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Arabic English Dictionary Quranic Usage

Arabic English Dictionary Quranic Usage

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ARABIC-ENGLISH

DICTIONARY OF QUR’ANIC USAGE

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK
SECTION ONE
THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST
EDITED BY
H. ALTENMÜLLER · B. HROUDA · B.A. LEVINE · R.S. O’FAHEY
K.R. VEENHOF · C.H.M. VERSTEEGH
VOLUME EIGHTY-FIVE
ARABIC-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY OF QUR’ANIC USAGE

ARABIC-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY OF QUR’ANIC USAGE
BY
ELSAID M. BADAWI
MUHAMMAD ABDEL HALEEM
LEIDEN • BOSTON
2008

This book is printed on acid-free paper.
A Cataloging-in-Publication record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISSN: 0169-9423
ISBN: 978 90 04 14948 9
Copyright 2008 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without prior written permission from the publisher.
Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the
appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910,
Danvers, MA 01923, USA.
Fees are subject to change.
Printed in the Netherlands

ƙōƊƆƍƒƏżœŕœřƂƇœŪƈōŔřƂƒƙ ƉťŹƏż¾œſ ö ƍƃƍƇŪšŊƇœƂƃŒŦƋŧƒŹƍƃ
¾ƆŞŊƇœƂƃŒŦƋƁŧřƍƃƍ¾ŰżŊƇœƂƃŒŦƋƅťſƍƃƍƇŪšřŪƒƇœƂƃŒŦƋťƒŨ õ ŒŦƋƍ
ŧŬŕƃŒŗƄƆŞƏƄŵŭƀƈƃŒŇƚƒřŪŒƏƄŵ¾ƒƃťƍƋƍŧŕŶƃŒƅŲŵŊƇƆ

řƅŕŬũƉƈ ƑƊŕŬƔŗƅŔƇŠũƅŔŧŗŷƑŲŕƂƅŔ Ś 596 ƍ 1199 Ƈ


No one ever wrote a book without. on the following day. saying.
`Had such-and-such been changed it would have been better,
had such-and-such been added it would have been more acceptable,
had such-and-such been stated earlier it would have been
preferable, and had such-and-such been omitted it would have been
more elegant.'
Such a phenomenon is one of the great lessons and evidence of the
inherent insufficiency of all members of the human race.

°al-Qadï °abd °al-Rajam °al-Bïsanï (d. 596 A.H./1199 A.D.)

LL

FOREWORD

From an early date, the study of the text of the Qur`an has been the
central concern of all scholars in Islamic civilization. Before the
death of the Prophet, if the believers did not understand the
revelation, they could ask the Prophet himself. Many prophetic
traditions relate how believers asked him about the meaning of a
verse or a word, and how he explained its meaning to them. But after
Islam had spread across a large area, and many new converts whose
mother tongue was not Arabic began to recite the text and listen to its
recitation, problems of comprehension became a real issue. From an
early period, scholars collected difficult lexical items from the
Qur`anic text. No less an authority than °ibn °abbas (d. 68 A.H./687
A.D.) is often credited with the first commentary on the text. His
Tafsïr is quoted by many later commentators, and although the
collections that have been published under this title probably do not
go back to him, there can be no doubt that his explanations found
their way into later commentaries through his students. Likewise, the
treatise on the Lughãt `al-Qur`ãn that has been transmitted under his
name may not really be his, but there can be no doubt that he
initiated a concern about difficult lexical items in the text.
In the first centuries of Islam, philological and theological
exegesis of the Qur`an still went hand in hand, but in later times
philology became a separate field. This led to the publication of
treatises with titles such as Gharïb `al-Qur`ãn, in which difficult
words with an obscure meaning were collected. Such treatises are
reported from grammarians like °abu °ubayd, °ibn Durayd,
°ibn Faris, °ibn °al-Sikkït and Tha°lab, to mention only some of the
best known. Most of these treatises have not been preserved, but the
famous Kitãb tafsïr gharïb `al-Qur`ãn by °ibn Qutayba (d.
276 A.H./889 A.D.) was edited by Saqr (Cairo: 1958; repr. Beirut
1978).

FOREWORD
viii
The lexicographical exegesis of the Qur`an was not confined to
wordlists, but it became an integral part of the Tafsïr literature as
well. The earliest commentaries on the Qur`an that have been
preserved give us a fairly good picture of which items were regarded
by the commentators as difficult. They explain difficult words in the
text by paraphrasing them with other words that were more likely to
be understood by their readers. Muqatil °ibn Sulayman (d. 150
A.H./767 A.D.), for instance, paraphrases the word mubïn whenever
it occurs with bayyin clear`, and when the phrase khãlidïna fïhã
occurs in a verse, Muqatil always adds `ay lã yamütüna i.e., they do
not die`. These are not exegetical, but lexicographical, remarks,
instigated by the presumed lack of knowledge on the part of the
believers. This procedure gives us a unique window onto the level of
comprehension by common believers in the first and second
centuries of Islam. One may assume that the overriding concern of
the early commentators was to make sure that the believers
understood every single word of the Holy Text. Yet, they were also
interested in the meanings of the words as such, witness their interest
in foreign loanwords in the vocabulary of the Qur`an. This became a
controversial issue at a later period, but at this early stage was
apparently not regarded as something out of the ordinary. Thus, for
instance, Muqatil informs us that the word firdaws paradise` is a
Greek word, and that the word `istabraq brocade` comes from
Persian. This is purely lexicographical information, which does not
serve any exegetical purpose. The tradition of quoting from the
Qur`an to illustrate the basic meaning of words was continued by
later lexicographers, even though they concentrated more on
shawãhid from poetry. In the first dictionary of Arabic, the Kitãb `al-
´ayn that is attributed to °al-Khalïl °ibn °ahmad (d. 175 A.H./791
A.D.), for instance, the number of quotations from the Qur`an is
surprisingly low.
Yet, the importance of the language of the Qur`an as a source of
linguistic knowledge is obvious from the thousands of quotations in
grammatical treatises. Some of the earliest grammatical treatises
were direct commentaries on the text, for instance °al-Farra°`s (d.
207 A.H./822 A.D.) Ma´ãnï `al-Qur`ãn and °al-°akhfash`s (d. 215
A.H./830 A.D.?) book with the same title. In these commentaries,

FOREWORD

ix
lexicographical information was integrated in the general discussion,
although the authors seem to have been more interested in analysing
the linguistic structure of the text. In Sïbawayhi`s (d. 177 A.H./793
A.D.?) Kitãb the shift is complete: he quotes the Qur`an (more than
440 times!), not in order to elucidate its meaning, but as evidence of
the structure of Arabic, of which the text of the revelation is the
prime example.
Grammarians were primarily interested in the value of the text of
the Qur`an as the most important source of correct Arabic. Their
entire discipline was intended to be an ancillary to the religious
sciences, but one sometimes gets the impression that they used this
important function as an excuse for their passionate study of the
Arabic language itself. Later grammarians routinely introduce their
treatises by pointing out how important the study of grammar and
lexicography is for the study of the Qur`an. The grammarian °al-
Zamakhsharï (d. 538 A.H./1144 A.D.), for instance, states in the
introduction to his Mufassal that he felt compelled to write his
grammar because of the slander advanced by the Shu°ubiyya against
the Arabic language. He argues that God has chosen Arabic, rather
than any foreign language, for His last revelation, which
demonstrates its superiority. Therefore, knowledge of grammar is
indispensable for all those who wish to understand this revelation
and the Islamic sciences. Apparently, even when grammarians were
mainly attracted by the subtleties of Arabic grammar, they still felt
the need to justify their interest by pointing out how important the
study of grammar was for understanding the Qur`an.
The emphasis on the grammatical aspects of the language of the
Qur`an rather than the lexical aspects is obvious from the many
treatises on the declension of the Qur`an or the style of the Qur`an.
By contrast, no special dictionaries of the Qur`anic lexicon seem to
have existed in the Classical period. That is to say, there were
collections of difficult words, but no dictionaries that dealt with the
entire lexicon, no monographs dealing exclusively with the lexicon
of the Qur`an. One reason for this apparent lack may have been that
the lexicographers did not feel the need to compile such a dictionary
because all words from the Qur`an could be found in any dictionary.
In the modern age this has changed, and special dictionaries are now

FOREWORD
x
produced regularly, chief among them being the Egyptian Mu´jam
`alfãz `al-Qur`ãn `al-karïm published in two volumes by the Arabic
Language Academy in Cairo (1970).
The absence of trustworthy dictionaries used to be true of the
Western study of Arabic, as well. All Orientalist lexicographers,
from Golius to Dozy, did include the lexicon of the Qur`an in their
dictionaries, but they do not seem to have felt the urge to compile a
dictionary of those words exclusively contained in the revelation. For
a long time, Flügel`s concordance of the Qur`an (Leipzig, 1842)
remained the only work in which all words were listed, albeit
without a translation. The concordance was reprinted regularly (for
instance, in New Delhi 1992), until it was superseded by °abd °al-
Baqï`s concordance, `al-Mu´jam `al-mufahras li-`alfãz `al-Qur`ãn
`al-karïm (Cairo, 1958).
In Islamic languages other than Arabic, dictionaries were
compiled to facilitate the comprehension of the text of the Qur`an for
common believers with little knowledge of Arabic. There is, for
instance, a dictionary compiled by Shaikh Abdulkarim Parekh
entitled Complete Easy Dictionary of the Qur'an (Kuala Lumpur:
Noordeen, 2003), in which each Arabic word has its meaning in
English given beneath, in the order of the text. This dictionary was
also translated into Bengali, Urdu, and Turkish. Other dictionaries of
this category include Abdul Mannan Omar`s Dictionary of the Holy
Qur'an (Rheinfelden: Noor Foundation International, 3rd ed., 2005),
though dictionaries of this kind were never meant to be scholarly
research tools.
The first Arabic/English Qur`anic dictionary, and for a long time
the only one, was John Penrice`s, Dictionary and Glossary of the
Koran, which was published in 1873, and has been reprinted ever
since. Nothing much is known about the author, except that he came
from East Anglia, and that he was Patron of the Living in Little
Plumstead in the Diocese of Norwich, as Serjeant mentions in the
introduction to the reprint of 1971 (New York: Praeger). No other
publications are listed under Penrice`s name. Apparently, he was an
admirer of the style of the Qur`an, of which he writes in his preface,
beauties there are, many and great; ideas highly poetical are clothed
in rich and appropriate language, which not infrequently rises to a

FOREWORD

xi
sublimity far beyond the reach of any translation`. Because of the
difficulties the beginner in Arabic experiences in understanding the
text, he decided to write a dictionary with the Arabic motto Silk `al-
bayãn fï manãqib `al-Qur`ãn, which he himself translates as a clue
of elucidation to the intricate passages of the Kor-ân`.
Penrice`s dictionary, which contains all words occurring in the
text of the Qur`an, has been reprinted numerous times, the most
recent reprint being that of 2004 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications).
Apart from the fact that it has become outdated, it has also become
difficult to consult, because it uses Flügel`s edition of the Qur`an and
his numbering of the verses, which differs from that of the standard
Cairo edition. In 2006, Duraid Fatouhi published a re-edition of the
Penrice Dictionary (Kuala Lumpur: IBT Publications, 2006), in
which he replaced the old numbering of the verses with that of the
Cairo edition, and substituted more recent translations, such as that
by Yusuf Ali, for those used by Penrice. The most recent
Arabic/English Qur`anic dictionary is A Concise Dictionary of
Koranic Arabic by Arne Ambros and Stephan Procházka, which was
published in 2004 (Wiesbaden: L. Reichert). As the title indicates,
this is a concise dictionary, which does not give a detailed analysis of
the lexicon.
There was, therefore, a tremendous need for a new scholarly
dictionary of the vocabulary of the Qur`an, with complete translation
of all words, in which the abundant information in the commentary
literature would be taken into account. Such a dictionary has now
been compiled by two eminent scholars, Prof. Elsaid Badawi and
Prof. Muhammad Abdel Haleem. The information in this dictionary
is presented by root, as in most dictionaries, but an interesting feature
is that at the beginning of each lemma the entire semantic range of
the root is given, together with a frequency count of each form
belonging to the root. This enables the reader to survey at one glance
the semantic domain of the root. For each individual lexical unit, the
meanings in different contexts are carefully distinguished. Thus, for
an important notion like kitãb, no less than fourteen different
meanings are given, from written document` to prescribed
punishment`, each of which is illustrated with a quotation from the
text, with full translation. Grammatical items have been given special

FOREWORD
xii
attention. This means that the dictionary will serve as a very useful
reference tool, not only for the specialist, but also for beginning
readers, who inevitably need as much support as they can get in their
first efforts to understand the text.
One could hardly imagine a more qualified team of scholars for
this tremendous task. They share a common background, both having
received their first training at the Azhar University, where at an early
age they studied the Qur`an and the Islamic sciences. They both
continued their training in Britain, Prof. Badawi at the London
School of Oriental and African Studies and Prof. Abdel Haleem at
the University of Cambridge. Prof. Abdel Haleem now heads the
Centre of Islamic Studies and teaches at the School of Oriental and
African Studies, specialising in the stylistics of the Qur`an. He has
published the book Understanding the Qur'an. Themes and Styles
(London, 2001), that has become a standard text, as well as an
English translation of the Qur`an, The Qur'an-A New Translation
(Oxford, 2004), which received high praise in the press as a
remarkable achievement, and which has been used in the present
dictionary. Prof. Badawi has devoted the greater part of his career to
setting up the Arabic Language department at the American
University of Cairo, which, thanks to him, has become one of the
best Arabic language departments in the Arab world. His
Mustawayãt `al-lugha `al-mu´ãsira fï Misr (Cairo, 1973) laid the
foundations for the modern sociolinguistic study of the language
situation in Egypt, and for sociolinguistics of Arabic in general.
Together with Martin Hinds, he published the Dictionary of Egyptian
Arabic (Beirut, 1986), and he is one of the authors of Modern
Written Arabic. A Comprehensive Grammar (London and New
York, 2004), which has become the standard reference grammar.
It is a privilege to present this dictionary of Qur`anic usage to the
many scholars all over the world who know that one cannot study
Islam and Islamic civilisation without an intimate familiarity with the
text of the Qur`an, and that one cannot hope to understand its
meaning without a thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

Kees Versteegh
University of Nijmegen.

INTRODUCTION

Enquiry into the meanings and nuances of Qur`anic vocabulary
originates from the time of the Prophet Muhammad himself.
Numerous traditions have reached us confirming that the Prophet
was questioned by the companions concerning the meanings of,
amongst other words, ũŝƏƄƅŔ (`alkawthar; 108:1) and ƑųŬƏƅŔ ŘƜŰƅŔ
(`alsalÒt `alwus‚Ò; 2:238) (`al`itqÒn, v. II, pp. 191-205). This
trend continued after the death of the Prophet: we are told that the
second Caliph, °umar °ibn °al-Khattab, whilst standing on the pulpit,
interrupted his recitation of (16:47) Ł ŨŁ ŦōĄ Ɣ ċŽč ƏĿ ŦĿ ś ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇą ƍ (ya`khudhuhum
ÀalÒ takhawwufin) to ask his audience of the meaning of ċŽč ƏĿ ŦĿ ś
(takhawwuf), whereupon a man from the tribe of Hudhayl is reported
to have said, This is from our dialect and it means 'take them to
task, little by little¨`, and in support cited a line of poetry in which
the word was used in that sense, (`al`itqÒn, v. II, pp. 87-8).
Similarly, °ibn °abbas (d. 68 A.H./687 A.D.), acclaimed as the
learned man of this `umma [the Muslims] ) Ƈƅŕŷ řƈƗŔ ƋŨƍ ( as well as the
exegete of the Qur`an ) ƉŊũƂƅŔ ƉŕƈŠũś ( , is reputed to have said that he
remained ignorant of the exact meaning of Ą ũĊ ųŕĿ ž (f҂ir) in Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ũĊ ųŕĿ ž
(f҂ir `alsamÒwÒt) (6:14) until one of two Bedouins who sought his
arbitration regarding the ownership of a well, said to the other, ŕƊŌ
ŕƎśũųž (`anÒ fa‚artuhÒ) I am the one who split it open`, (see
`al`itqÒn, v. II, p. 113).
Difficulty with some of the Qur`anic vocabulary as a result of
the use of, for example, words better known in certain localities
and/or a lack of knowledge of the larger contexts in which certain
words occur, combined with the general lack of knowledge of Arabic
brought about by the spread of Islam amongst non-Arabs, made the
need to explain lexical items in the Qur`an more urgent. This
situation led to the establishment and development of the science of
Exegesis ) ũƔŬſśƅŔ ƇƆŷ ( , which came to represent one of the greatest

INTRODUCTION

xiv
branches of Qur`anic Studies. Surprisingly, however, interest in
Qur`anic idiom as an independent discipline remained comparatively
modest. Furthermore, such somewhat limited interest as did exist
centred around specific groups of Qur`anic words: the ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŖƔũŻ
(gharïb `alQur`Òn), a term which refers to words considered to be
less commonly known; ƉŊũƂƅŔ Śŕżƅ (lughÒt `alQur`Òn), i.e. those
words which were thought of as belonging to dialects of certain
tribes; ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŪŕŠƈ (majÒz `alQur`Òn) or ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŚŕƎƔŗŮś (tashbïhÒt
`alQur`Òn), those Qur`anic words which were used in the
metaphorical sense; while studies dealing with ũœŕŴƊƅŔƏ ƋƏŠƏƅŔ
(`alwujüh wa'lnazÒ`ir) discussed those words which were used to
convey different nuances in various contexts, termed ƋƏŠƏ (wujüh), as
contrasted with ũœŕŴƊ (nazÒ`ir). i.e. words considered to be used in the
same way throughout the text. In addition to this large and expansive
vestige of literature dealing with certain aspects of Qur`anic idiom,
there were works concerned with what became to be known as ŴŕſƅƗŔ
ƙŔ řƔƈƜŬ (`al`alfÒz `al`islÒmïyya) i.e. vocabulary which came to
acquire a new Islamic nuance through its usage in the Qur`an and
Hadïth. The first recorded extant example of this genre was °abu
Hatim °ahmad °ibn Hamdan °al-Razï`s (d. 322 A.H./932 A.D.)
pioneering work ŴŕſƅƗŔ Ƒž řƊƔŪƅŔ ƙŔ řƔƈƜŬ (`alzïnatu fï'l`alfÒz
`al`islÒmïyya).
It was °al-Raghib °al-°asfahanï (d. 503 A.H./1108 A.D.) who
produced the most important major work, and perhaps the first of its
kind, devoted to the Qur`anic vocabulary in its entirety, as opposed
to those works devoted to specific groups of lexical items. Albeit
belated, his work here is parallel with that of °al-Khalïl °ibn °ahmad
(d. 175 A.H./791 A.D.) who, in his dictionary ƉƔŸƅŔ ŖŕśƄ (kitÒb
`alÀayn) transformed Arabic lexicography from a field of study
concerned merely with exotic and rare words to one demonstrating a
universal concern with the entire vocabulary of the Arabic language.
Although °al-Raghib refers to the subject of his enquiry as being the
meanings of all of the words of the Qur`an, and although he makes
no distinction in his treatment of the Qur`anic vocabulary between
what is considered commonly and less commonly known, the book
was published several times under misleading titles indicating that it
was only concerned with ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŖƔũŻ (gharïb `alQur`Òn). It seems

INTRODUCTION

xv
that no one considered it plausible to have a dictionary devoted to the
vocabulary of the Qur`an independent of works of commentary.
Recently however, this situation has been remedied and this work
has been republished under the more befitting title of ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŴŕſƅŌ ŚŔŧũſƈ
ƇƔũƄƅŔ (mufradãt `alfÒz `alQur`Òn `alkarïm).
In stating his preference for this new title the editor says, We
believe as a certainty that this new title is the closest to reflecting the
book`s contents, as the author did not only concern himself with
obscure words in the Qur`anic vocabulary, but also with familiar
ones .`. Indeed, °al-Raghib was of the opinion, expressed in the
introduction to his book, that of all the disciplines needed for the
study of the Qur`an those concerned with the language itself should
come first, and, of these, those concerned with the meanings of the
Qur`anic vocabulary should be considered of primary importance.
°al-Raghib`s implicit call for more attention to the study of the
Qur`an`s vocabulary might have been instrumental in the appearance
over the years of works similar to his, such as Ƒž ŴŕſţƅŔ Řŧƈŷ ŽũŮŌ ũƔŬſś
ŴŕſƅƗŔ (´umdat `alhuffãz fï tafsïr `ashraf `al`alfÒz) by °ahmad °ibn
Yusuf, generally known as °al-Halabï (d. 756 A.H./1355 A.D.).
However, these remained comparatively few, paradoxically, perhaps
because of the great value of °al-Raghib`s own work on the subject.
Some of the particularities of Qur`anic usage became largely
integrated in general lexicographical works such as ŖũŸƅŔ ƉŕŬƅ (lisãn
`al´arab). The appearance, between 1953 and 1970, of ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŴŕſƅŌ ƇŠŸƈ
ƇƔũƄƅŔ (mu´jam `alfãz `al-Qur`ãn `al-karïm) published by the Arabic
Language Academy of Egypt, followed by its revised edition in
1989, did little for the advancement of the subject.
In the West, Qur`anic lexicography seems to have been almost
ignored. Although translation of the Qur`an into various European
languages goes as far back as 1143, with the completion of a Latin
translation by Robert Ketenensis of Chester, and in spite of the great
interest shown by the various churches in studying the history and
text of the Qur`an as the great book of Islam, it was not until the year
1873 that the first work devoted to the vocabulary of the Qur`an by a
Western scholar, to our knowledge, appeared under the title ƉŕƔŗƅŔ ƃƆŬ
ƉŊũƂƅŔ ŖƁŕƊƈ Ɠž - A Dictionary and Glossary of the Kor-an. The author,
who signed himself merely as John Penrice, the Lodge, Norfolk`,

INTRODUCTION

xvi
exhibited a great command of the subject throughout this pioneering
work. However, the lack of, in particular, contextualised examples
illustrating the range of sub-meanings of the various entries provided
in Penrice`s work and its comparatively limited scope, together with
the fact that subsequent work on the subject-valuable as it was-was
restricted to specific groups of Qur`anic vocabulary (as in the case
of, for example, Mustansir Mir`s 1989 Verbal Idiom of the Qur'an),
only illustrates the lacuna in the library of Qur`anic Studies. This
demonstrates the need for a comprehensive, fully researched and
fully contextualised Arabic-English dictionary of Qur`anic usage
compiled in accordance with modern lexicographical methods and
based completely upon both the Classical Arabic idiom (derived
from works such as Sïbawayhi`s Kitãb, °ibn-Ya°ïsh`s Mufassal,
Lisãn `al-´arab and Lane`s dictionaries) and the work of
authoritative commentators on the Qur`an (such as Muqatil, °al-
Tabarï, °al-Qurtubï, °al-Razï and many others). True, Qur`anic
scholars continue to find assistance in Lane`s magnificent work An
Arabic-English Lexicon, particularly since the author includes
pertinent Qur`anic usages in numerous places in his work. However,
the appearance in 1960 of Hans Wehr`s A Dictionary of Modern
Written Arabic and the role it has played in elevating the study of
Modern Standard Arabic outside the Arab world has only
accentuated the need for a parallel dictionary devoted specifically to
the language of the Qur`an.
The present Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage attempts to fill this
gap. The work is based upon the interpretations by classical Qur`anic
commentators of the contextualized occurrences of the finite
vocabulary items used in the Qur`anic text according to the
widespread reading of Hafs ) ůſţ ŘʼnŔũƁ ( (d. between 180-90
A.H./796-805 A.D.) through °asim ) ƇŰŕŷ Ɖŷ ( (d. 127 A.H./744 A.D.)
as rendered in the Egyptian printed text of the Qur`an. The
authenticity of a particular reading of the Qur`an, according to the
eminent ninth century Qur`anic scholar °ibn °al-Jazarï, is based (as
stated in his work ũŮŸƅŔ ŚŔʼnŔũƂƅŔ Ɠž ũŮƊƅŔ (`al-nashr fï'l-qirã`ãt `al-
´ashr) p. 9) among other things such as chain of transmission ) ŧƊŬƅŔ ( ,
upon its conforming to a grammatically acceptable mode of Arabic
language structure (in his words: ƌŠƏŗ ƏƅƏ řƔŗũŸƅŔ ŚƂžŔƏ ŘʼnŔũƁ .Ƅ Every

INTRODUCTION

xvii
reading that agrees with the tenets of the Arabic language even by a
single interpretation .). The role of structural analysis in
interpreting literary texts in general, and the Qur`anic text in
particular, cannot be overestimated. As Montgomery Watt has noted,
the Arabic language is such that there are often several different
ways of 'taking¨ a sentence, and these ways yield at least slightly
different meanings . This kind of thing occurs much more
frequently in Qur`anic Arabic, and there is often something to be
said for each of several possibilities` (Companion to the Qur'an, pp.
10-11). This particular feature of the language of the Qur`an often
makes interpreting the text an unending journey of discovery, and
supports a multitude of interpretations which, in turn, necessitates a
high degree of familiarity with the various nuances of a particular
word and the contexts in which they occur. Modern interpretations of
the Qur`an, such as, for example, the present drive to reinterpret the
Qur`an on the basis of modern scientific discoveries, particularly
space travel, is a case in point. Although legitimate and indeed
necessary, such interpretations remain outside the scope of this work.

For the purpose of the present work, acceptable interpretations of a
particular Qur`anic verse are those founded on the authority of the
particular commentator/s in question, and the validity of the
structural analysis they apply to the text to justify their
interpretations within both the immediate and larger context in which
it occurs. Of equal importance to the grammatical structure of the
discourse for our purposes here, if not of even greater significance, is
the capacity of many derived forms such as verbal nouns and
participles to play varied roles within the discourse, some of which
are not always well defined, thus opening the way not only for varied
interpretations of the text, but for ambiguity of meaning as well. For
example, in addition to conveying the basic meaning of an action or
happening ) ŜŧţƅŔ ( , the verbal noun ) ũŧŰƈƅŔ ( often functions in many
contexts as a noun, noun of place, noun of time or, in many contexts,
as admitting the possibility of its functioning as a number of these at
the same time. For example, whereas the word ƉŊũƁ clearly functions
as a noun in (9:111) ŕĔƂĄţ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŔćŧĆŷĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ń ƉŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔĄ Ə .ƔŃ ŠŇƊ ƙŔĄ Ə Ċ ŘŔĄ ũĆƏİ śƅŔ a true
promise given by Him in the Torah. the Gospel and in the Qur'an;

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xviii
and as a verbal noun in (75:17) ą ƌĿ ƊŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƁĄ Ə ą ƌĄŸĆƈĄŠ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Č Ɖ ŏ collecting and
reciting it [correctly] is Our own responsibility; it could be
interpreted as either a noun or verbal noun in (72:1) Ą ŶĄ ƈĿ śĆŬŔ ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō Č ƓĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ƓĊ ţƏ Ō
ŕćŗĄŠĄŷ ŕĻƊŔĄʼnĆũŁ Ɓ ŕĿ ƊĆŸĊƈĄŬ ŕİ Ɗŏ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƂĿ ž Đ ƉŃŠŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĈũĿſĿƊ it has been revealed to me that a
group of jinn listened in [on a recitation of the Qur'an] and said.
`We have heard a wondrous reading' [also interpreted as: wondrous
Qur'an]. Similarly the participial form ũžŕƄ functions as such in
(2:41) ĊƌŃŗ ľũĊžŕĿ Ƅ .Č ƏŌ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ do not be the first to disbelieve in it; and as
a noun in (78:40) ŕć ŗŔĄ ũŁ ś Ł ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ƓĊ ƊĿ śĆƔĿ ƅॠƔ ą ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇƅŔ .ƏŁ ƂĄ ƔĄ Ə and the disbeliever would
say. `How I wish I were [mere] dust'; but it could be interpreted as
either in a great many contexts in the Qur`an, such as (64:2) ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ
ĈƉĊ ƈŎą ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈĄ Ə ĈũĊ žŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ He it is who created you. yet some of you are
denying [Him] and some are believing (or, some are disbelievers and
some are believers). The difficulty exercised in interpreting the
various contexts in which ƇƆŬƈ occurs stems mainly from the fact that
measures of nominality` and participiality`, of which this particular
word could be formed, vary so much from one context to the other,
that it makes it difficult, in these contexts, to assign it to a nominal or
a participial function. While nominality is sufficiently evident in
(22:78) ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ƓĊ žĄ Ə .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ƆĆŬą ƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄŕČ ƈĄ Ŭ Ą Əą ƍ He called you Muslims-both in
the past and in this [message]; and participiality is equally evident in
(3:84) Ą ƉƏą ƈĊ ƆĆŬą ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ą ƉĆţĿ ƊĄ Ə and we are submitting to Him; it is not possible
to decide one way or the other in a great number of contexts, such as
(15:2) ĄƉƔĊƈĊƆĆŬą ƈ ŔƏŁƊŕĿƄ ĆƏĿ ƅ ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ čŧĄƏĄƔ ŕĄƈĄŗą ũ those who disbelieve may come
to wish they had submitted to God (or, to have been Muslim). In the
current work, the morphological designations provided in square
brackets at the beginning of the entries reflect this situation in the
options they provide.
Almost 100 grammatical words (particles, nouns and verbs)
occur in the Qur`an, many of which are among the most frequently
used words in the text. These have been given particular attention
insofar as they convey various nuances of meaning in the Qur`an,
and features particular to the Classical period and to Qur`anic
discourse are explored in detail. Examples of these are the roles
played by various demonstratives in signifying relative distance, both
physical and metaphorical, as indicative of intricate relationships
between interlocutors (for which see the entry for ƃƅŨ). The nuances

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xix
of meaning conveyed by the employment in various contexts of the
prepositions is another case in point.
The Dictionary follows the Arabic root system and is composed
of 28 sections, each of which is devoted to one letter of the Arabic
alphabet, with the exception of the letter `alif representing the long
open vowel /a/ (which the phonological rules of Arabic do not permit
to function as a first radical of an Arabic verbal root). Roots are
naturally arranged in accordance with the alphabetical order of their
constituents. However, a note here should be made regarding the
classification of roots with geminated second and third radicals.
Unlike the tradition followed in Western lexicography, e.g. Lane and
Wehr, such roots are classified in accordance with the order they
should have in consideration for the second and third radicals.
Consequently the root s-b-b appears after the root s-b-` and not
before it. Words of foreign origin remaining as individual vocabulary
items, e.g. ƀũŗśŬŔ, are listed according to their alphabetical order and
so are grammatical words belonging to no apparent Arabic roots,
such as ƒŨƅŔ. Arabicised words classified by Arab philologists under
Arabic roots and sharing the semantic field of the root with other
derivatives, e.g. ƉƍŕƄ, are included under those roots. Foreign proper
names, e.g. ŖƏƔŌ, ŏ .ƔŷŕƈŬ and ŽŬƏƔ, are classified in accordance with
their Arabicised forms but, in instances such as ũŪŊ, where it could be
thought that the name is derived from Ō [ Ū [ ũ , cross references are
provided. Contrary to current conventions, transliterated hamza and
Àayn are accorded full alphabetical letter status. Consequently,
vowels preceded by initial hamza or initial Àayn are never
capitalized, even if the words in which they occur happen to be
proper names or begin new sentences, cf. `ahmad, but not `Ahmad
and ÀÒd, but not ÀAd. Cross references are also provided for words
such as ʼnŕƈŬŌ, whose true root may cause some difficulty. Because
the demarcation line between derivatives of roots, the third radicals
of which are either Ə or Ɛ, are not always clear, many such roots are
treated together with the third radical marked as both Ə and Ɛ ( ƍ Ɛ
w/y).

Each root is treated in the following way:
1 - An inventory of the basic concepts covered by the root is

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provided in an attempt to show the range of semantic scatter it
encompasses. The dictionary senses detailed in this section are
derived from the classical language, which may or may not include
all the Qur`anic senses and could be used, when compared with the
entries in the third section, to show the senses brought into the
Arabic language by the Qur`an. It is generally noted that what can be
called semantic kinship between derivatives of Arabic, and also
Semitic, roots is culture-bound and not always evident. Also, it is a
commonly acknowledged feature of Arabic that abstract derivatives
usually stem from concrete ones (e.g. .ŕƈŠ beauty` from .ƈŠ
camel`; řţƜƈ attractiveness` from ŢƆƈ salt` and ŌũƁ to read` from ʼnũƁ
a single milking of an animal`). Bringing together semantic
derivatives of a root arranged, when relevant, in a sequence starting
from the concrete and ending with the abstract, is likely to shed light
on the way in which these concepts are related to one another and
also on the manner in which each and all of those derivatives cover
the total semantic field of that root. Examination of this total picture
is also likely to provide further means of appreciating the use of
derivatives of that root in the Qur`an.
2 - An inventory of the particular morphological derivatives of
that root actually occurring in the Qur`an, together with the number
of times they occur. A comparison of the frequency of occurrence of
the various derivatives of a certain root and also of the total number
of occurrences of all derivatives of this root with that of other roots
should be an indication of the relative importance the Qur`an
ascribes to concepts covered by the various roots. Figures provided
for the frequency of content derivatives are based upon the
Concordance of Muhammad Fu°ad °abd °al-Baqï, ŴŕſƅƗ ūũƎſƈƅŔ ƇŠŸƈƅŔ
ƇƔũƄƅŔ ƉŊũƂƅŔ (`al-mu´jam `al-mufahras li `alfãz `al-Qur`ãn `al-Karïm),
whereas those of the grammatical words not included in the
Concordance of °abd °al-Baqï are based upon the Concordance of
°isma°ïl °amayirah and °abd °al-Hamïd Mustafa ž ũœŕƈŲƅŔƏ ŚŔƏŧƗŔ ƇŠŸƈ Ɠ
ƇƔũƄƅŔ ƉŊũƂƅŔ (Mu´jam `al-`adawãt wa `al-damã`ir fï'l-Qur`ãn `al-
karïm). With regard to those words and roots of potentially non-
Arabic origin, little attention, beyond what is provided by Arab
philologists, has here been given to the etymology of Qur`anic
words, largely because we agree with Versteegh (1993, p. 89) that,

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xxi
It is much more difficult to understand how the assumption of a
foreign origin for obscure Qur`anic words can contribute to their
understanding`. Contemporary research in the subject, furthermore,
tends not to give enough consideration to the fact that Arabic, Syriac,
Hebrew and Ethiopic all share a common origin, a fact that will
undoubtedly often make it difficult to distinguish between cases of
borrowing and cases of parallel development. Considerations of time
have prevented the authors from including the various Readings
) ŚŔʼnŔũƁ ( , save for a few instances.
3 - Dictionary entries for each of the derivatives listed in
accordance with the order in which they occur in °abd °al-Baqï`s
Concordance. Because the Dictionary is concerned with actual
Qur`anic usage, headwords are given in one of the morphological
forms they actually occur in the Qur`an in both Arabic script and
transliteration. For example, verbal forms of which no perfect forms
occur are given in the imperfect, but if there is no imperfect then
they are given in the imperative. Passive forms are as a rule included
under the active forms and only given separate entries if they
contribute nuances of meaning beyond that of the active forms. Dual
and plural forms are likewise treated in relation to their singular
forms. Feminine forms occurring in Arabic with a tÒ` marb‚a are
rendered in the transliterated forms with a final tanwïn in order to
circumvent the convention for representing the tÒ` marb‚a as ah`
or dropping it altogether.
Roman numerals mark divisions along morphological and/or
syntactic lines, e.g. noun and participle and/or transitive and
intransitive, whereas Arabic numerals mark divisions along semantic
lines and lower-case letters mark semantic sub-divisions. The various
sub-meanings cited for each entry reflect the range of contextual
meanings as elucidated by the classical Qur`an commentators
consulted in the compilation of this dictionary. Because of the
difficulty inherent in trying to define the often very subtly different
meanings of vocabulary items as they occur in various contexts,
particularly in a foreign language, the role of the illustrative
examples in approximating meaning remains paramount. This
difficulty is particularly evident, as it is in other languages, in the
case of prepositions. The line of demarcation between the various

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xxii
divisions of meaning in some cases is not clear cut, and a certain
degree of overlap is unavoidable. In such instances, rather than
ignoring fine nuances of meaning and collapsing entries together
under one definition, items with a similar, but not identical, range of
meaning are kept separate and given definitions that reflect the
affinity between them. Examples of such items can be found under
the entries for roots such as ũ/ƃ/Ũ, ũ/Ƈ/Ō and Ō/ũ/ƀ. Alternative
interpretations of headwords occurring in the same verses are noted
and, when sufficiently different, are classified under different sense
divisions.
The glosses for the illustrative examples are based upon M.A.S.
Abdel Haleem`s translation The Qur'an-A New Translation by
M.A.S. Abdel Haleem. However, because the purposes of the
dictionary are not always identical with the purposes of a translation,
changes are made when necessary. In glossing illustrative verses,
particular attention has been given to trying (albeit not always
successfully) to parallel the structure of the original as much as
possible, in some cases to the detriment of style elegance`. Arabic
forms and structures particularly difficult to render in matching
structures in English include transitive and intransitive verbs, passive
and active verbs and nominal sentences whose predicates are
nominal clauses. Particular difficulties are met in glossing the
absolute object ) ƀƆųƈƅŔ .ƏŸſƈƅŔ ( which occurs quite frequently in the
Qur`an, because of the absence of parallel syntactic function in
English. The mode of glossing thus varies from one context to the
other, as in the rendering of ŕćƈƔĊƆŇƄĿś and ŕć ƈƔĊ ƆĆŬĿ ś in (4:164) ƑĄŬƏą ƈ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ĄƇİƆĿƄĄƏ
ŕćƈƔĊƆŇƄĿś but to Moses God spoke directly, and (4:65) ŔƏą ŧŃ ŠĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Č ƇŁ ŝ ƑĊž Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇ Ɗ Ō
ŔƏą ƈIJƆĄ Ŭą ƔĄ Ə Ŀ ŚĆ ƔĄ ŲĿ Ɓ ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ ŕć ŠĄ ũĄ ţ ŕć ƈƔĊ ƆĆŬĿ ś and then they will find no constraint in
their hearts regarding your judgement. and yield completely; and
(33:56) ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŔƏı ƆĄŰ ŕć ƈƔĊ ƆĆŬĿ ś ŔƏą ƈIJ ƆĄ ŬĄ Ə bless him [the Prophet] and salute him
with greetings of peace (or alternatively, surrender yourselves
completely to his guidance). Verses detailing future events in the past
tense (usually to emphasise the inevitability of their occurrence), are
as a rule rendered in the present tense in the English gloss, as in
(39:73) Ŀ ƂİśŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĿƀƔĊŬĄƏ ŔćũĄƈą Ū Ċřİ ƊĄŠŇƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĆƇą ƎČ ŗĄũ ŔĆƏ and those who are mindful of
their Lord are conveyed to the Garden in groups. Groups of words
whose collective contextual meanings differ from a literal reading of

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xxiii
their substantive parts are considered, as in other language
dictionaries, as idiomatic. Such entries are indicated by asterisks and
placed at the end of the sub-meanings to which they are most closely
related, with their literal meaning provided within square brackets
when necessary, as in *(34:49) Ŕ Ąʼnॊ ą ŧƔĊŸą Ɣ ŕĄƈĄƏ .ĊųŕĄŗŇƅŔ őĊŧĆŗą Ɣ ŕĄƈĄƏ ıƀĄţŇƅ the truth
has come and falsehood is dumbfounded (or, vanquished, or,
powerless) [lit. neither begins nor repeats [an utterance]]. However
the degree of transparency of such phrases, or more precisely the
lack of it, is not always the same in all cases, and the application of
the asterisk remains a matter of judgement, as in *(33:10) ą ŖƏŁ ƆŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĊŚĿ żĿ ƆĄŗĄƏ
Ą ũŃ ŠŕĿ ƊĄ ţŇƅŔ fear gripped everyone [lit. and hearts rose into the throats]
and in *(58:14) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉƏŁſĊƆĆţĄƔ ŃŖĊŨĿƄŇƅŔ they swear to the truthfulness of a
falsehood [lit. they swear on the lying]. Occurrences of words used
idiomatically in various places and with various nuances, e.g. ƇƏƔ and
ŖŕţŰŌ, are gathered together in order to provide further reference to
important themes in the Qur`an to that provided by the statistical
information discussed in section 2 above. The designation
jurisprudence`, [jur.], marks particular usages of headwords, e.g. ŘČ ŧĊ ŷ
and ʼnũŁƁ, the full meanings of which can only be obtained from
outside the Qur`anic text. The glosses provided in such cases should
be considered as mere indications of the technical meanings of such
usages.
The complete meaning of a word, as semanticists insist, is
nothing less than all the contexts in which it appears within a certain
corpus, here the Qur`anic text. One of the main aspects of the
Qur`anic text which has been, and still is, a subject of difference of
opinion between commentators is the various modes of interpretation
to which a word can lend itself in various Qur`anic contexts.
Adherence to the givens of the language structure of the Qur`anic
text in harmony with the work of Qur`anic interpreters who adhere to
the same principles places a limitation to the likely or unlikely
imaginable meanings of any word in its immediate or extended
contexts. We do not dismiss interpretations which are not based on
the same linguistic principles, e.g. °ibn °arabï`s or scientific
principles, but they fall outside the scope of this Dictionary.

In the course of the seven years it took to complete work on the

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xxiv
Dictionary of the Qur`an the authors received generous assistance
from many colleagues, friends, institutes and foundations. They are
above all indebted to the Yamani Cultural Foundation, without
whose generous and sustained assistance throughout the duration of
the project they would never have been able to maintain the work
and bring it to a successful conclusion. Thanks also are due to the
Abdullah Mubarak Al-Subah Foundation in Kuwait and to the
Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs for their financial
support. Research facilities were provided by the Centre of Islamic
Studies of the School of Oriental and African Studies in the
University of London and by the American University in Cairo. The
authors are grateful to Professor Colin Bundy, now ex-director of
SOAS, and to Professor Tim Sullivan, Provost of AUC and to
Professor Ann Lesch, Dean of the School of Humanities and Social
Sciences, AUC, for being there to help when help was much
needed. The authors are indebted to a number of colleagues for
undertaking numerous revisions of the manuscript. In alphabetical
order they are: Mrs Fionnuala Badawi, Dr Alex Bellem, Dr Helen
Blatherwick, Ms Posy Clayton, Dr Kate Daniels, Mrs Harfiyah
Haleem and Ms Lisa White. To the dedication of these colleagues,
their encouragement, expertise and love for language, the project
owes a great deal. Thanks also are due to Dr Mustafa Shah for
helping with some of the bibliographical entries, to Mr Lamaan Ball
for providing the Qur`an data bank from which verses quoted in the
text were downloaded and to Dr Rahman Haleem and Mr
Mohammad Zaki Badawi for the computer programming and
retrieval systems they devised for the particular needs of the project.
The authors are grateful to the great scholar and friend, Professor
Kees Versteegh, for his constant encouragement, and for writing
such a generous foreword to this work. The authors have benefited
from suggestions made by a number of colleagues. In this regard a
special mention must be made of Professor Mahmoud al-Rabie, Dr
Stefan Sperl, Mr Badr Al-Mutairi, Dr Marianna Klar, Ms Amira
El-Ghandour and again Dr Helen Blatherwick who has been
involved on this project on an ongoing basis. The tasks of
coordinating the work of others, weeding out discrepancies and
preparing, single-handed, a camera-ready copy of the manuscript,

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xxv
with the thousand-and-one jobs involved, fell to the highly talented
Ms Nima Burney. With remarkable attention to detail, exceptional
ability in both English and Arabic and exemplary dedication to the
project, she put together a final copy acceptable to
Brill. Acknowledgement is also due to Trudy Kamperveen, our
editor at Brill, for her suggestions, her encouragement and
determination to spur us on, as well as her final check of the
manuscript.

ƅơƢǻơƾǿǹƗȏȂdzȅƾƬȀǼdzƢĈǼǯƢǷȁơǀŮƢǻơƾǿȅǀdzơƅƾǸūơȁ ƅơƢǻơƾǿǹƗȏȂdzȅƾƬȀǼdzƢĈǼǯƢǷȁơǀŮƢǻơƾǿȅǀdzơƅƾǸūơȁ ƅơƢǻơƾǿǹƗȏȂdzȅƾƬȀǼdzƢĈǼǯƢǷȁơǀŮƢǻơƾǿȅǀdzơƅƾǸūơȁ ƅơƢǻơƾǿǹƗȏȂdzȅƾƬȀǼdzƢĈǼǯƢǷȁơǀŮƢǻơƾǿȅǀdzơƅƾǸūơȁ


*****

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

accus. accusative gen. genitive
act. part. active participle i.e. that is
A.D. Anno Domini imper. imperative
adj. adjective imperf. imperfect
adv. adverb intens. intensive
affirm. affirmative interj. interjection
A.H. year of the Hijra intrans. intransitive
card. cardinal jur. jurisprudence
cf. compare masc. masculine
coll. collective n. noun
comp. no. compound numeral no. number
dem. demonstrative nom. nominative
dimin. diminutive ord. ordinal
e.g. for example part. particle
elat. elative pass. passive
ellipt. elliptical pass. part. passive participle
fem. feminine perf. perfect

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xxvi
pl. plural rel. relative
prep. preposition sing. singular
pron. pronoun trans. transitive
pronom. pronominal v. verb
q.v. which see v. n. verbal noun
quad. v. quadrilateral verb > changed into
quasi-act. adjectival active * idiomatic usage
participle
quasi-pass. adjectival passive
participal






Ŋ / hamza

ŖŨƆƌƃŒ `al-hamza ) Ō ( the first letter of the alphabet; it represents a
glottal stop. It is distinguished from Ž ƅ Ō `alif(although the two are
occasionally, albeit inaccurately, used interchangeably) which
represents a somewhat front (or back) open long vowel (see ŻƃŊ
`alif (2)).

Ŋ `aparticle occurring 497 times in the Qur`an and functioning as: I
interrogative particle (ƇŕƎŇſĊ śĆŬŔ ŽĆũĄ ţ) preceding both nominal and
verbal sentences (cf. .ƍ), whose answer is yes` or no`. In
contexts like that of (5:116) ūŕİƊƆƅ ĿŚŇƆŁƁ ĿŚŇƊŌŌ did you say to the
people', where interrogative hamza precedes a word beginning
with hamza, one of two processes may take place a) one of the
two hamzas elides altogether, as in (19:78) İ śŔ Ń Ƈ Ō Ą ŖĆ ƔĿ żŇ ƅŔ Ą ŶĿ Ɔİ ų Ō Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ
Ŕć ŧĆƎĄ ŷ Ń ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƅŔ has he penetrated the unknown or received a pledge to
that effect from the Lord of Mercy' or b) the second hamza
together with the fatha of the preceding one are, in some
readings, fused into a long open vowel /ã/. This case is
orthographically rendered in some Qur`anic texts as ŌŊ, in some as
Ŋʼn and in others as Ŋ; as in (10:59) Ŀ ƅ Ą ƉĊ Ũ Ō ą ƌİ ƆƅŊ Ł Ƅ ĆƇ has God given you
permission [to do this]' Interrogative hamza is used in the Qur`an
basically in rhetorical senses such as the following: 1 to seek
acknowledgement (94:1) ĄƃĄũĆŧĄŰ ĄƃĿƅ ĆšĄũŇŮĿ Ɗ ĆƇĿƅŌ did We not relieve your
heart for you [Prophet]! 2 to reprove (37:95) Ą ƉƏŁ śĊ ţŇƊĿ ś ॠƈ Ą ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĿ ś Ō do
you worship what you hew out [with your own hands]! 3 to deny
(17:40) ōĿ ž Ō ŕĻŝŕĿ Ɗŏ ĊřĿƄœĿƜĄƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĿŨĿŦİśŔĄƏ ĄƉƔĊƊĄŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁƄčŗĄũ ĆƇŁƄŕĿ ſĆŰ what' Has your Lord
favoured you people with sons and taken daughters for Himself
from the angels' 4 to gently invite (57:16) ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō Ń Ɖ ōĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ Ɔ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn ĆƉ Ō ĄŶĿ ŮŇŦĿ ś
ą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ĆƇ Ń ũŇƄĊŨƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ॠƈĄ Ə .ĄŪĿ Ɗ Ą ƉĊ ƈ IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ is it not time for believers that their

ƅăťň
2
hearts become humble to the remembrance of God and the truth
that has come down' 5 to express wonder (25:45) Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ Ƅ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ ƑĿ ƅŏ Ą ũĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
İ .IJ ŴƅŔ Č ŧĄ ƈ have you not considered the way of your Lord. how He
lengthens the shadow' 6 to express incredulity (12:90) Ŀ ŚŇƊ Ɨ Ą ƃİ Ɗ œ Ō
ŁŽą ŬƏą Ɣ could it be that you are Joseph' 7 to express irony (11:87)
ŕĿƊ ŎŕĄŗŔĄʼn ą ŧą ŗĆŸĄƔ ŕĄƈ Ąƃą ũŇśĿƊ ĆƉŌ Ąƃą ũą ƈōĿś ĄƃŁ śĿƜĄŰŌ does your religion [lit. prayer] tell
you to forsake what our forefathers worshipped' 8 to express
contempt (21:36) ĆƇŁ ƄĿśĄƎƅŔĄʼn ą ũŁ ƄŇŨĄƔ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍŌ is this the one who demeans
[lit. mentions] your gods' 9 to instil a sense of urgency (3:20) .Ł ƁĄ Ə
Ł śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ Ɔ ƅ ĆƇŁ śĆƈĿ ƆĆŬ ŌĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĐ ƔĐ ƈ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏ and say to those who were given the
Scripture. as well as those without one [also interpreted as: those
who do not read]. `Do you too devote yourselves to Him alone''
Interrogative hamza is often followed by one of the three
connective particles wa ) Ə ( fa- ) ž ( and thumma ) Ƈŝ ( , all of which
lend emphasis to the discourse as a whole, as in (7:69) ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ śĆŗŃ ŠĄ ŷĄ Ə Ō
Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ũĊ ŨŇ Ɗą Ɣ ƅ Ć ƇŁ ƄŇ ƊĊ ƈ .ą ŠĄ ũ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ć ƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄ ũ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ĉ ũŇ ƄĊ Ũ Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnॠŠ do you find it so strange that a
reminder should come to you from your Lord-through a man
from among you-to warn you'; (17:68) Đ ũĄŗŇƅŔ ĄŖĊƊॊ ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗ Ŀ ŽĊŬŇŦĄƔ ĆƉŌ ĆƇŁ śŇƊĊƈ ōĿ ž Ō
do you feel secure that He will not cause a side of the shore to
swallow you up; (10:51) ॠƈ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ō ĊƌŃ ŗ ĆƇŁśŇƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄŶĿ ƁĄƏ is it [only] then. when
it has befallen you. that you will believe' II short-distance
vocative and/or intimate particle ) ŖƔŃ ũĿ ƂƅŔ ʼnŔĄ ŧĊ Ɗ ( (q.v. œă ƒ yã). It is said
to occur once in the Qur`an in one of the variant readings of
(39:9) as Ō .ĆƔİƆƅŔ ĄʼnŕĿ ƊŔĄʼn ĽŚĊƊŕĿƁ ĄƏą ƍ ĆƉČƈ you who worship devoutly during the
night! instead of the standard reading .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ ĄʼnŕĿ ƊŔĄʼn ĽŚĊƊŕĿƁ ĄƏą ƍ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇ Ō or he
who worships devoutly during the night III hamza of equalisation
(between two propositions) ) řĄ ƔŃ ƏĆŬİ śƅŔ ŘĄ ŪĆƈĄ ƍ ( , where Ŋ introduces the
first proposition and the second is normally introduced by ƇŌ `am
(q.v.), giving the meaning of whether (. or whether)`, occurring
usually, but not necessarily after, ʼnŔĄ ƏĄ Ŭ sawã` (making a set phrase
ʼnŔƏŬ ƑƆŷ Ō ƇŌ it is all the same whether`, it doesn`t matter
whether`) (2:6) ĄƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇą ƍĆũĊ ŨŇƊŁ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ĆƇ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ śĆũĿ ŨŇƊ ŌĄʼn ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ĉ ʼnŔĄ ƏĄ Ŭ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č Ɖŏ as
for those who disbelieve. it makes no difference whether you warn
them or not-they will not believe.

ƅăťň `ãdam [borrowing from Hebrew occurring 25 times in the Qur`an.
Philologists, however, derive it from the root Ō [ ŧ [ Ƈ `-d-m denoting,

ŧă Ũň
3
among other things, the colour brown, the colour of the earth
from which Adam was fashioned] Adam (20:115) Ą ƇĄ ŧŔĄʼn ƑĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊĆŧŃ ƎĄ ŷ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ
ŕć ƈĆŪĄ ŷ ą ƌĿ ƅ ĆŧŃ ŠĿ Ɗ ĆƇĿ ƅĄƏ Ą ƓĊ ŬĿ ƊĿ ž .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ We also commanded Adam before you.
but he forgot and We found him lacking in constancy; *(7:26) ŕĄƔ ƓĊ ƊĄ ŗ
Ą ƇĄ ŧŔĄ ʼn children of Adam. humankind.
The Qur`an describes that having created man, God
commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam (2:34 and
15:29-33); it also relates that Adam and his wife enjoyed the
bounties of heaven before they were enticed by Satan to eat from
the forbidden tree (7:20). Having violated God`s command both
Adam and Eve were banished to Earth (7:24), although reference
is made to his having been forgiven for the transgression
(20:122). Adam is also described as someone God has tested but
found lacking in resolution (20:115). The Qur`an accentuates the
fact that Adam was created from clay and that the nature of his
creation and being serves as an analogue for the human status of
Jesus (3:59). The dispute between the two sons of Adam, Cain
and Abel, is movingly narrated in the Qur`an (5:27-32).

ŧăŨň `ãzar [borrowing of ambiguous origin occurring once in the
Qur`an, which philologists classify under the root Ō [ Ū [ ũ `-z-r
while recognising it as a foreign name] variously described as the
name of Abraham`s father, an abusive epithet for Abraham`s
father, or the name of the chief idol referred to in (6:74) .ŕĿ Ɓ ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə
ĻřĄƎƅŔĄʼn ŕćƈŕĿ ƊĆŰ Ō ŁŨĊŦİśĿśŌ ĄũĄŪŔĄʼn ĊƌƔŃ ŗƗ ą ƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ remember when Abraham said to
his father. `ãzar. `How can you take idols as gods''
Allusions to Abraham`s father also occur in the Qur`an in
(9:114 and 19:42-9), in which Abraham rebukes his father for
embracing polytheism. Abraham also beseeches the Lord to
forgive his father, denouncing the worship of idols (37:85-99 and
43:26-8). It was explained, however, (9:114) that Abraham had in
fact asked forgiveness for his father only after agreeing with him
on a grace period during which the father would make up his
mind regarding Abraham`s call to the new religion. Later, when
Abraham realised that his father was still an enemy of God`, he
denounced him and refused to have anything to do with him.



4
Jň `ãl(see Ŋ [ =Ƌ [ J `-h-l).

ćŔŊ `abun (see Ŋ [ Ŕ [ ƍ `-b-w).

JƒŁ ŕœă ŕ Ŋ `abãbïl (see Ŋ [ Ŕ [ J `-b-l).

Ŀ žƒŁ ŧœă ŕ Ŋ `abãrïq [pl. of n. ĽƀƔŃ ũĆŗŏ `ibrïq, occurring once in the Qur`an.
Philologists classify it under the root Ŗ [ ũ [ ƀ b-r-q although they
recognise it as a borrowing from Persian] pitchers, jugs, flagons
(56:18) ľƉƔĊŸĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ľūōĿƄĄƏ Ŀ ƀƔŃ ũŕĄŗ ŌĄƏ ľŖŔĄƏŇƄ ōŃ ŗ with glasses. flagons and a cup
full of pure liquid.

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ Ŕ `-b-b herbage, pasture, yield of the land; to up and go, to
prepare to go; water; mirage. Of this root, č Ŗ Ō `abb occurs once in
the Qur`an.
Ď Ŕ Ŋ `abb [n. a rare word the meaning of which was reportedly
not known to °umar °ibn °al-Khattab, the second caliph (`al-
`itqãn)] food produced from the land, herbage, pasture (80:31)
ŕĎ ŗ ŌĄ Ə Ļ řĄ ƎĊ ƄŕĿ žĄ Ə and fruits and fodder.

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ ť `-b-d long time, eternity; to go wild; to desert, to be deserted;
wild animals. Of this root, Ļ ŔŧĄ ŗ Ō `abadan occurs 28 times in the
Qur`an.
Ĺ Œťă ŕ Ŋ `abadan [adverbial] 1 forever, eternally, very long time
(4:122) ą ũॠƎŇ Ɗ ƗŔ ॠƎĊ śĆ ţĿ ś Ć ƉĊ ƈ ƒŃ ũĆ ŠĿ ś ċ Śŕİ ƊĄ Š Ć Ƈą ƎŁ ƆĊ ŦĆŧŁ ƊĄ Ŭ Ċ ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
Ŕć ŧĄ ŗ Ō ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉƔĊ ŧ ƅŕĿ Ŧ as for those who believe and do good deeds. We will
admit them into gardens graced with flowing streams, there they
are to remain for ever 2 [enhancing negation] ever a)
expressively, as in (9:108) Ŕć ŧĄ ŗ Ō Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛ don't you ever pray in it b)
elliptically, as in (24:17) ŇŝĊƈƅ ŔƏą ŧƏą ŸĿś ĆƉŌ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƇŁ ƄŁ ŴĊŸĄƔ Ŕć ŧĄ ŗ Ō Ċ ƌĊ Ɔ God admonishes
you [not] to revert to the like of this [sin] ever.

Ą ƅƒĉ ƋŒă ŧąŕ ō `ibrãhïm [borrowing from Hebrew occurring 69 times in the
Qur`an. Philologists classify it under Ŗ [ ũ [ .ƍ [ Ƈ b-r-h-m although
they recognise it as foreign] the Prophet Abraham (Gen. XII.5)
(3:68) ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍĄ Ə ą ƋƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƆĿ ƅ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŐŃ ŗ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ƑĿ ƅĆƏ Ō Č Ɖ ŏ [certainly.]

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ J
5
the people who are most deserving of Abraham are those who
follow his ways. this Prophet. and those who are sincere
believers; * ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ name of Sura 14, Meccan, so-named for the
mention of Abraham in verses 35-41.
Abraham is described in the Qur`an as the friend of God (4:
125). He is also a hanïf of pure faith`. The Qur`an refers to
Abraham`s introspective quest for the portents of God`s creation
and majesty (6:75-9). A further aspect to this is covered in (2:
260) when Abraham asks God to reveal to him how the dead are
resurrected. His total obedience to God is shown in his offering
his son for sacrifice on seeing this in a vision (37:99-111). The
Qur`an attaches great significance to the role of Abraham and his
son Ishmael in the construction of the Ka°ba and the
establishment of the rites of pilgrimage (2:125-8; 22:26-7; 3:96-
7) and how Abraham settled his offspring in the barren valley of
Mecca (14:35-7); while (2:129) speaks of Abraham asking God
to raise among its inhabitants a prophet who would recite God`s
scripture and impart its teachings. Crowning it all, God calls him
a nation unto himself, a patriarch (16:120), and says that the most
deserving of him are those who follow him, the Muslims and their
Prophet (3:68).

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ ž `-b-q(of a slave) to flee from one`s master, to bolt; to mutiny;
to hide; (of a she-camel) to deny its milk. Of this root, Ŀ ƀĄŗ Ō `abaqa
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ľ žăŕ Ŋ `abaqa a/u [v. intrans.] to run away from one`s master
(37:140) Ń ƉƏą ţŇŮĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ċ ƃŇƆŁ ſŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ŀ ƀĄ ŗ Ō ŇŨ ŏ when he fled [from his Master] to
the overloaded ship.

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ J `-b-l camels, to acquire camels, to look after camels; to stay
away from one`s wife, a monk; droves, flocks, bundles;
successive waves. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the
Qur`an: Ń ŗ ŏ . `ibil twice and .ƔŃ ŗŕĄŗŌ `abãbïl once.
JŁ ŕ ō `ibil [coll. n. for both male and female camels; no singular]
1 camels (6:144) Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ Ń ũĿ ƂĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ .Ń ŗ ƙŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə a pair of camels and a
pair of cattle 2 clouds (according to an interpretation of verse

Ą ũƒĉ Ƅąŕ ō
6
88:17) ŇŚĿ ƂĊƆŁ Ŧ ĿŽĆƔĿƄ .Ń ŗƙŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄƉƏą ũŁ ŴŇƊĄƔ ĿƜĿžŌ do they not see how clouds [also
translated as camels] are formed!
JƒŁ ŕœă ŕ Ŋ `abãbïl [pl. of n. ĽřĿƅŕČ ŗŏ `ibbãlatun, .Əą ŗ Ō `abül or řİƅĊŕŗĊƔŏ
`ïbãlatun or a pl. n. with no singular] droves, various groups,
successive waves (105:3) .ƔŃ ŗŕĄŗ Ō ŔćũĆƔĿ ų ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .ĄŬĆũ ŌĄƏ and He sent ranks
of birds against them. Reference here is made to the futile attempt
to destroy the Ka°ba by Abraha, a Christian Ethiopic ruler of
South Arabia. Tradition relates that this event occurs in year 570
A.D., termed the Year of the Elephant` ) .ƔĊ ſƅŔ Ƈॠŷ ( , in which year
the Prophet is said to have been born. The Qur`an relates that
flocks of birds hurled pellets of hard-baked clay at the marauding
army rendering them like cropped stubble.

Ą ũƒĉ Ƅąŕ ō `iblïs [borrowing from Greek diabolos` occurring 11 times in
the Qur`an, although a number of philologists derive it from
Ŗ [ . [ ū b-l-s because of the utter despair` (ūĿ ƜĆ ŗ ŏ `iblãs) the Devil
had fallen into as a result of the curse God put on him following
his disobedience] the Devil, Satan (17:61) ĄƇĄŧƕ ŔƏą ŧą ŠĆŬŔ ĊřĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƆƅ ŕĿ ƊŇƆŁ Ɓ ŇŨŏĄƏ
ĄūƔĊƆĆŗŏ İƛŏ ŔƏą ŧĄŠĄŬĿž when We said to the angels. `Bow down before
Adam.' they all bowed down. but not `iblïs.
°iblïs is a primary character in the creation story: he refuses to
obey the divine command to bow before Adam, arguing that he
himself had been created from fire whereas Adam was created
from clay (15:33; see also 2:34 & 7:11). He entices Adam to eat
from the forbidden tree and has him cast from Heaven. He
himself is reprieved until the Day of Judgement, but vows to
mislead mankind up to that day. It is this banishment together
with his vow to mislead mankind that serves as the context for
God`s sending messengers and guidance (15:32-42). The Qur`an
describes him as a member of the genus of the jinn, while he is
also classified as having an angelic identity.

ćƇąŕŒ `ibn (see Ŕ [ Ƈ [ ƍ b-n-w).

ćŇœĽ ƈąŕ Ŋ `abnã` (see Ŕ [ Ƈ [ ƍ b-n-w)

ĻŗĽƈąŕŒ `ibnatun (see Ŕ [ Ƈ [ ƍ b-n-w).

ƏĽ ƀĮ řĉ Œ
7
Ŋ [ Ŕ [ ƍ `-b-wfather, ancestor, fatherhood, to father; to be benevolent;
to possess, to be characterised with. Of this root, three forms
occur 117 times in the Qur`an: ĈŖŌ `abun 46 times; Ń ƉŔĄƏĄŗ Ō `abawãn
seven times; and ʼnŕĄŗŊ `ãbã` 64 times.
ćŔŊ `abun [n., when in construct (ĽřĿžŕĄŲĊŔ) > nominative ) ŵƏžũƈ ( Əą ŗŌ
`abü, accusative ) ŖƏŰƊƈ ( ॠŗ Ō `abã, and genitive ) ũƏũŠƈ ( ƓŃ ŗŌ `abï; pl.
ʼnॠŗ Ō `ãbã`] 1 father (33:40) ĆƇŁƄƅŕĄŠŃ ũ ĆƉĊƈ ċŧĄţŌ ŕĄŗŌ ĈŧČƈĄţą ƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ Muhammad is
not the father of any one of you men 2 grandfather, forefather
(12:6) Ŀ ƀॠţĆŬ ŏĄ Ə Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃĆƔĄ ƏĄ ŗ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ॠƎČ ƈĿ ś Ō ॠƈĿ Ƅ as He perfected it
earlier on your two forefathers. Abraham and Isaac 3 forefather,
ancestor (22:78) ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ĆƇŁƄƔŃ ŗŌ Ŀ řİƆĊƈ the faith of your forefather
Abraham 4 possessor of, characterised by, closely associated with
(111:1) Č ŖĿśĄƏ ľŖĄƎĿƅ ƓŃ ŗŌ ŔĄŧĄƔ ŇŚČ ŗĿś may the hands of `abü Lahab [lit. the
father of Hellfire, i.e., he who will end in Hellfire] be ruined!.
may he be ruined too.
ŁƇŒăƍăŕŊ `abawãn[dual of ĈŖŌ `abun] 1 father and mother together,
the two parents (7:27) ĄũŇŦ Ō ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƇŁ Ƅİ ƊĿƊĊśŇſĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ĄƇĄŧŔĄʼn ƓĊƊĄŗŕĄƔ Ċ řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĄ ƏĄ ŗ Ō Ą Ş
children of Adam. do not let Satan seduce you-as he ousted your
[two] parents from the Garden 2 two fathers, two forefathers
(12:6) ƀŕĄţĆŬŏĄƏ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃĆƔĄƏĄŗ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĄƎČ ƈĿ ś Ō ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ as He perfected it
earlier on your two forefathers. Abraham and Isaac.

Ŋ [ Ŕ [ Ɛ `-b-y aversion, disdain; to refuse, to turn down, to reject. Of
this root, ƑĄŗŌ `abã occurs 13 times in the Qur`an.
ƏăŕŊ `abã [v. trans.] 1 to refuse (2:282) ॠƈĿ Ƅ Ą ŖŁ śŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ĉ ŖĊ śŕĿ Ƅ Ą ŖōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ą ƌĄ ƈİ ƆĄ ŷ
ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ no scribe should refuse to write as God has taught him;
*(9:32) ą ƋĄ ũƏŁ Ɗ Č ƇĊ śą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĄ ŗōĄ ƔĄ Ə but God refuses [anything] save to
perfect His light 2 to be averse to, to dislike, to disdain
(9:8) Ń ƎĊ ƍŔĄƏŇž ōŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏą ŲĆũą Ɣ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ƑĄ ŗōĿ śĄ Ə ĆƇ they give you satisfaction with their
mouths. but their hearts are averse.

Ľ žăŪĮ řĉŒ `ittasaqa (see ƍ [ ũ [ ž w-s-q).

ăƇĽ ƀŅř Ŋ `atqana (see Ř [ ž [ Ƈ t-q-n).

ƏĽ ƀĮ řĉ Œ `ittaqã(see ƍ [ ž [ Ɛ w-q-y).

ŋĮ ƂăƍĽ ř Ŋ
8
ŋĮ ƂăƍĽ ř Ŋ `atawakka` (see ƍ [ Ɓ [ Ŋ w-k-`).

Ŋ [ Ř [ Ɛ `-t-yto come, to arrive, to bring, to bring forward; to commit;
to direct; to afflict; to bestow; to become possible, to become
suitable; to yield, to fruit. Of this root, eight forms occur 536
times in the Qur`an: ƑĿśŌ `atã 252 times; ŔƏŁ ś Ō `utü once; ƑĿśŊ `ãtã 204
times; Ą ƓĊ śƏ Ō `ütiya 67 times; ƓĊśŊ `ãtï seven times; Ľ řĄ ƔĊ śŊ `ãtiyatun three
times; ď ƓĊ śōĄ ƈ ma`tiyy once and ƉƏŁ śŎą ƈ mu`tün once.
ƏĽřŊ `atãi I [v. intrans.] 1 to come (61:6) ƒĊ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ śōĄ Ɣ .Əą ŬĄ ũŃ ŗ Ŕć ũIJ ŮĄ ŗą ƈĄ Ə
Ō ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ ą ŧĄ ƈĆţ and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me
whose name will be `ahmad 2 to be (in a place) (20:69) ŔƏą ŸĿ ƊĄ Ű ŕĄ ƈİ Ɗ ŏ
ƑĿśŌ ŁŜĆƔĄţ ą ũĊţŕČŬƅŔ ą ŢĊƆŇſą Ɣ ĿƛĄƏ ľũĊţŕĄŬ ą ŧĆƔĿ Ƅ what they have produced is only the
trick of a sorcerer. and a sorcerer will not succeed wherever he
may be 3 to revert to, to become, to return to being (12:93) ŔƏą ŗĄƍŇŨŔ
ŔćũƔĊŰĄŗ ĊŚōĄƔ ƓŃ ŗŌ ĊƌĆŠĄƏ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƋƏŁ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ƓĊŰƔĊƈĿƂŃ ŗ take this shirt of mine and lay
it over the face of my father-he will become able to see 4 [with
prep. ƑƆŷ] to come upon, to overrun (51:42) İ ƛ ŏ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŇŚĿ ś Ō ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ũĿ ŨĿ ś ŕĄƈ
Ń ƇƔĊ ƈČ ũƅŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌŇśĿ ƆĄ ŸĄ Š leaving nothing it came upon. but reducing [all of] it
to dust 5 [with prep. ŗ] to bring out, to bring forth, to disclose
(5:108) ƅĿ Ũ ॠƎŃ ƎĆŠĄ Ə ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ċ ŘĄ ŧॠƎİ ŮƅŕŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ śōĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƊĆŧ Ō Ąƃ this way. it is more likely
that they disclose the testimony in its proper form 6 [with prep. ŗ]
to find out, to account for, to come up with, to bring out (21:47)
ĆƉĊƈ ċřČ ŗĄţ .ŕĿ ƂŇŝĊƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉŏĄƏ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ŕĿƊĆƔĿśŌ .ĄŧĆũĿŦ even if it be the weight of a mustard
seed. We will bring it out [We will account for it] 7 [with prep. ŗ]
to bring, to present (17:92) ĻƜƔŃ ŗĿƁ ĊřĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĄƓĊśōĿ ś ĆƏŌ or you bring
God and the angels [before us] face to face II [v. trans.] 1 to
come to (26:89) ľƇƔĊƆĄŬ ľŖŇƆĿ ƂŃ ŗ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ś Ō ĆƉĄƈ İ ƛŏ save for the one who comes
before God with a sound heart 2 to give, to come up with, to
perform (3:188) ŇŔƏĿ ś Ō ॠƈŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ţĄ ũŇſĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č ƉĄ ŗĄ ŬĆţĿ ś Ŀ ƛ do not think that
those who exult in what they have given . 3 to enter (2:189) ŔƏŁ śŌĄ Ə
ŕĄƎŃ ŗŔĄƏĆŗŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĿŚƏą Ɣą ŗŇƅŔ so enter houses by their [main] doors 4 to destroy,
to visit with retribution, to attack (16:26) Ċ ŧĊ ŷŔĄƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊŕĄƔŇƊą ŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ś ōĿ ž but
God visited with destruction what they built at the very
foundations 5 to commit, to do, to perform (27:54) ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə Ŀ řĿ ŮĊţŕĿ ſŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ śōĿ ś Ō
Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗŁ ś how can you commit this abomination with your eyes wide
open! 6 to perform a sexual act (29:29) Ō .ॊРũƅŔ ĄƉƏŁ śōĿśĿƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗœ how can
you come at men [in lust]' 7 [with prep. Ɖŷ] to approach, to come

Ŋ [ Ř [ Ɛ
9
by *(37:28) Ń ƉƔĊƈĄƔŇƅŔ Ń ƉĄŷ ŕĿƊĿƊƏŁ śōĿś ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ you came to us from a position of
power [lit. You approached us from the right hand side] 8 [with
prep. ŗ] to bring someone (something) (27:38) ॠƎĊ ŮĆũĄ ŸŃ ŗ ƓĊ ƊƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ ĆƇŁ Ƅč Ɣ Ō
which of you can bring me her throne'
ŒƍĿ ř Ŋ `utü [pass. v. with prep. ŗ] to be brought something or
someone, to be provided with (2:25) ċ ŘĄ ũĄ ƈĿ ŝ ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƁŃ Ūą ũ ॠƈİ ƆŁ Ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ŕĻƁĆŪŃ ũ
ŕćƎŃ ŗŕĿŮĿśą ƈ ĊƌŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ś ŌĄƏ .ĆŗĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿƊŇƁŃ Ūą ũ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ whenever they are given
sustenance from the fruits of these gardens. they will say. `We
have been given this before.' [because] they would be provided
with [things] resembling one another (74:52) ĆƉ Ō ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ őŃ ũĆƈŔ ı .Ł Ƅ ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ .Ą ŗ
ĻŘĄũİŮĿƊą ƈ ŕĻſą ţą Ű ƑĿśŎą Ɣ each one of them demands that he should be
brought scrolls [written revelation] unrolled [before his very
eyes].
Əřň `ãtã [a phonetically ambiguous form of either v. III (ƑĿ śŔ Ō
`ãtã, orthographically becoming ƑĿśŊ) or v. IV (ƑĿ śŌ Ō `a`tã, also
orthographically becoming ƑĿ śŊ `ãtã). Contextually there seem to
be good grounds for assigning the 204 occurrences of ƑĿśŊ `ãtã in
the Qur`an to form IV rather than form III. However the subject
must remain open] I [trans.] 1 to yield, to produce (18:33) ŕĿśŇƆĊƄ
ॠƎĿ ƆŁ Ƅ Ō ŇŚĿ śŔĄ ʼn Ń ƉĆƔĿ śİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ both gardens produced their [proper] yield 2 to
settle up, or to pay up, dues (6:141) ą ƌİ ƂĄţ ŔƏŁ śŔĄʼnĄƏ ĄũĄƈŇŝ Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ ĊƋŃ ũĄƈĿŝ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
Ċ ƋĊ ŧॠۥ ţ so eat of their fruit. when they bear fruit. and pay its dues
[the poor's share] on the day of harvesting it II [doubly trans.] 1
to hand someone something (12:31) ŕĻƊƔIJ ƄĊŬ Č Ɖą ƎŇƊĊƈ ċŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ İ .Ł Ƅ ŇŚĿ śŔĄʼnĄƏ and
she handed each one of them a knife 2 to give something to
someone (6:83) ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ŕĄƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄʼn ŕĿƊŁ śČ Šą ţ ĄƃŇƆĊśĄƏ such was Our
argument [which] We gave to Abraham against his people 3 to
decide to give (2:233) Ŀ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŧƛĆƏ Ō ŔƏą ŸĊ ŲĆũĿ śĆŬĿ ś ĆƉŌ ĆƇŁ śĆŧĄ ũ Ō ĆƉŏĄ Ə ŔĿ Ũŏ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą šŕĿ Ɗą Š Ŀ Ɯ
Ą Ŭ Ćƈİ Ɔ Ċ ŽƏą ũĆŸĄ ƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ śĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ॠƈ ĆƇŁ ś and if you wish to have your children suckled
[by other than their mother] there will be no blame on you if you
hand over [to the suckling woman] what you have decided to give
[her] in fairness 4 to bring, or fetch, something to someone
(18:62) ŕĿ ƊĄ ʼnŔĄŧĿ Ż ŕĿ ƊĊśŔĄ ʼn ą ƋŕĿ śĿ ſ ƅ .ŕĿ Ɓ he said to his servant. `Fetch us our
lunch.'
ă Ƒĉ řƍ Ŋ `ütiya [pass. of both v. III and v. IV (see under ƏĽ řň `ãtã)] 1
to be given (84:7) ĊƄ ĄƓĊśƏ Ō ĆƉĄƈ ŕČ ƈōĿž Ċ ƌĊ ƊƔĊ ƈĄ ƔŃ ŗ ą ƌĄ ŗŕĿ ś whoever is given his record

Ŋ [ Ś [ Ś
10
in his right hand; *(2:101) Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ (epithet for the Jews in
particular and also for the Christians) those who were given the
Scripture 2 to be granted something (20:36) ƔĊ śƏ Ō ĆŧĿ Ɓ .ŕĿ Ɓ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈॠƔ Ą ƃĿ ƅŎą Ŭ Ŀ Ś
God said. `Moses. you have been granted your request.'
Ƒĉ řň `ãtï [act. part., fem. Ł řĄ ƔĊ śŊ `ãtiyatun] 1 someone who or
something which is coming (15:85) ĽřĄƔĊś ƕ ĿřĄŷŕČŬƅŔ ČƉŏĄƏ and the Hour is
certainly coming 2 someone who or something which comes
(44:19) ľ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ ľ ƉŕĿ ųŇƆą ŬŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊ śŔĄ ʼn ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ I come to you with clear authority.
ć ŇœĽ řƒ ō `ïtã` [v. n.] 1 the act of giving (16:90) .ĆŧĄŸŇƅŕŃ ŗ ą ũą ƈōĄƔ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ČƉŏ
ƑĄ ŗĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ƒĊ Ũ Ċ ʼnŕĿ śƔ ŏĄ Ə Ń ƉॠŬĆţ ƙŔĄ Ə God commands justice doing good. and
giving to relatives . 2 paying (24:37) ĆƉĄŷ ĈŶĆƔĄŗ ĿƛĄƏ ĽŘĄũॊĊś ĆƇŃ ƎƔŃ ƎŇƆŁś Ŀ ƛ .ŕĄŠŃ ũ
Ċ ŘŕĿ ƄČ ŪƅŔ Ċ ʼnŕĿ śƔ ŏĄ Ə Ċ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ Ń ƇŕĿ Ɓ ŏĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũŇƄĊ Ũ people who are not diverted. either by
commerce or profit. from remembering God. upholding the
prayer and paying the prescribed alms.
Ď Ƒĉ řŋă Ɔ ma`tiyy [pass. part.] that which is fulfilled, carried out
(19:61) ŕĎ ƔĊ śōĄ ƈ ą Ƌą ŧĆŷĄ Ə Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ truly His promise will always be fulfilled.
ƇƍĿ řŌĄ Ɔ mu`tün [pl. of act. part. ƓĊ śŎą ƈ mu`tï] those who give, grant,
pay up (4:162) ĿŘŕĿƄČŪƅŔ ĄƉƏŁśŎą ƈŇƅŔĄƏ ĿŘĿƜČŰƅŔ ĄƉƔĊƈƔĊƂą ƈŇƅŔĄƏ those who perform the
prayers and pay up prescribed alms.

Ŋ [ Ś [ Ś `-th-th abundance, great wealth; (of hair and tree branches) to
be thick, intertwined; to be fleshy; furnishings. Of this root, ĽŜŕĿŝŌ
`athãth occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ĻŚœĽśŊ `athãth [coll. n.] 1 furnishings (16:80) ॠƍŃ ũॠŗĆ Ə ŌĄ Ə ॠƎĊ žŔĄ ƏĆ Ű Ō Ć ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
ľƉƔĊţ ƑĿƅŏ ŕćŷŕĿ śĄƈĄƏ ŕĻŝŕĿŝŌ ŕĄƍŃ ũŕĄŸŇŮ ŌĄƏ and from their wool. their fur and their
hair. [they have] furnishings and [other] uses/enjoyments for a
while 2 property, wealth (19:74) ŕĻŝŕĿ ŝ Ō ą ƉĄŬĆţ Ō ĆƇą ƍ ľƉĆũĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ŕĿ ƊŇƄĿ ƆĆƍ Ō ĆƇĿ ƄĄ Ə
ŕćƔœŃ ũĄƏ how many a generation before them have We destroyed, who
surpassed them in riches and outward splendour.

Ŋ [ Ś [ ŧ `-th-r trace, mark, track, remnants, remains; landmarks,
monuments; authority, favour; to mark; deeds; to pass along, to
transmit; to favour, to prefer. Of this root, five forms occur 21
times in the Qur`an: ą ũĿ ŝŎą Ɣ yu`thar once; ĄũĿ ŝŊ `ãthara five times; Ĉ ũĿ ŝ Ō
`athar three times; ĈũŕĿŝŊ `ãthãr 11 times and ĽŘĄũŕĿŝŌ `athãratun once.

Ŋ [ Ś [ J
11
Ą ŧĽ śŌĄ ƒ yu`thar [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ũĊ ŝ Ō `uthira] to be handed down
from one generation to the next (74:24) ą ũĿ ŝŎą Ɣ ĈũĆţĊ Ŭ İ ƛŏ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĆƉ ŏ .ŕĿ ƂĿ ž and
he said. `This is just ancient sorcery [learned from previous
generations].'
ăŧĽ śň `ãthara [v. IV, could also be v. III, see discussion under ƑĿ śŊ
`ãtã, trans.] to prefer, to put ahead of, to favour (87:16) Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŝŎŁ ś .Ą ŗ
ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ŀ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ yet you [people] prefer the life of this world; *(59:9)
ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŝŎą Ɣ they give [others] preference over themselves
[they are self-denying].
ć ŧĽ ś Ŋ `athar [n., pl. ĈũŕĿŝŊ `ãthãr] 1 trace, mark, impression (48:29)
ĆƇą ƍॠƈƔĊ Ŭ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŧƏą Šč ŬƅŔ Ń ũĿ ŝ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƍƏą Šą Ə their mark is on their faces from the
traces of prostration 2 sign, manifestation, evidence (30:50) ĆũŁ ŴŇƊŕĿ ž
ĊƔĆţą Ɣ ĿŽĆƔĿƄ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊřĄƈĆţĄũ Ń ũŕĿŝŔĄʼn ƑĿƅŏ ॠƎĊ śĆ ƏĄ ƈ Ą ŧĆ ŸĄ ŗ Ą űĆ ũ ƗŔ Ɠ look. then. at the
manifestations of God's mercy. how He restores the earth to life
after death 3 deeds, impact, relics (40:21) Ŕć ũŕĿ ŝŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə ĻŘČ ƏŁ Ɓ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ Č ŧĿ Ů Ō ĆƇą ƍ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ
ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũ ƗŔ they were stronger than them and made a more
impressive impact upon the land; *(20:84) ƒŃ ũĿ ŝ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ċ ʼnĿ ƛƏ Ō ĆƇą ƍ they
are there following in my footsteps 4 teachings, as in one
interpretation, preferred by °al-Razï, of (20:96) ĆƇĿ ƅ ॠƈŃ ŗ Ł ŚĆũą ŰĄ ŗ .ŕĿ Ɓ
.Əą ŬČ ũƅŔ Ń ũĿŝŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĻřĄŲĆŗĿƁ Ł ŚĆŲĄŗĿ ƂĿ ž ĊƌŃ ŗ ŔƏą ũą ŰĆŗĄƔ he said. `I saw what they did not
see. so I took in some of the teachings of the Messenger'
[according to the other, and more popular, interpretation: `I took a
handful from the footstep of the Messenger'].
ĻŖă ŧœĽ ś Ŋ `athãratun [n./v. n.] a trace, vestige, remnant, relic (46:4)
ĆƉĊƈ ċŘĄũŕĿ ŝ Ō ĆƏŌ ŔĿŨĄƍ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ľŖŕĿśĊƄŃ ŗ ƓĊƊƏŁ śœĊŔ ľ ƇŇƆĊ ŷ bring me a previous scripture or
some vestige of handed down knowledge.

Ŋ [ Ś [ J `-th-ltamarisk tree; to be deep-rooted, to be of noble origin; to
acquire great wealth; to endure. Of this root, .ŇŝŌ `athloccurs once
in the Qur`an.
JŅśŊ `athl [coll. n.] tamarisk bush (wood-giving trees) (34:16)
.ƔĊƆĿƁ ľũĆŧĊŬ ĆƉĊƈ ċʼnĆƓĿ ŮĄƏ .ŇŝŌĄƏ ċųĆƈĿ Ŧ .Ł Ƅ Ō ĆƓĿ śŔĄƏĿŨ Ń ƉĆƔĿśİ ƊĄŠ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿśİ ƊĄŠŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊŇƅČ ŧĄŗĄƏ and We
replaced for them their two gardens with two others that yielded
bitter fruit. tamarisk bushes and a few lote trees.


Ŋ [ Ś [ ƅ
12
Ŋ [ Ś [ ƅ `-th-msin, crime, guilt, to sin, to commit a crime. Of this root,
six forms occur 48 times in the Qur`an: ĈƇŇŝŏ `ithm 35 times; ĈƇĊŝŊ
`ãthim twice; ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ŝŊ `ãthimïn once; ƇŕĿ ŝ Ō `ãthãm once; Ĉ ƇƔĊ ŝ Ō `athïm
seven times and Ĉ ƇƔĊ ŝ ōĿ ś ta`thïm twice.
ćƅŅśō `ithm [n./v. n.] 1 sin, guilt (5:29) ĄƃĊƈŇŝŏĄƏ ƓĊƈŇŝŐŃ ŗ ĄʼnƏą ŗĿś ĆƉŌ ą ŧƔŃ ũŌ ƓIJƊŏ
ũŕİ ƊƅŔ Ń ŖŕĄţĆŰ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏŁ ƄĿśĿž I would rather you were burdened with my sin
as well as yours and became one of the inhabitants of the Fire 2
chastisement, blame, censure (2:182) ŕćƈŇŝŏ ĆƏŌ ŕĻſĿƊĄŠ ľůƏą ƈ ĆƉĊƈ ĿŽŕĿ Ŧ ĆƉĄƈĿž
ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Ą ƇŇŝ ŏ Ŀ ƜĿ ž ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ĄŢĿ ƆĆŰ ōĿ ž but if anyone has reason to suspect that the
testator has made a mistake. or done wrong. and so puts things
right between the parties. he will incur no censure; *(5:107) ŕİ ƂĄţĿśĆŬŔ
ŕć ƈŇŝ ŏ the two of them had committed a sin [lit. merited a sin].
ćƅĉśň `ãthim [act. part., pl. ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ŝŊ `ãthimïn] sinner, guilty, evildoer
(76:24) ŔĄ ʼn ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ĆŶĊ ųŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ Ń ƇŇƄą ţ ƅ ĆũŃ ŗĆŰŕĿ ž Ŕć ũƏŁ ſĿ Ƅ ĆƏ Ō ŕć ƈĊ ŝ so submit patiently to
the judgement of your Lord, do not obey any sinner or disbeliever
among them.
ƅœĽ ś Ŋ `athãm [v. n./n.] punishment for committing a sin (25:68)
ŕćƈŕĿ ŝ Ō ĿƀŇƆĄƔ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ .ĄŸŇſĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ whoever does this will face the penalty.
ćƅƒĉśŊ `athïm [quasi-intens. act. part.] hardened sinner (2:276) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə
ƛ ľ ƇƔĊ ŝ Ōľ ũŕİ ſĿ Ƅ İ .Ł Ƅ č ŖĊ ţą Ɣ God does not love any ungrateful hardened
sinner.
ć ƅƒĉ ś ŋĽ ř ta`thïm [v. n.] 1 (the act of) causing someone to commit a
sin, involving someone in a sinful act (52:23) ĈƏŇżĿ ƅ Ŀ ƛ ŕćŬōĿ Ƅ ŕĄƎƔĊ ž ĄƉƏą ŷĄ ŪŕĿ ƊĿ śĄƔ
Ĉ ƇƔĊ ŝōĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ॠƎƔĊ ž they pass around cups of wine. which cause neither idle
talk nor sin [lit. in which there is neither idle talk nor a cause for
sin] 2 accusing someone of committing a sin, recrimination
(56:25) ŕćƈƔĊŝōĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ŔćƏŇżĿƅ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƉƏą ŸĄƈĆŬĄƔ Ŀƛ there they will hear no idle talk or
recrimination.

Ŋ [ Ŝ [ Ŝ `-j-j to inflame; to incite; to be fast; (of fire) to crackle; (of
water) to be salty, to be bitter. Of this root, Ą Š Ō ĈŞŕ `ujãj occurs three
times in the Qur`an.
ćŜœăŞ Ŋ `ujãj [quasi-act. part.] (of water) bitter, salty (56:70) ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ ĆƏĿ ƅ
ĄƉƏą ũŁ ƄŇŮĿ ś Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƆĿ ž ŕćŠŕĄ Š Ō ą ƋŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ Š if We wanted. We could make it [sweet

Ŋ [ Ŝ [ J
13
drinkable water] bitter-will you not be thankful!

Ŋ [ Ŝ [ ŧ `-j-r wages, reward for work done; to hire, to engage; rent, to
rent; dowry. Of this root, four forms occur 108 times in the
Qur`an: ą ũą ŠōĿ ś ta`jur once; ĄũĄŠōĿ śĆŬĊŔ `ista`jara twice; ĈũĆŠŌ `ajr 93 times
and ĈũƏą Š Ō `ujür 12 times.
Ą ŧĄ ŞŋĽ ř ta`jur [imperf. of v. ĄũĄŠ Ō `ajara, trans.] to go into
contractual agreement, to work as a hired person or to hire
someone to work as a hired person (28:27) Č ƓĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ ƐĄ ŧĆţ ŏ Ą ƃĄ ţĊ ƄŇƊ Ō ĆƉ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũ Ō ƓIJ ƊĊ Ŕ
ľşĄŠĊţ ĄƓĊƊŕĄƈĿ ŝ ƓĊƊĄũą ŠōĿ ś ĆƉŌ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ń ƉĆƔĿśŕĄƍ I wish to marry you to one of these two
daughters of mine. on condition that you hire yourself to me for
eight years.
ăŧăŞŋĽ řąŪĉŒ `ista`jara [v. X trans.] to hire, to rent (28:26) ŕĄƈą ƍŔĄŧĆţŏ ŇŚĿƅŕĿƁ
Ń ƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆũĄ ŠōĿ śĆŬŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈ Ą ũĆƔĿ Ŧ Č Ɖ ŏ ą ƋĆũŃ ŠōĿ śĆŬŔ Ċ ŚĄ ŗ ŌॠƔ ą ƉƔĊ ƈ ƗŔ č ƒ one of the two [daughters]
said. `Father. hire him-the strong. trustworthy man is the best
person you could hire.'
ćŧąŞŊ `ajr [n., pl. ĈũƏą Š Ō `ujür] 1 wages, payment for work done
(65:6) Č Ɖą ƍĄũƏą Š Ō Č Ɖą ƍƏŁ śŋĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ ĄƉĆŸĄŲĆũ Ō ĆƉŐĿž if they suckle [your babies] for
you. pay them their wages [for it] 2 reward (26:109) Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƅ ōĆŬ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇ ƅŔ Đ ŖĄ ũ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ İ ƛ ŏ Ą ƒŃ ũĆ Š Ō Ć Ɖ ŏ ľ ũĆ Š Ō Ć ƉĊ ƈ I do not ask you any reward for it.
for my only reward is with the Lord of all beings 3 dowry (4:25)
ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ČƉą ƍĄũƏą ŠŌ ČƉą ƍƏŁśŔĄʼnĄƏ ČƉŃ ƎĊƆĆƍŌ Ń ƉŇŨŐŃ ŗ ČƉą ƍƏą ţĊƄŇƊŕĿ ž so marry them with their
people's consent and give them their dowries in accordance with
the norms.

Ŋ [ Ŝ [ J `-j-l a large ditch for collecting water, to collect water; an
appointed time, to fix a date; a cause; to consent. Of this root, six
forms occur 44 times in the Qur`an: .Č Š Ō `ajjala once; .Đ Š Ō `ujjila
once; .ĄŠŌ `ajal 39 times; Ń ƉĆƔĿƆĄŠŌ `ajalayn once; .Č ŠŎą ƈ mu`ajjal once
and .ĆŠŌ `ajl once.
ċ Ş Ŋ J `ajjala [v. II, trans.; pass. v. .Đ Š Ō `ujjila] to fix a time, to
appoint a time (6:128) ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚŇƆČ Š Ō ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƆĄ Š Ō ŕĿ ƊŇżĿ ƆĄ ŗĄ Ə and now we have
reached the appointed time You decreed for us.
JăŞŊ `ajal [n.] 1 appointed time (7:34) IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅĄ Ə Ŀƛ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƆĄŠ Ō Ąʼnॊ ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž .ĄŠŌ ċřČ ƈ Ō
ĄƉƏą ƈĊŧŇƂĿśĆŬĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĻřĄŷŕĄŬ ĄƉƏą ũĊŦōĿ śĆŬĄƔ there is an appointed time for every

ćťăšŊ
14
people. when their appointed time comes they cannot hasten a
single moment nor delay 2 [dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƆĄ Š Ō `ajalayn] term, period
(28:28) Č ƓĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉŔĄƏĆŧą ŷ ĿƜĿž Ł ŚĆƔĄŲĿ Ɓ Ń ƉĆƔĿƆĄŠƗŔ ŕĄƈČ Ɣ Ō whichever of the two terms I
[choose to] fulfil. let there be no censuring of me.
Jċ ŞŌĄ Ɔ mu`ajjal [pass. part.] timed, pre-ordained (of time)
(3:145) İ ƛŏ ĿŚƏą ƈĿ ś ĆƉŌ ľūŇſĿ Ɗƅ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈĄƏ Ļ ƜČ Š Ŏą ƈ ŕć ŗŕĿ śĊ Ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉŇŨ ŐŃ ŗ no soul may die.
save by the leave of God. at an appointed time.
JąŞŊ `ajl [n.] cause, sake, on account of (5:32) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆŗĿ śĿ Ƅ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ .ĆŠ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ
ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō .Ɣ œŔĄ ũĆ Ŭ ŏ ƓĊ ƊĄ ŗ on account of this. We decreed to the children of
Israel that .

ćťăšŊ `ahad (see ƍ [ ş [ ť w-h-d).

Ŋ [ Ţ [ Ŧ `-kh-dhto take, to hold; to acquire; to take to task, to put a stop
to, to frustrate; to immobilise; to take after; to earn. Of this root,
12 forms occur 277 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ Ō `akhadha 123 times;
Ŀ ŨĊŦ Ō `ukhidha eight times; ŨĊŦŔŎą Ɣ yu`ãkhidh nine times; Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śĊŔ
`ittakhadha 124 times; ĽŨŇŦŌ `akhdh five times; Ľ ŘĿ ŨŇŦ Ō `akhdhatun
once; ĽŨĊŦŊ `ãkhidh once; ƉƔĊ ŨĊ ŦŊ `ãkhidhïn twice; ĽŨŕĿŦIJ śĊŔ `ittikhãdh once;
ĽŨĊŦİ śą ƈ muttakhidh once; ƉƔĊ ŨĊ Ŧİ śą ƈ muttakhidhïn once and ĽŚŔĿŨĊŦİ śą ƈ
muttakhidhãt once.
Ľ ŦĽ Ť Ŋ `akhadha u [v. trans., pass. v. Ŀ ŨĊŦ Ō `ukhidha] 1 to take (4:20)
ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ŨŁ ŦōĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ŕć ũŕĿ ųŇƊĊ Ɓ Č Ɖą ƍŔĄ ŧĆţ ŏ ĆƇŁ śĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə and [even if] you have given any
one of them [as a dower] a ton [of gold]. do not take any of it
[back] 2 to take away, remove (6:46) ĆƇŁ ƄĄũŕĄŰĆŗŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĄŸĆƈĄŬ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĿŨĿŦŌ ĆƉŏ if
God were to take away your hearing and your sight 3 [with prep.
ŗ] to grab, to take hold of (7:150) ĄũŃ ŗ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ ŌĄƏ ĊƌĆƔĿƅŏ ą Ƌč ũą ŠĄƔ ĊƌƔĊŦŌ Ń ūŌ and he took
hold of the head of his brother. dragging him to him; *(2:206)
Ń ƇŇŝ ƙŕŃ ŗ Ł ŘČ ŪĊŸŇƅŔ ą ƌŇśĿ ŨĿ Ŧ Ō his arrogance drives him to stick to his sins [lit. the
pride in sinning overtook him]; *(9:50) Ćƈ Ō ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō ĆŧĿ Ɓ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĄ ũ we have
taken our precautions beforehand; *(10:24) ॠƎĿ žą ũŇŦą Ū ą űĆũ ƗŔ ĊŚĿ ŨĿ Ŧ Ō the
earth has taken on its ornaments 4 to accept, to take on board, to
follow (5:41) ą ƋƏŁ ŨŁ ŦĿ ž ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ĆƇŁ śƔĊ śƏ Ō ĆƉ ŏ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ they say [to each other]. `If
you are given this [ruling]. accept it!' 5 to punish, to take to task
(29:40) ĔƜŁ ƄĿž ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō Ċ ƌŃ ŗŇƊĿ ŨŃ ŗ so We punished each one of them for their
sins 6 to afflict, to overtake, to seize (7:78) ą Ƈą ƎŇśĿ ŨĿ Ŧ ōĿ ž Ł řĿſĆŠČũƅŔ ŔƏą ţĄŗĆŰ ōĿ ž ƑĊž

Ŋ [ Ţ [ Ŧ
15
ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ũŔĄ ŧ Ċ ŝॠŠ Ą ƉƔĊ ƈ an earthquake seized them. by the next morning they
were lying dead in their homes 7 to overpower, to overwhelm, to
overtake (2:255) Ŀ ƛ ą ƋŁ ŨŁ Ŧ ōĿ ś ĽřĿƊĊŬ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĈƇĆƏĿƊ neither slumber nor sleep
overtakes Him 8 [with prep. ŗ] to try, to test, to afflict (7:130) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə
ĄƉƔĊƊĐ ŬƅŕŃ ŗ ĄƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž .ŔĄʼn ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō We tried Pharaoh's people with the passage
of time [lit. the years].
Ŀ Ŧĉ ŤŒ ŌĄ ƒ yu`ãkhidh[imperf. of v. III, trans.] to take to task, to hold
to account, to punish (2:286) Ŀ ƊŇŨĊŦŔ ŎŁ ś Ŀ ƛ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄũ ŕĿ ƊōĿ ųŇŦ Ō ĆƏ Ō ŕĿ ƊƔĊ ŬĿ Ɗ ĆƉ ŏ ŕ Lord. do
not take us to task if we forget or make mistakes.
Ľ ŦĽ ŤĮ řō `ittakhadha [v. VIII] I [trans.] 1 to take for oneself, to
adopt (16:51) .ŕĿ ƁĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ŨĊ Ŧİ śĿ ś Ń ƉĆƔĄƎĿƅŏ Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ Ą Əą ƍ ĈƌĿƅŏ Ċ ţŔĄ Ə Ĉŧ God said. `Do
not take two gods'-for He is the one God 2 to fashion for oneself,
to create for one`s use (29:41) .Ŀ ŝĄ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ƉƏą ŧ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ʼnॠƔ ƅĆƏ Ō .Ŀ ŝĄƈĿ Ƅ
Ċ ŚƏą ŗĿ ƄŇ ƊĄ ŸŇ ƅŔ ŇŚĿ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ŕĻ śĆ ƔĄ ŗ those who take protectors besides God are like a
spider taking for itself a house 3 to select, to follow, to take
(18:63) Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔĄ Ə ą ƌĿ ƆƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ ƑĊ ž Ń ũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ ŕćŗĄŠĄŷ and it took its way into the sea in a
wondrous manner 4 to exact, to acquire, to require, to obtain
(18:77) ĆƏĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚœĊŮ ŇŨĿ Ŧİ śĿ ƛ Ŀ Ś ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Ŕć ũĆŠ Ō but if you had wished you could have
exacted payment for [doing] it 5 to take something as (23:110)
ĆƇą ƍƏą ƈŁ śŇŨĿŦİ śŕĿž ŕĎ ƔŃ ũŇŦĊ Ŭ but you made them [lit. took them as] a laughing
stock; *(11:92) ą ƋƏą ƈŁ śŇŨĿŦİ śŔĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ Ə Ď ƔŃ ũĆƎĊ Ŵ ŕ you have turned your backs on
Him. you have put Him out of your minds [lit. you put Him behind
you]; *(19:88) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ą ƉĄ ƈĆţČũƅŔ ŔćŧĿƅĄƏ they say. `The Lord of Mercy
has begotten offspring' [lit. taken an offspring] 6 [with prep. ƉĊƈ]
to derive something out of (16:67) ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ũĄ ƈĿ ŝ .ƔĊ Ŧİ ƊƅŔ Ń ŖŕĿ ƊĆŷ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏŁ ŨĊ Ŧİ śĿ ś ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ
Ŕć ũĿ ƄĄ Ŭ ŕĻ ƁĆŪŃ ũĄ Ə ŕĻ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ from the fruits of date palms and grapes you derive
intoxicants and wholesome provisions II [doubly trans.] 1 to use
something for the purpose of (58:16) ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊॠƈĆƔ Ō Ļ řİ Ɗą Š they have
used their oaths to cover up [their false deeds] 2 to take, adopt
someone as (4:125) Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ŧ God took Abraham as a
friend.
ĻŦŅŤŊ `akhdh [v. n.] taking, taking to task, punishment (11:102)
ĄƃƅĿ ŨĿ ƄĄƏ Ł ŨŇŦ Ō Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ Ō ƐĄũŁƂŇƅŔ Ą ƓĊ ƍĄ Ə Ľ řĄ ƈ ƅŕĿ Ŵ Č Ɖ ŏ ą ƋĿ ŨŇŦ Ō ĈƇƔƅŌ ĈŧƔĊŧĿŮ such is the
punishment of your Lord for towns in the midst of their sins. His
punishment is terrible and severe.

Ŋ [ Ţ [ ŧ
16
Ļ ŖĽ ŦŅŤ Ŋ `akhdhatun [n. of unit] a taking, a gripping; an instance of
taking to task; to seize; to take to task (69:10) ŔĆ ƏĄ ŰĄ ŸĿ ž .Əą ŬĄ ũ ĆƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ
ĆƇą ƍĿ ŨĿ Ŧ ōĿ ž ĻŘĿ ŨŇŦ Ō Ļ řĄ ƔŃ ŗŔĄ ũ but they disobeyed the messenger of their Lord. so
He seized them with an immense gripping.
ĻŦĉŤň `ãkhidh [act. part.; pl. ƉƔĊ ŨĊ ŦŊ `ãkhidhïn] 1 one who takes or
accepts something (51:16) Ą ƉƔĊ ŨĊ ŦŔĄ ʼn ŕĄƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ śŔĄ ʼn ĆƇą Ǝč ŗĄ ũ they will be taking
what their Lord gives them 2 one who takes hold of, one who
controls (11:56) ŕĄƈ ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ řČ ŗŔĄ ŧ İ ƛ ŏ Ą Əą ƍ ĽŨĊŦŔĄʼn Ń ŗ ॠƎĊ śĄ ƔĊ ŰŕĿ Ɗ there is no animal but
He is in complete control of it [lit. taking hold of its forelock].
ĻŦœĽŤİ řĉŒ `ittikhãdh [v. n.] (act of) adopting or taking something to
be something else (2:54) ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ ĆƇŁ śĆƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ą ƇŁ ƄĊ ŨŕĿ ŦIJ śŕŃ ŗ Ċ ŸŇƅŔ .ĆŠ [indeed] you
have wronged yourselves by taking the calf [for a deity].
ĻŦĉŤĮ řĄ Ɔ muttakhidh [act. part.; pl. ƉƔĊ ŨĊ Ŧİ śą ƈ muttakhidhïn; pl. fem.
ĽŚŔĿŨĊŦİ śą ƈ muttakhidhãt] 1 one who takes for him/herself something
or someone (4:25) ċŚŕĄţĊžŕĄŬą ƈ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ľ ƉŔĄ ŧŇŦ Ō Ċ ŚŔĿ ŨĊ Ŧİ śą ƈ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə not committing
adultery or taking lovers 2 one who takes someone for (18:51) ॠƈĄ Ə
Ł ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ Ŀ ŨĊŦİ śą ƈ Ą ƉƔIJ ƆĊ Ųą ƈŇƅŔ Ŕć ŧą ŲĄ ŷ and I would not take those who lead others
astray for supporters.

Ŋ [ Ţ [ ŧ `-kh-r to delay, to postpone; to put behind; the end; the other,
the last. Of this root, 13 forms occur 250 times in the Qur`an: Ąũİ Ŧ Ō
`akhkhara 14 times; ą ũİŦ Ŏą Ɣ yu`akhkhar once; Ąũİ Ŧ ōĿ ś ta`akhkhara three
times; ƉƏą ũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ yasta`khirün six times; ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬą ƈ musta`khirïn once;
ą ũĿ ŦŊ `ãkhar 15 times; ƉŔĄ ũĿ ŦŊ `ãkharãn twice; ƉƏą ũĿ ŦŊ `ãkharün 22
times; ƐĄ ũŇŦ Ō `ukhrã 26 times; ũĿ Ŧ Ō `ukhar five times; ĈũĊŦŊ `ãkhir 30
times; ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŦŊ `ãkhirïn 10 times and Ł ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ `al-`ãkhira 115 times.
ăŧĮ Ť Ŋ `akhkhara [v. II, trans.] 1 to delay, to defer (11:8) ĆƉœĿ ƅĄƏ ŕĿƊĆũİ ŦŌ
ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ Ą ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ċ řČ ƈ Ō ċ ŘĄ ŧƏą ŧĆŸĄ ƈ ČƉŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔĿƅ ŕĄƈ ą ƌą ŬŃ ŗĆţĄ Ɣ if We delay the chastisement
till a reckoned appointment they are sure to say. `What is holding
it up'' 2 to grant respite, to respite, to reprieve (63:10) Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ Đ ŖĄ ũ
ľŖƔŃ ũĿƁ .ĄŠ Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ ƓĊƊĿ śĆũİ Ŧ Ō my Lord. if You would only reprieve me for a
little while 3 to put off, to leave undone (82:5) ŇŚĄƈČŧĿƁ ŕĄƈ ĈūŇſĿƊ ŇŚĄƈĊƆĄŷ
ŇŚĄũİ Ŧ ŌĄƏ each soul will know what it has done and what it has left
undone.
Ą ŧĮŤ ŌĄ ƒ yu`akhkhar [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ũIJ Ŧ Ō `ukhkhira] to be

Ŋ [ Ţ [ ŧ
17
delayed, to be held back, to postpone (71:4) Č Ɖ ŏ .ĄŠ Ō Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ą ʼnॠŠ Ŀ ƛ ą ũİŦ Ŏą Ɣ
when God's appointed time arrives it cannot be postponed.
ăŧĮ Ť ŋĽ ř ta`akhkhara [v. V, intrans.] 1 to hold back, to lag behind
(74:37) ĆƉĄ ƈ ƅ Ą ʼnŕĿ Ů ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ĆƉ Ō ĄƇČ ŧĿ ƂĿ śĄƔ ĆƏ Ō Ąũİ Ŧ ōĿ śĄƔ to those of you who choose to go
ahead or lag behind 2 to come after, to follow (48:2) Ą ũĊ ſŇżĄ Ɣ ƅ ĄƃĿ ƅ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ॠƈ
ĄƇČ ŧĿ ƂĿ ś ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃŃ ŗŇƊĿ Ũ ॠƈĄ Ə Ąũİ Ŧ ōĿ ś that God may forgive what has gone past of
your sins and what comes after 3 to delay (2:203) ŔƏą ũŁ ƄŇ ŨŔĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĊž ľ ƇŕČ Ɣ Ō
ċ ŚŔĄ ŧƏą ŧĆŸĄ ƈ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž .Č ŠĄŸĿ ś ƑĊ ž Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ą ƇŇŝ ŏ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə Ąũİ Ŧ ōĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ą ƇŇŝ ŏ ƌĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ remember God
on the appointed days. if anyone is in a hurry to leave after two
days. there is no blame on him. nor is there any blame on anyone
who delays.
ƇƍĄ ŧĉ ŤŋĽ řąŪă ƒ yasta`khirün [imperf. of v. X, ĄũĿ ŦōĿ śĆŬĊŔ `ista`khara,
intrans.] 1 to delay, to hold back (7:34) IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅĄ Ə ċ řČ ƈ Ō .ĄŠŌ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž Ą ʼnॠŠ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƆĄ Š Ō Ŀ ƛ
Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ļ řĄ ŷॠŬ Ŀ ƛĄƏ Ą ƉƏą ƈĊ ŧŇƂĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ there is an appointed time for every
people-when their appointed time comes they cannot hasten a
single moment nor delay 2 to remain behind (23:43) ॠƈ Ł ƀŃ ŗĆŬĿ ś ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ řČ ƈ Ō
ŕĄƎĿƆĄŠŌ ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ no community can go before its appointed time or
remain behind.
ƇƒŁŧĉŤŋĽ řąŪĄ Ɔ musta`khirïn [pl. of act. part. ĈũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬą ƈ musta`khir] one
who is holding back, lagging behind (15:24) Ċ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ŧŇƂĿ śĆŬą ƈŇƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĊ ƆĄ ŷ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊ
Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŦōĿ śĆŬą ƈŇƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĊ ƆĄ ŷ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə and We know the ones of you who press forward
in the forefront and We know the ones who lag behind.
Ą ŧĽ Ťň `ãkhar I [n./quasi-act. part.; dual ƉŔĄ ũĿ ŦŊ `ãkharãn, pl. ƉƏą ũĿŦŊ
`ãkharün; fem. ƐĄ ũŇŦ Ō `ukhrã (1) pl. Ō ĈũĿŦ `ukhar] 1 the other one
(12:36) ƓĊŬŌĄũ ĿƀĆƏĿž .ĊƈĆţ Ō ƓĊƊŔĄũŌ ƓIJ Ɗŏ ą ũĿ ŦƕŔ .ŕĿƁĄƏ ŔćũĆƈĿ Ŧ ą ũĊŰĆŷŌ ƓĊƊŔĄũ Ō ƓIJ Ɗŏ ŕĄƈą ƍą ŧĄţ Ō .ŕĿƁ
ŔćŪĆŗŁ Ŧ one of them said. `I saw myself pressing grapes'. and the
other said. `I saw myself carrying bread on my head' 2 additional
or further one (39:68) ƐĄ ũŇŦ Ō Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ŀ ťĊ ſŁ Ɗ Č ƇŁ ŝ then it is blown in it another
[time] II [adjectivally] 1 another/other (20:18) ƐĄ ũŇŦ Ō ą ŖŃ ũŋĄ ƈ ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą Ɠ ƅĄ Ə
and I have other uses for it 2 different (23:14) ŕĻ ƂŇƆĿ Ŧ ą ƋŕĿ ƊōĿ ŮŇƊ Ō Č ƇŁ ŝ ĄũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼn
then We construct him into a different creation/creature 3
additional (6:19) ƐĄũŇŦ Ō ĻřĄƎƅŔĄʼn Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŶĄƈ Č Ɖ Ō ĄƉƏą ŧĄƎŇŮĿ śĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ ƊœŌ do you really bear
witness that there are other gods beside God' 4 [derogative] that
other one too!` (53:19-20) ƐĄũŇŦ ƗŔ ĿřĿŝƅŕİ ŝƅŔ ĿŘŕĿƊĄƈĄƏ ƐČ Ūą ŸŇƅŔĄƏ ĿŚİ ƜƅŔ ą ƇŁ śĆƔŌĄũĿžŌ
consider `allãt and `al-Àuzzã. and that other. third. one-Manãt!

Ŋ [ Ţ [ ƍ
18
ƎăŧŅŤŊ `ukhrã (2) [n.] 1 the last one (7:38) ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š ॠƎƔĊ ž ŔƏŁ ƄĄ ũŔČ ŧŔ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
ą ƍĿ ƛƏ Ɨ ĆƇą ƍŔĄũŇŦ Ō ŇŚĿ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ĆƇ until. when they have all successively gathered
in [Hellfire]. the last of them will say of the first . 2 the rear, the
end part, behind (3:153) ĆƇŁ ƄƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔĄƏ ċŧĄţ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉƏą ƏŇƆĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ĄƉƏą ŧĊŸĆŰŁ ś ŇŨŏ ƑĊž
ĆƇŁ ƄŔĄ ũŇŦ Ō when you fled in mindless panic [lit. not paying heed to
anyone] while the Messenger was calling out to you from behind
you.
Ą ŧĉ Ťň `ãkhir I [n./quasi-act. part.; fem. Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦŊ `ãkhiratun; pl. ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŦŊ
`ãkhirïn] 1 last, latter (10:10) İ Ɔ ƅ ą ŧĆƈĄ ţŇƅŔ Ń Ɖ Ō ĆƇą ƍŔĄ ƏĆŷĄ ŧ ą ũĊ ŦŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƅŔ Đ ŖĄ ũ Ċ ƌ and
the last of their prayer. `Praise be to God. Lord of all Beings';
* ũĊ ŦƕŔ [attribute of God] the Ever Lasting (57:3) ą ũĊ ŦƕŔĄ Ə .Č Ə ƗŔ Ą Əą ƍ He
is the First and the Last; *(2:217) Ŀ ŘĄũĊŦƕŔ the Last life as opposed to
the near one ) ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ ( (q.v.), the Hereafter; *(29:64) Ŀ ŘĄũĊŦƕŔ ĄũŔČ ŧƅŔ the
Last Abode, the Hereafter 2 end, final part (3:72) ŔƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŔĄ ʼn ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŕŃ ŗ .Ń ŪŇƊ Ō
ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn Ą ƌĆŠĄ Ə Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔ ŔƏą ũŁ ſŇƄŔĄ Ə ą ƋĄ ũĊ ŦŔĄ ʼn believe in what has been
revealed to the believers at the beginning of the day but reject it
at the end of it 3 preceding, past, previous (38:7) ŕĄƈ ŕĿƊĆŸĊƈĄŬ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƎŃ ŗ ƑĊ ž Ċ řİ ƆĊ ƈŇƅŔ
Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ ĆƉ ŏ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ İ ƛ ŏ ĽƀĿƜĊśŇŦŔ we have not heard of this in the past religion-
this is nothing but invention II [n.] coming generations
(5:114) ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ ś ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŕć ŧƔĊ ŷ ŕĿ Ɗ ƅČ Ə Ɨ ŕĿ ƊŃ ũĊ ŦŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ą ƃŇƊĊ ƈ that shall be for us a
festival. the first and the last of us [the coming generations] and a
sign from You.

Ŋ [ Ţ [ ƍ `-kh-w brother, brotherhood; friend, companion; to take as a
friend, to fraternise; ties. Of this root, seven forms occur 96 times
in the Qur`an: ĽŤŌ `akhun 52 times; Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƏĿ Ŧ Ō `akhawayn once; ĈƉŔĄƏŇŦŏ
`ikhwãn 22 times; Ľ ŘĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ `ikhwatun seven times; ĽŚŇŦ Ō `ukht eight
times; Ń ƉĆƔĿ śŇŦ Ō `ukhtaynonce and ĽŚŔĄƏĿŦŌ `akhawãt five times.
ĻŢŊ `akhun [n., (in construct (ĽřĿžŕĄŲĊŔ) > ƏŁ ŦŌ `akhü; ŕĿ Ŧ Ō `akhã; ƓĊŦŌ
`akhï; dual Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƏĿ Ŧ Ō `akhawayn; pl. ĈƉŔĄƏŇŦŏ `ikhwãn and Ľ ŘĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ
`ikhwatun)] 1 brother (12:8) Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ č ŖĄ ţ Ō ą ƋƏŁ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə Ł Žą ŬƏą ƔĿ ƅ ŕİ ƊĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊƔŃ ŗ Joseph and
his brother are [indeed] dearer to our father than we are 2
compatriot (7:85) ŕćŗĆƔĄŸŁŮ ĆƇą ƍŕĿŦŌ ĄƉĄƔĆŧĄƈ ƑĿ ƅŏĄƏ and to the people of Midian
[We sent] their brother [compatriot] ShuÀayb 3 [jur.] a fellow
human being (2:178) ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĈŵŕĄŗIJśŕĿ ž ĈʼnĆƓĿŮ ĊƌƔĊŦŌ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƌĿƅ ĄƓĊſą ŷ but if
someone [the culprit] is relieved from some [of the penalty] by

Ŋ [ ť [ Ɛ
19
his [aggrieved] brother [in humanity]. then there shall be
conformity [to his wish] in fair practice 4 the like of (17:27) ŏ Č Ɖ
Ń ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ Ą ƉŔĄ ƏŇ Ŧ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔŃ ũIJ ŨĄ ŗą ƈŇ ƅŔ squanderers are the like of the devils 5
brothers and sisters together [ƉŔĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ `ikhwãn and Ľ ŘĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ `ikhwatun]
(4:176) Ń ƉĆƔĄƔĿŝŇƊƗŔ IJŴĄţ .ŇŝĊƈ Ń ũĿƄİŨƆĊƆĿ ž ćʼnŕĄŬĊƊĄƏ ĻƛŕĄŠŃ ũ ĻŘĄƏŇŦŏ ŔƏŁƊŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉŏĄƏ but if there are
[surviving] brethren. male and female together. the male is
entitled to twice the share of the female 6 fellows in the faith
[ƉŔĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ `ikhwãn] (33:5) ĆƇą ƍĄʼnŕĄŗŔĄʼn ŔƏą ƈĿƆĆŸĿś ĆƇĿƅ ĆƉŐĿž ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŁųĄŬŇƁŌ ĄƏą ƍ ĆƇŃ ƎœŕĄŗƕ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŷĆŧŔ
ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƊŔĄ ƏŇŦ ŐĿ ž ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄƔ ƅŔĄ ƏĄ ƈĄ Ə Ń ƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ name them [your adopted children] after
their [biological] fathers-this is more equitable with God-if you
do not know who their fathers are. [address them as] your
`brothers-in-religion' and wards.
ĻŘŅŤ Ŋ `ukht [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ śŇŦ Ō `ukhtayn; pl. ĽŚŔĄƏĿŦŌ `akhawãt] 1 sister
(4:23) ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŔĄ ƏĿ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŕĿ ƊĄ ŗĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŕĄ ƎČ ƈ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿƆĄ ŷ ŇŚĄ ƈĐ ũą ţ forbidden to you [in
marriage] are your mothers. your daughters. your sisters . 2
milk-sister (4:23) Ŀ ƆĄŷ ŇŚĄ ƈĐ ũą ţ ĆƇŁƄŁśŕĄƎČƈŌ ĆƇŁƄĆƔ ĊřĄŷŕĄŲČ ũƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŔĄƏĿ Ŧ ŌĄƏ
forbidden to you are your mothers . your milk-sisters . 3
fellow, counterpart (7:38) ॠƎĿ śŇŦ Ō ŇŚĿ ƊĄŸĿ ƅ ĽřČ ƈ Ō ŇŚĿ ƆĿ ŦĄŧ ŕĄƈİ ƆŁ Ƅ every time a
community enters. it curses its counterpart [lit. sister].

