECTION 18.104.22.168 THRUST LIFT CORRECTION 22.214.171.124 ALTITUDE CORRECTION 7.5.2 COMPUTER DATA REDUCTION 126.96.36.199 ENERGY ANALYSIS 188.8.131.52 SAWTOOTH CLIMB DATA ANALYSIS 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.9 7.10 7.12 7.13 7.15 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.25 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.33 7.33 7.33 7.36 7.36 7.37 7.37 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.50 7.54
10 7.9.60 7.55 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7.58 7.58 7.7 7.8 7.56 7.60 7.1 NOTATIONS 7.9 MISSION SUITABILITY SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE GLOSSARY 7.2 GREEK SYMBOLS REFERENCES 7.ii .9.
9 7.11 7.14 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE CHAPTER 7 FIGURES PAGE 7.16 7.4 7.15 7.12 7.14 7.8 7.31 7.iii .23 CLIMB CORRECTION FACTOR FORCES IN CLIMBING FLIGHT CLIMB VECTORS WIND EFFECT ON CLIMB ANGLE THRUST AND DRAG POWER AVAILABLE AND REQUIRED TIME TO CLIMB INTEGRATION CLASSIC RATE OF CLIMB PERFORMANCE HODOGRAPH THRUST EFFECTS FOR JETS THRUST EFFECTS FOR PROPS SUBSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE MINIMUM TIME TO CLIMB SUPERSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE TYPICAL ENERGY LEVEL CLIMB PATH SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CURVE REFERRED FUEL FLOW ACTUAL FUEL FLOW MINIMUM FUEL CLIMB SCHEDULE OPTIMAL TIME AND FUEL CLIMBS SAWTOOTH DATA CARD CHECK CLIMB STANDARD DAY RATE OF CLIMB 7.20 7.19 7.17 7.24 7.5 7.27 7.15 7.8 7.7 7.27 7.44 7.3 7.22 7.11 7.21 7.19 7.6 7.1 7.30 7.28 7.23 7.18 7.29 7.9 7.2 7.10 7.17 7.4 7.13 7.5 7.13 7.22 7.7 7.18 7.34 7.
46 7.47 7.27 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7.49 7.24 7.iv .28 7.29 7.48 7.51 7.50 7.26 7.52 7.25 7.30 ENERGY RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMB INTEGRATION RESULTS FOR DISTANCE REFERRED FUEL USED STANDARD DAY FUEL USED FUEL USED IN CLIMB RATE OF CLIMB FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS CLIMB ANGLE FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7.
11) (Eq 7.5 (Eq 7.10) 7.3 L .2) (Eq 7.6 7.v .3) (Eq 7.W sin γ = g =0 G j R dt T Nx (Eq 7.1) 7.5) 7.9) (Eq 7.3 dh = Ps dt (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE CHAPTER 7 EQUATIONS PAGE V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7.3 (Eq 7.6) 7.2 7.3 CCF = 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.T .D .6 = T cos α .T G j R 7.4) 7.8) 7.T .W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j T cos α .5 7.D .5 (Eq 7.12) 7.2 V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt dV dV dh = dt dh dt dV dh Ps = dh + V g dh dt dt Ps = dh 1 + V dV g dh dt 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.7) 7.2 7.W sin γ = W ax g G j R L = W cos γ dV W T T cos α .
14) -D V = dh = Vv dt Nx W T Nx 7.16) 7.10 h 1 dh = h 1 t= ∫ dh ∫ 0 dh 0 ROC dt (Eq 7.12 7.20) 7.20 dh + V dV g T dt = Ps dE = dh + V dV g h dE dt = h (Eq 7.Preq A W 7.24) 7.21 7.21 7.14 Vv = V sin γ T V hor = V cos γ T Rate of Climb = Ps ( ( 1 dV V T 1+ g dh dV T 1+ V g dh Ps ) ) dh (Eq 7.13) -1 Nx 7.23) 7.6 V sin γ = W T (Eq 7.D = W sin γ (Eq 7.18) (Eq 7.19) 7.6 T γ = sin Nx -D (Eq 7.vi .21 Ps (Eq 7.6 -D V= T ROC = dh = dt Nx W (Eq 7.20 h Time to Climb = ∫ h 2 1 (Eq 7.14 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE T .15) V-DV W = P .22) (Eq 7.21) 7.17) (Eq 7.
38 W Std = Ps Test Std T Std Std Test W V T W Test Std 7.37 (Eq 7.32) 7.dW = .26 V E h 2 T =h Test Test + Test 2g ( dh ) dt Ps = Ps Test Test ( 1 V 1+ V T ref dV T g V + dh T ) (∆T Nx (Eq 7.38 2 W ∆D = D Std -D Test = ( 2 2 -W Std Test ) 2 π e AR S γ Pa M (Eq 7.31) .CLIMB PERFORMANCE E h Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.25 .21 2g (Eq 7.25 W W Fuel to Climb = ∫ dW = . f Ps 1 dE = ∫ h E h 1 dE Ps h W .vii .28) E h 2 7.33) 7.dW dt = f dE dE dt dE Ps h h h dW E h 2 W .39 7.26) 7.25 Fuel to Climb = ∫ E h W . (Eq 7.1 = . f 1 (Eq 7.27) 7.∫ 1 2 2 E 1 dE dE h h h 1 dW (Eq 7.29) 7.∆D) (Eq 7.25) V dV dh T T = + g dW dW E h 1 = d dW dW h dE ( ) V h+ 2 T 7.30) 7.
7.36) 7.42 L = W cos γ .37) 7.46) 7.43) 7.W cos2γ Std Std Test Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl 2 2 2 n -W n2 Std z Std Test z Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl 7.40 7.34) (Eq 7.42 7.47 7.44 ∆Τ = f ∆H .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE L = nz W nz = cos γ 2 ∆D = (Eq 7.15 7.52 ˚C = ˚K .42) (Eq 7.273.38) 7.46 Fuel Used = ∫ W dt f 1 (Eq 7.40 ( dh ) dt γ Std = Ps Std = sin -1 ( ( ) Std 1 V dV T 1 + gT dh ) (Eq 7.40 (W ) (Eq 7.45) (Eq 7.40) (Eq 7.42 7. ∆T a N t t 2 ( ) Distance = ∫ V cos γ dt T 1 (Eq 7.39) j 7.41 dh dt V T (Eq 7.41) W P sin α j (Eq 7.40 2 ∆D = ( W ) (Eq 7.35) 2 2 cos2γ .44) t t 2 .41 7.viii .T nz = L W nz = cos γ T G G sin α (Eq 7.
52 7.53 Ta = f ( OAT. M ( ) (Eq 7.52 7. M T ( T ) h=H P +∆ H c ref Pc ( ) Ta T std (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE OAT = f Ta.49) (Eq 7. M ) V = f OAT.ix .47) (Eq 7.50) 7.53 7.48) 7.
If launching on an intercept. An attack aircraft launching on a strike mission is primarily interested in climbing on a schedule of maximum range per pound of fuel used. 5. 2. Conditions for best climb rate. 3. Primary emphasis in this chapter is on energy analysis since measuring climb performance in jet aircraft and determining climb performance for various climb schedules is best done through energy methods. the sawtooth climb method can be used successfully for lower performance aircraft during climb speed determination and is also suited for single engine climb performance evaluation in the takeoff or wave-off configuration.CHAPTER 7 CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7. Conditions for best climb angle. 4. An interceptor launching to take over a particular combat air patrol (CAP) station is primarily interested in climbing to altitude with the minimum expenditure of fuel. Evaluate the requirements of pertinent military specifications. This chapter also discusses the sawtooth climb as an alternate test method of determining specific excess power. Conditions for the shortest time to climb. 6. Conditions for minimum fuel used to climb.2 PURPOSE OF TEST The purpose of this test is to determine the following climb performance characteristics: 1. 7. However. Different missions may require optimization of other factors during the climb.1 INTRODUCTION Climb performance is evaluated in various ways depending on the aircraft mission. Climb schedules for the above conditions.1 . 7. the desire is to reach intercept altitude with the best fighting speed or energy in the minimum time.
dV dV dh = dt dh dt (Eq 7.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMBS The primary method of determining specific excess power (Ps) is the level acceleration.3 THEORY 7. Climbing at constant Mach number is not constant VT either.3) 7.2 is zero. true airspeed (VT) must be evaluated in the climb. except when climbing in the stratosphere on a standard day. There are conditions where the sawtooth climb is more applicable.2 . which is rarely the case.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. dV/dt can be expressed as in Eq 7.4 and Eq 7. V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7. The results of tests are derived from a series of short. The test provides limited information on overall climb performance but does establish the best airspeed at which to climb at a specific altitude.5. then dVT/dt in Eq 7.3 and substituted into Eq 7. If true airspeed is constant. The sawtooth climb is more time consuming than the level acceleration run. Ps is calculated by measuring energy height as in Eq 7.1 then taking the time derivative as in Eq 7. Sawtooth climb is a secondary method of determining Ps. timed climbs through the same altitude band.2.2) The only time P s is equal to rate of climb is when the climb is done at a constant true airspeed.1 to derive Eq 7.1) V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt (Eq 7. To express rate of climb potential in terms of P s. Climbing at constant indicated airspeed is not constant VT. especially in determining single engine wave-off for multiengine airplanes or climb in the approach configuration for a jet. From the chain rule. The sawtooth climb is one method of obtaining the airspeed schedule for maximum rate of climb.3.
