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McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e
Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teams at Whole Foods Markets
Whole Foods Markets organizes employees around self-directed teams, responsible for a particular
store area. These teams
have considerable autonomy to operate their store section.
What are Teams?
Groups of two or more people Exist to fulfill a purpose Interdependent -- interact and influence each other Mutually accountable for achieving common goals
Perceive themselves as a social entity
Many Types of Teams
Task force (project) teams Skunkworks Virtual teams Communities of practice
Production/service/ leadership teams
Self-directed teams Advisory teams
• • •
Informal Groups Groups that exist primarily for the benefit of their members Reasons why informal groups exist: 1. Goal accomplishment 4. Emotional support 8-5 . Innate drive to bond 2. Social identity -.we define ourselves by group memberships 3.
products/services • Better information sharing • Higher employee motivation/engagement .cost of developing and maintaining teams • Social loafing 8-6 .Team members are benchmarks of comparison Disadvantages • Individuals better/faster on some tasks • Process losses .Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams Advantages • Make better decisions.Fulfills drive to bond .Closer scrutiny by team members .
How to Minimize Social Loafing Make individual performance more visible • Form smaller teams • Specialize tasks • Measure individual performance Increase employee motivation • Increase job enrichment • Select motivated employees 8-7 .
Team Effectiveness Model Team Design •Task characteristics •Team size Organizational and Team Environment Team Processes • Team development • Team norms • Team cohesiveness • Team trust •Team composition • Accomplish tasks • Satisfy member needs • Maintain team survival Team Effectiveness 8-8 .
Organization/Team Environment Reward systems Communication systems Organizational structure Organizational leadership Physical space 8-9 .
easier to become cohesive • ill-defined tasks require members with diverse backgrounds and more time to coordinate Teams preferred with higher task interdependence • Extent that employees need to share materials. information. 8-10 .Team’s Task Characteristics Teams work better when tasks are clear. or expertise to perform their jobs. easy to implement • learn roles faster.
Levels of Task Interdependence High Reciprocal B C A Sequential A B C Resource Pooled Low A B C 8-11 .
Team Size Smaller teams are better because: • need less time to coordinate roles and resolve differences • require less time to develop more member involvement. thus higher commitment But team must be large enough to accomplish task 8-12 .
North America. 8-13 . and Asia to observe how well the university students work in teams.Shell Looks for Team Players Shell holds the 5-day Gourami Business Challenge in Europe. One of the greatest challenges is for students from different cultures and educational specializations to work together.
Team Composition Effective team members must be willing and able to work on the team Effective team members possess specific competencies (5 C’s) 8-14 .
Five C’s of Team Member Competencies 8-15 .
etc. perspectives. values.Team Composition: Diversity Team members have with diverse knowledge. Advantages • better for creatively solving complex problems • broader knowledge base • better representation of team’s constituents Disadvantages • take longer to become a high-performing team • more susceptible to “faultlines” • increased risk of dysfunctional conflict 8-16 . skills.
Stages of Team Development Performing Norming Storming Forming Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Adjourning 8-17 .
Team membership formation • Transition from “them” to “us” • Team becomes part of person’s social identity 2. Team competence development • Forming routines with others • Forming shared mental models 8-18 .Team Development as Membership and Competence Two central processes in team development 1.
Team Roles A set of behaviors that people are expected to perform Some formally assigned. others informally Informal role assignment occurs during team development and is related to personal characteristics 8-19 .
Team Building Formal activities intended to improve the team’s development and functioning Types of Team Building • Clarify team’s performance goals • Improve team’s problem-solving skills • Improve role definitions • Improve relations 8-20 .
Team Norms Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviors Norms develop through: • Initial team experiences • Critical events in team’s history • Experience/values members bring to the team 8-21 .
Preventing/Changing Dysfunctional Team Norms State desired norms when forming teams Select members with preferred values Discuss counter-productive norms Reward behaviors representing desired norms Disband teams with dysfunctional norms 8-22 .
Team Cohesion The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members Both cognitive and emotional process Related to the team member’s social identity 8-23 .
Influences on Team Cohesion Member similarity • Similarity-attraction effect • Some forms of diversity have less effect Team size • Smaller teams tend to be more cohesive Member interaction • Regular interaction increases cohesion • Calls for tasks with high interdependence 8-24 .
Influences on Team Cohesion (con’t) Somewhat difficult entry • Team eliteness increases cohesion • But lower cohesion with severe initiation Team success • Successful teams fulfillmember needs • Success increases social identity with team External challenges • Challenges increase cohesion when not overwhelming 8-25 .
5. 3. 2. 4. Motivated to remain members Willing to share information Strong interpersonal bonds Resolve conflict effectively Better interpersonal relationships 8-26 .Team Cohesion Outcomes 1.
Team Cohesion and Performance Team Norms Support Company Goals Moderately high task performance High task performance Team Norms Oppose Company Goals Moderately low task performance Low task performance Low Team Cohesiveness High Team Cohesiveness 8-27 .
Trust Defined Positive expectations one person has of another person in situations involving risk 8-28 .
Three Levels of Trust High Identification-based Trust Knowledge-based Trust Calculus-based Trust Low 8-29 .
Self-Directed Teams at Reckitt Benckiser Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare has become one of the most productive pharmaceutical operations in Europe due to lean management practices and reliance on self-directed teams. 8-30 .
that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks. 8-31 . and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.Self-Directed Teams Defined Cross-functional work groups organized around work processes.
Self-Directed Team Success Factors Responsible for entire work process High interdependence within the team Low interdependence with other teams Autonomy to organize and coordinate work Technology supports team communication/coordination 8-32 .
Information technologies . time.Globalization 8-33 . and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks • Increasingly possible because of: .Virtual Teams Teams whose members operate across space.Organizational learning .Knowledge-based work • Increasingly necessary because of: .
Virtual Team Success Factors Member characteristics • Technology savvy • Self-leadership skills • Emotional intelligence Flexible use of communication technologies Opportunities to meet face-to-face 8-34 .
consider more specific features 8-35 .Team Decision Making Constraints Time constraints • Time to organize/coordinate • Production blocking Evaluation apprehension • Belief that others are silently evaluating you Peer pressure to conform • Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms Groupthink • Tendency in highly cohesive teams to value consensus at the price of decision quality • Concept losing favor -.
General Guidelines for Team Decisions Team norms should encourage critical thinking Sufficient team diversity Ensure neither leader nor any member dominates Maintain optimal team size Introduce effective team structures 8-36 .
Problem: constructive conflict easily slides into personal attacks 8-37 .Constructive Conflict Courtesy of Johnson Space Center/NASA People focus their discussion on the issue while maintaining respectfulness for others having different points of view.
Build on others’ ideas 8-38 . 3. Speak freely 2.Rules of Brainstorming 1. Don’t criticize Provide as many ideas as possible 4.
Evaluating Brainstorming Strengths • Produces more creative ideas • Less evaluation apprehension when team supports a learning orientation • Strengthens decision acceptance and team cohesiveness • Sharing positive emotions encourages creativity Weaknesses • Production blocking still exists • Evaluation apprehension exists in many groups 8-39 .
or conformity problems Limitations -.too structured and technologybound 8-40 .more creative ideas. minimal production blocking. evaluation apprehension.Electronic Brainstorming Relies on networked computers to submit and share creative ideas Strengths -.
Nominal Group Technique Individual Activity Team Activity Possible solutions described to others Individual Activity Describe problem Write down possible solutions Vote on solutions presented 8-41 .
Team Dynamics McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 8-42 . Inc. All rights reserved.
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