Ŋ [ ť [ ť `-d-d abomination, hardship, disaster, affliction; to befall, to
afflict; shameful. Of this root, Ļ Ŕĉ ŧ ŏ `iddan occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ĺ ŒĈ ť ō `iddan [quasi-act. part.] abominable, detestable, loathsome
(19:88-9) Ŕ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə ŔĎ ŧ ŏ ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů ĆƇŁ śœŃ Š ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ Ŕć ŧĿ ƅĄ Ə ą ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƅ and they say. `The Lord
of Mercy has begotten offspring'. how abominable is this thing
you assert.

Ą ũƒŁ ŧąť ō `idrïs (see ť [ ŧ [ ũ d-r-s).

Ą ƅă ťň `ãdam (see Ŋ [ Ŋ [ ť [ ƅ `-`-d-m).

Ŋ [ ť [ Ɛ `-d-y to ripen, to become due; to snare, to prepare; to convey,
to bring about; to pay. Of this root, two forms occur six times in
the Qur`an: ƒĐŧŎą Ɣ yu`addï five times and ĈʼnŔĄŧŌ `adã` once.
Ɛď ť ŌĄ ƒ yu`addï [imperf. of v. II ƐČŧŌ `addã trans.] 1 to pay up, to
return (4:58) ŏ Č Ɖ ŕĄƎĊƆĆƍŌ ƑĿƅŏ ĊŚŕĿƊŕĄƈƗŔ ŔƏč ŧŎŁ ś ĆƉŌ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ũą ƈōĄƔ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ God commands you

Ŧ ō
20
to return trusts to their owners 2 [with prep. ƑƅŔ] (44:18) Č ƓƅŔ Əč ŧŌ ƉŌ
ĺŔ Ą ŧॠŗĊ ŷ [saying to them.] `Hand over to me the slaves of God'.
ćŇŒă ť Ŋ `adã` [v. n.] restitution, paying up, handing over (2:178)
ľƉŕĄŬĆţŐŃ ŗ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ĈʼnŔĄŧ ŌĄƏ ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĈŵŕĄŗIJśŕĿ ž ĈʼnĆƓĿŮ ĊƌƔĊŦŌ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƌĿƅ ĄƓĊſą ŷ ĆƉĄƈĿž but if the culprit
[lit. someone] is relieved from some [of the penalty] by his
[aggrieved] brother [in humanity]. then there shall be conformity
[to his wish] in fair practice. and restitution [of the remaining
part of the penalty] to him [the aggrieved] in a good way.

Ŧ ō `idh I adverb of time occurring 309 times in the Qur`an, when
.`, at the time of .`, and structurally functioning as: the first
part of a construct ) řĿ žŕĄ Ų ŏ ( of which the second part is either a
nominal clause, as in (9:40) ॠƈą ƍ ŇŨ ŏ ƑĊž Ń ũŕĿ żŇƅŔ when both of them were
in the cave, or a verbal one, as in (9:40) ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ą ƌĄŠĄũŇŦ Ō ŇŨ ŏ when
the disbelievers drove him out. As an adverb Ũ ŏ complements a
verbal element; however in the Qur`an and as a device for
drawing maximum attention to what follows, Ũ ŏ quite frequently
initiates sentences, with no such element explicitly preceding it
(leaving it to the reader/listener, so to speak, to add such an
element as clarifies certain aspects of the situation), as in (14:6)
ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿ Ƃƅ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ .ŕĿƁ ŇŨŏĄƏ and [remember or mention here is made of the
moment] when Moses said to his people. The device is
particularly used in the Qur`an as a means of connecting parts of
a subject/story spread over a long discourse, as in Sura 8 (.ŕſƊƗŔ
the Spoils`), in which the story of the Badr campaign is told. 13
of the first 49 verses, which directly deal with the story, begin
with Ũ ŏ, thereby sustaining the attention and keeping the long
discourse together. The second part of the Ũ ŏ construct may be
replaced with compensation nunation (űƔŃ ƏĆŸİ śƅŔ ƉƔŃ ƏŇƊĿ ś) (q.v.) if it
refers to a preceding part of the discourse that is clearly
understood, as in (56:84) ĄƉƏą ũŁ ŴŇƊĿś ċŨœĿ ƊƔĊţ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄƏ while you. at that
moment. [i.e. the moment (previously mentioned) when the soul of
a dying person reaches his gullet]. gaze on. Ũŏ also occurs as a
second part of a construct (at the same time as being the first part
of a following one) with words signifying time`, such as ƉƔţ hïn,
ƇƏƔ yawm. ŧŸŗ ba´d, as in (99:4) ŕĄƍĄũŕĄŗŇŦ Ō ŁŜĐŧĄţŁś ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ on that Day it will
tell its story and (3:8) ŏ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĄ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ŇŹŃ ŪŁ ś Ŀ ƛ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ ŕĿ ƊĿ śĆƔĄ ŧĄ ƍ ŇŨ our Lord. cause not

ŒĽ Ŧ ō
21
our hearts to deviate after You have guided us II `idh ) Ũŏ ( may
also be interpreted in some contexts as signifying causation ) .ƔĊƆĆŸĿś ( ,
as in (43:39) ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ Ō ĆƇŁ śĆƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ŇŨ ŏ Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ŸĿ ſŇƊĄ Ɣ ĆƉĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ń ŖŔĿ ŨĄŸŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄŃ ũĿ śŇŮą ƈ and it will
not avail you today. it is because of your having done wrong that
you are sharing in the chastisement, and also in an interpretation
of verse (46:11) ĈƇƔĊŧĿƁ ĈƃŇžŏ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĄƉƏŁƅƏŁƂĄƔĄŬĿž ĊƌŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŧĿ śĆƎĄƔ ĆƇĿƅ ŇŨŏĄƏ and because they
have not been guided by it. they will say. `This is an ancient
fabrication.'

ŒĽ Ŧ ō `idhã occurs 423 times in the Qur`an and functions as: I [adverb
of time indicating the future ) .ĄŗƂĿśĆŬą ƈƆƅ ƉŕĄƈĄŪ ŽĆũĿŴ ( and implying
conditional dependency ) ųũĿ ŮƅŔ ( , between its two complements, of
which the first is always a verbal clause] when`, as in` (23:101)
Ŀ ťĊſŁ Ɗ ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž ƑĊž ĄƉƏŁ ƅĄʼnŕĄŬĿ śĄƔ ĿƛĄƏ ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ ĆƇą ƎĿƊĆƔĄŗ ĄŖŕĄŬŇƊŌ Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ń ũƏč ŰƅŔ when the Trumpet is
blown. the ties between them will be as nothing and they will not
ask about each other. The complements of ŔĿŨŏ (like those of Ũ ŏ,
q.v.) may elide, if understood from the preceding discourse, and
become compensated for by compensation nunation ) űƔŃ ƏĆŸİ śƅŔ ƉƔŃ ƏŇƊĿ ś (
(q.v., n), as in (23:34) Ō ĆƉ œĿ ƅĄ Ə ĄƉƏą ũĊŬŕĿ ŦĿ ƅ ŔĻŨŏ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƆŇŝĊƈ ŔćũĿ ŮĄŗ ĆƇŁ śĆŸĿų and if you
obey a mortal like you. you will then definitely lose out. In such
cases ambiguity may arise between what may be considered as an
instance of ŔĿŨŏ or an instance of ĆƉĿ Ũ ŏ `idhan (q.v.). ŔĿŨŏ may, together
with its two clauses, also express habitual action, as in (4:142) Č Ɖ ŏ
Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ʼnŔĄ ũą Ɣ ƑĿ ƅॠŬŁ Ƅ ŔƏą ƈŕĿ Ɓ Ċ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ƈŕĿ Ɓ ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ŷĊ ŧŕĿ Ŧ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ŷĊ ŧŕĿ Ŧą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ ƂĊ žŕĿ Ɗą ƈŇƅŔ
ƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ İ ƛ ŏ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ũŁ ƄŇŨĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ɯ the hypocrites try to deceive God. but it is He
who causes them to be deceived, when they stand up to pray. they
do so sluggishly. showing off in front of people. and rarely
remember God. ŏ ŔĿ Ũ is often combined with the so-called
redundant` mã ) ƅŔ ॠƈ Řŧ œŔČ Ū ( , which lends emphasis to the entire part
of the discourse in which it appears giving a meaning of
whenever .` (9:92) ĆƇą ƎĿƆĊƈĆţĿśƅ ĄƃĆƏĿśŌ ŕĄƈ ŔĿ Ũŏ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĿƛĄƏ nor is there
blame attached to those who. whenever they came to you
[Prophet] to provide them with a mount . II [particle of surprise
(also classified as an adverb of place or time) ) Ř ōĄ ŠŕĿ ſą ƈƆ ƅ ŽĆũĄ ţ ( ] all of
a sudden`, lo and behold!`, there it was!`, preceding a nominal
clause, as in (20:20) Ąţ Ą ƓĊ ƍ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž ॠƍŕĿ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž ƑĄ ŸĆŬĿ ś ĽřČ Ɣ he threw it down and-lo
and behold!-it was a moving snake.

ąƇĽ Ŧ ō [ Ĺ ŒŦ ō
22
ąƇĽ Ŧ ō [ Ĺ ŒŦ ō `idhan occurs 31 times in the Qur`an and indicates
consequence ) ŖŔĄ ƏĄ Š [ ʼnŔĄ ŪĄ Š ( , . then, in that case .`, . then, it
would follow.`, as in (4:53) ĄƉĊƈ ĈŖƔĊŰĿ Ɗ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĆƇ Ō Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ śŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ŔĻ Ũ ŐĿ ž Ċ ƃŇƆą ƈŇƅŔ
ŔćũƔĊƂĿƊ or. do they own a share of what He possesses'. if so. then
they would not give to people [so much as] the groove of the date
stone. ĆƉĿ Ũ ŏ which is written in the text of the Qur`an, not with a nün,
but with an `alif ) ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ( , overlaps in various contexts with instances
of the adverbial ŔĿ Ũ ŏ whose two complements are elided (cf. ŒĽ Ŧ ō). In
fact some grammarians consider all occurrences of ĆƉĿ Ũ ŏ as being
instances of that type of ŔĿŨŏ. The implication for interpreting these
ambiguous contexts is significant since ĆƉĿ Ũ ŏ implies consequential
relation while the adverbial ŔĿ Ũ ŏ implies conditional dependence.

Ŋ [ Ŧ [ Ƈ `-dh-n ear, to hear; to know, information, to inform; to seek
permission, to permit; to declare, declaration, to warn. Of this
root, 12 forms occur in 104 places in the Qur`an: ĄƉĊŨ Ō `adhina 19
times; Ą ƉĊ Ũ Ō `udhina six times; ĄƉİ Ũ Ō `adhdhana three times; ĄƉİ Ũ ōĿ ś
ta`adhdhana twice; ĄƉĿ ŨŊ `ãdhana twice; ĄƉĿ ŨōĿ śĆŬĊŔ `ista`dhana 12
times; Ŀ Ũ Ō ĈƉŔ `adhãn once; ĈƉŇŨŏ `idhn 39 times; ĈƉIJ ŨŎą ƈ mu`adhdhin
twice; ĈƉŁ Ũ Ō `udhun five times; Ń ƉĆƔĿƊŁ Ũ Ō `udhunayn once and ĈƉŔĿŨŊ `ãdhãn
12 times.
ăƇĉŦ Ŋ `adhina a I [v. intrans.] 1 to permit, to allow, to give leave
(78:38) ĆƉĄƈ İ ƛŏ ĄƉƏą ƈİ ƆĿƄĿśĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ą ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƉĊ Ũ Ō they will not speak except the
one to whom the Beneficent gives permission 2 [with prep. .ƅ] to
listen to, to give ear to, to obey (84:2) ŇŚİ Ƃą ţĄ Ə ॠƎĐ ŗĄ ũ ƅ ŇŚĿ ƊĊ Ũ ŌĄ Ə and listened
to its Lord and obeyed 3 [with prep. ŗ] to allow something to be
done, to sanction (42:21) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊƌŃ ŗ ĆƉĿ ŨōĄƔ ĆƇĿƅ ŕĄƈ Ń ƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ŔƏą ŷĄũĿ Ů ą ʼnŕĿ ƄĄũŁ Ů ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĆƇ Ō
or have they partners who ordained for them. in matters of faith.
that which God has not sanctioned' 4 [with prep. ŗ] to be warned
of (2:279) Ċ ƌ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ľ ŖĆũĄ ţŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ƊĿ ŨōĿ ž ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŸŇſĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ĆƉ ŐĿ ž if you do not [desist
from consuming interest]. then be warned of hostility from God
and His Messenger II [v. trans. with ƉŌ `an + v.] to give one`s
permission, to permit the doing of; to ordain (24:36) ą ƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉĊŨ Ō ċŚƏą Ɣą ŗ ƓĊž
ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄũĿƄŇŨą ƔĄƏ ĄŶĿžĆũŁś ĆƉŌ in houses [of worship]. God has ordained that
they be raised high and that His name be remembered in them.
ă Ƈĉ Ŧ Ŋ `udhina [pass. v.] to be allowed, to be given leave

Ŋ [ Ŧ [ Ƈ
23
(22:39) ŔƏą ƈĊƆŁ Ŵ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ōŃ ŗ ĄƉƏŁ ƆĿśŕĿ Ƃą Ɣ ĄƉƔĊŨİ Ɔƅ ĄƉĊŨ Ō those who are being attacked are
permitted [to defend themselves] because they have been
wronged.
ăƇĮ Ŧ Ŋ `adhdhana [v. II, intrans. with ƉŌ `an + v. or with prep. ŗ] to
declare, to announce publicly, to proclaim (22:27) ĆƉIJ Ũ ŌĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Đ şĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ
and proclaim the Pilgrimage to humankind.
ăƇĮ Ŧ ŋĽ ř ta`adhdhana [v. V, intrans.] to make known, to declare, to
solemnly proclaim (14:7) Ł Ƅİ ƊĄŧƔŃ Ū Ɨ ĆƇŁ śĆũĿ ƄĿ Ů ĆƉœĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅč ŗĄ ũ ĄƉİ Ũ ōĿ ś ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇ and
[remember] when your Lord proclaimed. `If you are thankful. I
will give you more.'
ăƇĽ Ŧň `ãdhana [v. IV, trans.] 1 to inform, to apprise, to tell, to
confess, to admit (41:47) Ċƈ ŕİƊĊƈ ŕĄƈ ĄƃŕİƊĿŨŔĄʼn ŔƏŁƅŕĿ Ɓ ƓœŕĿƄĄũŁŮ ĄƉĆƔ Ō ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊŧŕĿƊą Ɣ ĄƇĆƏĄƔĄƏ ċ ŧƔŃ ƎĿ Ů ĆƉ
and on the Day He calls to them. `Where are My partners'' they
will answer. `We admit to You. not one of us is a witness' 2 to
warn (21:109) ċʼnŔĄƏĄŬ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇŁƄŁśŇƊĿŨŔĄʼn .ŁƂĿž ŔĆƏİƅĄƏĿś ĆƉŐĿž but if they turn away. say.
`I have warned you all in the same way.'
ăƇĽ ŦŋĽ řąŪĉŒ `ista`dhana [v. X, trans.] to seek permission or leave
(24:62) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈ Ŀ ŚœĊ Ů ĆƉĄƈƅ ĆƉĿ ŨōĿ ž ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƊōĿ Ů Ń űĆŸĄ ŗ ƅ ĄƃƏŁ ƊĿ ŨōĿ śĆŬŔ ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž so if they ask your
leave to attend to some of their private affairs. allow whomsoever
of them you wish.
ćƇŒĽŦŊ `adhãn [n./v. n.] proclamation, declaration (9:3) Ą Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĈƉŔĿ Ũ Ō
Ń ũĄŗŇƄƗŔ ĐşĄţŇƅŔ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ Ń ūŕİƊƅŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĊƌƅƏą ŬĄũĄƏ and a proclamation from God and His
Messenger to all people on the day of the Great Pilgrimage.
ćƇŅŦō `idhn [n./v. n.] permission, leave (11:105) ĈūŇſĿ Ɗ ą Ƈİ ƆĿ ƄĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ĊŚōĄƔ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
Ċ ƌĊ ƊŇŨ ŐŃ ŗ İ ƛ ŏ and on the day when [the Day of Resurrection] comes. no
soul will speak except by His permission.
ćƇİ ŦŌĄ Ɔ mu`adhdhin [act. part.] public crier (12:70) Ō Č ƇŁ ŝ ŕĄƎŁ śČ Ɣ Ō ĈƉIJ ŨŎą ƈ ĄƉİ Ũ
ĄƉƏŁ ƁŃ ũŕĄŬĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗŏ ą ũƔĊŸŇƅŔ then a crier called out. `You camel riders!. you are
thieves.'
ćƇĿ Ŧ Ŋ `udhun [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŁ Ũ Ō `udhunayn; pl. ĈƉŔĿŨŊ `ãdhãn] ear (2:19)
ĆƇą ƎĄŸŃ ŗŕĄŰ Ō ĄƉƏŁƆĄŸĆŠĄƔ ƑĊ ž ĊŷŔĄƏČŰƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĊƊŔĿ ŨŔĄʼn ĊŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ĄũĿ ŨĄţ Ċƀ they put their fingers
into their ears to keep out the thunderclaps for fear of death;
*(9:61) ĈƉŁ Ũ Ō Ą Əą ƍ [derogatory] he listens and believes just anything

Ŋ [ Ŧ [ Ǝ
24
that is said to him! [lit. he is an ear, i.e., gullible]; *(18:11) ŕĿ ƊĆŗĄũĄŲĿ ž
Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ƊŔĿ ŨŔĄ ʼn ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ We sealed their ears or We stopped them hearing [lit.
We struck on their ears].

Ŋ [ Ŧ [ Ǝ `-dh-y harm, injury, damage; to wrong, to harm; high
tumultuous waves. Of this root, three forms occur 24 times in the
Qur`an: ƐĿŨŊ `ãdhã 10 times; Ō Ą ƒĊ ŨƏ `üdhiya five times and ƐĿŨŌ `adhã
nine times.
ƎĽ Ŧň `ãdhã [v. IV, trans.] 1 to offend, to trouble, to
inconvenience, to malign, to affront (33:53) Č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ƒĊ ŨŎą Ɣ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅĿ Ũ Č Ɖ ŏ for
that inconveniences the Prophet 2 to punish, to take to task (4:16)
ॠƈą ƍƏŁ ŨŋĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ॠƎĊ ƊॠƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ Ń ƉŔĿ Ũİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə if any two of you commit [a lewd act]
punish them both.
ă Ɛĉ Ŧƍ Ŋ `üdhiya [pass. of v. IV] 1 to be harmed, to be injured, to
be persecuted (6:34) ŕĿ Ɗą ũĆŰĿ Ɗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ś Ō Ƒİ śĄţ ŔƏŁ ŨƏ ŌĄƏ and were persecuted
until Our aid came to them 2 to be molested, accosted, harassed,
solicited (33:59) ĆƉĊ ƈ Č ƉŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĆŧą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ Ċ ʼnॠŬĊ ƊĄ Ə Ą ƃĊ śŕĿ ƊĄ ŗĄ Ə Ą ƃŃ ŠŔĄ ƏĆŪ Ɨ .Ł Ɓ č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ
ĄƉĆƔĿ ŨŎą Ɣ ĿƜĿž ĄƉŇžĄũĆŸą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ƑĿƊĆŧŌ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ Č ƉŃƎŃŗƔŃŗĿƜĄŠ Prophet. tell your wives. your
daughters and women of the believers to draw their garments
over them-this is more likely to make them recognisable and so
not be harassed.
ƎĽ Ŧ Ŋ `adhã [n./v. n.] 1 disease, affliction, injury, ailment, to
trouble (2:196) ĄƈĿ ž ĽřĄƔĆŧĊſĿ ž ĊƌĊŬŌĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ƐĻŨ Ō ĊƌŃ ŗ ĆƏ Ō ŕćŲƔŃ ũĄƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉ so if any of
you is ill. or has an ailment of the scalp. he should compensate 2
ill-treatment, offence, insult (3:186) ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č Ɖą ŸĄ ƈĆŬĿ śĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ċ ƈĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ƐĻŨ Ō ŔƏŁ ƄĄũŇŮŌ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƉ and you are sure to hear from those
who were given the scripture before you. and from those who
associate others with God. a lot of insults 3 little hurt, trifling
damage (3:111) ƐĻ Ũ Ō İ ƛ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄƏč ũą ŲĄ Ɣ ĆƉĿ ƅ they will never [be able to] inflict
on you but a trifling damage 4 hardship, inconvenience, to be
afflicted by affliction (4:102) ĆƏŌ ľũĿ ųĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ƐĻŨŌ ĆƇŁƄŃ ŗ ĄƉŕĿƄ ĆƉŏ ĆƇŁƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄšŕĿƊą Š Ŀ ƛĄƏ
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ śĄ ţĊ ƆĆŬ Ō ŔƏą ŸĄ ŲĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĄ ŲĆũĄ ƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ it is no sin for you to lay aside your arms
if you are afflicted by heavy rain or illness 5 painful condition,
impurity, soiling (2:222) ƐĻŨŌ ĄƏą ƍ .ŁƁ Ń űƔĊţĄƈŇƅŔ Ń ƉĄŷ ĄƃĿ ƊƏŁƅōĆŬĄƔĄƏ and they ask
you [Prophet] about menstruation. say. `Menstruation is an
impurity/painful condition.'

ƅă ŧ ō
25
Ŋ [ ŧ [ Ŕ `-r-b power, purpose, need; knot; intelligent, resourceful, able
and fit. Of this root, Ľ řĄ ŗĆũ ŏ `irbatun and ą ŖŃ ũŋĄ ƈ ma`ãrib occur once
each in the Qur`an.
Ļ ŗă ŕąŧ ō `irbatun [n./v. n.] sexual desire, potency, sexual capability;
desire for women (24:31) ČƉŃ ƎĊśĿƅƏą Ÿą ŗƅ İƛŏ ČƉą ƎĿśĿƊƔŃ Ū ĄƉƔĊŧĆŗą Ɣ ĿƛĄƏ Ń ũĆƔĿ Ż Ą ƉƔĊ ŸŃ ŗŕİ śƅŔ Ń Ə Ō
.ॠŠĐ ũƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ řĄ ŗĆũ ƙŔ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō and not to reveal their charms except to
their husbands . or such men as attend them who have no sexual
desire ..
Ą ŔŁ ŧʼnă Ɔ ma`ãrib [pl. of n. Ľ řĄ ŗą ũōĄ ƈ ma`rubatun] purposes, uses
(20:18) ƐĄũŇŦŌ ą ŖŃ ũŋĄƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƓƅĄƏ ƓĊƈĿ ƊĿ Ż ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ıŭą ƍ ŌĄƏ ŕĄƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ōİƄĄƏĿśŌ ĄƒŕĄŰĄŷ ĄƓĊƍ it is
my staff. I lean on it, I beat down leaves with it for my sheep (or, I
restrain my sheep with it) and I have other uses for it.

Ŋ [ ŧ [ ů `-r-d the earth, earth, land; to be flat; to be fatty; to be
touched. Of this root, ĈűĆũŌ `ard occurs 461 times in the Qur`an.
ćůąŧŊ `ard [n.] 1 [with the definite article .ƅŔ] the Earth (16:3)
ĄƏĄƈČ ŬƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ IJƀĄţŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĄűĆũ ƗŔĄƏ ĊŚŔ He created the heavens and the Earth in
truth 2 land, soil (36:33) ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ƔĆţ Ō Ł řĿ śĆƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ ĽřĄ ƔŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə and a sign for
them is the dead land. We bring it to life 3 ground (50:44) Ł ƀİ ƂĿ ŮĿ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄŷ ą űĆũƗŔ ŕć ŷŔĄ ũĊ Ŭ upon the Day when the ground is split asunder
from about them. and [humankind] emerges in haste 4 country,
land (20:57) ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈॠƔ Ą ƃŃ ũĆţĊ ŬŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĊ ŲĆũ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĄ ŠŃ ũŇŦŁ ś ƅ ŕĿ ƊĿ śœŃ Š Ō have you come to
drive us from our land with your sorcery. Moses' 5 domain
(29:56) Ń ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆŷŕĿ ž Ą ƒŕČ Ɣ ŐĿ ž Ľ řĄ ŸĊ ŬŔĄ Ə ƓĊ ŲĆũ Ō Č Ɖ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƒĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŷॠƔ My believing
servants!. My domain is vast. so worship Me and Me alone;
*(12:9) ŕć ŲĆũ Ō ą ƋƏą ţĄ ũŇųŔ Ń Ə Ō Ŀ Žą ŬƏą Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƁŔ kill Joseph or cast him forth in
some land [lit. throw him on the ground].

Ŋ [ ŧ [ Ɓ `-r-k lote-tree, to feed on such a tree, to stay put near such
trees; couches, soft furnishings. Of this root, ƃ œŔĄ ũ Ō `arã`ik occurs
five times in the Qur`an.
Ɓ őŒă ŧ Ŋ `arã`ik [pl. of n. ĽřĿƄƔŃ ũŌ `arïkatun] couches (18:31) ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉƔ œĊ Ƅİ śą ƈ
ĊƃœŔĄũƗŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ therein they will be reclining on couches.

ƅă ŧ ō `iram [proper name occurring once in the Qur`an] name of the

Ŋ [ Ũ [ ŧ
26
legendary capital city of ´ãd (q.v.) (89:6-7) ċ ŧŕĄŸŃ ŗ Ąƃč ŗĄũ .Ą ŸĿ ž Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ Ƅ Ą ũĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
Ą ƇĄ ũ ŏ Ċ ŧॠƈĊ ŸŇƅŔ Ċ ŚŔĿ Ũ have you considered how your Lord dealt with the
people of ´ãd. of `iram. the city of lofty pillars!
The place is also linked with the Prophet Hud, who was sent to
the people of °ad. A number of classical commentators also speak
of °iram in the context of a tribe.

Ŋ [ Ũ [ ŧ `-z-rback; strength; to encompass; wrap, loin cloth; to support,
to brace, to back up. Of this root, two forms occur once each in
the Qur`an: Ą ũĄ ŪŊ `ãzara and ĈũĆŪŌ `azr.
ă ŧă Ũň `ãzara [v. IV, trans.] to back up, to prop up, to bolster, to
strengthen (48:29) ĊƌĊƁƏą Ŭ ƑĿƆĄŷ ƐĄƏĿśĆŬŕĿž ĿŴĿƆŇżĿśĆŬŕĿž ą ƋĄũĄŪŋĿž ą ƋōŇųĿŮ ĄŞĄũŇŦŌ ľŵĆũĄŪĿƄ like a
seed that puts forth its shoot. and strengthens it. and grows thick.
and rises straight upon its stalks.
ćŧąŨŊ `azr [v. n./n.] power, strength, capability (20:31) ƒŃ ũĆŪ Ō Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ćŧą ŧŇŮŔ
augment my strength through him.

Ą ŧă Ũň `ãzar (see alphabetically Ŋ [ Ũ [ ŧ `-z-r).

Ŋ [ Ũ [ Ũ `-z-z to whiz, to buzz, to hum; to agitate, to shake up, to incite,
to stir up. Of this root, two forms occur once each in the Qur`an:
čŪ ŎĿś ta`uzz and ď Ū Ō `azz.
ČŨ ŌĽř ta`uzz [imperf. of v. Č Ū Ō `azza, trans.; v. n. ď Ū Ō `azz] to set in
confusion, to stampede, to confuse (19:83) ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŬĆũ Ō ŕİ Ɗ Ō Ą ũĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
ŔĎ ŪŌ ĆƇą ƍč Ū ŎĿś ĄƉƔŃ ũĊžŕĿƄŇƅŔ have you not considered that We let the devils
loose on the disbelievers to confuse and incite them [to sin].

Ŋ [ Ũ [ Ż `-z-f to draw near, to be in a hurry, to be cowardly. Of this
root, two forms occur three times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽŃ Ū Ō `azifa once
and řĿ žŃ ŪƕŔ `al-`ãzifatu twice.
Ľ ŻŁŨ Ŋ `azifa a [v. intrans.] to draw near (53:57) Ł řĿ žŃ ŪƕŔ ĊŚĿ žŃ Ū Ō the
imminent Hour draws near.
Ŀ ŗĽ żŁ ŨƓŒ `al-`ãzifatu [act. part./n.] that which is approaching, an
epithet of the Day of Judgement (40:18) Ń ŪƕŔ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍĆũĊ ŨŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ƐĄŧĿ ƅ ą ŖƏŁƆŁƂŇƅŔ ĊŨŏ ĊřĿž
Ń ũŃ ŠŕĿ ƊĄţŇƅŔ and warn them of the ever-approaching Day. when the

Ŋ [ ũ [ ŧ
27
hearts are next to the throats.

Ą ŧƒĉ űœă Ū Ŋ `asãtïr (see ũ [ ű [ ŧ s-t-r).

Ŀ űœă ŕąŪ Ŋ `asbãt (see ũ [ Ŕ [ ű s-b-t).

Ļžă ŧąŕĽ řąŪ ō `istabraq [borrowing from Persian occurring four times in the
Qur`an] thick silk material, brocade (55:54) Ć ƉĊ ƈ ॠƎŁ Ɗ œŕĿ ųĄ ŗ ľ ŭą ũŁ ž ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔ œĊ Ƅİ śą ƈ
ċƀĄũĆŗĿ śĆŬŏ they are reclining on couches lined with brocade.

ž=ă šąŪō `ishãq [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 14 times in
the Qur`an] Prophet Isaac (Gen. XX.2) (12:6) ƑĿ ƆĄŷĄƏ ĄƃĆƔĿƆĄŷ ą ƌĿ śĄƈĆŸĊƊ č ƇĊśą ƔĄƏ
Ŀ ƀॠţĆŬ ŏĄ Ə Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃĆƔĄ ƏĄ ŗ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ॠƎČ ƈĿ ś Ō ॠƈĿ Ƅ Ą ŖƏŁ ƂĆŸĄ Ɣ .ŔĄ ʼn and He perfects His
blessing on you and the House of Jacob. just as He perfected it
earlier on your two forefathers. Abraham and Isaac.
The Qur`an speaks of how the birth of Isaac was promised to
Abraham despite his wife`s advanced age, and how she met the
news with utter astonishment (11:71 and 15:53). Isaac is often
mentioned in the company of other distinguished prophets.

Ŋ [ ũ [ ŧ `-s-rshield, shackles, bondage, to shackle, to capture; captive;
family, limbs, physique, body structure. Of this root, five forms
occur six times in the Qur`an: ƉƏą ũĊ ŬōĿ ś ta`sirün once; ĈũĆŬŌ `asr once;
ĈũƔĊŬŌ `asïr once; ƐĄũĆŬŌ `asrã twice and ƐĄ ũॠŬ Ō `usãrã once.
ćŧĉŪŋĽř ta`sir [imperf. of v. ĄũĄŬ Ō `asara, trans.] to take as prisoner
of war, to take as captive (33:26) ŕĻƂƔŃ ũĿž ĄƉƏą ũĊŬōĿśĄƏ ĄƉƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƂĿś ŕĻƂƔŃ ũĿž some of
them you killed and some you took captive.
ćŧąŪŊ `asr [n.] physique, build, bodily structure; constitution
(76:28) ĆƇą ƍĄũĆŬ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄŧĿ ŮĄƏ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ We it is who have fashioned them
and strengthened their constitution.
ćŧƒĉŪŊ `asïr [n./quasi-pass. part.; pl. ƐĄũĆŬŌ `asrã and ƐĄ ũॠŬ Ō `usãrã]
prisoner of war (8:70) Ą Ɣ ĆƉĄƈƅ .Ł Ɓ č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕ ƑĊ ž ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏ ƐĄ ũĆŬ ƗŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊ ŧĆƔ Ō ƑĊ ž
ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ Ŀ ŨĊ Ŧ Ō ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ Ŕć ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śŎą Ɣ Ŕć ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ Prophet. tell the war captives in your
hands. `If God knows of any good in your hearts. He will give you
better than what has been taken from you.'


Jƒ őŒă ŧąŪ ō
28
Jƒ őŒă ŧąŪ ō `isrã`ïl [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 43 times in
the Qur`an] 1 Prophet Jacob (cf. Gen. XXXII.28) (19:58) Ċ řČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
ŕĿƊĆƔĄŗĿśĆŠŔĄƏ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄŧĄƍ ĆƉČƈĊƈĄƏ .ƔœŔĄũĆŬŏĄƏ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ and of the seed of Abraham and
Israel-and of those We guided and chose 2 the Children of Israel
*(10:90) .ƔœŔĄũĆŬŏ ƏŁƊĄŗ the Children of Israel. the Jewish People; * ƓƊŗ
.ƔœŔĄũŬŏ name of Sura 17, Meccan sura, also called `al-`isrã`, so-
named because of the reference in verses 4-8 to the Children of
Israel` (see ũ [ ŧ [ Ɛ s-r-y).

Ŋ [ ũ [ ũ `-s-sbeginning, root, foundation, to found. Of this root, ĄūČ Ŭ Ō
`assasa occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ăũċ Ū Ŋ `assasa [v. II trans.] to found, to establish, to base
(9:109) Ō ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌĿƊŕĄƔŇƊą ŗ ĄūČ ŬŌ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇŌ ĈũĆƔĿŦ ľƉŔĄƏĆŲŃ ũĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ƐĄƏŇƂĿś ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌĿƊŕĄƔŇƊą ŗ ĄūČ ŬŌ ĆƉĄƈĿž
ľũॠƍ ċŽą ũą Š ŕĿ ſĿ Ů is he who founds his building on consciousness of
God and desire for His good pleasure better. or the one who
founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice'

Ŋ [ ũ [ Ż `-s-f sadness, anger, sorrow, to offend. Of this root, three
forms occur five times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĄŬŊ `ãsafa once; ĽŽĄŬŌ `asaf
twice and ĽŽĊŬŌ `asif twice.
Ľ ŻăŪň `ãsafa [v. IV, trans.] to be offensive, to act in an offensive
manner, to challenge, to be contentious (43:55) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĿ ƂĿ śŇƊŔ ŕĿ ƊƏŁ ſĄ ŬŔĄ ʼn ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
when they became contentious with Us. We punished them.
ŻăŪŊ `asaf [n./v. n. used adverbially] sorrow, grief; in sorrow,
grieving (18:6) Ŀ ƆĿ ž ŕĻſĄŬŌ ĊŜƔĊŧĄţŇƅŔ ŔĿ ŨĄƎŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ƊĊƈŎą Ɣ ĆƇĿƅ ĆƉŏ ĆƇĊƍŃ ũŕĿ ŝŔĄʼn ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƃĄŬŇſĿ Ɗ ĈŶĊŦŕĄŗ Ąƃİ ƆĄŸ are
you [Prophet] going to torment yourself to death grieving over
them if they do not believe in this message'; *(12:84) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ƑĿ ſĄŬ ŌॠƔ
Ŀ Žą ŬƏą Ɣ ah!. my terrible grief for Joseph! (with the open long vowel
/a/ replacing the 1
st
person sing. pronominal suffix ï for emphasis
ƓĊ ſĄ Ŭ Ō ॠƔ yã `asafï . ! > ŕĿ ſĄ Ŭ Ō ॠƔ yã `asafã . !).
ĻŻĉŪŊ `asif [quasi-intens. act. part.] very angry, most indignant,
aggrieved, grieving, very sad (7:150) Ą ƉॠŗĆŲĿ Ż Ċ ƌĊ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ Ą ŶĄ ŠĄ ũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƅĄ Ə
ŕĻſĊŬŌ and when Moses returned to his people. angry and aggrieved.

ŇœăƆąŪŊ `asmã` (see ũ [ ƅ [ ƍ s-m-w).

Ŋ [ ū [ ŧ
29
Jƒĉ ŵœă ƆąŪ ō `ismã´ïl [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 12 times in
the Qur`an] Prophet Ishmael (cf. Gen. XVI.12), (19:54) ĆũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə ƑĊ ž
ŕĎƔŃ ŗĿƊ ĻƛƏą ŬĄũ ĄƉŕĿƄĄƏ ĊŧĆŷĄƏŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀĊŧŕĄŰ ĄƉŕĿƄ ą ƌİƊŏ .ƔĊŷŕĄƈĆŬŏ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ and mention in the
Book Ishmael. he was true to his promise. and was a messenger
and a prophet.
The Qur`an speaks of Ishmael`s role in helping his father
construct the Ka°ba (2:125); and the famous sacrifice (see Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ƌ [ ƅ
b-r-h-m for °ibrahïm); he, like his brother Isaac, is mentioned in
conjunction with other distinguished prophets, confirming the
sacred continuum which Islam sees as binding earlier prophetic
figures to Muhammad.

Ŋ [ ũ [ Ƈ `-s-n relic; (of water) to become putrid, to be overcome with
fumes from such water; to take after one`s father. Of this root,
ľ ƉĊ ŬŔĄ ʼn `ãsin occurs once in the Qur`an.
ļ Ƈĉ ŪŒă Ň `ãsin [quasi-act. part.] polluted, putrid, stinking (47:15)
ľ ƉĊ ŬŔĄ ʼn Ń ũĆ ƔĿ Ż ċ ʼnॠƈ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ĉ ũॠƎŇ Ɗ Ō ॠƎƔĊ ž in it there are rivers of water unpolluted.

Ŋ [ ũ [ ƍ - Ɛ `-s-w/y cure, medicine; to console; sadness; to treat
equally; model, exemplar; pillar. Of this root, two forms occur
seven times in the Qur`an: ƑĄ ŬŊ `ãsã four times and ĽŘĄƏĆŬ Ō `uswatun
three times.
Əă Ūň `ãsã [v. IV, intrans.] to sorrow, to grieve (7:93) ƑĄŬŔĄ ʼn Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ ƄĿ ž
ĄƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ Ƅ ľ ƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ so how can I grieve for a people of disbelievers'
ĻŖăƍąŪ Ŋ `uswatun [n.] model, exemplar (33:21) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ƑĊž .Əą ŬĄũ
ĽřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ ĽŘĄƏĆŬŌ ĊƌİƆƅŔ you have had in the Messenger of God a good model.
for those who put their hope in God and the Last Day.

Ŋ [ ū [ ŧ `-sh-r teeth of a saw, to cut; to trace; to be ungrateful. Of this
root, ĈũĊŮŌ `ashir occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ćŧĉŬŊ `ashir [quasi-intens. act. part.] ingrate; insolent, incorri-
gible (54:25) ĈũĊŮ Ō ĈŖŔİ ŨĿ Ƅ ĄƏą ƍ .Ąŗ ŕĿ ƊĊƊĆƔĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ ĄƓĊƂŇƅ Ŏ Ō has the Message
been sent down upon him out of all of us' [No indeed]. rather he
is an incorrigible liar!


Ŋ [ ŭ [ ť
30
Ŋ [ ŭ [ ť `-s-d(this root overlaps with root ƍ [ ŭ [ ť w-s-d because of the
dialectal difference in pronouncing hamza as a pure vowel)
sleeveless undergarment, to wear such a garment; animal pen;
courtyard; to shut tightly. Of this root, Ľ ŘĄ ŧĄ ŰŎą ƈ mu`sadatun occurs
twice in the Qur`an.
Ļ Ŗă ťă ŮŌĄ Ɔ mu`sadatun (also Ľ ŘĄ ŧĄ ŰƏą ƈ müsadatun) [pass. part.] closed,
shut, engulfing (104:8) Ľ ŘĄ ŧĄ ŰŎą ƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ॠƎİ Ɗ ŏ it is closed on them.

Ŋ [ ŭ [ ŧ `-s-r rope, tie, connection, relation; an undertaking; promise,
vow; load, burden. Of this root, ĈũĆŰŏ `isr occurs three times in the
Qur`an.
ćŧąŮō `isr [n.] 1 load, burden (7:157) ƓĊśİ ƅŔ .Ŀ ƜŇŻ ƗŔĄƏ ĆƇą ƍĄũĆŰŏ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄŷ ą ŶĄŲĄƔĄƏ
ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŇŚĿ ƊŕĿ Ƅ and He relieves them of their burdens. and the shackles
that were upon them 2 promise, vow, agreement, pledge,
covenant (3:81) ƒŃ ũĆŰ ŏ ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅĿ Ũ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ śŇŨĿ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə ĆƇŁ śĆũĄ ũŇƁ ŌĄ ʼn do you affirm' [He
said]. and do you agree and take My pledge concerning this'

Ŋ [ ŭ [ J `-s-l base, root, foundation; to be deep-rooted; to eradicate;
time before sunset. Of this root, four forms occur 10 times in the
Qur`an: .ĆŰŌ `asl twice; .Əą Ű Ō `usül once; .ƔĊŰŌ `asïl four times and
.ॠŰŊ `ãsãl three times.
JąŮŊ `asl [n.] 1 bottom, base (37:64) ą Şą ũŇŦĿ ś ĽŘĄ ũĄ ŠĿ ٠ॠƎİ Ɗ ŏ ƑĊž Ń ƇƔĊţĄŠŇƅŔ .ĆŰ Ō
it is a tree that emerges in the bottom of the blazing Fire 2 [pl.
.Əą Ű Ō `usül] root, stem (59:5) ॠƎ ƅƏą Ű Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ļ řĄ ƈ œŕĿ Ɓ ॠƍƏą ƈŁ śŇ ƄĄ ũĿ ś Ć Ə Ō ċ řĿƊƔ ƅ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŁ śĆ ŸĿ ųĿ Ɓ ॠƈ
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉŇŨŐŃ ŗĿž whatever palm trees you have cut down or left standing on
their roots-[it was done] by God's leave.
JƒĉŮŊ `asïl [n.; pl. .ॠŰŊ `ãsãl] time before sunset, evening
(13:15) ĆƉĄ ƈ ą ŧą ŠĆŬĄ Ɣ Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƅĿ ƜĊŴĄƏ ŕćƍĆũĿ ƄĄƏ ŕćŷĆƏĿ ų Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄƏ Ċ ŚŔĄƏĄƈČ ŬƅŔ .ॠŰƕŔĄ Ə Đ Əą ŧŁ ż
everything that is in the heavens and the Earth prostrates to God
in the mornings and in the evenings. as do their shadows.
willingly or unwillingly; *(33:42) ƜƔĊŰ ŌĄƏ ĻŘĄũŇƄą ŗ ą ƋƏą ţĐ ŗĄŬĄƏ and glorify
Him [morning and evening] constantly. at all times.

Ŋ [ Ż [ Ż `-f-f dirt under the nails or in the ear; contamination;
grumbling, complaint, to grumble. Of this root, įŽ Ō `uffin occurs

Ŋ [ Ż [ Ɓ
31
three times in the Qur`an.
ĭŻ Ŋ `uffin [interjection described by grammarians as a quasi-
imperfect verb ) ŵŃ ũॠŲą ƈ .ĆŸĊ ž ƇŬŔ ( ] word uttered in exasperation
expressing displeasure or impatience, ugh!`, fie!` (21:67) ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ į Ž Ō
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĿ ś ॠƈ ƅĄ Ə fie on you and on the things you worship
instead of God.

Ŋ [ Ż [ ž `-f-q rolls of tanned leather; ways, direction, horizon; to roam
about. Of this root, two forms occur three times in the Qur`an: Ŋ Ċ ƀŁ ž
`ufuq twice and ĽƀŕĿžŊ `ãfãq once.
ĻžĿ ż Ŋ `ufuq [n.; pl. ĽƀŕĿžŊ `ãfãq] 1 horizon (53:7) ƑĿ ƆĆŷ ƗŔ ĊƀŁ ž ƗŕŃ ŗ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ
while he stood on the highest horizon 2 the four corners of the
earth, everywhere (41:53) ŕĿ ƊĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƇŃ ƎƔŃ ũŁ ƊĄ Ŭ ƑĊ ž ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĄƉČƔĄŗĿ śĄƔ ƑİśĄţ ĆƇŃ ƎĊŬŁſŇƊŌ ƓĊžĄƏ ĊƀŕĿžƕŔ
ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō We will show them Our signs everywhere and in
themselves. until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth.

Ŋ [ Ż [ Ɓ `-f-k falsehood, to lie, to deceive. to beguile; to turn upside
down, to change the manner of things; to turn away, to dissuade.
Of this root, six forms occur 27 times in the Qur`an: ą ƃĊ žōĿ ś ta`fik
three times; ƃĿ ž Ŏą Ɣ yu`fak 13 times; Ňž ŏ Ĉƃ `ifk nine times; ƃŕİžŌ `affãk
twice; ĽřĿ ƄĊſĿ śŎą ƈ mu`tafikatun once and ĽŚŕĿƄĊſĿśŎą ƈ mu`tafikãt twice.
Ą Ɓĉ żŋĽ ř ta`fik [imperf. of v. ƃĿžŌ `afaka (also ĄƃĊž Ō `afika) trans.; pass.
v. Ą ƃĊ ž Ō `ufika] 1 to turn away from, particularly with guile and
deceit (46:22) ŕĿƊĊśĄƎƅŔĄʼn ĆƉĄŷ ŕĿƊĿƄĊžōĿśƅ ŕĿƊĿśœŃ ŠŌ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿƁ they said. `Have you come to
turn us away from our gods'' 2 to fabricate, to fake, to feign
(7:117) ĄƉƏŁ ƄĊ žōĄ Ɣ ॠƈ Ł ŽĿ ƂŇƆĿ ś Ą ƓĊ ƍ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž Ąƃॠۥ ŷ ĊƀŇƅ Ō ĆƉ Ō ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ ƑĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄţĆƏ ŌĄƏ then We
inspired Moses. `Throw your staff.' and-lo and behold!-it
devoured what they had fabricated.
ćƁŅżō `ifk[n./v. n.] 1 falsehood, lie, a false slander (25:4) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .ŕĿ ƁĄ Ə
ą ƋŔĄ ũĿ śŇžŔ ĈƃŇž ŏ İ ƛŏ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĆƉ ŏ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ the unbelievers said. `This is but a lie he has
made up' 2 [ą ƃŇž ƙŔ `al-`ifk] the false accusation of unchastity
brought against °a°isha, the Prophet`s wife (24:11) ŔƏą ʼnॠŠ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ĽřĄ ŗĆŰą ŷ Ċ ƃŇž ƙŕŃ ŗ those who brought the false slander were a group
from among you.
The narrative of the `ifk incident (24:11-40) stems from an

Ŋ [ Ż [ J
32
incident which occurred during a military expedition. The
Prophet`s wife °a°isha lost her necklace and returned to search for
it; however, the convoy she was travelling with had departed
without her. It was assumed that she was riding in the hawdaj of
her camel. Subsequently, °a°isha was found by a companion who
escorted her back to the encampment. It was insinuated that she
could have been involved in adultery; the Qur`an fully exonerated
her, describing the charge as an abject falsehood (`ifk).
ćƁœĮ żŊ `affãk [intens. act. part.] an incorrigible liar (26:221-2) .Ąƍ
ľ ƇƔĊ ŝ Ō ċ ƃŕİ ž Ō IJ.Ł Ƅ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Č ŪĿ ƊĿ ś ą ƉƔųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ .ČŪĿ ƊĿ ś ĆƉĄ ƈ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ Ƅ œĐŗĿ Ɗ Ō shall I tell you who the
devils come down to'. they come down to every lying sinner.
ĻŗĽ ƂĉŽĽ řŌĄ Ɔ mu`tafikatun [act. part. fem.; pl. ĽŚŕĿƄĊſĿśŎą ƈ mu`tafikãt] that
which is turned upside down, overthrown, subverted, the cities
which were turned upside down, or subverted, such as the city of
Lot (q.v.) (9:70) Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗŇ ƅŕŃ ŗ Ć Ƈą ƎŁ Ɔą Ŭą ũ Ć Ƈą ƎŇ śĿ ś Ō Ċ ŚŕĿ ƄĊ ſĿ ś Ŏą ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉĄ ƔĆ ŧĄ ƈ Ń ŖॠţĆ Ű ŌĄ Ə and the
peoples of Midian and the overthrown cities. their messengers
came to them with clear proofs.

Ŋ [ Ż [ J `-f-l (of a female`s milk) to decrease; (of planets and stars) to
set; to be absent or go away from. Of this root, two forms occur
four times in the Qur`an: .Ŀ ž Ō `afala three times and ƉƔĊ ƆĊ žŊ `ãfilïn
once.
JĽ ż Ŋ `afala u [v. intrans.] to set (6:78) ŔĿŨĄƍ .ŕĿƁ ĻřĿŻŃ ŪŕĄŗ ĄūĆƈİŮƅŔ ƐŌĄũ ŕČƈĿƆĿž
Ŀ ž ą ũĄ ŗŇƄ Ō ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄŃ ũŇŮŁ ś ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ ĈʼnƒŃ ũĄ ŗ ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ Ń ƇĆƏĿ ƁॠƔ .ŕĿ Ɓ ŇŚĿƆĿ ž Ō ŕČ ƈĿ Ɔ then when he saw the
sun rising he cried. `This is my Lord! This is greater'. but when
the sun set. he said. `My people. I disown all that you associate
[with Him].'
Ƈƒĉ Ƅĉ żň `ãfilïn [pl. of act. part. .ĊžŊ `ãfil] that which sets (6:76) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ĄƉƔĊ ƆĊ žƕŔ č ŖĊţ Ō Ŀ ƛ .ŕĿ Ɓ .Ŀ ž Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ƓĐ ŗĄũ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ .ŕĿ Ɓ ŕćŗĿ ƄĆƏĿ Ƅ Ɛ ŌĄũ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Č ƉĄŠ when the night
grew dark over him he saw a star and said. `This is my Lord.' but
when it set. he said. `I do not like things that set.'

ŅŘĽ řİ ſ Ŋ `uqqitat (see ƍ [ ž [ Ř w-q-t).

Ŋ [ Ɓ [ J `-k-l food; yield; morsel; to eat, to consume, to devour; to

Ŋ [ Ɓ [ J
33
erode; to become enraged. Of this root, six forms occur 110 times
in the Qur`an: .Ŀ Ƅ Ō `akala 93 times; ŇƄ Ō . `akl four times; ƉƏŁ ƆĊƄŊ
`ãkilün three times; ƉƏŁ ƅŕİ Ƅ Ō `akkãlün once; .ƏŁ ƄōĄƈ ma`kül once and
.Ł Ƅ Ō `ukul seven times.
JĽ Ƃ Ŋ `akala u [v. trans., v. n. .ŇƄŌ `akl] 1 to eat (20:121) ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈ Ŀ ƜĿ Ƅ ōĿ ž
ŕĄƈą ƎŁ śŊĆƏĄŬ ŕĄƈą ƎĿ ƅ ŇŚĄŧĄŗĿž so they both ate from it. and their private parts
appeared to them 2 to feed, graze, pasture (7:73) ĻřĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł řĿƁŕĿƊ ĊƋĊŨĄƍ
.Ł ƄōĿ ś ॠƍƏą ũĿ ŨĿ ž ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń űĆũ Ō this is God's she-camel-a sign for you-so let
her graze in God's land 3 to consume, devour (3:183) Č Ɖ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
ą ũŕİ ƊƅŔ ą ƌŁ ƆŁ Ƅ ōĿ ś ľ ƉॠŗĆ ũŁ ƂŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĄ ƔĊ ś ōĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ .Əą ŬĄ ũ ƅ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŎŁ Ɗ İ ƛ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ŧŃ ƎĄ ŷ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ those who say. `God
has made covenant with us not to believe in any messenger until
he brings to us a sacrifice to be consumed by fire' 4 to consume,
appropriate (2:188) .Ċ ųॠŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə and do not consume
each other's property wrongfully 5 to squander, waste away (4:6)
ĆƇŁ śĆŬĿƊŔĄʼn ĆƉŐĿž ĄšŕĿƄIJ ƊƅŔ ŔƏŁ żĿ ƆĄŗ ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ ƑĄƈŕĿśĄƔŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĿ śĆŗŔĄƏ ĿƛĄƏ ĆƇą ƎĿƅŔĄƏĆƈŌ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƅŏ ŔƏą ŸĿžĆŧŕĿž ŔćŧŇŮą ũ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈ
ŔƏą ũĄ ŗŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ŕć ũŔĄ ŧŃ ŗĄ Ə ŕĻ žŔĄ ũĆŬ ŏ ॠƍƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś and test orphans until they reach
marriageable age, then. if you find they have sound judgement.
hand over their property to them-do not squander it wastefully
and in haste before they come of age 6 to charge, to exact wages
or compensation for one`s trouble (4:6) Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ŇŽĊſĆŸĿ śĆŬĄƔŇƆĿ ž ŕĎ ƔĊƊĿ Ż Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ .ŁƄōĄƔŇƆĿ ž ŔćũƔĊƂĿž whoever [of the guardians] is welloff let him
abstain [from charging for managing the orphan's property]. and
whoever is poor let him charge in accordance with the norms;
*(5:66) ĆƇŃ ƎĊ Ɔą ŠĆũ Ō Ċ ŚĆţĿ ś ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƁĆƏĿ ž ĆƉĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƆĿ Ƅ Ɨ they would have been blessed
in this and the coming Life [lit. they would have eaten both from
what is above them and from what is beneath them] 7 to accept
for one`s use, to annex (4:4) ĆƉĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ ĄƉĆŗĊų ĆƉŐĿž ĻřĿƆĆţĊƊ Č ƉŃ ƎĊśŕĿƁą ŧĄŰ ĄʼnŕĄŬIJ ƊƅŔ ŔƏŁ śŔĄʼnĄƏ
ŕ œƔŃ ũĄ ƈ ŕ œƔĊ ƊĄ ƍ ą ƋƏŁ ƆŁ ƄĿ ž ŕć ŬŇſĿ Ɗ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů give women their dowries as a
[statutory] gift [upon marriage]. but if they are happy to give up
some of it for you. you may accept it by all means [lit. you may
eat it with health and pleasure-giving appetite].
ƇƍĿ Ƅĉ Ƃň `ãkilün [pl. of act. part. .ĊƄŊ `ãkil] those who eat (37:66)
ĄƉƏŁųą ŗŇƅŔ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƉƏœƅŕĄƈĿ ž ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƉƏŁƆĊƄ ƕ ĆƇą ƎİƊŐĿž they will surely be eating from it.
and filling bellies from [some of] it.
ƇƍĿ ƃœĮ Ƃ Ŋ `akkãlün [pl. of intens. act. part. .ŕİ ƄŌ `akkãl] ones who
devour, ones who are given to devouring; greedy (5:42) Ą ƉƏą ŷŕČ ƈĄ Ŭ

ƃŒ
34
Ċ ŚĆ ţč ŬƆ ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅŕİ Ƅ Ō Ń ŖĊ ŨĿ ƄŇ Ɔ ƅ eagerly listening to falsehood and greedily
consuming the unlawful.
JƍĿ ƂŋăƆ ma`kül [pass. part.] that which is eaten, grazed, cropped,
gnawed, devoured (105:5) ƏŁ ƄōĄ ƈ ċ ŽĆŰĄ ŸĿ Ƅ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĿ ž . He made them like
dried foliage that had been grazed to stubble.
JĿ Ƃ Ŋ `ukul [n.] yield (2:265) ƉĆƔĿ ſĆŸĊŲ ŕĄƎĿ ƆŁƄŌ ŇŚĿśŋĿ ž .Ń ŗŔĄƏ ŕĄƎĄŗŕĄŰŌ ċŘĄƏĆŗĄũŃ ŗ ċřİƊĄŠ .ĿŝĄƈĿƄ
like a garden on a hill-heavy rain falls and it produces double its
[normal] yield.

ƃŒ `al- the definite article ) ŽƔŃ ũĆŸİ śƅŔ ŘŔŧ Ō ( occurring some 8865 times in
the Qur`an. It is prefixed to a common indefinite noun ) ŘĄ ũĊ ƄĿ Ɗ ƇŬŔ ( ,
and functions as: I cognisance ) řČƔĊŧĆƎĄŸƅŔ .Ŕ ( , particularising the noun
to which it is prefixed on the grounds that 1 it is already
mentioned in the discourse, for example .ƏŬũƅŔ in (73:15-16) ŕĄƈĿƄ
.Əą ŬČ ũƅŔ ą ƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž ƑĄŰĄŸĿ ž ĻƛƏą ŬĄũ ĄƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž ƑĿƅŏ ŕĿƊŇƆĄŬĆũŌ as We sent a messenger to
Pharaoh. but Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger 2 it is assumed to
be common knowledge such as ūƈŮƅŔ, ũƈƂƅŔ, .ƔƆƅŔ, and ũŕƎƊƅŔ in
(36:40) ĄũĄƈĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƃŃ ũĆŧŁ ś ĆƉ Ō ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ƓĊżĄŗŇƊĄƔ ą ūĆƈİ ŮƅŔ Ŀ ƛ it is not for the sun to overtake
the moon 3 it is physically present at the time of speaking such as
Ą ƇƏƔƅŔ in (5:3) Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ ŇƄ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƔĊ ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ł ŚŇƆĄ ƈ today I have perfected your religion
for you. These three types have their counterparts in the use of the
definite article the` in English II generic `al ) Ŕ Ɔ řČ ƔĊ ŬŇƊŃ ŠƅŔ ( ,
generalising the common noun to which it is prefixed by 1
embracing all and every one of its members ) ŧŔũŇžŌ ŶƔĊƈĄŠ ƀŔũŇżĊśĆŬŔ
ūŇƊŃ ŠƅŔ ( , such as ƉŕŬƊƙŔ (translatable not with the` but as
humankind`) in (4:28) ŕĻ ſƔĊ ŸĄ Ų Ą ƉॠŬŇ Ɗ ƙŔ Ŀ ƀĊ ƆŁ ŦĄ Ə for humankind was
created weak 2 embracing all and every one of its attributes
) ūŇƊŃ ŠƅŔ ůœŕĄ ŰĿ Ŧ ŶƔĊ ƈĄ Š ƀŔĄ ũŇżĊ śĆŬŔ ( , also designated as the `al of perfection
) Ŕ Ɔ .ŕƈƄƅŔ ( , such as ŖŕśƄƅŔ (translatable as the Book`, with great
emphasis on the`, or as the very Book`) in (2:2) Ą ŖĆƔĄ ũ Ŀ ƛ ą ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ
Ċ Ƃİ śą ƈƆ ƅ Ɛć ŧą ƍ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ą ƉƔ this is the perfect Book in which there is no doubt.
containing guidance for those who are mindful of God, or 3
pointing to the main quality or essence of the nature of the noun
such as ʼnॠƈŇƅŔ (translatable into English as water` with no definite
article) in (21:30) ē ƓĄ ţ ċ ʼnĆ ƓĿ Ů İ .Ł Ƅ Ċ ʼnॠƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊŇ ƆĄ ŸĄ Š Ą Ə and We fashioned from
water every living thing. Distinguishing between instances of the

Ŋ [ J [ Ř
35
cognisance `al and the generic `al in various instances may cause
interpretational problems. A case in point is the following verse
in which type II:3 of the generic `al occurs but could easily be
confused with type I:2 of the cognisance `al (6:89) ą Ƈą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ĄƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏ Ō
ĆŧĿƂĿž ĊʼnƕŎĄƍ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ĆũŁſŇƄĄƔ ĆƉŐĿž Ŀ ŘČƏą ŗıƊƅŔ ĄƏ ĄƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔĄƏ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƉƔũĊžŕĿƄŃ ŗ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŬĆƔĿ ƅ ŕćƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ŕĿƊŇƆİ ƄĄƏ those
[messengers who have been previously mentioned] are the ones
to whom We gave scripture. wisdom and prophethood [all with
generic `al] but if these [people now] disbelieve in them. then
indeed We [already] have entrusted them [referring to the three
institutions, but not a specific book or creed] to a people who do
not disbelieve in them.

Ľ ƙ Ŋ `alã initiation and interjection particle ) ŘŔŧŌ šŕśŇſĊśĆŬŔ ( , occurring 54
times in the Qur`an. It lends particular emphasis to the context in
general and functions in three ways: I attention drawing particle
) ƌƔŗŇƊĿ ś ŽũĄ ţ ( , indeed .`, surely .`, alas .`. It may precede
either a nominal sentence, as in (2:13) İ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn ॠƈĿ Ƅ ŔƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŔĄ ʼn ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ .ƔĊ Ɓ ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə ą ūŕ
Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ą ʼnॠƎĿ ſč ŬƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ŏ Ŀ ƛ Ō ą ʼnॠƎĿ ſč ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn ॠƈĿ Ƅ ą ƉĊ ƈŎŁ Ɗ Ō ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ when it is said
to them. `Believe. as the others believe.' they say. `Should we
believe like the fools have done'' Indeed they are the fools.
though they do not know it or a verbal sentence, as in (11:8) ĆƉ œĿ ƅĄ Ə
ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄŷ ŕĻžƏą ũĆŰĄƈ ĄūĆƔĿ ƅ ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊśōĄƔ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ Ŀ ƛ Ō ąƌą ŬŃ ŗĆţĄƔ ŕĄƈ Č ƉŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔĿƅ ċŘĄŧƏą ŧĆŸĄƈ ċřČ ƈ Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄŖŔĿ ŨĄŸŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆ ũİ Ŧ Ō
if We delay the chastisement until a reckoned appointment they
are sure to say. `What is detaining it''. alas. on the Day it comes
upon them. it will not be averted from them II gentle
encouragement particle ) űũĄŷ ŽũĄţ ( , wouldn`t you .?`, as in
(37:91) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś Ŀ ƛ Ō .ŕĿ ƂĿ ž ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ŀ ŹŔĄ ũĿž so he turned to their gods and
said. `Won't you eat!' III strong encouragement particle ) ŽũĄ ţ
űĄ ƔĊ ŲĆţĿ ś ( , will [you] not .?`, as in (26:11) ĄƉƏŁ Ƃİ śĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ō Ą ƉĆƏĄ ŷĆũĊ ž ĄƇĆƏĿ Ɓ the
people of Pharaoh. will they not take heed'

ă ƇƓĽ Œ `al-`ãna (see Ŋ [ Ɛ - ƍ [ Ƈ `-y/w-n).

Ŋ [ J [ Ř `-l-toath; decrease, to decrease, to reduce; to prevent, to deny.
Of this root, ŕĿƊŇśĿƅŌ `alatnã occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ľ ŘĽ ƃ Ŋ `alata i [v. trans.] to reduce, to suffer someone, to deny, to
receive less than their dues (52:21) ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔĄƏ ľƉŕĄƈƔŐŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎŁ śČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ ĆƇą ƎŇśĄŸĄŗİ śŔĄƏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn

ŧƃŒ
36
ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƆĄ ƈĄ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇśĿ ƅ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿśČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŇƂĄ ţŇƅ Ō and those who believe and
whose descendants follow them in the faith. We cause their
descendants to join them. and We do not deny them any of [the
reward for] their deeds.

ŧƃŒ `alif-lãm-rã, a letter combination initiating each of Suras 10, 11,
12, 14 and 15. It is one of twelve such combinations, each of
which is formed from one or more, up to five, of fourteen letters
of the alphabet (namely: Ō, š, ũ, ū, ů, ų, ŵ, ƀ, ƃ, ., Ƈ, Ɖ, .ƍ and ƒ)
and initiating a total of 29 suras of the Qur`an. Each of the
combinations, designated by Qur`anic scholars as ŚŕŸųƂƈƅŔ (the
separated letters), are recited as names of the letters in its/their
pausal forms (i.e., with a sukün), e.g. `alif. lãm. rã. Because we
have no hadïth from the Prophet as to the significance of these
letters, Qur`anic scholars have been offering various opinions as
to what they stand for, although none of these opinions is
regarded as authoritative. °al-Razï in his `al-tafsïr `al-kabïr and
°al-Suyutï in his `al-`itqãn fï ´ulüm `al-Qur`ãn offer good
accounts of these opinions. It is sufficient, however, to mention
two such opinions here: 1 the letters are a reminder to the Arabs,
who first heard the Qur`an, of their inability to match the
eloquence of the language of the Qur`an, in spite of the fact that
the raw material from which the Qur`an was formed, namely the
individual letters, such as those making up these combinations,
was a common property shared by everybody 2 these letters are
exclamatory devices intended to arrest the listeners` attention,
somewhat similar to the custom of starting poems with an
emphatic No!` or Indeed!` for a similar purpose. Exegetes
normally add after expounding such theories, God knows best.`

Ŋ [ J [ Ż `-l-f (1)thousand; to put together, bring together; to habituate;
to get accustomed; to soften up; intimate; mate. Of this root,
seven forms occur 22 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ Žİ ƅ Ō `allafa five times;
Ľ řĿ ſİ ƅ Ŏą ƈ mu`allafatun once; ĽŽĿƜƔŏ `ïlãf twice; ĽŽŇƅŌ `alf 10 times; Ń ƉĆƔĿ ſŇƅ Ō
`alfayn once; ŽĿƛŊ `ãlãf twice and ŽƏŁ ƅ Ō `ulüf once.
Ľ ŻĮ ƃ Ŋ `allafa [v. II, intrans. with adverb ƉƔŗ] 1 to join together, to
gather together, to compile (24:43) ą ƌĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ Ł ŽIJ ƅ Ŏą Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ ŕć ŗॠţĄ Ŭ ƓŃ ŠĆŪą Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉŌ Ą ũĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō

ŻƃŊ
37
ŕć ƈŕĿ Ƅą ũ ą ƌŁ ƆĄ ŸĆŠĄ Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ do you not see that God drives the clouds. then
gathers them together. then makes them into a heap' 2 to
reconcile (3:103) Ąŗ ĿŽİƅōĿž ćʼnŔĄŧĆŷŌ ĆƇŁśŇƊŁƄ ŇŨŏ ŕĻ ƊŔĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ Ċ ƌĊ śĄ ƈĆŸĊ ƊŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ śĆţĄ ŗĆŰ ōĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ Ą ƉĆƔ when
you were enemies. then He reconciled your hearts together and
you. by His grace. became brothers.
Ļ ŗĽ ŽĮ ƃ ŌĄ Ɔ mu`allafatun [pass. part.] one who is softened up,
reconciled *(9:60) Ŀ ſİ ƅ Ŏą ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ Ċ ř new convert to the faith [lit. those
whose hearts are being reconciled].
ĻŻĽƚƒō `ïlãf [v. n.] reconciling, habituating; composing; securing
(106:1) ľ ŭĆƔĄ ũŁ Ɓ Ċ ŽĿ ƜƔ ƙ [He did this] in order to make Quraysh secure
(or, to keep Quraysh together as a cohesive unit, or, to help them
continue with their summer and winter journeys).
ĻŻŅƃŊ `alf [card. no.; dual `alfayn; pl. of paucity ĽŽĿƛŊ `ãlãf; pl.
ŽƏŁ ƅ Ō `ulüf] 1 one thousand (29:14) ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊž ĿŜŃ ŗĿƆĿž ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƅŏ ŕćţƏŁ Ɗ ŕĿƊŇƆĄŬĆũŌ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ Ŀ ŽŇƅ Ō
ŕćƈŕĄŷ ĄƉƔĊŬĆƈĿ Ŧ İ ƛŏ ċřĿ ƊĄŬ and We sent Noah out to his people. and he
stayed among them for fifty years short of a thousand 2 a great
amount (2:96) ċřĿƊĄŬ ĿŽŇƅŌ ą ũČƈĄŸą Ɣ ĆƏĿƅ ĆƇą ƍą ŧĄţŌ č ŧĄƏĄƔ any of them would long to be
granted longevity for a very long time [lit. a thousand years].

ŻƃŊ `alif (2) the letter `alif represents a long vowel, somewhat open
front (or back depending on the phonetic context in which it
appears). Unlike the hamza, it does not function as one of the
three radicals of the Arabic root and it does not initiate words,
hence the absence, in dictionaries, of a letter `alif section. In
addition to the various roles the `alif generally plays as a basic
morpheme of the Arabic language and as a grapheme in the
standard system of the orthography, it functions in the Qur`anic
text in particular as: 1 a substitute for the light nün of
augmentation ) řĿ ſƔſĿ ŦƅŔ ƉƏı ƊƅŔ Žƅ Ō ( (cf. n.), in the two verses (12:32)
ŕĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ ƔĿ ƅĄ Ə Č ƉĿ ƊĄŠĆŬą ƔĿ ƅ ) ĆƉĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ ƔĿ ƅ ( Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŻŕČ ŰƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ he shall assuredly be imprisoned
and shall be one of the degraded and (96:15) ĻŕĄŸĿſĆŬĿƊĿƅ ) ĆƉĄŸĿ ſĆŬĿ ƊĿ ƅ ( Ċ řĄ ƔĊ Űŕİ ƊƅŕŃ ŗ
We shall seize him by the forelock and 2 the `alif of extension ( Ž ƅ Ō
řĿ Ɔ Ą ŰƅŔ), added in some verses to the end of certain words
terminated in fatha, as in (18:38) ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ ą ƌİƆƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ ŕİƊĊ ƄĿ ƅ but. for me. He is
God. my Lord; (76:4) Ŀ ƜĊŬĿ ƜĄŬ Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇƆƅ ŕĿ ƊĆŧĿ śĆŷ Ō We have prepared for the
disbelievers chains and (76:16) ċřČ ŲĊž ĆƉĊƈ Ŀ ŔũƔŃ ũŔĄƏĿ Ɓ goblets of silver.

Ŋ [ J [ J
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The final `alif in ŕİ ƊĊ ƄĿ ƅ, Ŀ ƜĊŬĿ ƜĄŬ and Ŀ ŔũƔŃ ũŔĄ ƏĿ Ɓ is pronounced in Qur`anic
recitation as a short vowel and the words are thus rendered as Č ƉĊ ƄĿ ƅ,
.ĊŬƜĄ Ŭ and ĄũƔŃ ũŔĄƏĿ Ɓ respectively 3 non-functional (following an earlier
system of orthography where the fatha was replaced by the `alif,
this was retained later), as in (27:21) ƌİ ƊĄţĄŗŇŨŔ Ɨ ƏŌ ŔćŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ŕćŗŔĿŨĄŷ ą ƌİ ƊĄŗIJ ŨĄŷ Ɨ I
shall punish him severely. or slay him.

Ŋ [ J [ J `-l-l lightening; sharpening; agitation; yearning; family ties;
pledge, covenant. Of this root, Į . ŏ `ill occurs twice in the Qur`an.
Ĭ J ō `ill [n.] pact, relationship, tie (9:8) ĆƇŁƄƔĊž ŔƏą ŗŁƁĆũĄƔ Ŀƛ ĆƇŁƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŔƏą ũĄƎŇŴĄƔ ĆƉŏĄƏ
Ļ řČ ƈĊ Ũ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ĕ ƛ ŏ if they get the better of you. they will not observe
towards you any tie of kinship or treaty.

Į ƙ ō `illã, particle occurring 657 times in the Qur`an and functioning
as: I an exceptive particle ) ʼnŕƊŇŝĊśŬŔ ŽũĄţ ( , except .`, save for .`
(2:249) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏą ŗŃ ũĿ ŮĿ ž but they all drank [deeply] from it.
except for a few II in the meaning of adjectival ũƔŻ (q.v.)
different from`, other than` (21:22) ŕĿ śĄ ŧĄ ŬĿ ſĿ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ ĽřĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn ॠƈŃ ƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƏĿƅ if
there had been in them [the heavens and earth] deities other than
God. both the heavens and earth would be in ruins III in the
meaning of but.` ) .ŗ ( , (q.v.) (20:2-3) İ ƛŏ ƑĿƂŇŮĿśƅ ĄƉŔĄʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈ
ƑĿ ŮŇŦĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈ ƅ Ļ ŘĄ ũĊ ƄŇŨĿ ś it was not to distress you [Prophet] that We sent
down the Qur'an to you. but [We sent it] as a reminder for those
who stand in awe [of God].

Ƒ őĮ ƚƃŒ `allã`ï (see Ɛĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï).

ŘƚƃŒ `allãt(see J [ ƍ [ Ř l²w²t).

Ƒĉ řĮ ƚƃŒ `allãtï (see Ɛĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï).

Ƒĉ řĮ ƃŒ `allatï (see Ɛĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï).

Ł ƇŒĽ ŦĮ ƄƃŒ `alladhãni (see Ɛĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï).

ƐĉŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï, masc. sing. relative pronoun ) ũŅ ƄĿ ŨƈƅŔ ŧũſƈƆƅ .ƏŰƏƈ ƇŬŔ (
occurring 304 times in the Qur`an, who/he who; which/that which

Ŋ [ J [ ƅ
39
(43:13) ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ą ũİ ŦĄ Ŭ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉॠţĆŗą Ŭ glory be to Him who subjugated all
this to us; Ń ƉŔĿ Ũİ ƆƅŔ (`alladhãni), masc. dual ) ũŅ ƄĿ Ũą ƈƅŔ Ƒİ ƊĿ ŝą ƈƅ ( , (> Ŀ ŨƆİ ƅŔ Ń ƉĆƔ
(`alladhayni) in the accusative and genitive cases) occurring
twice in the Qur`an (41:29) Ń ūŇƊƙŔĄƏ Đ ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿ Ɗİ ƜĄŲ Ō Ń ƉĆƔĿŨİ ƅŔ ŕĿƊŃ ũŌ ŕĿƊČ ŗĄũ our
Lord. show us those of the jinn and the humans who have led us
astray; Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ (`alladhïna) masc. pl. ) ĉ ũƄŨƈƅŔ ŶƈŠƆƅ ( occurring 1073
times in the Qur`an (21:101) ƑĿ ƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ŕİ ƊĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŇŚĿ ƂĄ ŗĄ Ŭ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ those for
whom [a promise of] the reward most fair has already been given
by Us; ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ (`allatï) fem. sing. ) řĿ ŝİ Ɗ Ŏą ƈƅŔ ŘŧĄ ũſą ƈƅ ( occurring 68 times in
the Qur`an (58:1) Ą ƃŁ ƅĊ ŧॠŠŁ ś ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ .ĆƏĿ Ɓ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŶĊ ƈĄ Ŭ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ƑĊ ž Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ƓĊƄĿ śŇŮĿ śĄƏ ŕĄƎŃ ŠĆƏĄŪ God
has heard the words of her who disputes with you [Prophet]
concerning her husband and complains to God; ƉŕśƆƅŔ (`allatãni)
fem. dual ) ŜƊŎƈƅŔ ƑƊŝƈƅ ( (no instance of which occurs in the
Qur`an); ƓĊ śİ ƜƅŔ (`allãtï), fem. pl. ) Ŝİ ƊŎą ƈƅŔ ŶƈĄŠƅ ( occurring 10 times in
the Qur`an (12:50) Č Ɖą ƎĄƔĊŧĆƔ Ō ĄƉĆŸİ ųĿƁ ƓĊśİ ƜƅŔ ĊŘĄƏĆŬIJ ƊƅŔ .ŕĄŗ ŕĄƈ ą ƌŇƅ ōĆŬŕĿž ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĆŶŃ ŠĆũŔ go
back to your master and ask him about those women who slashed
their hands; variant Ɠ œİ ƜƅŔ (`allã`ï), fem. pl. ) Ŝİ ƊŎą ƈƅŔ ŶƈĄŠƅ ( occurring
four times in the Qur`an (58:2) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆŧĿ ƅĄƏ Ɠœİ ƜƅŔ İ ƛŏ ĆƇą ƎŁ śŕĄƎČ ƈ Ō ĆƉŏ none are
their mothers except those who gave birth to them. Relative
pronouns when used in combination with nouns or pronouns
bring great emphasis to the discourse (35:9) ĄšŕĄƔĐ ũƅŔ .ĄŬĆũŌ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĺŔĄƏ it is
God who sends forth the winds; (40:13) Ċ ƌĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƇŁ ƄƔŃ ũą Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ He it is
who shows you His signs. Members of the `alladhï paradigm are
considered as definite. However, in some contexts they may
occur in the sense of anyone`, anybody` or whoever`, e.g. in
(4:16) ॠƈą ƍƏŁ ŨŋĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ॠƎĊ ƊॠƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ Ń ƉŔĿ Ũİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə if any two of you commit [a lewd act]
punish them both.

ă Ƈƒĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhïna (see Ɛĉ ŦĮ ƃŒ `alladhï).

Ŋ [ J [ ƅ (1) `-l-m pain, ache, to feel pain; baseness. Of this root, two
forms occur 75 times in the Qur`an: ƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĿ ś ta`lamün three times
and ĈƇƔƅŌ `alïm 72 times.
Ą ƅĽ ƃŋĽ ř ta`lam [imperf. of v. ĄƇƅ Ō `alima, intrans.] to feel pain, to feel
hardship (4:104) Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĿ ś ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĄƔ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž ĄƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĿś ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƉŏ if you are
suffering pain. they are also suffering pain as you are suffering.

ƅƃŒ
40
ćƅƒ ƃ Ŋ `alïm [quasi-intens. act. part.] very painful (41:43) ƏŁ ŨĿ ƅ Ą ƃČ ŗĄ ũ Č Ɖ ŏ
ľ ƇƔ ƅ Ō ľ ŖŕĿ ƂĊ ŷ ƏŁ ŨĄ Ə ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ſŇżĄ ƈ your Lord is Lord of forgiveness. but also of
painful chastisement.

ƅƃŒ (2) `alif-lãm-mïm letter combination initiating Suras 2, 3, 29, 30,
31 and 32 (see ŧƃŒ `alif-lãm-rã).

ŧƆƃŒ `alif-lãm-mïm-rã letter combination initiating Sura 13 (see ŧƃŒ
`alif-lãm-rã).

ŭƆƃŒ `alif-lãm-mïm-sãd letter combination initiating Sura 7 (see ŧƃŒ
`alif-lãm-rã).

Ŋ [ J [ =Ƌ `-l-h old Semitic root denoting deity of which various forms
occur in all Semitic languages. Of this root, five forms occur
1139 times in the Qur`an: ĈƌĿƅŏ `ilãh 111 times; Ń ƉĆƔĄƎĿƅŏ `ilãhayn twice;
Ľ řĄ Ǝ ƅŊ `ãlihatun 34 times; ĺŔ `allãh 982 times and Č Ƈą ƎƆƅŔ `allãhumma
five times.
ćƊĽƃō `ilãh [n.; dual ŏ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƎĿ ƅ `ilãhayn; pl. Ľ řĄ Ǝ ƅŊ `ãlihatun] 1 deity, god,
worshipped object (19:81) ŔĎ ŪĊ ŷ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ ƅ Ļ řĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔĄ Ə and
they have taken for themselves [other] gods. beside God. that they
might be for them a support 2 God (37:4) ĈŧĊţŔĄƏĿƅ ĆƇŁƄĄƎĿ ƅŏ ČƉŏ truly your
God is one 3 guiding force (45:23) ą ƋŔĄ ƏĄ ƍ ą ƌĄƎĿ ƅŏ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄũĿ ž Ō consider
the one who has taken his own desire as a guiding force.
ĸŒ `allãh [proper name, described by philologists as the most
definite of all definites` ) ŽũŕŸĄ ƈƅŔ ŽũĆŷ Ō ( ] God, the True and Only
One (112:1) ĈŧĄţŌ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƏą ƍ He is God the One.
ċ ƅĄ ƌƄƃŒ `allãhumma [form of address to God used in contexts of
absolute supplication; various theories have been advanced as
regards its structure including it being a borrowing from Hebrew]
O God! (10:10) ČƇą ƎİƆƅŔ ĄƃĿ ƊŕĄţĆŗą Ŭ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĆƇą ƍŔĄƏĆŷĄŧ their prayer in it is `Glory be
to You. God!'

Ŋ [ J [ ƍ - Ɛ `-l-w/y shortcoming, to be remiss; oath, to swear; to shine;
favour. Favour, however, could also, on the basis of meaning and
structure, be connected with the root Ŋ [ J [ J `-l-l (q.v.). Of this root,

ƏĽ ƃ ō
41
four forms occur 37 times in the Qur`an: ƉƏŁ ƅōĄƔ ya`lün once; ƉƏŁ ƅŎą Ɣ
yu`lün once; ƓĊƆĿśōĄƔ ya`talï once and ĈʼnƛŊ `ãlã` 34 times.
ƇƍĿ ƃŋă ƒ ya`lün [imperf. of v. Ŀ ƛ Ō `alã, trans./intrans.; this verb
usually takes a negative particle and together they function as a
single unit] to be reticent towards someone, fall short of doing
what should be done; to flag; to be remiss (3:118) ŔƏŁ ŨĊ Ŧİ śĿ ś Ŀ ƛ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ļ řĿ ƊŕĿ ųŃ ŗ
Ļ ƛॠŗĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏŁ ƅōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƊƏą ŧ do not take for your intimates such outsiders as
are unflagging in their efforts to ruin you.
ƇƍĿ ƃŌĄ ƒ yu`lün [imperf. of v. IV (ƑĿ ƅŌ Ō `a`lã) orthographically > ƑĿ ƅŊ
`ãlã intrans.] to swear, to vow *(2:226) ĆƇŃ Ǝ œŕĄ ŬĊ Ɗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅŎą Ɣ they
swear/vow never to have sexual relations with their wives.
Ƒĉ ƄĽ řŋă ƒ ya`talï [imperf. of v. VIII ƑĿ ƆĿ ś ŌŔ `i`talã, intrans.] to swear
(24:22) ŇƅŔ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō ŔƏŁ śŎą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ċ řĄ ŸČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ .ĆŲĿ ſŇƅŔ ƏŁ ƅƏ Ō .Ŀ śōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĄƉƔĊƄŕĄŬĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ ƑĄŗĆũŁ Ƃ
Ą ƉƔŃ ũŃ ŠŕĄ Ǝą ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ and let not those of you who possess bounty
and plenty forswear giving to kinsmen. the poor. and those who
emigrate in God's cause.
ćŇĽƙň `ãlã` [pl. of n. ć Ƒƅ Ō `alan, ć Ƒƅ ŏ `ilan or ĈƓŇƅŏ `ilyun] favour,
blessing (53:55) ƐĄ ũŕĄƈĿ śĿ ś Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ ĊʼnĿ ƛŔĄ ʼn Đ ƒ ōŃ ŗĿ ž so which of your Lord's
blessings do you doubt'

ƏĽ ƃ ō `ilã preposition ) ĉ ũĄ Š ŽĆũĄ ţ ( occurring 737 times in the Qur`an. In
context ƑĿ ƅ ŏ mainly denotes: 1 a point reached in physical location
) řĉ ƔƊŕƄƈƅŔ řƔŕżƅŔ ʼnŕƎĊ śƊŔ ( to, as far as (17:1) Ċ ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ļ ƜĆƔĿ ƅ Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆŗĄ ŸŃ ŗ ƐĄ ũĆŬ Ō ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉॠţĆŗą Ŭ
ƑĄŰŇƁƗŔ ĊŧŃ ŠĆŬĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ Ń ƇŔĄũĄţŇƅŔ glory be to Him who made His servant travel
by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Furthest Mosque 2 a
point reached in time ) řČ ƔƊŕƈŪƅŔ řƔŕżƅŔ ʼnŕƎĊ śƊŔ ( to, till, until (2:187) ŔƏč ƈĊśŌ Č ƇŁ ŝ
.ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ƇॠƔĐ ŰƅŔ then complete the fast until nightfall. Grammarians
differ as to whether a point reached ) řƔŕżƅŔ ʼnŕƎśƊŔ ( means only the
initial point or the entire extent of the location; consequently
jurisprudents differ as to whether or not elbows should be
included in the ablution as commanded in verse (5:6) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ
ĆƇŁ ƄĄƔĊŧĆƔ ŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĄƍƏą Šą Ə ŔƏŁ ƆĊŬŇŻŕĿ ž ĊŘĿƜČ ŰƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĆƇŁ śĆƈŁ Ɓ ŔĿ Ũŏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĊƀĊžŔĄũĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ you who believe.
when you are about to pray. wash your faces and your hands up
to [also interpreted as: up to and including] the elbows 3
accompaniment with` ) řČ ƔĊ ŸĄ ƈƅŔ ( (2:14) ĆƇŃ ƎĊƊƔĊųŕĄƔĿŮ ƑĿƅŏ ŔĆƏĿƆĿŦ ŔĿŨŏĄƏ when they

Ą ũœăƒŅƃō
42
are alone with their evil companions 4 the meaning of preposition
fï ) ž ƑƊŸƈ ƏŌ řĉ ƔžũŅ ŴƅŔ Ƒ ( in; at; on; near, by . (4:87) ĊřĄƈŕĄƔĊƂŇƅŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄƔ ƑĿƅŏ ĆƇŁƄİƊĄŸĄƈĆŠĄƔĿ ƅ
He will gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection. It is
also said to have the meaning of Ċ ž Ƒ in (79:18) Ƒİ ƄĄ ŪĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ Ą ƃĿ ƅ .Ąƍ do
you want to purify yourself' 5 direction towards (19:25) Ċ ƃĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ ƒĐ Ūą ƍĄ Ə
ŕĎƔĊƊĄŠ ŕćŗĿųą ũ ĊƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŇųĊƁŕĄŬŁś ĊřĿƆŇŦİƊƅŔ Ń ŵŇŨŃ ŠŃ ŗ and shake the trunk of the palm tree
towards you. it will drop over you ripe dates 6 the meaning of
preposition Ɔ ) ĉ ũŠƅŔ Žũţ ƑƊŸƈ Ɔ ( to` (27:33) ŔĿ Ũॠƈ ƒŃ ũŁ ŴŇƊŕĿ ž Ċ ƃĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ ą ũĆƈ ƗŔĄ Ə
Ą ƉƔŃ ũą ƈōĿ ś the command belongs to you. so consider what orders to
give us 7 the meaning of preposition ´alã ) ƑƆŷ ƑƊŸƈ ( against; upon
(in one interpretation of 17:4) .ƔœŔũĆŬŏ ƓĊƊĄŗ ƑĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄŲĿ ƁĄƏ ƑĊž Č Ɖą ŧĊŬŇſŁ śĿ ƅ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ƑĊž
ŔćũƔŃ ŗĿƄ ŔĎ ƏŁ Ɔą ŷ Č ƉŁ ƆĆŸĿśĿƅĄƏ Ń ƉĆƔĿśČ ũĄƈ Ń űĆũƗŔ in the Scripture. We decreed upon the
Children of Israel. `Twice you will spread corruption in the land
and become highly arrogant' 8 in addition to (38:24) .Ŕ Ŏą ŬŃ ŗ ĄƃĄƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ
ĊƌŃ ŠŕĄŸĊƊ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄƃĊśĄŠĆŸĿƊ he has wronged you by demanding your ewe [to
add] to his ewes 9 so-called redundant` ) Řŧ œŔŪ ( , imparting
emphasis to the entire context, as in the variant reading of ƐŃ ƏĆƎĿ ś
tahwï as ƐĄ ƏĆƎĿ ś tahwã in (14:37) ƒŃ ƏĆƎĿś Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĻŘĄŧœŇž Ō .ĄŸĆŠŕĿ ž ) ƐĄ ƏĆ ƎĿ ś ( ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ so
make [some] hearts of humankind turn to them. (or, to yearn for
them) 10 connecting an agent to an object ) řƔĊ ŧĆŸŅ śƅŔ ( (12:33) Đ ŖĄ ũ .ŕĿ Ɓ
ĆŠĐ ŬƅŔ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ƓĊƊĿ ƊƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ ŕČ ƈĊƈ Č ƓĿ ƅŏ č ŖĄţŌ ą Ɖ he said `My Lord! the prison is more
preferable to me than what they are asking me to do.'
Grammarians note, however, that a goal (řƔŕżƅŔ), of some kind or
another, is always present as a semantic component in all contexts
in which Ƒƅŏ occurs.

Ą ũœă ƒŅƃ ō `ilyãs [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in
the Qur`an] the prophet Elijah (I Kings XVII.ff. and II Kings I-II)
(6:85) Ą ƉƔĊ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Į .Ł Ƅ Ą ūॠƔŇƅ ŏĄ Ə ƑĄ ŬƔĊ ŷĄ Ə ƑĄ ƔĆţĄ ƔĄ Ə ŕČ ƔŃ ũĿ ƄĄ ŪĄ Ə Zachariah. John.
Jesus and Elijah-every one of them was righteous; the story is
told of how he commanded his people to refrain from the worship
of Baal (37:123-32). It is in the context of this narrative that a
quaint etymological rendering of the term `ilyÒs×n occurs
*(37:130) `il yãsïn ĄƉƔĊŬŕĄƔ .ŏ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĈƇĿ ƜĄŬ peace be upon [the family of]
`il yãsïn interpreted as either ą ūॠƔŇƅ ŏ `ilyãs himself or a plural of ūॠƔŇƅ ŏ,
meaning him and his followers. It is possible, although there is no
transmitted authority, that .ŏ `il could mean .Ŋ `ãl, the people of`,

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ř
43
the family of`.

ă Ŵă Ūă ƒƃŒ `alyasa´a [proper name, borrowed from Hebrew, occurring
twice in the Qur`an] the prophet Elisha (I Kings XVII ff. and II
Kings I-II) (38:48) ĄŶĄŬĄƔŇƅŔĄƏ .ƔĊŷŕĄƈĆŬŏ ĆũŁƄŇŨŔĄƏ Ń ũŕĄƔŇŦ ƗŔ ĄƉĊƈ Į.ŁƄĄƏ .ŇſĊƄŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƏ and
remember Ishmael. Elisha. and Dhü'l-Kifl. each of them truly
good.

ƅŊ `am conjunctive particle, occurring 137 times in the Qur`an,
functioning as: I [connected with what precedes it ) řƆĊ Űİ śą ƈ ( ] a
choice between two propositions-this or that`; it is usually
preceded with a hamza that denotes equality ) řĄƔŃ ƏĆŬŅśƅŔ ŘŪĆƈĄƍ ( (q.v.)
(7:193) Ą ƉƏŁ śĊ ƈŕĄ Ű ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō ĆƇ Ō ĆƇą ƍƏą ƈŁ śĆƏĄ ŷĄ ŧ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĈʼnŔĄ ƏĄ Ŭ ĆƇŁ ƄƏą ŸŃ ŗİ śĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ƐĄ ŧą ƎŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŷĆŧĿ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə
and if you call them to the guidance. they do not follow you-it is
the same to you whether you call them or you are silent II
[disconnected from that which precedes it ) řŸĊ ųƂƊą ƈ ( (meaning of Jŕ
bal, q.v.)] dismissal, or disapproval of a preceding proposition
and turning to a following one, . nay but .`, however, even
.`, or . as in` (32:3) ą ƋŔĄũĿśŇžŔ ĄƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔ ĆƇŌ yet they say. `He
[Muàammad] has made it up', which follows (32:2) Ŀ ƛ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇ ƅŔ .ƔŃ ŪŇ ƊĿ ś
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƅŔ Đ ŖĄ ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ą ŖĆƔĄ ũ this scripture. free from all doubt. has been
sent down from the Lord of the Worlds. It occurs also preceded by
hamza. denoting disapproval and dismissing the proposition
before it (7:195) ĈƉą ƔĆŷ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƇ Ō ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ĄƉƏŁ ŮĊ ųĆŗĄ Ɣ ċŧĆƔ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƇ Ō ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ĄƉƏŁ ŮĆƈĄ Ɣ .ą ŠĆũ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Ō
ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ĄƉƏą ŸĄƈĆŬĄƔ ĈƉŔĿŨŔĄʼn ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĆƇ Ō ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ĄƉƏą ũĊŰĆŗą Ɣ have they feet to walk with!'. [or]
have they hands to strike with!'. [or] have they eyes to see with!'.
or have they ears to hear with!' Similarly it occurs in
combination with interrogative .ƍ with the same implication
(13:16) ą ũƏı ƊƅŔĄ Ə Ł ŚŕĄ ƈŁ Ɔı ŴƅŔ ƒŃ ƏĿ śĆŬĿ ś .Ą ƍ ĆƇ Ō ą ũƔĊ ŰĄ ŗŇƅŔĄ Ə ƑĄ ƈĆŷ ƗŔ ƒŃ ƏĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ .Ą ƍ are the blind
and the seeing equal!'. or rather is darkness and light equal!'

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ř `-m-t elevated places; hillocks, crookedness, weakness;
measurement; to guess; doubt; to bend. Of this root, ĽŚĆƈŌ `amt
occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŘąƆŊ `amt [n./v. n.] crookedness, unevenness (20:106-7) ŕĄƍą ũĿ ŨĄƔĿ ž
ƐĄ ũĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ŕĿ ſĄŰŇſĄŰ Ļ ŕŷŕĿ Ɓ ŕĄƎƔĊž Ļ ඡ ƈ Ō ƕƏ Ļ ੡ ƏĊ ŷ and leave them a flat plain. you
see in it no any crookedness or unevenness.

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ť
44
Ŋ [ ƅ [ ť `-m-dend, terminus; term, period, span, long time; to be angry.
Of this root, ĈŧĄƈŌ `amad occurs four times in the Qur`an.
ćťăƆŊ `amad [n.] 1 distance (3:30) ĄƏ ŕĄƎĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ Č ƉŌ ĆƏĿ ƅ č ŧĄƏĿś ċʼnƏą Ŭ ĆƉĊƈ ŇŚĿƆĊƈĄŷ ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ƌĿƊĆƔĄŗ
ŔćŧƔĊŸĄŗ ŔćŧĄƈ Ō and what it has done of evil, it will wish that there were a
long distance between itself and that [evil] 2 time (57:16) ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ŇŚĄ ŬĿ ƂĿ ž ą ŧĄ ƈ ƗŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .ŕĿ ųĿ ž .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŕĿ Ƅ and that they should
not be like those who were given the Scripture before. and the
time became long for them. so their hearts hardened 3 appointed
time, point in time, particular time; end, terminus (72:25) ĆƉ ŏ .Ł Ɓ
Ą Ɣ ĆƇ Ō Ą ƉƏą ŧĄ ŷƏŁ ś ॠƈ Ĉ ŖƔŃ ũĿ Ɓ Ō ƒŃ ũĆŧ Ō Ŕć ŧĄ ƈ Ō ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ ą ƌĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĆ Š say. `I do not know whether
what you have been promised is near. or whether a particular
time has been appointed for it by my Lord' 4 [adverbially] in
duration (18:12) ƅ ƑĄŰĆţŌ Ń ƉĆƔĄŗĆŪĊţŇƅŔ čƒŌ ĄƇĿƆĆŸĿƊƅ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊŇŝĄŸĄŗ ČƇŁŝ Ŕć ŧĄ ƈ Ō ŔƏŁ ŝŃ ŗĿ ƅ ॠƈ then We
woke them so that We might know which of the two parties was
better able to calculate how long a time they had remained [in the
cave].

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ŧ `-m-r boulder, marker, landmark, hillock; affliction; chief, to
appoint as chief; command, to command; affair; to increase, to
multiply, to guide. Of this root, eight forms occur 248 times in the
Qur`an: ĄũĄƈ Ō `amara 54 times; Ą ũĊ ƈ Ō `umira 23 times; ƉƏą ũĊƈĿ śōĄƔ
ya`tamirün twice; ĈũĆƈŌ amr 153 times; ĈũƏą ƈ Ō `umür 13 times; ƉƏą ũĊƈŊ
`ãmirün once; ĽŘĄũŕČ ƈŌ `ammãratun once and ĈũĆƈŏ `imr once.
ăŧăƆ Ŋ `amara u [v. trans.; pass. v. Ą ũĊ ƈ Ō `umira] 1 to order, to
instruct, to command (7:12) ĄƃŁ śĆũĄƈ Ō ŇŨŏ Ąŧą ŠĆŬĿ ś İ ƛŌ ĄƃĄŸĿ ƊĄƈ ŕĄƈ .ŕĿ Ɓ He said.
`What prevented you from [lit. from not (see ƙ lã, function 4)]
bowing down as I commanded you'' 2 to enjoin, to ordain, to
decree (12:40) ą ƋŕČ Ɣŏ İ ƛŏ ŔƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĿś İ ƛŌ ĄũĄƈŌ Ċƌİ Ɔƅ İ ƛŏ ą ƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔ Ń Ɖŏ all judgement belongs
only to God. He ordained that you worship none but Him 3 to
prescribe (2:222) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ũĄ ƈ Ō Ł ŜĆƔĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ Č Ɖą ƍƏŁ śōĿ ž Ą ƉĆũČ ƎĿ ųĿ ś ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž when they are
cleansed. you may approach them as God has prescribed for you
4 to incite (4:37) .ŇŦą ŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ąūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉƏą ũą ƈōĄƔĄƏ ĄƉƏŁ ƆĿŦĆŗĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ those who are
miserly and incite other people to be the same 5 to counsel, to
advise, to suggest (26:35) ĄƉƏą ũą ƈōĿś ŔĿŨŕĄƈĿ ž ĊƋŃ ũĆţĊŬŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĊŲĆũ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĄŠŃ ũŇŦą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ
he means to use his sorcery to drive you out of your land!. what
do you suggest' 6 to justify (52:32) ĆƇ Ō ĈƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƇą ƍ ĆƇ Ō ŔĿ ŨĄ ƎŃ ŗ ĆƇą Ǝą ƈĿ ƜĆţ Ō ĆƇą ƍą ũą ƈōĿ ś

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ŧ
45
ĄƉƏŁ ŻŕĿ ų does their reason really justify this to them. or are they
simply insolent people' 7 to charge with, to assign (80:23) ŕČ ƈĿƅ İ ƜĿƄ
ą ƋĄũĄƈ Ō ŕĄƈ Ń űŇƂĄƔ yet man has not carried out what He charged him to do
8 to let someone behave in accordance with their own inclinations,
to leave someone to his/her own devices (according to one of
several interpretations of verse 17:16) ŕĿ ƊĆũĄ ƈ Ō Ļ řĄ ƔĆũĿ Ɓ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆƎŁ Ɗ ĆƉ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄ ũ Ō ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə
Ċ ž ŔƏŁ ƂĄ ŬĿ ſĿ ž ॠƎƔĊ žĄ ũŇśą ƈ .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ İ ƀĄ ţĿ ž ॠƎƔ and if We desire to destroy a town.
We leave those of its inhabitants. who are living at ease. to their
own inclinations. and they commit abominations in it. so the
sentence is passed against it [the more popular interpretation,
however, is We command those of its inhabitants who are living
at ease. and they commit abominations in it].
ăŧċ Ɔ Ŋ `ammara to invest with authority, to cause to be in
command; to cause to multiply or increase in numbers, in a
variant reading of verse (17:16) [v. II, trans.] ॠƎƔĊžĄũŇśą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆũČ ƈ Ō We put in
command those of its inhabitants who live in luxury, or, We cause
[such people] to increase in number.
ƇƍĄ ŧĉƆĽ řŋăƒ ya`tamirün [imperf. of v. ĄũĄƈĿ śœŔ `i`tamara, intrans.] 1 to
consult together, to counsel one another (65:6) ċ ŽƏą ũĆŸĄ ƈŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ŔƏą ũĊ ƈĿ śŌĄ Ə
and consult together in a good way 2 to plot together against
[with prep. ŗ] (28:20) ĄƃƏŁƆŁśŇƂĄƔƅ ĄƃŃ ŗ ĄƉƏą ũĊƈĿśōĄƔ ƘĄƈŇƅŔ ČƉŏ the chieftains are
plotting together [against you] to kill you.
ćŧąƆŊ `amr [n.] I [pl. ą ũĊ ƈŔĄ Ə Ō `awãmir] 1 command (46:25) İ .Ł Ƅ ą ũĐ ƈĄŧŁ ś
Ń ũĆƈōŃ ŗ ċʼnĆƓĿ ٠ॠƎĐ ŗĄ ũ it [the storm] destroys everything by the command of
its Lord 2 will (9:48) Ą ƉƏą ƍŃ ũŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ũĆƈ Ō Ą ũĄ ƎĿ ŴĄ Ə and God's will
triumphed. much to their disgust 3 teaching, ordinance, guidance,
instruction (49:9) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũĆƈ Ō ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ʼnƓĊ ſĿ ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ ƓĊ żĆŗĿ ś ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ śŕĿ ƂĿ ž so fight the
oppressive party until it returns to God's ordinance 4 system,
order (41:12) ċŚŔĄƏĄƈĄŬ ĄŶĆŗĄŬ Č Ɖą ƍŕĄŲĿ ƂĿ ž ƑĊ ž ƑĄ ţĆ Ə ŌĄ Ə Ń ƉĆ ƔĄ ƈĆ ƏĄ Ɣ ƑĊž ॠƍĄ ũĆƈ Ō ċ ʼnॠƈĄ Ŭ IJ .Ł Ƅ so He
ordained them seven heavens in two days. and assigned in each
heaven its order 5 decision, decree (9:106) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũĆƈ Ɨ Ą ƉĆƏĄ ŠĆũą ƈ Ą ƉƏą ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə
Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ŖƏŁ śĄ Ɣ ŕČ ƈ ŏĄ Ə Ć Ƈą Ǝą ŗIJŨĄ Ÿą Ɣ ŕČƈ ŏ and others are deferred to God's decree.
whether He chastises them or accepts their repentance 6 domain,
prerogative (17:85) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŁ śƔĊ śƏ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ń ũĆ ƈ Ō Ć ƉĊ ƈ ą šƏč ũƅŔ .Ł Ɓ Ń šƏč ũƅŔ Ń ƉĄ ŷ Ą ƃĿ ƊƏŁ ƅ ōĆ ŬĄ ƔĄ Ə
Ļ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ İ ƛ ŏ Ń ƇŇƆĊ ŸŇƅŔ and they ask you [Prophet] about the Spirit. say. `The
Spirit is [part] of the domain of my Lord'. you have only been

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ŧ
46
given a little knowledge [lit. you have not been given of
knowledge but a little] 7 obligations, duties, tasks (18:88) ĆƉĄ ƈ ŕČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə
Ŀ ž ŕćţƅŕĄŰ .ĊƈĄŷĄƏ ĄƉĄƈŔĄʼn ŔćũĆŬą Ɣ ŕĿƊŃ ũĆƈŌ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƌĿƅ .ƏŁ ƂĿƊĄŬĄƏ ƑĿƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ćʼnŔĄŪĄŠ ą ƌĿƆ as for him who
believed and did right. for him. as recompense. will be the
ultimate reward. and we will assign to him of Our
commands/tasks that which is easy [to fulfil] 8 decree, verdict
(11:76) ċŧƏą ŧĆũĄƈ ą ũĆƔĿ Ż ĈŖŔĿ ŨĄŷ ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊśŔĄʼn ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊŏĄƏ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ ą ũĆƈ Ō Ąʼnॊ ĆŧĿƁ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĆƉĄŷ ĆűŃ ũĆŷŌ ą ƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏŕĄƔ
Abraham. desist from this. your Lord's verdict has come about,
and there is chastisement coming to them that cannot be turned
back; *(4:59) Ń ũĆƈ ƗŔ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō those in authority/those in command 9
opinion, judgement *(18:82) ƒŃ ũĆƈŌ ĆƉĄŷ ą ƌŁ śŇƆĄŸĿž ŕĄƈĄƏ I did not do it out of
my own accord [lit. I did not do it by my own command] II [ pl.
ĈũƏą ƈ Ō `umür] 1 affair, matter (8:43) Ŀ ƄƔŃ ũą Ɣ ŇŨ ŏ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ą Ƈą Ǝ ƑĊ ž ĆƇą ƎĿƄŔĄũ Ō ĆƏĿƅĄƏ ĻƜƔĊƆĿƁ ĄƃĊƈŕĿƊĄƈ
ĆƇŁ śĆŷĄ ŪŕĿ ƊĿ śĿ ƅĄ Ə ĆƇŁ śŇƆĊ ŮĿ ſĿ ƅ Ŕć ũƔĊ ŝĿ Ƅ ƑĊ ž Ń ũĆƈƗŔ remember when God made you see them
in your sleep as few-had He shown them to you as many. you
would certainly have lost heart and disputed over the affair;
*(12:102) ĆƇą ƍĄ ũĆƈ Ō ŔƏą ŸĄ ƈĆŠ Ō they settled upon their plans; *(9:50) ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō ĆŧĿ Ɓ
ŕĿƊĄũĆƈŌ we have taken our precautions beforehand; *(21:93) ŔƏą Ÿİ ųĿ ƂĿ ś
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ĆƇą ƍĄ ũĆƈ Ō they fell into disunity. caused a schism amongst
themselves [lit. they fragmented their affairs between them];
*(3:186) Ń ũƏą ƈ ƗŔ Ń ƇĆŪĄ ŷ matters of great importance. serious
undertakings. a task requiring great capability; *(9:48) Ą ƃĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŗİ ƆĿ Ɓ
Ą ũƏą ƈ ƗŔ they stirred up trouble for you. they devised plots against
you [lit. they turned the matters for you] 2 situation, condition
(18:21) ĆƇą ƍĄũĆƈ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ĄƉƏą ŷĄ ŪŕĿ ƊĿ śĄƔ ŇŨ ŏ when they were discussing their
situation among themslves 3 what exists (11:123) Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ą ŖĆƔĿ Ż Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅĄ Ə
ą ũĆƈ ƗŔ ą ŶĄ ŠĆũą Ɣ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƅ ŏĄ Ə Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə ą ƌıƆŁ Ƅ to God belongs all that is hidden in the
heavens and earth. and to Him all that exists shall return.
ƇƍĄ ŧĉ Ɔň `ãmirün [pl. of act. part. ĈũĊƈŊ `ãmir] those who enjoin or
urge someone to do something *(9:112) Ą ŷ Ą ƉƏą ƍŕİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ŽƏą ũĆŸĄ ƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ƈƕŔ Ń Ɖ
ũĿ ƄŇƊą ƈŇƅŔ those who enjoin the good and forbid the wrong, i.e., the
righteous ones.
ĻŖăŧœċ ƆŊ `ammãratun [intens. act. part. fem.] given to tempting or
urging (to do bad things), prone to inciting (the performance of
evil acts), one who/that which insinuates or incites (to evil)
(12:53) ĊʼnƏč ŬƅŕŃ ŗ ĽŘĄũŕČ ƈ Ɨ ĄūŇſİ ƊƅŔ Č Ɖŏ ƓĊŬŇſĿ Ɗ őĐ ũĄŗ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ I do not exonerate myself

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ƅ
47
for man's very soul incites him to evil.
ćŧąƆō `imr [quasi-act. part.] grievous, abominable, foul (18:71)
ŇżŁ śƅ ŕĄƎĿ śŇƁĄũĿ Ŧ Ō Ŕć ũĆƈ ŏ ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů Ŀ ŚœŃ Š ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ŕĄƎĿ ƆĆƍ Ō Ŀ ƀŃ ũ did you make a hole in it. so as to
drown its passengers'. indeed. you have done a foul thing!

ũąƆ Ŋ `ams [n.] 1 yesterday, the previous day (28:19) ƓĊƊĿ ƆŁ śŇƂĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũŁ ś Ō ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈॠƔ
Ń ŗ ŕć ŬŇſĿ Ɗ Ŀ ŚŇƆĿ śĿ Ɓ ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ Ń ūĆƈƗŕ Moses. do you want to kill me. as you killed a
soul yesterday' 2 [also used adverbially] the near past, a short
time ago, just recently (28:82) ČƉōĿƄĆƔĄƏ ĄƉƏŁƅƏŁƂĄƔ Ń ūĆƈƗŕŃ ŗ ą ƌĿ ƊŕĿƄĄƈ ŔĆƏİƊĄƈĿś ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄŢĄŗĆŰ ŌĄƏ
ƅ Ŀ ƀĆŪĐ ũƅŔ Ł ųą ŬĆŗĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊƋĊŧŕĄŗĊŷ ĆƉĊƈ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĄƔ ĆƉĄƈ the next day saw those who had just
recently wished to be in his place exclaiming. `Well! It is God
alone who increases the provision to whoever of His servants He
will.'

ƇƍĄ ŪƆĿ ř tumsün (see ƍ - Ǝ /ũ /ƅ m-s-w/y).

Ŋ [ ƅ [ J `-m-l very long and broad distinct sand dune; to ascertain, to
discriminate; to mull over; to hope, expectations. Of this root, .ĄƈŌ
`amal occurs twice in the Qur`an.
JăƆŊ `amal [n.] hope, desire, expectation (15:3) ŔƏą Ÿİ śĄ ƈĿ śĄ ƔĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍĆũĿ Ũ
Ń ƎŃ ƎŇƆą ƔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ Ŀ ŽĆƏĄ ŬĿ ž .Ą ƈ ƗŔ ą Ƈ so leave them to eat and enjoy themselves
and let [false] hope distract them-they will come to know.

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ƅ `-m-m this root denotes two primary inter-related concepts of
mother, race, roots and group on the one hand, and on the other,
front, main road, leader, example and direction. Of this root, 10
forms occur 119 times in the Qur`an: ƉƔĐ ƈŊ `ãmmïn once; ď Ƈ Ō `umm
24 times; ĽŚŕĄƎČƈŌ `ummahãt 11 times; ĽřČ ƈ Ō `ummatun 51 times; ĈƇĄƈ Ō
`umam 13 times; ĈƇŕĄƈŌ `amãm once; ĈƇŕĄƈŏ `imãm seven times; ĽřČ ƈœŌ
`a`immatun five times; ď ƓĐ ƈ Ō `ummiyy twice and ƉƏč ƔĐ ƈ Ō `ummiyyün
four times.
Ƈƒď Ɔň `ãmmïn [pl. of act. part. ď ƇŊ `ãmm] heading for, setting out
for (5:2) ĄƇŔĄũĄţŇƅŔ ĿŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ ĄƉƔĐ ƈŔĄʼn ĿƛĄƏ nor heading for the Sacred House.
Ď ƅ Ŋ `umm [n.] I [pl. ĽŚŕĄƎČƈŌ `ummahãt] 1 mother (23:50) ĄƉĆŗŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ
Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ą ƌČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ and We made the son of Mary and his mother an

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ƅ
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exemplar; *(20:94) Č Ƈ Ō Ą ƉĆŗŔॠƔ [an endearing form of address] son of
my own mother. my own flesh and blood 2 foster mother, milk
mother (4:23) ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŕĄƎČ ƈ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŇŚĄƈĐ ũą ţ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆŸĄ ŲĆũ Ō ƓĊ śİ ƜƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄŁ śŕĄ ƎČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə forbidden to
you are your mothers . your milk mothers 3 (in relation to
Muslims) wives of the Prophet, mothers of the believers (33:6)
ĆƇą ƎŁ śŕĄ ƎČ ƈ Ō ą ƌą ŠŔĄ ƏĆŪ ŌĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ƑĿ ƅĆƏ Ō č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ the Prophet is more caring
towards the believers than they are themselves. and his wives are
[as] their mothers II [no plural] 1 foundation, cornerstone; canon;
essence (3:7) ą ũĿ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə Ń ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ č Ƈ Ō Č Ɖą ƍ ĽŚŕĄ ƈĿ ƄĆţą ƈ ĽŚŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ Ą ƃĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ą ŪŇƊ Ō ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ
Ľ ŚŕĄ ƎŃ ŗŕĿ ŮĿ śą ƈ it is He who has sent this Book down to you. in which are
verses definite in meaning-these are the essence of the Book-and
others that are ambiguous/allegorical 2 source, origin (43:4) ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏĄ Ə
ƑĊž ĐƇ Ō Ń ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŧĿ ƅ ďƓĊƆĄŸĿ ƅ ĈƇƔĊƄĄţ indeed it is [inscribed] in the original
record [lit. source of the Book]. kept with Us. exalted and full of
wisdom 3 centre, metropolis, capital or main [city] (28:59) ŕĄƈĄƏ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ
Ą ƃč ŗĄ ũ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆƎą ƈ ƐĄũŁƂŇƅŔ Ƒİ śĄţ Ŀ ŜĄŸĆŗĄƔ ƑĊ ž ŕĄƎĐ ƈ Ō Ļ ƛƏą ŬĄ ũ ƏŁ ƆŇ śĄ Ɣ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿƊĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn your Lord would
never destroy towns until He first raises a messenger in its main
city reciting Our messages to them; *(6:92) ČƇ Ō ƐĄ ũŁ ƂŇƅŔ Mecca-mother
of cities [lit. magnet of dwellings] 4 destination, final abode,
permanent home (101:8-9) ŕČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə ĆƉĄ ƈ ŇŚİ ſĿ Ŧ ƌŁ ƊƔŃ ŪŔĄ ƏĄ ƈ ą ƌčƈ ōĿ ž řĄƔŃ ƏŕĄƍ but as for
the one whose scales [of good deeds] are light-His final abode
will be the bottomless Pit.
Ļŗċ Ɔ Ŋ `ummatun [n., pl. ĈƇĄƈ Ō `umam] 1 a people, a nation, a
community (35:24) ॠƎƔĊ ž Ŀ ƜĿ Ŧ İ ƛ ŏ ċ řČ ƈ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ĈũƔĊŨĿƊ there has not been a
community. but came to it [lit. passed away in it] a warner 2 a
party, a category of people (3:104) Ń ũĆƔĿ ŦŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ŷĆŧĄ Ɣ ĽřČ ƈ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ĆƉŁ ƄĿ śŇƅĄ Ə let
there be a community from among you [also interpreted as: let
you all turn out to be a community] that calls to goodness 3 a
crowd (28:23) Ą ŠĄ Ə Ą ƉĄ ƔĆ ŧĄ ƈ Ą ʼnॠƈ Ą ŧĄ ũĄ Ə ŕČ ƈĿ ƅĄ Ə ĄƉƏŁƂĆŬĄƔ Ń ūŕİƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĻřČƈŌ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Ąŧ and when
he arrived at the water of Midian. he found a crowd of people
watering [their flocks] 4 a common belief, tradition (43:22) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿƁ .Ąŗ
ĊƍŃ ũŕĿ ŝŔĄʼn ƑĿƆĄŷ ŕİ ƊŏĄƏ ċřČ ƈ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĄʼnŕĄŗŔĄʼn ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄŠĄƏ ŕİ Ɗŏ Ą ƉƏą ŧĿ śĆƎą ƈ ĆƇ no indeed!. they say. `We
saw our fathers following this common belief, we are guided by
their footsteps' 5 a period of time (12:45) ċ řČ ƈ Ō Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ũĿ ƄČ ŧŔĄ Ə ॠƈą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ॠŠĿ Ɗ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
then the one who had gained freedom of the two. remembering
[Joseph] after a while 6 a fixed, or determined time (11:8) ĆƉ œĿ ƅĄ Ə
ċŘĄŧƏą ŧĆŸĄƈ ċřČ ƈ Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄŖŔĿ ŨĄŸŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆũİ Ŧ Ō if We delay the chastisement till a

œċ Ɔ Ŋ
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determined point in time 7 organised society (6:38) ċ řČ ŗŔĄ ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƈĄ Ə ƑĊž
ŕĿ ų Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń űĆũ ƗŔ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƅŕĿ ŝĆƈ Ō Ĉ ƇĄ ƈ Ō İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌĆƔĄ ţŕĿ ƊĄ ŠŃ ŗ ą ũƔĊ ųĄ Ɣ ľ ũœ [there are] no creatures on
the earth. nor birds that fly with their two wings. but [that they
are] [organised] communities like yourselves 8 an epitome of
Godliness, a man alone, one of a kind (16:120) ĻřČƈŌ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ČƉŏ
Abraham was truly an example. an epitome of godliness.
ćƅœăƆŊ `amãm [adverbial] front, forward direction; coming time
(75:5) ą ƌĄ ƈॠƈ Ō Ą ũą ŠŇſĄ Ɣ ƅ ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ .Ą ŗ yet man wants to continue sinning in
the future (or, Yet man wants to deny the truth about things yet to
come [such as the Day of Resurrection]) [lit. yet man wants to sin
ahead of him].
ćƅœăƆō `imãm [n., pl. ĽřČ ƈœŌ `a`immatun] 1 a leader (2:124) ƑĿ ƆĿ śĆŗŔ ĊŨŏĄƏ
Ŀ ś ōĿ ž ċ ŚŕĄƈĊƆĿ ƄŃ ŗ ą ƌč ŗĄũ Ą ƇƔĊƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ ŕćƈŕĄƈŏ Ń ūŕİƊƆƅ ĄƃŁƆĊŷॊ ƓIJƊŏ .ŕĿƁ ČƉą ƎČƈ when Abraham's Lord
tested him with certain commandments. which he fulfilled. He
said. `I will make you a leader of men'; *(9:12) Ń ũŇſŁ ƄŇƅŔ Ŀ řČ ƈ œ Ō hardened
disbelievers [lit. leaders of disbelief] 2 a divine writ, a guide
(11:17) Ļ řĄ ƈĆ ţĄ ũĄ Ə ŕć ƈॠƈ ŏ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ ą ŖŕĿ śĊ Ƅ Ċ ƌĊ ƆĆ ŗĿ Ɓ Ć ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə and before it. the Book of
Moses. a guide and mercy 3 master record (36:12) ą ƋŕĿƊĆƔĄŰĆţŌ ċʼnĆƓĿŮ İ .Ł ƄĄƏ
ƑĊž ľ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ ľ Ƈॠƈ ŏ and We keep an account of everything in a clear
Master Record 4 creed, conviction (in one interpretation of 17:71)
ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƈॠƈ ŐŃ ŗ ľ ūŕĿ Ɗ Ō İ .Ł Ƅ ŔƏą ŷĆŧĿ Ɗ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ on the Day when We will call every people
by their creed [also: by their leader. their book or their mothers]
5 an example, a model (25:74) Ŀ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĆŠŔĄ Ə ŕć ƈॠƈ ŏ Ą ƉƔĊ Ƃİ śą ƈŇƆ ƅ ŕ and make us good
examples for the pious 6 a highway (15:79) ľ Ƈॠƈ ŐŃ ŗĿ ƅ ॠƈą Ǝİ Ɗ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĿ ƂĿ śŇƊŕĿ ž
ľ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ and We took retribution from them, both are still there on a
clearly marked highway.