CCF is defined as follows: CCF = 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7.6 and is useful in evaluating rate of climb. but the actual rate of climb is adjusted by the velocity change along the climb path (dVT/dh). A term called the climb correction factor (CCF) represents the values within the brackets of Eq 7.5) Knowing Ps and the climb schedule.7) Where: CCF Eh g h Ps t V VT Climb correction factor Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed There are three cases to consider about the CCF. CCF < 1 and rate of climb is less than Ps.3 . 1. If the aircraft is accelerating during the climb as in a constant indicated airspeed schedule. the rate of climb potential is: dh = Ps dt 1 V dV 1 + gT dh (Eq 7. 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE dV dh Ps = dh + V g dh dt dt dh 1 + V dV g dh dt (Eq 7. ft ft/s2 ft ft/s2 s ft/s ft/s.4) Ps = (Eq 7.6) Specific excess power is nearly independent of the climb or acceleration path for modest climb angles.
0 1. Figure 7. the influence of the CCF on rate of climb is significant.0 Constant V .2 STEADY STATE APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE The classical approach to aircraft climb performance problems was to use the static or steady state case.000 ft 0 . The following paragraphs are intended to present a quick overview of the classical approach. One major assumption was the aircraft had no acceleration along the flight path. True airspeed had to be held constant.5 h = 20. CCF > 1 and rate of climb is greater than Ps.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 2. 2.5 2. and is inadequate for analyzing climb profiles of supersonic aircraft where both true airspeed and altitude change rapidly.3. This approach was derived before the total energy theory was developed. 3.0 Figure 7.5 1.5 Climb Correction Factor CCF 2. as in a constant Mach number through decreasing temperature. If the aircraft is decelerating while climbing.5 0 i Constant M h < 35. If the aircraft is climbing at a constant true airspeed. For a low speed aircraft the factor does not have much significance.0 Mach Number M 1. CCF =1 and rate of climb equals Ps. For supersonic aircraft however.4 .000 ft 1. 7.1 illustrates CCF as a function of Mach number.1 CLIMB CORRECTION FACTOR 7.
T .3. L αj γ Flight Pat Horizon D T G T sin α G TR j γ TG cos α W j W cos γ W sin γ Figure 7.10) 7. the equations reduce to: L = W cos γ (Eq 7. or at a constant true airspeed.1 FORCES IN FLIGHT The forces acting on an aircraft in a climb are presented in figure 7.W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j Forces parallel to the flight path are: T cos α .W sin γ = W ax g G j R (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7.2 for review and can be resolved perpendicular and parallel to the flight path.5 . the engines are closely aligned with the fuselage reference line.2 FORCES IN CLIMBING FLIGHT Forces perpendicular to the flight path are: L .2.8) (Eq 7.9) By assuming angle of attack (α) is small.D . and the aircraft is in a steady climb where acceleration parallel flight path (ax) is zero.
14) γ = sin -1 Nx W The term in brackets is specific excess thrust. T V sin γ = Where: α αj ax az D dh/dt γ L TG TNx TR V VT Vv W -D V = dh = Vv dt deg deg ft/s2 ft/s2 lb ft/s deg lb lb lb lb ft/s ft/s ft/s lb.D = W sin γ (Eq 7.12) T Nx .3.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE dV W T T cos α . a useful expression for γ can be found: T -D (Eq 7.11) Nx R (Eq 7. and is graphically shown in figure 7. If both sides of Eq 7.15) Nx W Angle of attack Thrust angle Acceleration parallel flight path Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Drag Rate of climb Flight path angle Lift Gross thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Ram drag Velocity True airspeed Vertical velocity Weight 7.6 . (Eq 7.W sin γ = g =0 G j R dt T = T cos α .15.13) With true airspeed held constant.D . as Eq 7. the climb angle is greatest. By maximizing specific excess thrust.T G j (Eq 7.T .13 are multiplied by V an expression for rate of climb is developed.
Since climb angle is inversely proportional to weight. 7. the propulsive thrust decreases.3.7 .14. As the aircraft climbs.3 CLIMB VECTORS Eq 7. climb angle decreases as weight increases. A steady wind has no effect on the climb angle of the aircraft relative to the moving air mass. The effect of increasing weight on climb angle can be evaluated from Eq 7. Wind is also a factor.CLIMB PERFORMANCE V Vv γ V Figure 7. There is an absolute ceiling where TNx = D and γ = 0. the maximum climb angle must give the most altitude gained for horizontal distance covered. dh/dt is positive and a climb results. Drag remains essentially constant.4.14. The prime reason for optimizing climb angle might be to gain obstacle clearance during some portion of the flight.2 CLIMB ANGLE hor As seen in Eq 7. Increasing altitude decreases specific excess thrust and the climb angle. the climb angle. depends on specific excess thrust (TNx D)/W. Winds do affect this distance and give apparent changes in γ as depicted in figure 7. However.15 shows if net thrust is greater than drag. 7. γ.2.
The net thrust available from a pure turbojet varies little with airspeed at a given altitude. But. A jet lacking thrust augmentation usually climbs at the velocity for minimum drag or minimum thrust required to achieve the maximum climb angle. γmax may occur over an airspeed band. This is a classical result and leads to the assumption γmax occurs at VL/Dmax. is a function of airspeed.8 . the maximum excess thrust at military thrust occurs close to VL/Dmax. the same can be said for a turbofan. TNx . 7. With thrust augmentation.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE V γ Head Wind No Wind Tail Wind Figure 7. The aircraft must be flown at the velocity where maximum excess thrust occurs to achieve the maximum climb angle.D. In figure 7. In general.4 WIND EFFECT ON CLIMB ANGLE Excess thrust.5. thrust available varies with airspeed and γmax occurs at other airspeeds.
7. The gradient is usually expressed in percent where 100% occurs when Vv = Vhor.9 .2. The gradient can be determined from figure 7.3 CLIMB GRADIENT Climb gradient is the altitude gained for the distance traveled. and weight. whether specific excess thrust is measured directly or calculated from independent estimates of thrust. or tan γ = 1 (45 deg).kn V T 500 600 Figure 7. drag. 7.5 THRUST AND DRAG Specific excess thrust determines climb angle.3 by dividing Vv by Vhor or by measuring tan γ.lb x 10 T or D 3 TN Buffet Limit mil 100 200 300 400 True Airspeed .CLIMB PERFORMANCE 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 L D 1 max TN max Thrust or Drag .3.
Preq A W Nx Nx W (Eq 7. which was defined as the difference between net thrust available and drag (thrust required) at a specific weight. kn lb. Excess power is also defined as the difference between the power available to do work in a unit of time and the work done by drag per unit time. Power available can be expressed as net thrust times velocity (TNx x V) and power lost to drag as drag times velocity (D x V).15 can be rewritten as Eq 7. 7. Figure 7.2 shows rate of climb. This is similar to excess thrust. Then Eq 7.16) Drag Rate of climb Net thrust parallel flight path Power available Power required Rate of climb Velocity Weight lb ft/s lb ft-lb/s ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s. depends upon specific excess power.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. T ROC = dh = dt Where: D dh/dt TNx PA Preq ROC V W -D V= T V-DV W = P .3.4 RATE OF CLIMB Eq 7. In specific excess power. dh/dt is rate of climb at constant airspeed.6 depicts a typical curve of power available and required. dh/dt.16.10 .2.
the maximum value of excess thrust might occur at a speed less than VL/Dmax and close to the speed for minimum thrust horsepower required.6 POWER AVAILABLE AND REQUIRED The power required curve is derived by multiplying V by the drag at that speed.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Prop And Jet At Same Weight P A P rop Power Max ROC Jet AJ et Max ROC Prop L D P max True Airspeed .11 P R Bo t h .6. For the turboprop. The power available curve is derived by multiplying V by the thrust at that speed. the thrust is nearly constant so power available is a straight line originating at V=0. For the military power turbojet. Depending on the exact shape of the turboprop thrust curve. Propeller efficiencies also account for part 7.kn V T Figure 7. The slope of the curve is directly proportional to the magnitude of thrust. the thrust tends to decrease with an increase in velocity as also seen in figure 7.
