Performance | Flight | Aerodynamics

Aircraft Performance

Prof. Dava Newman Sr. Lecturer Pete Young 16.00: Introduction to Aerospace & Design 12 February 2004
Prof. Newman, 2004 Page 1

Newman. 2004 Page 2 .Lecture Outline • Performance Parameters – Aircraft components and examples • Equations of Motion • Thrust-Velocity Curves – Stall – Lift-to-Drag Ratio • Endurance & Range • V-n Diagrams Prof.

Performance • Note: Book errata pdf file • Speed: minimum and maximum? • Range: How far? • Endurance: How long? – Flight dynamics Prof. Newman. 2004 Page 3 .

Newman.Aircraft Components Prof. 2004 Page 4 .

450 grams weight Prof. Newman. 2004 Page 5 .Aircraft Performance/Design Elements • First example: – Semi-scale Mustang “Reno Racer” – ~ 750 cm span.

300 grams weight Prof. 2004 Page 6 .8 m span. Newman.Aircraft Performance/Design Elements • Second example: “Omega” high performance motor-glider • ~ 1.

Discussion Topic • What are the differing aerodynamic design features providing the desired performance for each aircraft? • Common features: – Aero controls: elevator. 2004 Page 7 . ailerons. rudder – Electric motor: identical – Radio receiver and servo motors: identical Prof. Newman.

Desired performance • Reno Racer: high speed aerobatics and racing – 20-25 m/s velocity in level flight – “High g” turns and rolls • Omega: steep rapid climbs to altitude. Newman. efficient power-off glides for extended duration Prof. 2004 Page 8 .

2004 Page 9 . Newman.Design Elements • Aspect Ratio (b2/S) – Low or high? Why? • Drag reduction: how attained? • Airfoils: low or high camber? Why? • Tail moment arm (horizontal stab area x tail length): high or low? Why? • Wing loading (wing area/weight) high or low? What effect on flight? • Any other differing design features? Prof.

Drag. Newman. 2004 Page 10 .Equations of Motion • 2-D model of aircraft • Lift. q or g – Velocity & horizontal • Pitch angle – Nose & horizontal Prof. v • Flight path. Weight and Thrust • Velocity.

2004 Page 11 . Prof. Newman.Thrust-Velocity Curves • The relationship between the required thrust and the velocity can be calculated for any aircraft.

2004 Page 12 .flyers.htm • Air Density Simulator • Stall • Maximum Lift/Drag Prof.Thrust-Velocity Simulation • Simulations • Foil Sim https://web.html http://www.00/www/3/03/index.nasa.mit. Newman.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/foil2.edu/16.org/simulators/atmospheric.lerc.html http://www.

2004 Page 13 • Endurance: total time a/c can stay aloft on a tank of fuel . Newman.Range & Endurance (Breguet) • Aerodynamics & Engines (propeller. kg – mf = mass of fuel. kg m= mo +mf – ˙mf = fuel mass flow rate. jets) – mo = a/c. kg/s • Range: total distance on a tank of fuel – (L/D)max – (CL3/2/ CD)max (CL1/2/ CD)max or v(L/D) (L/D)max Prof.

Newman. 2004 Page 14 .Range & Endurance Prof.

Newman. denoted by ‘n’) envelope • Aerodynamic • Structural • Simulator – Stall limit: aerodynamic – Corner Velocity or Maneuver point – Structural limit Prof.V-n Diagrams (Flight Envelope) • Operational Velocity-Load (in g’s. 2004 Page 15 .

pg.Examples • Example 4. 90. Newman. Assume the following characteristics for the aircraft: Weight = 16. Oswald efficiency factor = e = 0.350 kg.6.02. Parasite drag = CDo = 0.6 Calculate the thrust required for an aircraft. Wing area = 48.61 m.31.8 Prof. Wing span = 19. V-n Simulation • Problem 4. 2004 Page 16 . modeled after a Canadair Challenger Business Jet. to maintain steady level flight of 350 knots at an altitude of 6500 meters.

Questions? • Mud Cards Prof. Newman. 2004 Page 17 .

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