Ď Ƒď Ɔ Ŋ `ummïyy [nisba adj./n.] 1 unlettered, unable to read (7:158) ŔƏŁ ƊĊƈŋĿž
Đ ƓĐ ƈ ƗŔ Đ ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ Ċ ƌ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ so believe in God and His Messenger. the
unlettered prophet 2 a pagan, a person with no revealed scripture
(3:20) Đ ƈ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ Ɔ ƅ .Ł ƁĄ Ə ĆƇŁ śĆƈĿ ƆĆŬ ŌĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĐ Ɣ ask those who were given
the Book. as well as those without one. `Do you surrender
yourselves entirely to Him too''

œċ ƆŊ `ammã, occurs 55 times in the Qur`an and functions as: 1 a
detailing ) .ƔŰŇſĿś ŽũĄţ ( or a partitive particle implying conditional

œċ Ɔ ō
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dependency, comparison or contrast between the two constituents
of its sentence (the second of which will always be prefixed with
ž) and lending emphasis to it, as for . it was/is .` (18:79) ŕČƈŌ
ĄƉƔĊƄŕĄŬĄƈƅ ŇŚĿƊŕĿ ƄĿ ž Ł řĿƊƔĊſČ ŬƅŔ Ą Ɣ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸ ƑĊ ž Ń ũĆţĄ ŗŇƅŔ as for the boat. it belonged to poor
people working on the sea 2 a conditional particle indicating
comparison or contrast ) ųũĿ Ů ŘŔŧ Ō ( , in which case it is usually
repeated in the discourse, i.e. as for ., and as for . `, as in
(2:26) ĄŧŔĄũ Ō ŔĿ ŨŕĄƈ ĄƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔĿ ž ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕČ ƈŌĄƏ ĆƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ı ƀĄţŇƅŔ ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō ĄƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄƔĿ ž ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕČ ƈōĿž
ĻƜĿ ŝĄƈ ŔĿ ŨĄƎŃ ŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ as for those who believe they know it is the truth from
their Lord. but as for those who do not believe they say. `What
[ever] does God mean by such a comparison''

œċƆō `immã, occurs 30 times in the Qur`an and functions as: 1 option
particle ) ũƔĊ ƔŇŦĿ ś ŽũĄ ţ ( whether . or .` (18:86) ĆƉ Ō ŕČ ƈ ŏ Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊĆũĿ ƂŇƅŔ ŔĿ ŨॠƔ ŕĿ ƊŇƆŁ Ɓ
İ śĿ ś Ć Ɖ Ō ŕČ ƈ ŏĄ Ə Ą ŖIJ ŨĄ ŸŁ ś ŕĻ ƊĆŬą ţ ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊ ž Ŀ ŨĊ Ŧ We said. `Dhü'l-Qarnayn. you may choose
whether to punish or show them kindness' 2 detailing or partitive
particle ) .ƔĊ ŰŇſĿ ś ŽũĄ ţ ( (76:3) Ŕć ũƏŁ ſĿ Ƅ ŕČ ƈ ŏĄ Ə Ŕć ũĊ ƄŕĿ Ů ŕČ ƈ ŏ .ƔŃ ŗČ ŬƅŔ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŧĄ ƍ ŕİ Ɗ ŏ We
guided him to the [right] way, he is either thankful or ungrateful
3 a particle denoting uncertainty of an outcome (9:106) ĄƉƏą ũĿŦŔĄʼnĄƏ
Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ŖƏŁ śĄ Ɣ ŕČ ƈ ŏĄ Ə Ć Ƈą Ǝą ŗIJŨĄ Ÿą Ɣ ŕČƈ ŏ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũĆ ƈ Ɨ Ą ƉĆ ƏĄ ŠĆ ũą ƈ and others are deferred to
God's decree. whether He chastises them or accepts their
repentance. Differentiation is made between the above ŕČ ƈ ŏ and the
one in (19:26) ŕćƈĆƏĄŰ Ń ƉĄƈĆţČ ũƆƅ Ł ŚĆũĿŨĿƊ ƓIJ Ɗŏ ƓƅƏŁ ƂĿ ž ŔćŧĄţ Ō Ń ũĿŮĄŗŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ Č ƉĊƔĄũĿś ŕČ ƈŐĿž and if
you see any human being. you say. `I have vowed to the Lord of
Mercy a fast.' The latter is a compound of conditional Ɖŏ + so-
called redundant` or emphatic mã ) ŕĄƈ ( .

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ƈ `-m-n to be safe, to be secure; guard, keeper; trust, to be
trusted; belief, faith, to believe. Of this root, 19 forms occur 858
times in the Qur`an: ĄƉĊƈ Ō `amina 20 times; Ą ƉĄ ƈŊ `ãmana 537 times;
Ą ƉĊ ƈŁ śŌŔ `i`tumina once; ĈƉĊƈŊ `ãmin six times; ĽřĿƊĊƈŊ `ãminatun once; ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŊ
`ãminün 10 times; ĽřĿƊŕĄƈŌ `amãnatun twice; ĽŚŕĿƊŕĄƈŌ `amãnãt four
times; ĈƉĆƈŌ `amn five times; ĽřĿ ƊĄƈ Ō `amanatun twice; ĈƉƔĊƈŌ `amïn 14
times; ĈƉŕĄƈƔŏ `ïmãn 45 times; Ĉ ƉĄ ƈōĄ ƈ ma`man once; ĈƉƏą ƈōĄƈ ma`mün
once; ĈƉĊƈŎą ƈ mu`min 22 times; Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ mu`minayn once; ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ
mu`minün 179 times; ĽřĿƊĊƈŎą ƈ mu`minatun six times and ĽŚŕĿƊĊƈŎą ƈ
mu`minãt 22 times.

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ƈ
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ĉƆ Ŋ ă Ƈ `amina a [v.] I [intrans.] to feel safe, to be in a time of
safety (2:196) Ń ƒĆŧĄƎŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄũĄŬĆƔĿśĆŬŔ ŕĄƈĿ ž Đ şĄţŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĊŘĄũĆƈą ŸŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĄŶİ śĄƈĿ ś ĆƉĄƈĿž ĆƇŁ śŇƊĊƈ Ō ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž and if
you are in time of peace/you feel safe. anyone wishing to break
the restrictions of consecration between the minor pilgrimage and
the major one must make whatever offering he can afford II
[trans.] 1 to trust someone with or over something (2:283) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ō ĆƉ ŐĿ ž
ą ƌĿ śĿ Ɗॠƈ Ō Ą ƉĊ ƈŁ śŎŔ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Đ ŧ Ŏą ƔŇƆĿ ž ŕć ŲĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƇŁƄą ŲĆŸĄ ŗ but if you decide to trust one another
[with or over something]. then let the one who is trusted deliver
his trust 2 to guard against, to wish to be safe from (4:91) Ą ƉƏą ŧŃ ŠĿ śĄ Ŭ
ĆƇą ƎĄ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈōĄ ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄƏŁ ƊĄ ƈōĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ą ƉƏą ŧƔŃ ũąƔ Ą ƉƔŃ ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼn you will find others who wish to
be safe from you. and from their own people.
ă Ƈă Ɔň `ãmana [v. IV] I [intrans.] 1 (as distinguished from ƉƔŨƅŔ
ŔƏũſƄ those who deny, ŔƏƄũŮŌ ƉƔŨƅŔ those who assign partners and
ŔƏƂžŕƊ ƉƔŨƅŔ the hypocrites) those who believe in God (66:8) ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
ŕć ţƏą ŰĿ Ɗ Ļ řĄ ŗĆ ƏĿ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ŗƏŁ ś ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn you who believe. turn to God in sincere
repentance 2 (contrasted with believing in previous religions such
as Judaism and Christianity) Muslims (5:69) ŔƏą ŧॠƍ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĽŽĆƏĿ Ŧ ĿƜĿž ŕćţƅŕĄŰ .ĊƈĄŷĄƏ Ń ũĊŦƕŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔĄƏ ĊƌİƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĄƉĄƈŔĄʼn ĆƉĄƈ ƐĄũŕĄŰİƊƅŔĄƏ ĄƉƏœŃ ŗŕČŰƅŔĄƏ
Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĄ ŪĆ ţĄ Ɣ Ć Ƈą ƍ those who believe. [the Muslims]. those who embrace
Judaism. the Sabians. and the Christians-those who believe in
God and the Last Day and do good deeds-will have nothing to
fear or to regret 3 (contrasted with ĄƇĿ ƆĆŬ Ō `aslama) to attain true
faith (49:14) ą ƉŕĄƈƔƙŔ .Ł ŦĆŧĄƔ ŕČ ƈĿƅĄƏ ŕĿƊĆƈĿƆĆŬŌ ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ Ɓ ĆƉĊƄĿƅĄƏ ŔƏŁ ƊĊƈŎŁ ś ĆƇĿƅ .Ł Ɓ ŕİ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ą ŖŔĄũĆŷƗŔ ĊŚĿƅŕĿƁ
ƑĊ ž Ł ƆŁ Ɓ ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏ the Bedouins say. `We have attained true faith.' [Prophet]
say. `You have not [yet] attained true faith. but you should say.
`We have submitted' - as faith has not yet entered your hearts 4
[with prep. .ƅ] to put faith in (44:21) Ċ ƈŎŁ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə Ń ƉƏŁ ƅŃ ŪĿśĆŷŕĿ ž Ɠƅ ŔƏŁ Ɗ and if
you do not believe with me. let me be II [trans] 1 to make
someone safe, to grant someone security (106:4) ľŵƏą Š ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĄƈĄŸŇų Ō ƒĊŨİƅŔ
ċ ŽĆƏĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə He who has fed their hunger. and made them
secure from fear 2 [also possibly v. III]to trust someone (12:64)
.ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĊƌƔĊ Ŧ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŇƊĊƈ Ō ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ İ ƛ ŏ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄʼn .Ą ƍ .ŕĿ Ɓ he said. `Do I trust you
with him other than how I trusted you with his brother before
[with the same disastrous result] !''
ă Ƈĉ ƆĿ řŊŒ `i`tumina [pass. of v. VIII ĄƉĄƈĿ śœŔ `i`tamana] to be entrusted
with (2:283) ą ƌĿśĿƊŕĄƈ Ō ĄƉĊƈŁ śŎŔ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ Đ ŧ Ŏą ƔŇƆĿ ž ŕćŲĆŸĄŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŲĆŸĄŗ ĄƉĊƈ Ō ĆƉŐĿž but if you decide

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ƈ
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to trust one another. then let the one who is trusted fulfil his trust.
ćƇĉƆň `ãmin [quasi-act. part.; fem. ĽřĿƊĊƈŊ `ãminatun; pl. ƉƏŁ ƊĊƈŊ
`ãminün] 1 safe, secure (16:112) Ļ řİ Ɗ œĄ ƈŇ ųą ƈ Ļ řĿ ƊĊ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ň ŚĿ ƊŕĿ Ƅ Ļ řĄ ƔĆ ũĿ Ɓ Ļ ƜĿ ŝĄ ƈ ą ƌİƆƅŔ Ą ŖĄ ũĄ ŲĄ Ə
God presents the parable of a city that was secure and at ease 2
peaceful, at peace, tranquil (44:55) ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŔĄʼn ċřĄƎĊƄŕĿ ž IJ.ŁƄŃ ŗ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƉƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ
peaceful [and contented]. they will call for every kind of fruit.
ĻŗĽƈœăƆŊ `amãnatun [fem. n., pl. ĽŚŕĿƊŕĄƈŌ `amãnãt] trust, charge (4:58)
Ŀƅŏ ĊŚŕĿƊŕĄƈƗŔ ŔƏč ŧŎŁ ś ĆƉŌ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ũą ƈōĄƔ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖŏ ॠƎĊ ƆĆƍ Ō Ƒ God commands you to return
trusts to their owners; *(33:72) Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ŀ řĿ Ɗॠƈ ƗŔ ŕĿ ƊĆŲĄ ũĄ ŷ ŕİƊ ŏ
ĻƛƏą ƎĄŠ ŕćƈƏŁ ƆĿ Ŵ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ą ƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ŕĄƎĿ ƆĄƈĄţĄƏ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƉŇƂĿſŇŮŌĄƏ ŕĄƎĿƊŇƆĊƈĆţĄƔ ĆƉ Ō ĄƉĆƔĄŗōĿž .ŕĄŗŃ ŠŇƅŔĄƏ We
offered the trust to the heavens. the Earth and the mountains. yet
they refused to carry it and were afraid of it, but man carried it-
indeed he is sinful. ignorant. Commentators greatly differ as to
the meaning of Ŀ řĿ Ɗॠƈ ƗŔ with the definite article in this context. Being
charged with responsibility ) ŽƔƆƄśƅŔ ( . with the definite article, is
chosen by °al-Razï; this choice fits the larger context. Other
interpretations include: obedience, the choice between obedience
and disobedience as offered to Adam, reason or intellect, prayer
and other duties and obligatory statutes which God has imposed
upon His servants.
ćƇąƆŊ `amn [v. n./n.] 1 safety, security (24:55) ĆƇŃ ƎĊžĆƏĿŦ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĿ ƅĐ ŧĄŗą ƔĿ ƅĄƏ
ŕĻ ƊĆƈ Ō and He will give them in exchange. after their fear. security 2
peace, tranquillity, sanctuary (2:125) ŕĻƊĆƈ ŌĄƏ Ń ūŕİƊƆƅ ĻřĄŗŕĿŝĄƈ Ŀ ŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ ŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ŇŨŏĄƏ
and when We made the House [at Mecca] a resort and a
sanctuary for people.
ĻŗĽ ƈăƆ Ŋ `amanatun [n.] inner calm, tranquillity, relaxation, peace
(3:154) ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊƈ Ļ řĿ ſ œŕĿ ų ƑĿ ŮŇżĄƔ ŕćŬॠŸŁ Ɗ ĻřĿ ƊĄƈ Ō Đ ƇĿ żŇƅŔ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .ĄŪŇƊ Ō Č ƇŁ ŝ then He caused
peace. after sorrow. to descend upon you-a sleep which overtook
a group of you.
ćƇƒĉƆŊ `amïn [quasi-act. part.] 1 honest, trustworthy (26:193) Ŀ Ɗ .Ą Ū
ą ƉƔĊƈƗŔ ą šƏčũƅŔ ĊƌŃ ŗ the trustworthy spirit came down with it 2 sincere,
honest (7:68) ĈƉƔĊƈŌ ĈŢĊŰŕĿƊ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŕĿ Ɗ ŌĄƏ ƓĐ ŗĄũ ĊŚĿƛŕĄŬŃ ũ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ żIJ ƆĄŗ Ō I convey to you the
messages of my Lord. and I am a sincere adviser to you 3 safe,
secure (95:3) Ń ƉƔĊƈ ƗŔ ĊŧĿ ƆĄŗŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍĄƏ and [by] this safe town.

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ƍ
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ćƇœăƆƒō `ïmãn [v. n./n.] 1 faith (59:9) ĆƇŃ ƎĊƆĆŗĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉŕĄƈƔƙŔĄƏ ĄũŔČŧƅŔ ŔƏą ʼnČƏĄŗĿ ś ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔĄƏ
ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ũĄ ŠŕĄ ƍ ĆƉĄ ƈ Ą ƉƏč ŗĊ ţą Ɣ and those who are firmly established in their
homes and in the faith before them. love whoever emigrated to
them 2 believing, belief (16:106) ĊƌĊƊŕĄƈƔŏ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ Ċƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĄũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄƈ he who
denies God after having believed 3 (contrasted to `islãm) deeply
entrenched true faith (49:14) Ŀ ƅĄƏ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĿ ƆĆŬ Ō ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ą ƉॠƈƔ ƙŔ .Ł ŦĆŧĄ Ɣ ŕČ ƈ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ
but you should say. `We have submitted'-as true faith has not yet
entered your hearts.
ć Ƈă Ɔŋă Ɔ ma`man [n. of place] place of safety, place of security
(9:6) ą ƋĆũŃ ŠōĿž ĄƃĄũॊĿśĆŬŔ ĄƉƔĊƄŃ ũŇŮą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĈŧĄţŌ ĆƉŏĄƏ ą ƌĿ ƊĄƈōĄƈ ą ƌŇżĊ ƆĆŗ Ō Č ƇŁ ŝ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƇĿ ƜĿ Ƅ Ą ŶĄ ƈĆŬĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ and
if any one of the polytheists should seek your protection
[Prophet]. grant it to him so that he may hear the word of God.
then take him to his place of safety.
ƇƍĄ Ɔŋă Ɔ ma`mün [pass. part.] something devoid of harm,
something completely safe (70:28) ľƉƏą ƈōĄƈ ą ũĆƔĿ Ż ĆƇŃ ƎĐŗĄũ ĄŖŔĿŨĄŷ ČƉŏ [for]
from the chastisement of their Lord none may feel completely safe.
ćƇĉƆŌĄ Ɔ mu`min [quasi-act. part./n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ mu`minayn; pl.
ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ mu`minün; fem. ĽřĿƊĊƈŎą ƈ mu`minatun; pl. ĽŚŕĿƊĊƈŎą ƈ mu`minãt] 1
adherent to the true faith (33:36) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĄ ŲĿ Ɓ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ċ řĿ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ľ ƉĊ ƈŎą ƈ ƅ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə
ĆƇĊƍŃ ũĆƈŌ ĆƉĊƈ ŁŘĄũĄƔĊŦŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿƅ ĄƉƏŁƄĄƔ ĆƉ Ō ŔćũĆƈ Ō ą ƌŁƅƏą ŬĄũĄƏ it is not fitting for any believing
man or a believing woman. once God and His Messenger have
decided on a matter. that they should have a choice of their own
[in the matter] 2 one who believes (26:3) ŔƏŁƊƏŁƄĄƔ İƛŌ ĄƃĄŬŇſĿ Ɗ ĈŶĊŦŕĄŗ ĄƃİƆĄŸĿƅ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ perhaps you [Prophet] are going to torment yourself to
death [worrying] that they will not become believers!'
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ ƈąƆ Ŋ `umniyatun (see ƅ [ Ƈ [ Ɛ m-n-y).

Ŋ [ ƅ [ Ƌ `-m-h to forget; to confess; to entrust to; mother; root. Of this
root, only ƌĄ ƈ Ō `amahin, a variant reading of řČ ƈ Ō `ummatin, occurs
11 times in the Qur`an.
Ɗă Ɔ Ŋ `amah (a variant reading) [v. n.] forgetting [also interpreted
as: confessing] (12:45) ċřČ ƈ Ō Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĄũĿ ƄČ ŧŔƏ having remembered [Joseph]
after forgetting [him].

Ŋ [ ƅ [ ƍ `-m-w female slave, to take a female slave for oneself. Of this

ąƇ Ŋ
54
root, two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: ĽřĄƈŌ `amatun and
ĈʼnŕĄƈŏ `imã`.
ĻŗăƆŊ `amatun [n., pl. ĈʼnŕĄƈŏ `imã`] female slave (24:32) ŔƏą ţĊ ƄŇƊ ŌĄ Ə
ĆƇŁ Ƅ œŕĄ ƈ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ marry off . the good among your slaves
and your female slaves.

ąƇ Ŋ `an particle occurring 617 times in the Qur`an and functioning in
various ways including the following: I infinitive ) řČ ƔŃ ũĄ ŧĆŰĄ ƈ ( , so
designated because it combines with a following imperfect verb
(rendering it subjunctive ) ŖƏŰŇƊĄƈ ( and designating it to the future
tense to form an equivalent to an infinitive noun ) .Č Ə Ŏą ƈ ũĄ ŧĆŰĄ ƈ (
(18:79) ॠƎĄ ŗƔĊ ŷ Ō ĆƉ Ō Ł ŚĆŧĄ ũ ōĿ ž and I sought to damage it. This infinitive
noun performs versatile functions, including: 1 a subject of a
nominal sentence (2:184) Ĉ ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ŔƏą ƈƏą ŰĿ ś ĆƉ ŌĄ Ə but fasting is better for
you 2 a subject of a verbal sentence (57:16) Ą ŶĿ ŮŇŦĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄʼn Ą ƉƔĊŨİ Ɔƅ Ń ƉōĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũŇƄĊ Ũ ƅ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ is it not time for believers that their hearts become
humble to the remembrance of God' 3 a predicate in the
accusative (10:37) ĊƌİƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ƐĄũĿśŇſą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ą ƉŔĄʼnĆũŁƂŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĄƉŕĿƄ ŕĄƈĄƏ this Qur'an
is not such as could have been contrived by anyone save God 4
second part of a construct ) řĿžŕĄŲŏ ( , in the genitive (63:10) ĆƉ Ō .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ
ŁŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁƄĄŧĄţ Ō ĄƓĊśōĄƔ before death comes to one of you. ĆƉ Ō may elide
before an imperfect, in which case the verb may preferably be in
the indicative ) ŵƏŁ žĆũĄ ƈ ( or the subjunctive ) ŖƏą ŰŇƊĄ ƈ ( , and the ĆƉ Ō is then
inferred or implied (39:64) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ Ō ą ŧą ŗĆ ŷ Ō ƓIJ ƊƏą ũą ƈ ōĿ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ũĆ ƔĿ żĿ ž Ō do you
order me to worship someone other than God. you foolish
people' ƉŌ may also form a verbal noun with a verb in the perfect
denoting past tense (28:82) Ō Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊŃ ŗ Ŀ ŽĄ ŬĿ ŦĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉĄ ƈ ĆƉ were it not
for God having been gracious to us. He would have caused it [the
earth] to swallow us too II ĆƉ Ō contracted form of ͉ϥ˴΃ ) řĿ ſİ ſĿ Ŧą ƈ ƉĊ ƈ řƆƔĊƂİŝƅŔ (
occurring after a verb denoting certainty ƉƔĊ ƂĄ Ɣ, or one used in a
manner similar to such a verb. The subject of ƉŌ, in such cases, is
an elliptical pronoun of the story (standing for ƌİ Ņ Ɗ Ō) ( Ɖōİ ŮƅŔ ũƔƈĄ Ų
ŽƏŁ ŨĆţĄ ƈ) the case is .`, the situation is .`, the fact of the matter
is .`. The predicate of this type of ƉŌ may be an imperfect verb in
the accusative case (73:20) ƑĄ ŲĆũĄ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄ ƔĄ Ŭ ĆƉ Ō Ą ƇĊ ƆĄ ŷ He knows that
[the case will be this.] there will be among you [some who will
be] sick; it may also be a nominal phrase (11:14) İ Ɗ Ō ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŷŕĿ ž Ń ƇŇƆĊŸŃ ŗ .Ń ŪŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈ

ąƇ ō
55
ĄƏą ƍ İ ƛŏ ĄƌĿ ƅŏ Ŀƛ ĆƉ ŌĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ then you will all know that it [the Qur'an] is only
sent down containing knowledge from God. and that there is no
god but He III explicative ) ŘĄ ũĐ ŬĿ ſą ƈ ( , always preceded by a sentence
denoting the meaning, but not containing a derivative, of .ĆƏĿƂƅŔ, to
say`, and followed by another sentence, as in (38:6) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ƘĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ ųŇƊŔĄ Ə
ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŔƏą ũŃ ŗĆŰŔĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ŮĆƈŔ Ń Ɖ Ō the leaders among them went on
[saying]. `Walk away and be steadfast to your gods' IV so-called
redundant` ) Řŧ œŔŪ ( , so designated because, structurally, it may or
may not be used in what seem to be parallel structures (14:12) ॠƈĄ Ə
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ .İ ƄĄƏĿśĿƊ İ ƛŌ ŕĿƊĿƅ what [reason] do we have for not relying upon
God' (in which it occurs), as compared with (5:84) ą ƉĊ ƈŎŁ Ɗ Ŀ ƛ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ŕĄƈĄƏ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ why should we not believe in God' (in which it does not
occur). Of all occurrences of so-called redundant` ƉŌ the most
frequent is that in which it follows the temporal lammã ) řČ ƔĊ ƊƔĊ ţƅŔ ŕČ ƈƅ (
(12:96) ą ũƔĊ ŮĄ ŗŇƅŔ ĄʼnॠŠ ĆƉ Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž then. when the bearer of good news came.
Like all so-called redundant` particles, so-called redundant` ƉŌ
lends emphasis to the general context V meaning lest` ) ƑĿ ƊĆŸĄ ƈ Ņ Ɯ œ ƅ (
(4:176) ĐƔĄ ŗą Ɣ ŔƏı ƆĊ ŲĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą Ɖ God makes this clear to you lest you
should err; and (39:56) Ł ŚŇųČ ũĿ ž ŕĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ śĄũĆŬĄţॠƔ ĈūŇſĿ Ɗ .ƏŁ ƂĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĊ ž Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ŖŇƊĄŠ
lest a soul should say. `Woe is me for having neglected what is
due to God.'

ąƇ ō `in particle occurring 697 times in the Qur`an and functioning in
various ways, including the following: I conditional, if` ) řČ ƔĊ ųĆũĿ Ů (
(8:38) Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĄ Ŭ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ॠƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆũĿ ſŇżą Ɣ ŔƏą ƎĿ śŇƊĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏ if they desist. what went before will
be forgiven them II negative ) Ŀ Ɗ řĄ ƔĊ žŕ ( , preceding either a verbal
sentence: (9:107) ƑĿ ƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ İ ƛŏ ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄũ Ō ĆƉŏ Č ƉŁ ſĊƆĆţĄƔĿ ƅĄƏ and they swear `We
intended nothing but good', or a nominal sentence (58:2) ĆƇą ƎŁ śŕĄƎČ ƈ Ō ĆƉŏ
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆŧĿ ƅĄƏ Ɠœİ ƜƅŔ İ ƛŏ their mothers are no other than those who gave birth
to them III ĆƉ ŏ `in contracted form of Č Ɖ ŏ ) ƉĊƈ řĿſİ ſĿŦą ƈ ĉ Ɖŏ řƆƔĊ Ƃİ ŝƅŔ ( lending
emphasis to the context and preceding either a nominal sentence:
(43:35) ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ŵŕĿ śĄ ƈ ŕČ ƈĿ ƅ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ ı .Ł Ƅ ĆƉ ŏĄƏ and all of these are mere
enjoyments of this life; or a verbal sentence (26:186) ĄƉĊƈĿƅ Ąƃı ƊŁ ŴĿƊ ĆƉŏĄƏ
ĄƉƔŃ ŗĊŨŕĿƄŇƅŔ indeed we think you are one of the liars IV so-called
redundant` ) Řŧ œŔŪ ( , lending emphasis to the context, as in one
interpretation of verse (46:26) Ą Ə ĊƌƔĊž ĆƇŁ Ƅŕİ Ɗİ ƄĄƈ ĆƉŏ ŕĄƈƔĊž ĆƇą ƍŕİ Ɗİ ƄĄƈ ĆŧĿƂĿƅ and We had
established them in that in which We have not established you.

œƈŊ
56
œƈŊ `anã1
st
person sing. pronoun, I, occurring 67 times in the Qur`an
(12:69) ŕĿ Ɗ Ō Ą ƃƏŁ Ŧ Ō I am your [very] brother; ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ nahnu 1
st
person pl.
pronoun, we, occurring 673 times in the Qur`an, and frequently
used by God in referring to Himself (76:28) ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ We
fashioned them. These pronouns also function as emphatic units:
I myself` (12:69) Ą ƃƏŁ Ŧ Ō ŕĿ Ɗ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ I am your [very] brother; and We
ourselves` (15:9) Ą ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƅČ ŪĿ Ɗ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ŕİ Ɗ ŏ it is We ourselves who have sent
down the Remembrance.

ćƅœĽƈŊ `anãm (see Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ƅ `-n-m).

Ľ ŘŅƈ Ŋ `anta 2
nd
person sing. masc. pronoun, you, occurring 81 times in
the Qur`an; ॠƈŁ śŇƊ Ō `antumã 2
nd
person dual. masc. & fem. pronoun,
both of you`, occurring once; ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō `antum 2
nd
person pl. masc.,
you`, occurring 129 times. These pronouns also function as
emphatic units, you yourself`, as in (12:90) Ąƃİ Ɗœ Ō Ŀ ŚŇƊ Ɨ ŁŽą ŬƏą Ɣ could it
be that you yourself are Joseph' and (21:54) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅ ŎॠŗŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə ƑĊž
.Ŀ ƜĄŲ ľ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ you yourselves and your fathers have clearly gone
astray.

œă ƆĿ řŅƈ Ŋ `antumã (see Ľ Řƈ Ŋ `anta).

ąƅĿ řŅƈ Ŋ `antum (see Ľ Řƈ Ŋ `anta).

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ Ś `-n-th female; to be soft, to be lenient, to be accommodating.
Of this root, three forms occur 30 times in the Qur`an: ƑĿ ŝŇƊ Ō `unthã
18 times; Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƔĿ ŝŇƊ Ō `unthayayn six times and ĽŜŕĿƊŏ `inãth six times.
ƏĽ śŅƈ Ŋ `unthã [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƔĿ ŝŇƊ Ō `unthayayn; pl. ĽŜŕĿƊŏ `inãth] female
(4:124) Ŀ řİƊĄŠŇƅŔ ĄƉƏŁƆŁŦĆŧĄƔ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏōĿž ĈƉĊƈŎą ƈ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ƑĿŝŇƊŌ ĆƏ Ō ľũĿƄĿŨ ĆƉĊƈ ĊŚŕĄţƅŕČŰƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ .ĄƈĆŸĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ
anyone. male or female. who does good deeds and is a believer.
will enter Paradise.

JƒŁ ŞŅƈ ƗŒ `al-`injïl [proper noun of Greek origin occurring 12 times in
the Qur`an] the New Testament, the Gospel (57:27) ŕĿƊĆƔİ ſĿƁĄƏ ƑĄ ŬƔĊ ŸŃ ŗ Ń ƉĆŗŔ
Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə .ƔŃ ŠŇƊ ƙŔ and We caused Jesus. son of Mary to follow [the
prophets] and We gave him the Gospel; *(5:47) .Ćƍ Ō .ƔŃ ŠŇƊ ƙŔ the
people of the Gospel. the Christians.

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ũ
57
The Qur`an declares that the Gospel was taught and revealed
to Jesus; in the same way that the Torah was revealed to Moses.
The Christian tradition speaks of it being synonymous with the
good news taught about Jesus, whereas the Islamic concept of °al-
°injïl places emphasis on the notion of a divinely revealed text.

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ũ `-n-s humans, people; tamed animals, to tame; affable,
friendly, intimate friend, to be sociable; to detect, to perceive, to
come to know, to gather information, to seek gently. Of this root,
eight forms occur 97 times in the Qur`an: ĄūĿ ƊŊ `ãnasa five times;
ą ūĊ ƊōĿ śĆŬĿ ś tasta`nis once; ĈūŇƊŏ `ins 18 times; ĈƉŕĄŬŇƊŏ `insãn 65 times; ĈūŕĿƊ Ō
`unãs five times; ď ƓĊ ŬŕĿ Ɗ Ō `anãsiyy once; ď ƓĊ ŬŇƊ ŏ `insiyy once and ƉƔĊŬĊƊōĿ śĆŬą ƈ
musta`nisïn 11 times.
ăũĽ ƈň `ãnasa [v. IV, possibly III, trans.] 1 to perceive, to sight
from a distance (28:29) ĄūĿ ƊŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ŖĊ ƊॠŠ Ń ũƏıųƅŔ ŔćũŕĿƊ he caught sight of a
fire on the side of the Mount 2 to conceive, to detect, to sense, to
discern (4:6) ŔƏŁ ƆĿ śĆŗŔĄ Ə ƑĄ ƈŕĿ śĄ ƔŇƅŔ Ƒİ śĄţ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ŔƏŁ żĿ ƆĄ ŗ Ą šŕĿ ƄIJ ƊƅŔ ĆƉ ŐĿ ž ĆƇŁ śĆŬĿ ƊŔĄ ʼn ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ Ŕć ŧŇ Ůą ũ ŔƏą ŸĿ žĆ ŧŕĿ ž
ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō and test the orphans until they reach marriageable age.
then. if you perceive in them sound judgement. hand over their
property to them.
Ą ũĉ ƈŋĽ řąŪĽ ř tasta`nis [imperf. of v. X ĄūĿ ƊōĿ śĆŬĊŔ `ista`nasa, intrans.] to
draw attention to one`s presence, to alert people to one`s presence,
to seek permission to enter (24:27) Ą Ɣ ĄƎč Ɣ Ōŕ ĄũĆƔĿŻ ŕĻśƏą Ɣą ŗ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĿś Ŀƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕ
ॠƎĊ ƆĆƍ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŔƏą ƈIJ ƆĄ ŬŁ śĄ Ə ŔƏą ŬĊ ƊōĿ śĆŬĿ ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śƏą Ɣą ŗ believers. do not enter houses
other than your houses until you [first] have asked permission
and greeted the folk inside them.
ćũŅƈō `ins 1 [collect. n.] [n.; pl. ĈūŕĿƊ Ō `unãs] humankind as
opposed to other species, particularly jinn (q.v.) (27:17) Ą ũĊ Ůą ţĄ Ə
Ą ƉॠƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ ƅ ą Ƌą ŧƏŁ Ɗą Š Ą ƉĊ ƈ Đ ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ń ūŇƊ ƙŔĄ Ə Ń ũĆ Ɣİ ųƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ž Ą ƉƏą ŷĄ ŪƏą Ɣ and marshalled before
[lit. to] Solomon were his hosts of jinn. humankind and birds, and
they were marshalled in ordered ranks 2 a human being (55:39)
ďƉॊ ĿƛĄƏ ĈūŇƊŏ ĊƌŃ ŗŇƊĿŨ ĆƉĄŷ .ōĆŬą Ɣ Ŀƛ ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔĿž on that day not a human nor a jinn
will be questioned about his sin.
Ą Ƈœă ŪŅƈ ƗŒ `al-`insãn [collect. n.] 1 humankind (4:28) Ŀ ƀĊƆŁ ŦĄƏ ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ
ŕĻ ſƔĊ ŸĄ Ų and humankind was created weak 2 man, the human being,

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ Ż
58
people, men and women (50:16) ą ƌą ŬŇſĿƊ ĊƌŃ ŗ ą ūŃ ƏĆŬĄƏŁ ś ŕĄƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĿ ƊĄƏ ĄƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ŕĿƊŇƂĿƆĿŦ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ
ƔŃ ũĄƏŇƅŔ .ĆŗĄţ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ą ŖĄũŇƁŌ ą ƉĆţĿ ƊĄƏ Ċ ŧ We created man. and We know what his
soul whispers within him. and We are closer to him than the
jugular vein 3 (possibly) Adam (15:26) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ ŕĿƊŇƂĿƆĿŦ Ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ ĆƉĊ ƈ .ॠŰŇƆĄ Ű ĆƉĊ ƈ
ŐĄ ƈĄ ţ ľ ƉƏŁ ƊĆŬĄ ƈ We created man [Adam] out of dried clay formed from
dark. putrid mud; * ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ name of Sura 67, so-named because of
the reference in verses 1-3 to the creation of humankind`, also
named `al-dahr ) ũĆƍĄŧƅŔ ( (see ť [ Ƌ [ ŧ da-ha-ra).
ćũœĽƈ Ŋ `unãs [pl. of `ins] groups of people, tribes (2:60) ı.Ł Ƅ ĄƇĊƆĄŷ ĆŧĿƁ
ĆƇą ƎĄŗĄũŇŮĄƈ ľūŕĿ ƊŌ each group of people knew their drinking place.
Ď Ƒĉ ŪŅƈ ō `insïyy [nisba adj.; pl. ď ƓĊ ŬŕĿ Ɗ Ō `anãsïyy] a member of the
human race, a human being (25:49) ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ Č ƓĊŬŕĿ Ɗ ŌĄƏ ŕćƈŕĄŸŇƊŌ ŕĿƊŇƂĿƆĿŦ ŕČ ƈĊƈ ą ƌĄƔĊƂĆŬŁ ƊĄƏ
and We give it as a drink to many beasts and humans from that
which We have created.
Ƈƒĉ Ūĉ ƈŋřąŪĄ Ɔ musta`nisïn [pl. of act. part. ĈūĊ ƊōĿ śĆŬą ƈ musta`nis] ones
seeking/desiring conversation, ones socialising (33:53) ĆƇŁ śĆƈĊ ŸĿ ų ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž
ƅ ĄƉƔĊŬĊƊōĿ śĆŬą ƈ ĿƛĄƏ ŔƏą ũĊŮĿ śŇƊŕĿž ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţ then. when you have eaten. disperse. and
do not stay on seeking conversation [lit. seeking companionship
through conversation].

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ Ż `-n-f nose; tip; foremost; chief; to begin, to go first; to go by;
to disdain, to be angry. Of this root, two forms occur three times
in the Qur`an: ĽŽŇƊŌ `anf twice and Ļ ŕſĊ ƊŊ `ãnifan once.
ĻŻŅƈŊ `anf [n.] nose (5:45) Ń ƉƔĄ ŸƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŸƅŔ Ą Ə Ń ūŇſĿ ƊƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ūŇſİ ƊƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō ॠƎƔĊ ž ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊĆŗĿ śĿ ƄĄ Ə
Ċ ŽŇƊ ƗŕŃ ŗ Ŀ ŽŇƊ ƗŔ Ą Ə in it We prescribed for them. a life for a life. an
eye for an eye. a nose for a nose .
Ĺ œŽĉ ƈň `ãnifan [adverbial] presently, just now (47:16) ŔĿŨŕĄƈ .ŕĿ Ɓ ŕĻ ſĊ ƊŔĄ ʼn
what was it that he has said. just now'

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ƅ `-n-m(no verb) all God`s creatures.
ćƅœĽ ƈ Ŋ `anãm [collect. n. occurring once in the Qur`an] creatures
(including humankind. Some philologists describe it as meaning
every creature that goes to sleep, as if it were derived from Ɖ [ Ə [ Ƈ
n-w-m) (55:10) ĄűĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə ŕĄƎĄŸĄŲĄƏ Ń ƇŕĿ Ɗ Ƙƅ and the Earth He laid down for

ƏĮ ƈ Ŋ
59
the creatures.

ċ Ƈ Ŋ `anna a sister of Č Ɖ ŏ `inna ) ŚŔĄ ƏĿ Ŧ Ō ƉĊ ƈ Č Ɖ ŏ ( (q.v.) a subordinating
particle occurring some 360 times in the Qur`an. Like Č Ɖ ŏ it lends
emphasis to the context but differs from it in the fact that Č Ɖ Ō,
together with the following sentence, undergoes a process of
subordination and functions as a nominal clause serving as, e.g., a
subject (72:1) Ą ƓĊ ţƏ Ō Č ƓĿ ƅ ŏ ą ƌİƊ Ō ĄŶĄƈĿ śĆŬŔ Ĉ ũĿ ſĿ Ɗ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Đ ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ [it] has been revealed to
me that a company of the jinn listened in [on a recitation of the
Qur'an] or as an object (6:109) ŕĄƈĄƏ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ũĊ ŸŇŮą Ɣ ॠƎİ Ɗ Ō ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ŇŚĄ ʼnॠŠ Ŀ ƛ ĄƉƏŁ ƊĊƈŎą Ɣ what
will make you realise that if it [a sign from God] came [to them]
they still will not believe'

ċ Ƈ ō `inna emphatic particle ) ŧƔĊ ƄōĿ śƏ ƀƔƂĆ ţĿ ś ŽũĄ ţ ( , occurring some 1679
times in the Qur`an. It is the main member of a group of five
particles designated by Arab grammarians as `inna and its
sisters` ) Č Ɖ ŏ ŕƎŁ śŔĄƏĿŦŌƏ ( (Č Ɖŏ `inna, ĉ ƉŌ `anna, Č ƉōĿ Ƅ ka`anna, İ .Ą ŸĿ ƅ la´alla and
Ŀ ŚĆƔĿ ƅ layta), which precede nominal sentences governing the subject
in the accusative case and lend various semantic implications,
particular to each particle, to the contexts in which they appear.
(see particle alphabetically). Besides functioning as certainly`, an
emphatic particle carrying the force of indeed`, surely` (36:16)
ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŕŅ Ɗŏ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ŬĆũą ƈĿ ƅ indeed we have been sent to you; (49:12) Đ Ɖİ ŴƅŔ Ą űĆŸĄ ŗ Č Ɖ ŏ
ĈƇŇŝŏ [even] some suspicion is a sin, ĉ Ɖŏ may also function as a
particle of causation ) .ƔƆŸĿ ś ŽũĄ ţ ( (12:53) ॠƈĄ Ə őĐũĄ ŗ Ō ƓĊ ŬŇſĿ Ɗ Č Ɖ ŏ Ą ūŇſİ ƊƅŔ ĽŘĄũŕČ ƈ Ɨ
Ċ ʼnƏč ŬƅŕŃ ŗ I do not exonerate myself for man's very soul incites him to
evil.

œăƆĮ ƈō `innamã (said by Arab grammarians to be a compound of the
emphatic Č Ɖŏ + so-called redundant` ŕĄƈ which prevents Č Ɖŏ having
any government) particle of limitation ) ũĆŰĿƁ ƏĿŔ ũĆŰĄţ ŘŔŧŌ ( , occurring
some 22 times in the Qur`an; so-called because it denotes
restriction of that which it precedes to that which follows it, x is
only y` (13:7) ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ Ŀ ŚŇƊ Ō ĈũĊŨŇƊą ƈ you are but a warner.

Ŋ ƏĮƈ `annãI interrogative ) ƇŕƎſĊ śŬŔ ƇŬŔ ( occurring 28 times in the Qur`an.
In addition to the element of strong exclamation it lends to the

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ƍ - Ɛ
60
whole context, Ƒİ ƊŌ denotes the senses of: 1 however?!` (19:20) Ƒİ ƊŌ
ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ Ɠ ƅ ĈƇĿƜŁ Ż ĆƇĿ ƅĄ Ə ƓĊƊĆŬĄŬĆƈĄƔ Ŀ ŮĄŗ Ĉũ however can I have a son when no
mortal has touched me'! 2 wherever from?!` (3:37) ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈॠƔ ƑİƊŌ ĊƃĿ ƅ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ
Mary. from wherever [on earth] do you get these [provisions]'!
II adverbial (ŽũŴ) whenever` as in one interpretation of (2:223)
ĆƇŁ Ƅ ŎॠŬĊ Ɗ ĽŜĆũĄţ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ śōĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ŝĆũĄ ţ Ƒİ Ɗ Ō ĆƇŁ śœĊ Ů your women are your fields. so go
into your fields whenever you like.

Ŋ [ Ƈ [ ƍ - Ɛ `-n-w/y divisions of the night; daytime; to become due, (of
food) to become ready; proper time; utensils; to be deliberate, to
be solemn; to await; to be very hot. Of this root, five forms occur
eight times in the Qur`an: ƊōĄ Ɣ Ƒ ya`nï once; ƓĊƊŊ `ãnï once; Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ƊŊ
`ãniyatun twice; ʼnŕĿƊŊ `ãnã` three times and ƑĿƊŏ `inã once.
Ƒĉ ƈ ŋă ƒ ya`nï [imperf. of v. ĄƓĊƊ Ō `aniya, intrans.] to become due; to
reach the appointed time (57:16) Ń ũŇƄĊ Ũ ƅ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ Ą ŶĿ ŮŇŦĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ Ɔ ƅ Ń ƉōĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ is it not time for believers that their hearts become humble to
the remembrance of God'
Ƒĉ ƈň `ãnï [quasi-act. part.] having become due, having reached
maximum point or degree (55:44) ľ ƉŔĄ ʼn ľ ƇƔĊ ƈĄ ţ Ą ƉĆ ƔĄ ŗĄ Ə ॠƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ Ą ƉƏŁ žƏŁ ųĄ Ɣ they will
go round between it and boiling hot water.
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ ƈň `ãniyatun I [fem. of ƓĊƊŊ `ãnï] having reached maximum
point or degree; (of heat) boiling hot (88:5) ċ řĄ ƔĊ ƊŔĄ ʼn ľ ƉĆƔĄ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƑĿ ƂĆŬŁ ś and
are forced to drink from a boiling hot spring II [collect. n./pl. of
ĈʼnŕĿƊŏ `inã`] utensils, vessels, serving equipment (76:15) Ł ŽŕĿ ųą ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ
ċ řĄ ƔĊ ƊŋŃ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ řČ ŲĊ ž they will be served with vessels of silver.
ŇœĽ ƈň `ãnã` [pl. of n. ĈƓŇƊŏ `iny or ć ƑƊ ŏ `inã] hours, or watches [of
the night] (20:130) ƑĄ ŲĆũĿ ś Ą ƃİ ƆĄ ŸĿ ƅ Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔ Ŀ ŽŔĄ ũŇų ŌĄ Ə ĆŢĐ ŗĄ ŬĿ ž .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ʼnŕĿ ƊŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə and in
the hours of the night glorify [His] praise. and at the ends of the
day. so that you may find contentment.
ƏĽƈō `inã [v. n.] (act of) reaching appointed time, due coming,
becoming due or ready (33:53) ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĿ ś Ŀ ŚƏą Ɣą ŗ Đ ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ ĆƉ Ō
ĄƉĿ ŨŎą Ɣ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ľ ƇॠŸĿ ų ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ĄƉƔŃ ũĊ ŴŕĿ Ɗ ą ƋŕĿ Ɗ ŏ believers. do not enter the Prophet's
apartments. unless you are given permission for a meal. without
waiting for its due coming.


ąƍ Ŋ
61
ăƇƓŒ `al`ãna (see Ƈ/ Ǝ - ƍ /Ŋ `-w/y-n).

Ŋ [ =Ƌ [ J `-h-l family, kin; to be populated; to be tamed; to be worthy,
to be deserving; to take a wife. Of this root, .ĆƍŌ `ahl occurs 127
times.
JąƋŊ `ahl [collect. n.] 1 people (2:126) Ňƀą ŪĆũŔĄ Ə ŕĻ ƊĊ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ŕć ŧĿ ƆĄ ŗ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ .Ą ŸĆŠŔ Đ ŖĄ ũ
Ń ũĊ ŦƕŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ Ą ƉĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĄ ƈ Ċ ŚŔĄ ũĄ ƈİ ŝƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƆĆƍ Ō my Lord. make this land
secure and provide with produce those among its people who
believe in God and the Last Day 2 family, household (28:12) .Ą ƍ
, ĆƇŁ Ƅı ƅą ŧ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ćƍ Ō ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗ ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ ƆŁ ſŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ shall I guide you to a household who
could rear him for you' 3 euphemism for wife (12:25) ŇŚĿ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ॠƈ ą ʼnŔĄ ŪĄ Š
ĆƉĄ ƈ Ą ŧŔĄ ũ Ō ĄƃĊƆĆƍ ōŃ ŗ Ŕć ʼnƏą Ŭ she said. `What punishment befits the one who
intended harm to your wife'' 4 owners (4:58) ŔƏč ŧ ŎŁ ś ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅą ũą ƈōĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ŕĄƎĊƆĆƍŌ ƑĿƅŏ ĊŚŕĿƊŕĄƈƗŔ God commands you to return trusts to their owners
5 dwellers, inhabitants, occupants (18:71) ŕĄƎĿśŇƁĄũĿŦŌ Ŀ ƀŃ ũŇżŁ ś ƅ ॠƎĿ ƆĆ ƍ Ō ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚœŃ Š
ŕ œĆ ƔĿ Ů ŔćũĆƈŏ did you make a hole in it. so as to drown its passengers
[occupants]'. indeed. you have done a foul thing! 6 [as first part
in construct ) řžŕŲŏ ( , worthy of`, deserving of` (74:56) ƐĄ ƏŇ Ƃİ śƅŔ .Ć ƍ Ō Ą Əą ƍ
He is most deserving of being heeded; *(5:47) .ƔŃ ŠŇƊ ƙŔ .Ćƍ Ō the
people of the Gospel, Christians; *(33:33) Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō people of the
House, the Prophet's household; also used in specific reference to
members of Prophet Abraham`s household in verse (11:73) Ł ŚĄ ƈĆţĄ ũ
ĊŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ą ƌŁ śŕĿƄĄũĄŗ ĄƏ ĺŔ the Mercy and Blessings of God [are]
upon you people of the household [of Abraham]; *(16:43) Ń ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō
those who have the knowledge; or those who have had [previous]
revelations, i.e. Jews and Christians; *(3:64) Ń ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō people of
the Book, Jews in particular, and Christians; *(38:64) Ń ũŕİ ƊƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō
inhabitants of Hellfire.

Jň `ãl (see J/ƍ/Ŋ `-w-l).

ąƍ Ŋ `aw conjunction ) Žųŷ Žũţ ( occurring some 280 times in the
Qur`an and conveying various specific meanings including the
following: 1 doubt ) ƃİ ŮƅŔ ( (18:19) ŕĿ ƊŇŝŃ ŗĿ ƅ ŕć ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƏ Ō Ą űĆŸĄ ŗ ľ ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ we have
remained a day or part of a day 2 vagueness ) ƇŕƎĆŗ ƗŔ ( (34:24) ŕİ ƊŏĄƏ ĆƏ Ō
ĆƇŁ ƄŕČ Ɣ ŏ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŸĿ ƅ Ɛćŧą ƍ ĆƏ Ō ƑĊž .Ŀ ƜĄŲ ľƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ and indeed either we or you are
following the right guidance or are in clear error 3 giving

ąƍ Ŋ
62
options ) ũƔƔŦİ śƅŔ ( , either . or` and, after prohibitory ƛ forbidding
all options and choices, neither . nor` (76:24) Ŀ ƛ ĆŶĊ ųŁ ś ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŕćƈĊŝŔĄʼn ĆƏ Ō
ŔćũƏŁ ſĿƄ do not obey any sinner or disbeliever among them 4 allowing
a thing or making it allowable ) řţŕŗƙŔ ( (24:61) ĆƉ Ō ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śƏą Ɣą ŗ ĆƏ Ō
Ċ ŚƏą Ɣą ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅ œŕĄ ŗŔĄ ʼn ĆƏ Ō Ċ ŚƏą Ɣą ŗ Ą ƎČ ƈ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śŕ that you eat from your houses. or the
houses of your fathers. or the houses of your mothers 5
unrestricted conjunction ) ŶƈŠƅŔ ƀƆųƈ ( , as in the meaning of and`
) ƏŔƏƅŔ ƑƊŸƈ ( (11:87) ĆƏŌ ŕĿƊ ŎŕĄŗŔĄʼn ą ŧą ŗĆŸĄƔ ŕĄƈ Ąƃą ũŇśĿƊ ĆƉ Ō Ąƃą ũą ƈōĿś ĄƃŁ śĿ ƜĄŰ Ō .ĄŸŇſĿ Ɗ ĆƉ Ō ƑĊ ž ŕĿ Ɗ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō
ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ ॠƈ does your prayer [religion] tell you to forsake what our
forefathers worshipped and refrain from doing whatever we
please with our properties' 6 division or separation ) ƇƔŬƂİśƅŔ (
(2:135) ŔćŧƏą ƍ ŔƏŁƊƏŁƄ ŔƏŁƅŕĿƁĄƏ ŔƏą ŧĿ śĆƎĿ ś ƐĄũॠŰĿ Ɗ ĆƏ Ō they say. `Become Jews or
Christians. and you will be rightly guided' 7 transition in the
sense of adversative bal ) .ŗ ƑƊŸƈ ŖŔũŲƗŔ ( , nay . rather .`
(2:74) Ō ĆƏŌ ĊŘĄũॊĊţŇƅŕĿ Ƅ ĄƓŃ ƎĿž ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ŇŚĄŬĿƁ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĻŘĄƏĆŬĿ Ɓ č ŧĿŮ even after that.
your hearts hardened so they were like rocks. or even harder 8
the meaning of exceptive `illã ) ƑƊŸƈ İ ƛŔ ( , except`, unless`
according to the views of some eminent scholars in interpreting
verse (2:236) Ł ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Ą šŕĿ Ɗą Š Ŀ ƛ ĻřĄŲƔŃ ũĿ ž Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŲŃ ũŇſĿ ś ĆƏ Ō Č Ɖą ƍƏč ŬĄƈĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ॠƈ ĄʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ ą ƇŁ śŇƂİ ƆĿ ų ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇ
there will be no financial liabilities on you [also interpreted as: no
blame attached to you] if you divorce women. so long as you have
not yet consummated the marriage. unless you have fixed a dower
for them.
ƍŊ `aw as a rule ƏŌ joins similarly structured units (phrases,
clauses, nominal sentences, verbal sentence, etc.) as in the
examples quoted above. Deviation from this norm imparts special
meaning/importance to the unit which does not structurally agree
with the rest in a succession of `aw-joined units. An example of
this is the particularising of sending a messenger as a means of
communication between mortals and God by the use of the verbal
clause .ĊŬĆũą Ɣ ƛƏą ŬĄ ũ in a sequence of non-verbal clauses all of which
are joined by ƏŌ in the following verse (42:51) ŕĄƈĄƏ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ľũĿ ŮĄŗƅ ĆƉ Ō ą ƌĄ ƈIJƆĿ Ƅą Ɣ ą ƌİƆƅŔ
İ ƛ ŏ ŕć ƔĆ ţĄ Ə ĆƏ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ Ə ľ ŖॠŠĊ ţ ĆƏ Ō .ĊŬĆũą Ɣ Ļ ƛƏą ŬĄ ũ Ą ƓĊ ţƏą ƔĿ ž Ċ ƌĊ ƊŇŨ ŐŃ ŗ ŕĄƈ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĄ Ɣ it is not
[possible] for a mortal that God speak to him except through
revelation or from behind a veil. or if He sends a messenger to
reveal. or sends a messenger so he reveals by His leave whatever
He wills.

Ŋ [ ƍ [ ť
63
Ŋ [ ƍ [ Ŕ `-w-b ditch in which water collects, place to which people
return; to return; to repeat; to be swift, to be agile; custom. Of this
root, five forms occur 17 times in the Qur`an: ƓŃ ŗĐ Ə Ō `awwibï once;
ĈŖŕĄƔŏ `iyãb once; ĈŖŔČ ƏŌ `awwãb five times; ƉƔŃ ŗŔČ Ə Ō `awwãbïn once and
ŖŋĄƈ ma`ãb nine times.
ƑŁŕď ƍŊ `awwibï [imper. of v. II ĄŖČ Ə Ō `awwaba, intrans.] to repeat,
to echo (34:10) ą ƌĄ ŸĄ ƈ ƓŃ ŗĐ Ə Ō .ॠŗŃ ŠŕĄ Ɣ Ļ ƜĆŲĿ ž ŕİ ƊĊ ƈ Ą ŧą ƏŔĄ ŧ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə We graced
David with a favour from us. [We said]. `Mountains. echo God's
praises with him.'
ćŔœă ƒ ō `iyãb [v. n.] returning, coming/going back (88:25) ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƅŏ Č Ɖ ŏ
ĆƇą ƎĄ ŗॠƔ ŏ to Us will be their returning.
ćŔŒċ ƍ Ŋ `awwãb [intens. act. part.; pl. ƉƔŃ ŗŔČ Ə Ō `awwãbïn] 1 one given
to going back, one who sincerely repents and goes back to God
(38:30) Ŀ ƊĆŗĄƍĄƏĄƏ ĈŖŔČƏŌ ą ƌİƊŏ ą ŧĆŗĄŸŇƅŔ ĄƇĆŸĊƊ ĄƉŕĄƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ Ąŧą ƏŔĄŧƅ ŕ and We gave to David
Solomon. an excellent servant who always turned to God 2
(possibly) one who strongly enumerates, echoes or repeats [praise
of God] (in one interpretation of 38:19) Ą ƈ Ą ũĆƔİ ųƅŔĄ Ə ĈŖŔČ ƏŌ ą ƌĿ ƅ Į.Ł Ƅ ĻŘĄũƏŁ ŮĆţ and
the birds. gathered together, each enumerating His praise 3
obedient, submitting (in another interpretation of 38:19) Ą ũĆ Ɣİ ųƅŔĄ Ə
ĈŖŔČ Ə Ō ą ƌĿ ƅ Į .Ł Ƅ Ļ ŘĄ ũƏŁ ŮĆţĄ ƈ and the birds. gathered together, each submitting
to him [Solomon].
ćŔʼnăƆ ma`ãb [n. of place or time/v. n.] place of return, final
abode/act of returning (78:39) ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž Ą ʼnŕĿ Ů Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƌĐ ŗĄ ũ ŕć ŗŋĄ ƈ
that is the True Day. so whoever wishes to. should take a path
returning to his Lord.

Ą ŔƍČ ƒ Ŋ `ayyüb (see alphabetically).

Ŋ [ ƍ [ ť `-w-dweight; effort, hardship; to weigh down; crookedness; to
wriggle; to be kind. Of this root, ą ŧƏ ŎĄ Ɣ ya`üd occurs once in the
Qur`an.
Ą ťƍ Ōăƒ ya`üd [imperf. of v. Ą ŧŊ `ãda, trans.] to weigh down, to
trouble, to wear down (2:255) ą Ƌą ŧƏœĄƔ ĿƛĄƏ ĄűĆũ ƗŔĄƏ ĊŚŔĄƏĄƈČŬƅŔ ą ƌčƔĊŬĆũŁƄ ĄŶĊŬĄƏ
ॠƈą ƎŁ ŴŇſĊ ţ His throne extends over the heavens and the Earth,
preserving them both does not weigh Him down.

Ŋ [ ƍ [ J
64
Ŋ [ ƍ [ J `-w-l returning, resorting to, reverting to; a place of return; to
be reduced to; to hail from; to precede, to go first; to process, to
deduce, to infer. Of this root, five forms occur 125 times in the
Qur`an: .ƔŃ ƏōĿś ta`wïl 17 times; .Ŋ `ãl 26 times; .Č ƏŌ `awwal 24 times;
ƉƏŁ ƅČ ƏŌ `awwalün 38 times and Ō ƑĿ ƅƏ `ülã 20 times.
JƒŁƍŋĽř ta`wïl [v. n./n.] 1 interpretation (of a dream) (12:44) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
ĄƉƔĊƈƅŕĄŸŃ ŗ Ń ƇĿƜĆţƗŔ .ƔŃ ƏōĿśŃ ŗ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ŕĄƈĄƏ ľƇĿƜĆţŌ ŁŜŕĿżĆŲŌ they said. `[These are]
nonsensical dreams and we are not knowledgeable in dream-
interpretation' 2 inference, deducing the significance of an
ambiguous text; interpretation (3:7) ŕČ ƈ ōĿ ž Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ ĽźĆƔĄŪ Ą ƉƏą ŸŃ ŗİ śĄ ƔĿ ž ŕĄƈ
Ą ƌĄ ŗŕĿ ŮĿ ś ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ Ą ʼnŕĿ żĊ śĆŗŔ ĊřĿ ƊŇśĊſŇƅŔ Ą ʼnŕĿ żĊ śĆŗŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌĊ ƆƔŃ ƏōĿ ś ॠƈĄ Ə ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ą ƌĿ ƆƔŃ ƏōĿ ś İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ as for the ones in
whose hearts is swerving. they pursue the ambiguous in it
desiring [to cause] dissension and desiring its [definite]
interpretation. when only God knows its [true] interpretation 3
consequence, outcome, end result (4:59) ĆƉ ŐĿ ž ĆƇŁ śĆŷĄ ŪŕĿ ƊĿ ś ƑĊž ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů ą ƋƏč ŧą ũĿ ž ƑĿ ƅ ŏ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔĄ Ə ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎŁ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ Ń ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔĄ Ə Ń ũĊ ŦƕŔ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ĈũĆƔĿŦ ą ƉĄŬĆţ ŌĄƏ Ļ ƜƔŃ ƏōĿ ś and if you
should dispute over something. refer it to God and the
Messenger-if you truly believe in God and the Last Day that is
better and fairer in the end; (7:53) .Ą ƍ Ą ƉƏą ũŁ ŴŇƊĄ Ɣ İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌĿ ƆƔŃ ƏōĿ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ƓĊ śōĄ Ɣ ą ƌŁƆƔŃ ƏōĿś
.ƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƋƏą ŬĿ Ɗ ĆƉĊ ƈ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ŇŚĄ ʼnॠŠ .ą Ŭą ũ ŕĿ ƊĐ ŗĄ ũ IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ do they await but its
fulfilment'. on the Day its fulfilment is realised. those who had
previously ignored it will say. `Our Lord's messenger did bring
the truth' 4 realisation, coming true, fulfilment (12:100) ĊƌĆƔĄƏĄŗŌ ĄŶĿ žĄũĄƏ
Ŀ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƒŕĄ ƔŎą ũ .ƔŃ ƏōĿ ś ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ Ċ ŚĄ ŗ ŌॠƔ .ŕĿ ƁĄ Ə Ŕć ŧČ Šą Ŭ ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔƏč ũĿ ŦĄ Ə Ń ŭĆũĄ ŸŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĔ ƂĄţ ƓĐ ŗĄũ ŕĄƎĿƆĄŸĄŠ ĆŧĿƁ .Ćŗ
and he led his parents to the couch. and they fell down prostrate
before him and he said. `Father. this is the fulfilment of my dream
of long ago, My Lord has made it come true' 5 effect (in one
interpretation of 12:37) ŕĿƁ ĆƉ Ō .ĆŗĿ Ɓ Ċ ƌĊ ƆƔŃ ƏōĿ śŃ ŗ ॠƈŁ ƄŁ śōČ ŗĿ Ɗ İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌĊ ƊŕĿƁĄ ŪĆũŁ ś Ĉ ƇॠŸĿ ų ॠƈŁ ƄƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ .
ॠƈŁ ƄĄ ƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ he said. `No food will come to you for your sustenance
without me telling you of its effects [and what it could do to you]
before it arrives.'
Jň `ãl [coll. n. occurring 26 times in the Qur`an; also it may
have originally been .Ć ƍ Ō `ahl (q.v.) and is always in construct with
a following n.] 1 family, household (3:33) ŕćţƏŁ Ɗ ĄƏ ĄƇĄŧŔĄʼn ƑĿſĿųĆŰŔ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖŏ
Ň ƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉŔĄ ũĆ ƈĊ ŷ .ŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆ ŗ ŏ .ŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸ indeed God has chosen Adam. the
family of Abraham and the family of ´imrãn above all others;

Ŋ [ ƍ [ Ƌ
65
* ĄƉŔĄũĆƈĊŷ .ŔĄʼn name of Sura 3, a Medinan sura, so-named for the
mention of ´imrãn in verse 33 2 people (3:11) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉĆƏĄ ŷĆũĊ ž .ŔĄ ʼn Ń ŖŌĄ ŧĿ Ƅ
ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĊ śŕĄ ƔŋŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŗİ ŨĿ Ƅ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ like [the case of] Pharaoh's people and their
predecessors [who] denied Our revelations.
Jċ ƍ Ŋ `awwal [quasi-act. part.; fem. ƑĿ ƅƏ Ō `ülã; pl. ƉƏŁ ƅČ Ə Ō `awwalün]
1 first (3:96) İƆĿƅ Ń ūŕİƊƆƅ ĄŶĊŲą Ə ċŚĆƔĄŗ .ČƏŌ Č Ɖŏ Ŀ řİ ƄĄŗŃ ŗ ƒĊŨ the first House [of
worship] to be established for people was the one at Mecca;
*(57:3) .ČƏƗŔ [an attribute of God] the First, the Beginning;
*(53:25) ƑĿƅƏ ƗŔĄƏ Ł ŘĄũĊŦƕŔ the next and this life 2 previous, former,
earlier (20:21) .ŕĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƅƏ ƗŔ ॠƎĿ śĄ ũƔĊ Ŭ ॠƍą ŧƔĊ ŸŁ ƊĄ Ŭ ŇŽĿ ŦĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ॠƍŇŨŁ Ŧ He said. `Take it
and do not be afraid-We will restore it to its former state' 3
previous generations [ƉƏŁ ƅČ ƏƗŔ `al-`awwalün] people of old times
(17:59) ॠƈĄ Ə ŕĿ ƊĄ ŸĿ ƊĄ ƈ ĆƉ Ō .ĊŬĆũŁ Ɗ Ċ ŚŕĄ ƔƕŕŃ ŗ İ ƛ ŏ ĆƉ Ō ĄŖİ ŨĿ Ƅ ॠƎŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅČ Ə ƗŔ nothing prevents
Us from sending signs. except that previous generations denied
them.

ĉŇĽ ƙƍ Ŋ `ulã`i(see ŒĽ Ŧ dhã).

Ŀ ŘĽ ƙƍ Ŋ `ulãt classified by grammarians as quasi-sound fem. pl. ) ƀţƆą ƈ
Ŝİ Ɗ Ŏą ƈƅŔ ŶƈŠŃ ŗ ( on the basis of similarity in the way in which both are
declined; Ł ŚĿ ƛƏ Ō occurs twice in the Qur`an and is always in a
construct with a following noun, those with .`, those endowed
with .`, possessors of .` *(65:4) Ł ŚĿ ƛƏ ŌĄ Ə .ॠƈĆţ ƗŔ those with child.
pregnant women. Ł ŚĿ ƛƏ Ō has no phonetically related singular; the
role, however, is fulfilled by ŚŔŨ dhãt (q.v.) (see ƍĿ ƃƍ Ŋ `ulü).

ƍĿ ƃƍ Ŋ `ulü (in the accusative ) ŖŰİ ƊƅŔ ( and genitive ĉ ũĄ ŠƅŔ ( > ) ƑƅƏŌ classified
by grammarians as a quasi-sound masc. pl. ) Ɔą ƈ ƇƅŕČ ŬƅŔ ũİ ƄĿ ŨƈƅŔ ŶƈŠŃ ŗ ƀţ (
on the basis of similarity in the way in which they are declined;
ƏŁ ƅƏ Ō occurs 43 times in the Qur`an and is always in a construct
with a following noun, those with .`, those endowed with .`,
possessors of .` (39:21) Č Ɖ ŏ ƑĊ ž ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ƐĄũŇƄĊŨĿƅ Ɠ ƅƏ Ɨ Ń ŖŕĄŗŇƅ ƗŔ there is truly
a reminder in this for those possessed of minds. ƏŁ ƅƏ Ō `ulü has no
phonetically related singular; the role, however, is fulfilled by ƏŁ Ũ
dhü (q.v.) (see Ŀ ŘĽ ƙƍ Ŋ `ulãt).

Ŋ [ ƍ [ Ƌ `-w-h measles; pain, sadness; to moan, to sigh. Of this root, ĈƋŔČ ƏŌ

Ŋ [ ƍ [ Ɛ
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`awwãh occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ćƉŒċ ƍ Ŋ `awwãh [intens. act. part.] given to expressing sorrows,
tender hearted, compassionate (9:114) Č Ɖ ŏ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ Ĉ ƋŔČ Ə Ɨ ĈƇƔĊƆĄţ Abraham
was tender hearted and forbearing.

Ŋ [ ƍ [ Ɛ `-w-y shelter, refuge, abode, to repair to a place of refuge, to
accommodate, to shelter, to show kindness. Of this root, three
forms occur 36 times in the Qur`an: ƐĄ Ə Ō `awã five times; ƐĄƏŊ `ãwã
nine times and ƐĄƏōĄƈ ma`wã 22 times.
Ǝă ƍ Ŋ `awãï [v. intrans. (also trans.)] to take refuge, to repair, to
shelter (18:10) ŇŨ ŏ ƐĄƏŌ Ł řĄ ƔŇśĊ ſŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ŽĆƎĿ ƄŇƅŔ when the young men took
refuge in the cave.
Ǝă ƍň `ãwã [v. IV, trans.] 1 to shelter someone, to protect (8:26)
ĆƇŁ ƄŔĄ ƏŋĿ ž Č Ɣ ŌĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŧ Ċ ƋŃ ũĆŰĿ ƊŃ ŗ but He gave you refuge and strengthened you
with His help 2 [with ƑĿ ƅ ŏ] to take to oneself (33:51) ƓŃ ŠĆũŁ ś ĆƉĄ ƈ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ ś
ČƉą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ƒŃ ƏŎŁ śĄ Ə ĄƃĆƔĿ ƅŏ ĆƉĄ ƈ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ ś you may put off whomsoever you wish of
them and take to yourself whomsoever you wish.
Ǝă ƍŋă Ɔ ma`wã [n. of place/v. n.] abode, home, place of retreat,
dwelling/abiding, staying, destination (32:19) ŔƏŁ ƆĊƈĄŷĄƏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕČ ƈŌ
ƐĄ ƏōĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ł Śŕİ ƊĄ Š ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĿ ž Ċ ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ as for those who believe and do good
deeds. to them are the gardens of retreat.

Ɛ ō `ï positive-response particle ) ŖŔƏĄ Š ŽũĄ ţ ( , carrying with it great
emphasis, occurring once in the Qur`an, yes`, indeed` (10:53) ƒŏ
ƓĐ ŗĄ ũĄ Ə ą ƌİƊ ŏ Į ƀĄ ţĿ ƅ yes indeed!. by my Lord!-it is true.

Ŋ [ Ɛ [ ť `-y-d fortification, stronghold, refuge; to bolster, to fortify;
power, toughness. Of this root, two forms occur 11 times in the
Qur`an: ĄŧČ Ɣ Ō `ayyada nine times and ŧĆƔ Ō `ayd twice.
ăťċ ƒ Ŋ `ayyada [v. II, trans.] to support, to bolster up, to strengthen
(2:87) ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ń ūą ŧŁ ƂŇƅŔ Ń šƏą ũŃ ŗ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆŧČ Ɣ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ Ą ƉĆŗŔ ƑĄ ŬƔĊ ŷ We gave Jesus. son
of Mary. clear signs and supported him with the Holy Spirit.
ťąƒ Ŋ `ayd [n.] might, power, strength (51:47) Ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƊĄŗ ċŧĆƔ ōŃ ŗ ŕİ Ɗ ŏĄ Ə
ĄƉƏą ŸĊ ŬƏą ƈĿ ƅ and the Heaven We built with power and made [it] vast.

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Ļ ŗĽ Ƃąƒ Ŋ `aykatun [n., with no verbal root, occurring four times in the
Qur`an] thicket, clump of trees, forest *(15:78) ą ŖॠţĆŰ Ō ĊřĿ ƄĆƔ ƗŔ the
dwellers of woods (an epithet for the people of Midian to whom
the Prophet Shu°ayb was sent).

Ŋ [ Ɛ [ ƅ `-y-mdefect, shortcoming; to be without spouse, to lose one`s
spouse, widow, widower. Of this root, ƑĄƈŕĄƔŌ `ayãmã occurs once in
the Qur`an.
ƏăƆœăƒŊ `ayãmã [pl. of n./quasi-act. part. ƇĐ Ɣ Ō `ayyim] a spouseless
person, an unmarried person (24:32) ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƔĊţƅŕČ ŰƅŔĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊƈ ƑĄƈŕĄƔ ƗŔ ŔƏą ţĊƄŇƊ ŌĄƏ
ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŷ marry off the single amongst you and those of your male
and female slaves who are suitable [also: who are righteous].

œă ƆĽ ƈąƒ Ŋ `aynamã(see Ŋ [ ƍ - Ǝ [ Ƈ `-w/y-n).

Ŋ [ ƍ - Ǝ [ Ƈ `-w/y-ntime, to fall due, fatigue; philologists classify under
this vague root some function words more on the basis of
phonetic, rather than semantic, affinity. Of this root, four forms
occur 25 times in the Qur`an: Ą ƉƕŔ `al-`ãna eight times; Ą Ɖŕĉ Ɣ Ō
`ayyãna six times; ĄƉĆƔ Ō `ayna seven times and ॠƈĿ ƊĆƔ Ō `aynamã four
times.
ă ƇƓŒ `al-`ãna [adverbially used n. considered by a group of
grammarians to consist of the article .ƅŔ + ƉŊ (time)] 1 now (2:71)
ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ Ą ƉƕŔ Ŀ ŚœŃ Š IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ they said. `Now you have brought the truth' 2
nowadays, at the present time (72:9) ĆƉĄƈĿž Ń ŶĆƈČŬƆƅ ĄŧĊŷŕĿ ƂĄƈ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ą ŧą ŸŇƂĿƊ ŕİƊŁƄ ŕİƊŌĄƏ
Ŕć ŧĄ ŰĄ ũ ŕć ŗॠƎĊ Ů ą ƌĿ ƅ ĆŧŃ ŠĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƕŔ Ń ŶĊ ƈĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ and that we used to sit on places therein
to listen. but the one who listens nowadays. finds for himself a
meteor lying in wait.
ă Ƈœċ ƒ Ŋ `ayyãna interrogative pronoun of the future respecting
time yet to come ) .ŗƂśŬƈƆƅ ƉŕƈŪ ƇŬŔ ( and used for great events in
contrast with Ƒśƈ (matã) (q.v.) whenever?` (51:12) Ą ƉƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĄ Ɣ Ō Ą ƉŕČ Ɣ ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
Ń ƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ they ask. `Whenever is this Judgement Day coming'!' In
connected discourse Ą ƉŕČ Ɣ Ō may lose its interrogative function and
become governed by a preceding agent, e.g. a verb; denoting a
sense of difficult time ahead` (16:21) ĽŚŔĄƏĆƈŌ ą ũĆƔĿ Ż ċ ʼnॠƔĆţ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ Ą ƉƏą ũą ŸŇŮĄ Ɣ Ą ƉŕČ Ɣ Ō
Ą ƉƏŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗą Ɣ they are dead. not living. and have no awareness of when

Ŋ [ Ɛ [ Ɛ
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they will ever be raised up.
ăƇąƒ Ŋ `ayna interrogative pronoun of ) ƉŕƄƈƆƅ ƇŕƎſśŬŔ ƇŬŔ ( where?`,
occurring seven times in the Qur`an and regularly used
rhetorically to mean nowhere!`, is there ever a place?!`,
wherever?` (75:10) .ƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ĄƉĆƔ Ō č ũĿ ſĄ ƈŇƅŔ on that Day man will
say. `Wherever is the escape'!'
œă ƆĽ ƈąƒ Ŋ `aynamã conditional ) řČƔĊųũĿŮ ( (considered by many
grammarians to be a compound of conditional ĄƉĆƔ Ō + mã of
ambiguity (ŕƈ řƈƎŗą ƈƅŔ), denoting emphasis wherever!` (4:78) ॠƈĿ ƊĆƔ Ō
ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿś ą ƇŁ ƄŁ ƄŃ ũĆ ŧą Ɣ Ł ŚĆƏĄ ƈŇƅŔ wherever you may be. death will overtake you.

Ŋ [ Ɛ [ Ɛ `-y-y (1) marker, sign, token, indicator, to mark; to pause, to
tarry; to ponder, to assure oneself; a person`s body; glory; light of
the sun; beauty of flowers. Of this root, three forms occur 380
times in the Qur`an: ĽřĄƔŊ `ãyatun 86 times; Ń ƉĆƔĿ śĄ ƔŊ `ãyatayn once and
ĽŚŕĄƔŊ `ãyãt 295 times.
Ļŗăƒň `ãyatun [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ śĄ ƔŊ `ãyatayn; pl. ĽŚŕĄƔŊ `ãyãt] 1 sign,
indicator, indication (12:105) ĆƉĐ Ɣ ōĿ ƄĄƏ ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ƑĊ ž Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏč ũą ƈĄ Ɣ
ŕĄƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə ॠƎŇƊĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏą ŲŃ ũĆŸą ƈ and how many a sign is there in the heavens
and the Earth which they pass by. turning away from it! 2
evidence, proof (12:35) ČƇŁ ŝ ŔĄ ŧĄ ŗ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ŕĄƈ Ŕą ƏŌĄũ Ċ ŚŕĄ ƔƕŔ ą ƌİƊŁ Ɗą ŠĆŬĄ ƔĿ ƅ Ƒİ śĄ ţ ľ ƉƔĊ ţ
but then it occurred to them. [even] after seeing the evidence [for
his innocence]. that they should imprison him for a while 3
miracle, portent (13:7) .ƏŁ ƂĄ ƔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ .Ń ŪŇƊ Ō ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĽřĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌĐ ŗĄ ũ and
those who disbelieve say. `If only some portent were sent down
upon him from his Lord'' 4 symbol, exemplar (23:50) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə ĆŗŔ Ą Ɖ
Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ ą ƌČƈ ŌĄ Ə Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn and We made the son of Mary and his mother an
exemplar 5 message, revelation (20:134) ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚŇƆĄ ŬĆũ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ļ ƛƏą ŬĄ ũ
Ą ŶŃ ŗİ śĿ ƊĿ ž Ą ƃĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĊ ƈ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉ Ō İ .Ċ ŨĿ Ɗ ƐĄŪŇŦĿƊĄƏ Lord. if only You had sent us a
messenger. so that we might have followed Your revelations.
before we suffered humiliation and disgrace! 6 teachings,
instructions (24:1) ĽŘĄũƏą Ŭ ॠƍŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆŲĄũĿ žĄƏ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ॠƎƔĊ ž ċ ŚŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗ this is a
sura We have sent down and made obligatory-We have sent down
clear instruction in it. so that you may take heed 7 verses, parts of
the Qur`an (16:101) ŔĿŨŏĄƏ ŕĿ ƊŇ ƅČ ŧĄ ŗ Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĄ ƈ ċ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə ą ƇĿ ƆĆŷ Ō ॠƈŃ ŗ .ĐŪĿ Ɗą Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ Ŀ ŚŇƊ Ō
ũĿ śŇſą ƈ when We substitute one verse for another-and God knows

Ď Ɛ Ŋ
69
best what He reveals-they say. `You are just making it up' 8
lesson (3:13) ĆŧĿ Ɓ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĽřĄƔŔĄʼn ƑĊ ž Ń ƉĆƔĿ ś œĊ ž ŕĿ śĿ ƂĿ śŇƅŔ you have already seen a
lesson in the two armies that met [in battle] 9 glory, wonder
(17:1) Ą ƉॠţĆŗą Ŭ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƐĄ ũĆŬ Ō Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆŗĄ ŸŃ ŗ ĻƜĆƔĿ ƅ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ń ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈŇƅŔ ƑĄŰŇƁƗŔ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
ŕĿ ƊŇƄĄ ũॠŗ ą ƌĿ ƅĆƏĄ ţ ą ƌĄ ƔŃ ũŁ Ɗ ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn glory be to Him who made His servant
travel by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Furthest Mosque.
whose surroundings We have blessed. to show him some of Our
wonders 10 spell, in an interpretation of verse (7:132) ŕĿ ƊĊśōĿ ś ŕĄƈĆƎĄƈ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄƏ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈŃ ŗ Ą ƃĿ ƅ ą ƉĆ ţĿ Ɗ ॠƈĿ ž ॠƎŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĄ ũĄ ţĆ ŬĿ ś ƅ ċ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ and they said `Whatever spell
[also interpreted as: sign] you produce in order to enchant us
with. we will never believe with you.'

Ď Ɛ Ŋ `ayy (2) occurring some 215 times in the Qur`an and functioning
as: I declinable interrogative pronoun always in a construct (ƇŬŔ
ŖĄ ũŸą ƈ ƇŕƎſśŬŔ) who?`, which?`, what?` and used for both rational
beings (9:124) ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə ॠƈ ŇŚĿ ƅŃ ŪŇƊ Ō ĽŘĄũƏą Ŭ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈĿ ž ĆƉĄ ƈ .ƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ ĆƇŁ Ƅč Ɣ Ō ą ƌŇśĄ ŧŔĄ Ū Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ ŕĻ ƊॠƈƔ ŏ when a
sura is revealed. some of them say. `Which of you has this
increased in faith'; and for non-rational beings (77:50) Đ ƒ ōŃ ŗĿ ž ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţ
ą ƋĄ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ so in what discourse. after it. will they believe' In
connected discourse this ĉ ƒ Ō may lose its interrogative function but
remains as a determiner. This may occur when ĉ ƒŌ itself becomes
governed by, e.g., a verb (26:227) ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄƔĄŬĄƏ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ Č ƒ Ō ľŖĿ ƆĿ ƂŇƊą ƈ Ą ƉƏą ŗĊ ƆĿ ƂŇƊĄ Ɣ
the evildoers will come to know what place of returning they will
return to; or when the entire ĉ ƒŌ phrase is governed by (or
subordinated to) a preceding verb (4:11) ĆƇŁ Ƅ ŎॠŗŔĄ ʼn ŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ Ƅ ŎŕĿ ƊĆŗ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƉƏą ũĆŧĿ ś ĆƇą Ǝč Ɣ Ō
ą ŖĄ ũŇƁ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŕć ŸŇſĿ Ɗ your parents and your children-you do not know
which is more likely [lit. nearer] to you in usefulness. This ĉ ƒŌ
occurs inflected for feminine gender, ĊřČ Ɣ Ō `ayyati, only in the
variant non-popular reading of °Ibn Mas°ud of (31:34) ŕĄƈĄƏ ƒŃ ũĆŧĿś ĈūŇſĿƊ
Đ ƒ ōŃ ŗ ) ĊřČ Ɣ ōŃ ŗ ( ľűĆũ Ō Ł ŚƏą ƈĿ ś and no soul knows in what land it will die II a
declinable conditional ) řČ ƔĊ ųũŮ řŗĄ ũŸą ƈ ( always in construct with a
following nominal whichever`, whoever`, occurring in the
Qur`an with a following mã of ambiguity ) ŕƈ řƈĄƎĆŗą ƈƅŔ ( which lends
emphasis to the entire sentence (28:28) ॠƈČ Ɣ Ō Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƆĄ Š ƗŔ Ł ŚĆƔĄ ŲĿ Ɓ Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ą ƉŔĄ ƏĆŧą ŷ Č ƓĿ ƆĄ ŷ
whichever of the two terms I fulfil. let there be no sanction
against me III a declinable relative pronoun ) ŖĄũŸą ƈ .ƏŰƏƈ ƇŬŔ (
who`, which`, whom` (17:57) ĿřĿƆƔĊŬĄƏŇƅŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĐŗĄũ ƑĿƅŏ ĄƉƏŁżĿśĆŗĄƔ ĄƉƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄƃœĿƅƏŌ

ĉŗċ ƒ Ŋ
70
ą ŖĄ ũŇƁ Ō ĆƇą Ǝč Ɣ Ō those upon whom they [the disbelievers] call-
[themselves] seek a way to their Lord. even those of them who are
closest [to Him] IV a prefixal connector to a noun bearing the
article `al as a means of calling it ) Ŕ ƌƔĊ ž ŕƈ ʼnŔŧĊ Ɗ Ƒƅŏ řƆĆŰą Ə Ɔ ( as part of
the vocative (. Ŕ ŕƎč ƔŌ Ɔ ), (including relative pronouns with `al such
as ƒŨƅŔ `alladhï). This ĉ ƒŌ is always suffixed with attention-drawing
ŕƍ hã (q.v.) and is inflected for gender (ॠƎč Ɣ Ō `ayyuhã and ॠƎŁ śČ Ɣ Ō
`ayyatuhã) (2:21) ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ŔƏą ŧą ŗĆŷŔ ą ƇŁ ƄČŗĄ ũ people. worship your Lord;
(12:70) ॠƎŁ śČ Ɣ Ō ą ũƔĊ ŸŇƅŔ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ ĄƉƏŁ ƁŃ ũŕĄŬĿ ƅ you camel riders!. you are thieves. It is
often used interjectionally (15:6) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .Đ ŪŁ Ɗ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ũŇƄIJŨƅŔ Ą ƃİ Ɗ ŏ
ĈƉƏŁ ƊĆŠĄƈĿƅ they say. `You. to whom the Reminder has been revealed!.
you are certainly mad'. In three places in the Qur`anic text ॠƎč Ɣ Ō
`ayyuhã occurs orthographically as Ąƌč Ɣ Ō `ayyuha with a final short
vowel /a/, reflecting the actual shortening of the final long vowel
in connected speech (55:31) ŁŹą ũŇſĿƊĄŬ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ąƌč Ɣ Ō Ń ƉĿ ƜĿ Ƃİ ŝƅŔ We will attend to
you both [We shall take you to task]. you two groups [of jinn and
mankind] laden [with responsibilities] V [prefixed with ƃ with
the compensation nunation (űƔŃ ƏĆŸİśƅŔ ƉƔŃ ƏŇƊĿś) (q.v.) noted as Ɖ]
exclamatory how much!`, how many!` ) ũƔĊŝƄİśƆƅ ( (22:48) ĆƉĐ Ɣ ōĿ ƄĄƏ ĆƉĊ ƈ
ċřĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ Ł ŚĆƔĿ ƆĆƈ Ō ॠƎĿ ƅ Ą ƓĊ ƍĄ Ə Ľ řĄ ƈ ƅŕĿ Ŵ how many a town steeped in wrongdoing I
gave more time to.

ĉŗċ ƒ Ŋ `ayyati (a variant reading of ĉ ƒ Ō `ayy; see:Ĉ Ɛ Ŋ `ayy).

œăƌĿ řăƒŊ `ayyatuhã(see Ĉ ƐŊ `ayy).

œăƆČƒŊ `ayyumã(see Ĉ ƐŊ `ayy).

ăƊČ ƒ Ŋ `ayyuha (see Ĉ ƐŊ `ayy).

œăƌČ ƒŊ `ayyuhã(see Ĉ ƐŊ `ayy).

Ą ŔƍČ ƒ Ŋ `ayyüb [a borrowed proper name occurring four times in the
Qur`an] Prophet Job (Job III) (38:41) ĆũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə ŕĿƊĄŧĆŗĄŷ Ą ŖƏč Ɣ Ō ŇŨ ŏ ƐĄ ŧŕĿ Ɗ ą ƌČŗĄ ũ ƓIJ Ɗ Ō
Ą ƓĊ ƊČ ŬĄ ƈ ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ľ ŖĆŰŁ ƊŃ ŗ Ą Ə ľ ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŷ and remember Our servant Job when he
called to his Lord. `Satan has afflicted me with weariness and
suffering.'

ă Ƈœċ ƒ Ŋ
71
Job is named in the distinguished company of prophets whom
God had inspired (4:163), and in one extended narrative, (38:41-
4) his suffering and patience serve as a powerful symbolic
parallel with the Prophet Muhammad`s own struggle. In answer
to his prayers, God provides him with cool water` with which he
washes himself and drinks. He is cured as a token of God`s mercy
and has his family restored to him.

œċ ƒō `iyyãdetached pronoun in the accusative case specified for gender,
number and person in accordance with the suffix to which it is
always attached ) ŖŰƊ ũƔƈŲ .ŰſƊƈ ( (16:51) Ą ƒŕČ Ɣ ŐĿ ž Ń ƉƏą ŗĄ ƍĆũŕĿ ž I alone am
the One that you should hold in awe. The use of this detached
pronoun, as contrasted with its attached counterpart lends great
emphasis to the context (e.g. Ą ƃŕĉ Ɣ ŏ `iyyãka you alone!`), as in (1:5)
ą ƉƔĊ ŸĿ śĆŬĿ Ɗ Ą ƃŕČ Ɣ ŏĄ Ə ą ŧą ŗĆŸĿ Ɗ Ą ƃŕČ Ɣ ŏ it is You we worship, it is You we ask for help.

ă Ƈœċ ƒ Ŋ `ayyãna (see Ŋ [ ƍ - Ɛ [ Ƈ `-w/y-n).





Ŕ / bã`

Ą Ňœă ŕƃŒ `al-bã` the second letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced
bi-labial plosive sound.

=Łŕ bi preposition ) ĉ ũĄ Š ŽĆũĄ ţ ( occurring in 2538 places in the Qur`an. In
context it conveys various meanings among which are the
following: 1 accompaniment. or concomitance ) řĄ ŗĄ ţॠ۹ ƈƅŔ ( . 'with`
(11:48) ċŚŕĿƄĄũĄŗĄƏ ŕİƊĊƈ ľƇĿ ƜĄŬŃ ŗ ŇųŃ ŗĆƍŔ ą šƏŁƊŕĄƔ Noah. descend with peace from Us
and blessings 2 instrument or means by which the action is
performed ) řĿ ƊॠŸĊ śĆŬƛŔ ( . 'by means of`. 'by the help of` (1:1) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƇĆŬŃ ŗ
Ń ƇƔĊ ţČ ũƅŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƅŔ [I begin/act] with the help of the name of God. the
Lord of mercy. the Giver of mercy 3 indicating the reason for the
action ) řČ ƔŃ ŗĄ ŗČ ŬƅŔ ( . 'because of`. 'for`. 'as consequence of` (29:40) ĔƜŁƄĿž
ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō Ċ ƌŃ ŗŇƊĿ ŨŃ ŗ and We punished each one of them for their sins 4
indicating . 'in return for`. 'in exchange for` ) řĿƆĄŗŕĿƂą ƈƅŔ ( (16:32)
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĿ ś ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈŃ ŗ Ŀ řİƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧŔ enter the Garden in return for what you
have done 5 indicating location ) İ ŴƅŔ řČƔĊžĆũ ( on a) a surface 'on`
(2:265) ċ ŘĄ ƏĆŗĄ ũŃ ŗ ċ řİ ƊĄ Š .Ŀ ŝĄ ƈĿ Ƅ like a garden on a hill b) in an area 'at`
(3:123) ľ ũĆŧĄ ŗŃ ŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ũĄ ŰĿ Ɗ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə and God indeed helped you at Badr; or
c) at a point in time 'at the time of` (54:34) Ł ƅ .ŔĄ ʼn İ ƛ ŏ ľ ũĄ ţĄ ŬŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƔČ ŠĿ Ɗ ċ ųƏ
except the family of Lot whom We rescued at the last hour of the
night 6 indicating the target or recipient of the action ) řĄ ƔŕĿ żƅŔ ( .
'towards`. 'to` (12:100) Ń ƉĆŠĐŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ƓĊƊĄŠĄũŇŦ Ō ŇŨŏ ƓŃ ŗ ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō ĆŧĿƁĄƏ and had been
gracious to me-when He released me from prison 7 indicating
elevation ) ʼnƜĆŸĊ śĆŬƛŔ ( a) physical 'above`. 'on top of` (4:42) ƐČ ƏĄ ŬŁ ś ĆƏĿ ƅ
ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą ƇŃ ƎŃ ŗ that the earth is levelled over them or b) abstract. in the
meaning of prep. ƑĿƆĄŷ 'over`; 'on` (3:75) Ċ ƈĄ Ə ĊƋĐ ŧŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛľũŕĿƊƔĊŧŃ ŗ ą ƌŇƊĄƈōĿ ś ĆƉŏ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇą ƎŇƊ
ĄƃĆƔĿ ƅŏ but of them is he who. if you trust him with [lit. over] a
[single] dinar. will not return it to you or c) indicating the mere

JŁ ŕœă ŕ
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surface. also one of the senses of prep. ƑĿƆĄŷ. 'over` (4:43) Ą ŬĆƈŕĿ ž ŔƏą ţ
ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊŧĆƔŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĊƍƏą Šą ƏŃ ŗ and wipe over your faces and hands [with it] 8 the
sense of prep. min ) ƑĿ ƊĆŸĄ ƈ ƉĊƈ ( . 'from` (76:6) ĊƌİƆƅŔ ą ŧŕĄŗĊŷ ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ą ŖĄũŇŮĄƔ ŕĻƊĆƔĄŷ a
spring from which the servants of God drink 9 adhesiveness.
indicating firm or close contact ) ƙŔ ƀॠŰƅ ( . 'by` (7:150) Ċ ƌƔĊŦ Ō Ń ūŌĄ ũŃ ŗ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ ŌĄƏ
ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ą Ƌč ũą ŠĄƔ and he took hold of his brother. dragging him to himself
by the head 10 the sense of prep. ´an ) ĆƉĄ ŷ ƑƊŸƈ ( . 'about`.
'concerning` (25:59) ŔćũƔŃ ŗĿŦ ĊƌŃ ŗ . ōĆŬŕĿž ą ƉĄƈĆţČũƅŔ the Lord of Mercy, ask
any informed person about Him 11 'passing by` (83:30) ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗ ŔƏčũĄƈ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
ĄƉƏą ŪĄ ƈŕĿ żĿ śĄƔ and when they pass by them they wink at one another 12
'notwithstanding`. 'for all`. 'in spite of` (9:118) ŇŚĿ ƁॠŲ ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ
ą ţĄ ũ ॠƈŃ ŗ ŇŚĄ ŗ when the earth. for all its spaciousness. closed in around
them 13 over and above. in addition to (in one interpretation of
10:71) ē ƇĿżŃ ŗ ŕĎ ƈĿŻ ĆƇŁ ƄĄŗŕĿŝōĿž so He repaid you with grief over grief 14 oath
) ƇĄ ŬĿ ƂƅŔ ( (38:82) ŇŻƗ ĄƃĊśČŪĊŸŃ ŗĿž .ŕĿƁ Ą ƉƔĊ ŸĄ ƈĆŠ Ō ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄ ƔŃ Ə he said. `By your might I will
tempt them all' 15 transitivity ) řĄ ƔĊ ŧĆ Ÿİ śƅŔ ( . rendering a verb transitive
(77:50) Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ ą ƋĄ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţ Đ ƒ ōŃ ŗĿ ž

so in what discourse. after it. will they
believe'; also in (2:17) ƅŔ ĄŖĄƍĿ Ũ ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ũƏŁ ƊŃ ŗ ą ƌİ Ɔ God took away their light 16
emphasis (ŧƔĊ Ƅōİ śƅŔ) (the so-called 'redundant` bã` ) ŘŧœŔČ ŪƅŔ ʼnŕĄŗƅŔ ( . the
(13:43) Ć ƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗĄ Ə ƓĊ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ Ŕć ŧƔŃ ƎĿ Ů Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ƑĿ ſĿ Ƅ .Ł Ɓ say. `[Indeed]. God suffices as a
witness between me and you'. Emphatic .Ń ŗ occurs often in the
compliment of negative particles as in (81:25) ľ ƇƔŃ ŠĄ ũ ľ ƉŕĿ ųĆ ƔĿ Ů .Ć ƏĿ ƂŃ ŗ Ą Əą ƍ ॠƈĄ Ə
this is in no way the speech of any accursed devil 17 the bã` of
wonder. of interjection ) Ŗč ŠĄ Ÿİ śƅŔ ʼnŕŗ ( (18:26) ĆŶĊ ƈĆŬ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ĆũĊ ŰĆŗ Ō how well
He sees and hears!

JŁ ŕœă ŕ Bãbil [proper name. early borrowing from Akkadian. occurring
once in the Qur`an. Philologists derive it from Ŗ [ Ŗ [ . b-b-l
although they recognize the word as the name of a city/region in
Iraq famous for wine and magic] Babylon. the word occurs in
reference to two angels. Harut and Marut. who were sent to try
the faith of the inhabitants of the city of Babylon. They taught the
inhabitants magic while at the same time warning them that. 'We
are only a test. so do not abandon your beliefs`. but they learnt
from them harmful acts of magic such as how to sow discord
between a man and his wife (2:102) Ŀ ŚƏą ũॠƍ .Ń ŗॠŗŃ ŗ Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƄĿ ƆĄ ƈŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ń ŪŇƊ Ō ॠƈĄƏ
Ŀ ŚƏą ũŕĄƈĄƏ and what was revealed to the two angels. Hãrüt and

Ŕ [ Ŋ [ ŧ

74
Mãrüt. in Babylon.

Ŕ [ Ŋ [ ŧ b-`-r a well. to dig a well; to treasure. to hide. to do good. Of
this root. bi`r occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŧőŁŕ bi`r [n. fem.] a well (22:45) ċŧƔĊŮĄƈ ľũĆŰĿ ƁĄƏ ċřĿƆİųĄŸą ƈ ľũœŃ ŗĄƏ [how many]
a deserted well, and [how many] a lofty palace.

Ŕ [ Ŋ [ ũ b-`-s might. power; torture. hardship. fear; poverty. sorrow;
to be sad; calamity. punishment. Of this root. seven forms occur
73 times in the Qur`an: ą ūœĿ śĆŗĿ ś tabta`is twice; ĈūōĄŗ ba`s 25 times;
ą ʼnॠŬōĄ ŗ ba`sã` four times; ĈūœŕĄŗ bã`is once; ĈūƔœĄŗ ba`ïs once; Ą ūœŃ ŗ bi`sa
37 times and ॠƈĄ ŬœŃ ŗ bi`samã three times.
Ą ũőĽ řąŕĽ ř tabta`is [imperf. of v. VIII Ąū ōĿ śĆŗŔ `ibta`asa. intrans. with
prep. .ŗ] to grieve [over]. to feel sorrow. to be sad [about] (12:69)
Ń ŗ Ćū œĿ śĆŗĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ą ƃƏŁ Ŧ Ō ŕĿ Ɗ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĄ Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈ I am your [very] brother, so do
not grieve over what they have done.
ćũŋăŕ ba`s [n.] 1 might. power (17:5) ċ ŧƔĊ ŧĿ Ů ľ ūōĄ ŗ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŕć ŧॠŗĊ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊŇŝĄ ŸĄ ŗ
We send. against you. servants of Ours of great might 2 strength.
solidity (57:25) Ĉ ūōĄ ŗ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ą ŧƔĊ ŧĄ ţŇƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ĈŧƔĊŧĿŮ and We sent iron.
possessing [lit. in it is] great strength 3 hardship. stress. danger
(2:177) Ą ƉƔŃ ũŃ ŗŕČ ŰƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ūōĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ƉƔĊ ţĄ Ə Ċ ʼnŔČ ũČ ŲƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ʼnॠŬōĄ ŗŇƅŔ those who are steadfast
in misfortune. adversity and times of danger 4 punishment
(40:29) ŕĿƊĄʼnॊ ĆƉŏ ĊƌİƆƅŔ Ń ūōĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿƊą ũą ŰŇƊĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĿž but who will help us against
God's mighty punishment if it comes upon us' 5 vengeance.
severity. violence (6:65) ľ űĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ūōĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŲĆŸĄ ŗ Ŀ ƀƔĊ Ũą ƔĄ Ə and make some taste
the severity of others 6 battle. war. strife (33:18) İƛŏ ĄūōĄŗŇƅŔ ĄƉƏŁśōĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ
Ļ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ and they do not come to battle but little.
Ą Ňœă Ūŋă ŕ ba`sã` [n./v. n.] adversity. suffering (7:94) Ċ ʼnॠŬōĄ ŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ ॠƎĿ ƆĆƍ Ō ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō
Č ũČ ŲƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ʼnŔ We afflicted its people with suffering and hardships.
ćũőœăŕ bã`is [act. part./n.] unfortunate. wretched (22:28) ŔƏą ƈĊŸŇųŌĄƏ
Ą ũƔĊ ƂĿ ſŇƅŔ Ą ū œŕĄ ŗŇƅŔ and feed the wretched poor.
ćũƒőăŕ ba`ïs [quasi-act. part./n.] inflicting misery. calamitous
(7:165) ľ ūƔ œĄ ŗ ľ ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŃ ŗ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə and inflicted severe punishment
on the wrongdoers.

Ŕ [ Ř [ J
75
ă ũőŁ ŕ bi`sa [inconjugable verb of abuse ) ŧĊ ƈॠŠ ĉ ƇĿ Ũ .ĆŸĊ ž ( . as it is
labelled by Arab grammarians (see ă ƅąŶĉ ƈ ni´ma) used
interjectionally] 'what a terrible thing!`. 'what an evil thing!`.
'how calamitous!` (5:79) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ŸŇſĄ Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈ Ą ūœŃ ŗĿ ƅ how vile is what they
used to do!
œă Ɔă ŪőŁ ŕ bi`samã [a compound of Ą ūœŃ ŗ bi`sa and relative ŕĄƈ mã
carrying with it more exclamation] 'how absolutely terrible!`.
'how absolutely devilish!`. 'how absolutely calamitous!` (7:150)
ƒĊ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ ƊƏą ƈŁ śŇſĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ॠƈĄ ŬœŃ ŗ what a foul thing you have put in my place
after my departure!

Ŕ [ Ř [ ŧ b-t-r to cut off the tail. to have no descendants. to be
destitute; to be sharp. to be sharp-witted. Of this root. ą ũĿ śĆŗ Ō `abtar.
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą ŧĽ řąŕ Ŋ `abtar [quasi-act. part.] destitute. one [whose bloodline is]
cut off. one with no male descendants. (108:3) ą ũĿ śĆŗ ƗŔ ĄƏą ƍ Ą ƃ œĊ ƊŕĿ Ů Č Ɖ ŏ the
one who hates you is [the] destitute [one] (or. without
descendants) [not you].

Ŕ [ Ř [ Ɓ b-t-k to uproot. to cut off at the base; to dedicate an animal to
a certain idol. as was the custom in pre-Islamic Arabia. by cutting
off. or slitting its ear; to be sharp. Of this root. IJśĄ ŗą Ɣ ČƉŁ Ƅ yubattikunna.
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą Ɓİřă ॠƒ yubattik [imperf. of v. II Ą ƃİ śĄ ŗ battaka. trans.] to cut off or to
slit [the ear of an animal] (4:119) Ą ƉŔĿ ŨŔĄ ʼn ČƉŁ ƄIJśĄ ŗą ƔĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄ ũą ƈ ƕĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎİƊĄ ƔIJƊĄƈ ƗĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎİƊİƆĊ Ų ƗĄ Ə
Ń ƇŕĄŸŇƊƗŔ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƀŇƆĿ Ŧ Č Ɖą ũĐ ƔĿ żą ƔĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄ ũą ƈ ƕĄ Ə [Indeed] I will [certainly] mislead them
and incite vain desires in them, I will command them to slit the
ears of cattle and will command them and they will alter God's
creation.

Ŕ [ Ř [ J b-t-l to cut off. to separate. to stay away from others; to give
up pleasures; to be celibate. Of this root. two forms occur once
each in the Qur`an: .İ śĄ ŗĿ ś tabattal and .ƔĊ śĆŗĿ ś tabtïl.
JĮ řă ༠ř tabattal [imperat. of v. V .İ śĄŗĿ ś tabattala. intrans. with prep.
Ƒƅŏ. v. n. .ƔĊśĆŗĿś tabtïl] to devote oneself entirely [to God`s service]

Ŕ [ Ś [ Ś

76
(73:8) Ļ ƜƔĊ śĆŗĿ ś Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ .İ śĄ ŗĿ śĄ Ə Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƇĆŬŔ Ń ũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄƏ so celebrate the name of your
Lord and devote yourself wholeheartedly to Him.

Ŕ [ Ś [ Ś b-th-th to spread. to disseminate; to cause to multiply; to
disclose; sorrow. worry. illness. Of this root. five forms occur
nine times in the Qur`an: İ ŜĄ ŗ baththa five times; Į ŜĄ ŗ bathth once;
Ľ ŜƏŁ ŝĆ ŗĄ ƈ mabthüth once; Ľ řĿ ŝƏŁ ŝĆ ŗĄ ƈ mabthüthatun once and Į ŜĄ ŗŇ Ɗą ƈ munbathth
once.
Į Śă ŕ baththa u [v. trans.] 1 to disperse. to spread about. to scatter
(31:10) ƑĿ ƂŇƅ ŌĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ċřČŗŔĄŧ IJ.ŁƄ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž İŜĄŗĄƏ ĆƇŁƄŃ ŗ ĄŧƔĊƈĿś ĆƉ Ō ĄƓĊŬŔĄƏĄũ Ń űĆũƗŔ and He cast
in the earth firm mountains-lest it should sway with you-and
spread in it all kinds of living creatures 2 to generate (4:1) İŜĄŗĄƏ
ćʼnŕĄŬĊƊĄƏ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ĻƛŕĄŠŃ ũ ŕĄƈą ƎŇƊĊƈ and from the pair of them He generated great
numbers of men and women.
Į Śă ŕ bathth [n./v. n.] distress. concern. anguish (12:86) ƏŁ ƄŇŮ Ō ŕĄƈİ Ɗŏ
ĊƌİƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ƓĊƊĆŪą ţĄƏ ƓIJŝĄŗ I only complain of my anguish and grief to God.
ĻŚƍĿ śąŕăƆ mabthüth [pass. part.; fem. ĽřĿŝƏŁ ŝĆŗĄƈ mabthüthatun] 1
scattered. dispersed (101:4) ĊŜƏŁŝĆŗĄƈŇƅŔ Ń ŭŔĄũĿ ſŇƅŕĿƄ ą ūŕİƊƅŔ ą ƉƏŁƄĄƔ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ the Day
when people will be like scattered moths 2 spread out (88:16)
ĽřĿ ŝƏŁŝĆŗĄƈ čƓŃ ŗŔĄũĄŪĄƏ and luxurious carpets outspread.
Ĭ Śă ŕŅ ƈĄ Ɔ munbathth [pass. part.] scattered about. dispersed (56:6)
ŕĔŝĄŗŇƊą ƈ ćʼnŕĄŗĄƍ ŇŚĿƊŕĿƄĿž and turns to scattered dust.

Ŕ [ Ŝ [ ũ b-j-s to cause water to gush out; to come upon. to be full of.
to boil over. Of this root. Ą ūĄ ŠĄ ŗŇƊŔ `inbajasa occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ă ũă Şă ŕŅƈŒ `inbajasa [v. VII. intrans.] to gush out (7:160) ĆŖŃ ũĆŲŔ
ŇŕƊƔĄ ŷ Ŀ ŘĄ ũŇŮĄ ŷ ŕĿ śĿ ƊŇŝŔ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ŇŚĄ ŬĄ ŠĄ ŗŇƊŕĿ ž Ą ũĄ ŠĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ƃॠۥ ŸŃ ŗ `strike with your staff the rock'.
and so there gushed out from it twelve springs.

Ŕ [ ş [ Ś b-h-th to rummage in the dust looking for something. to claw
the dust. to search. to seek information. Of this root. Ł ŜĄ ţŗĄ Ɣ yabhath.
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ŀ Śă šąŕă ƒ yabhath [imperf. of v. intrans. with prep. Ɠž] to dig up. to
scratch up (5:31) Ł ŜĄ ţĆ ŗĄ Ɣ ŕć ŗŔĄ ũŁ Ż ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ŜĄ ŸĄ ŗĿ ž ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũ ƗŔ so God sent a raven

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scratching up the earth.

Ŕ [ ş [ ŧ b-h-r ocean. sea. great river. great expanse of water. lake;
generous person; great knowledge; to slit an animal`s ear in ritual.
Of this root. five forms occur 42 times in the Qur`an: ĈũĆţĄŗ bahr 33
times; ĈƉŔĄũĆţĄŗ bahrãn five times; ĈũŕĄţŃ ŗ bihãr twice; Ĉũą ţĆŗŌ `abhur once
and ĽŘĄũƔĊţĄŗ bahïratun once.
ćŧąšăŕ bahr [n.; pl. ĈũŕĄţŃ ŗ bihãr and (pl. of paucity) Ĉũą ţĆŗŌ `abhur] 1
sea. ocean (6:97) ॠƎŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŧĿ śĆƎĿ ś ƅ Ą ƇƏą Šı ƊƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĄ Š ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ĄƏą ƍĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ń ũĆ ţĄ ŗŇ ƅŔĄ Ə Đ ũĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ċ ŚŕĄ ƈŁ ƆŁ Ŵ
and He it is who has made the stars for you to use as a guide
through the darkness of land and sea 2 salt and sweet waters. seas
and rivers (5:96) ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ ŕćŷŕĿśĄƈ ą ƌą ƈŕĄŸĿųĄƏ Ń ũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ ą ŧĆƔĄŰ ĆƇŁƄĿƅ İ.ĊţŌ permitted to you is
catching seafood and eating it. a provision for you; *(30:41) Ą ũĄ ƎĿ Ŵ
ą ŧॠŬĿ ſŇƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ń ũĆţĄŗŇƅŔĄƏ Đ ũĄŗŇƅŔ corruption has appeared [lit. on land and sea]
everywhere.
Ł ƇŒă ŧąšă ŕƃŒ `al-bahrãn [dual. n.] salt and sweet waters (25:53) ĄƏą ƍĄƏ
Ĉ ŞŕĄ Š Ō Ĉ ŢŇ ƆĊ ƈ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍĄ Ə Ľ ŚŔĄ ũŁ ž Ĉ ŖŇ ŨĄ ŷ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ Ń ƉĆ ƔĄ ũĆ ţĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ŞĄ ũĄ ƈ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ it is He who released the
two bodies of flowing water. one sweet and fresh and the other
salty and bitter.
ƒĉ šă ŕ ĻŖăŧ bahïratun [quasi-pass. part. used nominally] the one with
the slit ear. camel whose ear is slit and who is left to feed freely in
accordance with certain pre-Islamic rites (5:103) ċ ŘĄ ũƔĊ ţĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŸĄ Š ॠƈ
ĿƛĄƏ ċřĿƆƔĊŰĄƏ ĿƛĄƏ ċřĄŗœŕĄŬ ĿƛĄƏ ľ Ƈॠţ God has not ordained [dedicating to idols
animals such as the] bahïratun. sã`ibatun. wasïlatun or hãm
(q.v.).

Ŕ [ Ţ [ ũ b-kh-s to diminish. to reduce; to deny full dues. Of this root.
three forms occur seven times in the Qur`an: ą ūĿ ŦĆŗĄ Ɣ yabkhas four
times; ą ūĿ ŦĆŗą Ɣ yubkhas once and ĈūŇŦĄŗ bakhs twice.
Ą ũĽ Ťąŕă ƒ yabkhas [imperf. of v. ĄūĿ ŦĄŗ bakhasa] I [trans.] to decrease.
to reduce. to diminish (2:282) Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ą ƌČ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƀİ śĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƒĊ ŨİƅŔ .Ċ ƆĆƈą ƔŇƅĄ Ə
ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ĆūĿ ŦĆŗĄ Ɣ and let the debtor dictate. and let him fear God. his
Lord. and not diminish any of it [the debt] II [doubly trans..
pass.] to deny someone fair return. to pay someone less than they
deserve. to undervalue. to underestimate (11:85) Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ŔƏą ŬĿ ŦĆŗĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə

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ĄƔŇŮ Ō ĆƇą ƍĄ ʼnŕ do not undervalue for people their property.
Ą ũĽ ŤąŕĄ ƒ yubkhas [pass. v.] to be denied a fair return. to be given
less than is deserved (11:15) ĄƉƏą ŬĿŦĆŗą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŕĄƈĆŷŌ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƅŏ IJ ŽĄƏŁ Ɗ We
shall repay them for their deeds [in this world] and they [their
actions] will not be undervalued.
ćũŅŤăŕ bakhs [v. n.] 1 [used nominally] loss. injustice (72:13) ĆƉĄƈĿž
ŕĻƂĄƍĄũ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŕćŬŇŦĄŗ ŁŽŕĿ ŦĄƔ ĿƜĿž ĊƌĐŗĄũŃ ŗ ĆƉĊƈŎą Ɣ whoever believes in his Lord need not
fear diminution [of the reward of his action] nor wrong 2 [used
adjectivally] defective. much less than what is fair (12:20) ą ƋĆƏĄũĿŮĄƏ
ċ ŘĄ ŧƏą ŧĆŸĄ ƈ Ą ƇĊ ƍŔĄ ũĄ ŧ ľ ūŇŦĄ ŗ ľ ƉĄ ƈĿ ŝŃ ŗ and they sold him for a paltry price.

Ŕ [ Ţ [ ų b-kh-´ tendon that runs close to the neck. to cut such tendon.
to cut the throat; to show humility; to be docile. Of this root. ĈŶĊŦŕĄŗ
bãkhi´ occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ć Ŵĉ Ťœă ŕ bãkhi´ [act. part.] tormenting. killing (oneself with sorrow
or worry) (26:3) Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ İ ƛ Ō Ą ƃĄ ŬŇſĿ Ɗ ĈŶĊ Ŧॠŗ Ą ƃİ ƆĄ ŸƆž it may be that you
[Prophet] are going to kill yourself [with worry] because they
will not become believers!

Ŕ [ Ţ [ J b-kh-l to be stingy. to be covetous; to be grudging. meanness.
Of this root. two forms occur 12 times in the Qur`an: .ĊŦĄŗ bakhila
10 times and .ŇŦą ŗ bukhl twice.
Jĉ Ťă ŕ bakhila a [v. intrans.] 1 to be or act in a niggardly or
miserly way (47:38) ŔƏŁƂĊſŇƊŁśƅ ĄƉĆƏĄŷĆŧŁś ĊʼnĿ ƛŎĄƍ ĆƇŁśŇƊŌŕĄƍ ƑĊ ž .Ŀ ŦĆ ŗĄ Ɣ Ć ƉĄ ƈ Ć ƇŁ ƄŇ ƊĊ ƈĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ
here you are. called upon to spend in the cause of God. but some
of you will be niggardly 2 [with prep. .ŗ] to deny something
meanly. to begrudge (9:76) ĊƌŃ ŗ ŔƏŁƆĊŦĄŗ ĊƌĊƆĆŲĿž ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ śŔĄʼn ŕČƈĿƆĿž yet when He
did give them some of His bounty. they begrudged it [to others] 3
[with prep. Ɖŷ] to be niggardly towards (47:38) .Ŀ ŦĆ ŗĄ Ɣ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž .Ŀ ŦĆ ŗĄ Ɣ Ć ƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
ĊƌĊŬŇſĿ Ɗ ĆƉĄŷ whoever is niggardly is niggardly against himself.
JŅŤĄ ŕ bukhl [n./v. n.] miserliness. niggardliness. meanness.
stinginess (57:24) .ŇŦą ŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ũą ƈōĄ ƔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĿ ŦĆŗĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ those who are
miserly and urge miserliness on others.

Ŕ [ ť [ Ŋ b-d-` to begin. to initiate. the beginning. the lead; chief.

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exceptional person. Of this root. three forms occur 16 times in the
Qur`an: ŌĄ ŧĄ ŗ bada`a 12 times; őĊŧĆŗą Ɣ yubdi` three times and őĊŧŕĄŗ
bãdi`once.
Ŋăťăŕ bada`a a I [v. intrans. with prep. .ŗ] to start with or by. to
begin with (12:76) ƌƔĊŦ Ō Ċ ʼnŕĄŷŃ Ə .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śĄ ƔĊ ŷĆƏ ōŃ ŗ ŌĄŧĄŗĿ ž so. he began with their
packs. before the pack of his brother II [trans.] 1 to initiate. to
innovate. to do for the first time (10:34) Č ƇŁ ŝ Ŀ ƀŇƆĿ ŦŇƅŔ ŌĄ ŧĆŗĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈ ĆƇŁ Ƅ œŕĿ ƄĄ ũŁ Ů ĆƉĊ ƈ .Ą ƍ
ą Ƌą ŧƔĊ Ÿą Ɣ can any of your partner-gods originate creation'. then bring
it back to life again' 2 [with prep. .ŗ] to be first in doing
something to someone (9:13) Əą ʼnĄ ŧĄ ŗ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə ċ ŘČ ũĄ ƈ .Č Ə Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅ and they were the
ones to [attack] you first.
ŏĉ ťą ॠƒ yubdi` [imperf. of v. IV ŌĄŧĆŗ Ō `abda`a. trans.] to initiate. to
start something (29:19) ą Ƌą ŧƔĊ Ÿą Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ŀ ƀŇ ƆĿ ŦŇ ƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ őĊ ŧĆ ŗą Ɣ Ŀ ŽĆ ƔĿ Ƅ ŔĆ ƏĄ ũĄ Ɣ Ć ƇĿ ƅĄ Ə Ō do they not
see how God initiates creation and then reproduces it; *(34:49)
ą ŧƔĊ Ÿą Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə .Ċ ųॠŗŇƅŔ őĊ ŧĆŗą Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ʼnॠŠ the truth has come and falsehood is
dumbfounded (or. vanquished) [lit. neither begins nor repeats [an
utterance]].
ŏĉ ťœă ŕ bãdi` (in one reading ƒĊ ŧॠŗ bãdï) [act. part.] one that begins.
comes first *(11:27) Ń ƒŌČ ũƅŔ őĊ ŧॠŗ without thinking. on the spur of the
moment. without reflection [lit. the first opinion that occurs to
one].