At each altitude. there is one velocity which yields maximum rate of climb.15. Wind affects rate of climb negligibly unless gradient and direction changes are large within the air mass.5 TIME TO CLIMB The rates of climb discussed are instantaneous values. 7.12 . True airspeed strongly affects rate of climb performance since thrust and drag are functions of velocity. Rate of climb at the absolute ceiling goes to zero when TNx = D and excess power is minimum. Increasing weight with no change in excess power reduces rate of climb.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE of the curve shape. are also finite altitudes. Continuous variations in rate of climb must be attained through integration as in Eq 7. and specific excess power directly depends upon true airspeed according to Eq 7. h h t = ∫ 1 dh = ∫ 1 dh 0 dh 0 ROC dt (Eq 7. That value pertains only to the corresponding altitude. 7.3.17) Where: h ROC t Tapeline altitude Rate of climb Time ft ft/s s. Maximum rate of climb for the jet occurs at much higher true airspeed than that for L/Dmax. Weight affects rate of climb directly and in the same manner as it does climb angle.17. defined as the altitudes where 100 ft/min and 500 ft/min rates of climb can be maintained. Altitude has an effect on rate of climb similar to its effect upon climb angle. The slope of the curve for power available changes as the true airspeed changes.2. The service ceiling and combat ceiling.
A rate of climb curve is shown in figure 7. Both altitude and airspeed must be specified.CLIMB PERFORMANCE The term dh/dt in Eq 7. A more accurate method to determine time to climb is discussed in section 7. 7.3.ft h Figure 7.3.7 TIME TO CLIMB INTEGRATION The method is limited by the fact that more information is needed than just the altitude change with time.3 7.13 .7.17 is not usually available as an analytical function of altitude.2.8. as well as the climb path itself and actual rate of climb at every point. The determination of time to climb then can only be determined graphically as in figure 7. 1 dh/dt ∆h Tapeline Altitude .6 SUMMARY OF STEADY STATE CLIMB A curve of vertical velocity versus horizontal velocity can be used to summarize the steady state performance.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE
Rate of Climb - ft/min ROC
Max Rate Of Climb
in rig hO ug o hr Speed For tT Maximum en g Climb Angle an T
Speed For Maximum Rate Of Climb
Maximum Level Flight Airspeed
True Airspeed - kn V
Figure 7.8 CLASSIC RATE OF CLIMB If figure 7.8 is converted into vertical velocity versus horizontal velocity using Eqs 7.17 and 7.18, climb performance can be summarized graphically as in figure 7.9 for the same speed range. Vv = V sin γ
(Eq 7.18) (Eq 7.19)
= V cos γ
Where: γ Vhor VT Vv
Flight path angle Horizontal velocity True airspeed Vertical velocity
deg ft/s ft/s ft/s.
3 Vertical Velocity - ft/s Vv
Horizontal Velocity - ft/s V
Figure 7.9 PERFORMANCE HODOGRAPH A radius vector from the origin to any point on the plot represents the true airspeed and makes an angle to the horizontal equal to the actual climb angle at that speed. From figure 7.9: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 Point 6 184.108.40.206 Maximum level flight airspeed Climb speed at the given rate of climb Speed for maximum rate of climb Speed for maximum climb angle Stall speed Descent THRUST EFFECTS VH VT Vy Vx Vs NA.
The discussion to this point deals with one set of power parameters; however, rate of climb is calculated using Eq 7.16 and changes with throttle position or net thrust parallel to the flight path, TNx.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE T ROC = dh = dt Where: D TNx h PA Preq ROC V W -D V=
V-DV W =
P - Preq A W
Drag Net thrust parallel flight path Tapeline altitude Power available Power required Rate of climb Velocity Weight
lb lb ft ft-lb/s ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s lb.
From a study of drag characteristics for jets, the maximum climb angle speed (Vx) C occurs at L CD max, which is the minimum drag condition. The speed is independent of power setting. The speed for best climb rate, Vy, increases with increasing thrust. Figure 7.10 illustrates the effects discussed.
does not change with increasing power. The speed for maximum climb angle.17 .11 shows the result. Figure 7.10 THRUST EFFECTS FOR JETS For the propeller aircraft. Vx decreases with the increased power setting as the climb progresses. Vy.CLIMB PERFORMANCE C C L D max Vx Vy Rate of Climb . the best rate of climb speed.ft/s ROC Vy Vx Min Drag True Airspeed .ft/s V T Figure 7. 7.
FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 3 C 2 L D max C Vy Vx Rate of Climb . There are more scientific approaches and this section uses the information attained from the excess power chapter to determine climb performance. 7. Each flight requires a climb and if a schedule is selected based on measured Ps data. Schedules based on less information would yield poor results. the results could be quite good. The treatment starts with the subsonic jet and advances to supersonic speeds.ft/s ROC Vy Vx True Airspeed . and specifically climb schedules.18 .3.11 THRUST EFFECTS FOR PROPS 7.3 TOTAL ENERGY APPROACH TO CLIMB PERFORMANCE Climb schedules can be determined by randomly flying a large number of climb schedules and picking the best schedule based on the flight results.ft/s V T Figure 7.
1. or other methods can be worked up on a cross-plot of altitude and Mach number. thus. with lines of constant energy height as shown in figure 7. 7.12.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7. Excess power must be divided between the requirements of climbing and acceleration. acceleration is required along the flight path. as altitude increases. Each peak is also the speed for maximum instantaneous rate of climb at that altitude for an aircraft flying at constant true airspeed. or true airspeed.19 .ft 2 V 2g Figure 7. Maximum Energy Constant Ps Tapeline Altitude .ft h Max Rate Maximum Energy Constant Ps Constant Eh Max Rate Tapeline Altitude .1 TIME BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE Ps data taken from acceleration runs.ft h Constant E h True Airspeed .3. The maximum points occur at increasing airspeed. sawtooth climbs.ft/s V T Specific Kinetic Energy .12 SUBSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE The peaks of the curves represent the speed at which the maximum specific excess power occurs at each altitude. which is seen as an increase in total energy as shown in Eq 7.3.
1.3.17 in more useful terms the following equations are used: V dV dE T T h = dh + g dt dt dt Ps = (Eq 7.12. which cannot be easily obtained from figure 7. The plot is also shown as a function of specific potential energy (h) and specific V2 kinetic energy ( ). To put Eq 7.20) h Time to Climb = ∫ h 2 ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh Ps ) (Eq 7. a schedule for the minimum time to achieve an energy state. This curve may be useful if the points of tangency are not well 2g defined. is developed as the optimum energy climb schedule. The integration will not work for any portion of the schedule where altitude is not increasing.1 SPECIFIC ENERGY VERSUS TOTAL ENERGY Time to climb is given in Eq 7. The integration requires determining the actual rate of climb at every point.17. or maximum rate of total energy addition. By flying the points where the Ps contours are tangent to the lines of constant energy height. 7.3.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 2 T V E =h+ h 2g (Eq 7.20 .21) 7.1) Where: Eh g h VT Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude True airspeed ft ft/s2 ft ft/s.2) Rate of Climb = Ps ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh ) dh (Eq 7.
dE = dh + V dV g h dE dt = (Eq 7.21.25) 1 Where: Eh Eh1 Eh2 g h h1 h2 Ps ROC t V VT Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Tapeline altitude start of climb Tapeline altitude end of climb Specific excess power Rate of climb Time Velocity True airspeed ft ft ft ft/s2 ft ft ft ft/s ft/s s ft/s ft/s.21 .24) Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE dh + V dV g T dt = Ps (Eq 7. time to climb can be expressed in terms which can be graphically integrated from figure 7. Results for both the maximum rate of climb schedule and the maximum energy climb schedule are shown in figure 7.1 and substituting it into equation 7. 220.127.116.11) h Ps E h (Eq 7.22) Using the differential form of Eq 7.