Ŕ [ ť [ ŧ b-d-r full moon. sign. herald. harbinger; to give surprise. to
take the initiative. Of this root. two forms occur once each in the
Qur`an: ĈũĆŧĄŗ badr and ĈũŔĄŧŃ ŗ bidãr.
ćŧąťăŕ Badr [proper name] a well and an area near Medina. a
three-day camel ride from Mecca. where the first battle between
Muslims and Quraysh took place in 2 A.H/624 A.D. (3:123) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ľřİ ƅĊ Ũ Ō ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ľ ũĆŧĄ ŗŃ ŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ũĄ ŰĿ Ɗ and indeed God helped you at Badr when
you were utterly weak.
ćŧŒăťŁŕ bidãr [v. n.] the act of hurrying. rushing up to do (4:6)
ą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆ ƈ Ō Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ŸĿ žĆ ŧŕĿ ž ŔƏą ũĄ ŗŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ŕć ũŔĄ ŧŃ ŗĄ Ə ŕĻ žŔĄ ũĆŬ ŏ ॠƍƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś ĿƛĄ Ə ĆƇ hand over their
property to them. do not consume it wastefully and in haste lest
they come of age [and get it back].


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Ŕ [ ť [ ų b-d-´ novelty. to produce something new. to originate. to
contrive; new fashion. heresy. Of this root. three forms occur four
times in the Qur`an: ĄŵĄŧĿ śĆŗŔ `ibtada´a once; ĈŵĆŧŃ ŗ bid´ once and ĈŶƔĊŧĄŗ
badï´ twice.
ăų㝼 řąŕŒ `ibtada´a [v. VIII. trans.] to contrive. to invent. to dream
up (57:27) Ą ƍƏą ŷĄ ŧĿ śĆŗŔ Ļ řČ ƔĊ ƊॠŗĆƍĄ ũĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆŗĿ śĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ ŕ and [as for] monasticism
they have invented it-We did not ordain it for them.
ćųąťŁŕ bid´ [quasi-act./pass. part.] innovation. first-time
phenomenon. novelty (46:9) .ą Ŭč ũƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŕć ŷĆŧŃ ŗ Ł ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈ I am not a novelty
among the Messengers.
ćŴƒĉ ťăŕ badï´ [act. part.] the originator. the initiator. also attribute
of God (6:101) Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ą ŶƔĊ ŧĄ ŗ the Creator of the heavens and
earth.

Ŕ [ ť [ J b-d-l substitute. alternative. replacement; to replace. to
exchange. to alter; to trade. to barter. Of this root. nine forms
occur 44 times in the Qur`an: .Č ŧĄŗ baddala 21 times; .ČŧĄ ŗŁ ś tubaddal
twice; .ĊŧĆŗą Ɣ yubdil three times; .Č ŧĄŗĿ śĿ ś tatabaddal three times; .ĊŧĿ śĆŗĿ ś
tabtadil three times; .Ą ŧĄ ŗ badal once; .ƔĊŧĆŗĿś tabdïl seven times; .Đ ŧĄŗą ƈ
mubaddil three times and .ŔĄ ŧĆŗĊ śĆŬŔ `istibdãl once.
Jċ ťăŕ baddala [v. II] I [trans.] 1 to alter. to change (2:181) ą ƌĿƅČ ŧĄŗ ĆƉĄƈĿž
ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ ƅĐ ŧĄ ŗą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌą ƈŇŝ ŏ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž ą ƌĄ ŸĊƈĄ Ŭ ॠƈĄ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ if anyone alters it after hearing it.
the guilt will fall on those who alter it 2 to replace something. to
substitute something (76:28) Ļ ƜƔĊ ŧĆŗĿ ś ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŕĿ ŝĆƈ Ō ŕĿ ƊŇƅČ ŧĄ ŗ ŕĿ ƊœĊ Ů ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə should We wish
it. We could completely change their make-up [lit. their likeness.
or. their constitutions] (or. change them for other creatures) II
[doubly trans.] 1 to transform one thing into another (25:70) ĄƃœĿƅƏ ōĿž
ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śŕ œĐ ƔĄ Ŭ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Đ ŧĄ ŗą Ɣ such people. God will change their evil deeds
into good ones 2 to substitute one thing for another (24:55) ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĿ ƅĐ ŧĄ ŗą ƔĿ ƅĄ Ə
ŕĻ ƊĆƈ Ō ĆƇŃ ƎĊ žĆƏĿ Ŧ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ and He will give them in exchange. after their fear.
security 3 to exchange one thing for another (14:28) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ũĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
Ŕć ũŇſŁ Ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ řĄ ƈĆŸĊ Ɗ ŔƏŁ ƅČ ŧĄ ŗ have you given thought to those who exchange
God's favour for ingratitude'
Jċťă ॠƒ yubaddal [imperf. pass.] 1 to be altered. changed (50:29) ॠƈ
ČƒĄ ŧĿ ƅ .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ .ČŧĄ ŗą Ɣ the pronouncement is not changed with Me 2 to be

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changed into another (14:48) ČŧĄŗŁ ś ĄƇĆƏĄƔ Ł ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə Ń űĆũ ƗŔ Ą ũĆƔĿ Ż ą űĆũ ƗŔ .
when [lit. the day when] the earth is turned into another earth. the
heavens into another heaven.
Jĉ ťą ॠƒ yubdil [imperf. of v. IV .ĄŧĆŗ Ō abdala. doubly trans.] to give
someone something in place of another. to replace one thing with
another (18:81) ŕć ƈĆţą ũ Ą ŖĄ ũŇƁ ŌĄ Ə Ļ ŘŕĿ ƄĄ Ū ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ Ŕć ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ॠƈą Ǝč ŗĄ ũ ॠƈą ƎĿ ƅĊ ŧĆŗą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄ ũ ōĿ ž so we
wished that their Lord should change him for them. [for one]
better in purity and nearer to kindness.
Jċ ťă༠řĽ ř tatabaddal [imperf. of v. V trans.] to exchange (4:2) ŔƏŁ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə
Ń ŖĐ Ɣİ ųƅŕŃ ŗ ĿŜƔŃ ŗĿŦŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƅČ ŧĄŗĿśĿś ĿƛĄƏ ĆƇą ƎĿƅŔĄƏĆƈŌ ƑĄƈŕĿśĄƔŇƅŔ give orphans their property and
do not exchange good things for bad.
Jĉ ťą ༠řą Ūă ƒ yastabdil [imperf. of v. X .ĄŧĆŗĿ śĆŬŔ `istabdala. trans.] 1 to
seek to exchange (2:61) ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ą Əą ƍ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŕŃ ŗ ƑĿ ƊĆŧ Ō Ą Əą ƍ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅĊ ŧĆŗĿ śĆŬĿ ś Ō would you
exchange that which is better for that which is worse' 2 to put
something in place of another (9:39) ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ũĆƔĿ Ż ŕć ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ .Ċ ŧĆŗĿ śĆŬĄ ƔĄ Ə and put
others in your place.
Jă ťă ŕ badal [n.] substitute. exchange (18:50) ĆƉĊ ƈ ĄʼnॠƔ ƅĆƏ Ō ą ƌĿ śČ ƔĐ ũŁ ŨĄƏ ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ ŨĊŦİ śĿ śĿ ž Ō
ƛĄ ŧĄ ŗ Ą ƉƔĊ ƈ ƅŕİ ŴƆ ƅ Ą ūœŃ ŗ ď Əą ŧĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə ƓĊ ƊƏąŧ do you take him and his descendants
as your allies. instead of Me. even though they are your enemies'
What a bad exchange for the evil-doers.
Ļ ƚƒĉ ťą ༠ř tabdïl [v. n./n.] 1 the act of altering. alteration. change
(48:23) ƜƔĊŧĆŗĿś Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċřİ Ɗą Ŭƅ ĄŧŃ ŠĿś ĆƉĿƅĄƏ and you will find no change in God's
practices 2 the act of exchanging (76:28) ƜƔĊŧĆŗĿ ś ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŕĿ ŝĆƈ Ō ŕĿ ƊŇƅČ ŧĄŗ ŕĿ ƊœĊŮ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
should We wish it. We would completely change their make-up
[lit. their likeness. or their constitutions] (or. change them for
other creatures).
Jď ťăॠƆ mubaddil [act. part.] one who changes. alters (6:115) Ň ŚČ ƈĿ śĄ Ə
ĊƌĊśŕĄƈĊƆĿƄƅ .ĐŧĄŗą ƈ Ŀƛ ŇƛŧĄŷĄƏ ŕĻƁĆŧĊŰ ĄƃĐŗĄũ ŁřĄƈĊƆĿƄ the word of your Lord has come to
pass in truth and justice. no one can change His words.
JŒă ťąŕĉ řąŪŒ `istibdãl [v. n.] seeking to exchange one thing for
another (4:20) ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ľŞĆƏĄŪ ĄƉŕĿ ƄĄƈ ľŞĆƏĄŪ .ŔĄŧĆŗĊśĆŬŔ ą ƇŁ śĆŧĄũŌ and if you wish to
replace one wife with another.

Ŕ [ ť [ Ƈ b-d-n torso. body; to be fat; to be fleshy; to be old; a camel or

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cow fattened for sacrifice in pre-Islamic ritual. Of this root. two
forms occur once each in the Qur`an: Ĉ ƉĄ ŧĄ ŗ badan and ĈƉĆŧą ŗ budn.
ć Ƈă ťă ŕ badan [n.] body (also said to mean a short shield) (10:92)
Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn Ą ƃĿ ſŇ ƆĿ Ŧ Ć ƉĄ ƈ ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ ś ƅ Ą ƃĊ ƊĄ ŧĄ ŗŃ ŗ Ą ƃƔĐ ŠĿ ƊŁ Ɗ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔŇ ƅŕĿ ž so. today We save you [only] in
body. that you may be a sign. for those after you.
ćƇąťĄ ŕ budn [pl. of n. ĽřĿ ƊĄŧĄŗ badanatun] [jur.] fleshy camels or cows.
with certain specifications. that are fit to be sacrificed as part of
the pilgrimage rituals (22:36) ĊƌİƆƅŔ Ń ũœŕĄŸĿ Ů ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿƅ ŕĄƍŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ĄƉĆŧą ŗŇƅŔĄƏ and the
fleshy camels and cows. We have appointed them for you as part
of God's sacred rites.

Ŕ [ ť [ ƍ b-d-w to appear. to manifest; to disclose. to show; to come to
one`s mind; the open desert; to go to the desert; desert dwellers.
bedouins. Of this root. seven forms occur 31 times in the Qur`an:
ŔĄ ŧĄ ŗ badã 24 times; ƒĊŧĆŗŁ ś tubdï nine times; ƐĄŧĆŗŁ ś tubdã twice; ĈƏĆŧĄŗ badw
once; ƒĊ ŧॠŗ bãdï twice; ƉƏą ŧॠŗ bãdün once and ƒĊŧĆŗą ƈ mubdï once.
Œă ťă ŕ badã u [v. intrans. with prep. Ɔ] 1 to appear. to become
manifest (7:22) Č ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ŕĄƈą ƎŁ śŊĆƏĄŬ ŕĄƈą ƎĿ ƅ ŇŚĄŧĄŗ Ŀ ŘĄũĄŠİ ŮƅŔ ŕĿƁŔĿ Ũ ŕ but when they tasted
the tree. their shameful parts became manifest to them 2 to come
to one`s mind. to occur (12:35) Ƒİ śĄ ţ ą ƌİ ƊŁ Ɗą ŠĆ ŬĄ ƔĿ ƅ Ċ ŚŕĄ ƔƕŔ Ŕą Ə ŌĄ ũ ॠƈ Ċ ŧĆ ŸĄ ŗ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ ŔĄ ŧĄ ŗ Č ƇŁ ŝ
ľ ƉƔĊ ţ but it occurred to them. [even] after seeing the evidence [for
his innocence]. that they should imprison him for a while.
Ɛĉ ťą ॠƒ yubdï [imperf. of v. IV ƐĄŧĆŗŌ `abdã trans.] 1 to reveal. to
bring into the open (3:29) ॠƈ ŔƏŁ ſŇŦŁ ś ĆƉ ŏ ƑĊ ž ą ŧĆŗŁś ĆƏŌ ĆƇŁƄŃ ũƏą ŧą Ű ą ƌĆƈĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ą ƋƏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ
whether you conceal or reveal what is in your hearts. God knows
it 2 to cause to manifest. to cause to appear. to expose (7:20)
ŕĄƈŃ ƎĊśŊĆƏĄŬ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƈą ƎŇƊĄŷ ĄƒŃ ũƏą Ə ŕĄƈ ŕĄƈą ƎĿ ƅ ĄƒĊŧĆŗą Ɣƅ ą ƉŕĿųĆƔİŮƅŔ ŕĄƈą ƎĿƅ ĄūĄƏĆŬĄƏĿ ž but Satan
insinuated [evil thoughts] to them. so as to expose the nakedness
that had been hidden from them; *(28:10) Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ƒĊ ŧĆŗŁ śĿ ƅ ŇŚĄ ŧŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏ she
almost gave him away (or. she would have involuntarily disclosed
his identity).
Ǝă ťą ŕĿ ř tubdã [imperf. pass.] to be revealed. to be disclosed
(5:101) ĆƇŁ ƄŎą ŬĿ ś ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ŧĆŗŁ ś ĆƉ ŏ Ą ʼnॠƔŇŮ Ō ĆƉĄ ŷ ŔƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĿ ś Ŀ ƛ do not ask about matters
which. if made known to you. would adversely affect you.
ćƍąťăŕ badw [n./v. n.] desert nomads; living or dwelling in the

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŋ
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desert (12:100) Ą ŠĄ Ə Ń ƏĆŧĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗ Ą ʼnŕ and He brought you here from the
desert (or. from among the nomads. or. from being in the desert).
Ɛĉ ťœă ŕ bãdï [act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŧॠŗ bãdün] 1 one who is away from
the town. someone living in the desert. desert-dweller (33:20) Ą Ə ĆƉ ŏ
Ą ƉƏą ŧॠŗ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅ ŔƏč ŧĄ ƏĄ Ɣ ą ŖŔĄ ŪĆţ ƗŔ Ċ ŚōĄ Ɣ ƑĊ ž Ń ŖŔĄũĆŷ ƗŔ but if the joint forces were to
come. they would wish they were away in the desert. among the
Bedouins 2 outsider. one who lives outside (22:25) Ń ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇƅŔ Ċ ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə
ŇƆĄ ŸĄ Š ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ċ ŧॠŗŇƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ł ŽĊ ƄॠŸŇƅŔ ć ʼnŔĄ ƏĄ Ŭ Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ ą ƋŕĿ Ɗ and [from] the Sacred Mosque
which We made for all people. residents and outsiders alike
*(11:27) Ń ƒŌČ ũƅŔ Ą ƒĊ ŧॠŗ translated as clearly. obviously [lit. the first
opinion that occurs to one] (a variant reading őĊŧŕĄŗ bãdi`. see: Ŕ [ ť [ Ŋ
b-d-`).
Ɛĉ ťąŕĄ Ɔ mubdï [act. part.] one who reveals or causes something to
become manifest. someone who brings something to light. who
exposes something (33:37) ƓĊſŇŦŁ śĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌƔĊ ŧĆŗą ƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ॠƈ Ą ƃĊ ŬŇſĿ Ɗ and you hide in
your heart what God would [later] reveal.

Ŕ [ Ŧ [ ŧ b-dh-r seed. seedling. to sow; to disseminate; to divulge; to
squander. to waste. Of this root. three forms occur once each in
the Qur`an: ą ũIJŨĄ ŗŁ ś tubadhdhir; ĈũƔĊŨĆŗĿś tabdhïr and ƉƔŃ ũIJ ŨĄ ŗą ƈ mubadhdhirïn.
Ą ŧİŦă ŕĿ ř tubadhdhir [imperf. of v. II Ą ũİ ŨĄ ŗ badhdhara. trans.; v. n. ĈũƔĊŨĆŗĿś
tabdhïr] to squander. to waste away (17:26) ą ƌİ ƂĄ ţ ƑĄ ŗĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ŔĿ Ũ Ċ ŚŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə
Ŕć ũƔĊ ŨĆŗĿ ś ĆũIJ ŨĄ ŗŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə .ƔŃ ŗČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĆŗŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƄĆŬĊ ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə give relatives their due. and the
needy. and travellers-do not squander your wealth wastefully.
ƇƒŁ ŧİ Ŧă ॠƆ mubadhdhirïn [pl. of act. part. ĈũIJ ŨĄŗą ƈ mubadhdhir]
spendthrifts. squanderers (17:27) Ń ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ Ą ƉŔĄ ƏŇŦ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔŃ ũIJ ŨĄ ŗą ƈŇƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
squanderers were ever the brothers of the devils.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŋ b-r-` God`s creation. to create (said only of God); to cure; to
prove someone`s innocence; to disown someone; to be without
blemish. Of this root. 12 forms occur 31 times in the Qur`an: ŌĄ ũĆŗĿ Ɗ
nabra` once; őŃ ũĆŗ Ō `ubri` twice; ŌČ ũĄŗ barra`a twice; ŌČ ũĄŗĿ ś tabarra`a
five times; ĈʼnƒŃ ũĄŗ barï` 10 times; ƉƏ œƔŃ ũĄŗ barï`ün once; ĈʼnŔĄũĄŗ barã`
once; ą ʼnŔĄ ʼnĄ ũą ŗ bura`ã` once; ĽŘĄʼnŔĄũĄŗ barã`atun twice; ĽřČ ƔŃ ũĄŗ bariyyatun
twice; őŃ ũॠŗ bãri` three times and ƉƏą ʼnČũĄ ŗą ƈ mubarra`ün once.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŋ

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ăŧąŕĽ ƈ Ŋ nabra` [imperf. of v. ŌĄũĄŗ bara`a. trans.] 'We create`. 'We
bring into being` (said by God) (57:22) ċřĄŗƔĊŰą ƈ ĆƉĊƈ ĄŖŕĄŰ Ō ŕĄƈ ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũ ƗŔ
Ŀ ƛĄƏ ƑĊ ž İ ƛ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ƑĊ ž ॠƍ ŌĄ ũĆŗĿ Ɗ ĆƉ Ō .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ľ ŖŕĿ śĊ Ƅ no calamity befalls. either in
the earth or in yourselves. but it is in a Book before We bring it
into being.
Ŋċ ŧăŕ barra`a [v. II. trans.] to absolve. to pronounce or to show
as innocent. to exonerate (33:69) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿƁ ŕČ ƈĊƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƋŌČ ũĄŗĿž but God cleared
him of what they said [their allegations].
ŏŁ ŧąŕ Ŋ `ubri`u [imperf. of v. IV ŌĄũĆŗ Ō `abra`a. trans.] to heal. to
cure (3:49) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉŇ Ũ ŐŃ ŗ ƑĿ śĆ ƏĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ ƓĊ ƔĆ ţ ŌĄ Ə Ą ůĄ ũĆ ŗ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƌĄƈŇ Ƅ ƗŔ őŃ ũĆ ŗ ŌĄ Ə I will heal the
blind and the leper. and bring the dead back to life with God's
leave.
Ľ ř Ŋċ ŧăŕ tabarra`a [v. V. intrans.] 1 [with prep. Ɖƈ] to dissociate
oneself. to disown someone. to wash one`s hands of someone or
something (9:114) ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ŌČ ũĄ ŗĿ ś Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ ď Əą ŧĄ ŷ ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƉČ ƔĄ ŗĿ ś ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž but when it became
clear to him that he was an enemy of God. he disowned him 2
[with prep. Ƒƅŏ] to declare one`s innocence. to deny responsibility.
to disown (28:63) ŔƏŁƊŕĿƄ ŕĄƈ ĄƃĆƔĿƅŏ ŕĿƊŌČũĄŗĿś ŕĿƊĆƔĄƏĿŻ ŕĄƈĿƄ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊĆƔĄƏŇŻŌ ŕĿƊĆƔĄƏŇŻŌ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĊʼnĿƛŎĄƍ ŕĿƊČŗĄũ
Ą ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĄ Ɣ ŕĿ ƊŕČ Ɣ ŏ our Lord. these are the ones we caused to deviate. we
caused them to deviate as we ourselves deviated. but now we
disown them before You. they did not really serve us.
ćŇƐŁŧăŕ barï` I [act. part.. pl. ƉƏ œŃ ũॠŗ bãri`ün and ą ʼnŔĄ ʼnũą ŗ bura`ã`] one
who disowns someone. one who dissociates him/herself from
someone/something (26:216) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĿ ś ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ ĈʼnƒŃ ũĄ ŗ ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ .Ł ƂĿ ž Ą ƃĆƏĄ ŰĄ ŷ ĆƉ ŐĿž if they
disobey you. say. `I am not responsible for your actions' II
[quasi-act. part.] innocent. free from guilt (4:112) ŇƄĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ĆƏŌ Ļř œƔĊųĿŦ ĆŖĊŬ
ŕĻ ƊƔŃ ŗą ƈ ŕć ƈŇ ŝ ŏĄ Ə ŕĻ ƊŕĿ śĆ Ǝą ŗ .Ą ƈĿ śĆ ţŔ Ċ ŧĿ ƂĿ ž ŕ œƔŃ ũĄ ŗ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ń ƇĆ ũĄ Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ ŕć ƈŇ ŝ ŏ whosoever commits an
offence or a sin. and then casts it upon the innocent. has laid
upon himself deceit and flagrant sin.
ćŇŒăŧăŕ barã` [v. n. used as quasi-act. part. and equally applies to
masc. and fem. sing.. dual and plural] one who is free from. one
who disowns. renounces someone or something (43:26) ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ .ŕĿ Ɓ
Ą ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆ ŸĿ ś ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ Ĉ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ ŗ ƓĊ Ɗİ Ɗ ŏ Ċ ƌĊ ƈĆ ƏĿ ƁĄ Ə Ċ ƌƔŃ ŗ Ɨ Abraham said to his father and his
people. `I am innocent of what you worship.'
ĻŖăŇŒăŧăŕ barã`atun [v. n./n.] freedom or release from an obligation.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŝ
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exemption. revocation. rescinding. abrogation (9:1) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ľ ŘĄ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ ŗ
ƔĊ ƄŃ ũŇŮą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ śĆŧĄ ƍॠŷ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƌ ƅƏą ŬĄũĄ Ə Ą Ɖ release from obligation [is
proclaimed] from God and His Messenger to those of the
polytheists with whom you made a treaty; * ŘĄ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ ŗ name of Sura 9.
Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to
'the Release from Obligation`. also called `al-Tawba (see Ř [ ƍ [ Ŕ
t-w-b).
Ļ ŗċ ƒŁ ŧă ŕ bariyyatun [n./pass. part.] the entire creation (98:7) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ĊřČƔŃ ũĄŗŇƅŔ ą ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƍ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏŌ ĊŚŕĄţƅŕČŰƅŔ ŔƏŁƆĊƈĄŷĄƏ ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn those who believe and do
good deeds are the best of creation.
ŏŁŧœăŕ bãri` [act. part.] Maker. Creator (2:54) ĆƇŁ ƄœŃ ũŕĄŗ ƑĿ ƅŏ ŔƏą ŗƏŁ śĿ ž so
repent to your Maker *(59:24) őŃ ũॠŗŇƅŔ [attribute of God] the
Creator. the Initiator. the Maker.
ƇƍĄ Ňċŧă ॠƆ mubarra`ün [pl. of pass. part. ŌČ ũĄŗą ƈ mubarra`]
exonerated. absolved. declared innocent (24:26) ŕČƈĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏą ʼnČũĄ ŗą ƈ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō
Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ those are innocent of what they [the slanderers] say.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŝ b-r-j height; prominence; beauty of the eyes; tower; signs of
the zodiac; fortification; (of women) to display their charm. Of
this root. three forms occur seven times in the Qur`an: ĄƉĆŠČ ũĄŗĿ ś
tabarrajna twice; ĽŚŕĄ ŠĐ ũĄ ŗĿ śą ƈ mutabarrijãt once and ĈŞƏą ũą ŗ burüj four
times.
ăƇąŞċ ŧă༠ř tabarrajna [imperf. of v. V ĄƉĆŠČ ũĄŗĿ ś tabarrajna with the
imperfect prefix ś elided. intrans.] (said only of women) to adorn
themselves in an enticing way. in a lust-causing way; to expose
themselves in an alluring way (33:33) ĄƉĆũĿ ƁĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĄŞčũĄŗĿś ĄƉĆŠČũĄŗĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ČƉŁƄĊśƏą Ɣą ŗ
ƑĿ ƅƏ ƗŔ Ċ řČ ƔĊ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇƅŔ stay in your houses. and do not display your finery in
the way of the pagans of old.
Ļ Řœă Şď ŧă ༠řĄ Ɔ mutabarrijãt [pl. of act. part. fem. ĽřĄŠĐ ũĄŗĿ śą ƈ
mutabarrijatun] (said only of women) those who flaunt their
bodies in an alluring way. display their adornment enticingly
(24:60) ĄƉĊƈ ą ŧĊŷŔĄƏĿ ƂŇƅŔĄƏ Ą ƉĆŸĄ ŲĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĈšŕĿ Ɗą Š Č ƉŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĄūĆƔĿ ƆĿ ž ŕćţŕĿ ƄĊ Ɗ ĄƉƏąŠĆũĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ƓĊśİ ƜƅŔ ĊʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ
ċřĿ ƊƔŃ ŪŃ ŗ ċŚŕĄŠĐũĄŗĿśą ƈ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ČƉą ƎĄŗŕĄƔĊŝ such women as are past childbearing who
have no hope of marriage. there is no blame on them if they take
off their [outer] garments. without however. flaunting their

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ş

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charms.
ćŜƍĄ ŧĄ ŕ burüj [pl. of ĈŞĆũą ŗ burj] 1 tower. castle (4:78) ą ƇŁ ƄŁ ƄŃ ũĆŧą Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś ॠƈĿ ƊĆƔ Ō
ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə Ł ŚĆƏĄ ƈŇƅŔ ƑĊž ċŘĄŧČƔĿŮą ƈ ľŞƏą ũą ŗ wherever you may be. death will
overtake you. even if you are inside lofty towers 2 positions of the
sun. moon and planets. constellations; signs of the zodiac (15:16)
ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ Š ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ Ŵŕİ ƊƆ ƅ ॠƍŕİ ƊČ ƔĄ ŪĄ Ə ŕć ŠƏą ũą ŗ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ We have set constellations up
in the sky and made it beautiful for the beholders; * ľ ŞƏą ũą ŗƅŔ name of
Sura 85, Meccan sura, so-named because of the reference in verse
1 to 'the Constellations`.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ş b-r-h wide empty expanse of land; to be clear. to come out in
the open; to depart; to cause hardship. Of this root. ĄšĄũĆŗ Ō `abrah
occurs three times in the Qur`an.
ăşăŧąŕ Ŋ `abrah [imperf. of v. Ą šŃ ũĄ ŗ bariha. trans.] 1 to depart. to go
away from (12:80) Ɠƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƇŁ ƄĆţĄƔ ĆƏŌ ƓŃ ŗŌ Ɠƅ ĄƉĿŨōĄƔ Ƒİ śĄţ ĄűĆũƗŔ ĄšĄũĆŗŌ ĆƉĿƆĿž never
will I leave this land until my father gives me permission or God
decides for me 2 [always negated] (not to) cease. stop. quit. desist
(18:60) Ń ƉĆƔĄũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ ĄŶĄƈĆŠĄƈ ĿźŁƆĆŗŌ ƑİśĄţ ą šĄũĆŗ Ō Ŀƛ I will not desist [from
journeying] until I reach the place where the two seas meet.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ť b-r-d coldness. to cool. to abate; to alleviate. to die. Of this
root. three forms occur five times in the Qur`an: ĈŧĆũĄŗ bard twice;
Ĉ ŧĄ ũĄ ŗ barad once and ŧŃ ũŕĄŗ bãrid twice.
ćťąŧăŕ bard [v. n./n.] 1 coolness [also interpreted as: sleep] in
verse (78:24) Ą ƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉƏŁ ƁƏŁ ŨĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ŕć ŗŔĄ ũĿ Ů Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ŕć ŧĆũĄ ŗ ŕ there they will feel no
coolness nor will they have any drink 2 [used adjectivally] cool
(21:69) ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕćƈĿ ƜĄŬĄƏ ŔćŧĆũĄŗ ƓĊƊƏŁƄ ą ũŕĿƊŕĄƔ ŕĿ ƊŇƆŁƁ We said. `Fire. be cool
and safe for Abraham.'
ťă ŧă ŕ barad [coll. n.] hail (24:43) ċ ŧĄ ũĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƎƔĊ ž .ॠŗŃ Š ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ .Đ ŪĿ Ɗą ƔĄ Ə
and He sends down from the sky. mountainous clouds [lit.
mountains] in which is hail.
杣ŧœăŕ bãrid [quasi-act. part.] cool. cold. refreshing (56:44) ċŧŃ ũŕĄŗ Ŀƛ
ľƇƔŃ ũĿƄ Ŀ ƛĄƏ neither cool nor hospitable.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ŧ b-r-r open country. desert. wilderness. land (as opposed to

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ũ
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sea); to be free of impurity. to be free of guilt. to be pious. to be
devoted; to fulfil one`s promise. wheat. goodness. Of this root. six
forms occur 32 times in the Qur`an: č ũĄ ŗĿ ś tabarr twice; ď ũĄ ŗ barr (1)
three times; ĈũŔĄũĆŗŌ `abrãr six times; ď ũŃ ŗ birr eight times; Ľ ŘĄ ũĄ ũĄ ŗ
bararatun once and ď ũĄ ŗ barr (2) 12 times.
Č ŧă ༠ř tabarr [imperf. of v. Č ũĄ ŗ barra] I [intrans.] to be charitable.
to act charitably. to do good (2:224) ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƊॠƈĆƔ Ɨ Ļ řĄ ŲĆũą ŷ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĆŠĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ŔƏč ũĄŗĿś [believers] do not allow your God-backed oaths to hinder
you from performing a charitable act/from doing good II [trans.]
to show kindness to (60:8) ĊŬŇƂŁśĄƏ ĆƇą ƍƏčũĄŗĿ ś ĆƉŌ Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏŁ ų and that you
should show them kindness and deal justly with them.
Ď ŧă ŕ barr (1) I [act. part.] 1 one who carries out acts of kindness.
one who is devoted. one acting dutifully towards kinsfolk (19:32)
ƓĊ śĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ ƏŃ ŗ ŔĎ ũĄ ŗĄ Ə and [made me] cherish my mother 2 one who is true to
his promise (in one interpretation of 52:28) Ą Əą ƍ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ ą ƋƏą ŷĆŧĿ Ɗ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
ą ƇƔĊţİ ƅŔ č ũĄŗŇƅŔ we used to invoke Him, He is the one true to His promise
II [n.; pl. ĈũŔĄũĆŗŌ `abrãr] a pious person. righteous (76:5) ČƉŏ ĄũŔĄũĆŗƗŔ
ŔćũƏŁžŕĿƄ ŕĄƎą ŠŔĄŪĊƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ľūōĿƄ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏą ŗĄũŇŮĄƔ the pious shall drink of cups whose
mixture is camphor; *(52:28) č ũĄ ŗŇƅŔ [attribute of God] the Good. the
Benign; the one true to His Promise.
Ď ŧŁ ŕ birr I [n./v. n.] righteousness. piety. righteous act. act of
charity (2:44) ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō Ą ƉĆƏĄ ŬŇƊĿ śĄ Ə Đ ũŃ ŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ũą ƈōĿ ś Ō do you bid people
towards piety and forget [to do it] yourselves' II [n.] the state of
being righteous (3:92) Ł ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ Č ũŃ ŗŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƊĿ ś ĆƉĿ ƅ Ą ƉƏč ŗĊ ţŁ ś ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƂĊ ſŇƊ you will not/
never attain righteousness until you give of what you truly cherish.
Ļ Ŗă ŧă ŧă ŕ bararatun [pl. of act. part. ď ũॠŗ bãrr] pious. dutiful. sincere.
virtuous (80:16) ċ ŘĄ ũĄ ũĄ ŗ ľ ƇŔĄ ũĊ Ƅ Noble and virtuous [scribes].
Ď ŧă ŕ barr (2) [n.] land (as opposed to sea-shore) *(6:59) ŕĄƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄƔĄƏ ƑĊž
Ń ũĆţĄŗŇƅŔĄƏ Đ ũĄŗŇƅŔ He knows all [lit. what is in land and sea].

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ũ b-r-z open land; to go out in the open. to be prominent; to
outdo others; to duel; to evacuate the bowels. Of this root. four
forms occur nine times in the Qur`an: Ą ŪĄ ũĄ ŗ baraza five times; Ą ŪĐ ũą ŗ
burriza twice; Ľ ŘĄ ŪŃ ũॠŗ bãrizatun once and ƉƏą ŪŃ ũॠŗ bãrizün once.
ă Ũă ŧă ŕ baraza u [v. intrans.] 1 to go forth. to come out (3:154) ĆƏĿ ƅ

Ţă Ũąŧă ŕ

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ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ƑĊ ž ĄŪĄũĄŗĿ ƅ ĆƇŁƄĊśƏą Ɣą ŗ Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ŸŃ ŠŕĄ ŲĄ ƈ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ .Ň śĿ ƂŇ ƅŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ŖĊ śŁ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ even if you were at
home. those who were destined to be killed would still have gone
out to the place of their deaths 2 to become manifest. to appear
(14:21) ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ ŔƏą ŪĄ ũĄ ŗĄ Ə and they will appear before God. all
together.
ă Ũď ŧĄ ŕ burriza [pass of v. II] to be made manifest. to be shown
(26:91) Ą ƉƔŃ ƏŕĿ żŇ Ɔ ƅ ą ƇƔĊ ţĄ ŠŇ ƅŔ Ċ ŚĄ ŪĐ ũą ŗĄ Ə and the Fire is placed in full view of the
misguided.
Ļ Ŗă ŨŁ ŧœă ŕ bãrizatun [act. part. fem.] bare. levelled plain with
nothing to cover its surface (18:47) Ļ ŘĄ ŪŃ ũॠŗ Ą űĆ ũ ƗŔ ƐĄ ũĿ śĄ Ə .ॠŗŃ ŠŇ ƅŔ ą ũĐ ƔĄ ŬŁ Ɗ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄƔĄ Ə
and on the day We set the mountains in motion. and you [will] see
the earth as an open plain.
ƇƍĄ ŨŁŧœăŕ bãrizün [pl. of act. part. Ĉ ŪŃ ũॠŗ bãriz] one who is
completely in view. one who stands out (40:16) ƑĿ ſŇŦĄƔ Ŀƛ ĄƉƏą ŪŃ ũŕĄŗ ĆƇą ƍ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ
Ĉ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ the Day when they are out in the open. and
nothing about them is concealed from God.

Ţă Ũąŧă ŕ barzakh (no verbal root) [n.. probably from Persian farsakh. a
measure of distance occurring three times in the Qur`an] 1 a
barrier (55:20) Ń ƉॠƔĊ żĆ ŗĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ľ ŤĄ ŪĆ ũĄ ŗ ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ between them is a barrier. so
they do not go over one another 2 an area. state. barrier. place
between this life and the next (23:100) Ą ƉƏŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗą Ɣ Ń ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ľ ŤĄ ŪĆũĄ ŗ ĆƇŃ Ǝ œŔĄ ũĄ Ə ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
and a barrier stands behind them until the very Day they are
resurrected.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ŭ b-r-s vitiligo. loss of pigmentation; leprosy; gecko; to graze
pasture to extinction. Of this root. ą ůĄ ũĆŗ Ō `abras occurs twice in the
Qur`an.
Ą ŭă ŧąŕ Ŋ `abras [quasi-act. part.] one who is afflicted with vitiligo
(disorder causing loss of skin pigmentation). the word is also
taken. against good evidence to the contrary. to mean leper (3:49)
ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƌĄ ƈŇƄ ƗŔ őŃ ũĆŗ ŌĄ Ə ůĄ ũĆŗ and I will heal the blind and the one suffering
from vitiligo/the leper.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ ž b-r-q thunderbolt. lightning; to shine; to be dazzled; to

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ɓ
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become belligerent. Of this root. two forms occur six times in the
Qur`an: Ŀ ƀŃ ũĄ ŗ bariqa once and ĽƀĆũĄŗ barq five times.
Ľ žŁŧăŕ bariqa u (also Ŀ ƀĄũĄŗ baraqa) [v. intrans.] to become dazzled.
stupefied (75:7) ą ũĄŰĄŗŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀŃ ũĄŗ ŔĿŨŐĿž when sight is dazzled.
Ļžąŧăŕ barq [n.] lightning (13:12) ŕć ŸĄ ƈĿ ųĄ Ə ŕĻ žĆƏĿ Ŧ Ŀ ƀĆũĄ ŗŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄƔŃ ũą Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ He it
is who shows you lightning. [inspiring] fear and hope.

ĻžƒŁŧąŕō `ibrïq (see alphabetically).

Ļžă ŧąŕĽ řąŪ ō `istabraq (see alphabetically).

Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ɓ b-r-k chest of a camel. thorax; (of a camel) to lie down on the
chest; a group of camels; bounty. a blessing. to be blessed. to be
great; the blessed. to be praised; a pond. Of this root. six forms
occur 32 times in the Qur`an: Ą ƃĄ ũॠŗ bãraka seven times; Ą ƃŃ ũƏą ŗ
bürika once; Ą ƃĄ ũॠŗĿ ś tabãraka nine times; ĽŚŕĿƄĄũĄŗ barakãt three times;
ĈƃĄũŕĄŗą ƈ mubãrak eight times and Ą ũॠŗą ƈ ĽřĿƄ mubãrakatun four times.
ă Ɓă ŧœă ŕ bãraka [v. III. trans. without accus.. with preps Ɠž or ƑƆŷ]
to bless (21:81) ॠƎƔĊ ž ŕĿ ƊŇƄĄ ũॠŗ ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ Ń űĆũ ōŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƋŃ ũĆƈ ōŃ ŗ ƒŃ ũĆŠĿ ś blows with His/his
command to the land which We have blessed.
ă ƁŁ ŧƍĄ ŕ bürika [pass.] to be blessed (27:8) ĆƉĄƈ ĄƃŃ ũƏą ŗ ĆƉŌ ĄƒĊŧƏŁ Ɗ ŕĄƍĄʼnॊ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ƑĊ ž ॠƎĿ ƅĆƏĄ ţ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə Ń ũŕİ ƊƅŔ when he reached the fire. a voice called. `Blessed
are those who are next to the fire and those in its vicinity.'
ă Ɓă ŧœă ༠ř tabãraka [v. VI. intrans.] (of God only) to be hallowed. to
be exalted (25:1) ĊƋĊŧĆŗĄŷ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉŕĿ ƁĆũŁ ſŇƅŔ .Č ŪĿ Ɗ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƃĄũŕĄŗĿś exalted is He who has
sent down the Differentiator [between right and wrong] to His
servant.
ĻŘœĽƂăŧăŕ barakãt [pl. of n. fem. ĽřĿ ƄĄũĄŗ barakatun] blessings (11:73)
Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌŁ śŕĿ ƄĄ ũĄ ŗĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł řĄƈĆţĄ ũ the mercy of God and His blessings be
upon you. people of the house [Abraham's household]!
ćƁăŧœăॠƆ mubãrak [pass. part.; fem. ĽřĿƄĄũŕĄŗą ƈ mubãrakatun] blessed
(44:3) ą ƋŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō ŕİ Ɗ ŏ ƑĊž ċřĿ ƄĄũॠŗą ƈ ċřĿ ƆĆƔĿ ƅ [certainly.] We have sent it down on a
blessed night!


Ŕ [ ŧ [ ƅ

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Ŕ [ ŧ [ ƅ b-r-m a stone pot; a twisted rope; to twist. to tighten; to
confirm. to plan. Of this root. two forms occur once each in the
Qur`an: ĄƇĄũĆŗ Ō `abrama and ƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŗą ƈ mubrimün.
ăƅăŧąŕ Ŋ `abrama [v. IV. trans.] to decide firmly. to contrive. to
determine (43:79) ĄƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŗą ƈ ŕİƊŐĿž ŔćũĆƈŌ ŔƏą ƈĄũĆŗŌ ĆƇŌ have they determined
something' We. too. have been determining.
ƇƍĄ ƆŁ ŧąŕĄ Ɔ mubrimün [pl. of act. part. ĈƇŃ ũĆŗą ƈ mubrim] ones who
scheme or determine (43:79) Ą ƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŗą ƈ ŕİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž Ŕć ũĆƈ Ō ŔƏą ƈĄ ũĆŗ Ō ĆƇ Ō have they
determined something' We. too. have been determining.

Ŕ [ ŧ [ =Ƌ [ Ƈ b-r-h-n (the quadruple structure of this root together with
the limited derivatives it has in Arabic give support to its being a
very early borrowing. possibly from Persian. Some philologists.
however. consider it a derivation from root Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ƌ b-r-h 'to cut` or
'whiteness`). Of this root. two forms occur eight times in the
Qur`an: ĈƉŕĄƍĆũą ŗ burhãn seven times and Ń ƉŕĿ ƊॠƍĆũą ŗ burhãnãn once.
ćƇœăƋąŧĄ ŕ burhãn [n.. dual Ń ƉŕĿƊŕĄƍĆũą ŗ burhãnãn] proof. evidence (27:64)
ŔƏŁ śŕĄ ƍ Ą ƉƔĊ ƁĊ ŧŕĄ Ű ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊॠƍĆũą ŗ produce your evidence. if you are truthful.

Ŀ ŗċ ƒŁ ŧă ŕƃŒ `al-bariyyatu (see Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŋ b-r-`).

Ŕ [ Ũ [ ŷ b-z-gh crack. laceration. to slash; to show through. to break
forth. to come out. Of this root. two words occur once each in the
Qur`an: Ľ ŹŃ Ūॠŗ bãzigh and ĽřĿ ŻŃ ŪŕĄŗ bãzighatun.
ĻŷŁŨœăŕ bãzigh [act. part.; fem ĽřĿ ŻŃ ŪŕĄŗ bãzighatun] rising. breaking
forth (6:78) Ļ řĿ ŻŃ Ūॠŗ Ą ūĆƈİ ŮƅŔ Ɛ ŌĄ ũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž then when he saw the sun rising.

Ŕ [ ũ [ ŧ b-s-r unripe green date; to do something prematurely; to
scowl. to frown. to be gloomy. Of this root. two forms occur once
each in the Qur`an: Ą ũĄ ŬĄ ŗ basara and Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ Ŭॠŗ bãsiratun.
ă ŧă Ūă ŕ basara u [v. intrans./trans.] to scowl. to look sour (74:22)
Ą ũĄ ŬĄ ŗĄ Ə Ą ūĄ ŗĄ ŷ Č ƇŁ ŝ then he frowned and looked sour.
Ļ Ŗă ŧĉ Ūœă ŕ bãsiratun [act. part. fem.] scowling. frowning.
despondent. sour (75:24) Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ Ŭॠŗ ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ Ĉ ƋƏą Šą ƏĄ Ə and some faces on that
day will look sour.

Ŕ [ ũ [ ű
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Ŕ [ ũ [ ũ b-s-s to scatter; to travel throughout the land; to crumble; to
drive gently; to stroke with the hand. to mix together. Of this root.
two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: Čūą ŗ bussa and ď ūĄ ŗ bass.
ċũĄ ŕ bussa [pass. v.; v. n. ď ūĄ ŗ bass] to be crumbled. to be
crushed. to be ground (56:5) ŕĎ ŬĄ ŗ .ॠŗŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ċ ŚČ Ŭą ŗĄ Ə and the mountains are
ground to powder.

Ŕ [ ũ [ ű b-s-t open outstretched land. the face of the earth; carpet; to
stretch out. to spread out. to reach out. to unfold; abundance.
vastness. increase. Of this root. six forms occur 25 times in the
Qur`an: Ŀ ųĄŬĄŗ basata 16 times; ĽųĊŬŕĄŗ bãsit four times; ĽųĆŬĄŗ bast once;
ĽųŕĄŬŃ ŗ bisãt once; ĽřĿųĆŬĄŗ bastatun twice and ƉŕĿ śĿ ųƏą ŬĆŗĄ ƈ mabsütatãn once.
Ľ űăŪăŕ basata u [v. trans.] 1 to increase. to expand (42:27) ĿųĄŬĄŗ ĆƏĿƅĄƏ
ŔĆƏĿ żĄ ŗĿ ƅ Ċ ƋĊ ŧॠŗĊ Ÿ ƅ Ŀ ƀĆŪĐ ũƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũ Ɨ were God to increase the provisions for
His servants. they would transgress all bounds in the land 2 to
spread out (30:48) Ćũą Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƌŁųą ŬĆŗĄƔĿ ž ŕćŗŕĄţĄŬ ą ũƔĊŝŁśĿž ĄšŕĄƔĐũƅŔ .ĊŬ ƑĊ ž Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ Ƅ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ
ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĄ Ɣ God it is who sends the winds, and they stir up the clouds,
then He spreads them over the skies as He pleases 3 [with prep.
Ƒƅŏ] to extend. to reach out. to stretch out. to raise (one`s hand)
(5:28) ĄƃĿ ƆŁśŇƁ Ɨ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƅŏ ĄƒĊŧĄƔ ċųĊŬŕĄŗŃ ŗ ŕĿƊŌ ŕĄƈ ƓĊƊĿƆŁśŇƂĿśƅ ĄƃĄŧĄƔ ČƓĿƅŏ Ŀ ŚŇųĄŬĄŗ ĆƉœĿƅ if you raise
your hand to kill me. I will not raise mine to kill you.
Ļ űĉ Ūœă ŕ bãsit [act. part.] 1 one who spreads out. stretches (18:18)
Ą Ə ĊŧƔĊŰĄƏŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĊƌĆƔĄŷŔĄũĊŨ ĽųĊŬŕĄŗ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗŇƆĿ Ƅ with their dog stretching out its forelegs at
the entrance 2 [with prep. Ƒƅŏ] one who stretches. reaches out
to/for (13:14) ĊƌĊżƅŕĄŗŃ ŗ ĄƏą ƍ ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ƋŕĿ ž ĿźŁƆĆŗĄƔƅ ĊʼnŕĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĊƌĆƔİſĿ Ƅ ĊųĊŬŕĄŗĿ Ƅ like someone
stretching forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his
mouth-but he does not reach it [water].
ĻűąŪăŕ bast [v. n.] the act of spreading out (17:29) Ą ƃĄ ŧĄ Ɣ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ĊųĆŬĄŗŇƅŔ İ.ŁƄ ŕĄƎŇųą ŬĆŗĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ĄƃĊƂŁƊą ŷ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĻřĿƅƏŁƆŇżĄƈ and do not let your hand be
chained to your neck. nor outspread it [lit. in complete
spreading].
ĻűœăŪŁŕ bisãt [n./quasi-pass. part.] carpet; wide expanse;
carpet-like. that which is outspread (71:19) ŕĻ ųॠŬŃ ŗ Ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĄ Š ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə
and God has made the Earth a wide expanse for you.
ĻŗĽűŪăŕ bastatun [v. n./n.] expanse. magnification; enlarging

Ŕ [ ũ [ ž

92
(2:247) Ļ řĿ ųĆŬĄ ŗ ą ƋĄ ŧŔĄ ŪĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƋŕĿ ſĿ ųĆŰŔ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ ƑĊž Ń ƇĆŬŃ ŠŇƅŔĄƏ Ń ƇŇƆĊŸŇƅŔ God has chosen
him over you. and has increased him broadly in knowledge and
stature.
Ł ƇœĽ řĽ űƍĄ Ūąŕă Ɔ mabsütatãn [dual of pass. part. fem. ĽřĿųƏą ŬĆŗĄƈ
mabsütatun] opened. outstretched *(5:64) Ń ƉŕĿ śĿ ųƏą ŬĆŗĄ ƈ ą ƋŔĄ ŧĄ Ɣ He gives
freely of His wealth [lit. His hands are open wide].

Ŕ [ ũ [ ž b-s-q tall. lofty. towering. to surpass. Of this root. ĽŚŕĿƂĊŬŕĄŗ
bãsiqãt occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŘœĽƀĉ Ūœăŕ bãsiqãt [pl. of act. part. fem. ĽřĿƂĊŬŕĄŗ bãsiqatun] tall. high.
lofty (50:10) ĈŧƔĊ ŲĿ Ɗ ĈŶŇƆĿ ų ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ċ ŚŕĿ ƂĊŬॠŗ .ŇŦİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə and palm trees-lofty and
laden high with fruit.

Ŕ [ ũ [ J b-s-l hardship; ugly countenance; to be reckless. to dare
death. to fight fiercely; to be made responsible for one`s bad
deeds; imprisoning; courage. Of this root. .ĊŬĆŗ Ō `ubsila occurs
twice in the Qur`an.
Jĉ Ūąŕ Ŋ `ubsila [pass. v. IV] to be given over to the consequences
of the bad deeds committed. to be held responsible for one`s bad
deeds. to be damned (6:70) ŇŚĄŗĄŬĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈŃ ŗ ĈūŇſĿ Ɗ .Ą ŬĆŗŁ ś ĆƉ Ō Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ĆũIJ ƄĿ ŨĄƏ but continue
to remind with it [the Qur'an]. lest any soul be damned for what
it has done.

Ŕ [ ũ [ ƅ b-s-m to smile; to bloom; (of clouds) to display a faint flash
of lightning; white teeth. Of this root. ĄƇČ ŬĄŗĿ ś tabassama. occurs once
in the Qur`an.
ăƅċ Ūă༠ř tabassama [v. V. intrans.] to smile. to affect a smile
(27:19) ŕĄƎƅĆƏĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĻƄĊţŕĄŲ ĄƇČ ŬĄŗĿ śĿ ž so he smiled. laughing at its words.

Ŕ [ ū [ ŧ b-sh-r skin; to skin; to be in skin-to-skin contact. to be
intimate with one`s wife; first signs. to give good tidings. good
tidings. a human being. Of this root. 13 forms occur 122 times in
the Qur`an: Ą ũİ ŮĄ ŗ bashshara 35 times; Ą ũIJ Ůą ŗ bushshira three times;
ą ũĊ ŮॠŗŁ ś tubãshir twice; ĆũĊ ŮĆŗ Ō `abshir once; ƉƏą ũĊ ŮĆŗĿ śĆŬĿ ś tastabshirün seven
times; ƐĄ ũŇŮą ŗ bushrã 18 times; ĈũƔĊŮĄŗ bashïr nine times; ĈũIJ ŮĄŗą ƈ

Ŕ [ ū [ ŧ
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mubashshir five times; ƉƔŃ ũIJ ŮĄ ŗą ƈ mubashshirïn four times; ĽŚŔĄũIJ ŮĄŗą ƈ
mubashshirãt once; ĽŘĄũĊŮĆŗĿ śĆŬą ƈ mustabshiratun once; ĈũĿŮĄŗ bashar 36
times and Ń ƉƔĄ ũŇŮĄ ŗ bashrayn once.
ă ŧĮ Ŭă ŕ bashshara [v. II. trans.] 1 to bring good tidings. to convey
good news (10:2) ĄƇĄŧĿ Ɓ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ Č Ɖ Ō ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ń ũIJ ŮĄŗĄƏ ĆƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ċ ƀĆŧĊ Ű and give
glad news to those who believe. that they are on a sure footing
with their Lord 2 (ironically) to bring bad tidings (9:34) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
ŕĄƎĿƊƏŁƂĊſŇƊą Ɣ ĿƛĄƏ Ŀ řČŲĊſŇƅŔĄƏ ĄŖĄƍİŨƅŔ ĄƉƏą ŪĊƊŇƄĄƔ ƑĊ ž ĆƇą ƍĆũIJ ŮĄ ŗĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ ľƇƔƅŌ ľŖŔĿŨĄŸŃ ŗ those who
treasure up gold and silver and do not spend them in the way of
God. give them the bad [lit. good] tidings of a painful
chastisement.
ă ŧİ ŬĄ ŕ bushshira [pass. of v. II] to be given good news (and
ironically bad news) (16:58) Ą Ə Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə ŔĎ ŧĄ ƏĆŬą ƈ ą ƌą ƎĆŠĄ Ə İ .Ŀ Ŵ ƑĿ ŝŇƊ ƗŕŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍą ŧĄ ţ Ō Ą ũIJ Ůą ŗ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ
ĈƇƔĊŴĿƄ when one of them is given the good news of [the birth of] a
baby girl. his face darkens and he is filled with gloom.
Ą ŧĉ Ŭœă ŕĿ ř tubãshir [imperf. of v. III ĄũĿ Ůॠŗ bãshara. trans.]
euphemism for being intimate with one`s wife (to be in
skin-to-skin contact) (2:187) Ą ƉƏŁ ſĊ Ƅॠŷ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə Č Ɖą ƍƏą ũĊ ŮॠŗŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ƑĊž Ċ ŧŃ ŠŕĄ ŬĄ ƈŇƅŔ but
do not lie with them [your wives] during the nights of your
devotional retreat in the mosques.
ąŧĉ Ŭąŕ Ŋ `abshir [imper. of v. IV ĄũĿ ŮĆŗ Ō `abshara. intrans.] to feel joy
at receiving good news (41:30) ĄƉƏą ŧĄŷƏŁś ĆƇŁśŇƊŁƄ ƓĊśİƅŔ ĊřİƊĄŠŇƅŕŃ ŗ ŔƏą ũĊŮĆŗ ŌĄƏ and
rejoice at the good news of [your entering] Paradise. that you
have been promised.
ƇƍĄ ŧĉ Ŭą ༠řą Ūă ƒ yastabshirün [imperf. of v. X ĄũĿ ŮĆŗĿ śĆŬŔ `istabshara.
intrans.] 1 to be happy. content. or joyful at receiving good news
(9:111) Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ć ƇŁ śĆ ŸĄ Ɣॠŗ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĊ ŸĆ ƔĄ ŗŃ ŗ ŔƏą ũĊ ŮĆ ŗĿ śĆ ŬŕĿž so rejoice in the bargain you
have made [with God] 2 to be happy at the thought of expected
good happening. (3:171) .ĆŲĿžĄƏ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ċřĄƈĆŸĊƊŃ ŗ ĄƉƏą ũĊŮĆŗĿśĆŬĄƔ they rejoice at
the thought of receiving God's blessing and favour 3 to seek good
tidings (15:67) ĄƉƏą ũĊŮĆŗĿśĆŬĄƔ ĊřĿƊƔĊŧĄƈŇƅŔ .ĆƍŌ ĄʼnॊĄƏ the people of the town came
along seeking the good tidings [of possible pleasure].
Ǝă ŧŅŬĄ ŕ bushrã [n.] glad tidings. good news (39:17) ŔƏą ŗĿ ƊĿ śĆŠŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
ƐĄ ũŇŮą ŗŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ŗŕĿ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə ॠƍƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ŀ ŚƏŁ Żŕİ ųƅŔ there is good news for those
who shun the worship of false gods and turn to God; *(12:19)

Ŕ [ ŭ [ ŧ

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ƐĄ ũŇŮą ŗॠƔ how fortunate!. what good news! [also: Ą ƒŔĄ ũŇŮą ŗ ॠƔ how
fortunate I am!. what good news for me!]; *(57:12) ą ƇŁƄŔĄũŇŮą ŗ good
news for you.
ć ŧƒĉ Ŭă ŕ bashïr [n.] a bearer of good tidings (12:96) Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ą ũƔĊ ŮĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ʼnॠŠ ĆƉ
ŔćũƔĊŰĄŗ Č ŧĿśĆũŕĿ ž ĊƌŃ ƎĆŠĄƏ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƋŕĿƂŇƅŌ then. when the bearer of good news came
and placed it onto his face. thereupon he became able to see
again.
ćŧİ ŬăॠƆ mubashshir [act. part.; pl. ƉƔŃ ũIJ ŮĄ ŗą ƈ mubashshirïn; pl. fem.
ŔĄũIJ ŮĄŗą ƈ ĽŚ mubashshirãt] one who brings good news (30:46) Ċ ƌĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
ċŚŔĄũIJŮĄŗą ƈ ĄšŕĄƔĐũƅŔ .ĊŬĆũą Ɣ ĆƉŌ His wonders include sending out the winds
bearing good news.
Ļ Ŗă ŧĉ Ŭą ༠řą ŪĄ Ɔ mustabshiratun [act. part. fem.] one who rejoices at
receiving or expecting good news (80:39) ĽŘĄũĊŮĆŗĿ śĆŬą ƈ ĽřĿƄĊţŕĄŲ laughing
and expectantly rejoicing [at what is coming].
ćŧĽŬăŕ bashar I [collect. n. equally applied to masc. and fem.;
sing. and pl.] humankind (30:20) Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ Č ƇŁ ŝ ľŖŔĄũŁ ś ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƂĿƆĿŦ ĆƉ Ō ĊƌĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƉĊƈĄƏ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ
ĄƉƏą ũĊŮĿśŇƊĿś ĈũĿŮĄŗ of His wonders is His creating you from dust. and Lo
and behold. you became human beings. multiplying/spreading II
[n.; dual Ń ƉƔĄũĿ ŮĄŗ basharayn] human (23:47) ŕĿƊĊƆŇŝĊƈ Ń ƉĆƔĄũĿŮĄŗƅ ą ƉĊƈŎŁƊŌ ŔƏŁƅŕĿƂĿž they
said. `Are we to believe in two human beings like us'' III [pl. of
ŘũŮŗ basharatun/coll. n.] skin (in an interpretation of verse 74:29)
Ń ũĿŮĄŗŇƆƅ ĽřĄţŔČ ƏĿƅ blackening the skins (or. scorching the flesh of humans).

Ŕ [ ŭ [ ŧ b-s-r eyesight. to see; to comprehend. to realize; proof. sign.
eye opener; to warn. to guide; to reflect. to ponder. Of this root.
14 forms occur 148 times in the Qur`an: Ą ũą ŰĄ ŗ basura three times;
ą ũČŰĄ ŗą Ɣ yubassar once; ĄũĄŰĆŗ Ō `absara 27 times; ĆũĊ ŰĆŗ Ō `absir twice;
ĈũƔĊŰĄŗ basïr 51 times; ĽŘĄũƔĊŰĄŗ basïratun twice; ą ũ œŕĄ ŰĄ ŗ basã`ir five
times. ĽŘĄũĊŰĆŗĿ ś tabsiratun once; ĈũĊŰĆŗą ƈ mubsir three times; ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ
mubsirün once; Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ mubsiratun three times; ƉƔŃ ũĊŰĆŗĿśĆŬą ƈ
mustabsirïn once; Ĉ ũĄ ŰĄ ŗ basar 10 times and ĈũŕĄŰĆŗŌ ¢absãr 38 times.
Ą Ůă ŕ ă ŧ basura u [v. intrans. with prep. .ŗ] 1 to see. comprehend.
to gain knowledge of something. (20:96) ĊƌŃ ŗ ŔƏą ũą ŰĆŗĄƔ ĆƇĿƅ ŕĄƈŃ ŗ ŁŚĆũą ŰĄŗ .ŕĿ Ɓ
he said. `I saw what they did not see' [in another interpretation: `I
have gained insight into something which they were unable to

Ŕ [ ŭ [ ŧ
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see'] 2 to keep an eye on. to watch over (28:11) ĊƌƔĐ ŰŁ Ɓ ĊƌĊśŇŦ Ɨ ŇŚĿƅŕĿƁĄƏ
ĄƉƏą ũą ŸŇŮĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ľŖŁ Ɗą Š ĆƉĄŷ ĊƌŃ ŗ ŇŚĄũą ŰĄŗĿ ž and she said to his sister. `Track
him.' so she watched him from a distance. while they were
unaware.
ċŮă ॠƒ Ą ŧ yubassar [imperf. of pass. v. II Ą ũĐ Űą ŗ bussira] to be made to
see/comprehend something. to be given an insight into (70:11)
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊƏą ũČ ŰĄ ŗą Ɣ they are enabled to see them (or. they are given an
insight into them).
ăŧăŮąŕ Ŋ `absara [v. IV trans.] 1 to see (7:179) ॠƎŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĈƉą ƔĆŷ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅĄ Ə
they have eyes they do not see with 2 to comprehend. to
understand (28:72) Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗŁ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ō Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ą ƉƏŁ ƊŁ ƄĆŬĿ ś .ĆƔĿ ƆŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊśōĄ Ɣ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ũĆƔĿ Ż ĈƌĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƉĄ ƈ what
god other than He could give you night in which to rest'. do you
not comprehend' 3 to find guidance (6:104) ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄ ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ũ œŕĄ ŰĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnॠŠ ĆŧĿ Ɓ
ĊƌĊŬŇſĿ ƊĊƆĿ ž ĄũĄŰĆŗŌ ĆƉĄƈĿ ž clear proofs have come to you from your Lord-so
whoever finds guidance. it is for himself.
=Ł ŕ ąŧĉ Ůąŕ Ŋ ¢absir bi [exclamation] how strong the eyesight is!
(18:26) ĆŶĊ ƈĆŬ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ĆũĊ ŰĆŗ Ō Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ą ŖĆƔĿ Ż ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ŝŃ ŗĿ ƅ ॠƈŃ ŗ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŷ Ō ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ł Ɓ say.
`God knows best how long they remained.' His is all that is
hidden in the heavens and the earth-how well He sees!. how well
He hears!
ćŧƒĉ Ůăŕ basïr [intens. act. part./quasi-act. part.] 1 one who can see.
one endowed with sight (12:96) Č ŧĿśĆũŕĿž ĊƌŃ ƎĆŠĄƏ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƋŕĿƂŇƅŌ ą ũƔĊŮĄŗŇƅŔ Ąʼnॊ ĆƉŌ ŕČ ƈĿƆĿž
Ŕć ũƔĊ ŰĄ ŗ then. when the bearer of good news came and placed it onto
his face-thereupon he became able to see again 2 one discerning.
endowed with insight *(42:11) ą ũƔĊ ŰĄ ŗŇƅŔ [attribute of God] the
All-Seeing. the All-Discerning.
ĻŖăŧƒĉ Ůăŕ basïratun I [v. n./n.. pl. ũ œŕĄ ŰĄ ŗ basã`ir] clear evidence.
sure knowledge (12:108) ċŘĄũƔĊŰĄŗ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ Əą ŷĆŧŌ I call to God with
sure knowledge II [n.] witness. overseer (75:14) Ċ ƌĊ ŬŇſĿ Ɗ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ .Ą ŗ
ĽŘĄũƔĊŰĄŗ truly. man is a [clear] witness against himself [in another
interpretation: there is an observer observing him].
Ļ Ŗă ŧĉ ٹ༠ř tabsiratun [v. n.] providing insight. showing the way.
eyesight (50:8) ľ ŖƔĊ Ɗą ƈ ċ ŧĆ ŗĄ ŷ IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅ ƐĄ ũŇ ƄĊ ŨĄ Ə Ļ ŘĄ ũĊ ŰĆ ŗĿ ś as an eye-opener and a
reminder for every servant who turns to God.

Ŕ [ ŭ [ J

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ćŧĉ ٹॠƆ mubsir [act. part.; pl. ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ mubsirün; fem. Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ
mubsiratun] 1 one who sees; one who has insight. one who
discerns (7:201) ĆƇą ƍ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž ŔƏą ũİ ƄĿ ŨĿ ś Ń ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ľ Ž œŕĿ ų ĆƇąƎČ ŬĄ ƈ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ŔĆƏĿ Ƃİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
Ą ƉƏą ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ those who are mindful of God. if a visitation [of thoughts]
from Satan touched them. they remember [Him] and. lo and
behold. they have insight 2 light/sight-giving (10:67) ą ƇŁƄĿƅ .ĄŸĄŠ ƒĊŨİƅŔ ĄƏą ƍ
Ŕć ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ Ą ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ŔƏŁ ƊŁ ƄĆŬĿ ś ƅ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ He it is who made the night for you to
rest in [it] and the day giving light/sight 3 clear. evident. plain to
see (27:13) ĻŘĄũĊŰĆŗą ƈ ŕĿ ƊŁ śŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƇą ƎŇśĄʼnॊ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž but when Our clear signs came to
them.
ƇƒŁŧĉ ŮąŕĽřąŪĄ Ɔ mustabsirïn [pl. of act. part. ĈũĊ ŰĆŗĿ śĆŬą ƈ mustabsir] one
who seeks insights. capable of having insight into matters (29:38)
Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŰĆŗĿ śĆŬą ƈ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ ƄĄ Ə .ƔŃ ŗČ ŬƅŔ Ń ƉĄ ŷ ĆƇą ƍČ ŧĄ ŰĿ ž ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅॠƈĆŷ Ō ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ Ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ Ą ƉČ ƔĄ ŪĄ Ə Satan made
their foul deeds seem alluring to them and barred them from the
right way. [even] though they were capable of seeing.
ć ŧă Ůă ŕ basar [n.. pl. ĈũŕĄŰĆŗŌ ¢absãr] eyesight. eyes. sight. vision.
sense of sight (6:103) ĄũŕĄŰĆŗƗŔ ą ƃŃ ũĆŧą Ɣ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ą ũŕĄŰĆŗ ƗŔ ą ƌŁ ƄŃ ũĆŧŁ ś Ŀ ƛ vision cannot
encompass Him. but He encompasses all visions.

Ŕ [ ŭ [ J b-s-l onion. multi-layered. Of this root. .Ą ŰĄ ŗ basal occurs
once in the Qur`an.
Jă Ůă ŕ basal [coll. n.] onion (2:61) ॠƎ œŕİ ŝĊ ƁĄ Ə ॠƎĊ ƆŇƂĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą űĆũ ƗŔ Ł ŚŃ ŗŇƊŁ ś ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ
ŕĄƎĊƆĄŰĄŗĄƏ ŕĄƎĊŬĄŧĄŷĄƏ ŕĄƎĊƈƏŁžĄƏ some of what the earth produces. its herbs and
its cucumbers. its garlic. its lentils and its onions.

Ŕ [ ů [ ų b-d-´ flesh. lump of flesh. to slice; to be intimate with a
woman; to marry; a piece of merchandise. a small number of
items (from three to ten); a small flock of sheep. Of this root. two
forms occur seven times in the Qur`an: ĈŶĆŲŃ ŗ bid´ twice and ĽřĄŷŕĄŲŃ ŗ
bidã´atun five times.
ćŴąŰŁŕ bid´ [n.] a few (between three and ten) (12:42) Ŀ ŜŃ ŗĿ ƆĿ ž ƑĊ ž Ń ƉĆŠĐ ŬƅŔ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ Ŭ Ą ŶĆŲŃ ŗ and so he remained in prison for a few years.
ĻŗăŵœăŰŁŕ bidã´atun [coll. n.] merchandise. goods (12:65) ą ţĿ śĿ ž ŕČ ƈĿ ƅĄƏ ŔƏ
ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƅŏ ŇŚČŧą ũ ĆƇą ƎĿśĄŷŕĄŲŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŧĄŠĄƏ ĆƇą ƎĄŷŕĿ śĄƈ when they opened their packs. they
found their goods returned to them.

Ŕ [ ű [ J
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Ŕ [ ű [ Ŋ b-t-` this root denotes the single concept of slowness. of which
only ŒIJųĄ ŗą Ɣ yubatti` occurs 11 times in the Qur`an.
Őİűă ॠƒ yubatti` [imperf. of v. II ōİ ųĄŗ batta`a. intrans./trans.] to
hold back. to lag behind. also to cause someone to lag behind or
hold back (4:72) ČƉ œIJųĄ ŗą ƔĿ ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ Č Ɖ ŏĄ Ə and among you are the ones
who lag behind [also interpreted as: who urge others to lag
behind].

Ŕ [ ű [ ŧ b-t-r to slash; to fail to appreciate others; to be conceited. to
fail to show gratitude. Of this root. two forms occur once each in
the Qur`an: Ą ũĊ ųĄ ŗ batira and ĈũĿųĄŗ batar.
ă ŧĉ űă ŕ batira a [v. intrans. with prep. Ɠž. v. n. ĈũĿųĄŗ batar] (with Ɠž
elided in the following verse) to exult by reason of wealth and
behave with pride and conceit and lack of gratitude for God`s
favours (28:58) ŕĄƎĿśĿŮƔĊŸĄƈ ŇŚĄũĊųĄŗ ċřĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿƊŇƄĿƆĆƍŌ ĆƇĿ ƄĄƏ how many a
community. that once revelled in its wanton wealth and easy
living. have We destroyed!

Ŕ [ ű [ ū b-t-sh force. attack. to seize with violence. to assault. to
batter. Of this root. three forms occur 10 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŭĿ ųĄŗ
batasha five times; ĽŭŇųĄŗ batsh three times and ĽřĿŮŇųĄŗ batshatun
twice.
Ľ ūĽ űăŕ batasha i/u [v. intrans. with prep. ŗ; v. n. ĽŭŇųĄŗ batsh] to
strike down. to assault (28:19) ŕĄƈą ƎĿƅ ďƏą ŧĄŷ ĄƏą ƍ ƒĊŨİ ƅŕŃ ŗ Ŀ ŭĊųĆŗĄƔ ĆƉŌ ĄŧŔĄũŌ ĆƉŌ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž as
he was about to assault the one who was an enemy to both of
them.
ĻŗĽŬŅűăŕ batshatun [n. of unit] onslaught. a fierce attack (44:16) Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
ĄƉƏą ƈĊƂĿśŇƊą ƈ ŕİƊŏ ƐĄũĆŗŁƄŇƅŔ ĿřĿŮŇųĄŗŇƅŔ ŁŭĊųĆŗĿƊ and [We will exact retribution] on the
Day We inflict the mightiest onslaught.

Ŕ [ ű [ J b-t-l falsehood. vanity; void. futile. untrue. to be false. to
nullify; to be idle. idleness. Of this root. four forms occur 34
times in the Qur`an: .Ŀ ųĄŗ batala once; .Ċ ųĆŗŁ ś tubtil four times; .ĊųŕĄŗ
bãtil 26 times and ƉƏŁ ƆĊųĆŗą ƈ mubtilün five times.
JĽ űăŕ batala u [v. intrans.] to become void. to become undone. to

Ŕ [ ű [ Ƈ

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appear as false; to come to nothing (7:118) ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ .ĿųĄŗĄƏ ı ƀĄţŇƅŔ ĄŶĿ ƁĄƏĿ ž
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĄ Ɣ so the truth was confirmed and what they were doing came
to nothing.
Jĉ űąŕĄ ƒ yubtil [imperf. of v. IV .Ŀ ųĆŗ Ō `abtala. trans.] 1 to render as
null. to negate. to cause to be ineffectual (2:264) Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ
ƐĿ Ũ ƗŔĄ Ə Đ ƉĄ ƈŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śŕĿ ƁĄ ŧĄ Ű ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ųĆŗŁ ś you who believe. do not negate your
charitable deeds with reminders and hurtful words 2 to prove or
show as false (8:8) .ĊųŕĄŗŇƅŔ .ĊųĆŗą ƔĄƏ İ ƀĄţŇƅŔ İ ƀĊţą Ɣƅ to prove the Truth to be
true. and the false to be false.
Jĉ űœă ŕ bãtil I [n.] (with the definite article .Ċ ųॠŗŇƅŔ `al-bãtil)
falsehood (as opposed to Ą ţƅŔ ı ƀ `al-haqq the Truth) (17:81) Ą ʼnॠŠ .Ł ƁĄ Ə
ŕĻƁƏą ƍĄŪ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ .ĊųŕĄŗŇƅŔ ČƉŏ .ĊųŕĄŗŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀĄƍĄŪĄƏ ıƀĄţŇƅŔ and say. `The truth has come. and
falsehood has passed away-falsehood is bound to pass away.' II
[quasi-act. part.] that which is null. void. vain. useless. ineffectual
(7:139) ĊʼnĿƛ ŎĄƍ Č Ɖŏ ĄƉƏŁ ƆĄƈĆŸĄƔ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿƄ ŕĄƈ .ĊųŕĄŗĄƏ ĊƌƔĊž ĆƇą ƍ ŕĄƈ ĈũČ ŗĿśą ƈ what these people
are engaged in is doomed to destruction. and what they have been
doing is void III [adverbially] in vain. for no purpose (3:191) ŕĿƊČ ŗĄũ
ƜĊųŕĄŗ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĿŚŇƂĿƆĿŦ ŕĄƈ our Lord!. You have not created this without
purpose.
ƇƍĿ Ƅĉ űąŕĄ Ɔ mubtilün [pl. of act. part./quasi-act. part. .ĊųĆŗą ƈ mubtil]
one who endeavours to render something null. ineffectual or void;
one who shows something as false; one who is an adherent to
falsehood (45:27) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ųĆŗą ƈŇƅŔ ą ũĄ ŬŇŦĄ Ɣ ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ Ł řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ ą ƇƏŁ ƂĿ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔĄ Ə when the Hour
comes. those who follow falsehood will lose all on that Day.

Ŕ [ ű [ Ƈ b-t-n stomach. belly. the inside of anything; hidden. secret. to
conceal; entourage; inner side. lining; low land. Of this root. six
forms occur 25 times in the Qur`an: ĄƉĿ ųĄŗ batana twice; ĈƉĊųŕĄŗ bãtin
four times; ĽřĿƊŕĿųŃ ŗ bitãnatun once; ą Ɖ œŕĿ ųĄ ŗ batã`in once; ĈƉŇųĄŗ batn four
times and ĈƉƏŁ ųą ŗ butün 13 times.
ăƇĽ űăŕ batana u [v. intrans.] to be hidden. to be concealed. to be
manifest (7:33) ĄƉĿ ųĄŗ ŕĄƈĄƏ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄũĄƎĿŴ ŕĄƈ Ŀ ŭĊţŔĄƏĿſŇƅŔ ĄƓĐŗĄũ ĄƇČũĄţ ŕĄƈİƊŏ my Lord only
forbids atrocities-whether they be open or hidden.
ć Ƈĉ űœă ŕ bãtin I [n.] 1 hidden part. secret part (6:120) Ń ƇŇŝƙŔ ĄũĊƍŕĿŴ ŔƏą ũĿŨĄƏ
Ċ ųॠŗĄ Ə ą ƌĿ Ɗ forsake sin. the open and the hidden 2 inner part. interior

Ŕ [ ų [ Ś
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(57:13) ą ŖŔĿŨĄŸŇƅŔ ĊƌĊƆĄŗĊƁ ĆƉĊƈ ą Ƌą ũĊƍŕĿŴĄƏ ŁřĄƈĆţČũƅŔ ĊƌƔĊž ą ƌŁƊĊųŕĄŗ ĈŖŕĄŗ ą ƌĿ ƅ ľũƏą ŬŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ ĄŖŃ ũą ŲĿž so
there will be erected. between them. a wall with a door, inside it
[in it] lies mercy. outside it lies chastisement 3 [with the definite
article ƉĊųŕĄŗŇƅŔ `al-Bãtin and usually in combination with ą ũĊ ƍŕİ ŴƅŔ
`al-Zãhir] [an attribute of God] the Hidden. the Inner (57:3) Ą Əą ƍ
ą ƉĊ ųॠŗŇƅŔĄ Ə ą ũĊ ƍŕİ ŴƅŔĄ Ə ą ũĊ ŦƕŔĄ Ə .Č Ə ƗŔ He is the First and the Last, the Outer
[also: the Manifest] and the Inner II [quasi-act. part.] that which
is inside. the inward. the inner. concealed. hidden (31:20) ĿźĄŗĆŬŌĄƏ
Ļ řĿ ƊĊ ųॠŗĄ Ə Ļ ŘĄ ũĊ ƍŕĿ Ŵ ą ƌĄ ƈĄ ŸĊ Ɗ Ć ƇŁ ƄĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ and has lavished upon you his bounties.
outward and inward (or. manifest and unmanifest).
ĻŗĽ ƈœĽ űŁ ŕ bitãnatun I [coll. n.] intimate friend/s. entourage.
confidant/s (3:118) ĻƛŕĄŗĿŦ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏŁ ƅōĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇŁ ƄĊƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ĻřĿ ƊŕĿųŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ŨĊŦİ śĿ ś Ŀƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ
you who believe. do not take for your intimates from outside your
[own] such as those who spare no effort to ruin you II [n.. pl.
ą Ɖ œŕĿ ųĄ ŗ batã`in] inner linings of garments; upholstery (55:54) Ą ƉƔ œĊ Ƅİ śą ƈ
ċƀĄũĆŗĿ śĆŬŏ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƎŁ ƊœŕĿ ųĄŗ ľŭą ũŁ ž ƑĿƆĄŷ they are reclining on couches lined with
brocade.
ćƇŅűăŕ batn [n.. pl. ĈƉƏŁ ųą ŗ butün] 1 stomach. belly (37:66) ĄƉƏŁ ƆĊƄƕ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊŐĿ ž
ĄƉƏŁųą ŗŇƅŔ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƉƏœƅŕĄƈĿ ž ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ they surely will be eating from it. and filling
from it the bellies 2 womb (3:35) ॠƈ Ą ƃĿ ƅ Ł ŚĆ ũĿ ŨĿ Ɗ ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ ƑĊž ƓĊ ƊŇųĄ ŗ Ŕć ũČ ũĄ ţą ƈ

I have
vowed in dedication what is in my womb entirely to You.

Ŕ [ ų [ Ś b-´-th messenger. delegation. to send; to awake. to provoke.
to incite; to cause to rise; to spread out; to walk briskly. Of this
root. six forms occur 66 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŜĄŸĄŗ ba´atha 38 times;
ŁŜĄŸĆŗą Ɣ yub´ath 13 times; Ŀ ŜĄŸĄŗŇƊŔ `inba´atha once; ĽŜĆŸĄŗ ba´th four times;
Ľ ŜॠŸŃ ŗŇƊŔ `inbi´ãth once and ƉƏŁ ŝƏą ŸĆŗĄ ƈ mab´üthün nine times.
Ľ ŚăŶăŕ ba´atha a [v. trans.] 1 [with prep. Ɠž] to send an apostle or
a prophet to (3:164) ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ƛƏą ŬĄ ũ ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊ ž Ŀ ŜĄ ŸĄ ŗ He sent to them a
Messenger from among themselves 2 to raise from the dead
(2:259) ą ƌĿ ŝĄŸĄŗ Č ƇŁ ŝ ľƇॠŷ Ŀ ř œŕĊ ƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƌĿ śŕĄƈ ōĿ ž so God made him die for a hundred
years. and then raised him up 3 to wake or arouse from sleep
(6:60) Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗĄ Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ śĆţĄ ũĄ Š ॠƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ ƔĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅŕİ žĄ ƏĿ śĄ Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə it is He who
recalls you by night. and knows what you have earned by day.
then raises you up again in it [the daytime] 4 to appoint. select.
choose for a task (4:35) ĆƉĊƈ ŕćƈĿƄĄţĄƏ ĊƌĊƆĆƍŌ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕćƈĿƄĄţ ŔƏŁŝĄŸĆŗŕĿž ŕĄƈŃ ƎĊƊĆƔĄŗ ĿƀŕĿƂĊŮ ĆƇŁśŇſĊŦ ĆƉŏĄƏ

Ŕ [ ų [ Ś [ ŧ

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ॠƎĊ ƆĆ ƍ Ō and if you fear a breach between the two. appoint one arbiter
from his family and one from hers 5 [with ƑƆŷ] to appoint over. to
place over; to raise against (7:167) Ń ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Č ƉĿ ŝĄŸĆŗĄƔĿ ƅ Ą ƃč ŗĄ ũ ĄƉİ Ũ ōĿ ś ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə
Ń ŖŔĿ ŨĄŸŇƅŔ ĄʼnƏą Ŭ ĆƇą Ǝą ƈƏą ŬĄƔ ĆƉĄƈ ĊřĄƈŕĄƔĊƂŇƅŔ and remember when your Lord declared
that He would raise against (or. place over) them until the Day of
Resurrection. those who would inflict on them terrible suffering.
ĿŚăŶąŕĄ ƒ yub´ath [imperf. of pass. v. Ŀ ŜĊŸą ŗ bu´itha] to be raised from
the dead. to be resurrected (64:7) ĆƉĿƅ ĆƉ Ō ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄƇĄŷĄŪ ŔƏŁŝĄŸĆŗą Ɣ the
disbelievers claim they will not be resurrected.
Ľ ŚăŶăŕŅƈŒ `inba´atha [v. VII intrans.; v. n. Ľ ŜॠŸŃ ŗŇƊŔ `inbi´ãth] to rise up.
to rush and act forcibly (91:12) ॠƍŕĿ ƂŇŮ Ō Ŀ ŜĄ ŸĄ ŗŇƊŔ Ċ Ũ ŏ when the most wicked
man among them rose up [against him].
ĻŚąŶăŕ ba´th I [v. n.] resurrecting. raising from the dead (31:28) ŕĄƈ
ċŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ľūŇſĿ ƊĿ Ƅ İ ƛŏ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ŝĆŸĄŗ ĿƛĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƂŇƆĿ Ŧ creating and resurrecting all of you is
but like [creating and resurrecting] a single soul II [n. with
definite article Ċ ŜĆŸĄ ŗŇƅŔ `al-ba´th] *(30:56) Ċ ŜĆŸĄ ŗŇƅŔ ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ the Day of
Resurrection.
ƇƍĿ śƍĄ Ŷąŕă Ɔ mab´üthün [pl. of pass. part. ŜƏą ŸĆŗĄ ƈ mab´üth] ones who
are raised from the dead. resurrected (83:4) ĄƉƏŁŝƏą ŸĆŗĄƈ ĆƇą ƎİƊŌ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏŌ čƉŁŴĄƔ ĿƛŌ
do these people not realise that they will be raised up'

Ŕ [ ų [ Ś [ ŧ b-´-th-r to scatter. to strew about; to squander; to
disarrange. to turn inside out. Of this root. Ą ũĊ ŝĆŸą ŗ bu´thira occurs
twice in the Qur`an.
ă ŧĉ śąŶĄ ŕ bu´thira [pass. quad. v.] to be strewn about. to be scattered
all over; to be turned inside out (82:4) ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ ŇŚĄ ũĊ ŝĆŸą ŗ ą ũƏą ŗŁ ƂŇƅŔ when graves
are turned inside out.

Ŕ [ ų [ ť b-´-d to be far. to go far; to come next; to remove. to separate.
Of this root. seven forms occur 235 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŧą ŸĄ ŗ
ba´uda once; Ą ŧĊ ŸĄ ŗ ba´ida once; ĆŧĊ ŷॠŗ bã´id once; ĈŧĆŸą ŗ bu´d seven times;
ĈŧƔĊŸĄŗ ba´ïd 25 times; ƉƏą ŧĄ ŸĆŗą ƈ mub´adün once and ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ba´d 199 times.
ă ťĄ Ŷă ŕ ba´uda u [v. intrans.] to be or become distant. remote. far
off; to be far away. to go very far (9:42) ŔćŧĊŰŕĿƁ ŔćũĿſĄŬĄƏ ŕćŗƔŃ ũĿƁ ŕćŲĄũĄŷ ĄƉŕĿƄ ĆƏĿ ƅ
Ąŗİ śĿ ƛ Ł řİ Ƃı ŮƅŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŇŚĄ ŧą ŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə Ą ƃƏą Ÿ were it a gain near at hand and an easy

Ŕ [ ų [ ť
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journey. they would have followed you. but the distance had
proved far for them.
ă ťĉ Ŷă ŕ ba´ida a [v. intrans.] to perish. to come to destruction
(11:95) Ą ƈ ƅ Ŕć ŧĆŸą ŗ Ŀ ƛ Ō ą ŧƏą ƈĿŝ ŇŚĄŧĊŸĄŗ ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ĄƉĄƔĆŧ yes!. away with the people of
Midian. even as Thamüd was done away with.
ćťąŶĄ ŕ bu´d I [n.] remoteness. distance (43:38) Ą ŧĆ Ÿą ŗ Ą ƃĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗĄ Ə ƓĊ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ Ŀ ŚĆ ƔĿ ƅॠƔ
Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƁŃ ũŇŮĄ ƈŇƅŔ if only there were between me and you the distance
between east and west! II [v. n.. interjectionally] 'away with.!`.
'destruction to.!` (11:60) ċŧƏą ƍ Ń ƇĆƏĿƁ ċŧŕĄŸƅ ŔćŧĆŸą ŗ Ŀ ƛ Ō so away with ´ãd. the
people of Hüd!
ć ťƒĉ Ŷă ŕ ba´ïd [quasi-act. part.] 1 distant. far away (50:31) Ċ ŚĿ ſ ƅĆŪ ŌĄ Ə
İśą ƈŇƆ ƅ Ł řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ ċŧƔĊŸĄŗ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ĄƉƔĊƂ and Paradise is brought closer for the
righteous-not very far 2 long. distant in time (27:22) ċ ŧƔĊ ŸĄ ŗ Ą ũĆƔĿ Ż Ŀ ŜĿ ƄĄ ƈĿ ž
but he did not stay away long 3 deep. far-reaching (2:176) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏĄ Ə
ŔƏŁ ſĿ ƆĿ śŇŦŔ ƑĊ ž ċƀŕĿƂĊŮ ƓĊſĿƅ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ċ ŧƔĊ ŸĄ ŗ those who differ about the Scripture are
deeply divided 4 considerable (42:18) Ą ƉƏą ũॠƈą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ Ŀ ƛ Ō ƑĊ ž ƓĊ ſĿ ƅ Ċ řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ
ċŧƔĊŸĄŗ .Ŀ ƜĄŲ those who argue about the Hour are truly in
considerable misguidedness.
ƇƍĄ ťă ŶąŕĄ Ɔ mub´adün [pl. of pass. part. ĈŧĄŸĆŗą ƈ mub´ad] kept away.
removed. debarred (21:101) ŕĄƎŇƊĄŷ ĄƃœĿƅƏ Ō ƑĿƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ŕİ ƊĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ŇŚĿƂĄŗĄŬ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č Ɖŏ
Ą ƉƏą ŧĄ ŸĆŗą ƈ but those for whom [a promise of] the reward most fair has
been already given by Us. they will be kept away from it [Hell].
ťąŶă ŕ ba´d [adverb of time and place. always in construct ) řĿžŕĄŲŏ ( .
sometimes elliptically] 1 after. afterwards (2:253) .ĿśĿśŇƁŔ ŕĄƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄʼnŕĿŮ ĆƏĿƅĄƏ
Ł ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇśĄ ʼnॠŠ ॠƈ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇĊ ƍĊ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ but if God had so willed. their
successors would not have fought each other after they had been
brought clear signs 2 in addition to (21:105) ŕĿƊĆŗĿśĿƄ ĆŧĿƂĿƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ũƏą ŗČ ŪƅŔ
ĄƉƏą ţƅŕČ ŰƅŔ ĄƒĊŧŕĄŗĊŷ ŕĄƎŁ ŝŃ ũĄƔ ĄűĆũ ƗŔ Č Ɖ Ō Ń ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ We wrote in the Psalms. in
addition to the Remembrance that the earth shall be the
inheritance of My righteous servants (or. We wrote in the Psalms.
after the [earlier] Scripture that the earth shall be the inheritance
of My righteous servants) 3 apart from. beyond (10:32) ą ƇŁ ƄƅĿ ŨĿ ž ą ƇŁ Ƅč ŗĄ ũ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ
.Ŀ ƜČ ŲƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ŔĿ ŨॠƈĿ ž ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ so that is God. your Lord. the True One
(or. the Truth). what is there. beyond the Truth. except falsehood'
4 over and above (31:27) ॠƈİ Ɗ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĈƇĿƜŇƁŌ ċŘĄũĄŠĿ Ů ĆƉĊƈ Ń űĆũƗŔ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ą Ƌčŧą ƈĄ Ɣ ą ũĆ ţĄ ŗŇ ƅŔĄ Ə

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Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł ŚŕĄ ƈĊ ƆĿ Ƅ ŇŚĄ ŧĊ ſĿ Ɗ ॠƈ ľ ũą ţĆŗ Ō Ł řĄ ŸĆŗĄ Ŭ Ċ ƋĊŧĆŸĄ ŗ even if all the trees on earth were
pens and the sea with seven seas over and above to replenish it.
[were ink]. the words of God would not run out 5 because of. in
consequence of (66:4) ą ŢƅŕĄŰĄƏ .ƔŃ ũĆŗŃ ŠĄƏ ą ƋĿƛĆƏĄƈ ĄƏą ƍ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉŐĿž ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŔĄũĄƍŕĿŴĿś ĆƉŏĄƏ
ĈũƔŃ ƎĿŴ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ĄŧĆŸĄŗ Ł řĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ but if you collaborate against him. [be
warned that] God will aid him. as will Gabriel and all the
righteous believers. and the angels. because of that. will stand
behind him 6 in spite of. notwithstanding. even after (5:32) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ Ą ŧĆ ŸĄ ŗ Ć Ƈą ƎŇ ƊĊ ƈ Ŕć ũƔĊ ŝĿ Ƅ Č Ɖ ŏ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗŇ ƅŕŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŁ Ɔą Ŭą ũ Ć Ƈą ƎŇ śĄ ʼnॠŠ ƑĊ ž Ą ƉƏŁ žŃ ũĆŬą ƈĿ ƅ Ń űĆũ ƗŔ and indeed
Our messengers came to them with clear signs. but many of them.
in spite of this. commit excesses in the land 7 after. apart from
(45:23) .Ą ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə Ċ ƌŃ ŗŇƆĿ ƁĄ Ə Ċ ƌĊ ŸĆƈĄ Ŭ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƇĿ śĿ ŦĄ Ə ľ ƇŇƆĊ ŷ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆĄ Ų ŌĄ Ə ą ƋŔĄ ƏĄ ƍ ą ƌĄ ƎĿ ƅ ŏ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄ ũĿ ž Ō
Ąŗ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌƔĊ ŧĆƎĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž Ļ ŘĄ ƏŕĿ ŮĊ Ż Ċ ƋŃ ũĄ Ű consider the one who takes his
own desire as a [controlling] deity. and God leads him astray.
inspite of [his/God's] knowledge. and sets a seal upon his
hearing and his heart. and places a covering on his eyes-who can
guide him after (or. apart from) God' 8 before (in a disputed
interpretation of 21:105) ŕĿ ƊĆ ŗĿ śĿ Ƅ Ć ŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ŕĄƎŁ ŝŃ ũĄƔ ĄűĆũ ƗŔ Č Ɖ Ō Ń ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ Ń ũƏą ŗČ ŪƅŔ
Ą ƉƏą ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ Ą ƒĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŷ We wrote in the Psalms. before the [earlier]
Scripture/Remembrance. `The earth shall be the inheritance of
My righteous servants'; (79:30) ॠƍॠţĄ ŧ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ą űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə and the Earth.
before (or. after) that. He spread it out.

Ŕ [ ų [ ŧ b-´-r a camel of either sex; a donkey; (of a camel) to grow to
maturity; a camel`s droppings; to become angry. ĈũƔĊŸĄŗ ba´ïr is
described by °al-Suyutï as a borrowing from Hebrew. Of this root.
ĈũƔĊŸĄŗ ba´ïr occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ćŧƒĉ Ŷăŕ ba´ïr [n.] a grown camel (also said to mean donkey or a
beast of burden) (12:72) Ĉ ƇƔĊ ŷĄ Ū Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŕĿ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə ľ ũƔĊ ŸĄ ŗ .Ć ƈĊ ţ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ʼnॠŠ Ć ƉĄ ƈƅĄ Ə Ċ ƃĊ ƆĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ŵŔĄ Əą Ű ą ŧĊ ƂŇ ſĿ Ɗ
we are missing the king's cup and for the one who returns it there
will be a camel-load and I guarantee that.

Ŕ [ ų [ ů b-´-d part. some. portion. to divide; mosquitoes. gnats. to be
bitten by a mosquito. Of this root. two forms occur 130 times in
the Qur`an: ĈűĆŸĄŗ ba´d 129 times and ĽřĄŲƏą ŸĄŗ ba´üdatun once.
ćůąŶăŕ ba´d [n.] 1 some. a few. a number of. one of (11:54) .ƏŁ ƂĿ Ɗ ĆƉ ŏ

Ŕ [ ų [ J
103
İ ƛ ŏ ċ ʼnƏą ŬŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĊ śĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn ą űĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ƃŔĄ ũĿ śĆŷŔ we say nothing but that some (or. one) of
our gods have touched you with some evil; *(2:76) ƜŦ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇą Ǝą ŲĆŸĄ ŗ
ľ űĆŸĄ ŗ [when they] become alone with each other; *(4:21) ƑĄ ŲŇž Ō
ľűĆŸĄŗ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĆƇŁƄą ŲĆŸĄŗ have become intimate with one another [lit. have
opened up to one another] [together as husband and wife];
*(22:40) Ą Ə Ŀ ƅ ĆƏ Ŀ ƛ Ą ŧ Ňž ą Ŷ ĺŔ ľ űĆŸĄ ŗŃ ŗ Ƈą ƎĄ ŲĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ had God not driven back
people. some by the means of others; *(2:253) ŕƊƆŲž ľűĆŸĄŗ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇą ƎĄŲĆŸĄŗ
We favoured some of them above others; *(18:99) ą ŞƏą ƈĄ Ɣ ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƎĄ ŲĆŸĄ ŗ
ƑĊ ž ľ űĆŸĄ ŗ some of them surge. on that day. against the others;
*(2:36) ďƏą ŧĄŷ ľűĆŸĄŗƅ ĆƇŁƄą ŲĆŸĄŗ each other's enemy [lit. some of you
enemies one to the other]; *(4:25) ľ űĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŲĆŸĄ ŗ belonging to one
family [lit. some of you [derived] from others] 2 part. portion
(2:85) ľ űĆ ŸĄ ŗŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ũŁ ſŇ ƄĿ śĄ Ə Ń ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇ ƅŔ Ń űĆ ŸĄ ŗŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎŁ śĿ ž Ō so do you believe in some
parts of the Scripture and deny others' 3 a little of. some of
(49:12) Ĉ ƇŇŝ ŏ Đ Ɖİ ŴƅŔ Ą űĆŸĄ ŗ Č Ɖ ŏ [even] some suspicion is a sin 4 one of
(66:3) ŕĻŝƔĊŧĄţ ĊƌŃ ŠŔĄƏĆŪ Ō Ń űĆŸĄŗ ƑĿƅŏ č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ Č ũĄŬ Ō ŇŨŏĄƏ and when the Prophet told
something in confidence to one of his wives 5 all of (in a rare
interpretation of 40:28) İ ƅŔ ą űĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĆŗĊ Űą Ɣ ŕĻ ƁĊ ŧŕĄ Ű ą ƃĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŧĊ ŸĄ Ɣ ƒĊ Ũ but if he is
truthful then what he has threatened you with will afflict you.
ĻŗăŰƍĄ Ŷăŕ ba´üdatun [n.] mosquito. gnat (2:26) ĆƉ Ō ƓĊ ƔĆţĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ŕĄƎĿƁĆƏĿž ŕĄƈĿž ĻřĄŲƏą ŸĄŗ ŕĄƈ ƜĿŝĄƈ ĄŖŃ ũĆŲĄƔ God does not shy from drawing any
comparison [with something as small as] a gnat or above it
[larger/smaller].

Ŕ [ ų [ J b-´-l unirrigated palm trees. a male palm tree; a husband. a
wife; to marry; courtship; master. deity. Of this root. two forms
occur seven times in the Qur`an: .ĆŸĄŗ ba´l three times and ĽřĿƅƏą Ÿą ŗ
bu´ülatun four times.
JąŶăŕ ba´l I [n.] husband (11:72) ƓĊƆĆŸĄŗ ŔĿ ŨĄƍĄƏ ĈŪƏą ŠĄŷ ŕĿ Ɗ ŌĄƏ ą ŧƅŌĄʼn ƑĿśĿƆĆƔĄƏŕĄƔ ŇŚĿƅŕĿ Ɓ
ŕĻ ŦĆƔĿ Ů she said. `Woe is me!. do I bear [a child] when I am an old
woman. and this. my husband. is an old man'' II [proper name.
maybe a very early borrowing] a generic term for idol
worshipping; Baal. sun god. an idol of gold belonging to the
people of °ilyas or any deity that is not God (37:125) ƜĆŸĄ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ŷĆŧĿ ś Ō
ĄƉƔĊ Ƃ ƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō Ą ƉƏą ũĿ ŨĿ śĄƏ how can you invoke Baal and forsake the Most
Gracious Creator'

Ŕ [ ŷ [ Ř

104
ĻŗĽƃƍĄ ŶĄ ŕ bu´ülatun [pl. of .ĆŸĄŗ ba´l (also v. n. of v. ŇŚĿ ƆĄŸĄŗ ba´alat)]
husbands; being married to a husband; the entire family (2:228)
ČƉĊƍĐŧĄũŃ ŗ ıƀĄţ Ō ČƉą ƎŁśĿƅƏą Ÿą ŗĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ŀ ƜĆŰŏ ŔƏą ŧŔĄũ Ō ĆƉŏ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ŕć ţ their husbands are [more]
entitled to take them back during this period provided they wish
to put things right.

Ŕ [ ŷ [ Ř b-gh-t surprise is the single concept denoted by the root. Of
this root. ĽřĿśŇżĄŗ baghtatan occurs 13 times in the Qur`an.
ĻŗĽřŅźăŕ baghtatun [n. used adverbially] by surprise. suddenly
(6:31) Ƒİ śĄ ţ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ĻřĿ śŇżĄŗ Ł řĄŷŕČ ŬƅŔ ƇƎśʼn੠until the Hour comes upon them
suddenly.

Ŕ [ ŷ [ ů b-gh-d hate. Of this root. ą ʼnॠŲŇżĄ ŗ baghdã` occurs five times in
the Qur`an.
Ňœă ŰŅźă ŕ baghdã` [n.] intense hatred. loathing (3:118) ą ʼnॠŲŇżĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĄ ŧĄ ŗ ĆŧĿ Ɓ
ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƍŔĄ ƏŇž Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ vehement hatred has already willed itself out of their
mouths.

Ŕ [ ŷ [ J b-gh-l mule; to be stupid. to affect stupidity. Of this root. .ŕĿżŃ ŗ
bighãl. which is a borrowing from Ethiopic. occurs once in the
Qur`an.
JœĽ źŁ ŕ bighãl [pl. of n. .ŇżĄŗ baghl] mules (16:8) ĄũƔĊƈĄţŇƅŔĄƏ .ŕĿżŃ ŗŇƅŔĄƏ .ĆƔĿŦŇƅŔĄƏ
ॠƍƏą ŗĿ ƄĆũĿ śƅ and horses. mules and donkeys for you to ride [them].

Ŕ [ ŷ [ Ɛ b-gh-y a shoot; an unripe fruit; to seek. to go after. to wish
for. to covet; to go over the limits. to transgress; to facilitate; to
earn one`s living. to strive; a maid. a slave girl; to commit
adultery; to practise prostitution. Of this root. nine forms occur 86
times in the Qur`an: ƑĿ żĄ ŗ baghã 24 times; Ą ƓĊ żą ŗ bughiya once; ƑĿżĿśĆŗŔ
`ibtaghã 34 times; ƓĊ żĄ ŗŇƊĄ Ɣ yanbaghï six times; ĈƓŇżĄŗ baghy once; ƓĊŻŕĄŗ
bãghï three times; ď ƓĊ żĄ ŗ baghiyy twice; ĈʼnŕĿżŃ ŗ bighã` once and Ĉ ʼnŕĿ żĊ śĆŗŔ
`ibtighã` 14 times.
ƏĽ źă ŕ baghã i I [v. intrans.] 1 to transgress. to violate the limits
(55:20) Ń ƉॠƔĊ żĆ ŗĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ľ ŤĄ ŪĆ ũĄ ŗ ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ between them is a barrier they do not
transgress 2 [with prep. Ɠž] to act outrageously (42:27) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ųĄ ŬĄ ŗ ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə

Ŕ [ ŷ [ Ɛ
105
ŔĆƏĿżĄŗĿƅ ĊƋĊŧŕĄŗĊŸƅ ĿƀĆŪĐ ũƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũƗŔ were God to expand the provision to His
servants. they would transgress all bounds in the land 3 [with
prep. ƑƆŷ; pass. Ą ƓĊ żą ŗ bughiya] to infringe. to encroach upon. to
wrong someone (49:9) ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə Ń ƉŕĿ śĿ ſœŕĿ ų Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĿ śĿ śŇƁŔ ŔƏą ţĊƆĆŰ ōĿ ž ŕĄƈą ƎĿƊĆƔĄŗ ĆƉ ŐĿ ž ŇŚĿ żĄ ŗ
ॠƈą ƍŔĄ ŧĆţ ŏ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƗŔ ƐĄ ũŇŦ ŔƏŁƆĊśŕĿƂĿž ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ ƓĊ żĆ ŗĿ ś Ƒİ śĄţ Ą ʼnƓĊ ſĿ ś ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ń ũĆƈ Ō Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ and if two parties
of the believers fall to fighting. put things right between them. but
if one of them wrongs the other. fight the wrongdoer until he/she
returns to God's commandment II [v. trans. with Ɠž or ƑƆŷ] 1 to
want. to seek. to desire. to be after (18:64) Ń źĆ ŗĿ Ɗ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ .ŕĿ Ɓ he said.
`That [place] was what we were seeking' 2 to endeavour (28:77)
ĄŧŕĄŬĿſŇƅŔ Ń źĆŗĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ń űĆũ ƗŔ do not endeavour to spread corruption in the
land III [v. doubly trans.] to desire; cause someone/something to
be (9:47) Ŀ řĿ ƊŇśĊſŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĿ ƜĊŦ ŔƏą ŸĄ ŲĆƏ ƗĄƏ they would have scurried
around in your midst. seeking to sow discord among you.
ƏĽźĽřąŕŒ `ibtaghã [v. VIII. trans.] to desire. to seek in earnest (4:94)
ŕĄƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ ĊŘŕĄƔĄţŇƅŔ ĄűĄũĄŷ ĄƉƏŁ żĿ śĆŗĿ ś desiring the chance gains of this life.
Ƒĉ źă ŕŅ ƈă ƒ yanbaghï [imperf. of v. VII ƑĿżĄŗŇƊŔ inbaghã. intrans.] 1 to be
worthy of. to be fitting and proper (19:92) Č ũƆ ƅ ƓĊ żĄ ŗŇƊĄ Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə ŔćŧĿƅĄƏ Ŀ ŨĊŦİ śĄƔ ĆƉŌ Ń ƉĄƈĆţ
it does not befit the Lord of Mercy to take [unto Himself]
offspring 2 to be possible. to be attainable (36:40) ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ƓĊżĄŗŇƊĄƔ ą ūĆƈİ ŮƅŔ Ŀ ƛ
ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔ Ł ƀŃ ŗॠŬ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ą ũĄ ƈĿ ƂŇƅŔ Ą ƃŃ ũĆŧŁ ś ĆƉ Ō it is not for the sun to overtake the
moon. nor can the night outrun the day 3 admitting of either
sense 1 or sense 2 above (36:69) ą ƌĿ ƅ ƓĊżĄŗŇƊĄƔ ŕĄƈĄƏ ĄũĆŸIJŮƅŔ ą ƋŕĿƊĆƈİƆĄŷ ŕĄƈĄƏ We have
not taught him [the Prophet] poetry. nor is it fitting for him (or. it
does not fall within his ability) to be a poet.
ćƑŅźăŕ baghy [n./v. n.] 1 tyranny. outrageous behaviour (10:23)
ĄƉƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍ ŔĿ Ũŏ ĆƇą ƍॊŇƊ Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĊŬŁ ſŇƊŌ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ƔŇżĄŗ ŕĄƈİ Ɗŏ ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ IJ ƀĄţŇƅŔ Ń ũĆƔĿżŃ ŗ Ń űĆũƗŔ yet
when He had delivered them. they behaved outrageously on the
earth against all that is right!. Humankind!. your outrageousness
is [bound to be] only against yourselves 2 infringement of the
rights of others. going beyond the acceptable. transgressing
(2:213) İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĿ śŇŦŔ ॠƈĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ ŕćƔŇżĄŗ ŁŚŕĿ ƊĐƔĄŗŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇśĄʼnॊ ŕĄƈ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƋƏŁśƏŌ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ only
those to whom it was given disagreed after clear signs had come
to them-[thus their disagreement was a] transgression amongst
themselves.

Ŕ [ ž [ ŧ

106
Ƒĉ Źœă ŕ bãghï [act. part.] one who goes beyond the limits. violates
the accepted norms (2:173) ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄƇŇŝŏ ĿƜĿž ċŧŕĄŷ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ľŹŕĄŗ ĄũĆƔĿŻ ČũŁųĆŲŔ Ń ƉĄƈĿž but if
anyone is forced [to eat such things because of hunger]. rather
than by desiring/wanting to transgress or violate the norms. he
commits no sin.
Ď Ƒĉ źă ŕ baghïyy [n./quasi-act. part.] (of a woman) prostitute.
unchaste (19:20) ŕĎ ƔĊżĄŗ ą ƃŌ ĆƇĿƅĄƏ ĈũĿŮĄŗ ƓĊƊĆŬĄŬĆƈĄƔ ĆƇĿƅĄƏ ĈƇĿƜŁŻ Ɠƅ ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄƔ Ƒİ ƊŌ ŇŚĿƅŕĿƁ she
said. `However can I have a son when no mortal has touched
me'!. and I am no unchaste [woman]!'
ćŇœĽźŁŕ bighã` [n./v. n.] prostitution (24:33) ĊʼnŕĿżŃ ŗŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĆƇŁƄĊśŕĄƔĿśĿž ŔƏą ƍŃ ũŇƄŁś Ŀ ƛĄƏ
and do not force your slave girls into prostitution.
ćŇœĽ źĉ řąŕŒ `ibtighã` [v. n.] 1 desiring. wishing for (2:207) Ąƈ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈĄƏ ĆƉ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŘॠŲĆ ũĄ ƈ Ą ʼnŕĿ żĊ śĆ ŗŔ ą ƌĄ ŬŇ ſĿ Ɗ ƒŃ ũŇ ŮĄ Ɣ but there is also a kind of man who gives
his life away seeking the pleasure of God 2 seeking out. pursuing
(4:104) ŔƏŁ ƊŃ ƎĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĄƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĄ Ɣ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊŐĿ ž Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĿ ś ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƉ ŏ Ń ƇĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĊʼnŕĿ żĊ śĆŗŔ Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƅōĿ ś ॠƈĿ Ƅ do not
be faint-hearted in pursuing the enemy. if you are suffering pain.
they are also suffering pain as you are suffering.

Ŕ [ ž [ ŧ b-q-r cow; to split up. to gash. to plough. to enlarge; to travel
around; corruption. Of this root. three forms occur nine times in
the Qur`an: ĈũĿƂĄŗ baqar three times; ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ baqaratun four times and
ĽŚŔĄũĿƂĄŗ baqarãt twice.
ćŧĽƀăŕ baqar [coll. n.. sing. fem. ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ baqaratun. pl. ĽŚŔĄũĿƂĄŗ baqarãt]
cows (2:67) Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖŏ ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿƂƅ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ .ŕĿƁ ŇŨŏĄƏ ĻŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ ŔƏą ţĄŗŇŨĿś ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅą ũą ƈōĄƔ remember
when Moses said to his people. `God commands you to sacrifice a
cow'; * ƅŔ ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ name of Sura 2, Medinan sura, so named because of
a reference in verses 2:67-71 to 'the cow` which the Israelites
were ordered to slaughter.

Ŕ [ ž [ ų b-q-´ stain. irregular patches of colour; piebald. raven; a spot.
an enclosed area with trees; to sprinkle. Of this root. ĽřĄŸŇƂą ŗ buq´atun
occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŗăŶŅƀĄ ŕ buq´atun [n.] area. place. region (28:30) Ą ƍŕĿ ś Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƒĊ ŧƏŁ Ɗ ŕ
Ń ƉĄ ƈĆƔ ƗŔ Ċ ŧŔĄ ƏŇƅŔ ŒĊ ųŕĿ Ů ƑĊ ž Ċ ŘĄ ũĄ Šİ ŮƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ řĿ ƄĄ ũॠŗą ƈŇƅŔ Ċ řĄ ŸŇƂą ŗŇƅŔ when he came to it. he was
called from the right side of the valley. from the tree in the

Ŕ [ ž [ Ɛ
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blessed area.

Ŕ [ ž [ J b-q-l to sprout. to appear. to shoot; herbage. pot-herbs.
legumes. beans of all kinds. Of this root. .ŇƂĄŗ baql occurs once in
the Qur`an.
JŅƀăŕ baql [coll. n.] herbage; beans. legumes (2:61) ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈॠƔ ĆƇŁ śŇƆŁ Ɓ ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə
Ł ŚŃ ŗŇƊŁ ś ŕČ ƈĊƈ ŕĿƊĿƅ ĆŞŃ ũŇŦą Ɣ ĄƃČ ŗĄũ ŕĿƊĿƅ ą ŵĆŧŕĿž ċŧĊţŔĄƏ ľƇŕĄŸĿų ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄũŃ ŗĆŰĿƊ ĆƉĿƅ ŕĄƎœŕİŝĊƁĄƏ ŕĄƎĊƆŇƂĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ą űĆũ ƗŔ
ŕĄƎĊƆĄŰĄŗĄƏ ŕĄƎĊŬĄŧĄŷĄƏ ŕĄƎĊƈƏŁ žĄƏ remember when you said. `Moses. we cannot
endure eating only one kind of food. so pray to your Lord to bring
out for us some of what the earth produces-its herbs. its
cucumbers. its garlic. its lentils and its onions.'

Ŕ [ ž [ Ɛ b-q-y to stay behind. to wait. to remain. to survive. to
continue; remainder. residue. that which outlasts. that which
endures. Of this root. eight forms occur 21 times in the Qur`an:
Ą ƓĊ ƂĄ ŗ baqiya twice; ƑĿ ƂĆŗ Ō `abqã (1) twice; ƑĿ ƂĆŗ Ō `abqã (2) seven times;
ƓĊ Ɓॠŗ bãqï once; ƉƔĊ Ɓॠŗ bãqïn twice; Ľ řĄ ƔĊ Ɓॠŗ bãqiyatun twice; Ľ ŚŕƔĊ Ɓॠŗ bãqiyãt
twice and Ľ řČ ƔĊ ƂĄ ŗ baqiyyatun three times.
ă Ƒĉ ƀă ŕ baqiya a [v. intrans.] 1 to remain (2:278) Ą ŗĐ ũƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƓĊ ƂĄ ŗ ॠƈ ŔƏą ũĿ ŨĄ Ə ŕ
and forgo what dues remain from usury 2 to endure. to last
(55:27) ƇŔĄ ũŇ Ƅ ƙŔĄ Ə .Ŀ ƜĄ ŠŇ ƅŔ ƏŁ Ũ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ ą ƌĆ ŠĄ Ə ƑĿ ƂĆ ŗĄ ƔĄ Ə and yet remains the Face of
your Lord. full of majesty. honour-giving.
ƏĽ ƀą ŕ Ŋ `abqã (1) [v. IV trans.] to spare (74:28) ƓĊƂĆŗŁ ś Ŀƛ ą ũĿ ŨĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə it
[Hell-fire] does not spare [a thing] and does not leave [a thing].
ƏĽ ƀąŕ Ŋ `abqã (2) [elat.] more/most lasting. more/most enduring
(42:36) ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ Ɔƅ ƑĿƂĆŗŌĄƏ ĈũĆƔĿŦ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŕĄƈĄƏ what God has to give is far
better and more lasting for those who believe.
Ƒĉ ſœă ŕ bãqï [quasi-act. part.. pl. ƉƔĊ Ɓॠŗ bãqïn] 1 lasting. enduring
(16:96) ċƀŕĄŗ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ŧĿ ſŇƊĄƔ ĆƇŁƄĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŕĄƈ that which is with you runs out.
but what is with God endures 2 the remaining ones. the rest
(26:120) ĄƉƔĊƁŕĄŗŇƅŔ ą ŧĆŸĄŗ ŕĿ ƊŇƁĄũŇŻ Ō Č ƇŁ ŝ and then We drowned the rest.
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ ſœă ŕ bãqiyatun I [quasi-act. part. fem.] lasting. enduring
(43:28) ĻřĄƔĊƁŕĄŗ ĻřĄƈĊƆĿ Ƅ ŕĄƎĿ ƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗĊ ƂĄ ŷ and he made it a word enduring
among his descendants II [pl. n. ĽŚŕĄƔĊƁŕĄŗ bãqiyãt] lasting deeds
(19:76) ĈũĆƔĿ ŦĄ Ə ŕć ŗŔĄ ƏĿ ŝ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ł ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ Ł ŚŕĄ ƔĊ ƁॠŗŇƅŔĄ Ə Ɛć ŧą ƍ ŔĆƏĄ ŧĿ śĆƍŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ąŧƔŃ ŪĄ ƔĄ Ə

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ŔĎ ŧĄ ũĄ ƈ God increases the guided in guidance. but the lasting-good-
deeds are best for reward with your Lord and best in the return
[the yield] III [v. n./n.] endurance. continuance; trace. residue.
remnant (69:7-8) ċřĄƔŃ ƏŕĿ Ŧ .ŇŦĿƊ ą ŪॊĆŷŌ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ ƑĄŷĆũĄŰ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƇĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ƐĄũĿśĿž ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ƐĄ ũĿ ś .Ą ƎĿ ž
ċ řĄ ƔĊ Ɓॠŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ such that you could have seen its people lying dead like
hollow palm-trunks. can you see any remnant of them' (or. do
you see them remaining').
Ļŗċ ƒĉ ƀăŕ baqiyyatun [n.] 1 relic. memento; remnant (2:248) ą ƇŁƄĄƔĊśōĄƔ ĆƉŌ
ĄƃĄũĿ ś ŕČ ƈĊƈ ĽřČ ƔĊƂĄŗĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ĽřĿ ƊƔĊƄĄŬ ĊƌƔĊž Ł ŚƏą ŗŕİ śƅŔ Ł řĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƌŁ ƆĊƈĆţĿ ś ĄƉƏą ũŕĄƍ .ŔĄʼnĄƏ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ .ŔĄʼn
that the Ark [of the Covenant] will come to you. carried by the
angels. containing [the gift of] tranquillity from your Lord and
relics of the followers of Moses and Aaron 2 whatever lasts. what
endures; good pious work *(11:86) Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł řČ ƔĊ ƂĄ ŗ what
God keeps for you [after you have given of your wealth] is best
for you. if you are believers; *(11:116) ċ řČ ƔĊ ƂĄ ŗ ƏŁ ƅƏ Ō people having the
quality of preserving themselves. or. holding on to the true
religion. people possessed of excellence [lit. people with a
remnant].

Ŕ [ Ɓ [ ŧ b-k-r morrow; beginning of the day. early time. to do
something early in the day; first fruits; virgin. firstborn.
outstanding deed. Of this root. four forms occur 12 times in the
Qur`an: ĈũŇƄŃ ŗ bikr once; ĈũŕĿƄĆŗŌ `abkãr twice; ĽŘĄũŇƄą ŗ bukratun seven times
and ĈũŕĿƄĆŗŏ `ibkãr twice.
ćŧŅƂŁŕ bikr [quasi-act. part.. pl. ĈũŕĿƄĆŗŌ `abkãr] 1 virgin (56:35-6) ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
Ą ŠĿ ž ć ʼnŋŮŇƊ ŏ Č Ɖą ƍŕĿ ƊōĿ ŮŇƊ Ō Ŕć ũŕĿ ƄĆŗ Ō Č Ɖą ƍŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸ We have created them as a new creation.
and made them virgins 2 (of animals) young. having given birth
only once (2:68) ĄƃƅĿ Ũ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ĈƉŔĄ ƏĄ ŷ ĈũŇƄŃ ŗ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĈűŃ ũŕĿ ž Ŀ ƛ ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ ŕĄƎİ Ɗŏ .ƏŁ ƂĄƔ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ He says
it is a cow which should be neither too old nor too young. but
inbetween.
Ĺ Ŗă ŧŅƂĄ ŕ bukratan [n.. used adverbially] in the early morning. at
daybreak (54:38) ďũĊƂĿ śĆŬą ƈ ĈŖŔĿ ŨĄŷ ĻŘĄũŇƄą ŗ ĆƇą ƎĄţČ ŗĄŰ ĆŧĿƂĿƅĄƏ and a remaining
chastisement came to them early in the morning; *(25:5) ą ŗ Ļ ŘĄ ũŇƄ
ƜƔĊŰ ŌĄƏ morning and evening; *(19:11) ŕĎ ƔĊ ŮĄ ŷĄ Ə Ļ ŘĄ ũŇƄą ŗ day and night.
constantly.