and without loss.s/ft 1 Ps Climb te Of a um R Maxim Climb nergy um E Maxim Time To Climb E h1 Energy Height . The maximum energy climb schedule will give the minimum time between two energy levels.13 MINIMUM TIME TO CLIMB The maximum energy climb schedule gives a path defined by altitude and Mach number for transitioning from one energy level to a higher level in the minimum time. however. Theoretical treatments usually assume an ideal model in which the airplane can translate instantaneously. the maximum energy climb schedule is nearly optimal and is recommended for jets climbing to high altitude. However. For transitions between widely separated energy levels. and may be further modified by considerations such as providing an airspeed or Mach number profile which is easy to fly. Every point on the maximum energy climb schedule represents the maximum P s for that energy height which will get the aircraft to an energy level faster than any other schedule. but breaks down when they are not. particularly if the energy levels are close together.22 . 7. the potential energy is lower than in the maximum rate of climb with kinetic energy making up the difference. along lines of constant energy height.ft E h E h2 Figure 7. The climb schedule actually recommended is often a compromise between the theoretical maximum rate and maximum energy schedules. The ideal model works well when the end points of the energy climb are near the maximum energy climb schedule.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Inverse of Specific Excess Power . the potential gains by flying this schedule can be negated by the real process of exchanging kinetic and potential energies.
Segment DE is the supersonic climb to the final energy state desired at E. Figure 7. after its developer. The path (Figure 7.23 . The acceleration in the dive is actually part of the optimum climb path. Note D Optimum Energy Climb Constant E h Tapeline Altitude . Note in this example the optimum climb path includes an acceleration in a dive.14 illustrates a typical climb schedule for a supersonic aircraft.14 SUPERSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE If the final speed is near the aircraft’s maximum speed. An ideal pushover or dive is carried out at constant Eh from C to D. This optimum energy climb path is also known as the Rutowski climb path. The subsonic climb segment follows a path similar to the one illustrated to the tropopause at state C. This subsonic climb is usually a nearly constant Mach number schedule. the energy schedule becomes more significant.CLIMB PERFORMANCE and/or providing a Mach number relative to maximum range or maximum endurance airspeed.14) consists of four segments to reach energy state E in minimum time. However. For a supersonic aircraft. the energy method works well. Constant Ps E 0 200 100 C 200 300 400 500 B Mach Number M Figure 7.ft h A 7. Segment AB represents a constant altitude acceleration from V = 0 to climb speed at state B. the large speed increase necessary renders the conventional method of using the peaks of the Ps curves useless.
4 0. Perhaps the most expeditious path is the one toward the highest Ps contour available without decreasing Eh.8 2.8 1.0 2. A climb schedule defined by the conventional method of the peaks of the Ps curves at each altitude is undesirable because of the large speed change involved if a speed near the maximum is desired at the end of the climb.15 illustrates the difficulty in choosing the transition paths when Ps contours become irregular in the transonic region. the conventional schedule may still be useful if a profile is desired to reach maximum range airspeed at altitude.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE segments BC and DE pass through points on Ps contours which are tangent to lines of constant Eh. When and how to transition from the subsonic segment to the supersonic segment may be an issue if the Ps contours near M = 1 are poorly defined.14 illustrates a typical transition using this idea. The assumption implies the climb should be subsonic until intercepting an Eh level tangent to two Ps contours of equal value.6 0. Path CD in figure 7.2 0. one in a subsonic region and the other in the supersonic region. Constant E h 70 Tapeline Altitude .24 .15 TYPICAL ENERGY LEVEL CLIMB PATH 7.4 1. There is no complete agreement on when to start the pushover.0 1.ft x 10 3 h 60 50 40 30 20 10 Constant Ps Optimum Energy Climb Path 0.2 1.6 1.2 Mach Number M Figure 7. Figure 7. However.
25 . The sum of both terms equals the change in specific energy with respect to fuel used as in Eq 7. dE = d dW dW h ( ) V h+ 2 T 2g V dV T = dh + gT dW dW (Eq 7.dW = .26 as was done in determining time to climb.3.3.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Notice in figure 7.26. result in a climb path with the corners rounded off. The abrupt discontinuities in angle of attack and attitude are avoided in the actual climb.26) Fuel burned in a climb can be determined by integrating Eq 7. W W E 2 h Fuel to Climb = ∫ dW = .dW dt = f dE dE dt dE Ps h h h dW W .27) A relationship of fuel flow to specific excess power can be written as Eq 7.15. real transitions as opposed to ideal zooms and dives.∫ 1 2 E 1 dE dE h h h 1 dW (Eq 7.28) 7. where transitions are assumed to be instantaneous. 7. (Eq 7. The energy approach to climb performance can also be used to determine how much total energy is added per pound of fuel consumed.2 FUEL BASED CLIMB SCHEDULE The aircraft mission may require the expenditure of minimum fuel to achieve a given energy level. .1 = . Change in altitude per pound of fuel used is dh/dW in climbs. This requires specific energy to be differentiated with respect to the change in aircraft gross weight due to fuel used.28. and the change in airspeed per pound of fuel in accelerations is dV/dW.
29 requires combining P s and fuel flow data from other tests. similar to figure 7.16 7.ft/s Ps Figure 7. can be generated.16. f 1 (Eq 7. From acceleration run data. f . E h f Ps 1 dE = ∫ h E h 2 1 dE Ps h W . the Ps curve similar to the solid line in figure 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Eq 7.29) Where: Eh g h Ps t V VT W ˙ Wf Energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed Weight Fuel flow ft ft/s2 ft ft/s s ft/s kn lb lb/h. Ratio of Specific Excess Power .27 can be rewritten as follows: E h Fuel to Climb = ∫ E h 2 W .26 W .ft/s lb/h to Fuel Flow Ps Mach Number M Specific Excess Power . Evaluating Eq 7.17. and referred fuel flow curve.
the outside air temperature (OAT) and referred fuel flow can be determined versus Mach number.lb/h .27 . the actual fuel flow for standard conditions can be determined as shown in figure 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CURVE Fuel Flow Referred To Total Conditions .17 REFERRED FUEL FLOW For a given altitude (δ) and temperature (θ). 7. W f δ T θ T Outside Air Temperature OAT Figure 7. For the same acceleration run.18.
16 by P the corresponding points on figure 7.16. all the s curves for each altitude are ˙ Wf determined.lb/h .18 and plotting s versus Mach number as the ˙ Wf dashed curve in figure 7. the peak of P the s curve occurs at a slower speed than the peak of the Ps curve in figure 7. ˙ Wf P To develop the minimum fuel climb schedule.16. The results are cross-plotted as shown in figure 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Fuel Flow .28 .19. W f Mach Number M Figure 7.18 ACTUAL FUEL FLOW ˙ The ratio of Ps to Wf can be determined by dividing each point on figure 7. Since fuel flow increases with increasing speed. 7.
s W f Minimum Fuel Climb Path Mach Number M Figure 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Tapeline Altitude .14.ft h Constant E h P Constant .1 TIME VERSUS FUEL BASED CLIMB The climb path based on minimum fuel in figure 7.3.20 depicts a typical result given the same aircraft following an optimal time climb and an optimal fuel climb.19 appears very much like the time based climb in figure 7. 7.3.29 .19 MINIMUM FUEL CLIMB SCHEDULE 7. Figure 7.2.
7.30 . but roughly parallel. actual down range distance traveled 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 60 Tapeline Altitude .3. an ideal dive. The initial point of the cruise leg is defined by an altitude and an airspeed for a particular gross weight. and an ideal zoom to reach the end point. if the cruise speed is near the climb speed for an energy minimum fuel climb.8 Mach Number M Figure 7.3.6 1. the minimum fuel climb approximates the no-wind maximum range per pound of fuel. There are sophisticated mathematical techniques which can be used to determine a theoretical solution.2 MAXIMUM RANGE CLIMB SCHEDULE The maximum range climb schedule should achieve maximum range for fuel used during the climb to a desired altitude and cruise speed.0 1.4 1.ft x 10 h 3 50 40 30 20 10 Minimum Fuel Minimum Time 0. In reality. In practice.2.20 OPTIMAL TIME AND FUEL CLIMBS The optimal minimum fuel climb path lies above. is close to the optimal time schedule. The schedule which gets to that energy level with minimum fuel used. the optimal fuel path is easier to achieve since the optimal time case requires an ideal climb. However. the optimal minimum time climb path.
until Ps decreases and time. rather than altitude gain. For a head wind. As in the cruise phase. or a height change attainable in two minutes. When time is the criterion. 7.21.4. an incremental increase in speed for the climb schedule slightly improves the range Ps curves.CLIMB PERFORMANCE in the climb is considered when optimizing the overall range problem which also includes cruise and descent. with respect to energy height. an incremental decrease in speed increases range over that obtained from the no-wind schedule. becomes the test criterion. are not characteristic provided the peaks of the ˙ Wf too sharp. full power is used. Power setting is defined by the scope of the test but is the same for each run. For a tail wind.3). Speeds are chosen to bracket the expected best climb speed of the aircraft.31 . which ever is less. Target Vo Vo Initial HP Final HP ∆t Fuel OAT Misc Figure 7. Normally. wind affects the range in a climb. The altitude increment is about 1000 ft either side of a target altitude. 7.4 TEST METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 7. The same altitude band is used for each climb. choose the climb band symmetrically about the target altitude.4.21 SAWTOOTH DATA CARD Climbs are performed at the same power setting and aircraft configuration as used in the check climb (paragraph 7.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB A series of timed climbs are made at different speeds from a point below the test altitude to a point above it. A typical flight data card is shown in figure 7.
keep a running plot of observed time to climb versus Vo and before leaving the test altitude. Power is applied and final trim adjustments are made before reaching the lower limit of the altitude band being measured. and either outside air temperature or time of day so temperature can be obtained by other meteorological methods. On the back of the data card. etc.1. 7. except in reverse. and a maximum speed point are obtained at the test altitude in order to complete the curve. and a descending turn is initialized to get the aircraft below the altitude band for another run. Time: Record elapsed time from the beginning of the altitude band to the end. then the same flight test technique applies. see paragraph 8. W. For a description of the sawtooth descent flight test technique. data are recorded.4.21 with the target indicated airspeed included for each point. The description above is only applicable when Ps is determined to be positive. The card can be expanded to record other parameters such as angle of attack. time. If Ps is negative and the airplane is descending.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE The aircraft is first trimmed in the configuration desired while still well below the nominal altitude.32 . or two minutes whichever comes first. a full power unaccelerated minimum speed point. examine the plot for points which need repeating.1. 7. In addition. As many points as possible are flown at each altitude. Climb perpendicular to the prevailing winds to minimize the effects of wind shear. torque.4.1 DATA REQUIRED 1. engine RPM. Altitude: Record the observed pressure altitude HPo band for each point. For each altitude. 2. fuel counts or fuel remaining. The exact time of entering and leaving the altitude band is recorded by a stopwatch or an instrumentation system. Confine the flights to the bounds of a limited geographical area since the primary concern is the shape of the curve obtained rather than the magnitude. Once through the altitude increment. a standard data card is prepared similar to figure 7. Record actual in-flight Vo.
Consider low altitude stall potential in slow speed climb tests and Vmc for multi-engine aircraft. 7.1.4. 4.4 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS There are no unique hazards or safety precautions associated with sawtooth climbs. it is better to maintain the incorrect speed as accurately as possible. 6.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 3. 3. 5.2 TEST CRITERIA Allow sufficient altitude for the engine(s) to reach normal operating temperatures and the airplane to be completely stabilized at the desired airspeed before entering the data band.1 g. 7. Velocity: Record observed airspeed. and torque for a turboprop.1. angle of attack.1. (May be obtained from direct observation). Fuel weight: Record the fuel remaining to determine aircraft gross weight. Vo. Observe airspeed limits when in the powered approach configuration and engine limits at the selected thrust setting. Miscellaneous: Record other information desired such as RPM. 2.33 . rather than try to correct it and risk aborting the entire run. Smoothness is just as important as in acceleration runs and for the same reasons.4. Normal acceleration ± 0. If a small airspeed error is made while setting the airplane up.3 1. 7. Vo ± 1 kn with smooth corrections. 7. OAT or Ta: Record ambient air temperature from on-board instrumentation at target altitude. DATA REQUIREMENTS Test altitude band ± 1000 ft about a target altitude.4.
34 . data cards are prepared to record the climb data as in figure 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. After the schedule to be flown is determined. exhaust gas temperature. angle of attack.22. Distance traveled. or some other schedule for which climb performance is of interest. data may be obtained on various engine parameters such as engine speed. a mechanical recording means is necessary to obtain simultaneous reading of the many parameters of interest. The three main areas of investigation are: 1.2 CHECK CLIMB TEST The check climb test is flown to compare the standard day climb performance of an aircraft in a specific configuration to results predicted from sawtooth climbs or acceleration runs. and any other desired parameters. 3.4. Record data at approximately equal increments of altitude and include time. speed. 7. This schedule may be a best climb schedule as obtained by flight test. For most jet aircraft. temperature. etc. gross thrust. fuel flow. Fuel used. Time to climb. The general method is to climb the aircraft to just below the maximum ceiling while maintaining precisely a predetermined climb schedule. a schedule recommended by the manufacturer. engine pressure ratio. These are useful to the analyst but are secondary to the three main parameters. 2. In addition. Specify the schedule flown on each climb performance chart.
35 . Record fuel remaining and time for start. and acceleration to climb schedule whenever conditions permit. The test area can be sampled via a survey balloon or another aircraft for wind and temperature data.22 CHECK CLIMB Adjust target points for instrument error and position error for both the airspeed indicator and altimeter. light winds. every 5000 ft is sufficient.CLIMB PERFORMANCE t Prior to Start Start Taxi Takeoff t H Po NA Fuel temp Fuel density OAT or Ta Fuel remaining NA NA NA Vo target NA NA NA Vo actual OAT or Ta Fuel remaining Misc Figure 7. Since gross weight. fuel and weigh the aircraft prior to commencement of tests. takeoff. If the rate of climb is high. An area of smooth air. and fuel density are extremely important to climb tests. and stable temperature gradients from ground level to the aircraft’s maximum ceiling is desirable. If the anticipated rate of climb is low. Fuel samples are taken and tested for temperature and density. data are recorded every 1000 to 2000 ft. 7. fuel weight. Plan the flight to climb perpendicular to the wind direction. The interval is adjusted as the rate of climb decreases with altitude. taxi.
As the desired power setting is reached. a better entry can be achieved by stabilizing on the target speed 1000 ft below entry altitude. Maintain the climb schedule to within 5 kn. avoid over controlling due to the hysteresis in the airspeed indicator. Trim the aircraft for hands-off flight. at which time the aircraft is approximately established on the climb schedule. trim the aircraft. Descend below the altitude at which the climb was stopped. During the climb. and as the climb speed is approached. Any undesirable trend is difficult to stop since the aerodynamic controls are less effective. the best entry is achieved by first stabilizing in level flight with partial power at some speed below the scheduled climb speed. apply an appropriate corrective action. When all preparations are complete and the data recorder is running. apply power. If the climb must be interrupted.36 . noting Vo. and constant attention to trim. if possible. If corrections become necessary. time. Wind gradients appear as sudden airspeed changes. stop the rotation. precise control. At high altitudes.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Establish level flight as low as possible on climb heading. stop the climb at a given pressure altitude. advance the power smoothly. A slight rate of change of indicated airspeed implies a much larger rate of change of kinetic energy. it may be necessary to substitute the aircraft attitude indicator for the external horizon during initial portions of the climb. maintaining a precise speed schedule becomes difficult. fuel. and rotate the aircraft simultaneously to maintain airspeed. Maneuver as required and re-intercept the climb schedule as soon as possible to minimize gross weight change. 7. the appropriate corrective action is a small. A rapid cross-check between external horizon and the airspeed indicator is required. If these affect the climb speed schedule. and distance if available. If the rate of climb is high. If rate of climb is fairly low. Intercept the climb at the break off pressure altitude and airspeed after re-establishing attitude and stabilizing the climb. If the pitch attitude is very steep. The best way to cope is to avoid large corrections by a rapid cross-check. If the wind gradient effect subsides. but immediate attitude correction. When preparations are complete and the aircraft is trimmed. rotate to intercept and maintain the climb schedule.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE The test for a turboprop aircraft is identical to the jet test. Distance (d).37 . 4. 6. 1.0. Time (t).4. Miscellaneous as desired.5.5 Airspeed ± 5 kn or 0. 2.2. 7. but there are some additional correction factors necessitated by this test method.4.2. TEST CRITERIA Maintain coordinated wings level flight. Observed airspeed (Vo). 5.1 DATA REQUIRED Record the following data at each climb increment which should be as often as possible but no greater than each 5000 ft or 2 minutes for hand held data: 1.1 g. In this case however. 2. Fuel remaining (Wf). Temperature (OAT or Ta). 7. The engine controls have to be managed to ensure optimum climb power is maintained.01 M.2 1. Observed pressure altitude (HPo). 2. 3. 7. 3.3 DATA REQUIREMENTS 1. 7. DATA REDUCTION 7. or start and end fuel weight.1 SAWTOOTH CLIMB The sawtooth climb data is reduced similar to the acceleration runs. 7. engine torque and engine shaft horsepower (ESHP) are adjusted in the climb.4. Keep turns to a minimum and use less than 10 degrees bank to keep nz near No more than 30 degrees heading change. nz ± 0. 7.2.