Ŕ [ Ɓ [ Ɛ
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ćŧœĽƂąŕō `ibkãr [v. n./n.] act of beginning one`s day *(3:41) Đ ƓĊ ŮĄ ŸŇƅŕŃ ŗ
Ń ũŕĿ ƄĆŗƙŔĄƏ in the evening and at dawn. at dusk and dawn (i.e..
constantly).

Ŕ [ Ɓ [ Ɓ b-k-k crowding. pressure. breakage. stifling. Of this root. řİ ƄĄ ŗ
bakkata. occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ľ ŗĮ Ƃăŕ Bakkata [proper name] another name for either Mecca or
the area upon which the Ka°ba is built; some philologists attribute
the name to the crowding of pilgrims in the city. although it could
be a result of sound change between /m/ and /b/. (3:96) Č Ɖ ŏ .Č Ə Ō ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗ
Ą ŶĊ Ųą Ə Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ ƒĊ Ũİ ƆĿ ƅ Ŀ řİ ƄĄŗŃ ŗ ŕĻ ƄĄ ũॠŗą ƈ Ɛć ŧą ƍĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƆ ƅ the first House [of worship] to
be established for people was the one at Becca, a blessed [place]
and a source of guidance for all [the worlds].

Ŕ [ Ɓ [ ƅ b-k-m dumbness. muteness; inability to express oneself; to be
silent; to be born or to become dumb or mute; to be ignorant. Of
this root. two forms occur six times in the Qur`an: ą ƇĿ ƄĆŗ Ō `abkam
once and ĈƇŇƄą ŗ bukm five times.
Ą ƅĽ Ƃąŕ Ŋ `abkam [quasi-act. part.; pl. ĈƇŇƄą ŗ bukm] dumb. mute.
ignorant. incapable of self-expression (16:76) Ą ŖĄ ũĄ ŲĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĻƜĿ ŝĄƈ Ń ƉĆƔĿ Ɔą ŠĄ ũ
ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ũĊ ŧŇƂĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ą ƇĿ ƄĆŗ Ō ॠƈą ƍą ŧĄ ţ Ō and God coins a similitude of two men-
one of them dumb. having no power over anything.

Ŕ [ Ɓ [ Ɛ b-k-y to wail. to cry. to bemoan. to lament; to cause to cry; to
pretend to cry. Of this root. three forms occur seven times in the
Qur`an: ƑĿ ƄĄ ŗ bakã five times; Ō ƑĿ ƄĆŗ `abkã once and ď ƓĊ Ƅą ŗ bukiyy once.
ƏĽ Ƃă ŕ bakã i [v. intrans. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to weep. to wail (9:82)
ŔƏŁ ƄĄţĆŲĄƔŇƆĿ ž ƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ Ļ Ɯ ŔƏŁ ƄĆŗĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə ŔćũƔĊŝĿƄ so let them laugh a little, they will weep a
lot; *(44:29) ॠƈĿ ž ŇŚĿ ƄĄ ŗ ą ƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ ƗŔĄ Ə ą űĆũ they were lamented by no
one [lit. neither the heavens nor earth shed a tear for them].
ƏĽ Ƃąŕ Ŋ `abkã [v. IV. trans.] to cause to weep. to bring/cause
unhappiness (53:43) ƑĿƄĆŗŌĄƏ ĄƃĄţĆŲ Ō ĄƏą ƍ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŌĄƏ and He it is who makes one
laugh. and makes one weep.
Ď Ƒĉ ƂĄ ŕ bukïyy [pl. of quasi-act. part. ƓĊƄŕĄŗ bãkï] weeping (19:58)
ŕĎ ƔĊ Ƅą ŗĄ Ə Ŕć ŧČ Šą Ŭ ŔƏč ũĿ Ŧ they fell down prostrate and weeping.

Jă ŕ

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Jă ŕ bal particle denoting turning away from or dismissing what
precedes it and retrieving or confirming what follows; it occurs
127 times in the Qur`an. Because .Ą ŗ is used in argumentative
contexts in which ideas are subtly compared and set in contrast
the exact meaning of particular occurrences of .Ą ŗ are often
difficult to pinpoint. Broadly speaking. however. Ą ŗ . functions in
the Qur`an in three ways: I [negating or rejecting what precedes
and confirming what follows] 'not that but this`. 'on the contrary`
(21:62-3) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ Ŀ ŚŇƊ ŌĄʼn Ŀ ŚŇƆĄŸĿ ž ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ŕĿ ƊĊ śĄ Ǝ ƅŋŃ ŗ ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆ ŗ ŏॠƔ .ŕĿ Ɓ .Ą ŗ ą ƌĿ ƆĄŸĿ ž ĆƇą ƍą ũƔŃ ŗĿ Ƅ Ŀ ŨĄƍ Ŕ they said.
`Was it you. Abraham. who did this to our gods''. he said. `No. [I
did not do it] but this. their chief. did it' II [setting into contrast
or comparing between what precedes and what follows] '. but`.
'. indeed`. '. alas`. (87:14-16) ĆŧĿ Ɓ Ŀ ƆŇž Ō ĆƉĄ ƈ Ą Ţ ĄũĿ ƄĿ ŨĄƏ Ƒİ ƄĄŪĿ ś Ą ƇĆŬŔ Ċ ƌĐ ŗĄ ũ .Ąŗ Ƒİ ƆĄŰĿ ž
ĄƉƏą ũĊŝŎŁ ś Ŀ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ the ones who triumph are the ones who purify
themselves. [who] remember the name of their Lord and pray. but
[there you are!]. you [people] prefer the life of this world III
[affirming what precedes and adding to it further] '. not only
that but also .` (21:5) .Ą ŗ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ Ł ŜŕĿ żĆŲ Ō ľƇĿ ƜĆţ Ō .Ą ŗ ą ƋŔĄ ũĿ śŇžŔ .Ą ŗ Ą Əą ƍ ĈũĊŷŕĿŮ ŕĿ ƊĊ ś ōĄ ƔŇ ƆĿ ž ċ řĄ ƔŋŃ ŗ
ॠƈĿ Ƅ .ĊŬĆũ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ƅČ Ə ƗŔ indeed they say. `[These are but] muddled dreams,
rather he has invented it, rather he is a poet. let him bring us a
sign like that previous messengers were sent.'

Ŕ [ J [ ť b-l-d a marked plot of land; an animal dwelling. an abode. to
abide in a place. to stay put; a tower; city. village; density; to be
lacking in intelligence. Of this root. three forms occur 19 times in
the Qur`an: ĈŧĿƆĄŗ balad nine times; ĈŧĿƜŃ ŗ bilãd five times and Ľ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ ŗ
baldatun five times.
杼Ƅăŕ balad [n.. pl. ĈŧĿƜŃ ŗ bilãd] 1 city. town. village (90:2) Į .Ċ ţ Ŀ ŚŇ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə
ŇƅŔ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƎŃ ŗ ĊŧĿ ƆĄŗ while you [Prophet] are residing in this city 2 tract of land.
region (7:58) ĊƌĐŗĄũ Ń ƉŇŨŐŃ ŗ ą ƌŁśŕĄŗĿƊ ą Şą ũŇŦĄƔ ą ŖĐƔİųƅŔ ą ŧĿƆĄŗŇƅŔĄƏ as for the good land. its
vegetation comes by the will of its Lord; *(7:57) ċ ŚĐ ƔĄ ƈ ċ ŧĿ ƆĄ ŗ ƅ barren
land with no herbage or pasture [lit. dead land]; * ƅŔ ŧĿ ƆĄ ŗ `al-balad
name of Sura 90. Meccan sura. so-named because of the reference
to 'the City` [of Mecca] in verse 1.
Ļ Ŗă ťŅƄă ŕ baldatun [n.] 1 town. village. city (27:91) ČŖĄũ Ąŧą ŗĆŷ Ō ĆƉŌ ŁŚĆũĊƈŌ ŕĄƈİƊŏ
Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ ॠƎĄ ƈČ ũĄ ţ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ċ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ ŗŇƅŔ I have been commanded only to serve the Lord

Ŕ [ J [ ŷ
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of this town. which He has made inviolable 2 tract of land. region
*(25:49) ŕĻ śĆƔĄ ƈ Ļ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ ŗ barren land with no herbage or pasture [lit. dead
land].

Ŕ [ J [ ũ b-l-s a state of shock. to be overwhelmed with grief. to fall
into utter despair; to be cut off; to be confused and bewildered. Of
this root. two forms occur five times in the Qur`an: ą ūĊ ƆĆŗą Ɣ yublis
once and ƉƏą ŬĊ ƆĆŗą ƈ mublisün four times (ą ūƔĊ ƆĆŗ ŏ `iblïs is derived by
some philologists from this root).
Ą ũĉ Ƅą ॠƒ yublis [imperf. of v. IV ĄūĿ ƆĆŗ Ō `ablasa. intrans.] to fall into
utter despair. to be struck dumb with fear (30:12) Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔĄ Ə ą ƇƏŁ ƂĿ ś Ł řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ
ą ūĊ ƆĆŗą Ɣ ĄƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈŇƅŔ on the Day the Hour arrives. the guilty will
despair/be dumbfounded.
ƇƍĄ Ūĉ ƄąŕĄ Ɔ mublisün [pl. of act. part. ĈūĊƆĆŗą ƈ mublis] struck dumb with
horror or despair. seized with fear (23:77) ŔĿ Ũ ŕć ŗॠŗ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊĆţĿ śĿ ž ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
ĄƉƏą ŬĊƆĆŗą ƈ ĊƌƔĊž ĆƇą ƍ ŔĿ Ũŏ ċŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ľŖŔĿ ŨĄŷ until when We open a gate of severe
punishment for them-then they will be plunged into utter despair.
Ą ũƒĉ Ƅąŕ ō `iblïs (see alphabetically).

Ŕ [ J [ ų b-l-´ to swallow. to swallow up; a glutton; a drain. Of this
root. ƓĊŸĿƆĆŗŔ `ibla´ï occurs once in the Qur`an.
ąŴĽ ƄąŕŒ ibla´ [imper. of v. Ą ŗ ĄŶĿ Ɔ bala´a] to swallow up (11:44) .ƔĊ ƁĄ Ə
ƓĊŸĊƆŇƁŌ ą ʼnŕĄƈĄŬ ŕĄƔĄƏ ĊƃĄʼnŕĄƈ ƓĊŸĿƆĆŗŔ ą űĆũŌŕĄƔ then it was said. `Earth. swallow up
your water. and Sky. cease [raining].'

Ŕ [ J [ ŷ b-l-gh to reach. to arrive; to mature. to come of age. to reach
puberty; to exhaust; to attain a high degree; to be eloquent; to
exaggerate; to do one`s utmost; to notify. to announce. to convey.
message. Of this root. nine forms occur 77 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ źĿ ƆĄŗ
balagha 40 times; Ŀ źİ ƆĄŗ ballagha six times; Ŀ źĿ ƆĆŗ Ō `ablagha five times;
ĽźƅŕĄŗ bãligh three times; ƉƏŁ żƅŕĄŗ bãlighün three times; ĽřĿżƅŕĄŗ bãlighatun
three times; ĽŹĿƜĄŗ balãgh 15 times and ĽźĿƆĆŗĄƈ mablagh once.
Ľ ŸĽ Ƅăŕ balagha u [v. trans.] 1 to arrive at. to reach a place. to come
to (18:93) Ƒİ śĄţ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ŀ źĿ ƆĄŗ Ą ŗ Ą ƉĆƔ Ń ƉĆƔČ ŧČ ŬƅŔ until [when] he reached a place
between two mountain barriers 2 to reach a point in time (2:235)

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Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŔƏą ƈŃ ŪĆŸĿ ś Ŀ ŘĄŧŇƂą ŷ Ń šŕĿ ƄIJ ƊƅŔ Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ŀ źŁ ƆĆŗĄƔ ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƆĄ ŠŌ and do not confirm the
marriage tie until the prescribed period [of waiting] reaches its
end 3 to approach. to be about to reach (2:231) ŔĿŨŏĄƏ ą ƇŁ śŇƂİƆĿ ų Ą ʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ ĄƉŇżĿ ƆĄŗĿ ž
Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƆĄŠ Ō Č Ɖą ƍƏŁ ƄĊ ŬĆƈ ōĿ ž ċ ŽƏą ũĆŸĄ ƈŃ ŗ ĆƏ Ō ČƉą ƍƏą ţĐ ũĄ Ŭ ċŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŃ ŗ and if you divorce women
and they are about to reach their set time. then either keep or
release them in a fair manner 4 to attain or reach a state (24:59)
ŔĿŨŏĄƏ Ŀ źĿ ƆĄŗ .ŕĿ ſŇų ƗŔ ą ƇŁƄŇƊĊƈ Ą ƇŁ Ɔą ţŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƊĊ ŨōĿ śĆŬĄ ƔŇƆĿ ž and when the children among you
reach puberty. they should ask leave [to enter]; *(4:6) ŔƏŁ żĿ ƆĄ ŗ Ą šŕĿ ƄIJ ƊƅŔ
reach the state when they would be eligible for marriage. reach
the marriageable age [lit. they reach marriage]; *(37:102) Ŀ źĿ ƆĄŗ ą ƌĄ ŸĄ ƈ
Ą ƓĆŸČ ŬƅŔ reached the stage of working for a living [lit. he reached the
stage of going around with him]; *(18:76) ĆŧĿ Ɓ Ŀ ŚŇżĿ ƆĄŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƓIJ Ɗą ŧĿ ƅ ŔćũŇŨą ŷ you
have had all the excuses you can put up with from me [lit. you
have reached an excuse from me] 5 to overtake. to catch up with
(3:40) Ƒİ ƊŌ ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ Ɠ ƅ ĈƇĿƜŁ Ż ĆŧĿ ƁĄ Ə ĄƓĊƊĿ żĿ ƆĄŗ ą ũĄ ŗĊ ƄŇƅŔ however can I have a son when
old age has overtaken me 6 to measure up to. to come up to the
level of. to match (17:37) Ą ƃİ Ɗ ŏ ĆƉĿ ƅ Ŀ ƀŃ ũŇŦĿ ś ĄűĆũ ƗŔ ĆƉĿ ƅĄ Ə Ŀ źŁ ƆĆŗĿ ś .ॠŗŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ļ ƛƏŁ ų you
will never rend the earth open. nor attain the mountains in height
7 to achieve (40:80) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ƔĊž ŕĄƎ ą ŶĊ žŕĿ ƊĄ ƈ ŔƏŁ żŁ ƆĆŗĿ ś ƅĄ Ə ŕĄƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ Ļ řĄ ŠŕĄ ţ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁƄŃ ũƏą ŧą Ű and in
them [cattle] you have benefits, and that you may attain. on them.
a need [that is] in your breasts.
Ľ ŸĮ Ƅăŕ ballagha [v. II. doubly trans.] 1 to give or deliver a
message or news to someone (7:68) ĆƇŁ ƄŁ żIJƆĄ ŗ Ō ĊŚĿ ƛॠŬŃ ũ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ I convey to
you the messages of my Lord 2 [with elliptical second object] to
announce. declare. broadcast (5:67) ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔ ŇźIJ ƆĄ ŗ ŕĄƈ .Ń ŪŇƊ Ō ĄƃĆƔĿ ƅŏ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ
Messenger. proclaim what has been sent down to you from your
Lord.
Ľ ŸĽ Ƅąŕ Ŋ `ablagha [v. IV. doubly trans.] 1 to inform someone or
deliver to someone a message (7:93) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŇżĿ ƆĆŗ Ō ĊŚĿ ƛॠŬŃ ũ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ł ŚĆţĄŰĿ ƊĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ
I have delivered to you the messages of my Lord and have given
you advice 2 to help someone reach a place or a goal (9:6) ČƇŁ ŝ ą ƌŇżĊ ƆĆŗ Ō
ą ƌĿ ƊĄƈōĄƈ then help him reach his place of safety.
ĻŸƃœăŕ bãligh [act. part.; fem ĽřĿżƅŕĄŗ bãlighatun. pl. ƉƏŁ żƅŕĄŗ bãlighün] 1
reaching (13:14) Ŕ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƌĆƔİ ſĿ Ƅ Ċ ųĊ ŬॠŗĿ Ƅ İ ƛ ŏ ĊƌĊżƅŕĄŗŃ ŗ ĄƏą ƍ ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ƋŕĿ ž ĿźŁƆĆŗĄƔƅ ĊʼnŕĄƈŇƅ like
someone stretching forth his two hands towards water that it may
reach his mouth-but he does not reach it 2 to satisfy; achieve.

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attain (40:56) ĆƉ ŏ ƑĊ ž ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ũƏą ŧą Ű İ ƛ ŏ ĈũĆŗĊƄ ŕĄƈ ĆƇą ƍ Ċ ƌƔĊ ż ƅॠŗŃ ŗ there is nothing in
their hearts but a self-conceit they will never satisfy [it] 3 to fulfil.
to meet (7:135) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ŕĿƊŇſĿŮĿƄ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ Ą ŪĆŠĐ ũƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ .ĄŠ Ō ĆƇą ƍ ą ƋƏŁ ż ƅॠŗ but when We
relieved them of the plague and gave them a fixed period in which
to fulfil their promise 4 [adjectivally] far-reaching (54:5) ĽřĿżƅŕĄŗ ĽřĄƈŇƄĊţ
far-reaching wisdom; *(6:149) Ł řČŠą ţŇƅŔ Ł řĿ ż ƅॠŗŇƅŔ the conclusive.
overwhelming. ultimate argument; *(68:39) Ľ řĿ ż ƅॠŗ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ĉ ƉॠƈĆƔ Ō solemn
oaths binding on us.
ĻŸƒĉ Ƅă ŕ balïgh [quasi-act. part.] far-reaching. penetrating.
insightful (4:63) .Ł ƁĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ĻƛĆƏĿ Ɓ ŕĻ żƔĊ ƆĄ ŗ and speak to them about
themselves using penetrating words.
ĻŷĽƚăŕ balãgh [v. n./n.] 1 announcement. declaration. conveyance
of a message (5:99) ŕĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ Ł ŹĿ ƜĄ ŗŇƅŔ nothing is required of the
Messenger but to deliver the message 2 warning. a message
delivered (46:35) ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ Ą ƉĆƏĄ ũĄ Ɣ ŕĄƈ Ą ƉƏą ŧĄ ŷƏą Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ŝĄ ŗŇƆĄ Ɣ İ ƛ ŏ Ļ řĄ ŷॠŬ ĆƉĊ ƈ ľ ũॠƎĿ Ɗ ĽŹĿƜĄŗ
on the day they will see what they had been warned about. it will
seem to them as if they had not tarried but a single hour of a
single day, [this is] a warning!
ĻŸĽƄąŕăƆ mablagh [v. n.] extent. attainable degree. ultimate level
(53:30) ĊŸŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎŁżĿƆĆŗĄƈ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ Ń ƇŇƆ that is the extent of their knowledge.

Ŕ [ J [ ƍ b-l-w test. trial. to test; bounty; to strive. to have care for; to
afflict. calamity; to give an oath. Of this root. eight forms occur
37 times in the Qur`an: ƑĿ ƆĄ ŗ balã 18 times; ƑĿ ƆĆŗŁ ś tublã twice; ą Ɣ ƓĊ ƆĆŗ
yublï once; ƑĿƆĿśĆŗŏ `ibtalã seven times; Ą ƓĊ ƆŁ śĆŗŏ `ibtuliyã once; ĈʼnĿƜĄŗ balã`
six times; ƓĿ ƆĿ śĆŗą ƈ mubtalï once and ƉƔĊ ƆĿ śĆŗą ƈ mubtalïn once.
ƏĽ Ƅă ŕ balã u [v. trans.] 1 to try. to put to the test (21:35) ĆƇŁ ƄƏŁ ƆĆŗĿƊĄƏ
Đ ũİ ŮƅŕŃ ŗ Ń ũĆƔĿ ŦŇƅŔĄ Ə Ŀ ƊŇśĊž Ļ ř and We try you with the bad and with the good. as a
test 2 to experience. to taste. to come to realise (10:30) Ą ƃ ƅŕĿ Ɗą ƍ ƏŁƆĆŗĿś ı.Ł Ƅ
ľūŇſĿ Ɗ ŕĄƈ ŇŚĿ ſĿ ƆĆŬ Ō thereupon every soul will experience what it did in the
past.
ƏĽ ƄąŕĿ ř tublã [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ƓĊ Ɔą ŗ buliya] 1 to be put to the test
(3:186) Č Ɖą ƏĿ ƆĆŗŁ śĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō you are surely to be tested in your
possessions and in your persons 2 to be declared. to be brought
into the open (86:9) ą ũ œŔĄ ũČ ŬƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĆŗŁ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ the Day when secrets are

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brought into the open.
Ƒĉ ƄąŕĄ ƒ yublï [imperf. of v. IV ƑĿ ƆĆ ŗ Ō `ablã trans.] either to give the
chance to someone to do well or to confer a great gift on (8:17)
Ą ƓĊ ƆĆŗą Ɣ ƅĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈŇ ƅŔ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ćʼnĿ ƜĄŗ ŕĻ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ and to test the believers with a fair test
from Him (or. to confer upon the believers a great gift from Him).
ƏĽ ƄĽ řąŕŒ `ibtalã [v. VIII. trans.] 1 to test (2:124) ą ƌčŗĄũ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ƑĿ ƆĿ śĆŗŔ ĊŨŏĄƏ
Č Ɖą ƎČ ƈĿ ś ōĿ ž ċ ŚŕĄƈĊƆĿ ƄŃ ŗ and when his Lord tested Abraham by certain
words/commands and he fulfilled them 2 to put to the test (89:15)
Ń ƉĄƈĄũŇƄŌ ƓĐŗĄũ .ƏŁƂĄƔĿž ą ƌĄƈČŸĿ ƊĄƏ ą ƌĄƈĄũŇƄōĿž ą ƌčŗĄũ ą ƋĿƜĿśĆŗŔ ŕĄƈ ŔĿ Ũŏ ą ƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ŕČƈōĿž as for man.
whenever his Lord puts him to the test. honouring him and granting
him ease in living-he says `My Lord has honoured me' 3 to confer
(8:17) ŕĻ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ ć ʼnĿ ƜĄ ŗ ą ƌŇ ƊĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ƓĊ ƆĆ ŗą Ɣ ƅĄ Ə to confer upon the believers a great
gift from Him (or. and to test the believers with a fair test from
Him).
ō ă Ƒĉ ƄĿ řąŕ `ibtuliya [pass. of v. VIII] 1 to test. to be put to the test
(33:11) Ą ƃ ƅŕĿ Ɗą ƍ Ą ƓĊ ƆŁ śĆŗŔ ĄƉƏŁ ƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƅŃ ŪŇƅą ŪĄ Ə ĻƛŔĄŪŇƅŃ Ū Ŕć ŧƔĊ ŧĿ Ů there the believers were
sorely tested and deeply shaken.
ćŇĽƚăŕ balã` [n./v. n.] 1 test. trial (44:33) ĈʼnĿƜĄŗ ĊƌƔĊž ŕĄƈ ĊŚŕĄƔƕŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄʼnĄƏ
ą ƈ ĈƉƔŃ ŗ We gave them revelations in which there was a clear test;
*(8:17) ŕĻƊĄŬĄţ ćʼnĿ ƜĄŗ favour. blessing. great benefit [lit. a good test] 2
affliction (2:49) Ą ƉƏą ţĐ ŗĿ Ũą Ɣ Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnŕĿ ƊĆ ŗ Ō Ą ƉƏą ƔĆţĿ śĆŬĄ ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnॠŬĊ Ɗ ƓĊ žĄ Ə ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅĿ Ũ ĈʼnĿƜĄŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄ ũ Ċ ŴĄ ŷ ĈƇƔ
slaughtering your sons and sparing only your women. this was a
terrible affliction from your Lord.
Ƒĉ ƄĽřąŕĄ Ɔ mubtalï [act. part.. pl. ƉƔĊ ƆĿ śĆ ŗą ƈ mubtalïn] one who puts to the
test (2:249) ľ ũĄ ƎĿ ƊŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊ ƆĿ śĆŗą ƈ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ God will test you with a river.

Ŕ [ J [ Ɛ b-l-y to be worn out. to degenerate with age. to whither away;
to care about. to give attention to. This root is usually classified
together with root Ŗ [ . [ Ə b-l-w (see Ŕ [ ƍ [ J b-y-l). Of this root. ƑĿ ƆĆŗĄ Ɣ
yablã occurs once in the Qur`an; also ƑĿ ƆĄ ŗ balã occurs 27 times and
may be classified under this root.
ƏĽ Ƅą ŕă ƒ yablã [imperf. of v. Ą ƓĊ ƆĄ ŗ baliya. intrans.] to decay. wear out.
to wane (20:120) ƑĿƆĆŗĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ċƃŇƆą ƈĄƏ ĊŧŇƆŁ ŦŇƅŔ ĊŘĄũĄŠĿ Ů ƑĿ ƆĄŷ Ąƃı ƅą ŧŌ .Ąƍ shall I show you
the tree of immortality and a kingdom that never wanes'

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ƏĽ Ƅă ŕ balã [response particle ) ŖŔĄ ƏĄ Š ŽĆũĄ ţ ( . occurring 27 times in
the Qur`an; it contradicts a negated proposition or denial and
affirms the opposite; in this way it functions like .Ą ŗ bal (q.v.) but
unlike .Ą ŗ. ƑĿ ƆĄ ŗ balã can stand alone functioning as a complete
sentence] 1 [as a response to a negated sentence] yes. indeed; on
the contrary (64:7) Ą Ū Ą ƇĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ĆƉ Ō ĆƉĿ ƅ ŔƏŁŝĄŸĆŗą Ɣ .Ł Ɓ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŗ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũĄ Ə ČƉŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗŁ śĿ ƅ the
disbelievers claim they will not be raised from the dead. say
[Prophet]. `Yes indeed! I swear by my Lord!. you will be raised'
2 [as a response to a negative interrogative sentence] yes indeed
(2:260) ƓŃ ŗŇƆĿƁ Č ƉœĄƈŇųĄƔƅ ĆƉĊƄĿƅĄƏ ƑĿƆĄŗ .ŕĿƁ ĆƉĊƈŎŁ ś ĆƇĿƅĄƏŌ .ŕĿƁ He said. `Do you not
believe. then''. `Yes.' said he. `but just so my heart may rest at
ease.' 3 [preceded by what is not literally. but has the force of
being. a negative] yes. he did. he had (39:59) ĿŚĆŗİ ŨĿƄĿž ƓĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĄƃŇśĄʼnॊ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƆĄŗ
ॠƎŃ ŗ yes. indeed! My revelations came to you but you denied them;
which is preceded by (39:57) Ą ƉƔĊ Ƃİ śą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ł ŚŇƊŁ ƄĿ ƅ ƓĊ ƊŔĄ ŧĄ ƍ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅ if God
only guided me I would have been of the pious.
Jœă ŕ bãl (see Ŕ [ Ɛ [ J b-y-l or Ŕ [ ƍ [ J b-w-l).

Ŕ [ Ƈ [ Ƈ b-n-n tip of the finger. the entire finger; arms and legs; to
remain in a place; constancy; odour. Of this root. ĈƉŕĿƊĄŗ banãn
occurs twice in the Qur`an
ć ƇœĽ ƈă ŕ banãn [coll. n.; sing. ĽřĿƊŕĿƊĄŗ banãnatun] 1 fingertips. also said
to indicate the entire finger (75:3-4) Ō ą ƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ą ŖĄŬĆţĄƔ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŗ ą ƌĄ ƈŕĿ ŴĊŷ Ą ŶĄ ƈĆŠĿ Ɗ ĆƉİ ƅ
ą ƌĿ ƊŕĿƊĄŗ ĄƒĐ ƏĄŬŁ Ɗ ĆƉŌ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƔŃ ũĊŧŕĿ Ɓ does man think We cannot collect his bones'.
yes. We can. We are able [even] to reconstruct his very fingertips
2 also said to mean arms and legs or limbs in general (in an
interpretation of verse 8:12) ľƉŕĿƊĄŗ İ.ŁƄ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏą ŗŃ ũĆŲŔĄƏ and strike off their
every limb.

Ŕ [ Ƈ [ ƍ - Ɛ b-n-w/y sons and daughters. offspring; to adopt a child;
building. wall. tent; to build. to form; to wed. Of this root. 13
forms occur 184 times in the Qur`an: ƑĿƊĄŗ banã 11 times; ĈʼnŕĿƊŃ ŗ binã`
twice; Ĉʼnŕİ ƊĄŗ bannã` once; Ĉ ƉॠƔŇ Ɗą ŗ bunyãn seven times; Ľ řČ ƔĊ ƊĆŗĄ ƈ mabniyyatun
once; ĈƉĆŗŔ `ibn 40 times; ƓĿ ƊĆŗŔ `ibnay once; ƉƏŁ ƊĄ ŗ banün 74 times; Ĉ ʼnŕĿ ƊĆ ŗ Ō
`abnã` 22 times; ČƓĿ Ɗą ŗ bunayya six times; Ŀ řĿ ƊĆŗŔ `ibnata once; Č ƓĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ
`ibnatayy once and ĽŚŕĿƊĄŗ banãt 17 times.

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ƏĽ ƈă ŕ banã i [v. trans.] 1 to build. to construct (40:36) ą ƉॠƈॠƍॠƔ Ń ƉĆŗŔ Ɠ ƅ
ŕć ţĆũĄ Ű Hãmãn. build me a lofty tower 2 to raise (91:5) Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə ŕĄƈĄƏ ŕĄƍŕĿƊĄŗ
Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə ॠƈĄ Ə ॠƍॠţĿ ų by the sky and how He raised it and by the Earth
and how He spread it.
ć ŇœĽ ƈŁ ŕ binã` [n.] a raised structure. a dome. a roof (2:22) ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ
ą ƇŁƄĿƅ ĄűĆũ ƗŔ ŕĻ ŮŔĄ ũĊ ž Ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə ć ʼnŕĿ ƊŃ ŗ the One who made the earth spread out
for you and the sky a canopy.
ćŇœĮ ƈă ŕ bannã` [n. of profession] builder. bricklayer. constructor.
architect (38:37) ľ ůŔČ ƏĿ ŻĄ Ə ċ ʼnŕİ ƊĄ ŗ İ .Ł Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔĄ Ə and the satans-every
builder and diver.
ćƇœăƒŅƈĄ ŕ bunyãn [n.] building. structure (9:109) ĆƉĄƈĿ ž Ō ĄūČ Ŭ Ō ą ƌĿ ƊॠƔŇƊą ŗ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ
ŇƂĿ ś ƐĄ Ə Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ľ ƉŔĄ ƏĆŲŃ ũĄ Ə ĈũĆƔĿŦ is the one who founds his building on
consciousness of God and desire for His good pleasure better'
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ ƈąŕă Ɔ mabniyyatun [pass. part. fem.] built up. constructed
(39:20) ĽřČƔĊƊĆŗĄƈ ĽŽĄũŁŻ ŕĄƎĊƁĆƏĿž ĆƉĊƈ ĽŽĄũŁŻ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ for them are lofty chambers
above which are lofty chambers built.
ćƇąŕŒ `ibn [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊĆŗŔ `ibnayn] son (5:27) .ŇśŔĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ōĄŗĿ Ɗ ĆƓĿ ƊĆŗŔ Ą ƇĄ ŧŔĄ ʼn
IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ and recite to them the story of the two sons of Adam in truth;
*(2:215) Ń ƉĆ ŗŔ Ń ŗČ ŬƅŔ .Ɣ the wayfarer. the traveller [lit. the son of the
road].
ćƇƍĿ ƈăŕ banün [pl. of ĈƉĆŗŔ `ibn. in construct ) řžŕŲŏ ( > ƏŁ ƊĄ ŗ banü. + 1
st

pers. sing. suffix > ĉ ƓĊ ƊĄ ŗ baniyy] 1 sons (12:87) Č ƓĊ ƊĄ ŗॠƔ ŔƏą ŗĄ ƍŇŨŔ ŔƏą ŬČ ŬĄţĿ śĿ ž ĆƉĊ ƈ
Ŀ Žą ŬƏą Ɣ Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə my sons. go and seek news of Joseph and his brother 2
children. descendants (7:27) ƓĊ ƊĄ ŗॠƔ Ą ƇĄ ŧŔĄ ʼn Ŀ ƛ ą ƇŁ Ƅİ ƊĿ ƊĊśŇſĄƔ ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ children of
Adam. do not let Satan seduce you.
ćŇœĽƈąŕŊ `abnã` [pl. of n. ĈƉĆŗŔ `ibn] 1 sons (4:23) ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ą ƇŁƄœŕĿƊĆŗŌ .œĿ ƜĄţĄƏ ĆƉĊ ƈ
ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗĿ ƜĆŰ Ō wives of your begotten sons 2 children. sons and daughters
(implied by the context although usually interpreted as merely
sons) (5:18) ą Ƌ ŎŕČ ŗĊ ţ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ʼnŕĿ ƊĆŗ Ō ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ƐĄ ũॠŰİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə ąŧƏą ƎĄ ƔŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĿ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə the Jews and the
Christians say. `We are the children of God and His beloved
ones.'
ċƑĽ ƈĄ ŕ bunayy [diminutive of °ibn + 1
st
pers. sing. suffix ƒ (ï)]
(used for endearment) my dear son (12:5) Ą ƃॠƔŎą ũ Ćůą ŰŇƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛ Č ƓĿ Ɗą ŗॠƔ .ŕĿ Ɓ
ĄƃĊśĄƏŇŦŏ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ he said. `My dear son. do not relate your dreams to your

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ Ŝ
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brothers.'
Ľ ŗĽ ƈąŕŒ `ibnata [n. fem.; dual ƉŕĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ `ibnatãn. with 1
st
pers. sing.
suffix ƒ (ï) Č ƓĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ > `ibnatayya; pl. ĽŚŕĿƊĄŗ banãt] daughter (28:27) ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ
Ń ƉĆƔĿ śŕĄ ƍ Č ƓĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ ƐĄ ŧĆţ ŏ Ą ƃĄ ţĊ ƄŇƊ Ō ĆƉ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũ Ō I would like to marry you to one of these
two daughters of mine.

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ Ř b-h-t to be confounded. to be taken by surprise. to be
dumbfounded; falsehood. slander; to be argued down; to be
perplexed. Of this root. three forms occur eight times in the
Qur`an: Ł ŚĄ ƎĆŗĿ ś tabhat once; Ŀ ŚŃ Ǝą ŗ buhita once and ĈƉŕĿśĆƎą ŗ buhtãn six
times.
Ŀ Řă ƌąŕĽ ř tabhat [imperf. of v. Ŀ ŚĄƎĄŗ bahata. trans.] to render
dumbfounded and unable to act. to stupefy. to stun (21:40) ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊ śōĿ ś .Ą ŗ
ŕĄƍČ ŧĄũ ĄƉƏą ŸƔĊųĿ śĆŬĄƔ ĿƜĿž ĆƇą ƎŁ śĄƎĆŗĿ śĿ ž ĻřĿśŇżĄŗ but it will come upon them suddenly. and
it will stupefy them, so they will not be able to repel it.
Ľ ŘŁƌĄ ŕ buhita [pass. v.] to be confounded. to be dumbfounded
(2:258) ŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ॠƎŃ ŗ Ċ ŚōĿ ž Ċ ƀŃ ũŇŮĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ń ūĆƈİ ŮƅŕŃ ŗ ƓĊśōĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ .ŕĿ Ɓ Ŀ ŚŃ Ǝą ŗĿ ž Ń ŖŃ ũŇ żĄ ƈ
ĄũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ so Abraham said. `God brings the sun from the east, so
bring it from the west'. the one who disbelieved was confounded.
ćƇœĽřąƌĄ ŕ buhtãn [n./v. n.] 1 fabrication. perjury. falsehood
*(60:12) Ŀ ƛĄƏ Ą ƉƔĊ ś ōĄ Ɣ ľ ƉŕĿ śĆƎą ŗŃ ŗ ŇſĄ Ɣ ą ƌĿ ƊƔŃ ũĿ ś Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ Č ƉŃ ƎƔĊŧĆƔ Ō Č ƉŃ ƎĊ Ɔą ŠĆũ ŌĄ Ə they do not falsely
attribute children to their husbands. they do not commit adultery
[lit. nor do they produce any falsehood. they fabricate between
their hands and legs] 2 malicious slander. calumny (24:16) Ą ƈ ŕ ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ
ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ĆƉ Ō ĄƇİ ƆĿ ƄĿ śĿ Ɗ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƎŃ ŗ ĄƃĿ ƊॠţĆŗą Ŭ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ĈƉŕĿśĆƎą ŗ ĈƇƔĊŴĄŷ it is not [proper] for us to speak of
this!-Glory be to You!-this is a monstrous slander 3 deception.
trickery; unjust act (4:20) ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ą ƇŁśĆŧĄũŌ .ŔĄ ŧĆŗĊ śĆŬŔ ľ ŞĆƏĄ Ū Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĄ ƈ ĆƏĄ Ū ľ Ş ĆƇŁ śĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə ČƉą ƍŔĄ ŧĆţ ŏ
Ŕć ũŕĿ ųŇ ƊĊ Ɓ Ŀ ƜĿ ž ŔƏŁ ŨŁ ŦōĿ ś ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ŕ œĆ ƔĿ Ů ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ ŨŁ ŦōĿ ś Ō ŕĻ ƊŕĿ śĆƎą ŗ ŕćƈŇŝŏĄƏ ŕĻ ƊƔŃ ŗą ƈ and if you wish to
replace one wife with another. and [even if] you have given any
one of them [as a dower] a ton [of gold]. do not take any of it
[back]. do you take it by way of calumny and manifest sin'

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ Ŝ b-h-j delight; freshness; verdancy; to please. to make merry.
Of this root. two forms occur three times in the Qur`an: Ľ řĄ ŠĆƎĄ ŗ
bahjatun once and ĈşƔŃ ƎĄŗ bahïj twice.

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ J

118
Ļ ŗă Şąƌă ŕ bahjatun [n./v. n.] delight. beauty. joy (27:60) .ĄŪŇƊ ŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ƉĊ ƈ
Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ ć ʼnॠƈ ŕĿ ƊŇ śĄ ŗŇ Ɗ ōĿ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ŀ ƀœŔĄ ŧĄ ţ Ŀ ŚŔĿ Ũ ċ řĄ ŠĆƎĄ ŗ and He sent for you from the sky
water with which We caused gardens of delight to grow.
ćŝƒŁƌăŕ bahïj [quasi-act. part.] joyful. delightful. lovely. pleasing
(22:5) ľ ŞĆƏĄ Ū IJ .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŇŚĿ śĄ ŗŇƊ ŌĄ Ə ŇŚĄ ŗĄ ũĄ Ə ŇŚČ ŪĿ śĆƍŔ ĄʼnॠƈŇƅŔ ŕĄƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŕĿƊŇƅĄŪŇƊŌ ŔĿŨŐĿž ĻŘĄŧĊƈŕĄƍ ĄűĆũƗŔ ƐĄũĿśĄƏ
ľ şƔŃ ƎĄ ŗ and you perceive the earth lifeless. yet when We send down
upon it water. it stirs and swells and puts forth [vegetation] of
every joyous kind.

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ J b-h-l to leave an animal unattended. to neglect; to be
without a husband; to chase out; to curse. to invoke God`s wrath;
to swear one`s innocence; to pray eagerly. Of this root. .Ń ƎĿ śĆŗĿ Ɗ
nabtahil occurs once in the Qur`an.
JŁ ƌĽ řąŕĽ ƈ nabtahil [imperf. of v. VIII .ĄƎĿ śĆŗŔ `ibtahala. intrans. with
no prep.] to pray earnestly. reference to řĿ ƆĄ ƍॠŗą ƈ mubãhala a
traditional form of 'trial by prayer` practised in Arabia in which
two antagonists debate a disputed subject in public with one
another and end by invoking God`s curse upon the lying party
(3:61) ČƇŁ ŝ .Ń ƎĿ śĆŗĿ Ɗ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ ƊĿ ž Ŀ řĿ ƊĆŸĿ ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĄƉƔŃ ŗĊŨŕĿƄŇƅŔ and let us pray earnestly and
then invoke God's curse on those who are lying.

Ŕ [ =Ƌ [ ƅ b-h-m four-footed animals; to be dumb; obscure.
unintelligible; to be dark; unmarked. Of this root. ĽřĄƈƔŃ ƎĄŗ bahïmatun
occurs three times in the Qur`an.
ĻŗăƆƒŁƌăŕ bahïmatun [n.. pl. ą Ƈ œŕĄ ƎĄ ŗ bahã`im/quasi-act. part.] animal.
beast; dumb *(5:1) Ą ƈƔŃ ƎĄ ŗ Ń ƇŕĄŸŇƊ ƗŔ Ł ř livestock animals. plant-eating
beasts. ruminant [beasts].

Ŕ [ ƍ [ Ŋ b-w-` dwelling. home. abode. residence; to take up a place for
settling in. to provide abode for others; to take a wife. marriage;
to come back; to incur; to admit; situation; equality. Of this root.
four forms occur 17 times in the Qur`an: Ą ʼnॠŗ bã`a six times; ŌČ ƏĄŗ
bawwa`a six times; ŌČ ƏĄŗĿ ś tabawwa`a four times and ŌČ ƏĄŗą ƈ mubawwa`
once.
ă Ňœă ŕ bã`a [v. intrans. with prep. .ŗ] to come back with; to incur.

Ŕ [ ƍ [ Ŕ
119
to bring upon oneself. to earn (2:90) ľŖĄŲĿ Ż ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ľŖĄŲĿżŃ ŗ ŔƏą ʼnŕĄŗĿž they
have incurred wrath upon wrath.
Ŋċ ƍă ŕ bawwa`a I [v. II. trans.] 1 to settle. lodge. or establish
someone in a place (7:74) ĆƇŁ Ƅ ŌČ ƏĄŗĄƏ ƑĊ ž ŔćũƏą ŰŁƁ ŕĄƎƅƏą Ǝą Ŭ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏŁŨĊŦİśĿ ś Ń űĆũƗŔ and
He established you in the land. that you take to yourselves castles
on its plains 2 to prepare or appoint a place for settling in (22:26)
Ċ ŚĆ ƔĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĄ ƈ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆ ŗ ƙ ŕĿ Ɗ ŌČ ƏĄ ŗ Ň Ũ ŏĄ Ə when We appointed/made habitable for
Abraham the site of the House II [doubly trans.] 1 to settle or
lodge someone in a selected place (29:58) ŕĻ žĄ ũŁ Ż Ċ řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ œĐ ƏĄ ŗŁ ƊĿ ƅ We
shall lodge them in mansions in the Garden 2 to grant someone
something (16:41) ĆƇą ƎİƊ œĐƏĄ ŗŁ ƊĿ ƅ ƑĊž ĻřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ ŕĄƔŇƊčŧƅŔ We will grant them a good
reward in this world.
Ŋċ ƍă༠ř tabawwa`a [v. VIII] 1 [intrans.] to reside. to settle down.
to abide (39:74) ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ Ł ŜĆƔĄ ţ Ċ řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŌČ ƏĄ ŗĿ śĿ Ɗ we settle wherever we please
in the Garden 2 [trans.] to take up or select as a place of residence
(10:87) ŕĻ śƏą Ɣą ŗ Ą ũĆŰĊ ƈŃ ŗ ॠƈŁ ƄĊ ƈĆƏĿ Ƃ ƅ ŊČ ƏĄ ŗĿ ś ĆƉ Ō Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ţĆƏ ŌĄ Ə We revealed to
Moses and his brother. `Take up dwellings for your people in
Egypt.'
Ŋċ ƍăॠƆ mubawwa` [pass. part.. functioning as n. of place] abode.
place of residence; rank (10:93) ċƀĆŧĊŰ ŌČƏĄŗą ƈ .ƔœŔĄũĆŬŏ ƓĊƊĄŗ ŕĿ ƊŌČƏĄŗ ĆŧĿƂĿƅĄƏ We
settled the Children of Israel in a good settlement (or. in a
situation of truth).

Ŕ [ ƍ [ Ŕ b-w-b desert; wonders; doors. ways. choices. Of this root.
two forms occur 27 times in the Qur`an: ĈŖŕĄŗ bãb 12 times and
ĈŖŔĄƏĆŗŌ `abwãb 15 times.
ćŔœăŕ bãb [n.. pl. ĈŖŔĄƏĆŗŌ `abwãb] 1 door. entrance. gate (13:23)
ľŖŕĄŗ IJ .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĄƔ Ł řĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ the angels will go unto them from
every gate 2 means. facilities. ways *(6:44) ċ ʼnĆ ƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅ Ą ŖŔĄ ƏĆ ŗ Ō Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊĆ ţĿ śĿ ž
We made it easy for them to acquire the good things [lit. We
opened for them the ways to all things] of this life; *(2:189) ŔƏŁ ś ŌĄ Ə
ŕĄƎŃ ŗŔĄƏĆŗŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĿŚƏą Ɣą ŗŇƅŔ enter houses by their [main] doors (a reference to a
pre-Islamic custom by which men. under certain circumstances
and for a certain period. would only enter their own houses
through the back. this has come to mean: select the right means

Ŕ [ ƍ [ ŧ

120
for the right ends); *(54:11) ĄƏĆŗ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆţĿ śĿ ſĿ ž Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ŖŔ and We sent
torrential rain [lit. We opened the gates of the sky]; *(38:50) Ļ řĄ ţİ śĿ ſą ƈ
ą ŖŔĄ ƏĆŗ ƗŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ they are made welcome [lit. opened for them are the
gates [of Paradise]].

Ŕ [ ƍ [ ŧ b-w-r waste. uncultivated land; demise. to perish; corrupt;
stagnant; lazy; to test. Of this root. three forms occur four times in
the Qur`an: ą ũƏą ŗĄ Ɣ yabür twice; ĈũƏą ŗ bür once and ĈũŔĄƏĄŗ bawãr once.
Ą ŧƍĄ ŕă ƒ yabür [imperf. of v. Ą ũॠŗ bãra. intrans.] 1 to perish. to meet
with a bad end. to come to nothing (35:10) Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō ą ũŇ ƄĄ ƈĄ Ə Ĉ ŧƔĊ ŧĿ Ů Ĉ ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŷ Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ
ą ũƏą ŗĄ Ɣ Ą Əą ƍ for them is a severe chastisement. and the plotting of such
will come to nothing 2 (of trade) to be stagnant. to be unprofitable.
to decline (35:29) ĄũƏą ŗĿś ĆƉĿ ƅ ĻŘĄũॊĊś ĄƉƏą ŠĆũĄƔ in the hope of a trade that
will never decline.
ćŧƍĄ ŕ bür [pl. of act. part. ĈũœŕĄŗ bã`ir; v. n. functioning as quasi-act.
part.] lost. ruined. condemned (25:18) Ŕć ũƏą ŗ ŕćƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ ƄĄƏ Ą ũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ ŔƏą ŬĿ Ɗ Ƒİ śĄţ
until they forgot the Reminder and were people ruined.
ćŧŒăƍăŕ bawãr [v. n./n.] utter loss. condemnation. doom (14:28)
Ń ũŔĄƏĄŗŇƅŔ ĄũŔĄŧ ĆƇą ƎĄƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŔƏıƆĄţŌĄƏ and cause their people to end up in the home
of utter ruin.

Ŕ [ ƍ [ J b-y-l (with a degree of overlapping with roots Ŕ [ J [ Ɛ b-l-y and
Ŗ [ ƒ [ . b-w-l) heart. mind. thought; condition; importance; ease of
living; disposition. Of this root. .ŕĄŗ bãl occurs four times in the
Qur`an.
Jœăŕ bãl [n.] 1 mind. thought. heart. one`s inner being. situation
(47:2) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅॠŗ ĄŢĿ ƆĆŰ ŌĄƏ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śŕ œĐ ƔĄŬ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ Ąũİ ſĿ Ƅ He will overlook their bad deeds
and He will put them in a good state 2 condition. state (20:51) ॠƈĿ ž
ƑĿƅƏƗŔ Ń ƉƏą ũŁƂŇƅŔ .ŕĄŗ what about/what is the condition/state of the former
generations'

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ Ř b-y-t tent. dwelling. abode. quarters; family; to spend the
night. to do something at night; to raid by night. (of food) to
become stale. Of this root. five forms occur 73 times in the
Qur`an: ƉƏŁ śƔŃ ŗĄ Ɣ yabïtün once; Ŀ ŚČ ƔĄŗ bayyata four times; ĽŚĆƔĄŗ bayt 28

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ ť
121
times; ĽŚƏą Ɣą ŗ buyüt 37 times and ĽŚŕĄƔĄŗ bayãt three times.
Ŀ ŘƒŁ ŕĉ ƒ yabït [imperf. of v. Ŀ ŚŕĄ ŗ bãta. intrans.] to pass the night. to
spend the night (25:64) ŕć ƈॠƔĊ ƁĄ Ə Ŕć ŧČ Šą Ŭ ĆƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ śƔŃ ŗĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə those who spend
the night bowed down or standing in [constant] prayer.
Ľ Řċ ƒăŕ bayyata [v. II. trans.] 1 to do/decide something at night
(4:108) ƑĄ ŲĆ ũĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ॠƈ Ą ƉƏŁ śĐ ƔĄ ŗą Ɣ Ň Ũ ŏ Ć Ƈą ƎĄ ŸĄ ƈ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ċ ƌİƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ſŇ ŦĿ śĆ ŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ſŇ ŦĿ śĆ ŬĄ Ɣ
.ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ they hide from people. but they cannot hide from God. for
He is with them while they plot at night discourse that He does
not like 2 to raid someone at night; to kill someone at night
(27:49) ą ƌĿ ƆĆƍ ŌĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƊĿ śĐ ƔĄ ŗŁ ƊĿ ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ŔƏą ƈĄ ŬŕĿ ƂĿ ś ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ they said. `Swear to one another
[that] by God we shall attack him and his household in the night.'
Řąƒă ŕ bayt [n.. pl. ĽŚƏą Ɣą ŗ buyüt] 1 tent (16:80) Ń ƇŕĄŸŇƊ ƗŔ ĊŧƏŁƆą Š ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿƅ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ
Ć ƇŁ ƄĊ śĄ ƈŕĿ Ɓ ŏ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔĄ Ə Ć ƇŁ ƄĊ ƊĆ ŸĿ Ŵ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ ॠƎĿ ƊƏı ſĊ ŦĿ śĆ ŬĿ ś ŕĻ śƏą Ɣą ŗ and He has provided for you. from
the hide of cattle. tents [lit. houses] that you find light on the day
you travel and on the day you settle down 2 dwellings. rooms.
houses (7:74) ŕĻ śƏą Ɣą ŗ .ॠŗŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ śĊ ţŇƊĿ śĄ Ə and hewing the mountains into
houses 3 mosques. places of worship (24:36) Ą ŶĿ žĆũŁ ś ĆƉ Ō ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ Ũ Ō ċ ŚƏą Ɣą ŗ ƓĊ ž
ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą ũĿ ƄŇŨą ƔĄ Ə ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ in houses of worship. God has ordained that they be
raised high and His name be remembered in them; *(2:125) ĿŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ
the House [at Mecca]; *(5:2) ĄƇŔĄũĄţŇƅŔ ĿŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ the Sacred House [in
Mecca]; *(33:33) Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō members of the Prophet's household
[lit. people of the House] 4 building (24:29) ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ĈšŕĿ Ɗą Š ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĄūĆƔĿ ƅ
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĈŵŕĿ śĄƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž ċřĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĆŬĄƈ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ŕĻśƏą Ɣą ŗ you will not be blamed for entering
vacant/public buildings [lit. uninhabited houses] in which there is
some errand/business for you..
Ļ Řœă ƒă ŕ bayãt [v. n. used adverbially] at night. during the night; as
a night raid (7:97) ĄƉƏą ƈœŕĿ Ɗ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ŕĻśŕĄƔĄŗ ŕĿ Ɗą ŬōĄŗ ĆƇą ƎĄƔĊśōĄƔ ĆƉŌ ƐĄũŁ ƂŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ĄƉĊƈōĿžŌ do the
people of these towns feel secure that Our punishment will not
come upon them by night. while they are asleep'

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ ť b-y-d desert; to vanish. to be cut off; to perish. to become
extinct. Of this root. ą ŧƔŃ ŗĿ ś tabïd occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą ťƒŁ ༠ř tabïd [imperf. of v. Ą ŧॠŗ bãda. intrans.] to perish. to become
extinct (18:35) ŔćŧĄŗŌ ĊƋĊŨĄƍ ĄŧƔŃ ŗĿś ĆƉ Ō čƉŁŴŌ ŕĄƈ I do not think that this will ever
perish.

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ ů

122
Ŕ [ Ɛ [ ů b-y-d eggs; white. to become white. to whiten. to
whitewash; to honour. Of this root. five forms occur 12 times in
the Qur`an: Č űĄ ƔĆŗŔ `ibyadda three times; ą űĄ ƔĆŗ Ō `abyad once; ą ʼnॠŲĆƔĄ ŗ
baydã` six times; ĈűƔŃ ŗ bïd once and ĈűĆƔĄŗ bayd once.
ċ ůă ƒąŕŒ `ibyadda [v. IX. intrans.] to become white *(3:107) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
ĆƇą Ǝą ƍƏą Šą Ə ŇŚČ ŲĄ ƔĆŗŔ those who become joyful. those who are favourably
judged [lit. those whose faces become white/turn white]; *(12:84)
ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŷ ŇŚČ ŲĄ ƔĆŗŔĄ Ə interpreted either as his eyes became full of tears [and
so glistened in the light]. or. he became blind [lit. his eyes turned
white]; the latter interpretation finds support in (12:93) ƓĊ ŰƔĊ ƈĿ ƂŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŗĄ ƍŇŨŔ
Ċ ŚōĄ Ɣ ƓŃ ŗ Ō ĊƌĆŠĄƏ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƋƏŁ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž ŔĿ ŨĄƍ Ŕć ũƔĊ ŰĄ ŗ take this shirt of mine and lay it over
the face of my father-he will regain his sight and (12:96) Ąʼnॊ ĆƉŌ ŕČƈĿƆĿž
ŔćũƔĊŰĄŗ Č ŧĿśĆũŕĿž ĊƌŃ ƎĆŠĄƏ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƋŕĿƂŇƅŌ ą ũƔĊŮĄŗŇƅŔ then. when the bearer of good news
came and placed it onto his face. he forthwith became able to see
again.
Ą ůă ƒąŕ Ŋ `abyad [quasi-act. part.; fem. ą ʼnॠŲĆƔĄ ŗ baydã`. pl. ĈűƔŃ ŗ bïd]
white. without blemish. clear (27:12) Ą ƃĄ ŧĄ Ɣ .Ċ ŦĆŧ ŌĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĆŞą ũŇŦĿ ś Ą ƃŃ ŗĆƔĄ Š Ą ʼnॠŲĆƔĄ ŗ
ċ ʼnƏą Ŭ Ń ũĆƔĿ Ż ĆƉĊ ƈ and put your hand inside the neck of your cloak. it will
come out white. without a blemish; *(2:187) űĄƔĆŗƗŔ Ł ųĆƔĿŦŇƅŔ Ń ũĆŠĿ ſŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ
the first streak of light [lit. the white thread . of dawn].
ćůąƒăŕ bayd [coll. n.] eggs (37:49) Ĉ ƉƏŁ ƊŇƄĄ ƈ Ĉ űĆƔĄ ŗ Č Ɖą Ǝİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ like protected
eggs.

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ ų b-y-´ buying and/or selling. exchange of goods. merchandise.
deals; to pledge allegiance. to acknowledge someone as ruler; Ĉ ŶĄ ƔŃ ŗ
biya´. a place of worship. is also classified under this root
although it is generally recognised as being of foreign origin.
possibly Persian. Of this root. four forms occur 14 times in the
Qur`an: Ą ŶĄ Ɣॠŗ bãya´a six times; Ą ŶĄ ƔॠŗĿ ś tabãya´a once; ĈŶĆƔĄŗ bay´ seven
times and Ĉ ŶĄ ƔŃ ŗ biya´ once.
ă Ŵă ƒœă ŕ bãya´a [v. III. trans.] to pledge allegiance. to swear fealty.
declare oneself a loyal subject to a ruler (48:10) ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ Ą ƃĿ ƊƏą ŸĊ Ɣॠŗą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƉƏą ŸĊƔŕĄŗą Ɣ those who pledge loyalty to you [Prophet] are but
pledging loyalty to God.
ă Ŵă ƒœă ༠ř tabãya´a [v. VI. intrans.] to exchange goods. to trade with

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ Ƈ
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one another (2:282) ĆƇŁ śĆŸĄ ƔॠŗĿ ś ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ŔƏą ŧŃ ƎŇŮ ŌĄ Ə and have witnesses present
whenever you trade with one another.
ćŴąƒăŕ bay´ [n./v. n.] an exchange of goods. trade. buying and/or
selling (62:9) ŏ ŔƏą ũĿŨĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũŇƄĊŨ ƑĿƅŏ ŔĆƏĄŸĆŬŕĿž ĊřĄŸą ƈą ŠŇƅŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄƔ ĆƉĊƈ ĊŘĿƜČ ŰƆƅ ĄƒĊŧƏŁ Ɗ ŔĿŨ ŶĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ
when the call to prayer is made on the day of congregation
[Friday]. go immediately to praise God and leave off your
trading.
ć Ŵă ƒŁ ŕ biya´ [pl. of n. Ą ŸĆƔĄ ŗ Ľř bay´atun] churches (22:40) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŶŇžĄ ŧ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə
ŔćũƔĊŝĿƄ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ą ƇĆŬŔ ŕĄƎƔĊž ą ũĿƄŇŨą Ɣ ą ŧŃ ŠŕĄŬĄƈĄƏ ĽŚŔĄƏĿƆĄŰĄƏ ĈŶĄƔŃ ŗĄƏ ą ŶĊƈŔĄƏĄŰ ŇŚĄƈĐŧą ƎĿƅ ľűĆŸĄŗŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎĄŲĆŸĄŗ ĄūŕİƊƅŔ
had God not repelled some people by means of others. many
monasteries. churches. synagogues and mosques. where God's
name is much mentioned. would surely have been destroyed.

Ŕ [ Ɛ [ Ƈ b-y-n separation. severance. division; to be disconnected. to
become divorced; in between. middle; to clarify. to declare. to
explain; eloquence. Of this root. 14 forms occur 574 times in the
Qur`an: Ą ƉČ ƔĄ ŗ bayyana 35 times; ą ƉƔŃ ŗą Ɣ yubïn once; ĄƉČ ƔĄŗĿ ś tabayyana 18
times; ą ƉƔŃ ŗĿ śĆŬĿ ś tastabïn once; ĈƉĐ ƔĄŗ bayyin once; ĽřĿƊĐ ƔĄŗ bayyinatun 19
times; Ľ ŚŕĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗ bayyinãt 52 times; ĽřĿƊĐ ƔĄŗą ƈ mubayyinatun three times;
ĽŚŕĿƊĐ ƔĄŗą ƈ mubayyinãt three times; Ĉ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ mubïn 119 times; ĈƉƔŃ ŗĿ śĆŬą ƈ
mustabïn once; ĈƉŕĄƔĄŗ bayãn three times; Ĉ ƉॠƔĆ ŗĊ ś tibyãn once and Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ
bayna 317 times.
ă Ƈċ ƒă ŕ bayyana [v. II trans.] 1 to make clear. to explain (14:4) ॠƈĄ Ə
ĄŬĆũ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĄƉĐƔĄŗą Ɣƅ ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿ Ɓ Ń ƉŕĄŬĊƆŃ ŗ İƛŏ .Əą ŬĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿƊŇƆ We have never sent any
messenger but [that he communicated] in the tongue of his
people. that he may make [the message] clear for them 2 to
clarify. to explain away (43:63) ŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śœŃ Š ĆŧĿ Ɓ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą űĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ƉĐ ƔĄ ŗ ƗĄ Ə Ċ řĄ ƈŇƄĊ ţŇƅ
Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ą ƉƏŁ ſĊ ƆĿ śŇŦĿ ś I have brought you wisdom, and I have come to clarify
some of your differences for you 3 to bring out into the open. to
make manifest (5:15) ć ũƔĊ ŝĿ Ƅ Ć ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ą ƉĐ ƔĄ ŗą Ɣ ŕĿ ƊŁ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũ Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ʼnॠŠ Ć ŧĿ Ɓ ŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉƏŁſŇŦŁś ĆƇŁśŇƊŁƄ ŕČƈĊƈ Ŕ
our Messenger has come to make manifest to you much of what
you have kept hidden of the Scripture 4 to specify (2:70) ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ą ŵĆŧŔ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
ƓĊ ƍ ॠƈ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ĆƉĐ ƔĄ ŗą Ɣ Ą ƃČ ŗĄ ũ they said. `Pray to your Lord for us. to show us
[exactly] what it is.' 5 [with no object] to explain. to itemise
(4:176) ŔƏı ƆĊ ŲĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƉĐ ƔĄ ŗą Ɣ God explains [all this] to you lest you
err.

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124
Ą ƇƒŁ ॠƒ yubïn [imperf. of v. IV Ą Ɖॠŗ Ō `abãna. trans.] to enunciate. to
express oneself clearly (43:52) ą ƉƔŃ ŗą Ɣ ą ŧŕĿ ƄĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĈƉƔŃ ƎĄ ƈ Ą Əą ƍ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ ŕĿ Ɗ Ō ĆƇ Ō
am I not better than this contemptible wretch who can scarcely
express himself'
ăƇċ ƒă༠ř tabayyana [v. V] I [intrans.] 1 to become clear. to become
manifest (4:115) ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ƐĄ ŧą ƎŇƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƉČ ƔĄ ŗĿ ś ॠƈ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔ Ċ ƀĊƁŕĿ Ůą Ɣ and whoever
oppposes the Messenger. after the guidance has become clear to
him 2 to become known (9:43) ŔƏŁƁĄŧĄŰ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄƃĿ ƅ ĄƉČƔĄŗĿśĄƔ ƑİśĄţ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĿŚŇƊĊŨŌ ĄƇƅ why
did you give them permission. before those who spoke the truth
became known to you' 3 to become distinct. to become
discernible (2:187) Ċ ŧĄ ƏĆŬ ƗŔ Ċ ųĆƔĿ ŦŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ą űĄ ƔĆŗ ƗŔ Ł ųĆƔĿ ŦŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿƅ Ą ƉČ ƔĄ ŗĿ śĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ ŔƏą ŗĄ ũŇŮŔĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄĄ Ə
Ń ũĆŠĿ ſŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes
distinct for you from the black 4 to discern. to discriminate. to act
in a judicious way (4:94) Ć ƇŁ śĆ ŗĄ ũĄ Ų ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ ƑĊ ž Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊČ ƔĄŗĿ śĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ
Ŀ ŚĆŬĿ ƅ Ą ƇĿ ƜČ ŬƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƅŏ ƑĿ ƂŇƅ Ō ĆƉĄ ƈ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĿ ś ŕĻƊĊƈŎą ƈ you who believe. when you travel
in God's cause be discriminating. and do not say to one who
offers you peace. `You are not a believer' II [trans.] to discover.
to realise (34:14) Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ĆƏĿ ƅ ĆƉ Ō č ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĿ ƊČ ƔĄ ŗĿ ś Č ũĿ Ŧ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ŔƏŁ ŝŃ ŗĿ ƅ ॠƈ Ą ŖĆƔĿ żŇƅŔ ƑĊ ž
ƉƔŃ Ǝą ƈŇƅŔ Ń ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŇƅŔ so when he fell down the jinn realised. that. if they had
known the unseen. they would not have remained in the
demeaning torment.
Ą ƇƒŁ ༠řą ŪĽ ř tastabïn [imperf. of v. X Ą ƉॠŗĿ śĆ ŬŔ `istabãna. intrans.] to
become distinct. to become marked out (6:55) ĊŚŕĄƔƕŔ .Đ ŰĿſŁ Ɗ ĄƃƅĿ ŨĿ ƄĄƏ
ĄƉƔĊƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈŇƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄŬ ĄƉƔŃ ŗĿśĆŬĿśƅĄƏ thus We expound the revelations. so that the
way for sinners becomes distinct.
ćƇď ƒăŕ bayyin [quasi-act. part.] sure. manifest. evident (18:15) Ċ ʼnĿ ƛ ŎĄ ƍ
ľƉĐƔĄŗ ľƉŕĿųŇƆą ŬŃ ŗ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƏŁśōĄƔ ĿƛĆƏĿƅ ĻřĄƎƅŔĄʼn ĊƌĊƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏŁŨĿŦİśŔ ŕĿƊą ƈĆƏĿƁ these people of ours
have taken gods other than Him. why do they not produce clear
evidence about them'
ĻŗĽƈď ƒăŕ bayyinatun I [quasi-act. part.. pl. bayyinãt] manifest. sure.
evident. clear (2:211) ċřĿƊĐ ƔĄŗ ċřĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄʼn ĆƇĿ Ƅ .ƔœŔĄũĆŬŏ ƓĊƊĄŗ .ĄŬ ask the
children of Israel how many clear signs We brought them II [n..
pl. bayyinãt] clear evidence. proof (8:42) Ć ƉĄ ŷ Ą ƃĿ ƆĄ ƍ Ć ƉĄ ƈ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆ ƎĄ Ɣ ƅ Ć ƉĄ ƈ ॠƔĆ ţĄ ƔĄ Ə ċ řĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗ
ċřĿ ƊĐƔĄŗ ĆƉĄŷ ČƓĄţ that he who perished might perish by a clear proof. and
that he who survived might survive by a clear proof; * řĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗƅŔ name

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of Sura 98. Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in
verse 1 to 'clear evidence`.
ĻŗĽƈď ƒăॠƆ mubayyinatun [act. part. fem.. pl. ĽŚŕĿƊĐ ƔĄŗą ƈ mubayyinãt] 1
explaining. enlightening. guiding. verifying. showing the way
(24:46) ċŚŕĿƊĐ ƔĄŗą ƈ ċŚŕĄƔŔĄʼn ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ Ō ĆŧĿƂĿƅ We have sent down enlightening verses
2 evident. manifest. flagrant (33:30) ċřĿƊĐƔĄŗą ƈ ċřĿŮĊţŕĿſŃ ŗ ČƉŁƄŇƊĊƈ ĊŚōĄƔ ĆƉĄƈ ĐƓŃ ŗİƊƅŔ ĄʼnŕĄŬĊƊŕĄƔ
ƉĆƔĿ ſĆŸĊ Ų ą ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŇƅŔ ॠƎĿ ƅ ŇŽĄ ŷॠŲą Ɣ wives of the Prophet. any of you who
commits a flagrant indecency. for her the chastisement will be
twice doubled.
ćƇƒŁŕĄ Ɔ mubïn [quasi-act. part.] 1 eloquent. expressing things
clearly. perspicuous (5:92) ą ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈŇƅŔ Ł ŹĿ ƜĄŗŇƅŔ ŕĿ Ɗ ƅƏą ŬĄũ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĄƈİ Ɗ Ō ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŷŕĿ ž ĆƇŁ śĆƔİ ƅĄ ƏĿ ś ĆƉŐĿ ž if
you pay no heed. know that the sole duty of Our Messenger is
clear communication of the message 2 clear. manifest (6:16) ĆƉĄ ƈ
ą ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈŇƅŔ ą ŪĆƏĿ ſŇƅŔ ĄƃƅĿ ŨĄƏ ą ƌĄ ƈĊ ţĄ ũ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ž ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ą ƌŇƊĄŷ ŇŽĄ ũĆŰą Ɣ he from whom [such
retribution] is diverted on that day. He [God]. indeed. has had
mercy on him. and that is the manifest triumph 3 flagrant (7:60) ŕİƊŏ
ŔĄũĿƊĿƅ Ą ƃ ƑĊ ž ľƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ .Ŀ ƜĄŲ we believe you are in flagrant error 4 plainly
visible (7:107) ĈƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ ĈƉॠŗĆŸŁ ŝ ĄƓĊƍ ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž ą ƋŕĄŰĄŷ ƑĿ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž so he threw his staff and-
lo and behold!-it was a snake. clear to all 5 clearly decisive (48:1)
ŇśĿ ž Ą ƃĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊĆţĿ śĿ ž ŕİ Ɗ ŏ ŕĻ ƊƔŃ ŗą ƈ ŕć ţ indeed. We have opened up a decisive triumph
for you.
ć ƇƒŁ ༠řąŪĄ Ɔ mustabïn [quasi-act. part.] guiding. clarifying. sorting
out. making [things] clear (37:117) ĄƉƔŃ ŗĿśĆŬą ƈŇƅŔ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ŕĄƈą ƍŕĿƊĆƔĿśŔĄʼnĄƏ and We
gave them the clarifying/clear Book.
ć Ƈœă ƒă ŕ bayãn I [v. n.] act of explaining. elucidating (75:19) Č Ɖ ŏ Č ƇŁ ŝ
ą ƌĿ ƊॠƔĄ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ then it is Our duty to elucidate it II [n.] 1 faculty of
speaking. faculty of thinking. the ability to express oneself (55:3-
4) ą ƌĄƈİ ƆĄŷ ĄƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ĄƉŕĄƔĄŗŇƅŔ He created man. [and] taught him to speak
for himself 2 declaration. announcement (3:138) Ɛć ŧą ƍĄ Ə Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ ĈƉॠƔĄ ŗ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ
ĄƉƔĊƂİśą ƈŇƆƅ ĽřĿ ŴĊŷĆƏĄƈĄƏ this is a declaration to people. and a guidance and
an admonition for those who are mindful of God.
ć Ƈœă ƒą ŕĉ ř tibyãn [v. n.] elucidation. explanation. clarification
(16:89) ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅƅ ŕĻƊŕĄƔĆŗĊś ĄŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊŇƅČ ŪĿ ƊĄƏ and We have sent down to you
the Book elucidating everything.
ă Ƈąƒă ŕ bayna I [adverb of place] 1 between. in between (2:164)

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Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ Ń ũİ ŦĄ Ŭą ƈŇƅŔ Ń ŖॠţČ ŬƅŔĄ Ə and clouds that are made to run
appointed courses between the sky and earth; *(27:63) ĆƒĄ ŧĄ Ɣ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ
Ċ ƌĊ śĄ ƈĆţĄ ũ ahead of. or heralding. His mercy [lit. between the two
hands of His mercy]; *(3:50) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č ƒĄ ŧĄ Ɣ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ॠƈ ƅ ŕĻ ƁĐ ŧĄ Űą ƈĄ Ə Ċ ŘŔĄ ũĆƏİ śƅŔ and
confirming what came before me in the Torah; *(34:12) ĆƉĄ ƈ Đ ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
Ċ ƌĆƔĄ ŧĄ Ɣ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ .Ą ƈĆŸĄ Ɣ and of the Jinn. some worked in his presence; *(36:9)
ŔĎ ŧĄŬ ĆƇŃ ƎƔĊŧĆƔ Ō Ń ƉĆƔĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ We set a barrier in front of them 2 among.
amongst (56:60) Ŀ ŚĆƏĄ ƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗŕĿ ƊĆũČ ŧĿ Ɓ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ We ordained death among you
II [n.] connection. bond as in the variant reading ƇŁ ƄŁ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ baynukum in
(6:94) ĄŶİ ųĿ ƂĿ ś ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ) ą ƇŁ ƄŁ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ ( ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ İ .Ą ŲĄ Ə Ł ƄŇƊĄ ŷ ĆƇ ŕĄƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ Ą ƉƏą ƈą ŷĆŪĿ ś all the bonds
between you tore up. and left you and what you have been
alleging; (4:35) ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇŁ śŇſĊ Ŧ Ŀ ƀŕĿ ƂĊ Ů ) ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ( ॠƈŃ ƎĊ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ŔƏŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗŕĿ ž ŕć ƈĿ ƄĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĊƌĊƆĆƍ Ō ŕć ƈĿ ƄĄ ţĄ Ə ĆƉĊ ƈ
ॠƎĊ ƆĆ ƍ Ō if you fear severance of the bond between the two. appoint
one arbiter from his family and one from hers; *(8:1) Ŀ ŚŔĿ Ũ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ the
relations between yourselves; *(18:61) Ą ŶĄ ƈĆŠĄ ƈ ॠƈŃ ƎĊ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ the point of
meeting between them.





Ř / tã`

Ą ŇœĽ řƃŒ `al-tã` the third letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless
dento-alveolar plosive sound.

Èř ta- [particle of oath prefixed to ĺŔ also carrying with it-in the
words of °al-Suyutï-interjection implying a sense of awe ) ŖŠŸś ( .
occurs in four places in the Qur`an] 'by the name of`. 'by the
might of` (21:57) ĄƉƔŃ ũŃ ŗĆŧą ƈ ŔƏı ƅĄƏŁ ś ĆƉ Ō ĄŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ƈŕĿ ƊĆŰ Ō Č ƉĄ ŧƔĊƄ Ɨ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕĿ śĄƏ by God
Almighty. I will harm your idols after you have gone away.

Ŀ ŘƍĄ ŕœĽ ř tãbüt [a borrowing. said to be from Aramaic. Ethiopian.
Hebrew or others; philologists also derive it from various Arabic
roots. e.g. Ś [ Ŗ [ Ś t-b-t and Ś [ Ŗ [ .ƍ t-b-h]; it occurs twice in the
Qur`an 1 basket. box. chest (20:39) Ċ ƌƔĊ žĊ ŨŇƁŔ Ń Ɖ Ō ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌƔĊ žĊ ŨŇƁŕĿ ž Ċ ŚƏą ŗŕİ śƅŔ ƑĊ ž Đ ƇĄ ƔŇƅŔ
cast him in the chest. then cast it in the river 2 the Ark. the chest.
also rendered as heart (2:248) Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ľ řĿ ƊƔĊ ƄĄ Ŭ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ł ŚƏą ŗŕİ śƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ƔĊ ś ōĄ Ɣ Ć Ɖ Ō Ċ ƌĊ ƄŇ Ɔą ƈ Ŀ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn Č Ɖ ŏ
ŇƅŔ ą ƌŁƆĊƈĆţĿ ś ĄƉƏą ũŕĄƍ .ŔĄʼnĄƏ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ .ŔĄʼn ĄƃĄũĿś ŕČƈĊƈ ĽřČƔĊƂĄŗĄƏ ĆƇŁƄĐŗĄũ Ł řĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈ the sign of his
kingship will be that the Ark [of the Covenant] will be brought to
you. carried by angels. containing [the gift of] tranquillity from
your Lord and relics of the followers of Moses and Aaron.

Ĺ Ŗă ŧœĽ řtãratan (see Ř ƍ ŧ t-w-r).

Ř Ŕ Ŕ t-b-b to stamp down. to flatten. to crush. to ruin; to cause to
lose. to destroy; to become stable. to settle down. to become
well-ordered. Of this root. three forms occur four times in the
Qur`an: Č ŖĿ ś tabba twice; ĈŖŕĄŗĿś tabãb once and Ĉ ŖƔŃ ŗŇśĿ ś tatbïb once.
ċ ŔĽ řtabba i [v. intrans. also trans.] to lose. to come to ruin. to
perish (111:1) Č ŖĿ śĄ Ə ľ ŖĄ ƎĿ ƅ ƓŃ ŗ Ō ŔĄ ŧĄ Ɣ ŇŚČ ŗĿ ś may the hands of `abü Lahab be

Ř Ŕ ŧ
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ruined [paralysed]! May he come to ruin [too]; * ŇŚČ ŗĿ ś name of
Sura 111. Meccan sura. so-named because of the initial word 'to
be paralysed` in the sura. It is also called ŖƎƅ ƏŗŌ (see Ŕ/Ɖ/¾ l-h-b)
and ŧĄŬĄƈƅŔ (see ť/ũ/ƅ m-s-d).
ćŔœăŕĽř tabãb [v. n.] loss. ruin. failure (40:37) İƛŏ ĄƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž ą ŧĆƔĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈĄƏ ƑĊ ž
ľ ŖॠŗĿ ś and Pharaoh's scheming [ends] only in failure.
ćŔƒŁŕŅřĽř tatbïb [v. n.] utter destruction. ruin (11:101) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ ŇŚĿ ƊŇŻ Ō ŕĄƈĿ ž
ľŖƔŃŗŇśĿś ĄũĆƔĿŻ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŧŔĄŪ ŕĄƈĄƏ ĄƃĐŗĄũ ą ũĆƈŌ Ąʼnॊ ŕČƈĿƅ ċʼnĆƓĿŮ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ŃƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ ƓĊśİƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŁśĄƎƅŔĄʼn
their gods. which they called on beside God. were of no use to
them when what your Lord had ordained came about, they only
increased their ruin.

Ř Ŕ ŧ t-b-r gold dust. raw metal. ore; to fragment. to crush. to
destroy. to annihilate. Of this root. four forms occur six times in
the Qur`an: ĄũČ ŗĿ ś tabbara twice; Ĉ ũƔŃ ŗŇśĿ ś tatbïr twice; ĈũČ ŗĿśą ƈ mutabbar
once and ĈũŕĄŗĿś tabãr once.
ăŧċ ༠řtabbara [v. II. trans.] to crush. to destroy (25:39) ŕĿ ƊĆŗĄũĄŲ İ ƜŁ ƄĄƏ
Ŕć ũƔŃŗŇśĿ ś ŕĿ ƊĆũČ ŗĿ ś Ĕ ƜŁ ƄĄ Ə .ŕĿ ŝĆƈ ƗŔ ą ƌĿ ƅ for each We struck similitudes. and each [of
them] We destroyed completely.
ćŧƒŁŕŅřĽřtatbïr [v. n.] destruction. annihilation (17:7) ŔĆƏĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĄƈ ŔƏą ũĐ ŗĿśą ƔƅĄƏ
ŔćũƔŃŗŇśĿś and to destroy utterly what they had overrun.
ćŧċ ŕĽřĄ Ɔ mutabbar [pass. part.] destroyed. crushed. eradicated
(7:139) ĊƌƔĊž ĆƇą ƍ ŕĄƈ ĈũČŗĿśą ƈ ĊʼnĿ ƛŎĄƍ ČƉŏ these people are [doomed to have]
what they are engaged in utterly destroyed.
ć ŧœă ༠řtabãr [v. n./n.] ruin. destruction (71:28) ŔćũŕĄŗĿ ś İ ƛŏ ĄƉƔĊƈƅŕİ ŴƅŔ ĊŧŃŪĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ
but bring nothing but ruin on the unjust ones!

Ř Ŕ ų t-b-´ an attachment. to follow. to succeed. to pursue. to abide
by. to comply with; to send after. to cause to go after; a follower.
a creditor; result; liability; consequence; follow up. successor;
uniformity; one`s shadow. Of this root. 13 forms occur 174 times
in the Qur`an: ĄŶŃŗĿ ś tabi´a nine times; ĄŶĄŗŇś Ō `atba´a 13 times; Ą ŶŃ ŗŇś Ō
`utbi´a twice; Ą ŶĄ ŗİ śŔ `ittaba´a 134 times; Ą ŶŃ ŗı śŔ `uttubi´a twice; ĈŶŃŗŕĿś
tãbi´ twice; ƉƔĊ ŸŃ ŗŕĿ ś tãbi´ïn once; Ĉ ŵॠŗIJ śŔ `ittibã´ twice; Əą ŸĄ ŗİ śą ƈ Ɖ
muttaba´ün twice; ƉĆ ƔĄ ŸŃ ŗŕĿ śĿ śą ƈ mutatãbi´ayn twice; ĈŶĄŗĿś taba´ twice; Ĉ ŶƔŃ ŗĿ ś

Ř Ŕ ų
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tabï´ once and ĈŶČ ŗŁ ś tubba´ twice.
ăŴŁŕĽ řtabi´a a [v. trans.] 1 to come after. to succeed (2:263) .ĆƏĿ Ɓ
ƐĻŨŌ ŕĄƎą ŸĄŗŇśĄƔ ċřĿƁĄŧĄŰ ĆƉĊƈ ĈũĆƔĿŦ ĽŘĄũĊſŇżĄƈĄƏ ĽŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈ a kind word [from a would-be
giver] and forgiveness [from the wouldbe receiver of charity]
are better than almsgiving after which follows hurt 2 to abide by.
to follow. to adhere to. to keep to (2:38) ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĽŽĆƏĿ Ŧ ĿƜĿž ĄƒŔĄŧą ƍ ĄŶŃŗĿ ś ĆƉĄƈĿž
ĆţĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍĿ ƛĄ Ə Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĄ Ū those who follow My guidance need not fear nor
grieve.
ăŴăŕŅřÈ Ŋ `atba´a [v. IV] I [trans.] either: to make someone a
follower. to subjugate; to catch up with. to overtake (7:175) .ŇśŔĄ Ə
Ŀ ťĿ ƆĄŬŇƊŕĿž ŕĿƊĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn ą ƋŕĿƊĆƔĿśŔĄʼn ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ōĄŗĿ Ɗ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƔŃ ƏŕĿ żŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĿ ž ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƌĄŸĄŗŇś ōĿ ž ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ and recite
to them the story of the one to whom We gave Our messages. but
he tore himself apart from them. so Satan recruited him as his
follower (or. caught up with him) and he became one of the lost;
*(18:85) ĻŕŗĄŗĄŬ ĄŶĄŗŇś ōĿ ž so he went after/in search [lit. followed a road]
of [knowledge/wisdom] II [doubly trans.] to cause to come after.
to cause to follow (2:262) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ƂĊ ſŇƊą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ą ƈ Ą ƉƏą ŸŃ ŗŇśą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ ŕ
ƐĻŨŌ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŕĔ ƊĄƈ ŔƏŁ ƂĿſŇƊŌ those who spend their wealth in God's cause and do
not cause hurt [to the recipient] to follow what they have spent.
ă ŴŁ ŕŅřÉ Ŋ `utbi´a [pass. v.] to be followed with. to be pursued (by)
(11:99) ŔƏą ŸŃ ŗŇś ŌĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĻřĿ ƊĆŸĿ ƅ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ and they were pursued in this [life] by a
curse.
ă Ŵă ŕĮ řŒ `ittaba´a [v. VIII. trans.] 1 to follow (12:108) ƓĊ ƆƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ .Ł Ɓ
ƓĊƊĄŸĄŗİ śŔ ŃƉĄƈĄƏ ŕĿƊŌ ċŘĄũƔĊŰĄŗ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ Əą ŷĆŧŌ say. `This is my way. I call to God
with sure knowledge. I and all who follow me.' 2 to go after. to go
behind (15:65) ĆƇą ƍĄ ũॠŗĆŧ Ō ĆŶŃ ŗİ śŔĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ľ ŶŇųĊ ƂŃ ŗ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆƍ ōŃ ŗ Ń ũĆŬ ōĿ ž so travel with your
household in a part of the night. and walk behind them 3 to
accompany (48:15) ŇƊŔ ŔĿŨŏ ĄƉƏŁ ſİ ƆĿŦą ƈŇƅŔ .ƏŁ ƂĄƔĄŬ ĆƇŁ ƄĆŸŃŗİ śĿ Ɗ ŕĿ ƊƏą ũĿ Ũ ॠƍƏŁ ŨŁ ŦōĿ śƅ Ą ƇĊ ƊŕĿ żĄƈ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĆƇŁ śŇƂĿ ƆĿ ų
those who were left behind will say. when you set out after spoils
to capture them. `Let us accompany you' 4 to emulate. to copy. to
repeat (75:18) ą ƌĿ ƊŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ Ɓ ĆŶŃ ŗİ śŕĿ ž ą ƋŕĿ ƊŌĄ ũĿ Ɓ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž emulate the recitation when We
have recited it.
ă ŴŁ ŕį řĿ Œ `uttubi´a [pass. v. VIII] to be followed (2:166) Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŌČ ũĄŗĿ ś ŇŨ ŏ
ŔƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŔƏą ŸŃ ŗı śŔ when those who have been followed disown
those who followed [them].

Ř Ŕ ų
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ćŴŁŕœĽř tãbi´ [act. part.] [one] following (2:145) ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆƔĿ ś Ō ĆƉ œĿ ƅĄ Ə
ľűĆŸĄŗ ĿřĿƆĆŗĊƁ ľŶŃŗŕĿśŃŗ ĆƇą Ǝą ŲĆŸĄŗ ŕĄƈĄƏ ĆƇą ƎĿśĿƆĆŗĊƁ ľŶŃŗŕĿśŃŗ Ŀ ŚŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ ĄƃĿśĿƆĆŗĊƁ ŔƏą ŸŃŗĿ ś ŕĄƈ ċřĄƔŔĄʼn IJ.ŁƄŃŗ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ yet
even if you brought every proof to those who were given the
Scripture. they would not follow your prayer direction. nor will
you be following theirs. nor indeed will any of them be following
one another's prayer direction.
Ƈƒĉ ŶŁ ŕœĽ řtãbi´ïn [pl. of act. part./n. ĈŶŃŗŕĿś tãbi´] helpers. attendants.
followers. entourage (24:31) Č ƉŃ ƎĊ śĿ ƅƏą Ÿą ŗ ƅ İ ƛ ŏ Č Ɖą ƎĿ śĿ ƊƔŃ Ū Ą ƉƔĊ ŧĆŗą Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń ũĆƔĿ Ż Ą ƉƔĊ ŸŃ ŗŕİ śƅŔ Ń Ə Ō
.ॠŠĐ ũƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ řĄ ŗĆũ ƙŔ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō and not reveal their charms except to their
husbands. .. or such men as attend them who have no sexual
desire ..
ă ŕİ řŒ ćųœ `ittibã´ [v. n.] following. conformity (2:178) ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƓĊ ſą ŷ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž
ľƉŕĄŬĆţŐŃŗ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ĈʼnŔĄŧ ŌĄƏ ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃŗ ĈŵŕĄŗIJ śŕĿ ž ĈʼnĆƓĿŮ ĊƌƔĊŦŌ but if someone [the culprit] is
relieved from some [of the penalty] by his [aggrieved] brother [in
humanity]. then there shall be conformity [to his wish] in fair
practice. and restitution [of the remaining part of the penalty] to
him [the aggrieved] in a good way.
ƇƍĄ Ŷă ŕĮřĄ Ɔmuttaba´ün [pl. of pass. part. ĈŶĄŗİ śą ƈ muttaba´] those
followed. those pursued (44:23) Ą ƉƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śą ƈ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ Ļ ƜĆƔĿ ƅ ƒĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŸŃ ŗ Ń ũĆŬ ōĿ ž so travel
in the night with My servants. for you are sure to be pursued.
ƇąƒăŶŁŕœĽřĽřĄ Ɔ mutatãbi´ayn [dual of act. part. Ĉ ŶŃ ŗŕĿ śĿ śą ƈ mutatãbi´]
successive. consecutive. following one another without
interruption (4:92) ŃƉĆƔĄŸŃŗŕĿśĿśą ƈ ŃƉĆƔĄũĆƎĿ Ů ą ƇŕĄƔĊŰĿ ž ĆŧŃŠĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ ĆƉĄƈĿž but anyone who
does not find the means must fast for two consecutive months.
ćŴăŕĽř taba´ [v. n. functioning as a coll. n. or as an adj.] followers.
following (14:21) İ Ɔ ƅ ŔƏą ŪĄ ũĄ ŗĄ Ə ŕćŸĄŗĿś ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ ŕİ Ɗŏ ŔƏą ũĄŗŇƄĿśĆŬŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ Ɔƅ ąʼnŕĿ ſĄŸč ŲƅŔ .ŕĿƂĿž ŕćŸƔĊƈĄŠ Ċƌ
and they [humankind] appeared before God. all together, and the
weak said to those who thought themselves great. `We were
followers [or a following] of yours.'
ć ŴƒŁ ༠ř tabï´ [pass./act. part.] either helper. protector. prosecutor.
one who is prosecuted. or sued. for a right or dues. particularly
for blood revenge (17:69) Č ƇŁ ŝ ĆƇŁ śĆũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈŃŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƁŃũŇżą ƔĿž ŃŢƔĐ ũƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĻſĊŰŕĿƁ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .ĊŬĆũą ƔĿž
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŧŃ ŠĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ŕćŸƔŃŗĿś ĊƌŃŗ ŕĿƊĆƔĿƆĄŷ and sends against you a hurricane of wind
and drowns you for your ungratefulness. then you will find no
helper for you against Us (or. you shall find none to demand

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compensation. or. prosecute Us for it).
Ŵċ ŕĿ řTubba´ [proper name] title and name of a number of
Himyar kings who ruled in Southern Arabia until overrun by the
Abyssinians in the 4
th
century A.D. (44:37) ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ľ ŶČ ŗŁ ś ą ƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƇ Ō Ĉ ũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƍ Ō
ĆƇŃƎĊƆĆŗĿ Ɓ Ą ƉƔƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ŏ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇƄĿ ƆĆƍ Ō are they better than the people of
Tubba´ and those who flourished before them'. We destroyed
them all. they were guilty.

Ř Ŝ ŧ t-j-r wine merchant. wine seller; to barter. to buy or sell; to
trade. to exchange; (of a camel) to be saleable. Of this root. ĽŘĄũॊĊś
occurs nine times in the Qur`an.
ĻŖăŧœăŞĉř tijãratun [v. n./n.] 1 merchandise (2:282) ĻŘĄũॊĊś ĄƉƏŁƄĿ ś ĆƉŌ İƛŏ
ॠƍƏą ŗŁ śŇƄĿ ś İ ƛ Ō ĈšŕĿ Ɗą Š ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ūĆƔĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ॠƎĿ ƊƏą ũƔĊ ŧŁ ś Ļ ŘĄ ũĊ Ųॠţ unless it be ready
merchandise which you hand one to the other. there is no blame
on you if you do not write it down 2 commerce. business. trade
(2:16) ĆƇą ƎŁ śĄũॊĊś ŇŚĄţŃŗĄũ ŕĄƈĿ ž ƐĄŧą ƎŇƅŕŃŗ Ŀ řĿ ƅĿ ƜČ ŲƅŔ Ŕą ƏĄũĿśŇŮŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏ Ō these are the
ones who have purchased error in exchange for guidance. so
their trade brought no gain.

ŘąšĽ řtaht [adv. of place. occurring 51 times in the Qur`an] 1
underneath. beneath (20:6) ॠƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ॠƈĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ƑĊ ž ॠƈĄ Ə ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ ॠƈĄ Ə Ń űĆ ũ ƗŔ
ƐĄ ũİ ŝƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆţĿ ś to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on the
earth. everything between them. and everything beneath the soil;
*(66:10) ŃƉĆƔĄţƅŕĄ Ű ŕĿ ƊĊŧॠŗĊ ŷ ĆƉĊƈ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŧĆŗĄ ŷ Ŀ ŚĆţĿ ś ŕĿ śĿ ƊŕĿ Ƅ the two women were
wedded to [lit. under] two of Our righteous servants 2 below. at
the foot of (48:18) Ŕ Ń ƉĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƓĊ ŲĄ ũ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ĊŘĄũĄŠİŮƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆţĿ ś ĄƃĿƊƏą ŸĊƔŕĄŗą Ɣ ŇŨŏ ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅ God
was well pleased with the believers when they were swearing
allegiance to you [Prophet] under the tree 3 within. in close
proximity to (3:15) Ċƈ ƒŃũĆŠĿ ś ĽŚŕİƊĄŠ ĆƇŃƎĐŗĄũ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŔĆƏĿ ƂİśŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƆƅ ą ũŕĄƎŇƊƗŔ ŕĄƎĊśĆţĿ ś ĆƉ for
those who are mindful [of God]. with their Lord are Gardens
within which streams flow.
Ř ŧ Ŕ t-r-b earth. dust. to cover with dust; to become poor. poverty.
need; playmates. people of similar age; to become wealthy; to
become tame. to become docile; the base of the neck. the area
between the breasts and collar bone. Of this root. four forms

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occur 22 times in the Qur`an: ĈŖŔĄũŁ ś turãb 17 times; ĈŖŔĄũŇśŌ `atrãb
three times; ą Ŗ œŔĄ ũĿ ś tarã`ib once and Ľ řĄ ŗĄ ũŇśĄ ƈ matrabatun once.
ćŔŒăŧĿ řturãb [n.] dust. earth (30:20) ľŖŔĄũŁś ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿƂĿƆĿŦ ĆƉ Ō ĊƌĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĆƉĊƈĄƏ one
of His wonders is His creating you from dust.
ćŔŒăŧŅřÈŊ `atrãb [pl. of n. ĈŖĆũĊś tirb] people of similar age.
playmates. companions (38:52) ƅŔ Ł ŚŔĄ ũĊ ŰŕĿ Ɓ ĆƇą ƍĄ ŧŇƊĊ ŷĄ Ə ĈŖŔĄũŇśŌ ĊŽĆũİ ų and with
them are those restraining their glances. of equal age.
Ą ŔÊ őŒă ŧĽ ř tarã`ib [pl. of n. ĽřĄŗƔŃũĿś tarïbatun] collarbone. upper chest.
ribs (86:7) Ń Ŗ œŔĄ ũİ śƅŔĄ Ə Ń ŖŇƆč ŰƅŔ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ it [liquid] issues from between
the loins and breast bones.
Ļ ŗă ŕă ŧŅřă Ɔmatrabatun [n./v. n.] the state of being covered with dust
*(90:16) ċřĄŗĄũŇśĄƈ ŔĿ Ũ abjectly poor. nothing between him and the earth
[lit. in the state of being covered with dust].

Ř ŧ Ż t-r-f a watering place within easy access. (of plants) to be
watered; good food; to live in luxury. to provide with lavish
means. affluence. Of this root. three forms occur eight times in
the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĄũŇś Ō `atrafa once; Ŀ ŽŃũŇś Ō `utrifa twice and ƉƏŁ žĄ ũŇśą ƈ
mutrafün five times.
Ľ ŻăŧŅřÈ Ŋ `atrafa [v. IV. trans.] to provide with the good things of
this life. to cause to be opulent (23:33) Ć Ƈą ƍŕĿ ƊŇ žĄ ũŇ ś ŌĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ and We
had granted them ease and plenty in this life.
Ľ ŻŁŧŅřÉ Ŋ`utrifa [pass. of v. IV] to be made opulent. to be
corrupted by ease of living (11:116) Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ŔƏŁ žŃ ũŇś Ō ॠƈ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ŗİ śŔĄ Ə while
the evildoers revelled in pursuing the ease of living which was
granted them.
ƇƍĿ żă ŧŅřĄ Ɔmutrafün [pl. of pass. part. ĽŽĄũŇśą ƈ mutraf] those endowed
with the good things of this life. ones spoilt by wealth and easy
living (17:16) .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ İ ƀĄţĿ ž ŕĄƎƔĊ ž ŔƏŁ ƂĄŬĿ ſĿ ž ŕĄƎƔĊ žĄ ũŇśą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆũĄ ƈ Ō ĻřĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆƎŁ Ɗ ĆƉ Ō ŕĿ ƊĆŧĄũ Ō ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
ŔćũƔĊƈĆŧĿ ś ŕĄƍŕĿƊĆũČ ƈĄŧĿž and if We desire to destroy a township. We command
the affluent of its inhabitants. and they commit abominations in it.
so the word [judgement] is passed against it and We destroy it
utterly.


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Ř ŧ ž t-r-q (no evidence of verbal root) collarbone. the uppermost
of the chest. Of this root. only ƓĊ ƁŔĄ ũĿ ś tarãqï occurs once.
Ƒĉ ſŒă ŧĽ ř tarãqï (read as ƀŔĄ ũĿ ś tarãq. with the final ï elided. for
rhyming harmony with following verses) [pl. of n. ĽŘĄƏŁ ƁĆũĿś
tarquwatun] collarbone. the uppermost part of the chest *(75:26)
ĄƓĊƁŔĄũİ śƅŔ ĊŚĿ żĿ ƆĄŗ ŔĿ Ũŏ when life is about to abandon the body; when a
person is on the point of expiring [lit. when it [the soul. life. last
breath] reaches the collarbone].

Ř ŧ Ɓ t-r-k to relinquish. to abandon. to let be. to do without. to
finish with. to leave behind; neglected. forlorn. spinster. Of this
root. three forms occur 43 times in the Qur`an: ĄƃĄũĿ ś taraka 36
times; ą ƃĄ ũŇśą Ɣ yutrak four times and ĈƃŃũŕĿś tãrik three times.
ăƁăŧĽ ř taraka u [v. trans.] 1 to leave behind (4:7) ʼnॠŬIJ ƊƆ ƅĄ Ə ŕČ ƈĊƈ ĈŖƔĊŰĿ Ɗ
ą ŗĄ ũŇƁ ƗŔĄ Ə Ń ƉŔĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ ƏŇƅŔ Ą ƃĄ ũĿ ś Ą ƉƏ and to the women a share of what the parents
and kinsmen leave; *(37:78-9) ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊŇƄĄũĿ śĄƏ ƑĊ ž ľšƏŁƊ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĈƇĿ ƜĄŬ ĄƉƔŃũĊŦƕŔ ƑĊ ž
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƅŔ We left for him [a eulogy] among later generations. `Peace
be upon Noah among all the nations!` 2 to abandon. to forsake
(12:37) ĊƌİƆƅŕŃŗ ĄƉƏŁƊĊƈŎą Ɣ Ŀƛ ľƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĿřİƆĊƈ ŁŚŇƄĄũĿ ś ƓIJƊŏ I have forsaken the faith of a
people who do not believe in God 3 to leave or put someone in
charge of (12:17) ŕĿ ƊĊŷŕĿśĄƈ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ĿŽą ŬƏą Ɣ ŕĿ ƊŇƄĄũĿ śĄƏ ą ƌĿ ƆĿ Ƅ ōĿ ž ą ŖœIJ ŨƅŔ and left Joseph by
our things. and a wolf ate him 4 to take to task (16:61) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł ŨĊŦŔŎą Ɣ ĆƏĿƅĄƏ
ċ řČ ŗŔĄ ŧ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ॠƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƃĄ ũĿ ś ॠƈ Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ƈŇ ƆŁ ŴŃ ŗ Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ if God were to take humankind to task
for their wrongdoing He would not leave on the earth one living
creature 5 to render. to change from one condition into another
(2:264) Ŕć ŧŇƆĄ Ű ą ƌĿ ƄĄ ũĿ śĿ ž .Ń ŗŔĄ Ə ą ƌĄ ŗŕĄ Ű ōĿ ž ĈŖŔĄ ũŁ ś Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ľ ƉŔĄ ƏŇſĄ Ű .Ŀ ŝĄ ƈĿ Ƅ ą ƌŁ ƆĿ ŝĄ ƈĿ ž his likeness is
as the likeness of a slab of smooth solid rock with earth on it.
heavy rain falls and renders it completely bare 6 to let be (44:24)
ĄƉƏŁ ƁĄũŇżą ƈ ĈŧŇƊą Š ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗŏ ŔćƏĆƍĄũ ĄũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ Ċƃą ũŇśŔĄƏ and let the sea remain parted, they
are a drowned host.
Ą Ɓă ŧŅřĄ ƒyutrak [pass. v.] to be left alone (29:2) ĆƉŌ ŔƏŁƄĄũŇśą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ą ūŕİƊƅŔ ĄŖĊŬĄţ Ō
Ł ƂĄ Ɣ ĄƉƏŁ ƊĿśŇſą Ɣ Ŀƛ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ŕİ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ŔƏŁ ƅƏ do people think they will be left alone after
saying `We believe'. without being put to the test.
ƁŁ ŧœĽ ř tãrik [act. part.] one who abandons. or forsakes something
or someone (11:53) Ŀ ƊĊśĄƎƅŔĄʼn ƓĊƄŃũŕĿ śŃŗ ą ƉĆţĿƊ ŕĄƈĄƏ ĄƃƅĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƉĄŷ ŕ and we will not be

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forsaking our gods on the strength of your word.

Ř ũ ų t-s-´ this root revolves around the number nine. Of this root.
four forms occur seven times in the Qur`an: ĈŶĆŬĊś tis´ four times.
Ľ řĄ ŸĆŬĊ ś tis´atun once; Ŀ řĄŸĆŬĊś ĄũĿ ŮĄŷ tis´ata ´ashar once and ƉƏą ŸĆŬĊś tis´ün
once.
ćŴąŪĉřtis´ [card. no.. fem. Ľ řĄ ŸĆŬĊ ś tis´atun] nine (17:101) ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ
ċŚŕĿƊĐ ƔĄŗ ċŚŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĄŶĆŬĊś ƑĄŬƏą ƈ We gave Moses nine clear signs.
ăŧĽ ŬăŵĽŗăŶąŪĉř tis´ata ´ashar [comp. no.] nineteen (74:30) Ŀ řĄ ŸĆŬĊ ś ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ
ĄũĿ ŮĄŷ in charge of it [Hellfire] there are nineteen.
ƇƍĄ ŶąŪĉ ř tis´ün [card. no.] ninety (38:23) ĄƉƏą ŸĆŬĊśĄƏ ĈŶĆŬĊś ą ƌĿ ƅ ƓĊŦ Ō ŔĿ ŨĄƍ Č Ɖŏ
ĻřĄŠĆŸĿ Ɗ this. my brother. has ninety-nine ewes.

Ř ų ũ t-´-s peril. misfortune. destruction; to fall on one`s face. to
meet with disaster. evil. to be wretched. Of this root. ĈūĆŸĿś ta´s.
occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćũąŶĽřta´s [v. n. used interjectionally] falling on the mouth.
destruction. bad luck *(47:8) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŕćŬĆŸĿ śĿ ž ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ĄƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə as for the
disbelievers. may destruction befall them!

Ř Ż Ś t-f-th hair matting and dirt accumulating on the body as a
result of leaving off acts of body cleansing. to become dirty in
such a manner. Of this root. only ŜĿ ſĿ ś tafath occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ŚĽŽĽř tafath a rare word interpreted either as: dirt resulting from
abstaining from certain body grooming. such as shaving. cutting
the hair. clipping the nails and using perfume; or acts of worship
specified for the pilgrims (22:29) Ŀ ś ŔƏą ŲŇƂĄ ƔŇƅ Č ƇŁ ŝ ŔƏŁ žČ Əİ ųĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə ĆƇą ƍĄ ũƏŁ ŨŁ Ɗ ŔƏŁ žƏą ƔŇƅĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ŝĿ ſ
Ċ ƀƔĊ śĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŕŃ ŗ then let them carry out their needed acts of cleansing
their bodies (or. let them perform their acts of worship). fulfil
their vows. and circle around the ancient House.

Ř ž Ƈ t-q-n dregs of a well. to dredge up a well; nature; to do
something well. to be skilful. to be eloquent; to perfect.
perfection. Of this root. ĄƉĿ ƂŇś Ō `atqana occurs once in the Qur`an.

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ăƇĽ ƀŅřÈ Ŋ`atqana [v. IV. trans.] to perfect (27:88) ĄŬĆţĿ ś .ŕĄŗŃŠŇƅŔ ƐĄũĿśĄƏ ॠƎą ŗ
ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů İ .Ł Ƅ ĄƉĿ ƂŇś Ō ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŶŇƊą Ű ŃŖŕĄţČ ŬƅŔ Č ũĄƈ č ũą ƈĿ ś ĄƓĊƍĄƏ ĻŘĄŧĊƈॊ and you will see the
mountains. deeming them standing still. when [in fact] they are
passing by like the passing of clouds, [this is] the handiwork of
God who has perfected all things.

ă ƁŅƄĉ ř tilka [fem. of demonstrative ĄƃƅĿ Ũ dhãlika. occurring 43 times in the
Qur`an] (see ŒĽ Ŧ dhã).

Ř ¾ ¾ t-l-l hill. heap. mound. elevation. to mount. to heap up; to
knock down. to lay down. to be tough. to be stocky. to agitate. Of
this root. Ŀ ś İ . talla occurs once in the Qur`an.
Į ¾Ľ řtalla i [v. trans.] to throw or lay someone face down. with
his mouth or forehead touching the ground. or on his side with the
side of his forehead touching the ground (37:103) ŕĄƈĿ ƆĆŬ Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ƉƔŃ ŗĄ ŠŇƆ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆĿ śĄ Ə
when they had both submitted [to God]. and he had laid him
down on his forehead.

Ř ¾ ƍ t-l-w to leave behind. to overcome; to come after. to come one
after another; to accumulate. to be wealthy; to attach; the hind
part; to read after. to recite. to follow a singer. Of this root. four
forms occur 63 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ƜĿ ś talã 37 times; Ą ƓĊ ƆŁ ś tuliya 24
times; ĽŚŕĄƔƅŕĿś tãliyãt once and ĽŘĄƏĿ ƜĊś tilãwatun once.
Ľ ƚĽ řtalã u [v. trans.; pass. imperf. ƑĿ ƆŇśą Ɣ yutlã] 1 to succeed. to
come after. to follow (91:1-2) ॠƍĿ ƜĿ ś ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ń ũĄ ƈĿ ƂŇƅŔĄ Ə ॠƍॠţą ŲĄ Ə Ń ūĆƈİ ŮƅŔĄ Ə by the
sun in its morning brightness. and by the moon as it follows it 2 to
recite (3:108) IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƃĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ॠƍƏŁ ƆŇśĿ Ɗ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł ŚŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn Ą ƃŇƆĊ ś these are God's
revelations. We recite them to you [Prophet] with the Truth 3 (to
have the skill) to read (29:48) ą ƌı ųŁ ŦĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ľŖŕĿ śĊƄ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌĊƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ƏŁ ƆŇśĿś Ŀ ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ŕĄƈĄƏ
Ą ƃĊ ƊƔĊ ƈĄ ƔŃ ŗ and you never were able to read any book before it, or write
one down with your own right hand 4 to recount (6:151) .Ňś Ō ŔĆƏĿ ƅॠŸĿ ś .Ł Ɓ
ĆƇŁƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇŁƄčŗĄũ ĄƇČũĄţ ŕĄƈ say. `Come! I will recount to you what your Lord
has forbidden you!' 5 to narrate (5:27) Ň Ũ ŏ IJ ƀĄ ţŇ ƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƇĄ ŧŔĄ ʼn Ć ƓĿ ƊĆ ŗŔ ōĄ ŗĿ Ɗ Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ň śŔĄ Ə
ŕĻƊŕĄŗĆũŁ Ɓ ŕĄŗČ ũĿ Ɓ and narrate to them in truth the story of the two sons of
Adam when they [each of them] offered a sacrifice 6 to teach
(2:102) Ą ƉॠƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ Ċ ƃŇƆą ƈ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ ƏŁ ƆŇśĿ ś ॠƈ ŔƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔĄ Ə and [instead] they

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followed what the evil ones teach about the Kingdom of Solomon
7 to be very conversant in. to be knowledgeable about. to study
(2:113) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ŧƏą ƎĄƔŇƅŔ ĊŚĄŬĆƔĿ ƅ ƐĄũŕĄŰİ ƊƅŔ ĊŚĿ ƅŕĿƁĄƏ ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ƐĄũŕĄŰİ ƊƅŔ ĊŚĄŬĆƔĿ ƅ ą ŧƏą ƎĄƔŇƅŔ ĊŚĿ ƅŕĿƁĄƏ
ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƉƏŁƆŇśĄƔ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů the Jews say. `The Christians have no ground
whatsoever to stand on.' and the Christians say. `The Jews have
no ground whatsoever to stand on.' though they both study the
Scripture 8 to follow. to put into practice (in one interpretation of
2:121) İƀĄţ ą ƌĿƊƏŁƆŇśĄƔ ĄŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍŕĿƊĆƔĿśŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĊƌĊśĄƏĿ ƜĊś those to whom We have
given the Scripture. follow it as it ought to be followed 9 to
convey. to deliver. to relate (27:91) ƒĊŧĿ śĆƎĄƔ ŕĄƈİ ƊŐĿ ž ƐĄŧĿ śĆƍŔ ŃƉĄƈĿ ž ĄƉŔĄʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƏŁ ƆŇś Ō ĆƉŌĄƏ
ĊƌĊŬŇſĿ Ɗƅ [I am commanded] to deliver the Qur'an. Whosoever
chooses to follow the right path does so for his own good.
Ļ Řœă ƒÊ ƃœĽ ř tãliyãt [pl. of fem. act. part. Ľ řĄ Ɣ ƅŕĿ ś tãliyatun] reciting;
conveying (37:3) Ŕć ũŇƄĊ Ũ Ċ ŚŕĄ Ɣ ƅŕİ śƅŕĿ ž and those who recite a reminder!
Ŗă ƍĽ ƚĉ ř tilãwatun [n./v. n.] reciting; practising. following;
recitation (2:121) ĊƌĊśĄƏĿ ƜĊś İƀĄţ ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁƆŇśĄƔ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍŕĿƊĆƔĿśŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ those to whom We
have given the Scripture. follow it as it ought to be followed.

Ř ƅ ƅ t-m-m complete. whole. entire. to become complete. to
complete; to perform. to carry out. to fulfil; to come to the end. to
finish one`s term; to be tough. Of this root. four forms occur 22
times in the Qur`an: Č ƇĿ ś tamma four times; Č ƇĿ ś Ō `atamma 16 times;
ĈƇŕĄƈĿś tamãm once and ď ƇĊ śą ƈ mutimm once.
ċ ƅĽ řtamma i [v. intrans.] 1 to reach completeness. to reach
fulfilment (7:142) ĊƌĐ ŗĄũ Ł ŚŕĿƂƔĊƈ Č ƇĿśĿž ľũŇŮĄŸŃŗ ŕĄƍŕĿƊĆƈĄƈŇśŌĄƏ ĻřĿ ƆĆƔĿ ƅ ĄƉƔĊŝĿ ƜĿ ŝ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ ŕĿƊĆŧĄŷŔĄƏĄƏ
ĻřĿ ƆĆƔĿ ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŸĄŗĆũ Ō We appointed for Moses thirty nights. then completed
them with ten. so the term of his Lord reached completion. forty
nights 2 to come to pass (6:115) ƛĆŧĄŷĄƏ ŕĻƁĆŧĊŰ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ Ł řĄƈĊƆĿƄ ŇŚČ ƈĿśĄƏ the word
of your Lord has come to pass in truth and justice.
ċ ƅĽ řÈ Ŋ`atamma [v. IV. trans.] 1 to complete (2:233) Ċ ŲĆũą Ɣ Ł ŚŔĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ ƏŇƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉĆ Ÿ
Ŀ řĄŷŕĄŲČ ũƅŔ Č ƇĊśą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ĄŧŔĄũŌ ĆƉĄƈƅ ŃƉĆƔĿƆĊƈŕĿ Ƅ ŃƉĆƔĿƅĆƏĄţ Č Ɖą ƍĄŧĿ ƛĆƏ Ō mothers shall suckle their
children for two whole years. for those who wish to complete the
period of nursing 2 to comply with. to fulfil (2:124) ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ ƑĿ ƆĿ śĆŗŔ ĊŨŏĄƏ
Č Ɖą ƎČ ƈĿ ś ōĿ ž ċ ŚŕĄƈĊƆĿ ƄŃŗ ą ƌč ŗĄ ũ when Abraham's Lord tested him with certain
commandments and he fulfilled them 3 to perform. carry out

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(2:196) ĊƌİƆƅ ĿŘĄũĆƈą ŸŇƅŔĄƏ ČşĄţŇƅŔ ŔƏčƈĊś ŌĄƏ perform the pilgrimage and minor
pilgrimage for the sake of God 4 to spread. to propagate. to bring
to fullness (9:32) ą ƋĄ ũƏŁ Ɗ Č ƇĊ śą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĄ ŗōĄ ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƍŔĄ ƏŇž ōŃ ŗ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ũƏŁ Ɗ ŔƏ œĊ ſŇųą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ą ƉƏą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ
they want to extinguish the light of God with their mouths.
however God refuses but to bring His light to fullness 5 to
honour. to fulfil (9:4) ĆƇŃƎĊśČ ŧą ƈ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĆƇą ƍĄŧĆƎĄŷ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŔƏč ƈĊśōĿž so fulfil their treaty
for them till their term [given to them].
ćƅœăƆĽř tamãm [v. n.] completing. fulfilling. perfecting (6:154) ČƇŁŝ
Ŀ śĊƄŇƅŔ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ŕćƈŕĄƈĿ ś ĄŖŕ then We gave Moses the
Scripture. completing [Our favour] upon those who do good.
Ď ƅĉ řĄ Ɔ mutimm [act. part.] one who perfects/completes (61:8)
ƏŁ Ɗ č ƇĊśą ƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄƏ ĆƇŃƎĊƍŔĄƏŇžōŃŗ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄũƏŁ Ɗ ŔƏ œĊſŇųą Ɣƅ ĄƉƏą ŧƔŃũą Ɣ Ċ ƋŃ ũ they wish to put God's light
out with their mouths. but God is bringing His light to fullness.

ćŧƍį ƈĽř tannür [a borrowing. said to be from Persian. Hebrew or
undetermined origin. occurring twice in the Qur`an. Some Arab
philologists link it to either ũƏƊ nür or ũŕƊ nãr while °ibn °abbas
describes it as common to all languages]. variously rendered by
the commentators as: oven/furnace; spring; surface of the ground
(11:40) Ą ʼnॠŠ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ƒİ śĄ ţ ą ũƏıƊİśƅŔ ĄũŕĿžĄƏ ŕĿƊą ũĆƈŌ till when Our command came to
pass. and the furnace (or. the Earth's surface. or the spring)
boiled over.

Ř ƍ Ŕ t-w-b (this root could be a variant of Ś ƍ Ŕ th-w-b) to return.
to go back. to relent. to encourage someone to abandon their bad
deeds. Of this root. eight forms occur 87 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŖŕĿ ś
tãba 63 times; ĈŖĆƏĿś tawb once; ĽřĄŗĆƏĿś tawbatun seven times; ĽŚŕĄ ŗ œŕĿ ś
tã`ibãt once; ƉƏą ŗ œŕĿ ś tã`ibün once; ĈŖŔČ ƏĿś tawwãb 11 times; ƉƔŃ ŗŔČ ƏĿ ś
tawwãbïn once and ĈŖŕĿśĄƈ matãb twice.
ă ŔœĽ řtãba u [v. intrans.] 1 to repent (7:153) Č ƇŁ ŝ Ċ Śŕ œĐ ƔČ ŬƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼnĄƏ ŕĄƍĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏą ŗŕĿś those who do wrong. then repent afterwards
and truly believe 2 to turn to God (11:112) Ą ŖŕĿ ś ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə Ŀ ŚĆũĊƈ Ō ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ĆƇĊ ƂĿ śĆŬŕĿ ž
Ą ƃĄ ŸĄ ƈ so keep to the right course as you have been commanded.
together with those who have turned to God with you 3 [with prep.
ƑƆŷ] (of God) to accept repentance. to absolve (of sin) (2:37) Ƒİ ƂĿ ƆĿ śĿ ž
ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĄŖŕĿ śĿ ž ċŚŕĄƈĊƆĿ Ƅ ĊƌĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƇĄŧŔĄʼn then Adam received instruction from his

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Lord and [complied with them] so. He accepted his repentance.
ćŔąƍĽřtawb [n./v. n.] repentance. penitence (40:3) .ŃŗŕĿ ƁĄƏ ŃŖŇƊİŨƅŔ ŃũĊžŕĿŻ
Ń ŖĆƏİ śƅŔ Forgiver of sins and Acceptor of penitence.
ĻŗăŕąƍĽř tawbatun [v. n./n.] 1 penitence by a sinner to God (66:8)
ĄƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ ŕć ţƏą ŰĿ Ɗ Ļ řĄ ŗĆƏĿ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ŗƏŁ ś ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŕ you who believe. turn to God
in sincere penitence 2 acceptance of repentance by God (4:17) ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ
ĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏą ŗƏŁśĄƔ ČƇŁŝ ċřĿƅŕĄƎĄŠŃŗ ĄʼnƏčŬƅŔ ĄƉƏŁƆĄƈĆŸĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƆƅ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ŁřĄŗĆƏİśƅŔ ľ ŖƔŃ ũ but God only
undertakes to accept penitence from those who do evil out of
ignorance and soon afterwards repent; * řĄ ŗĆƏİ śƅŔ É name of Sura 9.
Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in verses 117-
18 to the 'Forgiveness` granted to the three who had repented.
Also called Ŗă ŇŒŧă ŕ (see Ŕ ŧ Ŋ b-r-`).
ĻŘœă ŕÊ őœĽ řtã`ibãt [pl. of act. part. fem. Ľ řĄ ŗ œŕĿ ś tã`ibatun; masc. pl. ƉƏą ŗ œŕĿ ś
tã`ibün] ones who repent or turn to God. righteous ones
(66:5) Ą ƏĆŪ Ō ą ƌĿ ƅĊ ŧĆŗą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Č ƉŁ ƄĿ Ƃİ ƆĿ ų ĆƉ ŏ ą ƌč ŗĄ ũ ƑĄ ŬĄ ŷ ċŚŕĿ śĊƊŕĿƁ ċŚŕĿƊĊƈŎą ƈ ċŚŕĄƈĊƆĆŬą ƈ ČƉŁƄŇƊĊƈ ŔćũĆƔĿ Ŧ ŕćŠŔ
ċ ŚŕĄ ŗ œŕĿ ś it may be that His Lord will. should he divorce you. give
him instead of you. wives better than yourselves. wives
surrendering to God. believing. devout. turning [to Him] in
repentance..
ćŔŒċ ƍĽ ř tawwãb [intens. act. part.] 1 (of God) most accepting of
repentance; ever absolving/pardoning (4:64) ŕć ƈƔĊ ţĄ ũ ŕć ŗŔČ ƏĿ ś Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔƏą ŧĄ ŠĄ ƏĿ ƅ
they would have found God most accepting of repentance and
most merciful; *(2:37) ą ŖŔČ Əİ śƅŔ [attribute of God] best Acceptor of
repentance. 2 [pl. ƉƔŃ ŗŔČ ƏĿ ś tawwãbïn] those sincerely given to
repenting or eagerly turning to God (2:222) ĄƉƔŃŗŔČƏİśƅŔ čŖĊţą Ɣ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ČƉŏ God
loves those who eagerly turn to Him.

Ĺ Ŗă ŧœĽ ř tãratan [adverbial. also classified under the roots Ś [ Ə [ ũ t-w-r
and/or Ś [ Ɛ [ ũ t-y-r. occurring twice in the Qur`an] a time. one
time. one turn (20:55) ƐĄ ũŇŦ Ō Ļ ŘĄ ũŕĿ ś ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŠŃ ũŇŦŁ Ɗ ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈĄ Ə ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŧƔĊ ŸŁ Ɗ ॠƎƔĊ žĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŕĿ ƊŇƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈ out
of it [earth] We created you. into it We will return you. and from
it We will bring you forth yet another time.

Ŀ ŖŒă ŧąƍĮ řƃŒ `al-Tawrãtu [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring 18
times in the Qur`an] generic name for the Law or Scripture

Ř Ɛ ºƋ
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revealed to Moses comprising the Pentateuch (the first five books
of the Bible) as distinct from `al-`injïl (the Evangel. the Gospel.
the New Testament (q.v. `al-`injïl .ƔŃŠŇƊƙŔ)) (3:65) Ą Ƈ ƅ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ .Ćƍ ŌॠƔ
Ą ƉƏč ŠŕĄ ţŁ ś ƑĊž Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆ ŸĄ ŗ Ć ƉĊ ƈ İ ƛ ŏ .ƔŃ ŠŇ Ɗ ƙŔĄ Ə Ł ŘŔĄ ũĆ Əİ śƅŔ Ċ ŚĿ ƅŃ ŪŇ Ɗ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆ ŗ ŏ people of the Book.
why do you argue about Abraham when the Torah and the Gospel
were not revealed until after his time'
The Qur`an states that these scriptures were subjected to
distortion and tampering (2:75-9; 4:46 and 5:15). The Qur`an
also alludes to the fact that the Prophet Muhammad`s advent was
predicted in these sacred scriptures (7:157).

Ƈƒĉř tïn [coll. n. with no verbal root thought to be a borrowing from a
sister Semitic language occurring once in the Qur`an] fig(s) (95:1)
Ń ƉƏŁ śĆƔČ ŪƅŔĄ Ə Ń ƉƔIJ śƅŔĄ Ə by the fig and the olive; * ƉƔIJ śƅŔ Ê name of Sura 95.
Meccan sura. so-named because of the reference to 'Figs` in
verse 1.

Ř Ɛ ºƋ t-y-h expanse of desolate unmarked featureless desert;
wilderness; to lose one`s way. to be misguided; to be conceited.
to be obstinate. Of this root. ƉƏą ƎƔĊ śĄ Ɣ yatïhün occurs once in the
Qur`an.
Ą Ɗƒĉřăƒ yatïh [imperf. of v. Ą ƋŕĿ ś tãha. intrans.] to wander around
having lost one`s way (5:26) ĄƉƏą ƎƔĊśĄƔ ĻřĿƊĄŬ ĄƉƔĊŸĄŗĆũŌ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĽřĄƈČũĄţą ƈ ŕĄƎİƊŐĿž .ŕĿƁ ƑĊ ž
ŃűĆũ ƗŔ He said. `It [the holy land] is forbidden to them for forty
years. [they will] wander in the land [being lost].'

Ś/ thã`

Ą ŇœĽ śƃŒ `al-thã` the fourth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless
inter-dental fricative sound.

Ś Ŕ Ř th-b-t to stand firm. to be fixed. to hold out; to establish. to
make fast; to prove; to transfix; to be constant. Of this root. six
forms occur 18 times in the Qur`an: ŇŚą ŗŇŝŔ `uthbut once; Ŀ ŚČ ŗĿ ŝ
thabbata 10 times; ŁŚŃŗŇŝą Ɣ yuthbit twice; Ł ŝ ĽŚƏą ŗ thubüt once; Ŀ ŝ ĽŚŃŗŕ thãbit
twice and Ľ ŚƔŃ ŗŇŝĿ ś tathbït twice.
ŅŘĄ ŕŅśŒ `uthbut [imperat. of v. Ŀ ŚĄŗĿ ŝ thabata. intrans.] to stand firm.
to hold fast to one`s position (8:45) ŔƏŁ śą ŗŇŝŕĿž ĻřœĊž ĆƇŁ śƔĊƂĿƅ ŔĿŨŏ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ
you who believe. when you meet a force [in battle]. stand firm.
Ľ Řċ ༠śthabbata [v. II. trans.] to set fast. to make firm. to give
firmness (14:27) Ċ ŚŃ ŗŕİ ŝƅŔ .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŕŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł ŚĐ ŗĿ ŝą Ɣ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ ƓĊ žĄ Ə ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ
God gives firmness to those who believe with the firmly-rooted
word. in this life and in the Hereafter [also interpreted as: God
gives firmness to those who believe in the firmly-rooted word. in
this life and in the Hereafter]; *(2:250) ŕĿ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ŧŇƁ Ō ŇŚĐ ŗĿ ŝ make us stand
firm to bolster. to strengthen (25:32) ƃĄ ŧŔ ŎŁ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ŀ ŚĐ ŗĿ ŝŁ Ɗƅ that We may
strengthen your heart with it.
ĿŘŁŕŅśĄ ƒyuthbit [imperf. of v. IV Ŀ ŚĄŗŇŝ Ō `athbata. trans.] to confirm
(13:39) Ł ŚŃ ŗŇ ŝą ƔĄ Ə ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĄ Ɣ ॠƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔƏą ţĆ ƈĄ Ɣ God erases whatever He will and
confirms [whatever He will] to immobilise. to transfix. restrain.
to tie up. to take as captive (8:30) Ń ŗ ą ũŁ ƄĆƈĄ Ɣ ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə Ą ƃƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƂĄ Ɣ ĆƏ Ō Ą ƃƏŁ śŃ ŗŇŝą Ɣ ƅ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ąƃ
ĄƃƏą ŠŃũŇŦą Ɣ ĆƏŌ remember when the disbelievers were plotting against
you. to take you captive. kill you or expel you.
Ļ ŘƍĄ ŕĿ śthubüt [v. n.] being steadfast. steadfastness. being firm
(16:94) İ .ŃŪĿ śĿ ž Ą ƎĊ śƏą ŗŁ ŝ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ĉ ƇĄ ŧĿ Ɓ ŕ lest a foot should slip after its being firmly

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placed.
ĻŘŁŕœĽś thãbit [act. part.] firmly rooted. steadfast. sure (14:27) ą Ɣ Ł ŚĐ ŗĿŝ
ĊŚŃŗŕİ ŝƅŔ .ĆƏĿƂŇƅŕŃŗ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ ƓĊ žĄ Ə ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ God gives firmness to
those who believe. with the firmly-rooted word. in this life and in
the Hereafter [also interpreted as: God gives firmness to those
who believe in the firmly-rooted word. in this life and in the
Hereafter].
ĻŘƒŁŕŅśĽřtathbït [v. n.] act of confirming. affirming. strengthening
(2:265) Ą Ə ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĻ śƔŃ ŗŇŝĿ śĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŘॠŲĆũĄ ƈ Ą ʼnŕĿżĊ śĆŗŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ƂĊ ſŇƊą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .Ŀ ŝĄ ƈ the
likeness of those who spend their wealth seeking God's pleasure.
and strengthening themselves [their souls].

Ś Ŕ ŧ th-b-r ruin. destruction. to perish; to be vanquished. to be
transfixed. to be detained; to persist. to be diligent. Of this root.
two forms occur five times in the Qur`an: ĈũƏą ŗŁ ŝ thubür four times
and Ą ƈ ĈũƏŗŇŝ mathbür once.
ć ŧƍĄ ŕĿ śthubür [v. n.] ruin. destruction. perishing (25:13) ŔƏŁ ƂŇƅ Ō ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə
ŔćũƏą ŗŁŝ ĄƃƅŕĿ Ɗą ƍ ŔĆƏĄŷĄŧ ĄƉƔĊƊČũĿ Ƃą ƈ ŕĻƂĐƔĄŲ ŕĻƊŕĿƄĄƈ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ and when they are thrown into a
narrow place in it [Hell]. chained [together]. they will cry out
[for] death.
ćŧƍĄ ŕŅśăƆ mathbür [pass. part.] one who is lost. ruined. doomed.
vanquished (17:102) ŔćũƏą ŗŇŝĄƈ ą ƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊžŕĄƔ Ąƃı ƊŁ Ŵ Ɨ ƓIJ ƊŏĄƏ and indeed. I deem
you. Pharaoh. ruined/vanquished.

Ś Ŕ ű th-b-t to be slow. sluggish. phlegmatic; to cause someone to
lose heart. to discourage. to turn away. Of this root. Ŀ ŝ Ŀ ųČ ŗ thabbata
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ľ űċ ༠śthabbata [v. II. trans.] to frustrate. to discourage. to
impede; to cause someone to be reticent (9:46) Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ŝॠŸŃ ŗŇ ƊŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƋŃ ũĿ Ƅ Ć ƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə
ą ŧą ŸŇƁŔ .ƔĊ ƁĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ųČ ŗĿ ŝĿ ž ĄƉƔĊŧĊŷŕĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄŶĄƈ ŔƏ but God was averse to their going forth.
so He discouraged them. and it was said. `Stay behind with the
laggards.`

Ś Ŕ Ɛ th-b-y a group of horse riders. to divide into groups; to be
constant; the centre of a water trough. Of this root. Ł ŝ ĽŚŕĄŗ thubãt

Ś Ŝ Ŝ
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occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŘœăŕĿ ś thubãt [pl. of n. ĽřĄŗŁ ŝ thubatun] separate groups each
consisting of a small number. small groups of horse riders or
fighting men (4:71) Ą ŗŁ ŝ ŔƏą ũĊ ſŇ ƊŕĿ ž Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ũŇ ŨĊ ţ ŔƏŁ ŨŁ Ŧ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ ŕćŸƔĊƈĄŠ ŔƏą ũĊſŇƊŔ ŃƏ Ō ċŚŕ
you who believe. be on your guard. then march [to battle] in
small groups or march all together.

Ś Ŝ Ŝ th-j-j downpour. to flow forcefully. to gush out. to flood.
waterfalls. Of this root. Ŀ ŝ ĉ Š Ą Šŕ ŕ thajjãjan occurs once in the Qur`an.
ă ŞœĈ ŞĽ ś œ thajjãjan [intens. act. part.] pouring forth. cascading
(78:14) ŕćŠŕČ ŠĿ ŝ ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊŚŔĄũĊŰĆŸą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ ŌĄƏ and We send down from
rain-carrying clouds (or. by means of rain-causing winds)
cascading water.

Ś Ţ Ƈ th-kh-n thickness. solidity; to do something to the utmost; to
wear out. to exhaust. to weaken. to conquer; to be solemn. to be
overcome with strain. Of this root. Ō ĄƉĿ ŦŇŝ `athkhana occurs twice in
the Qur`an.
ăƇĽ ŤŅśÈ Ŋ `athkhana [v. II] , [intrans. with ƓĊ ž] to battle strenuously.
to gain victory (8:67) ĄƉĊŦŇŝą Ɣ Ƒİ śĄţ ƐĄũĆŬ Ō ą ƌĿƅ ĄƉƏŁ ƄĄƔ ĆƉ Ō ē ƓŃŗĿƊƅ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ ƑĊ ž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ it
is not for a prophet to take captives before he has successfully
battled in the land ,, [trans.] to overcome. to vanquish. to
overpower. to rout (47:4) ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ Ń ŖŕĿ ƁĐ ũƅŔ Ą ŖĆũĄ ŲĿ ž ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ą ƇŁ śƔĊ ƂĿ ƅ ŔŨŐĿ ž
Ŀ ƀŕĿ ŝĄ ƏŇƅŔ ŔƏč ŧŁ ŮĿ ž ĆƇą ƍƏą ƈŁ śŇƊĿ ŦŇŝ Ō when you meet the disbelievers [in battle].
strike their necks until. when you have routed them. tie fast the
bonds.

Ś ŧ Ŕ th-r-b thin layer of fat over the stomach; fingers; to point out
faults. to blame. to abuse. to reproach. to upbraid. Of this root.
ć ŔƒŁ ŧŅ śĽ ř tathrïb occurs once in the Qur`an.
ć ŔƒŁ ŧŅśĽ řtathrïb [v. n.] blame. reproof. reproach (12:92) Ą ŖƔŃũŇŝĿ ś Ŀ ƛ .ŕĿ Ɓ
ĄƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔ ą ƇŁƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ [but] he said. `You will hear no reproaches today.'

Ś ŧ Ɛ th-r-y (somewhat overlapping with Ŝ [ ũ [ Ə th-r-w) moisture.
to moisten; soil. wet soil; goodness. Of this root. Ŀ ŝ ƐĄ ũ tharã occurs

Ś ž ¾
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once in the Qur`an.
Ǝă ŧĽ śtharã [n.] soil. face of the earth. the crust of the earth.
surface of the ground (20:6) ॠƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ॠƈĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ ƑĊ ž ॠƈĄ Ə ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ ॠƈĄ Ə Ń űĆ ũ ƗŔ
ƐĄ ũİ ŝƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆţĿ ś to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth.
everything between them. and everything beneath the soil.

Ś ų Ŕ th-´-b snake. serpent. adder; to wriggle; channels cut by
floods in the mountain. to flow. to flood. Of this root. Ł ŝ ĈƉŕĄŗĆŸ
thu´bãn occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ć Ƈœă ŕą ŶĿ śthu´bãn [n.] serpent. snake (7:107) Ĉ ƉॠŗĆŸŁ ŝ Ą ƓĊ ƍ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž ą Ƌॠۥ ŷ ƑĿ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž
Ĉ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ so he threw his staff and-lo and behold!-it was a snake. clear
to all.

Ś ž Ŕ th-q-b to bore. to perforate. to puncture. to pierce a hole; to
heighten; to kindle. to light. to shine up. Of this root. ĈŖĊƁŕĿŝ thãqib
occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ćŔĉſœĽś thãqib [act. part.] piercing. piercing bright (37:10) İ ƛ ŏ ĆƉĄ ƈ
Ŀ ŽĊųĿ Ŧ Ŀ řĿ ſŇųĿ ŦŇƅŔ ą ƌĄŸĄŗŇś ōĿ ž ĈŖŕĄƎĊŮ ĈŖĊƁŕĿŝ except for he who snatches away a
fragment. and he is pursued by a piercing flame.

Ś ž Ż th-q-f to straighten. to put into the correct shape; a capable
person; to locate. to catch. to overcome. to dispute. Of this root.
two forms occur six times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĊƂĿ ŝ thaqifa four times
and Ŀ ŽĊƂŁ ŝ thuqifa twice.
Ľ ŻĉƀĽ śthaqifa a [v. trans.] to catch. to overtake. to come upon. to
overcome. to gain the upper hand (60:2) ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄƏŁ ſĿƂŇŝĄƔ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄƔ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ć ʼnŔĄ ŧĆŷ Ō if
they gain the upper hand over you. they will revert to being your
enemies.
Ľ ŻĉƀĿ ś thuqifa [pass.] to be found. to be overtaken. to be
overcome. to be caught (33:61) ĊƂŁ ŝ ŕĄƈĿ ƊĆƔ Ō ĄƉƔĊƊƏą ŸŇƆĄƈ ƏŁ ſ Ļ ƜƔĊ śŇƂĿ ś ŔƏŁ ƆIJ śŁ ƁĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ŨĊ Ŧ Ō Ŕ
accursed. wherever they are found. they will be seized and
[fiercely] slain.

Ś ž ¾ th-q-l weight. to weigh. heavy. loads; sin. responsibility; to
find heavy. to become reluctant. to find burdensome; to oppress.

Ś ž ¾
144
to distress; phlegmatic. dull. Of this root. 10 forms occur 28 times
in the Qur`an: .Ł ƂĿ ŝ thaqula four times; Ō ŇŚĿ ƆĿ ƂŇŝ `athqalat once; .Ŀ Ɓŕİ ŝŔ
`iththãqala once; Ŀ ŝ .ƔĊƂ thaqïl twice; Ċ ŝ .ŕĿƂ thiqãl three times; Ľ řĿ ƆĿ ƂŇŝą ƈ
muthqalatun once; ą ƈ ƉƏŁ ƆĿƂŇŝ muthqalün twice; ŃƉĿ ƜĿ Ƃİ ŝƅŔ `al-thaqalãn
once; .ŕĿƂŇŝŌ `athqãl five times and .ŕĿƂŇŝĊƈ mithqãl eight times.
È ¾Ŀ ƀĽ śthaqula u [v. intrans.] to be of heavy weight. to weigh
heavily on the scales (101:6) ŕČ ƈ ōĿ ž ĆƉĄ ƈ ŇŚĿ ƆŁ ƂĿ ŝ ą ƌŁ ƊƔŃ ŪŔĄ ƏĄ ƈ as for the one
whose good deeds [lit. scales] weigh heavily to be serious. to be
burdensome. to be momentous (7:187) ĄƃĿ ƊƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĄ Ɣ Ń ƉĄ ŷ Ċ řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉŕČ Ɣ Ō ॠƍॠŬĆũą ƈ .Ł Ɓ
ŕĄƈİ Ɗŏ ॠƎą ƈŇƆĊ ŷ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ŀ ƛ ॠƎƔIJ ƆĄ Šą Ɣ ॠƎĊ śŇƁĄ Ə ƅ İ ƛ ŏ Ą Əą ƍ ŇŚĿ ƆŁ ƂĿ ŝ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą Ə ŃűĆũ ƗŔ they
question you [Prophet] about the Hour. `When is its arrival [lit.
coming to port]'' Say. `The knowledge of it is only with My Lord.
None but He will manifest it at its due time. it [the knowledge of it
or expecting it] has become burdensome in the heavens and the
earth.'
ŅŘĽ ƄĽ ƀŅśÈ Ŋ`athqalat [v. IV. intrans.] (of a pregnant woman) to
become heavy with child (7:189) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ॠƍŕİ ŮĿ żĿ ś ŇŚĿ ƆĄƈĄţ Ļ ƜĆƈĄ ţ ŕĻ ſƔĊ ſĿ Ŧ ŇŚČ ũĄ ƈĿ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ŇŚĿ ƆĿ ƂŇŝ Ō ŔĄ ƏĄ ŷĄ ŧ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ॠƈą ƎČ ŗĄ ũ ĆƉ œĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊĿ śĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn Ą Ű ŕćţƅŕ Č ƉĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ Ƅŕİ ŮƅŔ and when he
covered her she bore a light pregnancy. and she passed by with it
[unnoticed]. but when she became heavy. they both prayed to
God. their Lord. `If You give us a righteous [son] we shall
certainly be of the thankful.'
È ¾Ľ ſœĮ śŒ `iththãqala [an assimilated form of v. VI Ŀ ś .Ŀ ƁŕĿ ŝ tathãqala.
intrans.] to become reluctant *(9:38) Ń űĆũ ƗŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇŁ śŇƆĿ Ɓŕİ ŝŔ you show
great reluctance to move [lit. you inclined heavily towards the
earth].
ƾƒĉƀĽś thaqïl [quasi act. part.. pl. .ŕĿƂĊŝ thiqãl] heavy. burdensome
(76:27) ą ũĿ ŨĄƔĄƏ ĿřĿƆŃŠŕĄŸŇƅŔ ĄƉƏčŗĊţą Ɣ ĊʼnĿ ƛŎĄƍ ČƉŏ Ļ ƜƔĊ ƂĿ ŝ ŕć ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍĄ ʼnŔĄ ũĄ Ə Ą ƉƏ these [people]
love the immediate life. and put behind them [all thoughts of] the
Day of Reckoning [lit. a Heavy Day] momentous. weighty
(73:5) ĻƛĆƏĿ Ɓ ĄƃĆƔĿƆĄŷ ƓĊƂŇƆŁƊĄŬ ŕİƊŏ Ļ ƜƔĊ ƂĿ ŝ We shall cast upon you a weighty
discourse heavily laden (9:41) Ļ ƛŕĿ ƂĊ ŝĄ Ə ŕĻ žŕĿ ſĊ Ŧ ŔƏą ũĊ ſŇƊŔ so go forth. lightly
and heavily [armed].
Ļ ŗĽ ƄĽ ƀŅśĄ Ɔ muthqalatun [pass. part.; pl. ą ƈ ƉƏŁ ƆĿ ƂŇŝ muthqalün] one who is
burdened. heavily laden (68:46) ĄƉƏŁ ƆĿƂŇŝą ƈ ľƇĄũŇżĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ž ŔćũĆŠ Ō ĆƇą ƎŁ ƅōĆŬĿś ĆƇ Ō or do

Ś ¾ Ś
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you ask them for a wage and so they are burdened with a levied
payment'; *(35:18) ą Ɣ Ŀƛ ŕĄƎĊƆĆƈĊţ ƑĿƅŏ ĽřĿƆĿƂŇŝą ƈ ą ŵĆŧĿś ĆƉŏĄƏ ĈʼnĆƓĿ Ů ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ .Ą ƈĆţ and if a
soul heavily-laden [by sin] calls for its load [to be carried]. not a
thing of it will be carried.
ƇĽ ƚĽ ƀĮ śƃŒ `al-thaqalãn [dual of n. .Ŀ ƂĿ ŝ thaqal] eminence. importance;
most commentators interpret this as the parallel worlds of humans
and jinn (55:31) ŃƉĿ ƜĿ Ƃİ ŝƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ł Źą ũŇſĿ ƊĄŬ We shall take you to task [lit.
free Ourselves exclusively to you] two masses of jinn and
humankind [lit. two weighty entities].
ƾœĽƀŅśÈŊ`athqãl [pl. of n. .ĿƂĊŝ thiqal] a load. a burden (16:7) .Ċ ƈĆţĿ śĄ Ə
Ń ūŁ ſŇƊ ƗŔ IJ ƀĊ ŮŃ ŗ İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌƔĊ ż ƅॠŗ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ċ ŧĿƆĄ ŗ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅŕĿ ƂŇŝ Ō and they carry your burdens
to a land you could not reach without great hardship.
ƾœĽƀŅśĉƆmithqãl [n.] a weight (4:40) .ŕĿƂŇŝĊƈ ą ƇĊƆŇŴĄƔ Ŀƛ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ČƉŏ ċ ŘČ ũĿ Ũ God does
not wrong [anyone] by as much as the weight of a speck of
dust/an ant.

Ś ¾ Ś th-l-th this root revolves around the concept of the number
three. Of this root. eight forms occur 32 times in the Qur`an: Ľ ŜĿ ƜĿ ŝ
thalãth six times; Ŀ ŝĿ ƜĿ ŝ Ľř thalãthatun 13 times; ƉƏŁ ŝƜĿ ŝ thalãthün twice;
ŜŁƆŁŝ thuluth three times; ƉŕĿ ŝŁ ƆŁ ŝ thuluthãn three times; ŜƅŕĿŝ thãlith
twice; řĿ ŝ ƅŕĿ ŝ thãlithatun once and ŜƜŁ ŝ thulãth twice.
Ļ ŚĽ ƚĽ ś thalãth [card. no.] three (19:10) Ą ƇIJ ƆĿ ƄŁ ś İ ƛ Ō Ą ƃŁ śĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn .ŕĿ Ɓ .ŕĄƔĿ ƅ ĿŜĿƜĿŝ Ąūŕİ ƊƅŔ
ŕĎ ƔŃ ƏĄ Ŭ He said. `Your sign is that you will not [be able to] speak to
people for three nights [and days. though being] well';
*(9:119) ŔƏŁ ſIJ ƆŁ Ŧ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ł řĿ ŝĿ ƜĿ ŝƅŔ the three who made false excuses and
stayed behind [lit. the three who were left behind] when others
went on the campaign of Tabuk in the heat of the summer
9 A.H/630 A.D.
ƇƍĿ śĽ ƚĽ ś thalãthün [card. no.] thirty (46:15) Ŕć ũĆƎĿ Ů Ą ƉƏŁ ŝĿ ƜĿ ŝ ą ƌŁ ƅॠŰĊ žĄ Ə ą ƌŁ ƆĆƈĄ ţĄ Ə
[the period of] bearing and weaning him is thirty months.
ĻŚĿ ƄĿ ś thuluth [n.. dual Ł ŝ Ń ƉŕĿ ŝŁ Ɔ thuluthãn] a third (73:20) Ąƃİ Ɗ Ō ą ƇĿƆĆŸĄƔ ĄƃČ ŗĄũ Č Ɖŏ
ą ƌĿ ŝŁ ƆŁ ŝĄ Ə ą ƌĿ ſĆŰĊ ƊĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƓĿ ŝŁ ƆŁ ŝ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƑĿ ƊĆŧ Ō ą ƇƏŁ ƂĿ ś [Prophet] your Lord knows that you
[sometimes] stay up [praying] less than two thirds of the night.
and [sometimes] half of it and [sometimes] a third of it.

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ĻŚÊƃœĽśthãlith [act. part./n.. fem. ĽřĿŝƅŕĿŝ thãlithatun] a third of three.
the one that. with two others. makes a group of three (36:14) ŇŨ ŏ
Č ŪĄŸĿ ž ŕĄƈą ƍƏą ŗİ ŨĿ ƄĿ ž ŃƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ ą ƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŬĆũ Ō ċ Ŝ ƅŕĿ ŝŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĆŪ when We sent to them two
[messengers]. but they rejected both. so We reinforced [them]
with a third.
ĻŚĽƚĿ ś thulãth [n. adverbially used] in threes. threesome (35:1)
Ļ Ɯą Ŭą ũ Ċ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƅŔ .Ċ ŷॠŠ Ąŗą ũĄƏ ĿŜĿƜŁŝĄƏ ƑĿƊŇŝĄƈ ċřĄţĊƊĆŠ Ō ƓƅƏŌ Ą ŵŕ who appoints angels.
messengers with wings. in twos. in threes and in fours.

Ś ¾ ¾ th-l-l a herd of sheep. wool. a group of people; to perish. to
ruin. Of this root. Ł ŝ Ľřİ Ɔ thullatun occurs three times in the Qur`an.
ĻŗĮ ƄĿ ś thullatun [n.] a multitude. a group. a crowd (56:12-13) Ľřİ ƆŁ ŝ Ą ƉĊ ƈ
ĄƉƔŃũĊŦƕŔ ĄƉĊƈ .ƔĊƆĿ ƁĄƏ ĄƉƔƅČƏ ƗŔ many from the past generation. and a few
from later generations.

Ś ƅ ť th-m-d little water; to dig for water; a ditch in which water
seeps. name of a tribe suffering from scarcity of water. Of this
root. ŧƏą ƈĿŝ Thamüd occurs 26 times in the Qur`an.
ťƍĄ ƆĽ ś Thamüd [proper name] name of an extinct tribe which
dwelt in Northern Arabia. particularly in °al-Hijr (q.v.) (17:59)
ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ą ŧƏą ƈĿ ŝ Ŀ řĿ Ɓŕİ ƊƅŔ Ļ ŘĄ ũĊ ŰĆŗą ƈ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ ŴĿ ž ॠƎŃ ŗ and We gave the people of Thamüd
the she-camel as a visible sign. yet they did wrong by her.
The Qur`an describes how the homes of Thamud were carved
from the rocky mountain in which they dwelt. The Thamud are
juxtaposed with the °ad whose recalcitrance likewise led to their
downfall. The Prophet Salih was sent to this tribe (11:61).

Ś ƅ ŧ th-m-r load of trees. yield of trees. fruit. to fruit; wealth.
offspring. full milk. Of this root. three forms occur 24 times in the
Qur`an: ũĄ ƈŇŝ Ō È `athmara twice; Ŀ ŝ ũĄƈ Æ thamar six times and ĽŚŔĄũĄƈĿŝ
thamarãt 16 times.
ăŧăƆŅśÈ Ŋ `athmara [v. IV. intrans.] to bear fruit. to fruit (6:141) ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ
ĊƋĊŧŕĄŰĄţ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ ą ƌİƂĄţ ŔƏŁśŔĄʼnĄƏ ĄũĄƈŇŝ Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ ĊƋŃũĄƈĿŝ ĆƉĊƈ so eat of their fruit. when they
bear fruit. and pay its dues [the poor's share] on the day of
harvesting them.

Ś ƅ Ƈ
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ćŧăƆĽśthamar [coll. n.; unit n. ĽŘĄũĄƈĿ ŝ thamaratun. pl. ĽŚŔĄũĄƈĿŝ thamarãt]
yield of trees and plants (14:32) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ŞĄ ũŇ Ŧ ōĿ ž ć ʼnॠƈ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ .Ą ŪŇ Ɗ ŌĄƏ
ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ ŕĻƁĆŪŃũ ĊŚŔĄũĄƈİŝƅŔ and he has sent down water from the sky and
brought forth with it produce as provisions for you fruit bearing
trees; wealth (18:34) ŃƏŕĄţą Ɣ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ĊƌŃŗĊţŕĄŰƅ .ŕĿ ƂĿ ž ĈũĄƈĿŝ ą ƌĿ ƅ ĄƉŕĿ ƄĄƏ ĻƛŕĄƈ ĄƃŇƊĊƈ ą ũĿŝŇƄŌ ŕĿƊ Ō ą Ƌą ũ
Ŕć ũĿ ſĿ Ɗ č ŪĄ ŷ ŌĄ Ə and he had fruit [in abundance]. so. he said to his friend.
while engaged in dialogue with him. `I am greater than you in
wealth. and mightier in respect of men.'

ċ ƅĽ ś thamma [adverb of place indicating a removed point either
physically or in rank (high rank). occurring four times in the
Qur`an] there. at that point (26:64) Ą Ə Ō ĆŪ Ŀ ƅ Ňſ Ŀ Ɗ Ł ŝ ŕ Č Ƈ Ŀ ŦƕŔ Ń ũ Ą ƉƔ and We
brought the others near there 'there for you to see!`. 'at that
[glorious] place!` (76:20) ŔĿŨŏĄƏ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄũ Č ƇĿ ŝ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄũ ŕć ƈƔĊ ŸĿ Ɗ ŕĻ ƄŇƆą ƈĄ Ə ŔćũƔŃŗĿƄ and if you
were to cast a look around. there you would see bliss and great
wealth.

ċƅĿ ś thumma [conjunction indicating a separation in time. or in rank.
between the two entities it joins (as distinguished from proximate
sequence ) ŖƔƂŸś ( denoted by the conjunctive ž fa (q.v. I.2));
occurring 338 times in the Qur`an] then. afterwards (6:22) ĄƇĆƏĄƔĄƏ
ą ƇŁƄŎŕĿƄĄũŁŮ ĄƉĆƔ Ō ŔƏŁƄĄũŇŮŌ ĄƉƔĊŨİƆƅ .ƏŁƂĿƊ ČƇŁŝ ŕćŸƔĊƈĄŠ ĆƇą ƍą ũŁŮĆţĿƊ on the Day We will gather
them all together. then We will say to those who ascribed
partners [to God] `Where are your partners'' then. in the end
(3:79) Ɠ ƅ Ŕć ŧॠŗĊ ŷ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ Ƅ Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ .ƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ŀ ŘČ Əą ŗı ƊƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔĄ Ə Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƌĄ ƔĊ śŎą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ľũĿ ŮĄ ŗ ƅ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈ
ĆƉĊ ƈ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ŃƉƏą ŧ it is not [befitting. possible] for any human being that
God should give him the Scripture. wisdom and prophethood.
then. in the end [after all this]. he say to humankind `Be
worshippers of me instead of God.'

Ś ƅ Ƈ th-m-n this root revolves around the concept of number
eight. Of this root. five forms occur eight times in the Qur`an: ĈƉĊƈŕĿŝ
thãmin once; ƓĊƊŕĄƈĿŝ thamãnï once; Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ƊॠƈĿ ŝ thamãnïniyatun four times;
ƉƔĊ ƊॠƈĿ ŝ thamãnïn once and ĈƉą ƈŁ ŝ thumun once.
ćƇĉƆœĽśthãmin [act. part./n.] one making up a group of eight. the
eighth one (18:22) Ą Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ŗŇƆĿ Ƅ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƊĊ ƈŕĿ ŝĄ Ə Ľ řĄ ŸĆŗĄ Ŭ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ and [some] say. `They
were seven. and their eighth was their dog.'

Ś ƅ Ƈ
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Ƒĉ ƈœă ƆĽ śthamãnï [card. no.. fem. řĄ ƔĊ ƊॠƈĿ ŝ thamãniyatun] eight (39:6)
ľŞŔĄƏĆŪŌ Ŀ řĄƔĊƊŕĄƈĿŝ ŃƇŕĄŸŇƊ ƗŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ .ĄŪŇƊŌĄƏ He sent down for you of the cattle eight
kinds/pairs.
Ƈƒĉ ƈœă ƆĽ śthamãnïn [card. no.] eighty (24:4) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏą ƈĆũĄ Ɣ Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĄ ŰĆţą ƈŇƅŔ ČƇŁ ŝ ĆƇĿ ƅ
ŔƏŁ śōĄ Ɣ ĊřĄŸĄŗĆũ ōŃŗ Ą ʼnŔĄ ŧĄ ƎŁ Ů ĆƇą ƍƏą ŧĊ ƆĆŠŕĿ ž ĄƉƔĊƊŕĄƈĿŝ Ļ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ Š as for those who accuse chaste
women [of adultery]. then fail to provide four witnesses. lash
them eighty lashes.
ćƇĄ ƆĿ śthumun [n.] an eighth (4:12) ĆƇŁ śŇƄĄũĿ ś ŕČ ƈĊƈ ą Ɖą ƈı ŝƅŔ Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƆĿ ž ĈŧĿ ƅĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉ ŐĿ ž
but if you have children. to them [your wives] is an eighth of what
you leave.

Ś ƅ Ƈ th-m-n price. value. to price; equivalent. Of this root. ĈƉĄƈĿŝ
thaman occurs 11 times in the Qur`an.
ćƇăƆĽśthaman [n.] price (3:77) Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊŧĆƎĄŸŃŗ ĄƉƏą ũĿśŇŮĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č Ɖŏ Ļ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ ŕĻ ƊĄ ƈĿ ŝ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƊॠƈĆƔ ŌĄ Ə
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Ŀ ƀĿ ƜĿ Ŧ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō ƑĊ ž Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ but those who sell out God's covenant and
their own oaths for a small price. for them there will be no share
in the Hereafter.

ťƍĄ ƆĽś thamüd (see Ś ƅ ť th-m-d).

Ś Ƈ Ɛ th-n-y two. to make two. to double; to bend. to twist. to fold
up; incisor teeth; to do in twos; to praise; to insult; to exclude. to
except. Of this root. nine forms occur 29 times in the Qur`an: ƓĊ ƊŇŝĄ Ɣ
yathnï once; ƓĊ ƊŇŝĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ yastathnï once; ƓĊ ƊŕĿ ŝ thãnï twice; Ń ƉŕĿ ƊŇŝŔ `ithnãn 11
times; ŃƉŕĿśĿƊŇŝŔ `ithnatãn four times; ĄũĿ ŮĄŷ ƑĿ ƊŇŝŔ `ithnã ´ashara twice; ŕĿ śĿ ƊŇŝŔ
Ŀ ŘĄũĿ ŮĄŷ `ithnatã ´asharata three times; ƑĿ ƊŇ ŝĄ ƈ mathnã three times and
ƓĊ ƊŕĿ ŝĄ ƈ mathãnï twice.
Ƒĉ ƈŅ śă ƒyathnï [imperf. of v. ƑĿ ƊĿ ŝ thanã. trans.] to bend. to fold up.
to twist *(11:5) ĆƇą ƍĄũƏą ŧą Ű ĄƉƏŁƊŇŝĄƔ they conceal their enmity. they hide
their thoughts [lit. they fold up their breasts].
Ƒĉ ƈŅ śĽ řą Ūă ƒyastathnï [imperf. of v. X ƑĿ ƊŇŝĿ śĆŬŔ `istathnã. trans. also
intrans.] to exclude. to make an exception. to make an allowance
[for the will of God] by saying 'God willing` ) ŏ ĺŔ ʼnŕŮ Ɖ ( (68:17-
18) ĄƉƏŁ ƊŇŝĿ śĆŬĄƔ ĿƛĄƏ ĄƉƔĊţŃŗĆŰą ƈ ŕĄƎİ Ɗą ƈŃũĆŰĄƔĿ ƅ ŔƏą ƈĄŬŇƁŌ ŇŨŏ Ċřİ ƊĄŠŇƅŔ ĄŖŕĄţĆŰŌ ŕĿƊĆƏĿ ƆĄŗ ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƏĿ ƆĄŗ ŕİ ƊŌ
We tried them as We tried the owners of a certain garden. who

Ś ƍ Ŕ
149
swore that they would harvest its fruits in the morning. and made
no allowance [for the will of God/for the poor].
Ƒĉ ƈœĽ ś thãnï [act. part./n.] one of two. one making a group of
two (9:40) ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ž ą ƋĄũĄŰĿ Ɗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŇŨ ŏ ą ƌĄŠĄũŇŦ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƓĊ ƊŕĿ ŝ Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ God helped him
when the disbelievers drove him out. the second of two one who
is twisting. bending *(22:9) Ŀ ŝ Ą ƓĊ Ɗŕ Ċ ƌĊ ſŇųĊ ŷ acting arrogantly [lit.
twisting his side].
Ł ƇœĽ ƈŅśŒ `ithnãn [card. no.. fem. Ń ƉŕĿ śĿ ƊŇŝŔ `ithnatãn] two (13:3) ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə IJ.Ł Ƅ
Ċ ŚŔĄ ũĄ ƈİ ŝƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ ॠƎƔĊ ž Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŠĆƏĄ Ū Ń ƉĆƔĿ ƊŇŝŔ and of every fruit He made two. male and
female [lit. two types/spouses].
ăŧĽ Ŭăŵ ƏĽ ƈŅśŒ `ithnã ´ashara [n.. fem. Ŀ ŘĄũĿ ŮĄŷ ŕĿ śĿ ƊŇŝŔ `ithnatã ´asharata]
twelve (9:36) Ŕć ũĆƎĿ Ů Ą ũĿ ŮĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊŇŝŔ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ Ń ũƏą Ǝı ŮƅŔ Ŀ ŘČ ŧĊ ŷ ČƉ ŏ the number of the
months with God is twelve months.
ƏĽ ƈŅśă Ɔ mathnã [n. used adverbially. pl. ƓĊƊŕĿŝĄƈ mathãnï] in twos.
two by two (34:46) ƐĄŧŔĄũŁžĄƏ ƑĿ ƊŇŝĄƈ ĊƌİƆƅ ŔƏą ƈƏŁƂĿś ĆƉ Ō ċŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏŃŗ ĆƇŁƄŁŴĊŷŌ ŕĄƈİƊŏ .ŁƁ say
[Prophet]. `I only impress upon you one thing. to stand before
God. in pairs and singly .' oft-repeated. that which repeats;
that which draws comparisons between things (39:23) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Č ŪĿ Ɗ ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō
Ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţŇƅŔ ŕć ŗŕĿ śĊ Ƅ ŕć ƎŃ ŗŕĿ ŮĿ śą ƈ Ą ƓĊ ƊŕĿ ŝĄ ƈ God has sent down the most beautiful of all
discourses-a Book that is consistent [in the message it conveys].
drawing comparisons [also interpreted as: repeating good news
and warning]; *(15:87) Ą ƃŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ŕć ŸĆŗĄ Ŭ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ƓĊƊŕĿŝĄƈŇƅŔ We have given you
seven of the oft-recited verses [the opening süra of the Qur'an]
[variously interpreted as: the whole Qur'an. certain süras and
others].

Ś ƍ Ŕ th-w-b a ditch to which water returns. stones stacked on top
of one another; to return. to come back. to come to a gathering. a
place of gathering. a resort; garment. clothes; reward. recompense.
to reward. to repay; to repeat. to volunteer. Of this root. six forms
occur 35 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŖĐ ƏŁ ŝ thuwwiba once; Ą ŖŕĿ ŝ Ō `athãba
three times; Ŀ ŝ ĈŖŔĄƏ thawãb 13 times; ĽřĄŗŕĿŝĄƈ mathãbatun 11 times; ĽřĄŗƏŁ ŝĄƈ
mathübatun twice and Ĉ ŖॠƔĊ ŝ thiyãb eight times.
ă Ŕď ƍĿ śthuwwiba [pass. of v. II ĄŖČ ƏĿ ŝ thawwaba. doubly trans.] to
be repaid. rewarded. requited for (83:36) Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ŸŇſĄ Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈ ą ũŕİ ſŁ ƄŇƅŔ Ą ŖĐ ƏŁ ŝ .Ą ƍ

ĻŘœă ŕĿ ś
150
have the disbelievers [not] been repaid for their deeds'
ă ŔœĽ śÈ Ŋ`athãba [v. IV. doubly trans.] to give someone something
as a reward. to recompense (48:18) ĆƇą ƎĄ ŗŕĿ ŝ ŌĄ Ə ŕć ţŇśĿ ž ŕć ŗƔŃ ũĿ Ɓ and rewarded
them with a near victory.
ćŔŒă ƍĽ ś thawãb [n.] reward. recompense (4:134) Ą ŖŔĄƏĿ ŝ ą ŧƔŃũą Ɣ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈ
ŔĄƏĿŝ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŧŇƊĊŸĿž ŕĄƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔĄ Ə ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ ą Ŗ if some want the rewards of this world.
then the rewards of this world and the next are both God's to
give.
ĻŗăŕœĽśăƆmathãbatun [n. of place] gathering place. meeting place.
resort (2:125) Ɔƅ ĻřĄŗŕĿŝĄƈ Ŀ ŚĆƔĄŗŇƅŔ ŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ŇŨŏĄƏ ŕĻƊĆƈŌĄƏ Ńūŕİ Ɗ and when We made the
House [at Mecca] a resort and a sanctuary for people.
ĻŗăŕƍĿ śăƆ mathübatun [n./v. n. implying intensity] great reward.
recompense (5:60) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ Ļ řĄ ŗƏŁ ŝĄ ƈ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ ē ũĿ ŮŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅ œĐ ŗĿ Ɗ Ō .Ą ƍ .Ł Ɓ say. `Shall I
tell you who deserves a worse recompense in the eyes of God''
ćŔœă ƒĉ ś thiyãb [pl. of n. ĈŖĆƏĿŝ thawb] garment. clothing (11:5) Ą ƉƔĊ ţ Ŀ ƛ Ō
Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƆĆŸą Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƉƏč ũĊ Ŭą Ɣ ॠƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƎĄ ŗॠƔĊ ŝ Ą ƉƏŁ ŮŇżĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ even when they pull their clothes
over themselves. He knows what they conceal and what they
reveal; *(24:58) Ŀ ś ĄƉƔĊţĄƏ ŘũƔƎŴƅŔ Ɖƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŗॠƔĊ ŝ Ą ƉƏą ŸĄ Ų and when you lay aside
your garments at noon.

ĻŘœăŕĿ ś thubãt (see Ś Ŕ Ɛ th-b-y).

Ś ƍ ŧ th-w-r bull. to stir. to raise. to excite. to rise. to swirl up; to
agitate. to rebel. to rage; to break up. to plough; to chase. to dig
up. to look into. Of this root. Ą ũŕĿ ŝ Ō `athãra occurs five times in the
Qur`an.
ă ŧœĽ śÈ Ŋ`athãra [v. IV. trans.] to raise. to stir (100:4) ĄƉĆũĿ ŝ ōĿ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŕć ŸŇƂĿ Ɗ
raising with it a cloud of dust to move. to drive. to set in motion
(35:9) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .ĄŬĆũ Ō Ą šŕĄ ƔĐ ũƅŔ ą ũƔĊ ŝŁ śĿ ž ŕć ŗॠţĄ Ŭ God is He who sends forth the
winds. and they set in motion the clouds to plough. to till (2:71)
ŏ ॠƎİ Ɗ ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ Ŀ ƛ .ƏŁ ƅĿŨ ą ũƔĊ ŝŁ ś ƗŔ Ą űĆũ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ƓĊ ƂĆŬĿ ś Ŀ ŜĆũĄ ţŇƅŔ it is a cow. not tame to
plough the earth or water the tillage.

Ś ƍ Ɛ th-w-y dwelling. abode. animal enclosure. to abide in a place.
to live for a long time in one place. Of this root. two forms occur

ĻŘœă ŕď ƒĽ ś
151
14 times in the Qur`an: ƒŃ ƏŕĿ ŝ thãwï once and Ą ƈ ƐĄ ƏŇŝ mathwã 13 times.
ƐŁ ƍœĽ śthãwï [act. part.] residing. dwelling (28:45) ŕć ƔŃ ƏŕĿ ŝ Ŀ ŚŇ ƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə ƑĊ ž
ŕĿ ƊĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƏŁ ƆŇśĿ ś Ą ƉĄ ƔĆŧĄ ƈ .Ćƍ Ō nor were you residing among the people of
Midian reciting Our Revelation to them.
ƎăƍŅśăƆ mathwã [n. of place/v. n.] a place of residence. an abode;
residing (47:12) ą ũŕİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə ƐćƏŇŝĄƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ but the Fire will be their abode
*(12:21) ą ƋŔĄƏŇŝĄƈ ƓĊƈŃũŇƄ Ō look after him well!. treat him with hospitality
[lit. honour his abode].

ĻŘœă ŕď ƒĽ ś thayyibãt (possibly from Ś ƍ Ŕ th-w-b) [pl. of quasi-act. part./n.
fem. ĈŖĐ ƔĿŝ thayyib. occurring once in the Qur`an] widow. divorcee.
non-virgin woman (66:5) Ŕć ũŕĿ ƄĆŗ ŌĄƏ ċ ŚŕĄŗĐ ƔĿ ŝ previously married or
virgins.





Ŝ / jïm

ƅƒŁŞƃŒ `al-jïm the fifth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiced
palato-alveolar affricate sound.

Ŝ Ŋ ŧ j-`-r (of cattle) to low; to cry for help; anxiety; (of plants) to
grow tall and plentiful; to be stout. Of this root. ą ũ ōĆŠĄ Ɣ yaj`ar occurs
three times in the Qur`an.
Ą ŧÈ ŋąŞă ƒ yaj`ar [imperf. of v. Ąũ ōĄŠ ja`ara. intrans.] to cry out for
help. to raise the voice in prayer or supplication (23:64) ŕĿ ƊŇŨĿ Ŧ Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ
ĄƉƏą ũōĆŠĄƔ ĆƇą ƍ ŔĿ Ũŏ ŃŖŔĿ ŨĄŸŇƅŕŃŗ ĆƇŃƎƔĊžĄũŇśą ƈ until [the time]. when We seize with the
chastisement those of them who lead a life of pleasure. they will
cry out for help.

Ŀ ŘƍĿ ƃœă ŞJãlüt [a proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in
the Qur`an] Goliath (2:251) ą ƏŔĄŧ .Ŀ śĿ ƁĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ŃƉŇŨŐŃŗ ĆƇą ƍƏą ƈĄŪĄƎĿ ž Ŀ ŚƏŁ ƅॠŠ ą ŧ and so
with God's will they defeated them and David killed Goliath.
This verse occurs in the context of the testing of the Children
of Israel in battle. Saul, chosen by God as king of the Children of
Israel in spite of their opposition, leads his unwilling army against
Goliath and his vastly superior forces, invoking the support of
God. At the conclusion of the story Goliath is slain by David
who, in the words of the Qur’an, is granted dominion and wisdom
(2:251).

Ŝ Ŕ Ŕ j-b-b to cut. to sever; the crust of the earth; hard rocky land;
any kind of well. a large-mouthed well. a well containing much
water. a deep well. also a well that is not deep. Of this root. ď Ŗą Š
jubb occurs twice in the Qur`an.
Ď ŔĄ Ş jubb [n.] well (12:10) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ . œŕĿ Ɓ .ŕĿ Ɓ ą ƋƏŁƂŇƅŌĄƏ ĿŽą ŬƏą Ɣ ŔƏŁƆŁśŇƂĿś Ŀƛ ƑĊž ĊřĄŗŕĄƔĿŻ

Ŝ Ŕ ¾

153
ĐŖą ŠŇƅŔ another speaker from among them said. `Don't kill Joseph.
but cast him into the depth of the well.'

Ļع࣪jibt [n. of either Ethiopic or Hebrew origin occurring once in the
Qur`an] variously interpreted as false deity. sorcery. the devil.
idol. a name of a certain idol. said to belong to the tribe of
Quraysh (4:51) ŚƏŁŻŕİųƅŔĄƏ ĊŚĆŗŃŠŇƅŕŃŗ ĄƉƏŁƊĊƈŎą Ɣ ŃŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕćŗƔĊŰĿƊ ŔƏŁśƏŌ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĄũĿś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
have you considered those given a portion of the Scripture. who
believe in idols and evil powers.

Ŝ Ŕ ŧ j-b-r to set broken bones; to restore. to assist; to compel. to
force. to be impregnable; giant. tyrant. almighty. Of this root. two
words occur 10 times in the Qur`an: ĈũŕČ ŗĄŠ jabbãr eight times and
ƉƏą ũŕČ ŗĄ Š jabbãrün twice.
ćŧœċ ŕ㪠jabbãr [intens. act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ũŕČ ŗĄ Š jabbãrün] mighty.
having absolute power. tyrant. proud. perverse (28:19) ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ ą ŧƔŃ ũŁ ś ĆƉ ŏ
Ŕć ũŕČ ŗĄ Š Ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ ś ƑĊž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ you only want to be a tyrant in the land
*(59:23) ą ũŕČ ŗĄ ŠŇƅŔ [an attribute of God] variously understood as the
Impregnable. the Compeller. the Mender. the Almighty.

¾ƒŁ ŧŕŁ Ş Jibrïl [proper name of Hebrew origin occurring three times in
the Qur`an] the Archangel Gabriel through whom the Qur`an was
revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (2:97) ą ƌİ ƊŐĿž .ƔŃũĆŗŃŠƅ ŔĎ Əą ŧĄŷ ĄƉŕĿƄ ĆƉĄƈ .Ł Ɓ
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ŃƉŇŨŐŃŗ ĄƃŃŗŇƆĿƁ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌĿ ƅČ ŪĿ Ɗ say [Prophet]. `Whosoever is an enemy of
Gabriel [let him know that it is he] who brought it [the Qur'an]
down to your heart by God's leave'. the Qur`an also refers to him
as the trustworthy spirit (26:193).

Ŝ Ŕ ¾ j-b-l mountain; to form. to shape. to create with a firm natural
disposition; intrinsic nature. idiosyncrasy; population. crowd.
multitude. Of this root. four forms occur 41 times in the Qur`an:
.Ą ŗĄ Š jabal six times; .ŕĄŗŃŠ jibãl 33 times; Į .Ń ŗŃ Š jibill once and Ľ řİ ƆŃ ŗŃ Š
jibillatun once.
Æ ¾ă ŕă Ş jabal [n.. pl. .ॠŗŃ Š jibãl] mountain. hill (59:21) ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅ
Ŀ Ŧ ą ƌĿ śĆƔ ŌĄ ũĿ ƅ .Ą ŗĄ Š ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ řĄ ƔŇŮĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕć ŷĐ ŧĄ ŰĿ śą ƈ ŕć ŸĊ Ůŕ if We had sent this
Qur'an down upon a mountain. you would have seen it humbled.

Ŝ Ŕ Ƈ
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split asunder out of fear of God.
Ĭ ¾Ł ŕŁ Ş jibill [coll. n.] crowds of people. great multitude. nation
(36:62) Ą Ə Ł ƄŇƊĊ ƈ İ .Ą Ų Ō ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ƜŃŗŃŠ ĆƇ he has led great numbers of you
astray.
Ļ ŗĮ ƄŁ ŕŁ Ş jibillatun [coll. n.] generations. great multitudes (26:184)
Ą ƉƔ ƅČ Ə ƗŔ Ŀ řİ ƆŃ ŗŃ ŠŇƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ Ƃİ śŔĄƏ be mindful of Him who created you and
the former generations.

Ŝ Ŕ Ƈ j-b-n forehead. the two sides of the forehead; to be cowardly;
to be flat; cheese; cemetery. Of this root. Ĉ ƉƔŃ ŗĄ Š jabïn occurs once in
the Qur`an.
ćƇƒŁŕăŞjabïn [n.] forehead (37:103) Ń ƉƔŃŗĄŠŇƆƅ ą ƌİƆĿśĄƏ ŕĄƈĿƆĆŬŌ ŕČƈĿƆĿž when they
had both submitted [to God]. and he had laid him down on his
forehead.

Ŝ Ŕ ºƋ j-b-h forehead. to strike on the forehead; chief; to embarrass.
to hold the head down. to be humiliated; group of horses. Of this
root. ĈƋŕĄŗŃŠ jibãh occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćƉœă࣪jibãh [pl. of Ľ řĄ ƎĆŗĄ Š jabhatun] foreheads (9:35) ĆƇą Ǝą ƍŕĄŗŃŠ ŕĄƎŃŗ ƐĄƏŇƄŁśĿ ž
ĆƇą ƍą ũƏą ƎŁ ŴĄ Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ Ɗą ŠĄ Ə and their foreheads. sides and backs would be
branded by them.

Ŝ Ŕ ƍ Ɛ j-b-w/y pools; basins. cauldrons. to collect water in a
basin. collected drinking water; to request; to select; to invent; to
kneel down. Of this root. three forms occur 12 times in the
Qur`an: ƑĄ ŗĆŠą Ɣ yujbã once; ƑĄ ŗĿ śĆŠŔ `ijtabã 10 times and Ń ŖŔĄ ƏĄ Š jawãb
(variant reading ƑŃ ŗŔĄ ƏĄ Š jawãbï) once.
Əă ŕą ŞĄ ƒyujbã [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ƓŃ ŗą Š jubiya] to be collected as
dues or taxes; (of water) to be collected for future use (28:57) ĆƇĿ ƅĄ Ə Ō
ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅ Ł ŚŔĄũĄƈĿŝ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ƑĄŗĆŠą Ɣ ŕĻƊĊƈŔĄʼn ŕćƈĄũĄţ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƉIJ ƄĄƈŁ Ɗ have We not established for
them a secure sanctuary to which every kind of produce is
brought as dues'!
Əă ༠řąŞŒ`ijtabã [v. VIII. trans.] 1 to select. to choose. to single out
(22:78) ŔƏą ŧĊ ƍॠŠĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄॠŗĿ śĆŠŔ Ą Əą ƍ Ċ ƋĊ ŧॠƎŃ Š İ ƀĄ ţ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ and strive for God as
striving for Him is due. He has chosen you 2 to request. to ask for

Ŝ Ś ƍ Ɛ

155
(7:203) ŏĄ Ə ॠƎĿ śĆƔĄ ŗĿ śĆŠŔ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ċ řĄ ƔŋŃ ŗ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śōĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ŔĿ Ũ when you do not bring them a
[fresh] revelation. they say. 'But can't you just ask for one'' 3 to
invent. to fabricate. to do by oneself (in another interpretation of
7:203) ĆƇŃƎĊśōĿ ś ĆƇĿƅ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ ॠƎĿ śĆƔĄ ŗĿ śĆŠŔ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ċ řĄ ƔŋŃ ŗ when you do not bring them a
[fresh] revelation. they say. `Why can't you just make it up''
Ł ŔŒă ƍă Ş jawãb (variant reading only in non-pausal recitation ƓŃ ŗŔĄ ƏĄ Š
jawãbï with a shortened final long vowel ï) [pl. of n. Ľ řĄ ƔŃ ŗॠŠ
jãbiyatun] large pools. large watering-troughs (34:13) ॠƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĄ Ɣ
ŃŖŔĄƏĄŠŇƅŕĿƄ ľƉŕĿſŃŠĄƏ .ƔĊŝŕĄƈĿ śĄƏ ĄŖƔŃũŕĄţĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ąʼnŕĿ ŮĄƔ they made him whatever he
wanted-palaces. statues and bowls as large as watering troughs.

Ŝ Ś Ś j-th-th seedling. to transplant; to uproot. to eradicate; body.
corpse; impurities. Of this root. İŜŁ śĆŠŔ `ijtuththa. occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ĮŚĿ řąŞŒ`ijtuththa [pass. of v. VIII] to be uprooted. pulled out
(14:26) Ą Ə ċřĿŝƔŃŗĿŦ ċŘĄũĄŠĿ ŮĿ Ƅ ċřĿŝƔŃŗĿŦ ċřĄƈĊƆĿ Ƅ .ĿŝĄƈ ľũŔĄũĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ŕĄƈ ŃűĆũƗŔ ĊƀĆƏĿž ĆƉĊƈ ŇŚİŝŁśĆŠŔ and
the likeness of an evil word is as an evil tree. uprooted from the
surface of the earth. with no power to endure.

Ŝ Ś ƅ j-th-m body. corpse; structure; to crouch. to lie down on one`s
chest. to lie face down; to be heavily laden. Of this root. ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ŝॠŠ
jãthimïn occurs five times in the Qur`an.
Ƈƒĉ Ɔĉ śœă Ş jãthimïn [pl. of act. part. ĈƇĊŝॊ jãthim] crouching. lying
flat. lying on their faces; strewn about motionless (29:37) ą ƋƏą ŗİ ŨĿ ƄĿ ž
ą ƎŇśĿ ŨĿ Ŧ ōĿ ž ŔƏą ţĄŗĆŰ ōĿ ž Ł řĿ ſĆŠČ ũƅŔ ą Ƈ ƑĊž Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ŝॠŠ ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ũŔĄ ŧ they rejected him and so the
earthquake overtook them and by the morning. they were lying
dead in their homes.

Ŝ Ś ƍ Ɛ j-th-w/y rock-pile. mound. a small hill; to kneel; body; a
grave mound. Of this root. two words occur three times in the
Qur`an: Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ŝॠŠ jãthiyatun once and ď ƓĊ ŝŃ Š jithiyy twice.
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ śœă Şjãthiyatun [fem. act. part.] kneeling alert and ready to be
called; kneeling down in humility (45:28) ċ řČ ƈ Ō ı .Ł Ƅ Ļ řĄ ƔĊ ŝॠŠ ċ řČ ƈ Ō İ .Ł Ƅ ƐĄ ũĿ śĄ Ə
ŕĄƎŃŗŕĿ śĊƄ ƑĿ ƅŏ ƑĄŷĆŧŁ ś you will see every community kneeling. every
community will be summoned to its record; * Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ŝॠŠƅŔ name of Sura

Ŝ ş ť
156
45. Meccan sura. so-named because of the reference in verse 28
to the 'kneeling posture` of all on the Day of Judgement.
Ď Ƒĉ śŁ Şjithiyy [pl. of act. part. ƑĊ ŝॠŠ jãthï] kneeling down.
humbled. vanquished (19:68) .ĆƏĄţ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄũĊŲĆţŁ ƊĿ ƅ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĄƉƔĊųŕĄƔİ ŮƅŔĄƏ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄũŁ ŮĆţĿ ƊĿ ƅ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũĄƏĿž
ŕĎ ƔĊ ŝŃ Š Ą Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ Š so by your Lord We shall gather them together with the
devils. and then set them around Hell. kneeling.

Ŝ ş ť j-h-d barren land. stifled plants. (of plants) to fail to grow
properly; to deny. to disown. to reject; to become penniless.
paucity. Of this root. Ą ŧĄ ţĄ Š jahada occurs 12 times in the Qur`an.
ă ťă šă Ş jahada a [v. trans. and intrans. occurring with or without
.Ń ŗ] to absolutely reject. give the lie to or categorically deny
(something whilst knowing or not knowing it to be true) (27:14)
ŔĎ ƏŁ Ɔą ŷĄ Ə ŕć ƈŇƆŁ Ŵ ĆƇą Ǝą ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ॠƎŇśĿ ƊĿ ƂĆƔĿ śĆŬŔĄ Ə ŕĄƎŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŧĄ ţĄ ŠĄ Ə they denied them absolutely. out
of wickedness and arrogance. even though their souls
acknowledged them as true.

Ŝ ş ƅ j-h-m great fire. blaze. intense fire. to light a fire. to burn. Of
this root. ĈƇƔĊţĄŠ jahïm occurs 26 times in the Qur`an.
ćƅƒĉšăŞ jahïm [n.] intense fire. Hell. Hellfire (79:37-9) ƑĿ żĿ ų ƉĄƈ ŕČ ƈ ōĿ ž
Ą ʼnĄ Ə ƐĄƏōĄƈƅŔ ĄƓĊƍ ĄƇƔĊţĄŠƅŔ ČƉŐĿž ŕĄƔŇƊĄŧƅŔ Ŀ ŘŕĄƔĄţƅŔ ĄũĿ ŝŔ for the one who has transgressed
and preferred the present life. Hell will be home.

Ŝ ť Ś j-d-th (a doubtful verbal root) a grave. to make or prepare a
grave. Of this root. only ĽŜŔĄŧĆŠŌ `ajdãth occurs three times in the
Qur`an.
Ļ ŚŒă ťą ŞÈ Ŋ`ajdãth [pl. of n. Ľ ŜĄ ŧĄ Š jadath] graves (54:7) ĆƇą ƍą ũŕĄŰĆŗ Ō ŕćŸİ ŮŁ Ŧ
ĈũĊŮĿ śŇƊą ƈ ĈŧŔĄũĄŠ ĆƇą ƎİƊōĿƄ ĊŜŔĄŧĆŠƗŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉƏą Šą ũŇŦĄƔ [with] their eyes downcast they
emerge from the graves. as if they were locusts. fanning out.

Ŝ ť ť j-d-d ancestor. grandparent; luck. good fortune; greatness.
glory. majesty; hard work. seriousness; new. to renew; middle of
the road. main road. straight. correct path. level land. Of this root.
three words occur 10 times in the Qur`an: ĉ ŧĄ Š jadd once; ĈŧƔĊŧĄŠ jadïd
eight times and ĈŧĄŧą Š judad once.

Ŝ ť ¾

157
Ď ťă Ş jadd [n./v. n.] glory. majesty. greatness (72:3) ŕĿƊĐŗĄũ čŧĄŠ ƑĿƅŕĄŸĿś ą ƌİƊŌĄƏ
ŔćŧĿƅĄƏ ĿƛĄƏ ĻřĄŗĊţŕĄŰ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ ŕĄƈ and that He. glory be to Our Lord's Majesty.
has not taken [for Himself] either a consort [spouse] nor a child.
ćťƒĉťăŞ jadïd [quasi-act. part.] new (14:19) ċ ŧƔĊ ŧĄ Š ċ ƀŇƆĿ ŦŃ ŗ Ċ ŚōĄ ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĆŗĊ ƍŇŨą Ɣ ōĿ ŮĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏ
if He wished to. He could remove all of you and replace you with
a new creation.
ćťăťĄ Ş judad [pl. of n. ĽŘČ ŧą Š juddatun] streaks. tracts (35:27) ĄƉĊƈĄƏ
ĈŧƏą Ŭ ą ŖƔŃŗŔĄũĿ ŻĄƏ ŕĄƎŁƊŔĄƏŇƅ Ō ĽŽĊƆĿśŇŦą ƈ ĈũĆƈą ţĄƏ ĈűƔŃŗ ĈŧĄŧą Š .ŕĄŗŃŠŇƅŔ and [consider as well]
in the mountains. tracks/layers of white and red of various hues.
and jet black.

Ŝ ť ŧ j-d-r wall. walling-in. an enclosure; pustules. smallpox; to be
worthy of something. Of this root. three forms occur four times in
the Qur`an: ą ũĄ ŧĆŠ Ō `ajdar once; ĈũŔĄŧŃŠ jidãr twice and Ĉũą ŧą Š judur once.
Ą ŧă ťąŞÈ Ŋ `ajdar [elat.] more/most likely to. more/most disposed to;
more/most worthy of (9:97) Ą ŧƏą ŧą ţ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ İ ƛ Ō ą ũĄ ŧĆŠ ŌĄ Ə ŕĻ ƁŕĿ ſĊ ƊĄ Ə Ŕć ũŇſŁ Ƅ č ŧĿ Ů Ō ą ŖŔĄ ũĆŷ ƗŔ
ĊƌƅƏą ŬĄũ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ĄŪŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈ the desert Arabs are more severe in their
disbelief and hypocrisy. and more likely not to know the limits of
what God has sent down upon His Messenger.
ćŧŒăťŁŞ jidãr [n.. pl. Ĉũą ŧą Š judur] wall (18:77) ĆƉ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ Ŕć ũŔĄ ŧŃ Š ॠƎƔĊ ž ŔĄ ŧĄ ŠĄ ƏĿ ž
ą ƌĄ ƈŕĿ Ɓ ōĿ ž Č űĿ ƂŇƊĄ Ɣ they found in it a wall on the point of collapsing and he
set it up.

Ŝ ť ¾ j-d-l to braid. to twist tightly. to be well-built; to knock down;
to dispute. to argue in a contentious manner. to debate. Of this
root. three forms occur 29 times in the Qur`an: .ĄŧॠŠ jãdala 25
times; .Ą ŧĄ Š jadal twice and .ŔĄŧŃŠ jidãl twice.
È¾ăťœăŞ jãdala [v. III. trans.] 1 to argue or dispute with (11:32) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅŔĄ ŧŃ Š Ŀ ŚĆũĿ ŝŇƄ ōĿ ž ŕĿ ƊĿ śŇƅĄŧॠŠ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ą šƏŁ ƊॠƔ they said. 'Noah!. you have disputed with
us. and have put up a lot of disputation with us' 2 [with prep. ĆƉĄ ŷ]
to plead for. to argue the case of (4:109) ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄŷ ĆƇŁśŇƅĄŧॊ ĊʼnĿ ƛŎĄƍ ĆƇŁśŇƊŌ ŕĄƍ ƑĊ ž
Ċ řĄ ƈॠƔĊ ƂŇ ƅŔ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ Ć Ƈą ƎŇ ƊĄ ŷ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ċ ŧॠŠą Ɣ Ć ƉĄ ƈĿ ž ॠƔŇ Ɗč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇ ƅŔ here you are. the ones who
argued on their behalf in the life of this world. but who will argue
on their behalf with God on the Day of Resurrection'
Æ ¾ă ťă Ş jadal [n./v. n.] disputation. contention. argument (18:54)

Ŝ Ŧ Ŧ
158
Ą ŬŇƊ ƙŔ Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĄ Ə ĻƛĄŧĄŠ ċʼnĆƓĿŮ ĄũĿ ŝŇƄ Ō ą Ɖŕ but man is the most contentious of all
creatures [lit. things].
ƾŒăťŁŞjidãl [v. n./n.] arguing/argument. disputing/disputation.
contending/contention (2:197) .ŔĄ ŧŃ Š Ŀ ƛĄƏ Ŀ ƀƏą ŬŁ ž Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ŀ ŜĿ žĄũ Ŀ ƜĿ ž ƑĊ ž Đ şĄ ţŇƅŔ there
is no intercourse [also interpreted as: abusive speech].
misbehaviour nor disputation during/on the pilgrimage.
* ŗĽ ƃă ťœŞĄ ƆƃŒ `al-mujãdalatu name of Sura 58. Medinan sura.
so-named because of the reference in verse 1 to the 'Dispute`
which took place between a woman and the Prophet.

Ŝ Ŧ Ŧ j-dh-dh to sever. to cut off. to break off; to hinder; fragments.
breakage. shreds. chippings. Of this root. two words occur once
each in the Qur`an: ĽŨƏŁ ŨĆŠĄƈ majdhüdh and ĽŨŔĿŨą Š judhãdh.
ĻŦƍĿ ŦąŞăƆ majdhüdh [pass. part.] cut off. discontinued. interrupted.
hindered (11:108) ĄƃčŗĄũ ĄʼnŕĿ Ů ŕĄƈ İƛŏ ą űĆũ ƗŔĄƏ ŁŚŔĄƏĄƈČŬƅŔ ĊŚĄƈŔĄŧ ŕĄƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƉƔĊŧƅŕĿŦ ćʼnŕĿųĄŷ
ċŨƏŁ ŨĆŠĄƈ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż there to remain as long as the heavens and earth endure.
unless your Lord wills otherwise-a gift unhindered.
ĻŦŒĽŦĄ Ş judhãdh [coll. n./pl. of quasi pass. part. ĽŨƔĊŨĄŠ jadhïdh]
breakage. wreckage. pieces. fragments (21:58) Ŀ ƆĄŸĄŠĿ ž Ŕć ũƔŃ ŗĿ Ƅ İ ƛ ŏ ŔĻ ŨŔĿ Ũą Š ĆƇą Ǝ
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ he broke them into pieces. except for a great one of them.

Ŝ Ŧ ų j-dh-´ the young of domestic animals; new; to amputate. to
deny food to someone or something; trunk of a palm tree. Of this
root. two words occur three times in the Qur`an: ĈŵŇŨŃŠ jidh´ twice
and ĈŵƏŁ Ũą Š judhü´ once.
ćųŅŦŁŞ jidh´ [n.. pl. ĈŵƏŁ Ũą Š judhü´] trunk of a tree (19:25) Ċ ƃĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ ƒĐ Ūą ƍĄ Ə
ĊřĿ ƆŇŦİƊƅŔ ŃŵŇŨŃŠŃŗ and shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you.

Ŝ Ŧ ƍ j-dh-w the base of a tree. to stand firm. to be erect; firebrand.
burning log. Of this root. Ľ ŘĄ ƏŇŨĄ Š jadhwatun occurs once in the
Qur`an.
Ļ Ŗă ƍŅŦă Şjadhwatun [n.] firebrand. piece of burning wood. burning
branch (28:29) ľũĄŗĿŦŃŗ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĆƇŁƄƔĊśŔĄʼn ƓIJƆĄŸĿƅ ŔćũŕĿƊ ŁŚĆŬĿƊŔĄʼn ƓIJƊŏ ŔƏŁŝŁƄĆƈŔ ŃũŕİƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ċŘĄƏŇŨĄŠ ĆƏ Ō
ĄƉƏŁ ƆĿųĆŰĿś ĆƇŁ Ƅİ ƆĄŸĿ ƅ wait! I have caught site of a fire, perhaps I may bring
you news from there. or a burning brand. that you may warm

Ŝ ŧ Ũ

159
yourselves.

Ŝ ŧ ş j-r-h to wound. to injure; to defame. to invalidate. deficiency;
to strive to earn one`s living; birds and animals of prey. Of this
root. four forms occur once each in the Qur`an: Ą šĄ ũĄ Š jaraha; ĄšĄũĿ śĆŠŔ
`ijtaraha; ĈšƏą ũą Š jurüh and ą šŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ Š jawãrih.
ă şă ŧă Şjaraha a [v. trans.] to endeavour. to accumulate. to gain.
to earn. to acquire (6:60) Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ śĆţĄ ũĄ Š ॠƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ ƔĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅŕİ žĄ ƏĿ śĄ Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə it is
He who recalls you by night. and knows what you have earned by
day.
ăşăŧĽ řąŞŒ `ijtaraha [v. VIII. trans.] to commit (45:21) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ŖĊ ŬĄ ţ ĆƇ Ō
ĆŠŔ ĊŚŕĄţƅŕČŰƅŔ ŔƏŁƆĊƈĄŷĄƏ ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŕĿƄ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĄŸĆŠĿ Ɗ ĆƉŌ ĊŚŕœĐƔČŬƅŔ ŔƏą ţĄũĿ ś do those who
commit evil deeds think that We will make them like those who
believe and do good .'

Ŝ ŧ ť j-r-d to peel. to bare. to strip; barren land. locust. land savaged
by locusts; cloudless sky. Of this root. ŧŔũŠ jarãd occurs twice in
the Qur`an.
ćťŒăŧ㪠jarãd [collect. n.] locust (54:7) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏą Šą ũŇ ŦĄ Ɣ Ć Ƈą ƍą ũॠŰĆ ŗ Ō ŕć Ÿİ ŮŁ Ŧ
ĈũĊŮĿ śŇƊą ƈ ĈŧŔĄũĄŠ ĆƇą ƎİƊōĿƄ ĊŜŔĄŧĆŠƗŔ [with] their eyes downcast they emerge from
the graves. as if they were spreading locusts.

Ŝ ŧ ŧ j-r-r to draw. to pull. to drag along; track. trail. galaxy; crime.
guilt; to ruminate. Of this root. čũą ŠĄ Ɣ yajurr occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ČŧĄ Şă ƒyajurr [imperf. of v. Č ũĄ Š jarra. trans.] to drag. to pull. to
draw (7:150) ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ą Ƌč ũą ŠĄƔ ĊƌƔĊŦŌ ŃūŌĄũŃŗ ĿŨĿŦŌĄƏ ĄšŔĄƏŇƅ ƗŔ ƑĿƂŇƅ ŌĄƏ he threw the tablets
and took hold of the head of his brother. dragging him to him.

Ŝ ŧ Ũ j-r-z barren land. land afflicted by drought. famine; to eat up.
to devour. to cut off. to kill. Of this root. ĈŪą ũą Š juruz occurs twice in
the Qur`an.
ćŨĄ ŧĄ Ş juruz [quasi-pass. part.] (of land) barren. dry (with water
cut off from it). afflicted with drought (32:27) Ń űĆ ũ ƗŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ʼnॠƈŇ ƅŔ Ł ƀƏą ŬĿ Ɗ
ĆũĄŪ ĊƌŃŗ ą ŞŃũŇŦŁ ƊĿ ž ŃŪą ũą ŠŇƅŔ ŕć ŷ We direct water [rain] to the barren land. and

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with it produce vegetation.

Ŝ ŧ ų j-r-´ barren land that does not hold water; to drink. to sip. to
gulp down. a mouthful of drink. Of this root. ą ŵČ ũĄŠĿ śĄƔ yatajarra´
occurs once in the Qur`an.
ċ ŧ㪼 řăƒ Ą ų yatajarra´ [imperf. of v. V. trans.] to make oneself drink.
or gulp down. particularly something unpleasant. in small
amounts or one after the other (14:17) ą ƌŁ żƔĊŬą Ɣ ą ŧŕĿƄĄƔ ĿƛĄƏ ą ƌą ŷČ ũĄŠĿśĄƔ he
[forces himself to] gulp it down. although scarcely able to
swallow it.

Ŝ ŧ Ż j-r-f cliff. precipice. undercut bank. slippery mountainside; to
sweep away. to wash away. to shovel away. Of this root. ĽŽą ũą Š
juruf occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŻĄ ŧĄ Ş juruf [n.] overhang. precipice. overhanging cliff ĆƉĄ ƈĿ žŌ ĄūČ Ŭ Ō
ĊƌŃŗ ĄũŕĄƎŇƊŕĿž ľũŕĄƍ ċŽą ũą Š ŕĿ ſĿ Ů ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌĿƊŕĄƔŇƊą ŗ ƑĊ ž ĄƇİƊĄƎĄŠ ŃũŕĿ Ɗ (9:109) is the one who
founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice that will
tumble down into the Fire of Hell. taking him with it ...'

Ŝ ŧ ƅ j-r-m body. mass. volume; to cut off. to pick. to harvest. to
acquire for oneself. to earn. to deserve; to commit a crime. an
unlawful act. aggression. crime; to pass away. Of this root. six
forms occur 66 times in the Qur`an: ą ƇŃ ũĆŠĄ Ɣ yajrim three times; ĄƇĄũĆŠ Ō
`ajrama five times; ĈƇŔĄũĆŠŏ `ijrãm once; ĈƇŃũĆŠą ƈ mujrim twice; ƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈ
mujrimün 50 times and Ą ƇĄ ũĄ Š Ŀ ƛ lã jarama five times.
Ą ƅŁ ŧąŞă ƒ yajrim [imperf. of v. jarama. trans.] to compel. to lead
into. to tempt. to incite. to induce (5:2) ŋĿ ƊĿ Ů ĆƇŁ Ƅİ ƊĄ ƈŃ ũĆŠĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄƏč ŧĄŰ ĆƉŌ ľƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ą Ɖ
ŔƏą ŧĿ śĆŸĿ ś ĆƉŌ ŃƇŔĄũĄţŇƅŔ ĊŧŃŠĆŬĄƈŇƅŔ ŃƉĄŷ do not let your hatred for a group of
people. because they barred you from the Sacred Mosque. induce
you to commit aggression.
ăƅăŧąŞÈ Ŋ `ajrama [v. IV. trans.] to commit (a crime or sin) (34:25)
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĿ ś ŕČ ƈĄ ŷ . ōĆŬŁ Ɗ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŕĿ ƊĆƈĄ ũĆŠ Ō ŕČ ƈĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏŁƅ ōĆŬŁ ś Ŀ ƛ .Ł Ɓ say. `You will not be taken to
task for what we commit. nor will we be responsible for what you
do.'
ćƅŒăŧąŞÊō `ijrãm [n./v. n.] guilt. crime. sin (11:35) ĆƔĄũĿ śŇžŔ ŃƉŏ .ŁƁ Č ƓĿ ƆĄ ŸĿ ž ą ƌŁ ś

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161
ĄƉƏą ƈŃũĆŠŁś ŕČƈĊƈ ĈʼnƒŃũĄŗ ŕĿƊŌĄƏ ƓĊƈŔĄũĆŠŏ say. `If I have made it up. upon me falls
my crime. but I am innocent of what you commit.'
ćƅŁŧąŞĄ Ɔmujrim [n./act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈ mujrimün] evildoer.
wicked person. criminal. the guilty one. sinner (25:31) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ Ą ƃ ƅĿ ŨĿ ƄĄƏ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈŃ ũĆŠą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŔĎ Əą ŧĄ ŷ ē ƓŃ ŗĿ Ɗ IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅ but We have always appointed. for every
prophet. adversaries from the wicked.
ă ƅă ŧă Ş Ľ ƙ lã jarama [considered by grammarians to be either a
single composite unit meaning 'certainly`. 'no doubt` or two
successive words. negative particle Ŀ ƛ + Ą ƇĄ ũĄ Š which could be either
a verb meaning 'it became right`. 'due`. 'incumbent upon` or a
v. n. Ą ƇĄ ũĄ Š/Ą ƇĆũĄ Š jarma/jarama meaning 'reproaching/reproach.`
'incriminating/incrimination`. 'crime. offence`] 'surely`. 'no
doubt` (16:23) Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƆĆŸą Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƉƏč ũĊ Ŭą Ɣ ॠƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō Ą ƇĄ ũĄ Š Ŀ ƛ there is no doubt
that God knows what they conceal and what they reveal.

Ŝ ŧ Ɛ j-r-y to run. to flow. to stream. to sail; stream. channel. the
way of things; vessel. boat; to continue. to be constant; young
female. overseer. Of this root. five forms occur 64 times in the
Qur`an: ƐĄ ũĄ Š jarã 57 times; Ľ řĄ ƔŃ ũॠŠ jãriyatun twice; ĽŚŕĄƔŃũॊ jãriyãt
once; ƒŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ Š jawãrï three times and ƒŃ ũĆŠĄ ƈ majrï once.
Ǝă ŧă Şjarã i [v. intrans.] 1 to run (31:29) ƒŃ ũĆ ŠĄ Ɣ Į .Ł Ƅ Ą ũĄ ƈĿ ƂŇ ƅŔĄ Ə Ą ūĆ ƈİ ŮƅŔ Ą ũİ ŦĄ ŬĄ Ə
ƑĎ ƈĄŬą ƈ .ĄŠ Ō ƑĿ ƅŏ He has subjected the sun and the moon. each to run
[its course] for a stated term 2 to flow (5:119) Ć ƉĊ ƈ ƒŃ ũĆ ŠĿ ś Ľ Śŕİ ƊĄ Š Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ
ĊśĆţĿ ś ą ũॠƎŇƊ ƗŔ ॠƎ for them are gardens through which streams flow 3 to
sail (22:65) ƒŃ ũĆŠĿ ś Ą ƃŇƆŁ ſŇƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĊƋŃũĆƈ ōŃŗ ŃũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ and the ships sail the sea by
His command 4 to blow (21:81) ĊƋŃũĆƈ ōŃŗ ƒŃũĆŠĿ ś ĻřĿſĊŰŕĄŷ ĄŢƔĐũƅŔ ĄƉŕĄƈĆƔĿƆą ŬƅĄƏ and
for Solomon [We subjected] the wind. stormy. blowing by His (or.
Solomon's) command.
Ļ ŗă ƒŁ ŧœă Ş jãriyatun [n./act. part. fem.. pl. ĽŚŕĄƔŃũॊ jãriyãt and ƒŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ Š
jawãrï] 1 that which sails. water vessel. boat (69:11) ą ʼnॠƈŇƅŔ ƑĿ żĿ ų ŕČ ƈĿ ƅ ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
ĆƇŁ ƄŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ƈĄ ţ ƑĊž ŇƅŔ Ċ řĄ ƔŃ ũॠŠ when the water flooded. it was We who carried
you in the sailing vessel 2 that which flows. flowing. (of water)
running (88:12) Ľ řĄ ƔŃ ũॠŠ Ĉ ƉĆƔĄ ŷ ॠƎƔĊ ž in it there is a flowing spring 3 stars
and planets (81:16) Ń ũŔĄ ƏĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ń ūİ ƊŁ ƄŇƅŔ the [stars and planets] that run
and sink [out of sight].

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ƐŁ ŧąŞă Ɔ majrï [v. n. (also read as ƐŃ ũĆŠą ƈ mujrï act. part.)] sailing
(11:41) ŕĄƍŕĄŬĆũą ƈĄƏ ŕĄƍŔĄũĆŠĄƈ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ŃƇĆŬŃŗ ŕĄƎƔĊž ŔƏą ŗĿ ƄĆũŔ .ŕĿƁĄƏ and He said. `Board it
[the ark], in the name of God is its sailing and its anchoring.'

Ŝ Ũ Ŋ j-z-` part. portion. share; to divide. to partition; to make do
with; to fill in. Of this root. ʼnĆŪą Š juz` occurs three times in the
Qur`an.
ŇąŨĄ Ş juz` [n.] 1 part. portion (2:260) ĆŪą Š Č Ɖą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ .Ą ŗĄ Š IJ .Ł Ƅ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ą ŸĆŠŔ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ŕć ʼn
then place a part of them on each mountain 2 share. group
(15:44) ĈƇƏą ŬŇƂĄ ƈ ĈʼnĆŪą Š ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ľ Ŗॠŗ IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅ ľ ŖŔĄ ƏĆŗ Ō Ł řĄ ŸĆŗĄ Ŭ ॠƎĿ ƅ seven gates it has. to
each gate is an allotted group of them 3 daughters. offspring
(43:15) Ċ ŧॠŗĊ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə ŔćʼnĆŪą Š ĊƋ yet they assign some of His own
servants to Him as offspring!

Ŝ Ũ ų j-z-´ to break into two. to traverse. to divide up; anxiety.
shock. to be distressed. to be disturbed. Of this root. two forms
occur once each in the Qur`an: Ą ŵŃ ŪĄ Š jazi´a and ŵƏą ŪĄŠ jazü´.
ă ųŁ Ũă Ş jazi´a a [v. intrans.] to become anxious. distressed.
disturbed (14:21) ľůƔĊţĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ŕĄƈ ŕĿ ƊĆũĄŗĄŰ ĆƇŌ ŕĿƊĆŷŃŪĄŠŌ ŕĿƊĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĈʼnŔĄƏĄŬ it is the
same for us [now], whether we show distress or bear with
patience. for us there is no escape.
ųƍĄ Ũă Ş jazü´ [intens. act. part.] given to collapsing under stress.
prone to anxiety. fretful (70:20) ŕćŷƏą ŪĄŠ čũİŮƅŔ ą ƌČŬĄƈ ŔĿ Ũŏ he becomes
overly anxious when misfortune touches him.

Ŝ Ũ Ɛ j-z-y recompense. to repay. to reward. to punish for bad
deeds. judgement; to stand in for; taxation. tribute. Of this root.
six forms occur 118 times in the Qur`an: ƐĄ ŪĄ Š jazã 50 times; ƐĄ ŪĆŠŁ ś
tujzã 23 times; ƒŃ ŪॠŠŁ Ɗ nujãzï once; ƒŃ ŪॠŠ jãzï once; ĈʼnŔĄŪĄŠ jazã` 42
times and Ľ řĄ ƔĆŪŃ Š jizyatun once.
ă Ş Ǝă Ũ jazã i I [v. trans.] 1 [with prep. .Ń ŗ] to recompense. to
reward/punish (53:31) ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ŬĆţ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƒŃ ŪĆŠĄ ƔĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷ ॠƈŃ ŗ ŔƏą ʼnŕĄŬ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƒŃ ŪĆŠĄ Ɣ ƅ
ƑĿ ƊĆŬą ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ that He will repay those who do evil for what they did and
reward with what is best those who do good 2 [with prep. ĆƉĄ ŷ] to
stand in for. to take the place of. to undertake responsibility for

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(31:33) ĊƋĊŧĿ ƅĄƏ ĆƉĄŷ ĈŧƅŔĄƏ ƒŃŪĆŠĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ŕćƈĆƏĄƔ ŔĆƏĿ ŮŇŦŔĄƏ and fear a day when no
parent will take the place of their child II [v.. doubly transitive]
to compensate. to reward. to pay someone for something (28:25)
ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚĆ ƔĿ ƂĄ Ŭ ॠƈ Ą ũĆ Š Ō Ą ƃĄ ƔŃ ŪĆ ŠĄ Ɣ ƅ Ą ƃƏą ŷĆ ŧĄ Ɣ ƓŃŗ Ō Č Ɖ ŏ Ň ŚĿ ƅŕĿ Ɓ she said. `My father invites
you so that he may pay you the wages for having watered [our
flock] for us.'
Ǝă ŨąŞĿ ř tujzã [pass. v.] to be rewarded/punished. to be
recompensed. to be paid (20:15) ľ ūŇ ſĿ Ɗ ı .Ł Ƅ ƐĄ ŪĆ ŠŁ ś ƅ ॠƎƔĊ ſŇ Ŧ Ō ą ŧŕĿ Ƅ Ō Ľ řĄ ƔĊ śŔĄ ʼn Ŀ řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ƑĄ ŸĆŬĿ ś ॠƈŃ ŗ the Hour is coming, I almost keep it hidden. so that each
soul be rewarded for what it does.
ƐŁ Ũœă ŞĿ ƈnujãzï [imperf. of v. III ƐĄ ŪॠŠ jãzã trans.] to repay a bad
deed in particular. to recompense. to punish (34:17) ŕĄƈŃŗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆƔĄŪĄŠ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ
Ą ũƏŁ ſĿ ƄŇƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ ƒŃ ŪॠŠŁ Ɗ .Ą ƍĄ Ə ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ in this way We recompensed them for their
ingratitude-do We ever punish anyone but the ungrateful!
ƐŁ Ũœă Şjãzï [act. part. with ƉĄŷ] one who stands in for another. one
who undertakes to do something instead of another (31:33) ĿƛĄƏ
ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů Ċ ƋĊ ŧ ƅŔĄ Ə ĆƉĄ ŷ ľ ŪॠŠ Ą Əą ƍ Ĉ ŧƏŁ ƅĆƏĄ ƈ nor will a child take the place of his parent
for anything.
ćŇŒăŨ㪠jazã` [n./v. n.] 1 reward (20:76) ƑİƄĄŪĿś ĆƉĄƈ ą ʼnŔĄŪĄŠ ĄƃƅĿ ŨĄƏ such is
the reward of those who purify themselves 2 retribution (9:82)
ĄƉƏą ŗĊŬŇƄĄƔ ŔƏŁƊŕĿƄ ŕĄƈŃŗ ćʼnŔĄŪĄŠ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ŔƏŁƄĆŗĄƔŇƅĄƏ ŕĻƆƔĊƆĿƁ ŔƏŁƄĄţĆŲĄƔŇƆĿ ž let them laugh a little,
they will weep a lot as a retribution for what they have been
doing 3 penalty. requital (5:95) Ą ƉĊ ƈ .Ŀ śĿ Ɓ ॠƈ .ŇŝĊ ƈ ĈʼnŔĄ ŪĄ ŠĿ ž Ŕć ŧĐ ƈĄ ŸĿ śą ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƆĿ śĿ Ɓ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
Ń ƇĄ Ÿİ ƊƅŔ whoever from among you kills it [the hunted animal]
intentionally the penalty for it is [an offering of] the equivalent in
domestic animals of that which he has killed.
Ļ ŗă ƒąŨŁ Şjizyatun [n.] payment in return; [jur.] head tax collected in
return for receiving the protection of the Muslim state with all the
accruing benefits. as well as exemption from military service and
from such taxes required of Muslims as Zakãt. This tax. from
which members of the clergy were exempted. was levied only on
able-bodied free males who could afford it. The amount generally
varied between one and two dinars per year and was determined
in accordance with the means of each individual (9:29) Ŀƛ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊśŕĿƁ
ŃũĊŦƕŔ ŃƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŕŃŗ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĊƌİƆƅŕŃŗ ĄƉƏŁƊĊƈŎą Ɣ ċŧĄƔ ĆƉĄŷ Ŀ řĄƔĆŪŃŠŇƅŔ ŔƏŁųĆŸą Ɣ ƑİśĄţ fight those who do

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not believe in God and the Last Day . until they pay the tax and
agree to submit.

Ŝ ũ ť j-s-d body. to embody. to take a concrete form; to coagulate;
to be next to the body; to be dyed with saffron. Of this root. Ĉ ŧĄ ŬĄ Š
jasad occurs four times in the Qur`an.
ć ťă Ūă Ş jasad [n.] 1 body (21:8) ĄƇŕĄŸİųƅŔ ĄƉƏŁƆŁƄōĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ŔćŧĄŬĄŠ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ŕĄƈĄƏ We
did not give them bodies that could do without eating food 2
effigy. statue. image [also interpreted as: saffron in colour; made
of gold] (20:88) Ļ ƜĆŠĊ ŷ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Ą ŞĄ ũŇŦ ōĿ ž Ł Ŧ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ŕć ŧĄ ŬĄ Š ĈũŔĄƏ so he produced for them
a calf. an effigy that produced a lowing sound 3 in one
interpretation of verse (38:34) lifeless body. skeleton Ą ƉŕĄƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ ŕİ ƊĿ śĿ ž ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄƏ
Ŕć ŧĄ ŬĄ Š ĊƌĐ ƔĊŬĆũŁ Ƅ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƂŇƅ ŌĄƏ We certainly tested Solomon and placed on his
throne a [lifeless] body.

Ŝ ũ ũ j-s-s to test by hand. to probe. to examine; to spy. to probe
into other people`s private lives. Of this root. ŔƏą ŬČ ŬĄ ŠĿ ś tajassasü.
occurs once in the Qur`an
ăũċ Ū㪼 ř tajassas [< ūŬŠśś tatajassas imperf. of v V. ĄŠĿ ś Ą ūČ Ŭ
tajassasa. with the 2
nd
person prefix ś ta- elided. intrans.] to spy.
to spy on other people`s private affairs (49:12) Ć ŖĿ śŇ żĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŔƏą ŬČ ŬĄ ŠĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ŕć ŲĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŲĆŸĄ ŗ and do not spy. and do not backbite one another.

Ŝ ũ ƅ j-s-m group of people or animals. body; to become large. to
become great; to select. to undertake. difficulties. wise people. Of
this root. two words occur once each in the Qur`an: ĈƇĆŬŃŠ jism and
ĈƇŕĄŬĆŠŌ `ajsãm.
ćƅąŪŁŞ jism [n.. pl. ĈƇŕĄŬĆŠŌ `ajsãm] body. physical constitution
(63:4) ĆƇą Ǝą ƈॠŬĆŠ Ō Ą ƃą ŗŃ ŠĆŸŁ ś ĆƇą ƎĿ śĆƔ ŌĄ ũ ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə and when you see them their physical
constitutions impress you.

Ŝ ų ¾ j-´-l reward/payment set for a task to be carried out. bribe; to
put. to place; to make. to create. to constitute; to attribute; scarab.
seedling. Of this root. four forms occur 245 times in the Qur`an:
.ĄŸĄŠ ja´ala 238 times; .ĊŸą Š ju´ila once; .Ċŷॊ jã´il four times and
ƉƏŁ ƆĊŷॊ jã´ilün twice.

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È ¾ăŶ㪠ja´ala a I [v. trans.] 1 to place (12:70) ĆƇĊƍŃŪŕĄƎĄŠŃŗ ĆƇą ƍĄŪČ ƎĄŠ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž .ĄŸĄŠ
Ŀ řĄƔŕĿ ƂĐ ŬƅŔ ƑĊž Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ Ō .ĆţĄ ũ and when he provided them with their
provisions. he placed the drinking-cup in the pack of his brother 2
to instil (57:27) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ļ řĄ ƈĆţĄ ũĄ Ə Ļ řĿ žŌĄ ũ ą ƋƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ń ŖƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ and We instilled
into the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy
3 to construct. raise. put up (17:45) ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƉĆƔĄŗĄƏ ĄƃĿƊĆƔĄŗ ŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ĄƉŔĄʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ Ŀ ŚŌĄũĿ Ɓ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
Ŕć ũƏŁ śĆŬĄ ƈ ŕć ŗॠŠĊ ţ Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŕŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ when you recite the Qur'an. We place
between you and those who do not believe in the life to come a
hidden barrier 4 to create. to make. to bring into being (6:1) ą ŧĆƈĄ ţŇƅŔ
ĄũƏı ƊƅŔĄƏ ĊŚŕĄƈŁ Ɔı ŴƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ ĄűĆũƗŔĄƏ ĊŚŔĄƏĄƈČ ŬƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ Ċƌİ Ɔƅ praise belongs to God
who created the heavens and the earth and made darkness and
light 5 to ordain. to bring about (60:7) .ĄŸĆŠĄƔ ĆƉŌ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĄŬĄŷ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ
Ļ ŘČ ŧĄ ƏĄ ƈ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ śĆƔĄ ŧॠŷ God may well bring about affection between you
and those of them you face as an enemy 6 to provide with. to
appoint for (16:80) Ń ƇॠŸŇƊ ƗŔ Ċ ŧƏŁ Ɔą Š ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə ŕĻ ƊĿ ƄĄ Ŭ ĆƇŁƄĊ śƏą Ɣą ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĄ Š ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə
Ć ƇŁ ƄĊ śĄ ƈŕĿ Ɓ ŏ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔĄ Ə Ć ƇŁ ƄĊ ƊĆ ŸĿ Ŵ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ ॠƎĿ ƊƏı ſĊ ŦĿ śĆ ŬĿ ś ŕĻ śƏą Ɣą ŗ and He has appointed for you. of
the hide of cattle. dwellings that you find light on the day you
travel and on the day you settle down 7 to fix as a tribute or
reward (18:94) ŔĎ ŧĄ Ŭ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄŗĄƏ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕćŠĆũĿ Ŧ Ą ƃĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ Ɗ .ĄƎĿ ž so may we
fix a tribute for you on condition that you set up a barrier
between us and them' 8 to attribute something to. to assign to
(16:57) ą ƌĿ ƊॠţĆ ŗą Ŭ Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĆ ŠĄ ƔĄ Ə they assign daughters to God-may
He be exalted! 9 [with prep. Ɔ] to prepare. to facilitate. to find
(65:2) Ŀ ƅ .ĄŸĆŠĄƔ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ĊƀİśĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ŕć ŠĄ ũŇŦĄ ƈ ą ƌ whosoever is mindful of God. God
will find a way [out of difficulties] for him 10 [with prep. ƑƆŷ] to
put in charge (12:55) ŃűĆũƗŔ ŃƉœŔĄŪĿŦ ƑĿƆĄŷ ƓĊƊŇƆĄŸĆŠŔ .ŕĿƁ [Joseph] said. `Put
me in charge of the nation's storehouses' II [doubly trans.] 1 to
appoint someone/something as. to make somebody/something
into (6:91) .ĄŪŇƊŌ ĆƉĄƈ .Ł Ɓ ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĆ ŠĿ ś Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ Ɛć ŧą ƍĄ Ə Ŕć ũƏŁ Ɗ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ʼnॠŠ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇ ƅŔ
ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ĄƉƏŁ ſŇŦŁ śĄƏ ŕĄƎĿ ƊƏą ŧĆŗŁ ś ĄūƔĊųŔĄũĿ Ɓ say. `Who was it who sent down the
Scripture. which Moses brought as a light and a guide to people.
which you made into separate sheets. showing [some of] them but
hiding many'' 2 to appoint somebody/something as (23:50) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ
Ļ řĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ą ƌČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ Ą ƉĆŗŔ and We appointed the son of Mary and his mother
as an exemplar 3 to constitute something as. to make something
be (25:45) ŕĻƊĊƄŕĄŬ ą ƌĿƆĄŸĄŠĿƅ ĄʼnŕĿ Ů ĆƏĿƅĄƏ İ .IJ ŴƅŔ Č ŧĄƈ ĿŽĆƔĿƄ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄũĿś ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō have you not
considered the way of your Lord. how He lengthens the shadow'.

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had He willed. He could have created it still 4 to ordain as (8:10)
ą ƌİƆƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƆĄŸĄŠ ŕĄƈĄƏ ƇŁƄą ŗƏŁƆŁƁ ĊƌŃŗ ČƉœĄƈŇųĿ śƅĄƏ ƇƄƅ ƐĄũŇŮą ŗ İƛŏ God made this a message of
hope to reassure your hearts 5 to put something into order. to
arrange something into. to divide something into. to set into a
system (49:13) ŔƏŁžĄũŕĄŸĿśƅ .œŕĄŗĿ ƁĄƏ ŕćŗƏą ŸŁŮ ĆƇŁƄŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ and We have ordered you
into nations and tribes. that you may know one another.
È ¾ĉŶĄ Ş ju´ila [pass. v. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to be ordained. to be
obligatory (16:124) Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ŔƏŁ ſĿ ƆĿ śŇŦŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ł ŚĆŗČ ŬƅŔ .Ċ Ÿą Š ॠƈİƊ ŏ the Sabbath was
made obligatory only for those who differed about it.
ƾĉŵœăŞ jã´il [act. part.. pl. ƉƏŁ ƆĊŷॊ jã´ilün] 1 one who places or
puts something/somebody somewhere (2:30) ŕĿ Ɓ ŇŨ ŏĄ Ə ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ Ċ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƆ ƅ Ą ƃč ŗĄ ũ .
.Ċŷॊ ƑĊ ž ĻřĿ ſƔĊ ƆĿ Ŧ ŃűĆũ ƗŔ when your Lord told the angels. `I am putting
a successor/representative on earth' 2 one who causes
something/someone to be (3:55) Ŀ ƅŏ ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ŀ ƀĆƏĿ ž ĄƃƏą ŸĄŗİ śŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ .ĊŷॊĄƏ Ƒ
Ċ řĄ ƈॠƔĊ ƂŇƅŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ and I will cause those who follow you to be above the
disbelievers till the Day of Resurrection 3 one who reduces
something to. turns something into another (18:8) ॠƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ॠƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ŷॠŠĿ ƅ ŕİ Ɗ ŏĄ Ə
ŔćŪą ũą Š ŔćŧƔĊŸĄŰ but We turn everything on it into barren dust 4 one who
appoints. makes into or installs someone/something as (2:124) .ŕĿ Ɓ
ŕć ƈॠƈ ŏ Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ Ą ƃŁ ƆĊ ŷॠŠ ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ He said. `I will make you a leader of men.'

Ŝ Ż Ŋ j-f-` scum. flotsam; corruption. falsehood; to cleanse. to
uproot. to knock down. Of this root. ĈʼnŕĿſą Š jufã` occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ć ŇœĽ ŽĄ Ş jufã` [v. n./n. used adverbially] waste. scum. something
worthless. with no consequence (13:17) ćʼnŕĿſą Š ą ŖĄƍŇŨĄƔĿ ž ą ŧĄŗČŪƅŔ ŕČƈōĿž as for
the foam. it goes away as scum/waste.

Ŝ Ż Ƈ j-f-n eyelid; scabbard. large pot; to feed. to cater for; to
disdain. to shun. Of this root. ĈƉŕĿſŃŠ jifãn occurs once in the Qur`an.
ć ƇœĽ ŽŁ Ş jifãn [pl. of n. ĽřĿƊŇſĄŠ jafnatun] large bowls. one of which is
described as having the capacity to hold food enough to satisfy
the hunger of ten [men] (34:13) .ƔĊŝŕĄƈĿśĄƏ ĄŖƔŃũŕĄţĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ ą ʼnŕĿŮĄƔ ŕĄƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ĄƉƏŁƆĄƈĆŸĄƔ
Ń ŖŔĄ ƏĄ ŠŇƅŕĿ Ƅ ľ ƉŕĿ ſŃ ŠĄ Ə they made him whatever he wanted-palaces. statues
and bowls as large as water troughs.

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Ŝ Ż ƍ j-f-w separation. to move away. to keep a distance; to shun. to
dislike. to be antagonistic. to be coarse in manner. Of this root.
ƑĿ žŕĄŠĿ śĿ ś tatajãfã occurs once in the Qur`an.
ƏĽ żœăŞĽ řĽ ř tatajãfã [imperf. of v. VI. intrans. with prep. ƉĄŷ] to stay
away from. to keep off. to shun *(32:16) ŃŶŃŠŕĄŲĄƈŇƅŔ ŃƉĄŷ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁƊą Š ƑĿ žŕĄŠĿśĿś
ŕć ŸĄ ƈĿ ųĄ Ə ŕĻ žĆƏĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƎČ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƉƏą ŷĆŧĄ Ɣ they forsake their beds [lit. their sides keep off
the beds] praying to their Lord in fear and hope.

Ŝ ¾ Ŕ j-l-b commotion. raised and mixed voices. excitement; to
attack. to assail; to fetch. to earn. to seek pasture. Of this root.
ĆŖĊ ƆĆŠ Ō `ajlib occurs once in the Qur`an.
ąŔĉ ƄąŞÈ Ŋ `ajlib [imperat. of v. IV. intrans. with ƑƆŷ] to urge a horse
with noise and shouting to run. to assail with noise and shouting.
to overwhelm. to overpower (17:64) ƃƆŠũƏ ĄƃĊƆĆƔĿ ŦŃŗ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĆŖĊƆĆŠ ŌĄƏ and
assail them with the noise of your cavalry and infantry.

Ŝ ¾ Ŕ Ŕ j-l-b-b a cover-all garment worn particularly by women. to
put on such a garment; headscarf. veil covering the head and
chest. night garment. Of this root. Ŀ ƜĄŠ Ń ŗ ą ŖƔ jalãbïb occurs once in
the Qur`an.
Ą ŔƒŁ ༠ƚă Ş jalãbïb [pl. of n. ĈŖŕĄŗŇƆŃŠ jilbãb] either an outer garment
covering the whole body or a large veil covering the head down
to the waist (33:59) Ą ŷ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĆŧą Ɣ Č ƉŃ ƎŃ ŗƔŃ ŗĿ ƜĄ Š ĆƉĊ ƈ Č ƉŃ ƎĆƔĿ Ɔ to draw their garments
over them.

Ŀ ŘƍĿ ƃœă Ş Jãlüt (see alphabetically).

Ŝ ¾ ť j-l-d skin. hide. leather. to whip; to duel; to take heart. to be
tough. toughness; hard rocky land. ice. Of this root. three forms
occur 13 times in the Qur`an: ŔƏą ŧĊ ƆĆŠŔ `ijlidü twice; Ľ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ Š jaldatun
twice and ĈŧƏŁ Ɔą Š julüd nine times.
ąťĉ ƄąŞŒ `ijlid [imperat. of v ĄŧĿ ƆĄŠ jalada. trans. ] to strike. to whip. to
lash (24:2) İ .Ł Ƅ ŔƏą ŧĊ ƆĆŠŕĿ ž ƓĊ ƊŔČ ŪƅŔĄ Ə Ł řĄ ƔĊ ƊŔČ ŪƅŔ Ą Š Ŀ ř œŕĊ ƈ ॠƈą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ ċ ŧĊ ţŔĄ Ə ċ ŘĄ ŧŇƆ as for the
adulteress and the adulterer. strike each of them one hundred
times.

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Ļ Ŗă ťŅƄă Şjaldatun [n. of unit] a stroke. a lashing (24:4) ĄƉƔĊƊŕĄƈĿŝ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŧĊƆĆŠŕĿž
Ļ ŘĄ ŧŇƆĄ Š give them eighty lashes.
ćťƍĿ ƄĄ Şjulüd [pl. of n. ĈŧŇƆŃŠ jild] 1 skins (39:23) Ć Ƈą ƍą ŧƏŁ Ɔą Š ą ƉƔĊ ƆĿ ś ČƇŁ ŝ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ ƁĄ Ə
ĊƌİƆƅŔ ŃũŇƄĊŨ ƑĿ ƅŏ then their skins and their hearts soften to the words of
God 2 animal hides (16:80) ŕĻśƏą Ɣą ŗ ŃƇŕĄŸŇƊ ƗŔ ĊŧƏŁƆą Š ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿƅ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ and He
appointed for you dwellings of the hides of cattle.

Ŝ ¾ ũ j-l-s mountain. rocky. hard land; heavy. deep-rooted tree; to
sit down. seat. sitting place. social gathering. assembly. gathering;
rank. Of this root. ū ƅॠŠĄ ƈ majãlis occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą ũÊƃœăŞăƆ majãlis [pl. of n. of place Ĉ ūĊ ƆĆŠĄ ƈ majlis] [place of]
assembly. rank in a battle (58:11) ŔƏą ţČŬĿſĿś ĆƇŁƄĿƅ .ƔĊƁ ŔĿŨŏ ƑĊž ŔƏą ţĄ ŬŇžŕĿ ž Ń ū ƅॠŠĄ ƈŇƅŔ
ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ŃŢĄŬŇſĄƔ if is said to you. `Make room!' in assemblies. then
make room. and God will make room for you.

Ŝ ¾ ¾ j-l-l old age. greatness. glory. majesty; to rise. to rise above. to
honour. to exalt. Of this root. .ĿƜĄŠ jalãl occurs twice in the
Qur`an.
ƾĽƚ㪠jalãl [n./v. n.] majesty. glory *(55:27) .Ŀ ƜĄŠƅŔ ƏŁ Ũ [an
attribute of God] Lord of Majesty.

Ŝ ¾ ƍ Ǝ j-l-w/y evacuation. to evacuate. to clear away; to manifest.
to clarify. to appear; to polish. to remove; to go away. Of this
root. three forms occur five times in the Qur`an: Ƒİ ƆĄ Š jallã twice;
Ƒİ ƆĄ ŠĿ ś tajallã twice and ĈʼnĿƜĄŠ jalã` once.
ƏĮ Ƅă Şjallã [v. II. trans.] to manifest. to disclose. to bring to light.
to reveal (7:187) Ł Ɓ Ą Əą ƍ İ ƛ ŏ ॠƎĊ śŇƁĄ Ə ƅ ॠƎƔIJ ƆĄ Šą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ॠƎą ƈŇƆĊ ŷ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ . say. `The
knowledge of it is only with My Lord. none but He will manifest it
at its due time.'
ƏĮ Ƅă ŞĽ ř tajallã [v. V. intrans.] to appear in full glory. to come in
full view (7:143) ŕĔ ƄĄ ŧ ą ƌĿ ƆĄ ŸĄ Š .Ą ŗĄ ŠŇƆ ƅ ą ƌč ŗĄ ũ Ƒİ ƆĄ ŠĿ ś ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž and when his Lord
revealed Himself to the mountain. He made it crumble to dust.
ăŇĽ ƚ㪠jalã` [n./v. n.] evacuation. banishment. immigration being
dispersed. exile (59:3) ĆƇą ƎĄŗİ ŨĄŸĿ ƅ Ą ʼnĿ ƜĄ ŠŇƅŔ ą ƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŖĿ śĿ Ƅ ĆƉ Ō Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž ŕĄƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ had
God not decreed banishment for them. He would have chastised

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them [even more severely] in this world.

Ŝ ƅ ų j-m-´ gathering. collection. collection point. to collect. to
unite. to combine. to accumulate; to assemble. to become close
together. to become united. to decide; to be compact; assembly.
gathering place; to be faultless; main points. essence. Of this root.
14 forms occur 129 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŶĄ ƈĄ Šjam´a 20 times Ą ŶĊ ƈą Š
jumi´a twice; ĄŶĄƈĆŠÉ Ō `ajma´a four times; ĄŶĄƈĿ śĆŠŔ `ijtama´a twice; ĈŶĆƈĄŠ
jam´ nine times; ŃƉŕĄŸĆƈĄŠ jam´ãn four times; ĈŶĊƈॊ jãmi´ three times;
Ĉ ŶĄ ƈĆŠĄ ƈ majma´ twice; ĈŵƏą ƈĆŠĄƈ majmü´ once; ƉƏą ŷƏą ƈĆŠĄ ƈ majmü´ün twice;
ƉƏą ŸĊ ƈĿ śĆŠą ƈ mujtami´ün once; ĈŶƔĊƈĄŠ jamï´ 53 times; ƉƏą ŸĄ ƈĆŠÉ Ō `ajma´ün 26
times and ĽřĄ Ÿą ƈą Š jumu´atun once.
ă Ŵă Ɔă Şjama´a a [v. intrans.] 1 to gather. to amass (3:173)Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔČ ƉË ŏ
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŸĄ ƈĄ Š ĆŧĿ Ɓ the people [your enemies] have gathered [an army]
against you 2 [intrans.] to assemble. to round up. to marshal
(18:99) ŕć ŸĆƈĄ ŠĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆŸĄ ƈĄ ŠĿ žŃ ũƏč ŰƅŔƑĊ žĿ ťĊ ſŁ ƊĄ Ə then the trumpet will be blown
and We will round them up altogether 3 to reassemble. to put
back together (75:3) ą ƌĄƈŕĿŴĊŷĄŶĄƈĆŠĿ ƊĆƉİƅÉŌą ƉŕĄŬŇƊËƙŔą ŖĄŬĆţĄƔÉŌ does man think We
will not put his bones back together' 4 to bring face to face
(42:15) ĆƔĄŗą ŶĄƈĆŠĄƔą ƌİ ƆƅŔą ƇŁ ƄĿƊĆƔĄŗĄƏŕĿƊĿƊĆƔĄŗĿřČ Šą ţĿƛ ą ũƔĊ ŰĄ ƈŇƅŔĊƌĆƔĿ ƅËŏĄƏŕĿ ƊĿ Ɗ there is no argument
between us and you-God will bring us [face to face] together.
and to Him is the returning; *(4:23) Ń ƉĆƔĿ śŇŦÊ ƗŔ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ŔƏą ŸĄ ƈĆŠĿ ś to take
simultaneously. as wives. two sisters 5 to hoard. to amass (104:2)
İ ƅŔ ą ƋĄ ŧČ ŧĄ ŷĄ ƏĻ ƛॠƈĄ ŶĄ ƈĄ ŠƒĊ Ũ the one who amasses riches. and multiplies them
over (or. keeps them as a safeguard. or keeps counting them) 6 to
decide. to plot. to put together (20:60) ƑĿśÉŌČƇŁŝą ƋĄŧĆƔĿƄĄŶĄƈĄŠĿ žą ƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊžƑİƅĄƏĿśĿž
Pharaoh withdrew and decided his strategy. then he returned 7 to
bring together [with prep. ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ] to unite in/around (6:35)ą ƌİƆƅŔĄʼnŕĿŮĆƏĿƅĄƏ
ƐĄŧą ƎŇƅŔƑĿƆĄŷĆƇą ƎĄŸĄƈĄŠĿ ƅ had it been His will. God would have united them
in guidance.
ă Ŵĉ ƆĄ Ş jumi´a [pass. v.] 1 to be joined. or brought. together (75:9)
ą ũĄƈĿ ƂŇƅŔĄƏą ūĆƈİŮƅŔĄŶĊƈą ŠĄƏ when the sun and the moon are brought together
2 to be marshalled. assembled (26:38)ľ ƇƏŁ ƆĆ ŸĄ ƈ ľ ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ Ċ ŚŕĿ ƂƔĊ ƈË ƅ Ł ŘĄ ũĄ ţČ ŬƅŔ Ą ŶĊ ƈą ŠĿ ž
the sorcerers were [to be] assembled at an appointed time on a
certain day.
ăŴăƆąŞÈ Ŋ `ajma´a [v. IV. trans.] 1 to resolve. to unanimously agree

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(12:15) Đ Ŗą ŠŇƅŔ ĊřĄŗŕĄƔĿŻ ƑĊž ą ƋƏŁ ƆĄŸĆŠĄƔ ĆƉÉŌ ŔƏą ŸĄƈĆŠÉŌĄƏ and they became of one
mind/agreed to place him in the depth of the well2 to muster. to
gather (20:64) ŕĔ ſĄ ŰŔƏŁ śÍœŔČ ƇŁ ŝĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŧĆƔĿ ƄŔƏą ŸĊ ƈĆŠÉ ōĿ ž so muster your resources and
form a line.
ăŴăƆĽ řąŞŒ `ijtama´a [v. VIII. intrans.] I to come together. to gather
together (22:73) ą ƌĿƅŔƏą ŸĄƈĿśĆŠŔŃƏĿƅĄƏŕćŗŕĄŗŁ ŨŔƏŁ ƂŁ ƆŇŦĄƔĆƉĿƅthey will not create a fly.
even if they gather together for it [the task] 2 [with prep. ƑĿƆĄŷ] to
unite over. to be of the same wish/conviction. to concur (17:88)
ŃƉŔĄʼnĆũŁƂŇƅŔŔĿŨĄƍË¿ŇŝĊƈŃŗŔƏŁśÍōĄƔĆƉÉ ŌƑĿ ƆĄŷčƉŃŠŇƅŔĄƏą ūŇƊËƙŔĊŚĄŸĄƈĿśĆŠŔŃƉËœĿƅ if all humankind and
jinn came together [and pooled their efforts] to produce
something like this Qur'an.
ćŴąƆ㪠jam´ I [n.] host. troops. crowd. forces (54:45)ą ŶĆƈĄ ŠŇƅŔą ƇĄ ŪĆƎą ƔĄ Ŭ
Ąũą ŗčŧƅŔĄƉƏıƅĄƏą ƔĄƏ the forces will be routed and they will turn tail and flee
II [v. n.] 1 collecting. putting together (75:17) ą ƌĿ ƊŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƁĄ Əą ƌĄŸĆƈĄŠŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄŷČ ƉË ŏ
collecting and reciting it is Our task; *(42:7) Ń ŶĆƈĄ ŠŇƅŔĄ ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ (an epithet
of the Day of Judgement) the Day of Gathering. the Day of
Rounding up 2 [used adverbially for emphasis] gathering.
assembling. rounding up (18:99) ŕć ŸĆƈĄ ŠĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊĆŸĄ ƈĄ ŠĿ žŃ ũƏč ŰƅŔƑĊ žĿ ťĊ ſŁ ƊĄ Ə and the
trumpet will be blown and We will round them up altogether.
É Ł Ƈœă ŶąƆă Ş jam´ãn [dual of n. ĈŶĆƈĄŠ jam´] two hosts. two armies. two
groups (26:61) ƐĄ ʼnŔĄ ũĿ śŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ŃƉŕĄŸĆƈĄŠŇƅŔ and when the two hosts came in
sight of one another; *(8:41) Ń ƉॠŸĆƈĄ ŠŇƅŔƑĿ ƂĿ śŇƅŔĄ ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ the day when the two
hosts met the day when the Muslims and Quraysh fought their
first battle at Badr (2 A.H./624 A.D.) and (3:155 & 166) the day
when the armies of Quraysh and its allies fought the Muslims in
the battle of °uhud (3 A.H./625 A.D.).
ćŴĉƆœăŞ jãmi´ [act. part.] 1 one who assembles. gathers. rounds up
(3:9) Ċ ƌƔĊ žĄ ŖĆ ƔĄ ũĿ ƛľ ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔË ƅŃ ūŕİ ƊƅŔą ŶĊ ƈॠŠĄ ƃİ ƊË ŏŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ our Lord. You will be rounding
people up on the inevitable Day 2 one who joins together. puts
together (4:140) ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ ŠĄ Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ ŠƑĊ žĄ ƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇƅŔĄ ƏĄ ƉƔĊ ƂĊ žŕĿ Ɗą ƈŇƅŔą ŶĊ ƈॠŠĄ ƌİ ƆƅŔČ ƉË ŏ God will be
gathering all the hypocrites and disbelievers together into Hell;
*(24:62) ŶĊ ƈॠŠľ ũĆƈÉ Ō a matter of communal concern [lit. a matter that
gathers everyone together].
ć Ŵă ƆąŞă Ɔ majma´ [n. of place] a point of gathering. a meeting place
(18:60) Ń ƉĆ ƔĄ ũĆ ţĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ƈĆ ŠĄ ƈ Ŀ źŁ ƆĆ ŗÉ Ō Ƒİ śĄ ţ ą šĄ ũĆ ŗÉ Ō Ŀ ƛ I will not desist [from

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journeying] until I reach the place where the two seas meet.
ćųƍĄ ƆąŞăƆ majmü´ [pass. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŷƏą ƈĆŠĄ ƈ majmü´ün] gathered.
assembled (11:103) ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƅ ĈŵƏą ƈĆŠĄƈ ĈƇĆƏĄƔ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ that is a day for which
humankind will be gathered.
ƇƍĄ Ŷĉ ƆĽ řąŞĄ Ɔ mujtami´ün [pl. of act. part. ĈŶĊƈĿśĆŠą ƈ mujtami´] ones who
gather. assemble. come together (26:39) ĆŠą ƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō .Ą ƍ Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ .ƔĊ ƁĄ Ə Ą ƉƏą ŸĊ ƈĿ ś
and it was said to the people. `Are you coming together''
ćŴƒĉƆ㪠jamï´ [quasi act. part.] 1 entire. whole. all (36:32) ŕČ ƈĿ ƅ Į.Ł Ƅ ĆƉŏĄƏ
Ą ƉƏą ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŧĿ ƅ Ĉ ŶƔĊ ƈĄ Š yet all of them will be brought before Us 2 united
(59:14) Ċ ƈĄ Š ĆƇą Ǝą ŗĄ ŬĆţĿ ś Ƒİ śĿ Ů ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ ƁĄ Ə ŕć ŸƔ you think they are united but their
hearts are divided 3 [nominalised] host. gathering. group.
multitude (54:44) ĈũĊŰĿ śŇƊą ƈ ĈŶƔĊƈĄŠ ą ƉĆţĿƊ ĄƉƏŁƅƏŁƂĄƔ ĆƇŌ do they perhaps say. `We
are a great host [that will be] victorious' 4 [adverbial] a)
altogether. in a body (4:71) ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š ŔƏą ũĊ ſŇƊŔ Ń Ə Ō ċ ŚŕĄ ŗŁ ŝ ŔƏą ũĊ ſŇƊŕĿ ž then march [to
battle] in small groups or as one body b) entirely. in its entirety
(4:139) Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ Ŀ ŘČ ŪĊ ŸŇ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š all power is entirely for God.
ƇƍĄ Ŷă ƆąŞ Ŋ `ajma´ün [pl. of quasi act. part. ą ŶĄ ƈĆŠ Ō `ajma´] 1 all
together in a body (15:30) ĄƉƏą ŸĄƈĆŠŌ ĆƇą Ǝı ƆŁ Ƅ Ł řĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƅŔ ĄŧĄŠĄŬĿ ž and the angels
all knelt 2 all and everyone (44:40) ĄƉƔĊŸĄƈĆŠ Ō ĆƇą ƎŁ śŕĿ ƂƔĊƈ .ĆŰĿ ſŇƅŔ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ Č Ɖŏ the
Day of Decision is the time appointed for them all.
ĿŗăŶĄ ƆĄ ŞƃŒ `al-Jumu´atu [proper name] [the day of gathering. the
day of congregating] Friday (62:9) řĄ Ÿą ƈą ŠŇƅŔ Ń ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƆ ƅ Ą ƒĊ ŧƏŁ Ɗ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ when
the call to prayer is made on Friday; * řĄ Ÿą ƈą ŠƅŔ name of Sura 62.
Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in verse 9 to the
call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday`.