20) Recall: V dV dE T T h = dh + g dt dt dt Ps = (Eq 7.38 .20 expresses test day rate of climb in terms of Ps (which is independent of the climb path) and dVT/dh (which defines the climb path).Eh(start) divided by elapsed time. In a similar way.2) Eh for the end points of each sawtooth climb segment are determined from: V E h 2 T =h Test Test + Test 2g (Eq 7.VT(start) divided by altitude change.31) Energy height Test energy height Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Test tapeline altitude Specific excess power 7.30) The slope of Eh versus time as the climb passes through the reference altitude (HPref) is P s(Test). In practice. Rate of Climb = Ps ( 1 dV T 1+ V g dh ) (Eq 7.20 yields: ( dh ) dt Where: Eh EhTest g h hTest Ps = Ps Test Test ( 1 V 1+ T ref dV T g dh ) ft ft ft/s2 ft ft ft/s (Eq 7. Substituting these values into Eq 7. dVT/dh is computed from VT(end) . True airspeed is obtained at the reference altitude (VTRef) by linear interpolation between the end points. since a small altitude band is chosen. the average slope is defined by Eh(end) .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Eq 7.
1.32) Where: ∆D ∆TNx PsStd PsTest VTStd VTTest WStd WTest 7.1 Test specific excess power Time Velocity True airspeed Reference true airspeed Test true airspeed ft/s s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s. The correction is carried out exactly as it was for the level acceleration data with the exception of the correction for the change in induced drag: W Ps Std V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx . standard weight and temperature at HP ref.1. The drag correction used in the level acceleration data reduction is as follows: 2 W ∆D = D Std -D Test = ( 2 2 -W Std Test ) 2 π e AR S γ Pa M (Eq 7.5. SPECIFIC EXCESS POWER CORRECTION PsTest is next corrected to standard conditions.33) 7.∆D) (Eq 7.2 Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Standard specific excess energy Test specific excess energy Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed Standard weight Test weight DRAG CORRECTION lb lb ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s lb lb.CLIMB PERFORMANCE PsTest t V VT VTref VTTest 7.39 .5.
even if the thrust vector is aligned with the flight path (TNx sin αj = 0) the lift is not equal to the weight.40 . Figure 7. 3. T sin αj = 0 (no thrust lift). 2.36) Or: 7. nz = 1 (level flight).FIXED WING PERFORMANCE The following assumptions are made: 1. as: 2 ∆D = (W 2 2 cos2γ . the normal load factor is the cosine of the climb angle: nz = cos γ (Eq 7.W cos2γ Std Std Test Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl ) (Eq 7. since: L = nz W For straight flight.8) The drag correction for a climb can now be written. Summing the vertical forces: L .10) (Eq 7.W cos γ + T sin α = W az g G j For TG sin αj = 0.34) (Eq 7. and zero acceleration: L = W cos γ Also. assuming a parabolic drag polar.2 shows in a climb.35) (Eq 7. L = W.
and calculate the induced drag correction from Eq 7. However. the standard rate of climb is a function of itself. In other words. the requirement is to find the drag correction in order to compute the corrected rate of climb.37.32 to yield the first iteration of PsStd. in applying Eq 7. The induced drag correction obtained is substituted in Eq 7. where γTest is computed from the test results.38 to give the first iteration value of rate of climb and the first iteration of standard day climb angle. Therefore.36 or Eq 7. which is in turn substituted in Eq 7.39) deg ft/s2 lb lb lb deg ft/s2 Thrust angle Aspect ratio Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Drag Standard drag Test drag Oswald’s efficiency factor Flight path angle Ratio of specific heats Gravitational acceleration 7.37) In applying either Eq 7. the corrected rate of climb is implicit in the γStd (standard flight path angle) term of the equation.39: ( dh ) dt = Ps Std Std γ Where: αj AR az D DStd DTest e γ g Std = sin -1 ( ) ( ) 1 V dV T 1 + gT dh dh dt V T (Eq 7.38) (Eq 18.104.22.168. γStd in Eq 7.41 .CLIMB PERFORMANCE 2 ∆D = ( W 2 2 2 n -W n2 Std z Std Test z Test 2 π e AR ρ Ve S ssl ) (Eq 7. an iterative method is necessary to solve Eq 7. For the first approximation set γStd = γTest.
8 yields: 7. though the errors introduced by this assumption are small enough to be neglected for most cases.5.42 . at low speed and high angle of attack.1. 7. For airplanes with modest climb capabilities.0023769 slug/ft3 ft2 lb ft/s ft/s lb lb lb. thrust lift must be taken into consideration. However. as shown in figure 7. γ is small and the iteration closes quickly.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE γStd γTest L M nz nzStd nzTest π Pa ρssl S TG Ve VT W WStd WTest Standard flight path angle Test flight path angle Lift Mach number Normal acceleration Standard normal acceleration Test normal acceleration Constant Ambient pressure Standard sea level air density Wing area Gross thrust Equivalent airspeed True airspeed Weight Standard weight Test weight deg deg lb g g g psf 0. Eq 7.3 THRUST LIFT CORRECTION All the previous corrections assumed no contribution to lift from the inclination of the thrust line to the flight path. However. This condition is not generally true. this situation is not likely to occur under the conditions in which sawtooth climbs test techniques are chosen. For steep climb angles the situation is different and as γ approaches 90˚ the iteration may become unstable.2. This value of γ then becomes γStd in the induced drag correction and the iteration is repeated until γStd is no longer changing.
32.32) Where: αj ∆D ∆TNx γ L nz PsStd PsTest TG TNx TR VTStd VTTest Thrust angle Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Flight path angle Lift Normal acceleration Standard specific excess power Test specific excess power Gross thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Ram drag Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed deg lb lb deg lb g ft/s ft/s lb lb lb ft/s ft/s 7.42) The equation for the sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is affected since: T Nx = T cos α .41) sin α nz = cos γ - G W j (Eq 7. W Ps Std V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx .40) Since induced drag depends on normal acceleration: nz = L W T (Eq 7.12) In Eq 7.T G j R (Eq 7.CLIMB PERFORMANCE L = W cos γ .T sin α G j (Eq 7. both the ∆TNx and ∆D terms are affected by thrust lift.43 .∆D) (Eq 7.
The climb angle. The corrected results are presented as shown in figure 7.5. which will in turn affect the induced drag.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE W WStd WTest Weight Standard weight Test weight lb lb lb. These analytical corrections to thrust.44 . To simplify things. For example single-engine climb or waveoff performance at 5000 ft can be used to compute data for standard conditions at sea level. ∆T a N P ( ) lb ft ˚C. γ.23. (Eq 7. 7. This will again involve the climb angle iteration since the changes in rate of climb and true airspeed will change the climb angle. can be minimized by performing the tests as close to the reference altitude as safety and operational restrictions permit.1. An engine thrust model is used to calculate the change in net thrust due to changing altitude and temperature at constant Ve. α j. α j is assumed to be small enough to neglect its effect.43) Where: TN HP Ta Net thrust Pressure altitude Ambient temperature The rate of climb is computed for the new altitude using this thrust correction. ∆Τ = f ∆H .4 ALTITUDE CORRECTION The foregoing corrections allow Ps. and the iterative corrections to drag. in the form of rate of climb potential (i. and the thrust angle. It may be necessary to refer these results to a new altitude.e rate of climb corrected for increasing true airspeed) to be plotted for standard conditions. 7. Constant weight and constant Ve correction are used to minimize the change in drag. both vary during the iteration process of determining standard day rate of climb. To apply this correction. the α j variation from test day to standard day is needed.