Ŝ [ ƅ [ J j-m-l camel. grace. beauty. elegance. to adorn. to make
beautiful; to have good character. to be kindly. to ask nicely. to
treat well; group of people. sentence. to add together. total.
entirety; thick rope. Of this root. five forms occur 11 times in the
Qur`an: .ŕĄƈĄŠ jamãl once; .ƔĊƈĄŠ jamïl seven times; ĽřĿƅŕĄƈŃŠ jimãlatun
once; .Ą ƈĄ Š jamal once and ĽřĿƆĆƈą Š jumlatun once.
JœăƆ㪠jamãl [n.] grace. elegance. beauty (16:6) ĄƉƔĊţ .ŕĄƈĄŠ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅĄƏ
Ą ƉƏą ţĄ ũĆŬĿ ś Ą ƉƔĊ ţĄ Ə Ą ƉƏą ţƔŃ ũŁ ś in them there is beauty when you bring them
home [to rest] and when you drive them out [to pasture].

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JƒĉƆ㪠jamïl [quasi-act. part.] 1 gracious (15:85) ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ś ƕ Ŀ řĄ ŷŕČ Ŭ
.ƔĊ ƈĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ŢŇſČ ŰƅŔ ŃŢĿ ſĆŰŕĿ ž the Hour is certainly coming. so. forgive with
gracious forgiveness 2 generous. amicable (33:28) Č ƉŁ ƄĆŸIJ śĄ ƈ Ō Ą ƉĆƔĿ ƅॠŸĿ śĿ ž
ŕĻ ƆƔĊ ƈĄ Š ŕć ţŔĄ ũĄ Ŭ Č ƉŁ ƄĆţĐ ũĄ Ŭ ŌĄ Ə then come. I will make provision for you and
release you [from the bondage of marriage] with amicable
release 3 gracious. charitable. free of rancour. free of bitterness
(73:10) ƏŁƅƏŁƂĄƔ ŕĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆũŃŗĆŰŔĄƏ Ļ ƜƔĊ ƈĄ Š Ŕć ũĆŠĄ ƍ ĆƇą ƍĆũą ŠĆƍŔĄ Ə Ą Ɖ patiently endure what
they say. and part with them with a gracious parting 4 comely.
goodly. worthy. fitting (12:83) ŕć ŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗ ƓĊ ƊĄ ƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĄ ŬĄ ŷ .ƔĊ ƈĄŠ ĈũĆŗĄ ŰĿ ž
so comely patience [is most fitting for me]. may God bring all of
them back to me.
Ļ ŗĽ ƃœă ƆŁ Ş jimãlatun [coll. n.; n. for the species; pl. of pl. n. .ॠƈŃ Š
jimãl] (variously interpreted as) camels; thick ropes; copper
(77:33) Ń Š ą ƌİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ ĽřĿƅŕĄƈ ĈũŇſą Ű and as bright as yellow copper (or. like giant
fiery ropes. like yellow camels).
Jă Ɔă Ş jamal [n.] camel; thick rope (7:40) ĄƉƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĄşĊƆĄƔ ƑİśĄţ ĿřİƊĄŠŇƅŔ
.Ą ƈĄ ŠŇƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ċ ųॠƔĊ ŦŇƅŔ Đ ƇĄ Ŭ and they will not enter the Garden until a thick
rope passes through the eye of a needle.
ĻŗĽƄąƆĄ Ş jumlatun [n.. used adverbially] whole. in totality. all at
once (25:32) ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ .ŕĿƁĄƏ ĻŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ĻřĿ ƆĆƈą Š ą ƉŔĄʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .Đ ŪŁ Ɗ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿƅ the
unbelievers said. `If only the Qur'an was sent down to him in one
body!'

Ŝ [ ƅ [ ƅ j-m-m large group of people. multitude. to abound. to be
plentiful; forelock; to relax. Of this root. ď ƇĄ Š jamm occurs once in
the Qur`an.
Ď ƅă Ş jamm [quasi-act. part.. used adjectivally] very much.
abounding. dearly (89:20) ŕĎ ƈĄ Š ŕĎ ŗą ţ .ॠƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏč ŗĊ ţŁ śĄ Ə and you love wealth
with excessive love.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ŕ j-n-b side. part. the great part; partner. neighbour; to put to
one side. to avoid. to disdain. to ward off. Of this root. eight
forms occur 33 times in the Qur`an: ĆŖŁ ƊĆŠŔ `ujnub once; ą ŖİƊĄ Šą Ɣ
yujannab once; ą Ŗİ ƊĄ ŠĿ śĄ Ɣ yatajannab once; ŔƏą ŗĿ ƊĿ śĆŠŔ `ijtanabü nine times;
ĈŖŇƊĄŠ janb three times; ŖƏŁ Ɗą Š junüb five times; ĈŖŁ Ɗą Š junub four times

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and ĈŖĊƊॊ jãnib nine times.
ąŔĿ ƈąŞŒ `ujnub [imper. of v. ĄŖĿ ƊĄŠ janaba. doubly trans.] to keep
someone away from. to turn someone aside from. to make
someone avoid. to protect from. to preserve from (14:35) ƓĊ ƊĆŗŁ ƊĆŠŔĄ Ə
Ą ŗĄ Ə Ą ƇŕĿ ƊĆŰ ƗŔ Ą ŧą ŗĆŸĿ Ɗ ĆƉ Ō Č ƓĊ Ɗ and preserve me and my offspring from
worshipping idols.
Ą ŔĮƈă ŞĄ ƒ yujannab [imperf. of pass. v. II Ą ŖIJ Ɗą Š junniba] to be spared
from. to be protected from (92:17) ƑĿ ƂŇś ƗŔ ॠƎą ŗİ ƊĄ Šą ƔĄ ŬĄ Ə the most pious
will be spared it.
Ą ŔĮ ƈ㪼 řăƒ yatajannab [imperf. of v. V ĄŖİ ƊĄŠĿ ś tajannaba. trans.] to
avoid. to shun. to disdain (87:11) ƑĿƂŇŮƗŔ ŕĄƎą ŗİƊĄŠĿśĄƔĄƏ but the most
wicked will avoid it.
ăŔĽ ƈĽ řąŞĉŒ ¢ijtanaba [v. VIII. trans.] to stay away from. to avoid. to
shun (16:36) Ł Ŕ Ŀ ŚƏŁ Żŕİ ųƅŔ ŔƏą ŗĊ ƊĿ śĆŠŔĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔƏą ŧą ŗĆŷ worship God and avoid false
gods.
ćŔŅƈ㪠janb [n. pl ĈŖƏŁ Ɗą Š junüb] side (4:103) ŔƏą ũŁ ƄŇŨŕĿ ž Ŀ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ ą ƇŁ śĆƔĄŲĿ Ɓ ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž
ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏŁ Ɗą Š ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷĄ Ə Ŕć ŧƏą ŸŁ ƁĄ Ə ŕć ƈॠƔĊ Ɓ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ after you have performed the prayer.
[continue to] remember God-standing. sitting and lying on your
sides; *(4:36) Ń ŖŇƊĄ ŠŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ń ŖĊ ţŕČ ŰƅŔĄ Ə the friend-and-partner [lit. the friend
at [your] side]. the friend who shares business with one. one's
spouse; *(39:56) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ŖŇƊĄ Š that which is due to God; *(32:16) ƑĿ žŕĄ ŠĿ śĿ ś
Ń ŶŃ ŠŕĄ ŲĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ń ƉĄ ŷ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ Ɗą Š they forsake their beds [lit. their sides keep off
the beds]. they spend the night in prayer; *(22:36) ŕĄƎą ŗƏŁ Ɗą Š ŇŚĄŗĄŠĄƏ
when [the slaughtered animals] completely expire [lit. when its
sides fall to the ground].
ćŔĿ ƈĄ Ş junub [quasi-act. part.] 1 that which is to one side.
unrelated. that which is separated. stranger (4:36) Ń ŖŁ Ɗą ŠŇƅŔ Ń ũॠŠŇƅŔĄ Ə the
distant neighbour and/or who is not of kin; *(28:11) ĆƉĄ ŷ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŇŚĄ ũą ŰĄ ŗĿ ž
ľ ŖŁ Ɗą Š so she watched him from a distance 2 [jur.] one who is barred
from prayer on account of having had intercourse until he/she
performs total ablution (4:43) ॠƈ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĿ ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ ƐĄ ũŕĿ Ƅą Ŭ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə Ŀ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏą ŗĄ ũŇƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛ
ŇżĿ ś ƑİśĄţ .ƔŃŗĄŬ ƒŃũŃŗŕĄŷ İƛŏ ŕćŗŁƊą Š ĿƛĄƏ ĄƉƏŁƅƏŁƂĿ ś Ł ƆĊ ŬĿ ś ŔƏ do not come anywhere near
prayer. while you are intoxicated. until you are aware of what
you say. nor [enter a mosque] when you have had intercourse.
until you have bathed. unless you are passing through.

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ćŔĉƈœăŞ jãnib [n.] 1 side (28:29) ĄūĿ ƊŔĄ ʼn Ŕć ũŕĿ Ɗ Ń ũƏı ųƅŔ Ń ŖĊ ƊॠŠ ĆƉĊ ƈ he caught
sight of a fire on the side of the Mount; *(17:83) Ċ ƌŃ ŗĊ ƊॠŠŃ ŗ Ɛ ōĿ Ɗ he
becomes haughty. arrogant [lit. he draws away with his side in
disdain] 2 direction (37:8) Ł žĿŨŇƂą ƔĄƏ ƑĿƆĆŷƗŔ ƚĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĄƉƏą ŸČ ƈČ ŬĄƔ Ŀƛ ľ ŖĊ ƊॠŠ IJ .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏ
they cannot eavesdrop on the Supreme Assembly. and they are
pelted from every direction.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ ş j-n-h wings of a bird; side; arm. hand; to lean on. to tilt. to
incline. to go over. to turn away; error. crime. harm. Of this root.
five forms occur 34 times in the Qur`an: ĄŢĿ ƊĄŠ janaha twice; ĈšŕĿƊĄŠ
janãh five times; Ń ƉĆƔĄ ţŕĿ ƊĄ Š janãhayn once; ĽřĄţĊƊĆŠ Ō `ajnihatun once and
ĈšŕĿƊą Š junãh 25 times.
㊼ ƈ㪠janaha a [v. intrans. with prep. Ƒƅŏ] to incline towards
(8:61) ƅ ŔƏą ţĿ ƊĄ Š ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ॠƎĿ ƅ ĆŢĿ ƊĆŠŕĿ ž Ń ƇŇƆČ ŬƆ but if they incline towards peace. then
incline you to it [too].
ćşœĽƈ㪠janãh [n.. dual ŃƉŕĄţŕĿ ƊĄŠ janãhãn. pl. ĽřĄţĊƊĆŠ Ō `ajnihatun] 1 wing
(6:38) ċ řČ ŗŔĄ ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƈĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ĉ ƇĄ ƈ Ō İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌĆ ƔĄ ţŕĿ ƊĄ ŠŃ ŗ ą ũƔĊ ųĄ Ɣ ľ ũ œŕĿ ų Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń űĆ ũ ƗŔ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƅŕĿ ŝĆƈ Ō there are
no creatures on the earth. or birds that fly with their two wings.
but they are communities like yourselves 2 arm. side. flank. upper
arm. armpit (20:22) ċʼnƏą Ŭ ŃũĆƔĿ Ż ĆƉĊƈ ĄʼnŕĄŲĆƔĄŗ ĆŞą ũŇŦĿ ś ĄƃĊţŕĿ ƊĄŠ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄƃĄŧĄƔ ĆƇą ƈĆŲŔĄƏ and
place your hand under your armpit. it will come out white
without a blemish; *(15:88) ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƆƅ ĄƃĄţŕĿ ƊĄŠ ĆűĊſŇŦŔĄƏ be tender for/to
the believers [lit. lower your wing towards the believers].
ćşœĽ ƈĄ Ş junãh [n.] 1 sin. crime; blame. censure. discordance
(4:128) ŕĄţĊƆĆŰą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ŕĄƈŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĄšŕĿ Ɗą Š ĿƜĿž ŕćŲŔĄũĆŷŏ ĆƏŌ ŔćŪƏŁŮŁƊ ŕĄƎĊƆĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŇŚĿžŕĿ Ŧ ĽŘŌĄũĆƈŔ ŃƉŏĄƏ
ŕć ţŇƆą Ű ŕĄ ƈą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ and if a woman experiences discordance or alienation
from her husband. there is no blame on them if they agree
between them on a settlement 2 [jur.] financial obligations (2:236)
ĻřĄŲƔŃ ũĿ ž Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŲŃ ũŇſĿ ś ĆƏ Ō Č Ɖą ƍƏč ŬĄƈĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ॠƈ ĄʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ ą ƇŁ śŇƂİ ƆĿ ų ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Ą šŕĿ Ɗą Š Ŀ ƛ there are no
financial obligations on you if you divorce women unless you
have touched them or have appointed a dowry for them.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ ť j-n-d troops. forces. host. army; helpers. supporters; thick
rocky land; to enlist a fighting force. to muster. Of this root. two
words occur 29 times in the Qur`an: ĈŧŇƊą Š jund seven times and Ĉ ŧƏŁ Ɗą Š
junüd 22 times.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ƈ

175
ćťŅƈĄ Ş jund [coll. n.] host. army. helpers (67:20) ĈŧŇƊą Š ĄƏą ƍ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĆƉČ ƈ Ō
ŃƉĄƈĆţČũƅŔ ŃƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄą ũą ŰŇƊĄƔ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ who is this one who will be an army for
you to defend you against the Beneficent'
ćťƍĿ ƈĄ Ş junüd [pl. of n. ĈŧŇƊą Š jund] army. host. helpers. companions
(27:17) Ą ũĊ Ůą ţĄ Ə Ą ƉॠƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ ƅ ą Ƌą ŧƏŁ Ɗą Š Ą ƉĊ ƈ Đ ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ń ūŇƊ ƙŔĄ Ə Ń ũĆƔİ ųƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ž ƉƏą ŷĄ ŪƏą Ɣ and
marshalled to Solomon were his hosts of jinn. humankind and
birds and they were set in battle order.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ż j-n-f hunchback. to incline. to deviate. to go over. to be
crooked. crookedness. Of this root. two forms occur once each in
the Qur`an: ĽŽĿƊĄŠ janaf and ĽŽĊƊॊĿśą ƈ mutajãnif.
ĻŻĽƈ㪠janaf [n./v. n.] unfairness. straying away from the right
path. deviation. mistake (2:182) Ŀ ž ŕćƈŇŝŏ ĆƏŌ ŕĻſĿ ƊĄŠ ľůƏą ƈ ĆƉĊƈ Ŀ ŽŕĿŦ ĆƉĄƈ but if
anyone has reason to suspect that the testator has made a
mistake. or done wrong.
ĻŻĉƈœăŞĽřĄ Ɔ mutajãnif [act. part.] one who inclines towards (5:3) ŃƉĄƈĿž
ČũŁ ųĆŲŔ ƑĊ ž ľ ƇŇ ŝ ƙ ċ ŽĊ ƊॠŠĿ śą ƈ Ą ũĆ ƔĿ Ż ċ řĄ ŰĄ ƈŇ ŦĄ ƈ ĈƇƔĊ ţĄ ũ ĈũƏŁ ſĿ Ż Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž but if any one is
forced by hunger [to eat such food]. with no inclination to sin.
then God is most forgiving and merciful.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ƈ j-n-n to shield. to cover. to engulf. shield. enclosure. place of
hiding; the world of the jinn. the hidden people; night; grave;
heart. inside. foetus; garden. verdant; madness; snake. Of this
root. 10 forms occur 201 times in the Qur`an: Č ƉĄ Š janna once; ď ƉॠŠ
jãnn seven times; ď ƉŃ Š jinn 22 times; Ľřİ ƊŃŠ jinnatun 10 times; ĈƉƏŁ ƊĆŠĄƈ
majnün 11 times; Ľřİ ƊĄŠ jannatun 70 times; ƉŕĿ śİ ƊĄ Š jannatãn eight
times; Śŕİ ƊĄŠ jannãt 69 times; Ľřİ Ɗą Š junnatun twice and Ľřİ ƊŃŠŌ `ajinnatun
once.
ċ Ƈă Ş janna u [v. trans./intrans. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to cover up. to
hide. to descend (6:76) ĿƆĄŷ Č ƉĄŠ ŕČ ƈĿƆĿž ŕć ŗĿ ƄĆƏĿ Ƅ Ɛ ŌĄ ũ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƌĆƔ when the night
descended over him he saw a star.
ċƇœăŞ jãnn [nominalised act. part. used collectively; pl. (or a
quasi-pl. of) ď ƉŃ Š jinn] (members of a parallel but hidden world of
invisible people. beings. forces. spirits. angels or a kind of demon
and the like. both good and bad (see app. III of Muhammad

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ƈ
176
Asad`s The Message of the Qur'an)); specific usages are
contextually determined: 1 (as opposed to humans) the jinn
(55:14-15) ŕİŦĿſŇƅŕĿ Ƅ .ŕĄŰŇƆĄŰ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ĿƀĿƆĿŦ ľũŕĿƊ ĆƉĊƈ ľŞŃũŕĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ Č ƉॊŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ ŦĄƏ Ńũ He
created mankind out of dried clay. like pottery. the jinn out of a
flame of smokeless fire 2 a big snake. serpent (in one
interpretation of 27:10) ďƉॊ ŕĄƎİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ č ŪĿ śĆƎĿ ś ॠƍŊĄũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž Ą ƃॠۥ ŷ ĊƀŇƅ ŌĄƏ ĆƇĿƅĄƏ ŔćũŃŗĆŧą ƈ ƑİƅĄƏ
ĆŖIJ ƂĄ Ÿą Ɣ `and throw down your staff'. but when he saw it writhing like
a snake (or. a demon). he turned and fled. and did not come back.
Ď ƇŁ Ş jinn [coll. n./pl. (or sing.) of ď ƉॠŠ jãnn] 1 the jinn (as
opposed to humans) (51:56) ŃƉƏą ŧą ŗĆŸĄƔƅ İƛŏ ĄūŇƊƙŔĄƏ ČƉŃŠŇƅŔ ŁŚŇƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ŕĄƈĄƏ I created
the jinn and humankind only to worship Me; * Č ƉŃ ŠŇƅŔ name of Sura
72. Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in verses 1-
17 to 'the Jinn` 2 hidden beings generally including the jinn and
angels. a species of angels said to have been entrusted with
guarding the earth and the garden of Paradise (18:50) ĊřĿƄœĿƜĄƈŇƆƅ ŕĿƊŇƆŁƁ ŇŨŏĄƏ
ĊƌĐ ŗĄũ ŃũĆƈŌ ĆƉĄŷ Ŀ ƀĄŬĿ ſĿ ž Đ ƉŃŠŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĄūƔĊƆĆŗŏ İ ƛŏ ŔƏą ŧĄŠĄŬĿ ž ĄƇĄŧƕ ŔƏą ŧą ŠĆŬŔ and We said to
the angels. `Prostrate yourselves before Adam.' and they
prostrated themselves. except `iblïs. he was one of the jinn and so
broke away from the command of his Lord.
ĻŗĮ ƈŁ Ş jinnatun I [n.] madness (7:184) Ċƈ ĆƇŃƎŃŗĊţŕĄŰŃŗ ŕĄƈ ŔƏą ũİ ƄĿſĿśĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅĄƏ Ō ċ řİ ƊŃ Š ĆƉ
have they not reflected'. there is no madness in their companion
II [collect. n.] 1 jinn (11:119) Ńūŕİ ƊƅŔĄƏ Ċřİ ƊŃŠŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠ Č Ɖ ƘĆƈ Ɨ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ Ł řĄƈĊƆĿ Ƅ ŇŚČ ƈĿśĄƏ
ĄƉƔĊŸĄƈĆŠŌ the word of your Lord will be fulfilled. `I shall definitely fill
Hell with jinn and men together' 2 angels (7:158) Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗĄ Ə ą ƌĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə
Ł řİ ƊŃ ŠŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĄ ƈĊ ƆĄ ŷ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə ŕć ŗĄ ŬĿ Ɗ Ċ řİ ƊŃ ŠŇƅŔ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈĿ ƅ they claim that He has kinship
with the angels. yet the angels themselves know that they will be
brought before Him [like the rest of His creation].
ćƇƍĿ ƈąŞăƆ majnün [pass. part.] mad. possessed by a bad spirit
(26:27) Ĉ ƉƏŁ ƊĆŠĄ ƈĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ .Ċ ŬĆũ Ō ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũ Č Ɖ ŏ your Messenger who has
been sent to you is truly possessed.
ĻŗĮ ƈ㪠jannatun [n.. dual ƉŕĿ śİ ƊĄ Š jannatãn. pl. Ľ Śŕİ ƊĄ Š jannãt] 1 garden
(17:91) ľŖĿ ƊĊŷĄƏ .ƔĊŦĿ Ɗ ĆƉĊƈ Ľřİ ƊĄŠ ĄƃĿƅ ĄƉƏŁ ƄĿś ĆƏ Ō or until you have a garden of
date palms and vines 2 paradise (7:27) ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƇŁ Ƅİ ƊĿ ƊĊśŇſĄƔ Ŀƛ ĄƇĄŧŔĄʼn ƓĊƊĄŗŕĄƔ
ĆƔĄƏĄŗ Ō ĄŞĄũŇŦŌ Ċ řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ Ƅ children of Adam. do not let Satan seduce you-
like his ousting your two parents. from the Garden.

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ ť

177
ĻŗĮ ƈĄ Ş junnatun [n.] shield. cover. protection (58:16) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊॠƈĆƔ Ō ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ
Ļ řİ Ɗą Š they have used their oaths as a cover for [their false deeds].
ĻŗĮ ƈŁ ŞŊ `ajinnatun [pl. of Ĉ ƉƔĊ ƊĄ Š janïn] foetuses. something hidden
(53:32) Ľřİ ƊŃŠŌ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŌ ŇŨŏĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śŕĄ ƎČ ƈ Ō Ń ƉƏŁ ųą ŗ and when you were foetuses in the
bellies of your mothers.

Ŝ [ Ƈ [ Ɛ j-n-y harvest. yield. crop. to harvest. to pick; to commit a
crime. to cause an injury. crime. Of this root. two forms occur
once each in the Qur`an: ƑĿƊĄŠ janã and ď ƓĊ ƊĄ Š janiyy.
ƏĽ ƈă Ş janã [coll. n.] fruit. yield. fruit ready for picking (55:54)
Ŀ śĆŬ ŏ ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƎŁ Ɗ œŕĿ ųĄ ŗ ľ ŭą ũŁ ž ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔ œĊ Ƅİ śą ƈ ľƉŔĄŧ ŃƉĆƔĿ śİƊĄŠŇƅŔ ƑĿƊĄŠĄƏ ċƀĄũĆŗ they are reclining on
couches lined with brocade. and the ripe fruits of both gardens
are near [at hand].
Ď Ƒĉ ƈă Ş janiyy [quasi-pas. part.] fresh. fruit ready for picking. fruit
picked at the right time (19:25) ŏ ƒĐ Ūą ƍĄ Ə ŕćŗĿ ųą ũ ĊƃĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŇųĊƁŕĄŬŁś ĊřĿ ƆŇŦİƊƅŔ ŃŵŇŨŃŠŃŗ ĊƃĆƔĿƅ
ŕĎ ƔĊ ƊĄ Š and shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you. it will drop
upon you ripe dates.

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ ť j-h-d barren land. desert land; hardship. strive. to tire oneself.
to exert oneself; ability. capacity. exertion; to become emaciated.
to squander one`s wealth. Of this root. five forms occur in 41
places in the Qur`an: Ą ŧĄ ƍॠŠ jãhada 27 times; ĈŧĆƎĄŠ jahd five times; ĈŧĆƎą Š
juhd once; ĈŧŕĄƎŃŠ jihãd four times and ƉƏą ŧĊ ƍॠŠą ƈ mujãhidün four times.
œăŞ ă ťă Ƌ jãhada I [v. III. intrans. with prep. Ɠž] to strive. to
endeavour. to fight (8:74) ŔƏą ŧĄ ƍॠŠĄ Ə ŔƏą ũĄ ŠŕĄ ƍĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊž Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃŗĄŬ
those who believed and emigrated. and struggled in God's cause
II [trans.] to urge; to argue. to dispute with. to put under pressure
(31:51) ॠƈą ƎĆ ŸĊ ųŁ śĿ ƜĿ ž Ĉ ƇŇ ƆĊ ŷ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ƃĿ ƅ Ą ūĆ ƔĿ ƅ ॠƈ ƓŃ ŗ Ą ƃŃ ũŇ ŮŁ ś Ć Ɖ Ō ƑƆĄ ŷ Ą ƃŔĄ ŧĄ ƍॠŠ Ć Ɖ ŏĄ Ə but if they
pressure you to associate with Me anything you do not know [to
be deserving]. do not obey them.
ćťąƌ㪠jahd [v. n. used adverbially] the utmost of. the most
possible. to the limit (16:38) ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƊॠƈĆƔ Ō Ą ŧĆƎĄ Š Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ŔƏą ƈĄ ŬŇƁ ŌĄ Ə they have sworn
by God with the utmost of their oaths.
ćťąƌĄ Ş juhd [n./v. n.] capacity. power. ability. extreme effort
*(9:79) Ą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇą ƍĄ ŧĆƎą Š İ ƛ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ŧŃ Š those who find nothing [to give for

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ ŧ
178
charity] but [the very little they can spare of] their utmost effort.
ćťœăƌŁ Ş jihãd [v. n./n.] striving. struggling. fighting (22:78) ŔƏą ŧĊ ƍॠŠĄ Ə
ƑĊ ž Ċ ƋĊ ŧॠƎŃ Š İ ƀĄ ţ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ strive for God's cause as striving for Him is due.
ƇƍĄ ťĉƋœăŞĄ Ɔ mujãhidün [pl. of act. part. ĈŧĊƍॊą ƈ mujãhid] those who
strive. those who fight (47:31) ĄƉƔŃũŃŗŕČŰƅŔĄƏ ĆƇŁƄŇƊĊƈ ĄƉƔĊŧĊƍॊą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƇĿƆĆŸĿƊ ƑİśĄţ ĆƇŁƄİƊĄƏŁƆĆŗĿ ƊĿ ƅĄƏ
We will try you until We know those who strive among you. and
the steadfast.

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ ŧ j-h-r plain treeless land; the outer appearance of a person.
appearance; to declare. to say openly. to be loud. to be open. a
loud voice; to be pure. Of this root. four forms occur 16 times in
the Qur`an: Ą ũĄ ƎĄ Š jahara five times; ĈũĆƎĄŠ jahr seven times; Ļ ŘĄ ũĆƎĄ Š
jahratan three times and Ļ ŔũॠƎŃ Š jihãran once.
ă ŧă ƌă Ş jahara a [v. intrans. with prep. .Ń ŗ] 1 to speak loudly
(17:110) ĻƜƔŃŗĄŬ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ ŃźĿ śĆŗŔĄƏ ŕĄƎŃŗ ŇŚĊžŕĿŦŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĄƃĊśĿƜĄŰŃŗ ĆũĄƎĆŠĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ and do not be
loud in your prayer. or too quiet. but seek between this a way 2 to
speak openly (13:10) Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ũĄ ƎĄ Š Ć ƉĄ ƈĄ Ə .Ć ƏĿ ƂŇ ƅŔ Č ũĄ Ŭ Ō Ć ƉĄ ƈ Ć ƇŁ ƄŇ ƊĊ ƈ Ĉ ʼnŔĄ ƏĄ Ŭ alike among
you is the one who conceals his words and the one who speaks
them openly.
ćŧąƌ㪠jahr [n./v. n.] I speaking loudly. raising the voice (7:205)
Ą ƃČ ŗĄ ũ ĆũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə ƑĊž .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ Ń ũĆƎĄ ŠŇƅŔ ĄƉƏą ŧĄ Ə ĻřĿ ſƔĊ ŦĄ Ə ŕć ŷč ũĄ ŲĿ ś ĄƃĊŬŇſĿ Ɗ and remember your
Lord. in your soul imploringly and in awe. and in subdued tones
[lit. without loudness] 2 speaking openly (21:110) ĄƉĊƈ ĄũĆƎĄŠŇƅŔ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄƔ ą ƌİƊŏ
.ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉƏą ƈŁśŇƄĿś ŕĄƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄƔĄƏ but He knows what is said openly and He knows
what you conceal 3 divulging. announcing. declaring. disclosure.
telling (4:148) Əč ŬƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ũĆƎĄ ŠŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ č ŖĊ ţą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƇĊ ƆŁ Ŵ ĆƉĄ ƈ İ ƛ ŏ .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ʼn God does not
like the publicising of evil except [by] someone who has been
wronged.
Ĺ Ŗă ŧąƌă Ş jahratan [v. n. used adverbially] 1 openly. visibly (2:55) ĆƉĿ ƅ
ĻŘĄũĆƎĄŠ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ ƐĄũĿƊ Ƒİ śĄţ ĄƃĿƅ ĄƉĊƈŎŁ Ɗ we will not believe you until we see God
visibly 2 expectedly. after a warning (6:47) ĆƏŌ ĻřĿśŇżĄŗ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŖŔĿŨĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŕĿśŌ ĆƉŏ
Ļ ŘĄ ũĆƎĄ Š if the punishment of God should come to you suddenly or
with warning.
Ĺ Œŧœă ƌŁ Ş jihãran [v. n. used adverbially] openly (71:8) Ą ŧ ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ ĆƇą ƎŁ śĆƏĄ ŷ
Ŕć ũॠƎŃ Š I have called them openly/aloud.

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ J

179
Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ Ũ j-h-z equipment. gear. rig; to fit out. to prepare. to equip. to
make ready; to finish off. to be quick and light-footed. Of this
root. two forms occur twice each in the Qur`an: Ą ŪČ ƎĄ Š jahhaza and
ŪॠƎŃ Š/Ĉ ŪॠƎ Ą Š jihãz/jahãz.
ă Ũċ ƌă Ş jahhaza [v. II. trans.] to equip with necessary gear. to rig
up. to provide with necessary provisions (12:70) ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ŪॠƎĄ ŠŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍĄ ŪČ ƎĄ Š ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
Ŀ řĄƔŕĿƂĐ ŬƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ Ō .ĆţĄ ũ and when he provided them with their
provisions. he placed the drinking-cup in the pack of his brother.
ć Ũœă ƌ ă Ş jihãz/jahãz [n.] gears. supplies. provisions (12:59) ŕČƈĿƅĄƏ
ĆƇŁƄƔŃŗŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿƅ ľŤōŃŗ ƓĊƊƏŁśœŔ .ŕĿƁ ĆƇĊƍŃŪŕĄƎĄŠŃŗ ĆƇą ƍĄŪČƎĄŠ and when he had provided
them with their provisions. he said. `Bring me a [half] brother of
yours from your father['s side].'

Ŝ [ =Ƌ [ J j-h-l ignorance. lack of knowledge. to ignore; foolishness.
quick temper. to be peevish. to be rash. Of this root. six forms
occur 24 times in the Qur`an: .Ą ƎĆŠĿ ś tajhal five times; .Ċƍॊ jãhil
once; ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ƍॠŠ jãhilün nine times; .Əą ƎĄŠ jahül once; ĽřĿƅŕĄƎĄŠ jahãlatun
four times and Ľ řČ ƔĊ ƆĊ ƍॠŠ jãhiliyyatun four times.
Jă ƌąŞĽ ř tajhal [imperf. of v. trans. with no object] to be devoid of
knowledge. to have no information. not to know; to be foolish
(7:138) ĄƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƎĆŠĿ ś ĈƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ .ŕĿ Ɓ ĽřĄƎƅŔĄ ʼn ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŕĄƈĿ Ƅ ŕćƎĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĆŠŔ ƑĄŬƏą ƈŕĄƔ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ they said.
`Moses. make for us a god as they have gods.' He said. `Surely
you are a people who do not know.'
ĉƋœăŞ J jãhil [act. part.. pl. ĈƉƏƆĊƍॊ jãhilün] 1 ignorant (2:67) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
ĄƉƔĊƆĊƍॊŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉƏŁ ƄŌ ĆƉŌ Ċƌİ ƆƅŕŃŗ Ł ŨƏą ŷŌ .ŕĿƁ ŔćƏą Ūą ƍ ŕĿƊŁ ŨĊŦİ śĿśŌ they said. `Are you making
fun of us''. he answered. `God forbid that I should be so
ignorant' 2 uninformed. undiscerning. unaware (2:273) ą Ƈą Ǝą ŗĄŬĆţĄƔ
Ċ Žı ſĄ Ÿİ śƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ʼnॠƔĊ ƊŇ Ż Ō .Ċ ƍॠŠŇ ƅŔ the undiscerning might think them rich
because of their self-restraint [from showing how needy they are]
3 the angry. aggressors. abusers; foolish (25:63) ą ƎĄ ŗĿ ųŕĿ Ŧ ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇ ƅŔ ą Ƈ
ŕćƈĿƜĄŬ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿƁ and who. when the abusers address them. say. `Peace.'
JƍĄ ƌ㪠jahül [intens. act. part.] very rash. very foolish;
ignominious (33:72) ą ƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ŕĄƎĿ ƆĄƈĄţĄƏ ĻƛƏą ƎĄŠ ŕćƈƏŁ ƆĿŴ ĄƉŕĿƄ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ but man carried
it-indeed he is sinful. very foolish.
ĻŗĽƃœăƌ㪠jahãlatun [n. state of complete unawareness. ignorance.

Ą ƅĮ ƈă ƌă Ş
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foolishness (6:54) ĈũƏŁ ſĿ Ż ą ƌİ Ɗ ōĿ ž ĄŢĿ ƆĆŰ ŌĄƏ Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊƈ Ą ŖŕĿ ś Č ƇŁ ŝ ċřĿ ƅॠƎĄ ŠŃ ŗ Ŕć ʼnƏą Ŭ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ .ĊƈĄŷ ĆƉĄ ƈ
ĈƇƔĊţĄũ whoever of you does evil in ignorance. and thereafter repents
and makes amends. God is All-Forgiving. All-Compassionate.
Ŀ ŗċ ƒĉ Ƅĉ Ƌœă ŞƃŒ `al-Jãhiliyyatu [proper name] (normally associated
with lawlessness) the time prior to the coming of Islam in Arabia.
the state of pagan ignorance (5:50) Ŕ ĄƇŇƄą ţĿ ž Ō Ą ƉƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ Ċ řČ ƔĊ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇƅ do they want
judgement according to the time prior to the coming of Islam in
Arabia [lit. the state of pagan ignorance]'

Ą ƅĮ ƈă ƌă Ş jahannam [a borrowing from Hebrew (also thought to be from
Persian) occurring 77 times in the Qur`an] Hell (25:65) Ň ŽŃ ũĆ ŰŔ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ
ĄƇİƊĄƎĄŠ ĄŖŔĿ ŨĄŷ ŕİƊĄŷ our Lord. turn away from us the chastisement of Hell.
Ŝ [ ƍ [ Ŕ j-w-b round pool. to pierce. to make a hole. to cut out. to
split; to roam. to go about; to clear away. to reveal; to reply. to
answer. to respond. to grant. to accede to a wish. compliance. Of
this root. eight forms occur 43 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŖॠŠ jãba
once; Ą ŖॠŠ Ō `ajabã six times; Ą ŖƔŃ Š Ō `ujïba twice; Ą ŖॠŠĿ śĆŬŔ `istajãba 27
times; Ą ŖƔŃ ŠŁ śĆŬŔ `istujïba once; ĈŖŔĄƏĄŠ jawãb four times; ĈŖƔŃŠą ƈ mujïb
once and ƉƏą ŗƔŃ Šą ƈ mujïbün once.
ăŔœăŞ jãba u [v. trans.] to hollow out [and use for dwellings]. to
hew (89:9) ĊŧŔĄƏŇƅŕŃŗ ĄũŇŦČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏą ŗॊ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄŧƏą ƈĿŝĄƏ and [with the tribe of]
Thamüd. who hewed into the rocks in the valley.
ă Ŕœă Ş Ŋ `ajãba [v. IV. trans.] 1 to reply. to answer (28:65) ą ƇŁ śĆŗĄŠŌ ŔĿŨŕĄƈ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƆĄ ŬĆũą ƈŇƅŔ how did you answer the messengers 2 to answer a distress
call. to come to the rescue (27:62) ą ƋॠŷĄ ŧ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Č ũĿ ųĆŲą ƈŇƅŔ ą ŖƔŃ Šą Ɣ ĆƉČ ƈ Ō who is it
that answers the distressed when they call upon Him' 3 to obey.
to follow. to respond to (46:31) ĊƌŃŗ ŔƏŁƊĊƈŔĄʼnĄƏ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄƓĊŷŔĄŧ ŔƏą ŗƔŃŠŌ ŕĿƊĄƈĆƏĿƁŕĄƔ our
people. obey God's summoner and believe in Him.
ă ŔƒŁ Ş Ŋ `ujïba [pass. of v. IV] 1 to be replied to. to be answered
(5:109) Ć ƇŁ śĆ ŗŃ Š Ō ŔĿ Ũॠƈ .ƏŁ ƂĄ ƔĿ ž .ą Ŭč ũƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŶĄ ƈĆ ŠĄƔ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ on the Day when God
assembles the messengers and asks. `How were you answered'' 2
to be granted. to be fulfilled (10:89) ॠƈŁ ƄŁ śĄ ƏĆ ŷĄ ŧ Ň ŚĄ ŗƔŃ Š Ō Ć ŧĿ Ɓ your prayer
has been accepted.
ăŔœăŞĽřąŪŒ `istajãba [v. X]. I [intrans.] 1 to respond. to obey [a

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ŧ

181
command] (6:36) Ą ƉƏą ŸĄ ƈĆ ŬĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ŖƔŃ ŠĿ śĆ ŬĄ Ɣ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ only those who can hear
will respond 2 [with prep. Ɔ] a) to answer a prayer/person (21:76)
ą ƌĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊĆŗĄŠĿ śĆŬŕĿ ž .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƐĄ ŧŕĿ Ɗ ŇŨ ŏ ŕć ţƏŁ ƊĄƏ ą ƌĿ ƆĆƍ ŌĄƏ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔČ ŠĿ ƊĿ ž and [also mention] Noah
when he cried out to Us long before that and We answered him
and saved him and his household b) to comply with. to follow the
call of (13:18) ƑĿƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ą ƇŃƎĐŗĄũƅ ŔƏą ŗॊĿ śĆŬŔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƆƅ for those who respond to
their Lord will be the best of rewards II [trans.] to accept (42:26)
Ċ ƌĊ ƆĆ ŲĿ ž Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć Ƈą ƍą ŧƔŃ ŪĄ ƔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ą ŖƔŃ ŠĿ śĆ ŬĄ ƔĄ Ə and He accepts
those who believe and do good deeds and gives them more of His
bounty.
ąŪŒ ă ŔƒŁ ŞĿ ř `istujïba [pass. of v. X] to be obeyed. to be responded
to (42:16) Ą ƉƏč ŠŕĄ ţą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊž ą ƌĿ ƅ ĄŖƔŃŠŁśĆŬŔ ŕĄƈ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌİƆƅŔ and those who
argue about God after He has been obeyed.
ćŔŒăƍ㪠jawãb [n.] an answer. reply. response (27:56) ĄƈĿ ž ĄŖŔĄƏĄŠ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕ
ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌĊ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ but the answer of his people was only to say .
ćŔƒŁ ŞĄ Ɔ mujïb [act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŗƔŃ Šą ƈ mujïbün] responsive. granting
[a wish]. replying. answering [a prayer] (11:61) ĈŖƔŃŠą ƈ ĈŖƔŃũĿƁ ƓĐ ŗĄũ Č Ɖŏ
my Lord is Near. Responsive.

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ť j-w-d horses. to seek a horse; generosity. generous person;
goodness. excellence. nobility; rain-laden clouds. Of this root.
two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: č ƒĊ ŧƏą ŠƅŔ ¢al-Jüdiyy and
ĈŧŕĄƔŃŠ jiyãd.
ČƐĉ ťĄ ƍŞƃŒ `al-Jüdiyy [proper name] the mountain upon which
Noah`s ark settled. traditionally identified with Mount Ararat
located in either Armenia or Syria and now said to be in Turkey
(11:44) Đ ƒĊ ŧƏą ŠŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŇŚĄ ƏĿ śĆŬŔĄ Ə and it [the Ark] settled on [Mount]
Jüdiyy.
ćťœăƒŁ Ş jiyãd [pl. of n./quasi act. part. ĈŧŔĄƏĄŠ jawãd] horses. chargers;
magnificent. the select. well-bred (38:31) ŁŚŕĿ ƊĊžŕČŰƅŔ ĐƓĊŮĄŸŇƅŕŃŗ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĄűŃũą ŷ ŇŨŏ
ą ŧॠƔŃ ŠŇƅŔ when. at the close of the day. well-bred light-footed
horses were paraded before him .

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ŧ j-w-r neighbour. adjacent; to protect. to shelter. to give refuge.
to seek refuge. protégé. spouse; to veer away. to tilt. to deviate; to

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ŧ
182
be unjust. injustice. Of this root. seven forms occur 13 times in
the Qur`an: ą ũŃ ƏॠŠą Ɣ yujãwir once; ą ũƔŃ Šą Ɣ yujïr five times; ą ũॠŠą Ɣ yujãr
once; Ą ũॠŠĿ śĆŬŔ `istajãra once; Ĉũॊ jãr three times; ĈũœŕĄŠ jã`ir once and
ĽŚŔĄũŃƏॊĿśą ƈ mutajãwirãt once.
Ą ŧŁ ƍœă ŞĄ ƒ yujãwir [imperf. of v. III Ą ũĄ ƏॠŠ jãwara. trans.] to dwell in
the neighbourhood of. to be or become adjacent to. to be a
neighbour of (33:60) Ą Šą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĻƜƔĊƆĿƁ İƛŏ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƃĿ ƊƏą ũŃƏŕ and then they will not
be your neighbours in it but for a short time.
Ą ŧƒŁ ŞĄ ƒ yujïr [imperf. of v. IV ũŕŠŌ `ajãra. trans. with prep. Ɖƈ] to
protect. to grant asylum or sanctuary (72:22) ĈŧĄţŌ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ƓĊƊĄũƔŃŠą Ɣ ĆƉĿƅ no
one will protect me against God.
ŧœăŞĄ ƒ yujãr [imper. pass.of v. IV ũŕŠŌ `ajãra. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to
be protected over/against something or someone. to be given
sanctuary against (23:88) Ą ƔŃ ŗ ĆƉĄ ƈ .Ł Ɓ ą ũॊą Ɣ ĿƛĄƏ ą ũƔŃŠą Ɣ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ċʼnĆƓĿŮ IJ.ŁƄ ŁŚƏŁƄĿ ƆĄƈ ĊƋĊŧ
Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĿ ś ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ say. `Who holds in His hand the dominion of
everything and protects while against Him there is no protection.
[speak] if you know''
ă ŧœă ŞĽ řąŪŒ `istajãra [v. X. trans.] to ask for protection. to seek
asylum. to seek sanctuary (9:6) ą ƋĆũŃŠ ōĿ ž ĄƃĄũॊĿ śĆŬŔ ĄƉƔĊƄŃũŇŮą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĈŧĄţŌ ĆƉŏĄƏ if
any one of the polytheists should seek your protection [Prophet].
grant it to him.
ćŧœăŞ jãr I [n.] neighbour (4:36) Ń ũॠŠŇƅŔĄ Ə ƑĄ ŗĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ƒĊ Ũ and the neighbour
who is of kin II [quasi-act. part.] one who protects. one who
provides asylum or sanctuary (8:48) Ĉũॊ ƓIJƊŏĄƏ ŃūŕİƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔ ą ƇŁƄĿ ƅ ĄŖƅŕĿŻ Ŀƛ
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ no man shall conquer you today for I am a protector for you.
ćŧőœăŞ jã`ir [act. part.] deviant. going the wrong way. straying
away (16:9) ĄƉƔĊŸĄƈĆŠŌ ĆƇŁ ƄŔĄŧĄƎĿ ƅ ĄʼnŕĿ Ů ĆƏĿƅĄƏ ĈũœŕĄŠ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈĄƏ for some of them [the
roads] are going the wrong way. if He willed. He would have
guided you all together.
Ļ ŘŒă ŧŁ ƍœă ŞĽ řĄ Ɔ mutajãwirãt [pl. of quasi act. part. fem. ŘĄ ũŃ ƏॠŠĿ śą ƈ
mutajãwiratun] adjacent. side by side. next to one another.
bordering on one another. within easy reach of one another (13:4)
ĽŚŔĄ ũŃ ƏॊĿ śą ƈ ĈŶĿ ųĊ Ɓ ŃűĆũ ƗŔ ƓĊ žĄ Ə and in the land there are neighbouring
plots.

Ŝ [ ƍ [ Ż

183
Ŝ [ ƍ [ Ũ j-w-z beam; to cross. to traverse. road. crossing; to allow. to
pass off. to help to cross; to pardon. to disregard; to reward. prize.
Of this root. Ą ŪĄ ƏॠŠ jãwaza. occurs five times in the Qur`an.
ă Ũă ƍœă Ş jãwaza [v. III. trans.] 1 to cross. to traverse (2:249) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ą ƌĄ ŸĄ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə Ą Əą ƍ ą ƋĄ ŪĄ ƏॠŠ when he crossed it with those who had kept
faith with him 2 to pass by. to leave behind. to go further (18:62)
ŕĿ ƊĄ ʼnŔĄŧĿ Ż ŕĿ ƊĊśŔĄ ʼn ą ƋŕĿ śĿ ſ ƅ .ŕĿ Ɓ ŔĄ ŪĄ Əॊ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž then when they had gone past the
appointed time/place. he said to his servant. `Fetch us our lunch!'
3 [with prep. Ɖŷ] to forgo. to overlook. to pass over (46:16) ą ŪĄ ƏŕŠĿ śĿ ƊĄ Ə
ĆƇŃ ƎĊ śŕ œĐ ƔĄ Ŭ ĆƉĄ ŷ and We forgo their bad deeds.

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ũ j-w-s to rummage. to peer about. to play havoc. to overrun;
to investigate. to spy. Of this root. Ą ūॠŠ jãsa occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ăũœăŞ jãsa u [v. intrans.] to overrun. to ravage. to plunder
(17:5) ŃũॠƔĐ ŧƅŔ .Ŀ ƜĊŦ ŔƏą ŬॊĿ ž ċ ŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ľ ūōĄ ŗ Ɠ ƅƏ Ō ŕĿƊĿ ƅ ŔćŧॠŗĊ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊŇŝĄŸĄŗ We send
against you servants of Ours of great might. and they spread
destruction throughout the habitation.

Ŝ [ ƍ [ ų j-w-´ hunger. to hunger. to yearn for something. to starve.
starvation. famine. Of this root. two forms occur five times in the
Qur`an: ą ŵƏą ŠĿ ś tajü´ once and ĈŵƏą Š jü´ four times.
Ą ųƍĄ ŞĽ ř tajü´ [imperf. of v. Ą ŵॠŠ jã´a. intrans.] to become or go
hungry. to hunger (20:118) ƐĄũĆŸĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄŵƏą ŠĿ ś İ ƛŌ ĄƃĿƅ Č Ɖŏ it is [granted]
for you that in it [the Garden] you will not go hungry. or naked.
ćųƍĄ Ş jü´ [n./v. n.] hunger. starvation (106:4) ľŵƏą Š ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĄƈĄŸŇų Ō ƒĊŨİƅŔ
ċ ŽĆƏĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə He who has removed hunger from them [lit. fed
them away from hunger]. and made them safe [away] from fear.

Ŝ [ ƍ [ Ż j-w-f belly. the interior. the inside; valley. to be hollow; to
penetrate. Of this root. ĽŽĆƏĄŠ jawf occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŻąƍ㪠jawf [n.] the interior. the inside. cavity (33:4) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ ŕĄƈ
ŃƉĆƔĄŗŇƆĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ .ą ŠĄũƅ ƑĊž Ċ ƌĊ žĆƏĄ Š God does not give a man two hearts inside
him.


Ŝ [ ƍ [ ƍ
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Ŝ [ ƍ [ ƍ j-w-w atmosphere. the arch of the sky. air. the space between
the face of the earth and what appears to be the sky; large expanse
of open land. Of this root. ď ƏĄ Š jaww occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ď ƍă Ş jaww [n.] mid-air. air (16:79) Ŀ ƅŏ ŔĆƏĄũĄƔ ĆƇĿƅŌ ċ ŚŔĄ ũİ ŦĄ Ŭą ƈ Ń ũĆƔİ ųƅŔ Ƒ ƑĊ ž Đ ƏĄ Š
ą ƌİƆƅŔ İƛŏ ČƉą ƎŁƄĊŬĆƈą Ɣ ŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔ do they not consider the birds. sustained (or.
enabled) [lit. subjected] in the air of the sky. nothing holding
them up except God'

Ŝ [ Ɛ [ Ň j-y-` to come. to arrive. to reach. to get. to bring; large ditch
for collecting rain. Of this root. three forms occur 278 times in the
Qur`an: Ą ʼnॠŠ jã`a 275 times; Ą ʼnƓŃ Š jï`a twice and Ą ʼnॠŠ Ō `ajã`a once.
ă Ňœă Ş jã`a i I [v. intrans.] 1 to come (36:20) ĊřĿƊƔĊŧĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĄŰŇƁŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĄʼnॊĄƏ
ą ŠĄ ũ ƑĄ ŸĆŬĄ Ɣ . from the furthest part of the city. a man came running;
*(4:43) ĊųœŕĿżƅŔ ƉĊƈ ƇŁƄŁƊƈ ŧĄţ Ō Ąʼnॊ one who has answered the call of
nature [lit. one of you came from the low land] 2 to arrive. to
approach (10:49) Ą ʼnॠŠ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ .Ą Š Ō ċ řČ ƈ Ō IJ .Ł Ƅ ƅ ĄƉƏą ƈĊŧŇƂĿśĆŬĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĻřĄŷŕĄŬ ĄƉƏą ũĊŦōĿ śĆŬĄƔ ĿƜĿž ĆƇą ƎŁ ƆĄŠ Ō
to every nation a term, when their term arrives they shall not put
it back by a single hour. nor put it forward 3 [with prep. .Ńŗ] to
bring. to bring about. to do (6:160) Ŀ ƊĄŬĄţŇƅŕŃŗ Ąʼnॊ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ॠƎ ƅŕĿ ŝĆƈ Ō ą ũŇŮĄ ŷ ą ƌĿ ƆĿ ž Ċ ř
ŕĄƎĿƆŇŝĊƈ İƛŏ ƐĄŪĆŠą Ɣ ĿƜĿž Ċř œĐƔČŬƅŕŃŗ Ąʼnॊ whoever brings about [something] good.
shall have ten times the like of it. and whoever brings about
[something] evil. shall be repaid only the like of it II [v. trans.] 1
to come to (10:57) ĆƇŁƄĐŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ĽřĿ ŴĊŷĆƏĄƈ ĆƇŁƄŇśĄʼnॊ ĆŧĿƁ a teaching from your
Lord has come to you 2 to commit (18:71) Ŀ ŚœŃ Š ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ŕĄƎĿ ƆĆƍ Ō Ŀ ƀŃ ũŇżŁ ś ƅ ॠƎĿ śŇƁĄ ũĿ Ŧ Ō
Ŕć ũĆƈ ŏ ŕ œĆƔĿ Ů did you make a hole in it. so as to drown its
passengers[/occupants]!'. indeed. you have committed a foul
thing! 3 to come to. to visit someone. to approach. overtake (6:61)
ŕĿƊŁ Ɔą Ŭą ũ ą ƌŇśİ žĄƏĿ ś Ł ŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄŧĄţ Ō Ąʼnॊ ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ till death visits/approaches any of
you. Our envoys claim him 4 [with prep. .Ń ŗ] to bring something to
someone. to offer. to come to someone with (30:58) ċřĄƔŋŃŗ ĆƇą ƎĿśœŃŠ ĆƉœĿƅĄƏ
ĄƉƏŁ ƆĊųĆŗą ƈ İ ƛŏ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŌ ĆƉŏ ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č ƉĿƅƏŁƂĄƔĿƅ yet if you brought them a miracle.
the disbelievers would still say. `You [messengers] are only
bringers of falsehood.'
ă ŇƑŁ Ş jï`a [pass. v. with prep. .Ń ŗ] to be brought (89:23) ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ ĄʼnƓŃŠĄƏ
Ą Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ ŠŃ ŗ and on that Day Hell is brought near.

Ŝ [ Ɛ [ ť

185
ăŇœăŞŊ `ajã`a [v. IV. trans.] to cause to come/go. to compel to
come/go. to drive someone to something (19:23) ƑĿ ƅŏ ą űŕĿ ŦĄƈŇƅŔ ॠƍĄ ʼnॊ ōĿ ž
ĊřĿ ƆŇŦİƊƅŔ ŃŵŇŨŃŠ birth-pangs drove her to the trunk of the palm tree.

Ŝ [ Ɛ [ Ŕ j-y-b neckline of a garment; to cut out. to hollow; breast.
bosom; entrance. Of this root. two forms occur three times in the
Qur`an: Ą Š ĈŖĆƔ jayb twice and ĈŖƏą Ɣą Š juyüb once.
ćŔąƒăŞ jayb [n.. pl ĈŖƏą Ɣą Š juyüb] 1 garment`s neckline (24:31)
Č ƉŃ ƎŃ ŗƏą Ɣą Š ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Č ƉĊ ƍŃ ũą ƈŁ ŦŃ ŗ Ą ƉĆŗŃ ũĆŲĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə they should draw their head scarves to
cover their necklines 2 an opening in a garment (28:32) ĆƃŁ ƆĆŬŔ Ą Ɣ Ą ƃĄ ŧ ƑĊ ž
ċʼnƏą Ŭ ŃũĆƔĿŻ ĆƉĊƈ ĄʼnŕĄŲĆƔĄŗ ĆŞą ũŇŦĿś ĄƃŃŗĆƔĄŠ put your hand inside your garment and
it will come out white without a blemish.

Ŝ [ Ɛ [ ť j-y-d neck. long beautiful neck. to have a long beautiful neck.
Of this root. ĈŧƔŃŠ jïd occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćťƒŁ Ş jïd [n.] neck (111:5) ƑĊ ž ċ ŧĄ ŬĄ ƈ ĆƉĊ ƈ .ĆŗĄ ţ ॠƍĊ ŧƔŃ Š around her neck [let
there be] a rope of palm fibre.





ş / hã`

ƃŒ Ą Ňœă š `al-hã` the sixth letter of the alphabet; it represents a voiceless
pharyngeal fricative sound.

ş [ Ŕ [ Ŕ h-b-b grains. seeds. plants. bulbs; core of the heart. affection.
love. to love. to prefer; loved one. a friend; dew. Of this root.
eight forms occur 95 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŖČ ŗĄ ţ habbaba once; Č ŖĄ ţ Ō
`ahabba 64 times; Č ŖĄ ţĿ śĆŬŔ `istahabba four times; ď Ŗą ţ hubb nine
times; č ŖĄ ţ Ō `ahabb three times; ą ʼnŕČ ŗĊ ţ Ō `ahibbã` once; Ľ řČ ŗĄ ţĄ ƈ
mahabbatun once; ď ŖĄ ţ habb seven times and Ą ţ ĽřČ ŗ habbatun five
times.
ă Ŕċ ŕă š habbaba [v. II. trans.] to render likeable. to cause
something to be loved. liked or accepted. to endear something
(49:7) ą ƌĿ ƊČ ƔĄ ŪĄ Ə Ą ƉॠƈƔ ƙŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ŖČ ŗĄ ţ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ but God has endeared
faith to you and made it beautiful in your hearts.
ċ Ŕă š Ŋ `ahabba [v. IV. trans.] 1 to like (49:12) Ą ƇĆţĿ ƅ .Ł ƄōĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŧĄţ Ō č ŖĊ ţą Ɣ Ō
ŕĻ śĆƔĄ ƈ Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ Ō would any of you like to eat the flesh of his brother [even]
dead' 2 to want dearly. to wish. to desire (9:108) Ć Ɖ Ō Ą ƉƏč ŗĊ ţą Ɣ .ॠŠŃ ũ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž
ŔƏą ũČ ƎĿ ųĿ śĄƔ in it are men who desire to grow in purity.
ċ Ŕă šĽ řąŪŒ `astahabba [v. X. trans.] to prefer. to find more likeable.
desirable (41:17) Ň ƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĄ ƈĄ ŸŇ ƅŔ ŔƏč ŗĄ ţĿ śĆ ŬŕĿ ž Ć Ƈą ƍŕĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŧĄ ƎĿ ž ą ŧƏą ƈĿ ŝ ŕČ ƈ ŌĄ Ə ƐĄŧą Ǝ as for
Thamüd. We showed them the right way. but they preferred
blindness to guidance.
Ď ŔĄ š hubb [n.] love (2:165) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊƏč ŗĊ ţą Ɣ Ŕć ŧŔĄ ŧŇƊ Ō Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ł ŨĊ Ŧİ śĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
İ Ɔ ƅ ŕĎ ŗą ţ č ŧĿ Ů Ō ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Đ Ŗą ţĿƄ Ċ ƌ there are some who choose to worship
others besides God as rivals to Him. loving them with the love
due to God. but the believers have greater love for God; *(12:30)
ŕĎ ŗą ţ ॠƎĿ ſĿ żĿ Ů he has smitten her with love [lit. penetrated the core of

ş [ Ŕ [ ŧ
187
her heart]; *(76:8) ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƇŕĄŸİ ųƅŔ ĄƉƏą ƈĊŸŇųą ƔĄƏ ƌĐ ŗą ţ and they give food. for
the love of Him [also interpreted as: even though they long for it
themselves].
Č Ŕă š Ŋ `ahabb [elat.] 1 dearer. more loved (12:8) ą ƋƏŁ Ŧ ŌĄƏ Ł Žą ŬƏą ƔĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ŇŨ ŏ
ŕĿƊƔŃŗŌ ƑĿƅŏ čŖĄţŌ ŕİ ƊĊ ƈ when they said [to each other]. `Joseph and his
brother are indeed dearer to our father than we are' 2 more
desirable. dearer. preferable (12:33) ƓĊƊĿƊƏą ŷĆŧĄƔ ŕČ ƈĊƈ ČƓĿƅŏ č ŖĄţŌ ą ƉĆŠĐŬƅŔ ĐŖĄũ .ŕĿƁ
ƌĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ he said. `My Lord!. the prison is more desirable to me than
what they are asking me to do.'
Ą Ňœċ ŕĉ š Ŋ `ahibbã` [pl. of n. ŖƔŃ ŗĄ ţ habïb] loved ones (5:18) ą ŧƏą ƎĄƔŇƅŔ ĊŚĿ ƅŕĿƁĄƏ
ą Ƌ ŎŕČ ŗĊţŌĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ʼnŕĿƊĆŗŌ ą ƉĆţĿƊ ƐĄũŕĄŰİ ƊƅŔĄƏ the Jews and the Christians say. `We
are the children of God and His beloved ones.'
Ļ ŗċ ŕă šă Ɔ mahabbatun [v. n./n.] love (20:39) ƓIJ ƊĊƈ ĻřČ ŗĄţĄƈ ĄƃĆƔĿƆĄŷ Ł ŚĆƔĿ ƂŇƅ ŌĄƏ and
I showered My love [lit. love from Me] upon you.
Ď Ŕă š habb [coll. n.] 1 grains (50:9) Ńŗ ŕĿ ƊŇśĄŗŇƊ ōĿ ž ŕĻƄĄũŕĄŗą ƈ ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿƊŇƅČ ŪĿ ƊĄƏ Ċ ƌ
Ċ ŧƔĊ ŰĄ ţŇƅŔ Č ŖĄ ţĄ Ə ċ Śŕİ ƊĄ Š and We send down from the sky blessed water.
and with it grow gardens and grain of harvested crops 2 seed
(6:95) Ċ ŚĐ ƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č ƓĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ŞŃ ũŇŦą Ɣ ƐĄ Əİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə Đ ŖĄ ţŇƅŔ Ł ƀ ƅŕĿ ž Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ it is God who splits
open the seed and the fruit stone. He brings out the living from
the dead.
Ļŗċ ŕăš habbatun [n.] a single grain (2:261) ĆƇą ƎĿƅŔĄƏĆƈŌ ĄƉƏŁƂĊſŇƊą Ɣ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ .ĿŝĄƈ ƑĊ ž
Ą ŶĆŗĄ Ŭ ŇŚĿ śĄ ŗŇƊ Ō ċ řČ ŗĄ ţ .Ŀ ŝĄ ƈĿ Ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ .ŃŗŕĿ ƊĄ Ŭ ƑĊ ž ċ řČ ŗĄ ţ Ł ř œŕĊ ƈ ċ řĿ Ɔą ŗŇƊą Ŭ IJ .Ł Ƅ the likeness of those
who spend their wealth in God's cause is as the likeness of a
grain that produces seven ears. each bearing a hundred grains.

ş [ Ŕ [ ŧ h-b-r trace of an old mound. striped cloth made in the
Yemen; embroidery. to embroider. silken material; to make
beautiful. to make happy. to make pleasant; ink. writing; learned
person. priest. rabbi. an authority in matters of faith. Of this root.
two forms occur six times in the Qur`an: ƉƏą ũĄ ŗĆţą Ɣ yuhbarün twice
and ĈũŕĄŗĆţŌ `ahbãr four times.
Ą ŧă ŕąšĄ ƒ yuhbar [imperf. of pass. v. ũŃ ŗą ţ hubira] to be made happy
(30:15) Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ž Ċ ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŕČ ƈ ōĿ ž ƑĊ ž Ą ƉƏą ũĄ ŗĆţą Ɣ ċ řĄ ŲĆƏĄ ũ as for those
who believed and did good deeds. they will be in a Garden. made
happy.

ş [ Ŕ [ ũ
188
ć ŧœă ŕąš Ŋ `ahbãr [pl. of n. ĈũĆŗĊţ habr/hibr] variously interpreted as a
learned person. an authority in matters of faith. a priest. a rabbi
(5:44) ŔƏą ŧॠƍ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ Ɔ ƅ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŬ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉƏč ƔŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ॠƎŃ ŗ ą ƇŁ ƄĆţĄ Ɣ ĈũƏŁ ƊĄ Ə Ɛć ŧą ƍ ॠƎƔĊ ž Ŀ ŘŔĄ ũĆƏİ śƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
Č ŗČ ũƅŔĄ Ə ą ũॠŗĆţ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƏč ƔĊ Ɗŕ We revealed the Torah. with guidance and light in
it. by which the prophets. who had submitted [to God]. made
judgement for the Jews. and [so did] the rabbis and the scholars.

ş [ Ŕ [ ũ h-b-s to detain. to restrict. to confine. prison; to endow. Of
this root. ą ūŃ ŗĆţĄ Ɣ yahbis occurs twice in the Qur`an.
Ą ũŁ ŕąšă ƒ yahbis [imperf. of v. ūĄŗĄţ habasa. trans.] 1 to delay. to
stop from happening (11:8) ŕĄƈ Č ƉŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔĿ ƅ ċŘĄŧƏą ŧĆŸĄƈ ċřČ ƈ Ō ƑĿƅŏ ĄŖŔĿŨĄŸŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆũİ Ŧ Ō ĆƉœĿƅĄƏ
ą ŬŃ ŗĆţĄ Ɣ ą ƌ and if We delay the chastisement till a reckoned time they
are sure to say. `What is delaying it'' 2 [jur.] to detain. to keep
back (5:106) ĊřČƔĊŰĄƏŇƅŔ ĄƉƔĊţ ŁŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁƄĄŧĄţ Ō ĄũĄŲĄţ ŔĿŨŏ ĆƇŁƄĊƊĆƔĄŗ ŁŘĄŧŕĄƎĿ Ů ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ŕĄƎčƔŌŕĄƔ
Ń ƉŕĿ ƊŇ ŝŔ ĆƇŁ śĆŗĄ ũĄ Ų ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō ĆƉ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ũĆƔĿ Ż ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ƉŔĄ ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼn ĆƏ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ .ĆŧĄ ŷ ŔĄ ƏĿ Ũ ƑĊ ž ŁřĄŗƔĊŰą ƈ ĆƇŁƄŇśĄŗŕĄŰōĿž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ
ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƈą ƎĿƊƏą ŬŃŗĆţĿ ś ĊŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ĊŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ you who believe. the method of
testifying among you when death approaches any of you and you
are making a bequest. is to let two just men of your own people
act as witnesses. or let two men from another people. if you are
journeying in the land and the calamity of death afflicts you-you
should keep back the two witnesses after prayer.

ş [ Ŕ [ ű h-b-t cattle disease of swelling of the stomach caused by
overeating and gas. to bloat; to be frustrated. to come to nothing.
to be undone. to be futile. to be of no avail. Of this root. two
forms occur 16 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ųŃŗĄţ habita 12 times and Ō Ŀ ųĄŗĆţ
`ahbat four times.
űŁ ŕă š habita a [v. intrans.] to be futile. to come to nothing. to be
of no avail. to be in vain (39:65) Ą ƃŁ ƆĄ ƈĄ ŷ Č ƉĿ ųĄŗĆţĄƔĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚŇƄĄ ũŇŮ Ō ĆƉœĿ ƅ if you
ascribe any partner [to God]. all your work will come to nothing.
Ľ űăŕąš Ŋ `ahbata [v. IV. trans.] to frustrate. to cause to come to
nothing. to cause to be of no avail (33:19) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ųĄ ŗĆţ ōĿ ž ŔƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō
Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƅॠƈĆ ŷ Ō such people have not believed. so God brings their deeds to
nothing.

ş [ Ŕ [ Ɓ h-b-k knot. belt. girdle; to weave tightly. to braid; track. lines.

ƏĮ řă š
189
trails of ships. wake. orbits of stars and planets. Of this root. ƃą ŗą ţ
hubuk occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćƁĄ ॠš hubuk [pl. of n. ĈƃŕĄŗĊţ hibãk] trails. orbits (51:7) ĊŚŔĿŨ ĊʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔĄƏ
Ċ ƃą ŗą ţŇƅŔ by the sky with its many orbits.

ş [ Ŕ [ J h-b-l rope. halter; connection. link. means. covenant. pledge;
snare. wiles. stratagem; to conceive a child. Of this root. two
words occur seven times in the Qur`an: .ĆŗĄţ habl five times and
.ŕĄŗĊţ hibãl twice.
Jąŕăš habl [n.; pl. .ŕĄŗĊţ hibãl] rope. cord (26:44) ĆƇą ƎČƔĊŰĊŷĄƏ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŕĄŗĊţ ŔĆƏĿƂŇƅōĿž
ĄƉƏą ŗƅŕĿ żŇƅŔ ą ƉĆţĿ ƊĿ ƅ ŕİ Ɗŏ ĄƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž ĊŘČ ŪĊŸŃŗ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄƏ they threw their ropes and staffs. and
said. `By Pharaoh's might. we shall be the victors'; *(3:103) .ĆŗĄ ţŃ ŗ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ bond. pledge. covenant of God [lit. by the rope of God];
*(3:112) Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ .ĆŗĄ ţ assistance from mankind; *(50:16) Ċ ŧƔŃ ũĄ ƏŇƅŔ .ĆŗĄ ţ
the jugular vein.

ƏĮ řă š hattã particle occurring 142 times in the Qur`an and broadly
functioning as: I preposition. meaning 'until`. 'to the point of`.
'up to`. 'as far as`. It precedes either a noun. as in (97:5) Ń ŶĿ ƆŇųĄ ƈ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
Ń ũĆŠĿ ſŇƅŔ till the rising of dawn; or a sentence. as in (20:91) ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƅŏ Ą ŶŃ ŠĆũĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ until Moses returns to us II conjunction 1 meaning 'in order
that`. 'in order to`. as in (63:7) .Əą ŬĄũ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ĆƉĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŔƏŁ ƂĊſŇƊŁ ś Ŀ ƛ ĄƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍ
ŔƏč ŲĿ ſŇƊĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ they are the ones who say. `Do not give financial
support to those who follow God's Messenger. so that they may
disperse.' Many instances of the conjunctive. meaning 'in order
to` are also interpreted as prepositional. meaning 'until`. as in
(49:9) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũĆƈ Ō ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ʼnƓĊ ſĿ ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ ƓĊ żĆŗĿ ś ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ śŕĿ ƂĿ ž fight that which does wrong
until (or. in order that) it returns to God's commandment 2
meaning 'unless` (8:53) ĄƃƅĿ Ũ Č Ɖ ōŃ ŗ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ŕć ũĐ ƔĿ żą ƈ ą ƃĄ Ɣ Ļ řĄ ƈĆŸĊ Ɗ ॠƎĄ ƈĄ ŸŇƊ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ľƇĆƏĿ Ɓ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
ॠƈ ŔƏą ũĐƔĿ żą Ɣ ĆƇŃƎĊŬŁſŇƊ ōŃŗ that is because God would never change a favour
He had conferred upon a people unless they change what is in
themselves III said to be synonymous with the meaning of
exceptive ŏ İ ƛ . possibly as in (2:102) ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ Ŀ ƛƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ ċ ŧĄ ţ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ƉॠƈIJ ƆĄ Ÿą Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə
ĆũŁ ſŇƄĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž ĽřĿ ƊŇśĊ ž yet they [these two] never taught anyone before/without
first saying. `We are a test. so do not [fall for us and] reject the
faith.'


ş [ Ř [ ƅ
190
ş [ Ř [ ƅ h-t-m fate. decree. to ordain. to make absolutely irreversible;
black; ill-fated. Of this root. ĈƇŇśĄţ hatm occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ņřă š ƅ hatm [v. n.; n.] decree. ordinance. judicial decision (19:71)
ŕĎƔĊŲŇƂĄƈ ŕćƈŇśĄţ ĄƃĐŗĄũ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƍą ŧŃũŔĄƏ İƛŏ ĆƇŁƄŇƊĊƈ ĆƉŏĄƏ there is not one of you but
shall come to it. it is a decree [imposed by Him] upon your Lord
Himself. that must be fulfilled.

ş [ Ś [ Ś h-th-th to urge. to spur on; to be fast. energetic; agitation;
continuous motion. Of this root. Ľ ŜƔĊ ŝĄ ţ hathïth occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ĻŚƒĉśăš hathïth [quasi-act. part.. used adverbially] swift. brisk
(7:54) ą ƌą ŗŁ ƆŇųĄ Ɣ Ą ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ ƓĊ ŮŇżą Ɣ ŕĻ ŝƔĊ ŝĄ ţ He makes the night cover the day,
going after it swiftly.

ş [ Ŝ [ Ŕ h-j-b barrier. cover; to veil. to screen. to seclude. to prevent;
to disappear. to vanish; eyebrow; doorkeeper. Of this root. two
forms occur eight times in the Qur`an: ŖॠŠĊ ţ hijãb seven times and
ƉƏą ŗƏą ŠĆţĄƈ mahjübün once.
Ŕœă Şĉ š hijãb [n./v. n.] 1 screen. curtain. veil (33:53) Č Ɖą ƍƏą ƈŁ śŇƅ ōĄŬ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
ľŖॊĊţ ĊʼnŔĄũĄƏ ĆƉĊƈ Č Ɖą ƍƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬŕĿž ŕćŷŕĿ śĄƈ and if you ask them for something. do so
from behind a screen 2 seclusion (19:17) İ śŕĿ ž ŕć ŗॠŠĊ ţ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŇŚĿ ŨĿ Ŧ so.
she went into seclusion away from them.
ƇƍĄ ŕƍĄ Şąšă Ɔ mahjübün [pl. of pass. part. ŖƏŠţƈ mahjüb] secluded.
debarred. shut off. excluded (83:15) ĄƉƏą ŗƏą ŠĆţĄƈĿ ƅ ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ ĆƇŃƎĐŗĄũ ĆƉĄŷ ĆƇą ƎİƊŏ İƜĿƄ
no indeed!. on that Day they will be debarred from their Lord.

ş [ Ŝ [ Ŝ h-j-j head fracture. to test the depth of a head fracture; proof.
argument. to argue. to defeat in an argument; to visit. to make a
pilgrimage-particularly to the Holy Mosque in Mecca. pilgrim; a
year`s work. year. Of this root. eight forms occur 33 times in the
Qur`an: Č şĄ ţ hajja once; Č ŞŕĄ ţ hãjja 12 times; ƉƏč ŠŕĄ ţĿ śĄ Ɣ yatahãjjün
once; ď şĄ ţ hajja nine times; ď şĊ ţ hijj once; ď ŞŕĄ ţ hãjj once; şĄ ŠĊ ţ hijaj
once and ĽřČ Šą ţ hujjatun seven times.
ċ ŝă š hajja u [v. trans.] [jur.] to perform the ritual of hajj
(rendered as: major pilgrimage. for the want of a better term)

ş [ Ŝ [ ŧ
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pilgrimage in the Holy places in Mecca during the prescribed
period (2:158) Č şĄ ţ ĆƉĄ ƈĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũ œŕĄ ŸĿ Ů ĆƉĊ ƈ Ŀ ŘĄ ƏĆũĄ ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə ŕĿ ſČ ŰƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ Ą šŕĿ Ɗą Š Ŀ ƜĿ ž ĄũĄƈĿ śĆŷŔ ŃƏ Ō Ŀ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ
ŕĄƈŃƎŃŗ Ŀ ŽČ Əİ ųĄƔ ĆƉŌ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ Safã and Marwa are among the rites of God. so
for those who make major or minor pilgrimage to the House it is
no offence to circulate between the two.
ċŜœăš hãjja [v. III trans.] to argue with one another. to dispute
with one another (6:80) ƓIJ ƊƏčŠŕĄ ţŁ ś Ō .ŕĿ Ɓ ą ƌą ƈĆ ƏĿ Ɓ ą ƌČ ŠŕĄ ţĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ŃƉŔĄŧĄƍ ĆŧĿ ƁĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ and his
people disputed with him. and he said. `How can you dispute with
me about God when He has guided me.'
Ď ŝă š hajj [n.] [jur.] the annual pilgrimage to the Holy Places in
Mecca during the prescribed period and carried out in the
prescribed manner (2:197) ĽŚŕĄƈƏŁ ƆĆŸĄƈ Ĉũą ƎŇŮŌ č şĄţŇƅŔ the Pilgrimage takes
place during prescribed months; *(9:20) ũŗƄƗŔ č şĄ ţŇƅŔ the Greater/est
Pilgrimage most probably refers to the last pilgrimage led by the
Prophet in the year 10 A.H./632 A.D. It is particularly known as
the 'Farewell Pilgrimage` ) ĉ Šţ ŵŔŧƏƅŔ ř ( because the Prophet died
soon after it; * č şĄ ţŇƅŔ name of Sura 22. Medinan sura. so-named
because of the reference in verse 27 to the call to 'the
Pilgrimage`.
Ď ŝĉ š hijj [v. n.] visiting. making the pilgrimage to Mecca during
the prescribed time (3:97) ƜƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ŵŕĿ ųĿ śĆŬŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈ Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ č şĊ ţ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅĄ Ə
owed to God by all people is making the pilgrimage to the House.
[a duty incumbent upon one] who can find a way to it.
ć ŝă Şĉ š hijaj [pl. of fem. n. řČ ŠĊ ţ hijjatun] a year (28:27) Ć Ɖ Ō ą ŧƔŃ ũ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ
Ŀ ŝ ƓĊƊĄũą ŠōĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŃƉĆƔĿ śŕĄ ƍ Č ƓĿ śĿ ƊĆŗŔ ƐĄ ŧĆţŏ ĄƃĄţĊƄŇƊ Ō ľ şĄ ŠĊ ţ Ą ƓĊ Ɗॠƈ I wish to marry you to
one of these two daughters of mine. on condition that you hire
yourself to me for eight years.
Ļŗċ ŞĄ š hujjatun [n.] argument. proof. evidence (42:16) Ą ƉƏč ŠŕĄ ţą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
ƑĊ ž ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ŖƔŃ ŠŁ śĆŬŔ ॠƈ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĆƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ Ľ řĄ ŲĊ ţŔĄ ŧ ĆƇą ƎŁ śČ Šą ţ and [as for] those who
argue about God after He has been obeyed. their argument is null
and void with their Lord.

ş [ Ŝ [ ŧ h-j-r stone. to stone; to solidify; enclosure. room; to confine;
to deny access. to limit. to declare legally incompetent. to freeze;
cunning person. brains. discerning faculty. Of this root. five

ş [ Ŝ [ ŧ
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forms occur 21 times in the Qur`an: ũĆŠĊ ţ hijr seven times; ũƏą Šą ţ
hujür once; ĽŚŔĄũą Šą ţ hujurãt once; ũĄ ŠĄ ţ hajar twice and ĽŘĄũॊĊţ
hijãratun 10 times.
ĉ š ćŧąŞ hijr I [v. n.] 1 [functioning as a quasi-pass. part.] that
which is earmarked for a certain purpose. reserved for exclusive
use (6:138) ĆƇŃƎĊƈĆŷĄŪŃŗ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ ĆƉĄƈ İƛŏ ŕĄƎą ƈĄŸŇųĄƔ Ŀƛ ĈũĆŠĊţ ĽŜĆũĄţĄƏ ĈƇŕĄŸŇƊŌ ĊƋĊŨĄƍ ŔƏŁƅŕĿ ƁĄƏ and
they [also] say. `These sacredly reserved cattle and tillage
[crops]. none but those we wish may eat them'-so they claim!;
*(25:22) ć ũƏą ŠĆţĄ ƈ Ŕć ũĆŠĊ ţ Ŕ [an interjection] absolutely forbidden!,
absolutely untouchable! used as an expression in pre-Islamic
Arabia to gain safe conduct from an enemy during the forbidden
months: (25:22) Ŕć ũĆ ŠĊ ţ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ ƔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƈŃ ũĆ Šą ƈŇ Ɔ ƅ ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆ ƏĄ Ɣ ƐĄ ũŇ Ůą ŗ Ŀ ƛ Ŀ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĆ ƏĄ ũĄ Ɣ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ
ŔćũƏą ŠĆţĄƈ the day they will see the angels. [there will be] no good
tidings that day for the guilty. they [the angels] will say [to them
`halt'] it is absolutely forbidden [for you to go any further
towards the Garden] 2 [functioning as a quasi-act. part.]
controlling power. restrictive power *(89:5) ũĆŠĊ ţ ƒĊ Ũ ƅ for a rational
person. person of discernment. reasonable person [lit. for a
person with restraint] II [n.] enclosure. stone dwelling. stone city.
name of the city in which the tribe of Thamud lived *(15:80)
Ń ũĆŠĊ ţŇƅŔ ą ŖॠţĆŰ Ō the people of `al-Hijr. the inhabitants of `al-Hijr. the
tribe of Thamüd (q.v.) who hued for themselves dwellings in the
rock face; * ũĆ ŠĊ ţŇ ƅŔ name of Sura 15. Meccan sura. so-named
because of the reference in verse 80 to the 'Stone City` of
Thamud.
ćŧƍĄ ŞĄ š hujür [pl. of n./v. n. ũĆŠ Ą ţ hijr or hajr] bosom. lap (front of
a garment from the waist to the knee); restriction *(4:23) ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ũƏą Šą ţ ƓĊ ž
in your care. under your guardianship [lit. in your laps].
ĻŘŒăŧĄ ŞĄ š hujurãt [pl. of n. ĽŘĄũĆŠą ţ hujratun] enclosures of any type.
rooms. bedrooms. private quarters (49:4) Ŀ Ɗą Ɣ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č Ɖŏ ĊʼnŔĄũĄƏ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃĿ ƊƏą ŧŕ
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ƂĆŸĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇą ƍą ũĿ ŝŇƄ Ō Ċ ŚŔĄ ũą Šą ţŇƅŔ those who call you [Prophet] from outside
your private rooms-most of them lack understanding; * Ċ ŚŔĄ ũą Šą ţŇ ƅŔ
name of Sura 49. Medinan sura. so-named because of the
reference in verse 4 to the Prophet`s 'Private Quarters`.
ć ŧă Şă š hajar [n.. pl. ĽŘĄũॊĊţ hijãratun] 1 stone. rock (2:74) ŇŚĄ ŬĿ Ɓ Č ƇŁ ŝ

ş [ ť [ Ś
193
ĻŘĄƏĆŬĿ Ɓ č ŧĿŮŌ ĆƏ Ō ĊŘĄũॊĊţŇƅŕĿƄ ĄƓŃƎĿ ž ĄƃƅĿŨ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ even after that. your hearts
became hard. as hard as rocks. or even harder 2 clumps of
hardened mud (51:33) ľ ƉƔĊ ų Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ļ ŘĄ ũॠŠĊ ţ Ć ƇŃ ƎĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ċ ŬĆ ũŁ Ɗ ƅ that We may shower
upon them clumps of hard clay.

ş [ Ŝ [ Ũ h-j-z barrier. dam. to separate. to put a stop to. to deny; to
knot a belt. to truss up a camel in order to treat body sores. Of this
root. two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: ĈŪŃŠŕĄţ hãjiz and
ƉƔŃ ŪŃ ŠŕĄ ţ hãjizïn.
ŨŁŞœăš hãjiz [n.] barrier (27:61) Ŕć ŪŃ ŠŕĄ ţ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ũĆţĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ .Ą ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə and
ordained a barrier between the two bodies of water.
ƇƒŁ ŨŁ Şœă š hãjizïn [pl. of act. part. ĈŪŃŠŕĄţ hãjiz] one who keeps back.
one who prevents. one who shields (69:47) ĄƉƔŃŪŃŠŕĄţ ą ƌŇƊĄŷ ċŧĄţ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄŇƊĊƈ ŕĄƈĿ ž
and not one of you could have shielded (or. defended) him.

ş [ ť [ Ŕ h-d-b rocky hill; to be a hunchback; high waves. hardship.
difficult situation; to dote on. to take care of. care. Of this root.
Ĉ ŖĄ ŧĄ ţ hadab occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ĉ ŖĄ ŧĄ ţ hadab [n.] high rocky land (21:96) ą ŞƏą ŠōĄ ƈĄ Ə ą ŞƏą ŠōĄ Ɣ ŇŚĄ ţĊ śŁ ž ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ƒİ śĄ ţ
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ŬŇƊĄ Ɣ ľ ŖĄ ŧĄ ţ IJ .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə until when the peoples of Gog and Magog are
let loose and they stream swiftly out of every highland.

ş [ ť [ Ś h-d-th new. novel. youth; to originate. to create; to happen.
incident. occurrence; to tell. to narrate. to speak to. to disclose. Of
this root. five forms occur 36 times in the Qur`an: Ł ŜĐŧĄ ţŁ ś tuhaddith
three times; ŁŜĊŧĆţą Ɣ yuhdith three times; ĽŜĄŧĆţą ƈ muhdath twice; ĽŜƔĊŧĄţ
hadïth 23 times and Ł ŜƔĊ ŧॠţ Ō `ahãdïth five times.
Ŀ Śďťă šĿ ř tuhaddith [imperf. of v. II Ŀ ŜČ ŧĄţ haddatha] 1 to divulge. to
disclose. to tell (something) (99:4) Ł ŜĐŧĄ ţŁ ś ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ Ŀ ŕƍĄ ũŕĄŗŇŦ Ō on that Day. it
will tell its story 2 [with prep. .ŗ] to acquaint someone with. to
tell someone something. to inform someone of (2:76) ŕĄƈŃŗ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊƏŁ ŝĐ ŧĄţŁ śŌ
ŇƊĊŷ ĊƌŃŗ ĆƇŁ ƄƏč ŠŕĄţą Ɣƅ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŢĿśĿž ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧ how can you disclose to them what
God has revealed to you. so that they may be able to use it to
argue against you before your Lord' 3 to acknowledge. to show
gratitude (93:11) ŇŜĐŧĄţĿž ĄƃĐŗĄũ ĊřĄƈĆŸĊƊŃŗ ŕČƈŌĄƏ and as for the blessings of
your Lord. so [forever] acknowledge [them].

ş [ ť [ ť
194
ĿŚĉťąšĄ ƒ yuhdith [imperf. of v. IV Ŀ ŜĄŧĆţ Ō `ahdatha] 1 to cause
something to come about (65:1) Ŕć ũĆƈ Ō Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ł ŜĊ ŧĆţą Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ İ .Ą ŸĿ ƅ ƒŃ ũĆŧĿ ś Ŀ ƛ you
can never know. for God may very well bring about a [new]
situation 2 to initiate (18:70) ĄƃĿƅ Ŀ ŜĊŧĆţ Ō Ƒİ śĄţ ċʼnĆƓĿŮ ĆƉĄŷ ƓĊƊŇƅ ōĆŬĿ ś ĿƜĿž ƓĊƊĿśĆŸĄŗİ śŔ ŃƉŐĿž
Ŕć ũŇƄĊ Ũ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ if you follow me. then. do not ask me about anything till I
[myself] start to make a mention of it to you.
ĻŚăťąšĄ Ɔ muhdath [pass. part.] something newly created. fresh
(21:2) Ą ƉƏą ŗĄ ŸŇ ƆĄ Ɣ Ć Ƈą ƍĄ Ə ą ƋƏą ŸĄ ƈĿ śĆ ŬŔ İ ƛ ŏ ċ ŜĄ ŧĆ ţą ƈ Ć ƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ľ ũŇ ƄĊ Ũ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŃ ƎƔĊ ś ōĄ Ɣ ॠƈ no newly
revealed reminder comes to them from their Lord. but they listen
to it as they play.
ĻŚƒĉťăš hadïth [n.. pl. Ąţ Ō Ł ŜƔĊ ŧŕ `ahãdïth] 1 discourse (52:34) ŔƏŁ śōĄ ƔŇƆĿ ž
Ą ƉƔĊ ƁĊ ŧŕĄ Ű ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ Ć Ɖ ŏ Ċ ƌĊ ƆŇ ŝĊ ƈ ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţŃ ŗ let them produce one discourse like it if
they are truthful 2 conversation. chat (33:53) Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŔƏą ũĊŮĿ śŇƊŕĿ ž ĆƇŁ śĆƈĊŸĿ ų ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž
ċŜƔĊŧĄţƅ ĄƉƔĊŬĊƊōĿśĆŬą ƈ then. when you have eaten. disperse. and do not stay
on desiring a chat 3 statement. tiding. news (53:59) ĊŜƔĊŧĄţŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĆƉĊƈĿ ž Ō
Ą ƉƏą ŗĄ ŠĆŸĿ ś do you [people] marvel at this tiding' 4 topic. subject of
conversation (6:68) ĄƉƏą ŲƏŁ ŦĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄũ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ ƑĊž ŔĄ ʼn Ƒİ śĄ ţ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ ĆűŃ ũĆŷ ōĿ ž ŕĿ ƊĊ śŕĄ Ɣ
ŔƏą ŲƏŁ ŦĄ Ɣ ƑĊ ž ĊƋŃũĆƔĿ Ż ċŜƔĊŧĄţ when you come across people who speak ill of
our revelations. turn away from them until they move on to
another topic 5 piece of information (66:3) Ń űĆ ŸĄ ŗ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ Č ũĄ Ŭ Ō Ň Ũ ŏĄ Ə
ĆŪ Ō ŕĻ ŝƔĊ ŧĄ ţ Ċ ƌŃ ŠŔĄ Ə and when the Prophet told something in confidence to
one of his wives 6 story. account. tale (51:24) ĊŽĆƔĄŲ ŁŜƔĊŧĄţ ĄƃŕĿśŌ .Ąƍ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĄ ũŇƄą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ has the story of the honoured guests of Abraham
reached you' 7 lesson. example. cautionary tale (23:44) İ.Ł Ƅ Ą ʼnॠŠ ॠƈ
ŜƔŧŕţŌ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ ŕćŲĆŸĄŗ ĆƇą ƎĄŲĆŸĄŗ ŕĿ ƊĆŸĄŗŇś ōĿ ž ą ƋƏą ŗİ ŨĿ Ƅ ŕĄƎŁ ƅƏą ŬĄũ ĻřČ ƈ Ō whenever a
messenger came to a community. they called him a liar. so We
destroyed them one after the other and made them into cautionary
tales 8 events. happenings (in an interpretation of 12:6) ĄƃƔŃŗĿ śĆŠĄƔ ĄƃƅĿŨĿƄĄƏ
ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌĿśĄƈĆŸĊƊ čƇĊśą ƔĄƏ ĊŜƔĊŧŕĄţƗŔ .ƔŃƏōĿ ś ĆƉĊƈ Ąƃą ƈIJƆĄŸą ƔĄƏ ĄƃčŗĄũ thus. your Lord will choose
you. teach you to interpret events and perfect His blessing on you
9 dreams (in an interpretation of 12:6) ĆƉĊƈ Ąƃą ƈIJƆĄŸą ƔĄƏ ĄƃčŗĄũ ĄƃƔŃŗĿśĆŠĄƔ ĄƃƅĿ ŨĿ ƄĄƏ
ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌĿśĄƈĆŸĊƊ čƇĊśą ƔĄƏ ĊŜƔĊŧŕĄţƗŔ .ƔŃƏōĿ ś thus. your Lord will choose you. teach
you to interpret dreams and perfect His blessing on you.

ş [ ť [ ť h-d-d boundary. edge; to limit. to delimit; to sharpen. to hone;
to define. to distinguish; to become angry; (of sight) to be sharp;

ş [ Ŧ [ ŧ
195
to be in mourning; to oppose. to act contrary to. iron. Of this root.
four forms occur 25 times in the Qur`an: Č ŧॠţ hãdda four times;
ŧƏą ŧą ţ hudüd 14 times; ĈŧŔĄŧĊţ hidãd once and ĈŧƔĊŧĄţ hadïd six times.
ċťœăš hãdda [v. III. trans.] to oppose. to act contrary to (9:63) ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō
ŕĄƎƔĊž ŔćŧƅŕĿŦ ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠ ĄũŕĿƊ ą ƌĿƅ Č ƉōĿž ą ƌĿƅƏą ŬĄũĄƏ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊŧĊŧŕĄţą Ɣ ĆƉĄƈ ą ƌİ ƊŌ ŔƏą ƈĿƆĆŸĄƔ do they not know
that whoever sets himself against God and His Messenger. for
him will be the Fire of Hell. there to stay.
ćťƍĄ ťĄ š hudüd [pl. of n. ď ŧĄ ţ hadd] 1 prescribed limits. boundaries
(9:97) ą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĄƔ İ ƛ Ō ą ũĄŧĆŠ ŌĄƏ ŕĻƁŕĿ ſĊ ƊĄ Ə Ŕć ũŇſŁ Ƅ č ŧĿ Ů Ō ą ŖŔĄũĆŷ ƗŔ Ċ ƌ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŪŇƊ Ō ॠƈ Ą ŧƏą ŧą ţ ŔƏ the
desert Arabs are excessive in their disbelief and hypocrisy. and
more likely not to know the limits of what God has sent down
upon His Messenger 2 ordinance. decrees. laws (65:1) Č Ɖą ƍƏą ŠŃ ũŇŦŁ ś Ŀ ƛ
ą ŗ ĆƉĊƈ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŧƏą ŧą ţ Č ŧĄ ŸĿ śĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŧƏą ŧą ţ Ą ƃŇƆĊśĄ Ə ċ řĿ ƊĐ ƔĄ ŗą ƈ ċ řĿ ŮĊ ţŕĿ ſŃ ŗ Ą ƉƔĊ śōĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ Ą ƉĆŠą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Č ƉŃ ƎĊ śƏą Ɣ
ą ƌĄŬŇſĿ Ɗ Ą ƇĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ž do not drive them out of their homes-nor should they
themselves leave-unless they commit a flagrant indecency. these
are God's decrees-whoever goes against God's decrees wrongs
himself.
ťƒĉ ťă š hadïd I [n.] iron (57:25) Ńūŕİ ƊƆƅ ą ŶĊžŕĿ ƊĄƈĄƏ ĈŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ĈūōĄŗ ĊƌƔĊž ĄŧƔĊŧĄţŇƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ ŌĄƏ
and We sent iron. of great strength and many uses for mankind II
[quasi-act. part.. pl. hidãd] sharp; *(33:19) ċŧŔĄŧĊţ ċřĿ ƊĊŬŇƅ ōŃŗ ĆƇŁ ƄƏŁ ƂĿƆĄŬ they
lash at you with sharp tongues; *(50:22) ĈŧƔĊŧĄţ ĄƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔ Ąƃą ũĄŰĄŗĿ ž so your
sight is sharp today; * ŧƔŧĄ ţƅŔ name of Sura 57. Medinan sura.
so-named because of the reference in verse 25 to 'Iron` as a metal
of great strength.

ş [ ť [ ž h-d-q pupil of the eye. to gaze; to encircle. to encompass;
walled garden or cultivated land. large deep ditch for storing
water. Of this root. Ł ƀ œŔĄ ŧĄ ţ hadã`iq occurs three times in the Qur`an.
Ŀ ž őŒă ťă š hadã`iq [pl. of n. řĿ ƂƔĊ ŧĄ ţ hadïqatun] garden planted with
trees. particularly fruit-bearing ones (27:60) ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ .ĄŪŇƊŌĄƏ
ċřĄŠĆƎĄŗ ĿŚŔĿ Ũ ĿƀœŔĄŧĄţ ĊƌŃŗ ŕĿƊŇśĄŗŇƊōĿž and We sent for you water from the sky with
which We caused gardens of delight to grow.

ş [ Ŧ [ ŧ h-dh-r rough. stony. difficult-going land; caution. alertness.
precaution; to beware. to be on one`s guard; to warn. to caution.
Of this root. six forms occur 21 times in the Qur`an: ą ũĿ ŨĆţĄ Ɣ yahdhar

ş [ ŧ [ Ŕ
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12 times; ą ũIJŨĄ ţą Ɣ yuhadhdhir twice; ĈũĿŨĄţ hadhar twice; ĈũŇŨĊţ hidhr
three times; ƉƏą ũĊ Ũॠţ hãdhirün once and ĈũƏŁ ŨĆţĄƈ mahdhür once.
Ą ŧĽ Ŧąšă ƒ yahdhar [imperf. of Ą ũĊ ŨĄ ţ hadhira. trans.] 1 to beware of. to
be on one`s guard (63:4) ĆƇą ƍĆũĿŨĆţŕĿž čƏą ŧĄŸŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍ they are the enemy.
beware of them 2 to fear (9:64) ĆƇą Ǝ œĐ ŗĿ ƊŁ ś ĽŘĄ ũƏą Ŭ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Č ŪĿ ƊŁ ś ĆƉ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ƂĊ žŕĿ Ɗą ƈŇƅŔ ą ũĿ ŨĆţĄ Ɣ
ॠƈŃ ŗ ƑĊž ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ the hypocrites fear that a sura will be revealed
exposing to them [the believers] what is in their [the hypocrites']
hearts 3 to take precautions. to guard against something (9:122)
ĄƉƏą ũĿŨĆţĄƔ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƆĄŸĿ ƅ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŔƏą ŸĄŠĄũ ŔĿŨŏ ĆƇą ƎĄƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŔƏą ũĊŨŇƊą ƔƅĄƏ and to warn their people when
they return to them. so that they may guard [against evil] 4 to be
in awe of. to be mindful of. to be conscious of (2:235) Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŷŔĄ Ə
ॠƈ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ƑĊž ą ƋƏą ũĿ ŨĆ ţŕĿ ž Ć ƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇ Ɗ Ō remember that God knows what is in your
souls. so be mindful of Him.
Ą ŧİŦă šĄ ƒ yuhadhdhir [imperf. of v. II ũİ ŨĄ ţ hadhdhara. doubly trans.]
to warn or caution or make someone aware of (3:30) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ Ƅą ũIJ ŨĄ ţą ƔĄ Ə
ĊŧŕĄŗĊŸŇƅŕŃŗ ĽŽƏą ʼnĄũ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄƏ ą ƌĄŬŇſĿƊ God warns you to beware of Himself, God is
compassionate towards His servants.
ŧĽŦăš hadhar [v. n.] guarding against. avoiding. fearing (2:19)
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĆŠĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƎĄ ŸŃ ŗŕĄ Ű Ō ƑĊ ž Ċ ŚĆ ƏĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ũĿ ŨĄ ţ Ċ ƀĊ ŷŔĄ ƏČ ŰƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ƊŔĿ ŨŔĄ ʼn they put their fingers
into their ears because of the thunderclaps. fearing death.
ćŧŅŦĉš hidhr [v. n.] precaution. guard *(4:71) Ą ƇƄũŇŨĊ ţ ŔƏŁ ŨŁ Ŧ be on
your guard.
ƇƍĄ ŧĉŦœăš hãdhirün [pl. of act. part. ũĊ Ũॠţ hãdhir (variant reading
ƉƏą ũĊ ŨĄ ţ hadhirün. pl. of quasi-act. part Ĉ ũĊ ŨĄ ţ hadhir)] one who is on
his guard. one taking precautions. vigilant. attentive. careful. alert
(26:56) ĄƉƏą ũĊŨŕĄţ ĈŶƔĊƈĄŠĿƅ ŕİƊŏĄƏ and we are a large army. vigilant.
ćŧƍĿ ŦąšăƆ mahdhür [pass. part.] that which is to be reckoned with.
to be feared (17:57) ŔćũƏŁŨĆţĄƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĄƃĐŗĄũ ĄŖŔĿŨĄŷ ČƉŏ the punishment of your
Lord is to be feared.

ş [ ŧ [ Ŕ h-r-b spear; to extort; war. to wage war; to become angry;
lion`s den; palace; temple. prayer niche. place of honour; studs in
a coat of armour. Of this root. four forms occur 11 times in the
Qur`an: ŖĄ ũॠţ hãraba twice; ĈŖĆũĄţ harb four times; ĈŖŔĄũĆţĊƈ mihrãb
four times and ą ŖƔŃ ũॠţĄ ƈ mahãrïb once.

ş [ ŧ [ Ŝ
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ă Ŕă ŧœă š hãraba [v. III. trans.] to wage war (9:107) Ŕć ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈ ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
ą ƌĿƅƏą ŬĄũĄƏ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŖĄũŕĄţ ĆƉĄƈƅ ŔćŧŕĄŰĆũŏĄƏ ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ ŕĻƂƔŃũŇſĿśĄƏ ŔćũŇſŁ ƄĄƏ ŔćũŔĄũĊŲ and those
who took for themselves [built] a mosque in an attempt to cause
harm. disbelief and disunity among the believers. and as an
outpost for those who fought God and His Messenger.
ćŔąŧăš harb [n.] war (5:64) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ॠƍ ōĿ ſŇ ų Ō Ń ŖĆ ũĄ ţŇ Ɔ ƅ Ŕć ũŕĿ Ɗ ŔƏą ŧĿ ƁĆ Ə Ō ॠƈİ ƆŁ Ƅ whenever
they kindle a fire of war. God puts it out.
ćŔŒăŧąšĉƆ mihrãb [n.; pl. ą ŖƔŃ ũॠţĄ ƈ mahãrïb] 1 palace. private
quarters. sanctuary (38:21) ĄŖŔĄũĆţĊƈŇƅŔ ŔƏą ũČ ƏĄŬĿ ś ŇŨŏ ŃƇĆŰĿ ŦŇƅŔ ōĄŗĿ Ɗ ĄƃŕĿśŌ .ĄƍĄƏ and
has the story of the litigants come to you. when they climbed into
the private quarters' 2 temple. sanctuary (3:39) ą ƌŇśĄ ŧŕĿ ƊĿ ž Ĉ Ƈ œŕĿ Ɓ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ł řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƅŔ
ƓIJ ƆĄ Űą Ɣ ƑĊ ž Ń ŖŔĄ ũĆţĊ ƈŇƅŔ so the angels called out to him. while he stood
praying in the sanctuary.

ş [ ŧ [ Ś h-r-th plantation. cultivated land; plough. to plough. to sow
seeds. to till. tillage; earnings. to earn. to work for one`s living; to
study footprints. Of this root. two forms occur 14 times in the
Qur`an: ƉƏŁ ŝą ũĆţĿ ś tahruthün once and ĽŜĆũĄţ harth 13 times.
ĿŚĄ ŧąšĽř tahruth [imperf. of ŜĄ ũĄ ţ haratha. trans.] to till. to
cultivate. to sow seeds. to plant (56:63-4) ĄũĿ ž Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ŝą ũĆţĿ ś ॠƈ ĆƇŁ śĆƔ Ō ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ ʼn
ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ĆƇ Ō ą ƌĿ ƊƏą ŷĄ ũĆŪĿ ś Ą ƉƏą ŷŃ ũŔČ ŪƅŔ have you considered what you till'. is it you
who cause it to grow or are We the grower'!
Śąŧă š harth [n.] 1 field. planted land (2:71) ą ũƔĊŝŁ ś .ƏŁ ƅĿ Ũ Ŀƛ ĽŘĄũĿ ƂĄŗ ŕĄƎİ Ɗŏ
Ćũ ƗŔ ॠƎƔĊ ž Ŀ řĄ ƔĊ Ů Ŀ ƛ Ľ řĄ ƈİ ƆĄ Ŭą ƈ Ŀ ŜĆũĄ ţŇƅŔ ƓĊ ƂĆŬĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ą ű it is a cow. not broken to
plough the earth or water the tillage. perfect and unblemished 2
crops. yields of agricultural land (6:138) Ŀƛ ĈũĆŠĊţ ĽŜĆũĄţĄƏ ĈƇŕĄŸŇƊŌ ĊƋĊŨĄƍ ŔƏŁƅŕĿ ƁĄƏ
İ ƛ ŏ ॠƎą ƈĄ ŸŇųĄ Ɣ ĆƇŃƎĊƈĆŷĄŪŃŗ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ ĆƉĄƈ they [also] say. `These are sacrosanct
cattle and tillage [crops], none but those we wish may eat them'-
so they claim! 3 reward. recompense. harvest (42:20) ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈ
ą ƌĿ ƅ ĆŧŃŪĿƊ ĊŘĄũĊŦƕŔ ĿŜĆũĄţ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌĊ ŝĆũĄ ţ anyone who desires the harvest of the life
to come. We shall increase his harvest for him 4 tillage. land
prepared for sowing seeds (2:223) ŕĄŬĊƊ ĆƇŁ śœĊ Ů Ƒİ Ɗ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ŝĆũĄ ţ ŔƏŁ śōĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĽŜĆũĄ ţ ĆƇŁ Ƅ Ŏ
your women are fields for you. so go into your fields [whenever.
however or whichever way] you like.

ş [ ŧ [ Ŝ h-r-j thick tangle of reeds or trees; arbour; to oppress;

ş [ ŧ [ ť
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distress. critical situation; to commit an offence; prohibition. to
impede; to refrain from doing. Of this root. Ĉ ŞĄ ũĄ ţ haraj occurs 15
times in the Qur`an.
ć Ŝă ŧă š haraj I [n.] 1 crime. sin. blame. reproach. censure (48:17)
ĈŞĄũĄţ ŃűƔŃũĄƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĈŞĄũĄţ ŃŞĄũĆŷ ƗŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĈŞĄũĄţ ƑĄƈĆŷƗŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄūĆƔĿƅ no
blame/censure attaches to the blind. the lame. or the sick [for not
fighting] 2 hardship. burden (5:6) ľ ŞĄ ũĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ .Ą ŸĆŠĄ Ɣ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ ॠƈ God
does not desire to place any hardship on you 3 difficulty.
constriction. impediment. constraint (4:65) Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũĄ Ə Ŀ ƜĿ ž
Ŀ ƛ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ Ą ũĄ ŠĿ ٠ॠƈƔĊ ž Ą ƃƏą ƈIJ ƄĄ ţą Ɣ ŔƏą ŧŃ ŠĄ Ɣ ƑĊ ž Ŀ ŚĆƔĄŲĿ Ɓ ŕČ ƈĊƈ ŕ报ũĄţ ĆƇŃƎĊŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō but no. by your
Lord. they will not believe until they seek your arbitration in what
has erupted between them and then will find no constraint in their
hearts regarding your judgement II [v. n. used adjectivally (also
read as: Ń ŞũĄ ţ harij quasi-pass. part.)] that which is oppressed or
constricted (6:125) ą ŧČŸČŰĄƔ ŕĄƈİƊ ōĿ Ƅ ŕ报ũĄţ ŕĻƂĐƔĄŲ ą ƋĄũĆŧĄŰ .ĄŸĆŠĄƔ ą ƌİƆĊŲą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆŧŃũą Ɣ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ƑĊ ž
Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ but whomsoever He wishes to lead astray. He makes narrow
his breast as if he was ascending into the sky.

ş [ ŧ [ ť h-r-d severance of the tendon of a camel`s front leg; to cut. to
perforate; to deny. to hold back. to stop; to intend. resolution;
anger; to stay away from a group. to be twisted. Of this root. ĆũĄ ţ Ĉŧ
hard occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćťąŧăš hard [v. n.] variously interpreted as: denial (of a share of a
crop to the poor); cutting off. reaping (a harvest); (carrying out) a
resolution; or. anger and resentment (towards the needy or
towards giving the needy their prescribed share of the crop)
(68:25) Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŧŕĿ Ɓ ċ ŧĆũĄ ţ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŔĆƏĄ ŧĿ ŻĄ Ə they left early. bent on their purpose
[depriving the poor].

ş [ ŧ [ ŧ h-r-r heat. thirst. to become hot. to intensify; volcanic rocky
land; free person. to liberate. to set free; the best of anything. to
dedicate to the service of God; silk. to set right. Of this root. six
forms occur 15 times in the Qur`an: ĈũƔŃũĆţĿś tahrïr five times; ĈũČ ũĄţą ƈ
muharrar once; ď ũą ţ hurr twice; ď ũĄ ţ harr three times; ĈũƏą ũĄţ harür
once and Ń ũĄ ţ ĈũƔ harïr three times.
ćŧƒŁŧąšĽř tahrïr [v. n.] liberating. setting free *(4:92) ċřĄŗĿ ƁĄũ ą ũƔŃũĆţĿ ś

ş [ ŧ [ ŭ
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setting a slave free [lit. liberating a neck].
ćŧċ ŧ㚥 Ɔ muharrar [pass. part.] person dedicated. or consecrated.
to the service of God (3:35) Ŕ ĊŚĿ ƅŕĿƁ ŇŨŏ ŕĄƈ ĄƃĿ ƅ ŁŚĆũĿŨĿƊ ƓIJƊŏ ĐŖĄũ ĄƉŔĄũĆƈĊŷ ŁŘŌĄũĆƈ ƑĊ ž
ƓIJ ƊĊƈ .Č ŗĿ ƂĿ śĿ ž ŔćũČ ũĄţą ƈ ƓĊƊŇųĄŗ and remember when a woman of [the house of]
´imrãn said. `Lord. I vow in dedication what is in my womb
entirely to you, so accept [this] from me.'
Ď ŧĄ š hurr [quasi-act. part.] a free man (as opposed to a slave)
(2:178) ą ůŕĄŰĊƂŇƅŔ ą ƇŁƄĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĄŖĊśŁ Ƅ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŧĆŗĄ ŸŇƅŕŃ ŗ ą ŧĆŗĄ ŸŇƅŔĄ Ə Đ ũą ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ č ũą ţŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆŇśĿ ƂŇƅŔ fair retribution
is prescribed for you in cases of the slain. freeman for freeman.
slave for a slave.
Ď ŧă š harr [n.] heat (9:81) ŔƏą ũĊſŇƊĿś Ŀƛ ŔƏŁƅŕĿƁĄƏ ƑĊž ŔĎ ũĄ ţ č ŧĿ Ů Ō Ą Ƈİ ƊĄƎĄŠ ą ũŕĿ Ɗ .Ł Ɓ Đ ũĄţŇƅŔ
and they said. `Don't go to war in the heat'. say. `Hellfire is more
intense in heat.'
ćŧƍĄ ŧăš harür [n.] heat of the sun. intense heat (35:21) Ŀ ƛĄƏ ı .IJ ŴƅŔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ
ą ũƏą ũĄ ţŇƅŔ neither the shade. nor the heat [alike].
ćŧƒŁŧăš harïr [n.] silk. silk material (35:33) ĈũƔŃ ũĄ ţ ॠƎƔĊ ž ĆƇą Ǝą Ŭॠŗ ƅĄ Ə and
their clothes therein will be [of] silk.

ş [ ŧ [ ũ h-r-s guard. to stand guard. to watch. to protect. Of this root.
Ĉ ūĄ ũĄ ţ haras occurs once in the Qur`an.
ć ũă ŧă š haras [coll. n.] guard. watch. garrison (72:8) Ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĆŬĄ ƈĿ ƅ ŕİ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə
ŕćŗą ƎŁ ŮĄƏ ŔćŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ŕćŬĄũĄţ ŇŚœĊƆą ƈ ŕĄƍŕĿ ƊĆŧĄŠĄƏĿ ž we probed heaven. but found that it
had been filled with strong guards and meteors.

ş [ ŧ [ ŭ h-r-s to peel off; to split. to rip open; intense desire. greed.
to covet; to show concern for. to take great care of. Of this root.
three forms occur five times in the Qur`an: Ą ůĄ ũĄ ţ harasa three
times; ĈůƔŃũĄţ harïs once and ą ůĄ ũĆţ Ō `ahras once.
ŭăŧăš harasa i [v. intrans.] 1 to take extra care. to be
meticulously on your guard (4:129) ĆƏĿƅĄƏ ĊʼnŕĄŬIJ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ ŔƏŁ ƅĊŧĆŸĿś ĆƉ Ō ŔƏą ŸƔĊųĿ śĆŬĿ ś ĆƉĿƅĄƏ
ĆƇŁ śĆŰĄ ũĄ ţ you will never be able to deal equally between [your]
wives. no matter how much care you take 2 [with prep. ƑƆŷ] to
show concern for. to be anxious about (16:37) ĆƇą ƍŔĄŧą ƍ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĆůŃũĆţĿś ĆƉŏ
ı .Ċ Ųą Ɣ Ć ƉĄ ƈ ƒĊ ŧĆ ƎĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž even if you [Prophet] are anxious for their

ş [ ŧ [ ů
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guidance. God does not guide those who misguide others.
ŭƒŧăš harïs [intens. act. part.] full of concern. solicitous.
caring (9:128) ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĈůƔŃũĄţ ĆƇı śĊƊĄŷ ŕĄƈ ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĈŪƔŃŪĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĊŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ĆƉĊƈ .Əą ŬĄũ ĆƇŁ ƄĄʼnॊ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ a
Messenger has come to you from among yourselves-distressing to
him is your suffering, he is deeply concerned for you.
ŭŧąšŊ `ahras [elat.] more/most covetous. more/most attached
to (2:96) Ŀ ƆĄŷ Ńūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄůĄũĆţ Ō ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄŧŃŠĿ śĿ ƅĄƏ Ɠ ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţ and of all other people you are
sure to find them. most attached to life.

ş [ ŧ [ ů h-r-d base person. corruption. to corrupt; to perish. to be in
danger of death. to be mentally and physically degenerate; to
urge. to spur on. to rouse. foolish person. Of this root. two forms
occur three times in the Qur`an: űĐ ũĄţ harrid twice and űĄũĄţ
harad once.
ůď ŧăš harrid [imper. of v. Č ũĄ ţ Ą ű harrada. trans.] to urge. to spur
on. to exhort (8:65) .ŕĿśĊƂŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ŃűĐ ũĄţ č ƓŃŗİ ƊƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ Prophet. exhort
the believers to fight.
ć ůă ŧă š harad [v. n. functioning as a quasi-act/pass. part.] one
who is mentally and physically degenerate. emaciated (12:85) ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
Ą ƉƔĊ Ƅ ƅॠƎŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƏ Ō ŕć ŲĄ ũĄ ţ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ ś Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ŀ Žą ŬƏą Ɣ ą ũŁ ƄŇŨĿ ś ōĿ śŇſĿ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕĿ ś they said. `By
God!. you will continue remembering/mentioning Joseph until
you become extremely emaciated. or become of the dead.'

ş [ ŧ [ Ż h-r-f edge. ledge. side; to deviate. to veer. to slant; to distort.
to pervert; a profession. a craft; to take up a trade; to be hot and
spicy. Of this root. three forms occur six times in the Qur`an:
ƉƏŁ žĐ ũĄ ţą Ɣ yuharrifün four times; ĐũĄ ţĿ śą ƈ ĽŽ mutaharrif once and ĽŽĆũĄţ harf
once.
Ŀ Żďŧă šĄ ƒ yuharrif [imperf. of v. II ŽČ ũĄ ţ harrafa. trans.] to alter. to
distort. to twist to pervert (2:75) ॠƈ Ċ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƊƏŁ žĐ ũĄ ţą Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇĿ ƜĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƏą ŸĄ ƈĆŬĄ Ɣ
ĄƉƏą ƈĿƆĆŸĄƔ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ą ƋƏŁƆĿ ƂĄŷ they hear the words of God and then pervert them
after they have understood them.
ĻŻď ŧ㚼řĄ Ɔ mutaharrif [act. part.] one who approaches from the
side. one coming sideways *(8:16) .ŕĿśĊƂƅ ŕĻžĐ ũĄţĿśą ƈ going sideways for
fighting. manoeuvring for battle.

ş [ ŧ [ ƅ
201
ĻŻąŧăš harf [n.] side. edge *(22:11) ĆƉĄƈ ċŽĆũĄţ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ą ŧą ŗĆŸĄƔ the one
who serves God with a shaky faith. sitting on the fence [lit. he
worships God on the very edge].