23 STANDARD DAY RATE OF CLIMB 7. Data reduction from Ps level flight acceleration runs are in Chapter 5. however. This program is a subset to an energy analysis program which also calculates Ps from level acceleration runs. are entered. etc. standard gross weight. The treatment is purposefully generic as programs change over time or new ones are acquired or developed. Basic data such as aircraft type. the operating system is invisible to the user. In any event.CLIMB PERFORMANCE Rate of Climb .5.2 COMPUTER DATA REDUCTION Various computer programs are in existence to assist in reduction of performance data. Detailed instructions on the use of the particular computer or program are assumed to be available for the computer program.kn VT Figure 7.5. Time to climb is calculated as follows: 7. energy analysis pertaining to climbs is reviewed. 7. time and distance.ft/min ROC Sea Level STD Weight STD Day 5000' True Airspeed .2.1 ENERGY ANALYSIS The purpose of the computer data reduction from energy analysis for climbs is to automatically calculate fuel.45 . This section contains a brief summary of the assumptions and logic which might be used.
.s/ft 1 Ps .ft E h Figure 7. t t 2 Distance = ∫ V cos γ dt T 1 (Eq 7.25) 1 1 The program must know P as a function of Eh.04 .24 ENERGY RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMB Distance flown in the climb is found by integration of the no wind ground speed with respect to time as in Eq 7.01 5000 10000 15000 2000 25000 30000 35000 Energy Height .03 . therefore the program plots the s function and asks for a curve fit.44) 7.24.46 .02 .05 .06 Inverse of Specific Excess Power . The curve appears similar to figure 7.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE E h Time to Climb = ∫ E h 2 1 dE Ps h (Eq 7.44.
45) ft ft ft deg Where: Eh E h1 E h2 γ Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Flight path angle 7. the program must integrate standard day fuel flow with respect to time as in Eq 7. t t 2 .ft/s 560 520 400 440 0 50 100 150 Time . The plot should appear similar to figure 7. the program must know VT cosγ. Fuel Used = ∫ W dt f 1 (Eq 7.25 INTEGRATION RESULTS FOR DISTANCE To calculate fuel used.CLIMB PERFORMANCE To perform the integration.25 540 600 True Airspeed * cos γ .45.47 .s t 200 250 300 Figure 7.
the program calculates standard day fuel flow and plots it versus time.lb/h . Wf 6400 δ θ 6000 5600 5200 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Outside Air Temperature .26.27. 7200 6800 Referred Fuel Flow .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE Ps t VT ˙ Wf Specific excess power Time True airspeed Fuel flow ft/s s ft/s lb/h. The program first models the engine using referred fuel flow versus OAT.48 .26 REFERRED FUEL USED From figure 7. 7. as in figure 7.26.˚C OAT Figure 7. as in figure 7.
One possible example is shown in figure 7.28.27 STANDARD DAY FUEL USED The program then performs the three integrations using the curve fits determined.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 4400 Std Day Fuel Flow . time and distance in the climb. and plots altitude versus fuel used.lb/h .49 .s t 200 250 300 Figure 7. 7. W 4000 f 3600 3200 2000 0 50 100 150 Time .
Date of tests. Type of aircraft.5. Target altitude. f.50 . Standard gross weight. Pilot’s name. altitude and temperature.ft H P 0 80 160 W 240 320 400 Fuel Weight .2. b. e.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Pressure Altitude . Miscellaneous as allowed by the program. From a menu selection. 7. g. based on flight test data. the appropriate choices are made to enter the sawtooth climb program. Bureau number.2 SAWTOOTH CLIMB The purpose of the sawtooth climb data reduction program is to calculate rate and climb angle for any given gross weight. Basic data: a. c.28 FUEL USED IN CLIMB 7. d.lb f Figure 7. Data entry requirements for the program are as follows: 1.
CLIMB PERFORMANCE 2. 2800 2400 Rate of Climb . c. h. Gross weight (lb). b. Fuel flow (lb/h). as in figures 7.kn Vc Figure 7. Optional data as allowed by the program. Indicated airspeed (kn). f. OAT (˚C) or ambient temp (˚K).29 RATE OF CLIMB FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS 7. g. e. Final indicated pressure altitude (ft).ft/min ROC 2000 1600 1200 800 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 Calibrated Airspeed . Time required (s ).29 and 7.30. d.51 . Initial indicated pressure altitude (ft). For each data point: a. The program plots rate of climb and climb angle for the given altitude versus Vc.
48) (Eq 7.15 OAT = f Ta.kn Vc Figure 7.30 CLIMB ANGLE FROM SAWTOOTH CLIMBS The following equations are used for the computer data reduction. If ambient temperature (˚K) was entered: ˚C = ˚K . M ) (Eq 7. M If OAT (˚C) was entered: Ta = f ( OAT.52 .46) ( ) (Eq 7.deg γ 7 6 5 4 3 2 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 Calibrated Airspeed .47) 7. Obtain calibrated altitude (HPc) and calibrated airspeed (Vc) as in Chapter 2.273.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 9 8 Climb Angle .
CLIMB PERFORMANCE True airspeed: V = f OAT.49) Altitude: h=H P +∆ H c ref Pc ( ) Ta T std (Eq 7.50) Energy height: V E =h+ h 2 T 2g (Eq 7.∆D) (Eq 7.53 lb lb lb ft ft ft ft .1) Test day Ps: V dV T Ps = dE h = dh + gT dt dt dt Standard day Ps: W Ps Std (Eq 7.2) V Std = Ps Test T V + Std T Std Test W V T W (∆T Test Std Nx .32) Where: D ∆D ∆TNx Eh h H Pc HPc ref M Drag Standard drag minus test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Energy height Tapeline altitude Calibrated pressure altitude Reference calibrated pressure altitude Mach number 7. M T ( T ) (Eq 7.
are compared with predictions. though they should certainly be determined for high elevation airports and should cover possible emergency diversion with the landing gear stuck down. by joining the points of maximum Ps (for a “minimum time” schedule) or points of maximum Eh (for a “maximum energy” schedule).FIXED WING PERFORMANCE MT OAT PsStd PsTest Ta TNx TStd VT VTStd VTTest WStd WTest 7. and are modified if necessary to make them flyable with the least penalty in climb performance. The theoretical optimum climb schedules are determined as described in section 7. The airspeed and Mach number schedules represented by these paths are then evaluated to determine whether they can be flown without undue difficulty. A peaked curve implies small inaccuracies in airspeed result in large performance penalties. corrected to standard conditions. The best climb speeds for the landing or single-engine wave-off configurations are unlikely to have much application above a few thousand feet. the climb schedules are flight-tested and the results. The shape of these curves indicate the sensitivity of achieving the desired performance to airspeed errors. 7. The data from the sawtooth climb tests are intended to provide information for use in a far more restricted portion of the flight envelope than from level accelerations.54 .3. Finally.6 True Mach number Outside air temperature Standard specific excess energy Test specific excess energy Ambient temperature Net thrust parallel flight path Standard temperature True airspeed Standard true airspeed Test true airspeed Standard weight Test weight DATA ANALYSIS ˚C ft/s ft/s ˚K lb ˚K ft/s ft/s ft/s lb lb. The analysis of Ps data is directed towards determining the airplane optimum climb schedules.
the test results in sawtooth climbs can develop the appropriate climb speeds to maximize obstacle clearance. An interceptor is primarily interested in climbing to altitude with the minimum fuel if headed to a CAP station. Overall performance including climbing flight.CLIMB PERFORMANCE 7. 7. Still other types of mission may require. As stated in the beginning of the chapter. 6. Consideration of the following items is worthwhile when recommending climb schedules or climb airspeeds: 1. Climb attitudes. Mission suitability conclusions include the flying qualities associated with attaining specific airspeed schedules to climb. restrictions. the mission of the airplane and specifically the mission of the flight to be flown determines the optimum condition for the climb. The specifications set desired performance in the production aircraft. Compatibility of airspeeds / altitudes with the mission and location Performance sensitivities for schedule or airspeed deviations. 2. An interceptor launching to intercept an incoming raid is primarily interested in arriving at the attack altitude with the best fighting speed and in the minimum time. 7. An attack aircraft launching on a strike mission is primarily interested in climbing on a schedule of maximum range covered per pound of fuel burned. 5. 3. As in all performance testing. Field of view. optimization of other factors during the climb. the pure numbers cannot be the only determinant to acceptance of the aircraft. Mission profile or requirements. Flight path stability. In the case of single engine climb for multi engine aircraft or for wave-off. 4. These specifications are important as measures for contract performance.7 MISSION SUITABILITY The mission requirements are the ultimate standard for climb performance.55 . They are important in determining whether or not to continue the acquisition process at various stages of aircraft development. or desire.
for example: Climb on course to optimum cruise altitude with military power (320 KIAS at sea level. b. Generally climb performance is presented as a function of altitude. a. Mach number 0. Performance guarantees are based on: type of day. 2. The effect of weight reduction during the 7. 2 KIAS/1000 ft decrease to Mach number 0.8 SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE Climb performance guarantees are stated in the detailed specification for the model and in Naval Air System Command Specification. and configuration. 3.72 constant to level off). standard gross weight. Ferry capable. deployment. 2. drag index.56 . empty gross weight. d. intermediate. Air to air combat (offensive and/or defensive) including weapons f. presenting characteristics and performance data for Naval piloted aircraft.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 7. Guarantees for climb likely include: 1. loading.72. Rates of climb for alternate loadings are presented to show the effects of drag changes with various external stores and/or weight changes. Type of air combat maneuvering. plotting rate of climb at basic mission combat weight with maximum. Mission requirements. but in all cases must be approved by the procuring activity. and recovery. Wave-off rate of climb in a specific configuration. e. or normal thrust (power). Instrument departure. fuel quantity and type at engine start. The type of climb is specified. A defined ceiling such as combat ceiling. Land or sea based. transit. The detail specification provides mission profiles to be expected and performance guarantees generically as follows: 1. Instantaneous single engine climb in a given configuration. Low level navigation. c. and methods of. AS-5263 further defines requirements for. g. AS-5263. Carrier suitability. Deviation from this specification are permissible. engine(s) type.
Propeller aircraft (patrol. Climb speed is the airspeed at which the optimum rate of climb is attained for the given configuration. 9. weight. 4. trainers) to cruise altitude is at intermediate (military) thrust. thrust (power) and weight. 10. altitude. Combat ceiling for supersonic vehicles is the highest altitude at which the vehicle can fly supersonically and have a 500 ft/min rate of climb at the stated loading. VT for propeller aircraft. Combat climb is the instantaneous maximum vertical speed capability in ft/min at combat conditions. and engine thrust (power). Enroute climb data is based on the appropriate configuration. and engine thrust (power). Performance is based on the latest approved standard atmospheric tables as specified by the Navy.CLIMB PERFORMANCE climb is not considered. and power. Weight reduction as a result of fuel consumed is applied. 8. weight. Combat altitude is the altitude at the target for the specific mission given. and thrust (power). Cruise ceiling for subsonic cruise vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 300 ft/min at normal (maximum continuous) engine ratting at stated weight and loading. 5. Optimum cruise altitude is the altitude at which the aircraft attains the maximum nautical miles per pound of fuel for the momentary weight and configuration. 7. The aircraft has the landing gear and flaps retracted and the airspeed for best climb for the applicable condition is presented. and engine thrust (power). 3. General provisions for the presentation of climb performance are as follows: 1. 13. 7. Cruise altitude is the altitude at which the cruise portion of the mission is computed. Cruise ceiling for supersonic cruise vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 300 ft/min at normal (maximum continuous) engine ratting at stated weight and loading. The time to climb to a specified altitude is expressed in minutes from start of enroute climb. 11. weight. transport) use maximum continuous power. Enroute climb power for jet aircraft (fighter. altitude. 6. 2. Combat ceiling for subsonic vehicles is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 500 ft/min at the stated loading.57 . attack. Service ceiling is that altitude at which the rate of climb is 100 ft/min at a stated loading. configuration. Mach number for jets. weight. All speeds are presented as true airspeed in kn and Mach number. 12. weight.
unless authorized otherwise. is increased by 5 % for all engine thrust (power) conditions as a service tolerance to allow for practical operation.FIXED WING PERFORMANCE 14.9. 15. In addition. regardless of source.58 .1 NOTATIONS AR ax az CAP CCF CD CL D d ∆D dh/dt DStd DTest ∆TNx e Eh Eh1 Eh2 EhTest ESHP g h h1 h2 Aspect ratio Acceleration parallel flight path Acceleration perpendicular to flight path Combat air patrol Climb correction factor Drag coefficient Lift coefficient Drag Distance Standard drag minus test drag Rate of climb Standard drag Test drag Standard net thrust parallel flight path minus test net thrust Oswald’s efficiency factor Energy height Energy height at start of climb Energy height at end of climb Test energy height Engine shaft horsepower Gravitational acceleration Tapeline altitude Tapeline altitude start of climb Tapeline altitude end of climb ft/s2 ft/s2 lb ft lb ft/s lb lb lb ft ft ft ft hp ft/s2 ft ft ft 7. The term thrust (power) is used to mean thrust (jet engine) and/or brake horsepower (shaft engines). 7. or fans. All fuel consumption data. ducts. corrections or allowances to engine fuel flow is made for all power plant installation losses such as accessory drives.9 GLOSSARY 7.
59 ft ft ft ft ft lb g g g ˚C ft-lb/s psf ft-lb/s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft/s ft2 s ˚C lb lb ˚C ft/s ft/s kn ft/s kn kn kn kn ft/s ft/s ft/s .CLIMB PERFORMANCE HP H Pc HPc ref H Po hTest L M MT nz nzStd nzTest OAT PA Pa Preq Ps PsStd PsTest ROC S t Ta TN TNx TStd V Ve VH Vhor Vi Vmc Vo Vs VT VTref VTStd Pressure altitude Calibrated pressure altitude Reference calibrated pressure altitude Observed pressure altitude Test tapeline altitude Lift Mach number True Mach number Normal acceleration Standard normal acceleration Test normal acceleration Outside air temperature Power available Ambient pressure Power required Specific excess power Standard specific excess power Test specific excess power Rate of climb Wing area Time Ambient temperature Net thrust Net thrust parallel flight path Standard temperature Velocity Equivalent airspeed Maximum level flight airspeed Horizontal velocity Indicated airspeed Airspeed for minimum control Observed airspeed Stall speed True airspeed Reference true airspeed Standard true airspeed 7.
Theory and Flight Test Techniques. 104. 2. U. 1986.10 REFERENCES 1. Patuxent River. 7. Naval Test Pilot School Flight Test Manual. July 1977.2 GREEK SYMBOLS ft/s ft/s kn kn lb lb lb lb lb/h α (alpha) αj δ (delta) γ (gamma) γStd γTest π (pi) θ (theta) ρssl (rho) Angle of attack Thrust angle Pressure ratio Flight path angle Ratio of specific heats Standard flight path angle Test flight path angle Constant Temperature ratio Standard sea level air density deg deg deg deg deg 0. AS-5263. S. Naval Air System Command Specification. Naval Test Pilot School.9. Fixed Wing Performance. MD.60 .FIXED WING PERFORMANCE VTTest Vv Vx Vy W Wf WStd WTest ˙ Wf Test true airspeed Vertical velocity Speed for maximum climb angle Speed for maximum rate of climb Weight Fuel weight Standard weight Test weight Fuel flow 7. USNTPS-FTM-No.0023769 slug/ft3 7. Guidelines For Preparation Of Standard Aircraft Characteristics Charts And Performance Data Piloted Aircraft (Fixed Wing). 23 October.
S. Vol 21. USAF Test Pilot School.W. CA..CLIMB PERFORMANCE 3. USAF Test Pilot School. USAF Test Pilot School. Aircraft and Engine Performance. 7. USAF Test Pilot School. 1958. August 1991. 4. MD. Patuxent River. CA. J... MD. 5.61 . “Energy Approach to the General Aircraft Maneuverability Problem”. Edwards AFB. July 1987. Naval Air Test Center. Rutowski. F. Performance Flight Test Phase. Chapter 9. USNTPS Patuxent River.S. Volume I. Powell. Airplane Performance. USNTPS Classroom Notes. March 1954. E. Performance Planning Guide. Edwards AFB. 7. No 3. Petersen. 6. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.
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