ş [ ŧ [ ž h-r-q fire. flame. to burn. to scorch; to eradicate; to erode. to
file away; to be bad-tempered; to long for; palm-tree pollen. Of
this root. three forms occur nine times in the Qur`an: Ł ƀĐũĄ ţŁ Ɗ
nuharriq three times; Ŀ ƀĄũĿ śĆţŔ `ihtaraqa 11 times and ƀƔŃ ũĄ ţ harïq five
times.
Ŀ žďŧă šĿ ƈ nuharriq [imperf. of v. II ƀČ ũĄ ţ harraqa. trans.] 1 to torch.
to burn (21:68) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ śĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn ŔƏą ũą ŰŇƊŔĄ Ə ą ƋƏŁ ƁĐ ũĄ ţ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ they said. `Burn him and
avenge your gods' 2 (possibly) to abrade. to wear down by
rubbing. to scrape away. to rub away into powder (20:97) ƑĿ ƅŏ ĆũŁ ŴŇƊŔĄƏ
Ŀ ƆĄŷ ĿŚŇƆĿŴ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƃŃƎĿ ƅŏ ą ƌİ ƊĿ ſĊŬŇƊĿ ƊĿ ƅ Č ƇŁ ŝ ą ƌİ ƊĿ ƁĐ ũĄ ţŁ ƊĿ ƅ ŕĻ ſĊ ƄŕĄŷ Ċ ƌĆƔ ƑĊ ž ŕĻ ſĆ ŬĿ Ɗ Đ ƇĄ ƔŇ ƅŔ and look at your god
to which you have remained devoted-we will grind it down and
blow its dust into the sea.
Ľ žăŧĽ řąšŒ `ihtaraqa [v. VIII. intrans.] to burn away (2:266) ॠƎĄ ŗŕĄŰ ōĿ ž
ŇŚĿ ƁĄ ũĿ śĆţŕĿ ž ĈũŕĿ Ɗ Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ĈũॠŰĆŷ ŏ then a fiery whirlwind struck it and it burnt
away.
ĻžƒŁŧăš harïq [v. n./n.] the act of burning/fire (85:10) ą ŖŔĿ ŨĄŷ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅĄƏ
Ċ ƀƔŃ ũĄ ţŇƅŔ and for them is the chastisement of burning.

ş [ ŧ [ Ɓ h-r-k movement. to move. to be agile. to be lively and
intelligent; the joint between the head and the neck. Of this root.
ą ƃĐũĄ ţŁ ś tuharrik occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą Ɓďŧă šĿ ř tuharrik [imperf. of v. II ƃČ ũĄţ harraka. trans. with prep. ŗ]
to move. to stir (75:16) ĊƌŃŗ ĆƃĐ ũĄţŁ ś Ŀ ƛ ĊƌŃŗ .ĄŠĆŸĿśƅ ĄƃĿ ƊŕĄŬƅ [Prophet] do not
move your tongue with it [Qur'anic verses as they are being
revealed] in an attempt to hasten it [your memorising of the
Revelation].

ş [ ŧ [ ƅ h-r-m inviolable place. sanctuary. that which is under one`s
protection; womenfolk. wife; to forbid. forbidden; sinful.
illegitimate. taboo; to deny someone something. to preclude.
exclusion; to respect. to honour. to revere. to venerate. Of this
root. 10 forms occur 83 times in the Qur`an: ƇČ ũĄ ţ harrama 33

ş [ ŧ [ ƅ
202
times; Ą ƇĐ ũą ţ hurrima six times; Ĉ ƇĄ ũĄ ţ haram twice; ĈƇą ũą ţ hurum five
times; ĈƇŔĄũĄţ harãm 26 times; ŚŕĄ ƈą ũą ţ hurumãt twice; ĈƇƏą ũĆţĄƈ mahrüm
twice; ƉƏą ƈƏą ũĆţĄ ƈ mahrümün twice; ĈƇČ ũĄţą ƈ muharram four times and
Ľ řĄ ƈČ ũĄ ţą ƈ muharramatun once.
ă ƅċ ŧă š harrama [v. II. trans.] 1 to make unlawful. to declare as
sinful (2:275) ॠŗĐ ũƅŔ Ą ƇČ ũĄ ţĄ Ə Ą ŶĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ İ .Ą ţ ŌĄ Ə but God has allowed trade and
forbidden usury 2 to make or declare sacred. inviolable (27:91) ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ
Ċ Ũİ ƅŔ Ċ ŘĄ ŧŇ ƆĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ Č ŖĄ ũ Ą ŧą ŗĆ ŷ Ō Ć Ɖ Ō Ł ŚĆ ũĊ ƈ Ō ॠƎĄ ƈČ ũĄ ţ ƒ I have only been commanded to
serve the Lord of this town. which He has made inviolable 3 [with
prep. ƑƆŷ] to deny something to someone (5:72) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƃŃ ũŇŮą Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ž
Ŀ řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇČ ũĄ ţ if anyone associates others with God. God will
deny/forbid the Garden to him 4 [with prep. ƑƆŷ] to make
something unacceptable or abhorrent (28:12) ĄŶĊŲŔĄũĄƈŇƅŔ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆƈČũĄţĄƏ
and We had previously made wet-nurses unacceptable to him.
ƅď ŧĄ š hurrima [pass. v.] to be forbidden. made unlawful or
declared sinful (5:3) Ł řĿ śĆƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŇŚĄ ƈĐ ũą ţ forbidden to you are
un-slaughtered dead animals.
* ƅƒŧšĮ řƃŒ name of Sura 66. Medinan sura. so-named because of
the reference in verse 1 to 'Prohibitions` imposed by the Prophet
upon himself.
ć ƅă ŧă š haram [n.] sanctuary. sacred territory (29:67) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ŕİ Ɗ Ō ŔĆƏĄũĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅĄƏ Ō
ĆƇŃƎƅĆƏĄţ ĆƉĊƈ ą ūŕİƊƅŔ ŁŽİųĿ ŦĿ śą ƔĄƏ ŕĻƊĊƈŔĄʼn ŕćƈĄũĄţ can they not see that We have
granted [them] a secure sanctuary when all around them people
are snatched away'
ćƅĄ ŧĄ š hurum I [pl. of quasi-pass. part. ĈƇŔĄũĄţ harãm] forbidden
(9:36) ŔćũĆƎĿŮ ĄũĿŮĄŷ ŕĿƊŇŝŔ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ŃũƏą Ǝı ŮƅŔ ĿŘČ ŧĊŷ ČƉŏ ƑĊž Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ŖŕĿ śĊ Ƅ
ĈƇą ũą ţ ĽřĄŸĄŗĆũŌ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄűĆũƗŔĄƏ indeed. the number of months with God is
twelve months-[ordained] in the Book of God on the Day He
created the heavens and earth-of them four are forbidden/sacred
II [pl. of quasi-act. part. ƇĆũĊ ţ hirm] [jur.] sanctified by being in the
state of performing the pilgrimage. marked by donning the
prescribed attire (5:95) ĈƇą ũą ţ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə Ą ŧĆƔČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ you who
believe. do not kill game while you are in the state of pilgrimage
sanctity.
ćƅŒăŧăš harãm [quasi-pass. part.] 1 sanctified. sacred. inviolable

ş [ ŧ [ ƅ
203
(5:97) Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ ŕć ƈॠƔĊ Ɓ Ą ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ Ŀ řĄ ŗĆŸĿ ƄŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŸĄ Š God has made the Ka´ba-
the Sacred House-a rallying point for humankind 2 forbidden
(sacred) (5:2) İ ŮƅŔ ĿƛĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄũœŕĄŸĿŮ ŔƏı ƆĊţŁ ś Ŀƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ ĄƇŔĄũĄţŇƅŔ ĄũĆƎ you who
believe. do not violate the sanctity of God's rites. or the sacred
month 3 [jur.] unlawful. sinful (as opposed to .Ɯţ halãl) (10:59)
Ļ ƛĿ ƜĄ ţĄ Ə ŕć ƈŔĄ ũĄ ţ ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĿ ž ċ ƀĆŪŃ ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŪŇƊ Ō ॠƈ ĆƇŁ śĆƔ ŌĄ ũ Ō .Ł Ɓ say. `Have you
considered what provision God has sent down for you. of which
you have made some unlawful and some lawful' 4 prevented.
banned (21:95) ĄƉƏą ŸŃ ŠĆũĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ Ō ŕĄƍŕĿ ƊŇƄĿ ƆĆƍ Ō ċřĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ Ĉ ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţĄ Ə a ban [is
imposed] upon townships We have destroyed. they shall return
(or. that they can not escape returning or. they will not turn away
from their misdeeds).
ĻŘœăƆĄ ŧĄ š hurumãt [pl. of n. ĽřĄƈĆũą ţ hurmatun] 1 either inviolable
ordinances or all of God`s commands. sacred ordinances of God
(22:30) ĊƌĐŗĄũ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ą ƌĿƅ ĈũĆƔĿŦ ĄƏą ƎĿž ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĊŚŕĄƈą ũą ţ ĆƇIJŴĄŸą Ɣ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ĄƃƅĿŨ that is so. and
whosoever honours the sacred ordinances of God. it will be good
for him with his Lord 2 forbidden acts generally. personal
sanctuaries. those people or things under a person`s protection
(2:194) ŔƏą ŧĿ śĆ ŷŕĿ ž Ć ƇŁ ƄĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƐĄ ŧĿ śĆ ŷŔ Ń ƉĄ ƈĿ ž Ĉ ůॠŰĊ Ɓ Ł ŚŕĄ ƈąũą ţŇ ƅŔĄ Ə Ń ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇ ƅŔ Ń ũĆ Ǝİ ŮƅŕŃ ŗ ą ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇ ƅŔ ą ũĆ Ǝİ ŮƅŔ
ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ƐĄŧĿ śĆŷŔ ŕĄƈ .ŇŝĊƈŃŗ ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ a sacred month is for a sacred month. [and
violation of] sacred things [is subject to] fair retribution. so
whosoever commits aggression against you. commit aggression
against him in the same way as he committed aggression against
you.
ćƅƍĄ ŧąšăƆ mahrüm [pass. part.; pl. ƉƏą ƈƏą ũĆţĄ ƈ mahrümün] 1 one who
is deprived. disadvantaged (said to mean those who cannot ask
for alms. either because of personal dignity or because they
cannot speak. such as animals and birds) (70:25) Ń ƇƏą ũĆţĄ ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə . œŕČ ŬƆ ƅ for
the beggar and the deprived 2 one who is denied (something);
desolate. destitute (68:26-7) ŕİ Ɗ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ॠƍĆƏ ŌĄ ũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž Ą ƉƏą ƈƏą ũĆţĄ ƈ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ .Ą ŗ Ą ƉƏı ƅॠŲĿ ƅ
but when they saw it [the garden]. they said. `We must have lost
our way!. no-we [have been made] destitute!'
ćƅċ ŧ㚥 Ɔ muharram [pass. part.; fem. Ľ řĄ ƈČ ũĄ ţą ƈ muharramatun] 1
sanctified. sacred (14:37) Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ľ ŵĆũĄ Ū ƒĊ Ũ Ń ũĆƔĿ Ż ċ ŧŔĄ ƏŃ ŗ ƓĊ śČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ł ŚŇƊĿƄĆŬ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ
Ń ƇČ ũĄ ţą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƃĊ śĆƔĄ ŗ our Lord. I have settled some of my offspring in an
uncultivated valley. close to Your Sacred House 2 forbidden.

ş [ ŧ [ ƍ - Ɛ
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denied to (5:26) ĄƉƏą ƎƔĊśĄƔ ĻřĿƊĄŬ ĄƉƔĊŸĄŗĆũŌ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĽřĄƈČũĄţą ƈ ŕĄƎİƊŐĿž .ŕĿƁ ƑĊ ž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ He
said. `It is forbidden to them for forty years. [they will] wander in
the land being lost.'

ş [ ŧ [ ƍ - Ɛ h-r-w/y nest. den. inviolable place; to take great care. to be
intent; to be worthy; to be hot. Of this root. ŔƏČũĄţĿś taharraw occurs
once in the Qur`an.
Ǝċ ŧ㚼ř taharrã [v. V. trans.] to pursue meticulously. to seek out
something with intent. to take great care in achieving something
to the full (72:14) İ ƊĊ ƈ ŕİ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə ŔćŧĿŮĄũ ŔĆƏČ ũĄţĿś ĄƃœĿ ƅƏ ōĿž ĄƇĿ ƆĆŬ Ō ĆƉĄƈĿž ĄƉƏŁ ųĊŬŕĿ ƂŇƅŔ ŕİ ƊĊƈĄƏ ĄƉƏą ƈĊƆĆŬą ƈŇƅŔ ŕ
and among us there are the ones who surrendered. and the ones
who deviate. those who surrendered have sought out guidance.

ş [ Ũ [ Ŕ h-z-b rocky hill; hardship. to afflict; group. faction. to divide.
to partition. to gang up. Of this root. three forms occur in 20
places in the Qur`an: ĈŖĆŪĊţ hizb eight times; Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗĆŪĊ ţ hizbayn once
and ĈŖŔĄ ŪĆţ Ō `ahzãb 11 times.
ćŔąŨĉš hizb [n.; dual Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗĆŪĊ ţ hizbayn; pl. ĈŖŔĄŪĆţŌ `ahzãb] 1 group.
party (23:53) ĄƉƏą ţŃũĿž ĆƇŃƎĆƔĄŧĿ ƅ ŕĄƈŃŗ ľŖĆŪĊţ ı.ŁƄ Ŕćũą ŗą Ū ĆƇą ƎĿƊĆƔĄŗ ĆƇą ƍĄũĆƈ Ō ŔƏą ŸİųĿƂĿśĿž but they
split their affair into sects. each faction rejoicing in what they
have 2 supporters. faction. partisans (58:22) ĊƌİƆƅŔ ą ŖĆŪĊţ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏŌ Ą ŖĆŪĊ ţ Č Ɖ ŏ Ŀ ƛ Ō
Ą ƉƏą ţĊ ƆŇſą ƈŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ these are on God's side. and God's side are the
successful.
ćŔŒăŨąšŊ `ahzãb [pl. of n. ŖĆŪĊţ hizb] 1 parties. allies. particularly
those ganging up against the cause of God and His messengers
(38:13) Əą ƈĿ ŝĄ Ə ą ŖŔĄŪĆţƗŔ ĄƃœĿƅƏ Ō ĊřĿƄĆƔƗŔ ą ŖŕĄţĆŰŌĄƏ ċųƏŁ ƅ ą ƇĆƏĿƁĄƏ ą ŧ Thamüd. the people
of Lot and the forest-dwellers. each of these formed opposition
[against their messenger] 2 (with the definite article) the Allies.
the Confederates. the Joint Forces. Quraysh and other tribes who
in the year 5 A.H./627 A.D. attacked the Prophet in Medina in
what became known as the 'Battle of the Ditch` ) ƀŧƊŦƅŔ ŘƏŪŻ ( and
also 'the battle of the Joint Forces` ) ŖŔŪţƗŔ ŘƏŪŻ ( (33:22) Ɛ ŌĄũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƅĄƏ
Ł ƅŕĿ Ɓ Ą ŖŔĄ ŪĆ ţ ƗŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈŇ ƅŔ ą ƌŁ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƀĄ ŧĄ ŰĄ Ə ą ƌŁ ƅƏą ŬĄ ũĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŕĿ ƊĄŧĄ ŷĄ Ə ॠƈ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ŔƏ when the
believers saw the joint forces. they said. `This is what God and
His Messenger promised us. the promise of God and His
Messenger is true'; * ą ŖŔĄ ŪĆţ ƗŔ name of Sura 33. Medinan sura. so-

ş [ ũ [ Ŕ
205
named because of the reference in verses 9-27 to the story of the
'Joint Forces` that besieged Medina.

ş [ Ũ [ Ƈ h-z-n rocks. boulders. rocky hard-going terrain; to cause
hardship. to distress; to afflict; to become sad. to grieve. sadness;
responsibility. Of this root. four forms occur 42 times in the
Qur`an: ą ƉĄ ŪĆţĿ ś tahzan 23 times; ą Ɖą ŪĆţƔ yahzun nine times; ĈƉĆŪą ţ huzn
twice and ƉĄ ŪĄ ţ hazan three times.
Ą Ƈă ŨąšĽ ř tahzan [imperf. of v. ƉŃ ŪĄ ţ hazina. intrans.] to become sad.
to grieve. to worry (9:40) ŕĄƈą ƍ ŇŨŏ ŃƉĆƔĿƊŇŝŔ ĄƓĊƊŕĿŝ ƑĊ ž ĆƉĄŪĆţĿś Ŀ ƛ ĊƌŃŗĊţŕĄŰƅ .ƏŁƂĄƔ ŇŨŏ ŃũŕĿżŇƅŔ
ŕĿ ƊĄ ŸĄ ƈ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ the second of two when the two of them were in the cave.
when he [Muhammad] said to his companion [`abü Bakr]. `Don't
worry. God is with us.'
Ą Ũąšă ƒ Ą Ƈ yahzun [imperf. of v. Ą ƉĄ ŪĄ ţ hazana. trans.] to sadden. to
cause someone to grieve. to cause unrest (58:10) Ą ƉĊ ƈ ƐĄ ƏĆŠİ ƊƅŔ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ
ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄƉą ŪĆţĄƔƅ ŃƉŕĿ ųĆƔİŮƅŔ furtive conversation is the work of Satan.
designed to cause grief to the believers.
ćƇąŨĄ š huzn [v. n.; n.] sadness. grief. sorrow (12:84) Ą ƉĊ ƈ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŷ ŇŚČ ŲĄ ƔĆŗŔĄ Ə
Ń ƉĆŪą ţŇƅŔ and his eyes went blind (or. became flooded with tears) out
of grief.
ć Ƈă Ũă š hazan [v. n./n. used adverbially] sadness; grieving (9:92)
ą ƔĆŷ ŌĄ Ə ŔĆƏİ ƅĄ ƏĿ ś Ą ƉƏŁ ƂĊ ſŇ Ɗą Ɣ ॠƈ ŔƏą ŧŃ ŠĄ Ɣ İ ƛ Ō ŕĻ ƊĄ ŪĄ ţ Ń ŶĆ ƈČ ŧƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ąűƔĊ ſĿ ś Ć Ƈą ƎŁ Ɗ they turned away with
their eyes overflowing with tears. grieving that they had no
resources to pay [for a mount].

ş [ ũ [ Ŕ h-s-b good lineage. great ancestry; honour and glory;
sufficiency. to suffice; to submit to; to reckon. to calculate. to
take to task; to consider. to assume. to presume; to investigate. Of
this root. nine forms occur 109 times in the Qur`an: Ą ŖĊ ŬĄ ţ hasiba
44 times; Ą ŖĄ Ŭॠţ hãsaba twice; ą ŖĄ Ŭॠţą Ɣ yuhãsabu once; Ŀ śĆţĄƔ ą ŖĊ Ŭ
yahtasibu three times; ĈŖĆŬĄţ hasb 11 times; ƉƔŃ ŗĊ Ŭॠţ hãsibïn twice;
ĈŖŕĄŬĊţ hisãb 39 times; ĈŖƔĊŬĄţ hasïb four times and ĈƉŕĄŗĆŬą ţ husbãn three
times.
Ŕĉ Ūă š hasiba a [v. trans.] 1 to fancy. to assume. to think. to
presume (23:55-6) İ Ɗ Ō Ą ƉƏą ŗĄŬĆţĄƔ Ō ƉƔĊ ƊĄ ŗĄ Ə .ॠƈ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍč ŧĊ ƈŁ Ɗ ॠƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ą ŵŃ ũॠŬŁ Ɗ ƑĊ ž ĊŚŔĄũĆƔĿŦŇƅŔ

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do they think by giving them wealth and sons. We hasten to give
them good things' 2 [doubly trans.] to take something to be. to
mistake for. to deem to be (27:44) ą ƌŇś ŌĄũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž ŕĄƎĆƔĿƁŕĄŬ ĆƉĄŷ ŇŚĿ ſĿ ŮĿ ƄĄƏ ĻřČ ŠŁ ƅ ą ƌŇśĄŗĊŬĄţ
when she saw it. she took it to be a deep pool of water. and bared
her legs.
ă Ŕă Ūœă š hãsaba [v. III. trans.; pass. ą ŖĄ Ŭॠţą Ɣ yuhãsabu] 1 to call to
account (2:284) ŕĄƈ ŔƏą ŧĆŗŁś ĆƉŏĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ł ś ĆƏ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĆŗĊ Ŭॠţą Ɣ ą ƋƏŁ ſŇŦ whether you
reveal what you have in your heart or conceal it. God will call
you to account for it 2 to take to task (65:8) ŃũĆƈŌ ĆƉĄŷ ŇŚĿśĄŷ ċřĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƉĐ Ɣ ōĿ ƄĄƏ
ŔćŧƔĊŧĿ Ů ŕćŗŕĄŬĊţ ŕĄƍŕĿ ƊĆŗĄŬŕĄţĿž ĊƌĊƆą Ŭą ũĄƏ ŕĄƎĐŗĄũ Ŕć ũŇƄŁ Ɗ ŕć ŗŔĿ ŨĄ ŷ ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆŗİ ŨĄ ŷĄ Ə many a town that
insolently opposed the command of its Lord and His messengers-
We have taken it to task and punished them severely.
Ą ŔĉŪĽ řąšăƒ yahtasib [imperf. of v. VIII ĄŖĄŬĿ śĆţŔ `ihtasaba. trans.] to
expect. to foresee. to surmise. to reckon with (39:47) ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŔĄŧĄŗĄƏ
Ą ƉƏą ŗĊ ŬĿ śĆţĄ Ɣ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ ॠƈ and there will appear to them from God what
they never reckoned with; *(65:3) ŁŜĆƔĄţ ĆƉĊƈ ą ŖĊŬĿ śĆţĄƔ Ŀƛ from a most
unexpected source.
Ŕą Ūă š hasb [v. n. used in construct ) ĽřĿžŕĄŲŏ ( as a quasi-act. part.]
sufficient. one who/which suffices (8:64) Ń ƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƃą ŗĆ ŬĄ ţ č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃĄ ŸĄ ŗİ śŔ Prophet. God is all sufficient for you. and for the
believers who follow you; *(3:173) Ŭţ ĺŔ ŕƊŗ [interjection] we put
our case before God alone. we appeal to God [lit. God is
sufficient for us].
Ŕĉ Ūœă š hãsib [act. part.] one who reckons. one who works out an
account (21:47) ƑĿſĿƄĄƏ ŕĄƎŃŗ ŕĿƊĆƔĿśŌ .ĄŧĆũĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ċřČ ŗĄţ .ŕĿ ƂŇŝĊƈ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉŏĄƏ ĄƉƔŃŗĊŬŕĄţ ŕĿ ƊŃŗ even if
it be the weight of a mustard seed. We will bring it out-and We
are reckoners enough.
Ŕœă Ūĉ š hisãb [v. n.; n.] 1 reckoning. accounting. calculation.
judgement (14:41) Č ƒĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ Ə ƅĄ Ə Ɠ ƅ ĆũĊ ſŇŻŔ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ Ą Ɣ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƆ ƅĄ Ə ą ŖॠŬĊ ţŇƅŔ ą ƇƏŁ Ƃ our
Lord. forgive me. and my parents. and the believers on the Day
when the Reckoning is held 2 reward. retribution (23:117) ą ŵĆŧĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
Ċ ƌĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ą ƌą ŗॠŬĊ ţ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ƉॠƍĆũą ŗ Ŀ ƛ Ą ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼn ŕć ƎĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ƈ whoever prays to
another deity alongside God-a deity for whose existence he has
no evidence-his retribution will be with his Lord 3
[adjectivally/adverbially] sufficient. fitting. plenty/in accordance

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with (78:35-6) ŕć ŗॠŬĊ ţ ć ʼnŕĿ ųĄ ŷ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ć ʼnŔĄ ŪĄ Š a reward from your Lord. a
fitting gift (or. in accordance with their deeds); *(3:27) ŖॠŬĊ ţ Ń ũĆƔĿ żŃ ŗ
with no limit. generously [lit. without counting]; *(78:27) Ą ƉƏą ŠĆũĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ
Ļ ŕŗॠŬĊ ţ they do not believe in the Day of Judgment [lit. they do not
fear any reckoning].
ĉ Ūă š ćŔƒ hasïb [intens. act. part.] a meticulous reckoner (17:14) ŌĄũŇƁŔ
ŕćŗƔĊŬĄţ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔ ĄƃĊŬŇſĿ ƊŃŗ ƑĿ ſĿ Ƅ ĄƃĄŗŕĿ śĊƄ read your record. today your own soul
suffices as a meticulous reckoner of your deeds.
ćƇœăŕąŪĄ š husbãn I [v. n.] reckoning. calculating (6:96) .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə
ŃƇƔĊ ƆĄ ŸŇƅŔ ŃŪƔŃ ŪĄ ŸŇƅŔ ą ũƔĊ ŧŇƂĿ ś ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ŕĻƊॠŗĆŬą ţ ĄũĄƈĿ ƂŇƅŔĄ Ə ĄūĆƈİ ŮƅŔĄ Ə ŕĻ ƊĿ ƄĄ Ŭ He made the night for
resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning (or. to a precise
calculation). that is the design of the Almighty. the All-Knowing
II [n.] projectile. thunderbolt. force of destruction (18:40) .ĊŬĆũą ƔĄƏ
ŕĻ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ū Ŕć ŧƔĊ ŸĄ Ű Ą ŢŃ ŗĆŰŁ śĿ ž Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŕĻ ƊॠŗĆŬą ţ ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ and sends on it a measured
thunderbolt from the sky. so that it becomes slippery [barren]
earth.

ş [ ũ [ ť h-s-d to peel off. to scrape off; to envy. to grudge. Of this
root. three forms occur five times in the Qur`an: Ą ŧĄ ŬĄ ţ hasada three
times; ĈŧĄ ŬĄ ţ hasad once and ĈŧĊŬŕĄţ hãsid once.
ă ťă Ūă š hasada u [v. trans.] to envy (4:54) Ąʼn ŕĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ Ąūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉƏą ŧą ŬĆţĄƔ ĆƇ Ō ą Ƈą ƍŕĿ śŔ
ĊƌĊƆĆŲĿ ž ĆƉĊƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ do they envy [other] people for the bounty God has
granted them'
ťă Ūă š hasad [v. n.] the act of envying (2:109) ŃŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ĈũƔĊŝĿƄ Č ŧĄƏ
ĊŧŇƊĊŷ ĆƉĊƈ ŔćŧĄŬĄţ ŔćũŕİſŁƄ ĆƇŁƄĊƊŕĄƈƔŏ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƊƏčŧą ũĄƔ ĆƏĿ ƅ ĆƇŃƎĊŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō many of the People of
the Book wish they could revert you to disbelief after you have
believed. out of their own envy.
ťĉ Ūœă š hãsid [act. part.] one who envies. one who harms with
envy (113:5) Ą ŧĄ ŬĄ ţ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ċ ŧĊ Ŭॠţ Đ ũĿ Ů Ć ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə and from the evil of the envier
when he envies.

ş [ ũ [ ŧ h-s-r to be without headgear. to be without clothes; to peel
off; to recede. to abate. to regress. to withdraw; to become tired;
to be penniless; to have great sorrow. to regret. to long for. Of this
root. five forms occur 12 times in the Qur`an: ƉƏą ũĊ ŬĆţĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ

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yastahsirün once; Ľ ŘĄ ũĆŬĄ ţ hasratun seven times; ŚŔĄ ũĄ ŬĄ ţ hasarãt
twice; ũƔĊ ŬĄ ţ hasïr once and ĈũƏą ŬĆţĄƈ mahsür once.
Ą ŧĉ ŪąšĽ řąŪă ƒ yastahsir [imperf. of v. X ĄũĄŬĆţĿ śĆŬĊŔ `istahsara. intrans.] to
tire. to abate. to collapse with fatigue. to become weary (21:19)
ĄƉƏą ũĊŬĆţĿśĆŬĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĊƌĊśĄŧŕĄŗĊŷ ĆƉĄŷ ĄƉƏą ũŃŗŇƄĿśĆŬĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ą ƋĄŧŇƊĊŷ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ and those that are with
Him are never too proud to worship Him. nor do they grow
weary.
Ļ Ŗă ŧąŪă š hasratun [n.; pl. ĽŚŔĄũĄŬĄţ hasarãt] deep sorrow. anguish
(3:156) ĻŘĄũĆŬĄţ ĄƃƅĿŨ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ĄŸĆŠĄƔƅ ƑĊž ĆƇŃ ƎŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ that God may make that an
anguish in their hearts *(39:56) ŕĿ śĄũĆŬĄţŕĄƔ woe is me!. woe to me!. O
grief!
ćŧƒĉŪăš hasïr [quasi-act/pass. part.] weary. defeated (67:3-4) ŇƊĄ Ɣ Ć ŖĊ ƆĿ Ƃ
Ĉ ũƔĊ ŬĄ ţ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə ŕ œĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ ą ũĄ ŰĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ƃĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ your sight will come back to you. weak
and defeated.
ćŧƍĄ ŪąšăƆ mahsür [pass. part.] stripped. bare. destitute. regretful
(17:29) ĄƃĊƂŁ Ɗą ŷ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĻřĿƅƏŁ ƆŇżĄƈ ĄƃĄŧĄƔ .ĄŸĆŠĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ŇƅŔ İ .Ł Ƅ ॠƎŇųą ŬĆŗĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŔćũƏą ŬĆţĄƈ ŕćƈƏŁ ƆĄƈ Ąŧą ŸŇƂĿ śĿ ž ĊųĆŬĄŗ
and do not let your hand be chained to your neck. nor outspread
it in complete spreading. lest you end up blamed and
overwhelmed with regret.

ş [ ũ [ ũ h-s-s faint noise. hissing sound. whispering sound.
concealed gentle sound; to feel. to perceive through the senses. to
find out. to probe. to spy; to kill. to rout. to strike hard;
movement; to remove the dust. Of this root. four forms occur five
times in the Qur`an: ƉƏč Ŭą ţĿś tahussün once; Č ūĄ ţ Ō `ahassa three
times; Ŀ ś ŔƏą ŬČ ŬĄţ tahassasü once and ūƔŬţ hasïs once.
ČũĄ šĽ ř tahuss [imperf. of v. Č ūĄ ţ hassa. trans.] to slay. to
eradicate. to destroy. to rout (3:152) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊƏč Ŭą ţĿ ś ŇŨ ŏ ą ƋĄ ŧĆŷĄ Ə ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƁĄ ŧĄ Ű ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ċ ƌĊ ƊŇŨ ŐŃ ŗ and indeed God fulfilled His promise to you when you were
routing them by His permission.
ċ ũă š Ŋ `ahassa [v. IV. trans.] 1 to find. to become conscious of.
to become aware of (3:52) ƑĿ ƅŏ ƒŃũॠŰŇƊ Ō ĆƉĄƈ .ŕĿ Ɓ Ą ũŇſŁ ƄŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĊƈ ƑĄŬƔĊ ŷ Č ūĄţ Ō ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ƌİ ƆƅŔ when Jesus became aware of their disbelief. he said. `Who will
be my helpers in God's cause'' 2 to see. to perceive (19:98) ĆƇĿ ƄĄ Ə
Ŕć ŪŇƄŃ ũ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ą ŶĄ ƈĆŬĿ ś ĆƏ Ō ċ ŧĄ ţ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ č ūĊ ţŁ ś .Ą ƍ ľ ƉĆũĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ŕĿ ƊŇƄĿ ƆĆƍ Ō how many

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generations We have destroyed before them!. do you perceive a
single one of them [now]. or hear from them as much as a
whisper'
ăũċ Ū㚼 ř tahassasa [v. V. trans. with prep. ƉĊƈ] to probe. to gather
intelligence about. to collect information discreetly about (12:87)
ą Ɣ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏą ŬČ ŬĄţĿśĿž ŔƏą ŗĄƍŇŨŔ Č ƓĊƊĄŗŕĄƔ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń šĆ ƏĄ ũ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ŔƏą Ŭ œĆ ƔĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ċ ƌƔĊ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə Ŀ Žą ŬƏ my sons. go and
seek news of Joseph and his brother. and do not despair of God's
mercy.
ũƒĉ Ūă š hasïs [v. n.; n.] sound. hissing sound. churning sound.
murmur (21:102) ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ŕĄƎĄŬƔĊŬĄţ ĄƉƏą ŸĄƈĆŬĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ƑĊ ž Ą ƉƏą ŧ ƅŕĿ Ŧ ĆƇą Ǝą ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ŇŚĄ ƎĿ śŇŮŔ ॠƈ they
will not hear a murmur from it-and they will stay forever in
everything their souls desire.

ş [ ũ [ ƅ h-s-m cauterisation. burning. to cauterise; to cut. to finish. to
terminate; to be decisive; unlucky. misfortune. evil omen;
successive. Of this root. ĈƇƏą Ŭą ţ husüm occurs once in the Qur`an.
ƅƍĄ ŪĄ š husüm [pl. of act. part. ĈƇĊŬŕĄţ hãsim] variously interpreted
as: successive. consecutive. constant. unabated. evil-bringing.
unlucky. destructive (69:7) Ą ŷ ॠƍĄ ũİ ŦĄ Ŭ ŕćƈƏą Ŭą ţ ľƇŕČƔŌ Ŀ řĄƔĊƊŕĄƈĿŝĄƏ .ŕĄƔĿƅ ĄŶĆŗĄŬ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ Ɔ He
mustered it [the soaring wind] against them for seven nights and
eight consecutive days.

ş [ ũ [ Ƈ h-s-n beauty. to be or become beautiful; to improve. to
adorn; goodness. charity; to favour. to act properly; to deem
good. to approve. to appreciate. Of this root. 14 forms occur 195
times in the Qur`an: Ą Ɖą ŬĄ ţ hasuna three times; ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō `ahsana 21
times; ĈƉĆŬą ţ hasuna 13 times; ƉĄ ŬĄ ţ hasuna 19 times; ĽřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ hasanatun
28 times; ĽŚŕĿƊĄŬĄţ hasanãt three times; ƑĿƊĆŬą ţ husnã 17 times; ƉƔƔĿ ƊĆ Ŭą ţ
husnayayn once; ƉॠŬĊ ţ hisãn twice; ą ƉĄ ŬĆţ Ō `ahsan 36 times; ĈƉŕĄŬĆţŏ
`ihsãn 12 times; ĈƉĊŬĆţą ƈ muhsin three times; ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ŬĆţą ƈ muhsinün 35
times and ą ƈ ĽŚŕĿƊĊŬĆţ muhsinãt once.
ă ƇĄ Ūă š hasuna u [v. intrans. used interjectionally] to be or
become good. fine. beautiful; used in the sense of 'How
beautiful!`. 'How fine!`. 'How desirable!`. 'How befitting!`
(4:69) Đ ƔŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇĄ ŸŇƊ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ƈ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ ōĿ ž .Əą ŬČ ũƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ŶĊ ųą Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƂƔĐ ŧĐ ŰƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔ
ŕĻ ƂƔĊ žĄ ũ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō Ą Ɖą ŬĄ ţĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ʼnŔĄ ŧĄ Ǝı ŮƅŔĄ Ə whoever obeys God and the

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Messenger will be among those God has blessed. the messengers.
the truthful. the martyrs and the righteous-what excellent
companions these are!
ăŪąš Ŋ ă Ƈ `ahsan [v. IV. trans.] 1 to do perfectly. to perfect (32:7)
ą ƌĿƂĿƆĿŦ ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů İ .Ł Ƅ ĄƉĄŬĆţ Ō ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ who gave everything its perfect form 2 to
make agreeable. to make beautiful (40:64) ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ũĄ Əą Ű Ą ƉĄ ŬĆţ ōĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ũČ ƏĄ ŰĄ Ə He
shaped you. and made beautiful your form 3 to do good (17:7) Ć Ɖ ŏ
ॠƎĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƇŁ śōĄ Ŭ Ō ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ɨ ĆƇŁ śŇƊĄ ŬĆţ Ō ĆƇŁ śŇƊĄ ŬĆţ Ō if you do good. you do good for your
own souls. and if you do evil it is to yourselves; *(12:23) Ą ƉĄ ŬĆţ Ō
Ą ƒŔĄ ƏŇŝĄ ƈ he made good my residence [under his roof] 4 [with prep.
.ŗ and an elliptical object] to do well by. to treat well (12:100) ĆŧĿ ƁĄ Ə
Ń ƏĆ ŧĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŁ ƄŃ ŗ Ą ʼnॠŠĄ Ə Ń ƉĆ ŠĐ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ ƊĄ ŠĄ ũŇŦ Ō Ň Ũ ŏ ƓŃ ŗ Ą ƉĄ ŬĆ ţ Ō and He has been gracious
to me. releasing me from prison and bringing you here from the
desert.
ćƇąŪĄ š husn [v. n./ n.] 1 beauty. charm (33:52) ą ŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ą ʼnŕĄŬIJ ƊƅŔ ĄƃĿ ƅ ı .ĊţĄƔ Ŀ ƛ
ĄƃĄŗĄŠĆŷ Ō ĆƏĿƅĄƏ ľŞŔĄƏĆŪŌ ĆƉĊƈ Č ƉŃƎŃŗ .Č ŧĄŗĿ ś ĆƉŌ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ČƉą ƎŁ ƊĆŬą ţ women are not permitted [in
marriage] to you [Prophet] thereafter. nor [is it permitted] for
you to take [other] wives in exchange for them [the ones you
already have]. even if their beauty attracts you 2 goodness
(27:11) ċʼnƏą Ŭ ĄŧĆŸĄŗ ŕĻƊĆŬą ţ .Č ŧĄŗ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĄƇĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ĆƉĄƈ İ ƛŏ except for those who do wrong.
and then substitute good for [lit. after] evil 3 kindness. to be kind;
to treat someone well. with good treatment (29:8) Ą ƉॠŬŇƊ ƙŔ ŕĿ ƊĆƔČ ŰĄ ƏĄ Ə
ŕĻ ƊĆŬą ţ Ċ ƌĆƔĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ ƏŃ ŗ We have commanded people to treat their parents well.
ć Ƈă Ūă š hasan [quasi-act. part.] 1 good (18:2) Ċ ƊĊ ƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ũIJ ŮĄ ŗą ƔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉƔ
ŕĻ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ Ŕć ũĆŠ Ō ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Č Ɖ Ō Ċ ŚŕĄ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆŸĄ Ɣ and [giving] glad news to the
believers who do good deeds that for them is a good reward 2
fair. gracious (20:86) ŕĻ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ Ŕć ŧĆŷĄ Ə ĆƇŁ Ƅč ŗĄũ ĆƇŁ ƄĆŧĊŸĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō Ń ƇĆƏĿ ƁॠƔ .ŕĿ Ɓ he said. `My
people. has your Lord not made you a fair promise' 3 proper.
goodly (3:37) ŕĻƊĄŬĄţ ŕĻśŕĄŗĿ Ɗ ŕĄƎĿ śĄŗŇƊ ŌĄƏ and brought her up with a goodly
upbringing.
ŗĽƈăŪăš hasanatun I [n.; pl ĽŚŕĿƊĄŬĄţ hasanãt] 1 a good deed. an act
of piety. a good work (41:34) Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ł ř œĐ ƔČ ŬƅŔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ Ł řĿ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţŇƅŔ ƒŃƏĿ śĆŬĿ ś they are not
equal-a good deed and an evil one 2 a benefit. a boon. a piece of
good fortune (9:50) ĆƇą ƍŎą ŬĿ ś ĽřĿ ƊĄ ŬĄ ţ Ą ƃĆŗĊ ŰŁ ś ĆƉ ŏ if good fortune comes to
you. it grieves them 3 a good reward (16:30) Ō ĄƉƔĊŨİ Ɔƅ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ŬĆţ ƑĊ ž ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ

ş [ ū [ ŧ
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ĽřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ for those who do good there is a reward in this present world
II [quasi-act. part.] good (33:21) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ĽřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ ĽŘĄƏĆŬŌ ĊƌİƆƅŔ .Əą ŬĄũ you
have had in the Messenger of God a good model.
ƏĽ ƈąŪĄ š husnã I [elat. fem.; dual ƉĆƔĄ ƔĿ ƊĆŬą ţ husnayayn; masc. ą ƉĄ ŬĆţ Ō
`ahsan] better/best (7:180) ŕĄƎŃŗ ą ƋƏą ŷĆŧŕĿž ƑĿƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ą ʼnŕĄƈĆŬƗŔ Ċƌİ ƆƅĄƏ to God
belong the names most beautiful, call upon Him by them II [n.:
ƑƊŬţƅŔ `al-husnã] 1 the best [of rewards]. interpreted as Paradise
(10:26) ĽŘĄŧŕĄƔŃŪĄƏ ƑĿƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ŔƏŁƊĄŬĆţ Ō ĄƉƔĊŨİƆƅ for the good-doers is the reward
most fair and more besides; *(9:52) Ń ƉĆƔĄ ƔĿ ƊĆŬą ţŇƅŔ ƐĄ ŧĆţ ŏ one of the two
best outcomes. (said to mean martyrdom and victory) 2 all that is
good. all that is being ordained by God. the true faith (92:6) Ŀ ƀČ ŧĄ ŰĄ Ə
ƑĿ ƊĆ Ŭą ţƅŕŃ ŗ and believes in the truth of what God has ordained.
ćƇœăŪĉš hisãn [pl. of quasi-act. parts. fem. ĽřĿ ƊĄŬĄţ hasanatun and
ʼnŕĿƊĆŬĄţ hasnã`] beautiful. fine (55:76) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉƔœĊƄİśą ƈ ē ƒŃũĿƂĆŗĄŷĄƏ ľũĆŲŁ Ŧ ċŽĄũŇžĄũ
ľ ƉॠŬĊ ţ they will be reclining on green cushions and fine carpets.
ćƇœăŪąšō `ihsãn [v. n./ n.] 1 good work. doing good deeds (55:60)
ą ƉॠŬĆţ ƙŔ İ ƛ ŏ Ń ƉॠŬĆţ ƙŔ ą ʼnŔĄ ŪĄ Š .Ą ƍ shall the reward of goodness be
[anything] but goodness'! 2 uprightness. correctness. piety.
goodness. doing good (9:100) Ń ũॠŰŇƊ ƗŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔŃ ũŃ ŠŕĄ Ǝą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ƅČ Ə ƗŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƂŃ ŗŕČŬƅŔĄ Ə
ľ ƉॠŬĆţ ŐŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə and the first vanguards of the emigrants (q.v.)
and the Helpers (q.v.) and those who followed them in
goodness/in doing good.
ćƇĉŪąšĄ Ɔ muhsin [act. part.; pl. ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ŬĆţą ƈ muhsinün; pl. fem. ĽŚŕĿƊĊŬĆţą ƈ
muhsinãt] one who does good. who is good. a charitable person. a
righteous person (33:29) Ł ƄŇƊĊ ƈ Ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĊ ŬĆţą ƈŇƆ ƅ Č ŧĄ ŷ Ō Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž ŕćƈƔĊŴĄŷ ŔćũĆŠ Ō ČƉ that God
has prepared for those of you who do good a great reward.

ş [ ū [ ŧ h-sh-r insects; yield of the land; to gather together. to
assemble. to rally. to round up (of animals); to hone. to sharpen
up; to ruin. Of this root. five forms occur 43 times in the Qur`an:
ĄũĿ ŮĄţ hashara 19 times; Ą ũĊ Ůą ţ hushira 18 times; ũŇŮĄţ hashr twice;
ƉƔŃ ũĊ Ůॠţ hãshirïn three times and ĽŘĄũƏŁ ŮĆţĄƈ mahshüratun once.
ŧĽ Ŭă š hashara u [v. trans.; pass. ũĊŮą ţ hushira] 1 to assemble. call
up for a gathering (79:23) ƑĿ ƆĆŷ ƗŔ ą ƇŁ Ƅč ŗĄũ ŕĿ Ɗ Ō .ŕĿ ƂĿ ž ƐĄ ŧŕĿ ƊĿ ž Ą ũĿ ŮĄ ţĿ ž so. he
gathered [his people]. proclaiming. I am your supreme lord 2 to

ĸ Ľ ūœă š
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array. to muster. to bring together (6:111) Ŀ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŕĿ ƊŇƅČ ŪĿ Ɗ ŕĿ Ɗİ Ɗ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə
ĆũĿ ŮĄţĄƏ ƑĿ śĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĄƈİ ƆĿ ƄĄƏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō İ ƛ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈ ƜąŗŁ Ɓ ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů İ .Ł Ƅ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ Ɗ even if
We sent the angels down to them. and the dead spoke to them.
and We gathered all things right before them. they still would not
believe. unless God so willed 3 to marshal. to bring for the final
Judgement (17:97) ŕĎ ƈą ŰĄ Ə ŕć ƈŇ Ƅą ŗĄ Ə ŕć ƔĆ ƈą ŷ Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ƍƏą Šą Ə ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ċ řĄ ƈॠƔĊ ƂŇ ƅŔ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ Ɣ Ć Ƈą ƍą ũŁ ŮĆ ţĿ ƊĄ Ə and
We marshal them. on the Day of Resurrection. lying on their
faces. blind. dumb and deaf.
ćŧŅŬăš hashr [v. n./ n.] 1 assembly. gathering. raising from the
dead (50:44) Ĉ ũƔĊ ŬĄ Ɣ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ĉ ũŇŮĄ ţ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ ŕć ŷŔĄ ũĊ Ŭ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĄ ŷ ą űĆũ ƗŔ Ł ƀİ ƂĿ ŮĿ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ on the Day
when the earth is split asunder from about them. [emerging] in
haste-that is a gathering easy for Us to muster; * Ą ţŇƅŔ ũŇŮ name of
Sura 59. Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in
verse 2 to the 'Gathering of Forces` 2 migration. evacuation.
exile (59:2) ŃũŇŮĄţŇƅŔ .Č Ə Ɨ ĆƇĊƍŃũŕĄƔĊŧ ĆƉĊƈ ŃŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄŞĄũŇŦ Ō ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƏą ƍ it
was He who drove out those among the People of the Book who
disbelieved from their homes at the first exile [also interpreted as:
the first gathering of forces].
ƇƒŁ ŧĉ Ŭœš hãshirïn [pl. of act. part. Ą ũĊ Ůŕţ hãshir] ones who call for
assembly. summoners (7:111) .ĊŬĆũ ŌĄƏ ą ƋŕĿ Ŧ ŌĄƏ ĆƌŃ ŠĆũ Ō ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ƑĊ ž Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ Ůॠţ Ń Ɖ œŔĄ ŧĄ ƈŇƅŔ
they said. `Delay him and his brother for a while and send. into
the cities. summoners.'
ĻŖăŧƍĿ ŬąšăƆ mahshüratun [pass. part. fem.] gathered together.
assembled (38:19) Ą ũƏŁ ŮĆţĄ ƈ Ą ũĆƔİ ųƅŔĄ Ə ĈŖŔČ ƏŌ ą ƌĿƅ Į.Ł Ƅ ĻŘ and the birds. gathered
together, each to him reverting.

ĸ Ľ ūœă š hãsha li 'llãh (see ş [ ƍ [ ū h-w-sh).

ş [ ŭ [ Ŕ h-s-b pebbles. to pelt with pebbles; gravel-carrying wind.
hail-showering clouds; measles; fuel. to fuel. to torment.
°al-Suyutï reports that ŖĄ ŰĄ ţ hasab is said to mean fuel in the
language of the 'Zanj`. Of this root. two forms occur five times in
the Qur`an: Ĉ ŖĄ ŰĄ ţ hasab once and ŖĊ Űॠţ hãsib four times.
Ŕă Ůă š hasab [n.] fuel (21:98) Ń ƉƏą ŧ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏą ŧą ŗĆ ŸĿ ś ॠƈĄ Ə Ć ƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ Ą Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ Š ą ŖĄ ŰĄ ţ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ
you [disbelievers] and what you worship instead of God will be

ş [ ŭ [ ŧ
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fuel for Hell.
ćŔĉŮœăš hãsib [act. part.] stone-showering stormy wind (17:68)
ŕć ŗĊ ŰŕĄţ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .Ċ ŬĆũą Ɣ ĆƏ Ō Đ ũĄ ŗŇƅŔ ĄŖĊƊॠŠ ĆƇŁ ƄŃŗ Ŀ ŽĊ ŬŇŦĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ śŇƊĊƈ ōĿ ž Ō do you feel secure that
He will not cause a side of the shore to swallow you up. or. He
will not send upon you a stone-pelting storm'

ş [ ŭ [ ş [ ŭ h-s-h-s stones. brisk walking; to (come to) settle. to fit in
properly; to become manifest. (of the truth) to become clear (as in
'the truth will out`). Of this root. Ą ůĄ ţĆŰĄ ţ hashasa occurs once in
the Qur`an.
ă ŭă šąŮă š hashasa [v. intrans.] to become manifest. to come out
(12:51) ıƀĄţŇƅŔ ĄůĄţĆŰĄţ ĄƉƕŔ ŃŪƔŃŪĄŸŇƅŔ ŁŘ ŌĄũĆƈŔ ĊŚĿ ƅŕĿƁ the governor's wife said.
`Now the truth has come out.'

ş [ ŭ [ ť h-s-d to reap. to harvest. yield; to twist a rope tightly. to do
something with exactitude; to become angry. Of this root. three
forms occur six times in the Qur`an: Ą ŧĄ ŰĄ ţ hasada once; ĈŧŕĄŰĄţ
hasãd once and ĈŧƔĊŰĄţ hasïd four times.
ă ťă Ůă š hasada u [v. trans.] to reap. to harvest (12:47) ĆƇŁśĆŧĄŰĄţ ŕĄƈĿ ž
ą ƋƏą ũĿ ŨĿ ž ƑĊ ž ĄƉƏŁƆŁƄōĿś ŕČƈĊƈ ŕĻƆƔĊƆĿ Ɓ İƛŏ ĊƌĊƆą ŗŇƊą Ŭ whatever [grain] you reap leave in its
ears apart from the little you eat.
ćťœăŮăš hasãd [v. n.] the act of reaping. harvesting (6:141) ĆƉĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ
ĊƋĊŧŕĄŰĄţ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ ą ƌİƂĄţ ŔƏŁśŔĄʼnĄƏ ĄũĄƈŇŝ Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ ĊƋŃũĄƈĿŝ so eat of their fruit. when they bear
fruit. but pay its dues [the Poor's share] on the day of harvesting
it.
ćťƒĉŮăš hasïd [quasi-pass. part./n.] 1 harvest (50:9) Č ŪĿ ƊŔĄ Ə ĊʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊŇƅ
Ċ ŧƔĊ ŰĄ ţŇƅŔ Č ŖĄ ţĄ Ə ċ Śŕİ ƊĄ Š Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŇśĄ ŗŇƊ ōĿ ž ŕĻ ƄĄ ũॠŗą ƈ ć ʼnॠƈ We send down from the sky
blessed water. and with it grow gardens and grain of harvested
crops 2 cut down. mown down. destroyed. levelled (11:100) ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ
Ċ ʼnॠŗŇƊ Ō ĈŧƔĊŰĄţĄƏ ĈƇœŕĿƁ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌčŰŁƂĿƊ ƐĄũŁƂŇƅŔ We relate to you [Muhammad]
such accounts of earlier towns. some of them are still standing,
some have been mown down.

ş [ ŭ [ ŧ h-s-r to encircle. to blockade. to forbid. to constrict. to
confine; timid person. abstemious person (particularly concerning

ş [ ŭ [ J
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women). celibate person; miserly person; reed mat. Of this root.
four forms occur six times: Ą ũĊ ŰĄ ţ hasira twice; Ą ũĊ ŰĆţ Ō `uhsira twice;
ĈũƏą ŰĄţ hasür once and ũƔĊ ŰĄ ţ hasïr once.
ă ŧă Ůă š hasara I [(imperf. ą ũą ŰĆţĄ Ɣ yahsur) v. trans.] to besiege.
confine. restrict (9:5) ċ ŧĄ ŰĆũĄ ƈ İ .Ł Ƅ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŧą ŸŇƁŔĄ Ə ĆƇą ƍƏą ũą ŰĆţŔĄ Ə ĆƇąƍƏŁ ŨŁ ŦĄ Ə take them.
besiege them and ambush them at every post II [(imperf. ą ũĄ ŰĆţĄ Ɣ
yahsar) v. intrans.] to become constricted. to shrink from. to
abhor (4:90) ĆƇą ƎĄ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŔƏŁ ƆĊ śŕĿ Ƃą Ɣ ĆƏ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄƏŁ ƆĊ śŕĿ Ƃą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆƇąƍą ũƏą ŧą Ű ŇŚĄ ũĊ ŰĄ ţ ĆƇŁ ƄƏą ʼnॠŠ ĆƏ Ō or
[those] who come to you because their hearts shrink from fighting
against you or against their own people.
ă ŧĉ Ůąš Ŋ `uhsira [pass. of v. IV] 1 to be prevented. confined.
besieged. to be made destitute (2:196) ĆƉŐĿž ĊƌİƆƅ ĿŘĄũĆƈą ŸŇƅŔĄƏ ČşĄţŇƅŔ ŔƏčƈĊś ŌĄƏ
Ń ƒĆ ŧĄ ƎŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ũĄ ŬĆ ƔĿ śĆ ŬŔ ॠƈĿ ž Ć ƇŁ śĆ ũĊ ŰĆ ţ Ō perform the pilgrimages. major and
minor. for the sake of God. If you are prevented [from doing so].
then [send] whatever offering for sacrifice that is affordable to
you 2 to be incapacitated; to be straitened; to be destitute (also to
be devoted to a certain task) (2:273) ŔƏą ũĊ ŰĆţ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ċ ʼnŔĄ ũĿ ƂŁ ſŇƆ ƅ ƑĊ ž Ŀƛ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃŗĄŬ
ŕćŗĆũĄŲ ĄƉƏą ŸƔĊųĿ śĆŬĄƔ ƑĊž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ [give] to those needy who are wholly
occupied (or. who are straitened. or. who are incapacitated) in
God's way and cannot travel [lit. hit the road] in the land [for
earning a living].
ćŧƍĄ Ůăš hasür [intens. act. part.] celibate. ascetic. abstemious.
chaste (3:39) ĄƉĊƈ ŕĎ ƔŃŗĿƊĄƏ ŔćũƏą ŰĄţĄƏ ŔćŧĐ ƔĄŬĄƏ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ċřĄƈĊƆĿƄŃŗ ŕĻƁĐ ŧĄŰą ƈ ƑĄƔĆţĄƔŃŗ Ąƃą ũIJ ŮĄŗą Ɣ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉŌ
Ą ƉƔĊ ţ ƅŕČ ŰƅŔ God gives you the good tidings of John. who will confirm
a word of God. a chief. and chaste. a prophet. one of the
righteous.
ŧƒĉ Ůă š hasïr [n.] prison. confinement (17:8) Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇ Ɔ ƅ Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ Š ŕĿ ƊŇ ƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə
Ŕć ũƔĊ ŰĄ ţ We have made Hell a prison for those who deny God.

ş [ ŭ [ J h-s-l residue. yield. crop; result. to come out. reject. waste;
to collect. Of this root. ĐŰą ţ . hussila occurs once in the Qur`an.
Jď ŮĄ š hussila [pass. of v. II] to be collected. to be made
manifest (100:10) ॠƈ .Đ Űą ţĄ Ə ƑĊž Ń ũƏą ŧč ŰƅŔ when what is in the bosoms
(or. the minds) is brought out (or. gathered/scrutinized).


ş [ ŭ [ Ƈ
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ş [ ŭ [ Ƈ h-s-n fortress. palace. to be inaccessible. to be immune; to
fortify. armament. lock; to be chaste. a married person; stallion.
horse. Of this root. seven forms occur 18 times in the Qur`an:
ĄƉĄŰĆţ Ō `ahsana four times; ČƉĊŰĆţ Ō `uhsinna once; ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ŰĆţą ƈ muhsinïn
twice; ĽŚŕĿƊĄŰĆţą ƈ muhsanãt eight times; ĈƉč ŰĄţĿś tahassun once; ĈƉƏą Űą ţ
husün once and ĽřĿƊČ ŰĄţą ƈ muhassanatun once.
ăƇăŮąš Ŋ `ahsana [v. IV. trans.] 1 to protect. to shield (21:80)
ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬōĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊĊ ŰĆţŁ ś ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ľ ūƏą ŗĿ ƅ Ŀ řĄ ŸŇƊĄ Ű ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƈİ ƆĄ ŷĄ Ə and We taught him the making
of garments [of mail] to fortify you against your violence;
*(66:12) ॠƎĄ ŠĆũĿ ž ŇŚĿ ƊĄ ŰĆţ Ō she guarded her chastity 2 to keep in store.
to store up (12:48) Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƇŁ śĆƈČ ŧĿ Ɓ ŕĄƈ ĄƉŇƆŁ ƄōĄƔ ĈŧŔĄŧĊŮ ĈŶĆŗĄŬ ĄƃƅĿŨ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ƓĊśōĄƔ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ļ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ İ ƛ ŏ ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ
Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ŰĆţŁ ś after that will come seven years of hardship which will
consume all but a little of what you stored up [for them].
ċƇĉŮąš Ŋ `uhsinna [pass. v. IV] [jur.] (of a woman) to be protected
by marriage (4:25) Č ƉĊŰĆţ Ō ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž ĊŚŕĿ ƊĄŰĆţą ƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ŕĄƈ Ł ŽĆŰĊƊ Č ƉŃƎĆƔĿƆĄŸĿž ċřĿ ŮĊţŕĿſŃŗ ĄƉĆƔĿ ś Ō ĆƉŐĿž
Ń ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ but when they enter wedlock. if they [slave girls] commit
indecency. they shall be liable to half the punishment prescribed
for free women.
Ƈƒĉ ƈĉ ŮąšĄ Ɔ muhsinïn [pl. of act. part. ĈƉĊŰĆţą ƈ muhsin] [jur.] ones
who take women in lawful wedlock (4:24) ĆƉŌ ĆƇŁ ƄƅĿ Ũ ĄʼnŔĄũĄƏ ŕĄƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ İ .Ċţ ŌĄƏ
Ą ƉƔĊ ţĊ žŕĄ Ŭą ƈ Ą ũĆ ƔĿ Ż Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ŰĆ ţą ƈ Ć ƇŁ Ƅ ƅŔĄ ƏĆ ƈ ōŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ żĿśĆ ŗĿ ś lawful for you is that which is
beyond those mentioned. [so long as] you seek [them] with
[dowries from] your property. taking them in wedlock. not in
fornication.
ĻŘœĽƈăŮąšĄ Ɔ muhsanãt [pl. of pass. part. fem. ĽřĿƊĄŰĆţą ƈ muhsanatun]
[jur.] chaste woman. woman who is protected (or should be
protected against unchastity) by being married. married woman;
(24:4) ĄʼnŔĄŧĄƎŁ Ů ĊřĄŸĄŗĆũ ōŃŗ ŔƏŁ śōĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĊŚŕĿ ƊĄŰĆţą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉƏą ƈĆũĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔĄƏ ĿƛĄƏ ĻŘĄŧŇƆĄŠ ĄƉƔĊƊŕĄƈĿŝ ĆƇą ƍƏą ŧĊƆĆŠŕĿ ž
Ŕć ŧĄ ŗ Ō Ļ ŘĄ ŧॠƎĿ Ů ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŗŇƂĿ ś give those who accuse chaste women of adultery.
and then fail to provide four witnesses. eighty lashes. and reject
their testimony ever after.
ćƇČ Ů㚼ř tahassun [v. n.] the state of being chaste. chastity (24:33)
ŕĻ Ɗč ŰĄ ţĿ ś Ą ƉĆŧĄ ũ Ō ĆƉ ŏ Ċ ʼnŕĿ żŃ ŗŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ śŕĄ ƔĿ śĿž ŔƏą ƍŃ ũŇƄŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə do not force your slave girls
into prostitution. if they themselves desire being chaste.
ćƇƍĄ ŮĄ š husün [pl. of n. ƉĆ ŰĊ ţ hisn] fortresses. fortifications

ş [ ŭ [ Ɛ
216
(59:2) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ć Ƈą ƎŁ ƊƏą Űą ţ Ć Ƈą ƎŁ śĄ ŸĊ Ɗॠƈ Ć Ƈą Ǝİ Ɗ Ō ŔƏı ƊĿ ŴĄ Ə and they thought their
fortifications would protect them against God.
ĻŗĽƈċ Ů㚥 Ɔ muhassanatun [pass. part. fem.] (59:14) Ŀ ƛ İ ƛŏ ŕćŸƔĊ ƈĄ Š ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏŁ ƆĊ śŕĿ Ƃą Ɣ
ƑĊ ž ċřĿ ƊČŰĄţą ƈ ƐćũŁƁ they will not fight against you together except from
within fortified townships.

ş [ ŭ [ Ɛ h-s-y pebbles. to count; to comprehend; to keep. to stick
with; mind. discerning faculty; ability to express oneself clearly.
Of this root. two forms occur 11 times in the Qur`an: ƑŰĆţŌ (1)
`ahsã 10 times and ƑŰĆţŌ (2) `ahsã once.
ƏŮąšŊ (1) `ahsã [v. IV. trans.] 1 to keep a record of. to record
(36:12) İ .Ł ƄĄƏ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŰĆţŌ ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů ƑĊž ľ ƉƔŃ ŗą ƈ ľ Ƈॠƈ ŏ and everything We keep an
account of in a clear Record 2 to reckon. to calculate. to
enumerate (14:34) ŕĄƍƏą ŰĆţŁś Ŀƛ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĿřĄƈĆŸĊƊ ŔƏčŧą ŸĿś ĆƉŏĄƏ if you count God's
blessings you will never [be able to] enumerate them 3 to
comprehend (19:93-4) ŔĎ ŧĄ ŷ ĆƇą ƍČ ŧĄŷĄƏ ĆƇą ƍॠŰĆţ Ō ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ƅ He has comprehended
them and counted them exactly 4 to bear; keep count of (73:20) Č Ɖ ŏ
Ŀ ſœŕĿ ųĄ Ə ą ƌĿ ŝŁ ƆŁ ŝĄƏ ą ƌĿ ſĆŰĊ ƊĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƓĿ ŝŁ ƆŁ ŝ ĆƉĊƈ ƑĿ ƊĆŧ Ō ą ƇƏŁ ƂĿ ś Ąƃİ Ɗ Ō ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄƔ Ą ƃČ ŗĄ ũ ą ũĐ ŧĿƂą Ɣ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄƏ ĄƃĄŸĄƈ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ Ľř
ŃƉŔĄʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄũČ ŬĄƔĿś ŕĄƈ ŔƏą ʼnĄũŇƁŕĿž ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĄŖŕĿ śĿ ž ą ƋƏą ŰĆţŁ ś ĆƉĿƅ ĆƉ Ō ĄƇĊƆĄŷ ĄũŕĄƎİ ƊƅŔĄƏ .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ [Prophet]
your Lord knows that you [sometimes] stay up [praying] nearly
two thirds of the night. and [sometimes] half the night. and
[sometimes] a third of the night-as do a party of those with you-
it is God who determines the [division of] night and day-He
knows that you will not bear it [staying up all night] (or.
maintains all of it [the hours of the night]) and He has relented
towards you. so recite as much of the Qur'an as is feasible.
ƏăŮąšŊ (2) `ahsã [elat.] more/most capable of calculating or
reckoning or working out (18:12) ŕĄƈƅ ƑĄŰĆţ Ō Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗĆŪĊ ţŇƅŔ č ƒ Ō Ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĿ Ɗƅ ĆƇą ƍŕĿ ƊŇŝĄ ŸĄ ŗ Č ƇŁ ŝ
Ŕć ŧĄ ƈ Ō ŔƏŁ ŝŃ ŗĿ ƅ then We woke them that We may know which of the two
parties was better able to calculate the period they had remained
[in the cave].

ş [ ů [ ŧ h-d-r urban areas. a community settled around a water
source; to be present. to be at home. adjacency to water; to bring.
to fetch; to lie down dying. hardship. strife. Of this root. nine
forms occur 25 times in the Qur`an: Ą ũĄ ŲĄ ţ hadara seven times;

ş [ ů [ ŧ
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ĄũĄŲĆţ Ō `ahdara twice; Ą ũĊ ŲĆţ Ō `uhdira once; ũĊ Ųॠţ hãdir once; ƒŃ ũĊ Ųॠţ
hãdirï once; Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ Ųॠţ hãdiratun twice; ĈũĄŲĆţą ƈ muhdar once; ƉƏą ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈ
muhdarün nine times and ĈũĄŲĿśĆţą ƈ muhtadar once.
ă Űă š ŧ hadara u [v. trans.] 1 to attend. to witness. to be present
at (4:8) ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ĆƇą ƍƏŁ Ɓą ŪĆũŕĿ ž ą ƉƔĊƄŕĄŬĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ ƑĄƈŕĿ śĄƔŇƅŔĄƏ ƑĄŗĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ƏŁ ƅƏ Ō ĿřĄƈĆŬĊƂŇƅŔ ĄũĄŲĄţ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ and if
[other] kinsmen. orphans or the poor attend the distribution.
make provision for them out of it [the estate] 2 to approach. to
come to (2:133) Ł ŚĆ ƏĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ŖƏŁ ƂĆ ŸĄ Ɣ Ą ũĄ ŲĄ ţ Ň Ũ ŏ Ą ʼnŔĄ ŧĄ ƎŁ Ů Ć ƇŁ śŇ ƊŁ Ƅ Ć Ƈ Ō were you there to
bear witness when death came to Jacob'
ăŧăŰąš Ŋ `ahdara [v. IV. trans.] 1 to bring. to cause to be present
(19:68) ĄƏĿ ž ŕĎ ƔĊŝŃŠ ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠ .ĆƏĄţ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄũĊŲĆţŁ ƊĿ ƅ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĄƉƔĊųŕĄƔİ ŮƅŔĄƏ ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĄũŁ ŮĆţĿ ƊĿ ƅ ĄƃĐ ŗĄũ so by your
Lord We will gather them together with the devils. and set them
around Hell kneeling 2 to put forward. to bring about. to submit
(81:12-13) ĄŠŇƅŔ ŔĿŨŏĄƏ Ň ŚĄ ũĄ ŲĆ ţ Ō ॠƈ Ĉ ūŇ ſĿ Ɗ Ň ŚĄ ƈĊ ƆĄ ŷ Ň ŚĿ ſ ƅĆ Ū Ō Ł řİ Ɗ and when Paradise is
brought near, then every soul will know what it has brought
about.
ă ŧĉ Űąš Ŋ `uhdira [pass. of doubly trans v. IV] to be brought
*(4:128) Č Ţı ŮƅŔ ą ūŁ ſŇƊ ƗŔ Ċ ŚĄ ũĊ ŲĆţ ŌĄ Ə human souls are ever prone to
stinginess [lit. stinginess is brought close to souls].
ćŧĉŰœăš hãdir [act. part.; pl. ƉƏą ũĊ Ųॠţ hãdirün; fem. Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ Ųॠţ
hãdiratun] 1 present. there close at hand (18:49) ŔƏŁ ƆĊ ƈĄ ŷ ॠƈ ŔƏą ŧĄ ŠĄ ƏĄ Ə
Ŕć ũĊ Ųॠţ and they will find what they did. there [in front of them] 2
ready. current. in hand (2:283) ĆƇŁƄĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ ŕĄƎĿ ƊƏą ũƔĊŧŁś ĻŘĄũĊŲŕĄţ ĻŘĄũॊĊś ĄƉƏŁƄĿś ĆƉŌ İƛŏ
ॠƍƏą ŗŁ śŇƄĿ ś İ ƛ Ō ĈšŕĿ Ɗą Š ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ūĆƔĿ ƆĿ ž but if the merchandise is there and you
hand it over. there is no blame on you if you do not write it down
3 residing at. a resident of (2:196) Ń ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇ ƅŔ Ċ ŧŃ ŠĆ ŬĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ ƒŃ ũĊ Ųॠţ ą ƌŁ ƆĆ ƍ Ō Ć ƉŁ ƄĄ Ɣ Ć ƇĿ ƅ Ć ƉĄ ƈ ƅ
this applies to those whose family is not residing near the Sacred
Mosque 4 adjacent to. bordering on. by (7:163) ĊřĄƔĆũĿ ƂŇƅŔ ŃƉĄŷ ĆƇą ƎŇƅ ōĆŬŔĄƏ ƓĊśİƅŔ
ĄƉƏą ŧĆŸĄƔ ŇŨŏ ŃũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ Ŀ ŘĄũĊŲŕĄţ ŇŚĿ ƊŕĿƄ ƑĊ ž Ċ ŚĆŗČ ŬƅŔ and ask them about the township
by the sea, how its people used to break the Sabbath.
ćŧăŰąšĄ Ɔ muhdar [pass. part.; pl. ƉƏą ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈ muhdarün] 1 that which
is brought (3:30) ı .Ł Ƅ ą ŧŃ ŠĿ ś Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ ŔćũĄŲĆţą ƈ ľũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ŇŚĿ ƆĊƈĄŷ ŕĄƈ ľūŇſĿƊ on the Day
when every soul finds all the good it has done brought [before it]
2 brought there. made ready (36:75) ĈŧŇƊą Š ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə ĆƇą ƍĄ ũĆŰĿ Ɗ Ą ƉƏą ŸƔĊ ųĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ
Ą ƉƏą ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈ they cannot help them although they are for them an

ş [ ů [ ů
218
army made ready 3 to be handed over. to be taken (37:57) Ł řĄ ƈĆŸĊ Ɗ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅĄƏ
Ą ƉƔŃ ũĄ ŲĆţą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ł ŚŇƊŁ ƄĿ ƅ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ had it not been for the grace of my Lord. I
would also have been one of those taken to Hell.
ćŧăŰĽřąšĄ Ɔ muhtadar [pass. part./v. n.] that which is attended.
witnessed or that which is taken in turns (54:28) ĽřĄ ƈĆŬĊ Ɓ Ą ʼnॠƈŇƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō ĆƇą ƎœĐ ŗĿ ƊĄ Ə
ĈũĄŲĿśĆţą ƈ ľŖĆũĊŮ ı .Ł Ƅ ĆƇą ƎĿƊĆƔĄŗ and instruct them. the water is to be shared
between them-each drinking is to be attended [by those whose
turn it is (or. each drinking side shall come to the water on their
day in turn)].

ş [ ů [ ů h-d-d foot of a mountain. depth. bottom of a valley; to
incite. to encourage. to urge. Of this root. two forms occur three
times in the Qur`an: čűą ţĄ Ɣ yahudd twice and Ŀ ś ƉƏč ŲŕĄţ tahãddün
once.
ČůĄ šă ƒ yahudd [imperf. of v. Č űĄ ţ hadda. trans.] to urge. to
instigate. to encourage (69:34) ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ č űą ţĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŃƉƔĊƄĆŬĊƈŇƅŔ ŃƇŕĄŸĿų he never
encouraged feeding the poor.
ƇƍČ Űœă šĽ ř tahãddün [imperf. of v. VI Č űॠţĿ ś tahãdda. with prefix
.ś elided] to urge one another. to encourage one another (89:18)
ŃƉƔĊƄĆŬĊƈŇƅŔ ŃƇŕĄŸĿų ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƏčŲŕĄţĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ and you do not urge one another to feed
the poor.

ş [ ű [ Ŕ h-t-b firewood. to gather wood for burning. fuel; to gossip.
Of this root. ĈŖĿųĄţ hatab occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ŔĽ űă š hatab [coll. n.] firewood. fuel (72:15) ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠƅ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ ƄĿ ž ĄƉƏŁ ųĊŬŕĿƂŇƅŔ ŕČ ƈŌĄƏ
ŕć ŗĿ ųĄ ţ but for those who are unjust. they are firewood for Hell;
*(111:4) ŃŖĿ ųĄţŇƅŔ Ŀ řĿ ƅŕČ ƈĄ ţ interpreted as either a gossip monger. or. one
who carries thorny wood and throws it in the road frequented by
the Prophet and his companions [lit. the firewood-carrier].

ş [ ű [ ű h-t-t to take down. to reduce. alleviation. reduction. relief. Ľřİ ųĊţ
hittatun. classified by philologists under this root. is variously
described as being of Hebrew. Nabatean. Syriac or of unknown
origin. Of this root. Ľřİ ųĊţ hittatun occurs once in the Qur`an.
ŗĮ űĉ š hittatun [n./v. n.] forgiveness. putting off [of sins].

ş [ Ų [ Ų
219
unloading (2:58) Ŕ ŕĿƊŇƆŁ Ɓ ŇŨŏĄƏ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆ ŧŔĄ Ə Ŕć ŧĿ ŻĄ ũ Ć ƇŁ ś œĊ Ů Ł ŜĆ ƔĄ ţ ॠƎŇ ƊĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄĿž Ŀ řĄ ƔĆ ũĿ ƂŇ ƅŔ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ŦĆ ŧ
ĆƇŁ ƄŕĄƔŕĿ ųĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ĆũĊſŇżĿƊ Ľřİ ųĊţ ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƁĄƏ ŔćŧČ Šą Ŭ ĄŖŕĄŗŇƅŔ remember when we said. `Enter
this town and eat freely there as you will. but enter its gate
humbly and say. ¨[We beg] for relief [unload us of our sins]''.
then We shall forgive you your sins.

ş [ ű [ ƅ h-t-m to break. to shatter. to crush; fragment. piece; wreckage.
debris; a cruel person; a glutton; severe. Of this root. three forms
occur six times in the Qur`an: ą ƇĊ ųĆţĄ Ɣ yahtim once; ĈƇŕĿųą ţ hutãm three
times and ĽřĄƈĿųą ţ hutamatun twice.
Ą ƅĉ űąšă ƒ yahtim [imperf. v.. trans.] to crush. smash up. break into
small pieces (27:18) ą Ƌą ŧƏŁƊą ŠĄƏ ą ƉŕĄƈĆƔĿ Ɔą Ŭ ĆƇŁƄİƊĄƈĊųĆţĄƔ Ŀƛ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƊĊƄŕĄŬĄƈ ŔƏŁƆŁŦĆŧŔ .ĆƈİƊƅŔ ŕĄƎčƔŌŕĄƔ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ
ĄƉƏą ũą ŸŇŮĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ants!. go into your homes. lest Solomon and his hosts
crush you while they are unaware.
ćƅœĽűĄ š hutãm [coll. n.; pl. of. n. Ľ řĄ ƈŇųĄ ţ hutmatun] wreckage. debris.
smithereens (56:65) İ ƄĿ ſĿ ś ĆƇŁ śŇƆĿ ŴĿ ž ŕćƈŕĿ ųą ţ ą ƋŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĿ ƅ ą ʼnŕĿ ŮĿ Ɗ ĆƏĿ ƅ Ą ƉƏą Ǝ if We willed. We
could turn it [your harvest] into debris. and leave you wailing.
ĻŗăƆĽűĄ š hutamatun [intens. act. part.] crusher. smasher. an epithet
of Hellfire (104:4) İ ƜĿ Ƅ Č ƉĿ ŨĄŗŇƊą ƔĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ĊřĄƈĿ ųą ţŇƅŔ no indeed!. he will be thrust
into the Crusher!

ş [ Ų [ ŧ h-z-r enclosure. animal pen. barn. to fence in; to prohibit; ban.
Of this root. two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: ĈũƏŁ ŴĆţĄƈ
mahzür and ĈũĊŴĿśĆţą ƈ muhtazir.
ćŧƍĿ Ųąšă Ɔ mahzür [pass. part.] limited. prevented. stopped.
restricted (17:20) ĊʼnŕĿųĄŷ ĆƉĊƈ ĊʼnĿƛŎĄƍĄƏ ĊʼnĿ ƛŎĄƍ čŧĊƈŁƊ ƜŁƄ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ ą ʼnŕĿ ųĄ ŷ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ
ŔćũƏŁ ŴĆţĄƈ to both. We give of your Lord's bounty. your Lord's bounty
is not restricted.
ćŧĉŲĽřąšĄ Ɔ muhtazir [act. part.] one who has/takes/constructs an
enclosure for animals; animal fodder (54:31) Ļ řĄ ţĆƔĄ Ű ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŬĆũ Ō ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
Ń ũĊ ŴĿ śĆ ţą ƈŇ ƅŔ Ń ƇƔĊ ŮĄ ƎĿ Ƅ ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿ ƄĿ ž Ļ ŘĄ ŧĊ ţŔĄ Ə We sent a single cry against them. and they
became like dry sticks of a pen-builder.

ş [ Ų [ Ų h-z-z luck. good fortune. a fortunate person; a share. an
allocation. Of this root. Į ŴĄ ţ h-z-z occurs seven times in the

ş [ Ż [ ť
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Qur`an.
Ĭ Ųă š h-z-z [n.] 1 share. portion (4:11) ŃƉĆƔĄƔĿ ŝŇƊ ƗŔ IJ ŴĄţ .ŇŝĊƈ ŃũĿ Ƅİ ŨƆƅ to the
male is the like of the share of two females 2 luck. good fortune
(28:79) ŇŝĊƈ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚĆƔĿ ƅŕĄƔ ľƇƔĊŴĄŷ į ŴĄţ ƏŁ ŨĿƅ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ą ƉƏą ũŕĿƁ ĄƓĊśƏ Ō ŕĄƈ . if only we had the
like of what Qãrün has been given. he really has good fortune.

ş [ Ż [ ť h-f-d briskness; to care for. to aid; entourage. household;
daughters. extended family. grandchildren. in-laws. family
lineage. Of this root. ĽŘĄŧĿ ſĄţ hafadatun occurs once in the Qur`an.
ĻŖ㝼 Žăš hafadatun [pl. of n./act. part. ŧĊžŕĄţ hãfid] 1 grandchildren.
offspring. in-laws generally (in an interpretation of 16:72) ĆƇŁƄĿƅ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ
Ŀ ſĄ ţĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĄ ŗ Ć ƇŁ ƄŃ ŠŔĄ ƏĆ Ū Ō Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ļ ŘĄ ŧ and He has given you through your spouses
children and grandchildren 2 daughters (in another interpretation
of 16:72) ĻŘĄŧĿ ſĄţĄƏ ĄƉƔĊƊĄŗ ĆƇŁƄŃŠŔĄƏĆŪŌ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ and He has given you
through your spouses sons and daughters.

ş [ Ż [ ŧ h-f-r hoof; to dig. to carve. to engrave. hole in the ground.
pit; to expose; to return to the original state. a former state; to
emaciate. Of this root. two forms occur once each in the Qur`an:
ĽŘĄũŇſą ţ hufratun and Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ žŕĄ ţ hãfiratun.
ĻŖăŧŅŽĄ š hufratun [n.] pit (3:103) ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ŨĿ ƂŇƊ ōĿ ž Ń ũŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ċ ŘĄ ũŇſą ţ ŕĿ ſĿ Ů ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ ƄĄƏ
and you were on the brink of a pit of the Fire and He saved you
from it.
Ļ Ŗă ŧĉ żœă š hãfiratun [n./act. part. fem.] original state. original or
former condition (79:10-11) Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ ĄƉƏą ŧƏą ŧĆũĄƈĿ ƅ ŕİ Ɗœ Ō ƑĊ ž Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ žŕĄ ţŇƅŔ ŕć ƈŕĿ ŴĊ ŷ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ ŔĿ Ũ œ Ō
ĻŘĄũĊŦĿ Ɗ they say. `What'. shall we be brought back to the original
state [life]. after we have turned into decayed bones''

ş [ Ż [ Ų h-f-z to keep. to preserve. to maintain; to remember. to learn.
to internalise; to guard. to protect; to entrust. custodian; to be
attentive. to be constant; to anger. grudge. rancour. Of this root.
10 forms occur 43 times in the Qur`an: ŴĊſĄţ hafiza five times;
ƉƏŁ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţą Ɣ yuhãfizün four times; ŔƏŁ ŴĊ ſĆţŁ śĆŬĊ Ŕ `istuhfizü once; ŴŇſĊţ hifz three
times; ĽŴĊžŕĄţ hãfiz twice; ŚŕĿ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ hãfizãt twice; ƉƏŁ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ hãfizün 10
times; ĽřĿ ŴĿ ſĄţ hafazatun once; ĽŴƔĊſţ hafïz 11 times and ĽŴƏŁ ſĆţĄƈ mahfüz

ş [ Ż [ Ų
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twice.
Ľ ŲĉŽăš hafiza a [v. trans.] 1 to guard (15:17) IJ.ŁƄ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĄƍŕĿ ƊŇŴĊſĄţĄƏ ľ ƉŕĿ ųĆƔĿ Ů
ľ ƇƔŃ ŠĄ ũ and We guarded it from every outcast devil; *(24:30) ŔƏŁŴĿſĆţĄƔ
ĆƇą ƎĄ ŠƏą ũŁ ž to guard their chastity (or. to guard against commiting any
sin) [lit. guard their private parts. or. to guard all their bodily
orifices]; *(5:89) ĆƔ Ō ŔƏŁ ŴĿ ſĆţŔ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ Ɗॠƈ either be true to your oaths or. do
not be too liberal in taking an oath [lit. guard/keep your oaths] 2
to take care of (12:65) ŕĿ ƊŕĿ Ŧ Ō Ł ŴĿ ſĆţĿ ƊĄ Ə ŕĿ ƊĿ ƆĆƍ Ō ą ũƔĊ ƈĿ ƊĄ Ə we will get provisions
for our household and we will take care of our brother.
Ŀ Ųĉ żœă šĄ ƒ yuhãfiz [imperf. of v. III Ŀ ŴĿ žŕĄ ţ hãfaza. intrans. with prep.
ƑƆĄ ŷ] to be constant at. to be mindful of. to keep up (6:92) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ
ĄƉƏŁŴĊžŕĄţą Ɣ ĆƇŃƎĊśĿ ƜĄŰ and they maintain their prayer.
Ľ Ųĉ ŽąšĿ řąŪĉ Œ `istuhfiza [pass. of v. X ŏ ĆŬ Ŀ ś Ŀ ſţ Ŀ Ŵ `istahfaza] to be
entrusted to preserve. to be made to guard (5:44) ŃŖŕĿ śĊƄ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏŁ ŴĊſĆţŁ śĆŬŔ ŕĄƈŃŗ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ in accordance with that part of the Book of God which they
were entrusted to preserve.
ĻŲŅŽĉš hifz [v. n./n.] 1 the act of guarding. keeping watch.
protecting (37:6-7) ľ ƉŕĿ ųĆƔĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĻ ŴŇſĊ ţĄ Ə Ń ŖĊ ƄŔĄ ƏĿ ƄŇƅŔ ċ řĿ ƊƔŃ ŪŃŗ ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ ŕİ ƊČ ƔĄ Ū ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
ċ ŧŃ ũॠƈ We have adorned the sky with stars. and with protection
against every rebellious devil 2 preserving. maintaining
(2:255) ą ƌčƔĊ ŬĆũŁ Ƅ Ą ŶĊ ŬĄ Ə ŁŕĄƈą ƎŁŴŇſĊţ ą Ƌą ŧƏœĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĄűĆũƗŔĄƏ ĊŚŔĄƏĄƈČŬƅŔ His throne
embraces the heavens and the earth, preserving them both does
not weary Him.
ĻŲĉżœăš hãfiz [act. part.; pl. masc. ƉƏŁ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ hãfizün; pl. fem. ŚŕĿ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ
hãfizãt] 1 one who guards. keeps watch over. keeper (12:64) ą ƌİƆƅŕĿž
ŕĻ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ God is the best guardian; *(12:81) ŕƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ŴĊ žŕĄ ţ Ń ŖĆƔĿ żŇƆ ƅ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ we
could not guard against the unforeseen; *(4:34) ŃŖĆƔĿ żŇƆƅ ĽŚŕĿ ŴĊžŕĄţ true
to their husbands in their absence. guarding their fidelity [lit.
guarding during the absence; or. the secrets of her husband] 2
one who preserves. maintains (15:9) ĄƉƏŁ ŴĊžŕĄţĿ ƅ ą ƌĿƅ ŕİ ƊŏĄƏ ĄũŇƄIJ ŨƅŔ ŕĿƊŇƅČ ŪĿƊ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ŕİ Ɗŏ
We. it is. who have sent down the Remembrance. and We.
Ourselves. are guarding it.
Ųƒĉ Žă š hafïz [intens. act. part.; pl. řĿ ŴĿ ſĄ ţ hafazatun] 1 keeper.
guardian (6:104) ŕĄƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŸĿ ž ĄƓĊƈĄŷ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ĊƌĊŬŇſĿƊĊƆĿž ĄũĄŰĆŗ Ō ĆƉĄƈĿž ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ ą ũœŕĄŰĄŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĄʼnॊ ĆŧĿ Ɓ
ċŴƔĊſĄţŃŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ Ɗ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ clear proof has come to you from your Lord. so

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whoever sees [clearly]. it is for his own [gain], and whoever
becomes blind [to it]. it is to his own [loss-Say]. `I am not your
keeper' 2 comprehensive. preserving (50:4) ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą ůŁ ƂŇƊĿ ś ॠƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƈĊ ƆĄ ŷ ĆŧĿ Ɓ
ĽŴƔĊſĄţ ĈŖŕĿśĊƄ ŕĿƊĄŧŇƊĊŷĄƏ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈ We know what the earth diminishes from them.
with Us is a record preserving [everything] 3 constant.
preserving. diligent. attentive. heedful (50:32) ľŖŔČ Ə Ō IJ .Ł Ƅƅ ĄƉƏą ŧĄŷƏŁ ś ŕĄƈ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ
ċ ŴƔĊ ſĄ ţ this is what you were promised-this is for every penitent and
heedful one 4 watchful (42:6) ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ľ ŴƔĊ ſĄ ţ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ʼnॠƔ ƅƏ Ō Ċ ƌĊ ƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə
.ƔĊƄĄƏŃŗ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĿŚŇƊŌ ŕĄƈĄƏ as for those who take protectors other than Him.
God is watching over them, you are not responsible for them 5
protector. guard; recorder (6:61) ĻřĿŴĿſĄţ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .ĊŬĆũą ƔĄƏ ĊƋĊŧŕĄŗĊŷ Ŀ ƀĆƏĿ ž ą ũĊƍŕĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ
ŕĿƊŁ Ɔą Ŭą ũ ą ƌŇśİ žĄƏĿ ś Ł ŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĄŧĄţ Ō Ąʼnॊ ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ He is the Supreme Master over His
subjects. He sends out recorders/protectors to watch over you
until. when death comes to any of you. Our messengers claim
him.
ĻŲƍĿ ŽąšăƆ mahfüz [pass. part.] 1 guarded. secured (21:32) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ
ŕĻ ŴƏŁ ſĆţĄ ƈ ŕĻ ſŇƂĄ Ŭ Ą ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ and We made the sky a well-secured canopy 2
well-kept. maintained (85:22) ƑĊ ž ċŴƏŁ ſĆţĄƈ ľšĆƏĿ ƅ [written] on a
protected. or guarded Tablet.

ş [ Ż [ Ż h-f-f sides of a mountain; entourage; to surround. to
encompass; to clip. to trim. edges; paucity of food. Of this root.
two forms occur once each in the Qur`an: ŕĿ ƊŇſĿ ſĄ ţ hafafnã and ƉƔIJžŕĄţ
hãffïn.
Į Żă š haffa u [v. trans.] to encircle. to surround (18:32) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ
ŕć ŷĆũĄ Ū ॠƈą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə .ŇŦĿ ƊŃ ŗ ॠƈą ƍŕĿ ƊŇſĿſĄ ţĄ Ə ľ ŖŕĿ ƊĆŷ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ Ń ƉĆƔĿ śİ ƊĄ Š ॠƈĊ ƍĊ ŧĄ ţ Ɨ for one of them
We made two gardens of grape vines. surrounded them with date
palms and grew between them planted fields.
Ƈƒİ żœă š hãffïn [pl. of act. part. ŽŕĄ ţ hãff] encircling. surrounding
(39:75) ĆƇŃƎĐ ŗĄũ Ċ ŧĆƈĄ ţŃ ŗ ĄƉƏą ţĐ ŗĄ Ŭą Ɣ ŃŭĆũĄŸŇƅŔ .ĆƏĄţ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĄƉƔIJ žŕĄţ Ŀ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƅŔ ƐĄ ũĿ śĄ Ə and you see
the angels encircling the Throne. proclaiming the praise of their
Lord.

ş [ Ż [ ƍ - Ɛ h-f-w/y condition of chafing. abrading or wearing out of
feet. particularly of camel hooves. caused by long travel barefoot
in the hot desert. barefootedness; to strip bare. to scrape off. to

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trim; to welcome. to be gracious; to dispute; to exact. to harass; to
be knowledgeable. Of this root. two forms occur three times in
the Qur`an: ƓĊ ſĆ ţą Ɣ yuhfï once and ď ƓĊ ſĄ ţ hafiyy twice.
Ƒĉ ŽąšĄ ƒ yuhfï [imperf. of v. IV. trans.] to press. to importune. to
exhort. to put pressure on (47:37) ōĆŬĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏ ŔƏŁ ƆĿ ŦĆŗĿ ś ĆƇŁ ƄĊſĆţą ƔĿ ž ŕĄƍƏą ƈŁ ƄŇƅ if he were
to ask you for them [your possessions] and put pressure on you.
you would be niggardly.
Ď Ƒĉ Žă š hafiyy [quasi-act. part.] 1 kind. caring. welcoming.
gracious (19:47) Ń ŗ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ ƓĐ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƃĿ ƅ ą ũĊ ſŇ żĿ śĆ Ŭ ōĄ Ŭ ŕĎ ƔĊ ſĄ ţ Ɠ I will beg my Lord to
forgive you-He is always gracious to me 2 knowledgeable (also
said to mean solicitous) (7:187) Ą ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ॠƎą ƈŇƆĊ ŷ ॠƈİ Ɗ ŏ .Ł Ɓ ॠƎŇƊĄ ŷ ď ƓĊ ſĄ ţ Ą ƃİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ Ą ƃĿ ƊƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĄ Ɣ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ they ask you as if you are knowledgeable about it [the Hour]
[also interpreted as: as if you must be eager to find out] say.
`Knowledge of it is only with God.'

ş [ ž [ Ŕ h-q-b retention of urine; to store. to collect; saddlebag; long
space of time. year. span of eighty years. Of this root. two forms
occur once each in the Qur`an: ŖŁ Ƃą ţ huqub and ĈŖŕĿƂĆţŌ `ahqãb.
ŔĿ ƀĄ š huqub [either a variant of sing. n. ĈŖŇƂą ţ huqb or its plural] a
year/years (18:60) ŕćŗŁƂą ţ ĄƓĊŲĆƈ Ō ĆƏŌ ŃƉĆƔĄũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ ĄŶĄƈĆŠĄƈ ĿźŁƆĆŗŌ ƑİśĄţ ą šĄũĆŗ Ō Ŀƛ I will not
desist [from journeying] until I reach the place where the two
seas meet. even if I go on for ages.
ćŔœĽ ƀąš Ŋ `ahqãb [pl. of n. ĈŖŇƂą ţ huqb] long period of time. years.
eighty years (78:23) ŕć ŗŕĿ ƂĆţ Ō ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉƔĊ ŝŃ ŗĿ ƛ to stay in it for a long. long
time.

ş [ ž [ Ż h-q-f a curved elongated sand dune. to curve. to turn. base of
a mountain. Of this root. ĽŽŕĿƂĆţƗŔ `al-`ahqãf occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ĻŻœĽƀąšƕŒ `al-`ahqãf [proper n.] the region inhabited by the
people of °ad. said to be located either near Ta°if or Hadramawt
in Arabia and marked by high sand dunes (46:21) ŇŨ ŏ ċ ŧॠŷ ŕĿ Ŧ Ō ĆũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə
ĊŽŕĿƂĆţƗŕŃŗ ą ƌĄƈĆƏĿƁ ĄũĿ ŨŇƊ Ō mention the brother of [the tribe of] ´ãd-when he
warned his people among the sand dunes; * ĽŽŕĿƂĆţƗŔ name of Sura
46. Meccan sura. so-named because of the reference in verse 2 to

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the 'Sand Dunes` where the people of °ad used to live.

ş [ ž [ ž h-q-q the socket into which the head of the thigh bone fits;
(of camels) to reach maturity; centre; truth. to be sure; to verify.
to give someone their dues. to deserve; calamity. affliction; to
dispute. to prove a point. an argument. Of this root. eight forms
occur 268 times in the Qur`an: İ ƀĄ ţ haqqa 18 times; İƀą ţ huqqa
twice; İƀĊ ţą Ɣ yuhiqq four times; İ ƀĄţĿ śĆŬĊŔ `istahaqqa twice; Į ƀĄ ţ haqq 247
times; ı ƀĄ ţ Ō `ahaqq 10 times; ƀƔĊ ƂĄ ţ haqïq 11 times and Ľřİ ƁŕĄţ hãqqatun
three times.
Į žă š haqqa i [v. intrans.] 1 to become just. suitable. applicable
right. fitting. deserved (17:16) ŔƏŁ ƂĄŬĿſĿž ŕĄƎƔĊžĄũŇśą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆũĄƈ Ō ĻřĄƔĆũĿƁ ĄƃĊƆĆƎŁƊ ĆƉŌ ŕĿƊĆŧĄũŌ ŔĿŨŏĄƏ
ĄţĿ ž ŕĄƎƔĊž Ŕć ũƔĊ ƈĆŧĿ ś ॠƍŕĿ ƊĆũČ ƈĄ ŧĿ ž .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ İ ƀ and if We desire to destroy a
township. We command those of its inhabitants who are living at
ease. and they commit abominations in it. so the word [of doom]
becomes just [deserved] against it and We destroy it utterly 2 to
become necessitated. to be realised. to come true (32:13) .ĆƏĿƂŇƅŔ İƀĄţ
ĄƉƔĊŸĄƈĆŠŌ ŃūŕİƊƅŔĄƏ ĊřİƊŃŠŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƇİƊĄƎĄŠ ČƉ ƘĆƈ Ɨ ƓIJƊĊƈ My word has come true-I shall
fill Hell with jinn and men together 3 to become true of. to take
firm hold of (16:36) ŁřĿƅĿƜČŲƅŔ ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŇŚİƂĄţ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈĄƏ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ƐĄŧĄƍ ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈĿž some of
them. God guided, and some were those upon whom error took
firm hold.
ĮžĄ š huqqa [pass. v.] to be made to follow a command. a norm.
or a system (84:1-2) ŇŚİƂą ţĄƏ ŕĄƎĐŗĄũƅ ŇŚĿƊĊŨŌĄƏ ŇŚİƂĿ ŮŇƊŔ ą ʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔ ŔĿŨŏ when the sky is
ripped apart. and submits to its Lord as it is obliged.
įžĉ šĄ ƒ yuhiqq [imperf. of v. IV. ƀţŌ `ahaqqa trans.] to cause to
manifest. to cause to overcome. to confirm. to establish. to
ascertain. to attest (8:7) ĄƉƔŃũĊžŕĿƄŇƅŔ ĄũŃŗŔĄŧ ĄŶĿųŇƂĄƔĄƏ ĊƌĊśŕĄƈĊƆĿƄŃŗ İƀĄţŇƅŔ İƀĊţą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ą ŧƔŃũą ƔĄƏ
and God willed to establish the truth according to His Words and
cut off the roots of the disbelievers.
Į žăšĽ řąŪĉŒ `istahaqqa [v. X. trans.] to deserve. to merit. to qualify
for (5:107) ŕĄƈą ƎĄƈŕĿ ƂĄƈ ŃƉŕĄƈƏŁ ƂĄƔ ŃƉŔĄũĿŦŋĿ ž ŕćƈŇŝŏ ŕİ ƂĄţĿ śĆŬŔ ŕĄƈą Ǝİ ƊŌ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄũĊŝą ŷ ĆƉŐĿž but if it is
discovered that these two have merited [the accusation of] a sin
[i.e. perjured themselves]. then two others should replace them.
Ĭ žă š haqq I [n.] 1 recognized share. claim. right. privilege

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(70:24) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ĄƈƅŔƏ .œŕŬƆƅ ĈƇƏŁ ƆĆŸĄƈ ĮƀĄţ ĆƇŃƎƅŔĄƏĆƈŌ Ćţ ą ũ ƇƏ and those in whose
possessions is a recognised right for the beggar and the deprived
2 justification (3:112) į ƀĄ ţ Ń ũĆƔĿ żŃ ŗ Ą ʼnॠƔŃ ŗŇƊ ƗŔ Ą ƉƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƂĄ ƔĄ Ə and killed the prophets
with no justification 3 duty. dues (6:141) ą ƌİ ƂĄţ ŔƏŁ śŔĄʼnĄƏ ĄũĄƈŇŝ Ō ŔĿ Ũŏ ĊƋŃũĄƈĿŝ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ
ƋĊ ŧॠۥ ţ Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ so eat of their fruit. when they bear fruit. and pay its
dues [the poor's share] on the day of harvesting it 4 correct
argument. just claim (24:49) ĄƉƔĊƊĊŷŇŨą ƈ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ŔƏŁśōĄƔ ıƀĄţŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ ĆƉŁƄĄƔ ĆƉŏĄƏ but if
they have a just claim. they come to him submissively 5 truth
(2:42) ĄŗŇƅŕŃŗ İƀĄţŇƅŔ ŔƏą ŬŃŗŇƆĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆŸĿ ś ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə İ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ ŔƏą ƈŁ śŇƄĿ śĄ Ə .Ċ ųŕ do not mix truth
with falsehood. or hide the truth when you know it 6 liability
(2:282) ą ƌČ ŗĄ ũ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƀİ śĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ċ ƌĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ .ĊƆĆƈą ƔŇƅĄ Ə and let the one with the
liability [the debtor] dictate. and let him fear God. his Lord 7
[always with the definite article] an attribute of God (22:6) Č Ɖ ōŃ ŗ ƃƅŨ
ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ this is [so] because God is the Truth II [quasi-act.
part.] 1 true (3:62) ĄƏą ƎĿ ƅ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ Č Ɖ ŏ ı ƀĄţŇƅŔ ą ůĄŰĿ ƂŇƅŔ this is the true account 2
real (51:23) ĮƀĄţĿ ƅ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ŃűĆũ ƗŔĄƏ ĊʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ Đ ŖĄũĄƏĿ ž by the Lord of the heavens
and earth! It is real. as real as your speaking III [adverbially] 1
truly (8:4) ĄƃœĿ ƅƏ Ō ŃƎĐŗĄũ ĄŧŇƊĊŷ ĽŚŕĄŠĄũĄŧ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ŕĔƂĄţ ĄƉƏŁƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍ ĆƇ those are the
believers truly. for them are degrees with their Lord 2 as it should
be. as it ought to be (3:102) ĊƌĊśŕĿ ƂŁś İƀĄţ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ŔƏŁƂİśŔ ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ŕĄƎčƔŌŕĄƔ you who
believe. be mindful of God. as is His due 3 as a duty incumbent
upon (2:236) ŕĔƂĄţ ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃŗ ŕćŷŕĿ śĄƈ ą Ƌą ũĄŧĿƁ ŃũĊśŇƂą ƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷĄƏ ą Ƌą ũĄŧĿ Ɓ ŃŶĊŬƏą ƈŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ČƉą ƍƏą ŸIJśĄƈĄƏ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ŬĆţą ƈŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ make provision for them. the rich according to his
means and the poor according to his. in a fair manner, as a duty
incumbent upon those who do good.
į žă š Ŋ `ahaqq [elat.] 1 more/most worthy. deserving (5:107)
ŕĄƈŃƎĊśĄŧŕĄƎĿ Ů ĆƉĊƈ ı ƀĄţ Ō ŕĿ ƊŁ śĄŧŕĄƎĿŮĿƅ Ċƌİ ƆƅŕŃŗ ŃƉŕĄƈĊŬŇƂą ƔĿ ž let them swear by God. `Our
testimony is more worthy [of being accepted] than theirs' 2 [used
in the sense of act. part.] having more/most right to do. more/most
worthy of doing (2:228) Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƅ ı .ĊţĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ċʼnƏą ũŁ Ɓ Ŀ řĿ ŝĿ ƜĿ ŝ Č ƉŃ ƎĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ ōŃ ŗ ĄƉĆŰČ ŗĄũĿ śĄƔ Ł ŚŕĿ Ƃİ ƆĿ ųą ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə
ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ॠƈ Ą ƉĆƈŁ śŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ Č ƉĊ ƈŎą Ɣ Č ƉŁ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏ Č ƉŃ ƎĊ ƈॠţĆũ Ō ıƀĄţ Ō ČƉą ƎŁśĿƅƏą Ÿą ŗĄƏ ŃũĊŦƕŔ ŃƇĆƏĄƔŇƅŔĄƏ
Č ƉĊ ƍĐ ŧĄ ũŃ ŗ ƑĊ ž ŕć ţĿ ƜĆ Ű ŏ ŔƏą ŧŔĄ ũ Ō Ć Ɖ ŏ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ divorced women must wait for three
monthly periods [before remarrying]. and. if they really believe
in God and the Last Day. it is not lawful for them to conceal what
God has created in their wombs [pregnancy]. and their husbands
are [more] entitled to take them back (or. more worthy of taking
them back) during this period provided they wish to put things

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right.
Ļžƒĉƀăš haqïq [quasi-act/pass. part.] befitting. incumbent upon.
worthy of (7:105) İ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ İ ƛ ŏ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ .ƏŁ Ɓ Ō Ŀ ƛ ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ľ ƀƔĊ ƂĄţ I am duty-bound
(or. I am disposed) to say nothing about God but the truth.
Ŀ ŗĮ ſœă šƃŒ `al-hãqqatu [act. part. fem. functioning as a proper noun]
that which sorts out truth from falsehood; that which is inevitable
(an epithet of the Day of Judgement) (69:3) ŁřİƁŕĄţŇƅŔ ŕĄƈ ĄƃŔĄũĆŧŌ ŕĄƈĄƏ what
will explain to you what the inevitable Hour is; * Ł řİ ƁॠţƅŔ name of
Sura 69. Meccan sura. so-named because of the reference in
verses 1-3 to the 'Inevitable Hour`.

ş [ Ɓ [ ƅ h-k-m bit of a bridle; to curb. to restrain; to govern. to control;
to judge between. to sentence. to express an opinion. to arbitrate;
wisdom. knowledge; to tighten. to fortify; to recognize. Of this
root. 14 forms occur 209 times in the Qur`an: ĄƇĿ ƄĄţ hakama 45
times; ƉƏą ƈIJƄĄ ţą Ɣ yuhakkimün twice; ą ƇĊ ƄĆţą Ɣ yuhkim once; Ą ƇĊ ƄĆţ Ō `uhkima
once; ŔƏą ƈĿƄŕĄţĿśĄƔ yatahãkamü once; ĈƇŇƄą ţ hukm 30 times; ĈƇĿƄĄţ hakam
three times; ƉƔĊ ƈĊ Ƅॠţ hãkimïn four times; ĈƇŕİ Ƅą ţ hukkãm once; Ľ řĄ ƈŇƄĊ ţ
hikmatun 20 times; ĈƇƔĊƄĄţ hakïm 97 times; ą ƇĿ ƄĆţ Ō `ahkam twice; ĽřĄƈĿƄĆţą ƈ
muhkamatun once and ĽŚŕĄ ƈĿ ƄĆţą ƈ muhkamãt once.
ăƅĽ Ƃăš hakama u [v. intrans.] 1 to pass judgement. to judge
between. to decide a case (4:58) Ł śĆƈĿ ƄĄţ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ .ĆŧĄŸŇƅŕŃŗ ŔƏą ƈŁƄĆţĿ ś ĆƉŌ ŃūŕİƊƅŔ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ ĆƇ
and when you judge between people. judge with justice 2 to
arbitrate (21:78) Ń ƉॠƈŁ ƄĆ ţĄ Ɣ Ň Ũ ŏ Ą ƉॠƈĆ ƔĿ Ɔą ŬĄ Ə Ą ŧą ƏŔĄ ŧĄ Ə ƑĊ ž ŃƇĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŔ ą ƇĿ ƊĿ Ż Ċ ƌƔĊž ŇŚĿ ŮĿ ſĿ Ɗ ŇŨŏ Ċ ŜĆũĄ ţŇƅŔ
and [remember] David and Solomon. when they arbitrated
regarding the field into which sheep strayed by night and grazed
3 to form an opinion. to conclude. to judge (68:36) Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ Ƅ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŕĄƈ Ą ƉƏą ƈŁ ƄĆţĿ ś
what is the matter with you. how can you reach such a
conclusion' 4 to decree. to ordain. to command (5:1) ॠƈ ą ƇŁ ƄĆţĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ God ordains what He will 5 to find a solution. to decide
(12:80) Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ƄॠţŇƅŔ ą ũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ɠ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇŁ ƄĆţĄ Ɣ ĆƏŌ ƓŃ ŗ Ō Ɠ ƅ Ą ƉĿ ŨōĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ą űĆũ ƗŔ Ą šĄ ũĆŗ Ō ĆƉĿ ƆĿ ž
never will I leave this land until my father gives me leave or God
decides for me, He is the best of deciders.
Ą ƅİƂă šĄ ƒ yuhakkim [imperf. of v. II Ą Ƈİ ƄĄ ţ hakkama. trans.] to make
someone judge. to choose someone to arbitrate. to entrust

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someone with judgement. to ask someone to judge or arbitrate
(4:65) Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ ŗ Ą ũĄ ŠĿ ٠ॠƈƔĊ ž Ą ƃƏą ƈIJ ƄĄ ţą Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ą ƉƏŁ ƊĊ ƈŎą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũĄ Ə Ŀ ƜĿ ž but no. by your
Lord. they will not [truly] believe until they make you the judge in
what has erupted between them.
Ą ƅĉ ƂąšĄ ƒ yuhkim [imperf. of v. IV ĄƇĿ ƄĆţ Ō `ahkama. trans.] to protect.
to affirm (22:52) ą ƌİƆƅŔ ą ƇĊƄĆţą Ɣ ČƇŁŝ ą ƉŕĿųĆƔİŮƅŔ ƓĊƂŇƆą Ɣ ŕĄƈ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ŁťĄŬŇƊĄƔĿž Ċ ƌĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn but God
annuls what Satan insinuates and then God affirms His
revelations.
ă ƅĉ Ƃąš Ŋ `uhkima [pass. v. IV] to be perfected. affirmed (11:1) ĈŖŕĿ śĊ Ƅ
ľũƔŃŗĿŦ ľƇƔĊƄĄţ ĆƉą ŧĿ ƅ ĆƉĊƈ ŇŚĿ ƆĐ ŰŁ ž Č ƇŁ ŝ ą ƌŁ śŕĄƔŔĄʼn ŇŚĄƈĊƄĆţ Ō [this is] a Scripture whose
verses are perfected. then set out clearly. from One who is all
wise. all aware.
Ą ƅĽ Ƃœă šĽ řă ƒ yatahãkam [imperf. of v VI intrans. with prep. Ƒƅŏ] to
agree mutually to bring a dispute before a chosen judge (4:60)
Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ŔƏą ũŁ ſŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ŔƏą ũĊ ƈ Ō ĆŧĿ ƁĄ Ə Ċ ŚƏŁ Żŕİ ųƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƄॠţĿ śĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ą ƉƏą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ they want to bring
their disputes to idols for judgement. although they have been
ordered to reject them.
ćƅŅƂĄ š hukm [n.] 1 wisdom. sound judgement (3:79) ĆƉŌ ľũĿ ŮĄŗƅ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ɠ ƅ Ŕć ŧॠŗĊ ŷ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ Ƅ Ń ūŕİ ƊƆ ƅ .ƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ŀ ŘČ Əą ŗı ƊƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔĄ Ə Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƌĄ ƔĊ śŎą Ɣ it is not
for any person to whom God gives the Scripture. wisdom and
prophethood. ever to say to people. `Be my servants/worshippers
apart from God' 2 ordinance. constitution (13:37) ŕć ƈŇƄą ţ ą ƋŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō Ą ƃ ƅĿ ŨĿ ƄĄ Ə
ŕĎ ƔŃŗĄũĄŷ in this way We have sent down the Qur'an as an ordinance
in the Arabic language 3 practices. customs. norms (5:50) Ą ƇŇƄą ţĿ ž Ō
Ą ƉƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ Ċ řČ ƔĊ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇƅŔ do they want judgement according to the customs of
the time of pagan ignorance' 4 verdict. decision (13:41) Ŀ ƛ ą ƇŁ ƄĆţĄ Ɣ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə
Ċ ƌĊ ƈŇƄą ţ ƅ Ą ŖIJ ƂĄ Ÿą ƈ God judges, none reverse His verdict 5 article of law.
verdict. legal judgement of a case (5:43) Ł ŘŔĄ ũĆƏİ śƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍĄ ŧŇƊĊ ŷĄ Ə Ą ƃĿ ƊƏą ƈIJ ƄĄ ţą Ɣ Ŀ ŽĆƔĿ ƄĄ Ə
ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŇƄą ţ ॠƎƔĊ ž how can they come to you for judgement when they
have the Torah with God's judgement 6 will. scheme of things.
wisdom. law (68:48) ƅ ĆũŃ ŗĆŰŕĿ ž ĊŚƏą ţŇƅŔ ŃŖĊţŕĄŰĿƄ ĆƉŁƄĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ĄƃĐŗĄũ ŃƇŇƄą ţ so
[Prophet] patiently submit to your Lord's will. do not be like the
fellow of the whale 7 rule. judgement as to what is right or wrong.
responsibility (12:40) ĆŸĿ ś İ ƛŌ ĄũĄƈ Ō Ċƌİ Ɔƅ İ ƛŏ ą ƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔ ŃƉŏ ą ƇĐ ƔĿ ƂŇƅŔ ą ƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ Ą ƃ ƅĿ Ũ ą ƋŕČ Ɣ ŏ İ ƛ ŏ ŔƏą ŧą ŗ all
command belongs only to God. He ordained that you worship

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none but Him. that is the true faith 8 realm. kingdom. domain.
government (18:26) ą ƃŃ ũŇ Ůą Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ē Ɠ ƅĄ Ə Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌĊ ƊƏą ŧ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć Ƈą ƎĿ ƅ ॠƈ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƈŇƄą ţ ŔćŧĄţŌ Ċƌ they
have no one. other than Him. as a protector, and He allows no
one to share in His realm.
ćƅĽƂăš hakam [quasi-pass./act. part.] arbitrator. arbiter. judge
(4:35) ŕć ƈĿ ƄĄ ţĄ Ə Ċ ƌĊ ƆĆƍ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕć ƈĿ ƄĄ ţ ŔƏŁ ŝĄ ŸĆŗŕĿ ž ॠƈŃ ƎĊ ƊĆƔĄ ŗ Ŀ ƀŕĿ ƂĊ Ů ĆƇŁ śŇſĊ Ŧ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ॠƎĊ ƆĆƍ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ if you fear a
breach between the two. appoint one arbiter from his family and
one from hers.
Ƈƒĉ Ɔĉ Ƃœă š hãkimïn [pl. of act. part. ĈƇĊƄŕĄţ hãkim] 1 judges. arbitrators
(7:87) ŕĄţŇƅŔ ą ũĆƔĿŦ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ŕĿƊĿƊĆƔĄŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƇŁ ƄĆţĄƔ Ƒİ śĄţ ŔƏą ũŃŗĆŰŕĿž Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ Ƅ then be patient till
God judges between us. He is the best of all judges 2 one who
decides (12:80) ą ũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ɠ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƇŁ ƄĆţĄ Ɣ ĆƏ Ō ƓŃ ŗ Ō Ɠ ƅ ĄƉĿ ŨōĄ Ɣ Ƒİ śĄ ţ Ą űĆũ ƗŔ Ą šĄ ũĆŗ Ō ĆƉĿ ƆĿ ž
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĊ ƄॠţŇƅŔ never will I leave this land until my father gives me leave
or God judges for me, He is the best of deciders.
ćƅœĮ ƂĄ š hukkãm [pl. of act. part. ƇĊ Ƅॠţ hãkim and ƇĿ ƄĄţ hakam] either
judges or rulers (2:188) ŃƇŕİ Ƅą ţŇƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ŕĄƎŃŗ ŔƏŁ ƅĆŧŁ śĄƏ .ĊųŕĄŗŇƅŕŃŗ ĆƇŁƄĿƊĆƔĄŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅŔĄƏĆƈŌ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿś ĿƛĄƏ
ōĿ ś ƅ Ą ƉƏą ƈĿ ƆĆ ŸĿ ś Ć ƇŁ śŇ Ɗ ŌĄ Ə Ń ƇŇ ŝ ƙŕŃ ŗ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ .ŔĄ ƏĆ ƈ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĻ ƂƔŃ ũĿ ž ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ do not consume [each
other's] property among yourselves wrongfully. nor use it to
bribe judges/rulers. intending sinfully and knowingly to usurp
parts of other people's property.
ĉ š ĻŗăƆŅƂ hikmatun [n.] wisdom. prudence (4:113) ĄŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƃĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ĄŪŇƊ ŌĄƏ
ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĿ ś ĆƉŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ŕĄƈ Ą ƃĄ ƈİ ƆĄ ŷĄ Ə Ŀ řĄƈŇƄĊţŇƅŔĄ Ə and God has sent down upon you the
Book and the Wisdom. and taught you that which you did not
know.
ćƅƒĉƂăš hakïm [quasi-act. part.] 1 wise (44:4) Ł ƀĄ ũŇſą Ɣ ॠƎƔĊ ž ľƇƔĊƄĄţ ľũĆƈ Ō ı .Ł Ƅ [a
night] when every matter of wisdom is made distinct 2 an
attribute of God. the Wise (3:6) İƛŏ ĄƌĿƅŏ Ŀƛ ą ƇƔĊ ƄĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ŪƔŃ ŪĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ there is no
God but He. the Mighty. the Wise.
Ą ƅĽ Ƃąš Ŋ `ahkam [elat.] more/most wise (95:8) ĄƉƔĊƈĊƄŕĄţŇƅŔ ŃƇĿƄĆţōŃŗ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄūĆƔĿƅŌ
is God not the wisest of rulers/judges'!
ĻŗăƆĽƂąšĄ Ɔ muhkamatun [pass. part. fem; pl. ĽŚŕĄ ƈĿ ƄĆţą ƈ muhkamãt] 1 (as
opposed to ŚŕƎŃ ŗŕŮĿ śą ƈ mutashãbihãt resembling one another. alike
(q.v.)) admitting of a single interpretation. free of ambiguity.
precise (3:7) ą ũĿŦ ŌĄƏ ŃŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ č Ƈ Ō Č Ɖą ƍ ĽŚŕĄƈĿƄĆţą ƈ ĽŚŕĄƔŔĄʼn ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ ĄƃĆƔĿƆĄŷ .ĄŪŇƊŌ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƏą ƍ

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Ľ ŚŕĄ ƎŃ ŗŕĿ ŮĿ śą ƈ it is He who has sent this Book down to you. in which are
verses definite in meaning-these are the essence of the Book-and
others are ambiguous/allegorical 2 it may also mean non-
abrogated. decisive or clearly worded; such interpretations are
possible in (47:20) Əą Ŭ ŇŚĿƅĐŪŁƊ ĿƛĆƏĿƅ ŔƏŁƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ .ƏŁƂĄƔĄƏ ĽřĄ ƈĿ ƄĆţą ƈ ĽŘĄũƏą Ŭ ŇŚĿ ƅŃŪŇƊ Ō ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž ĽŘĄ ũ
ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ŀ ŚĆƔ ŌĄũ .ŕĿ śĊƂŇƅŔ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄũĊƄŁ ŨĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĄƉĊƈ ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĐƓĊŮŇżĄƈŇƅŔ ĄũĿ ŴĿ Ɗ ĄƃĆƔĿƅŏ ĄƉƏą ũŁŴŇƊĄƔ ĈűĄũĄƈ ĆƇŃƎŃŗƏŁƆŁƁ
Ċ ŚĆƏĄ ƈŇƅŔ the believers say. `If only a sura were to be revealed!' Yet
when a clearly worded sura is revealed. and fighting is mentioned
in it. you see those in whose hearts is sickness looking at you
[Prophet] with the look of one fainting because of [the approach
of] death.

ş [ J [ Ż h-l-f to be solid; an oath. to swear. to take an oath; to become
an ally. to enter into an alliance. an alliance. Of this root. two
forms occur 13 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĄţ halafa 12 times and ĽŽİ ƜĄţ
hallãf once.
Ľ ŻĽ Ƅăš halafa i [v. intrans. with ƑƆŷ which is often elided] to
swear. to take an oath (9:56) ĆţĄ ƔĄ Ə ĆƇŁƄŇƊĊƈĿ ƅ ĆƇą ƎİƊŏ ĊƌİƆƅŕŃŗ ĄƉƏŁſĊƆ and they swear by
God that they belong with you; *(58:14) ŃŖĊŨĿƄŇƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƉƏŁ ſĊƆĆţĄƔ they
swear to the truthfulness of a falsehood [lit. they swear on the
lying].
ĻŻĮ ƚăš hallãf [intens. act. part.] one given to too much swearing.
one who takes oaths too easily and too often (68:10) İ .Ł Ƅ ĆŶĊ ųŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ľ ƉƔŃ ƎĄ ƈ ċ Žİ ƜĄ ţ and do not yield to any contemptible swearer.

ş [ J [ ž h-l-q throat; circle. to encircle; to fly. to hover. to circle in the
air; to peel off. to shave off hair; famine. Of this root. two forms
occur once each in the Qur`an: Ł ƀĊ ƆĆţĿ ś tahliq and ƉƔĊ ƂIJ ƆĄ ţą ƈ muhalliqïn.
Ŀ žĉ ƄąšĽ ř tahliq [imperf. of v. Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĄţ halaqa. trans.] to shave off. to
shave (2:196) Ąƈ ą ƒĆŧĄƎŇƅŔ Ŀ źŁ ƆĆŗĄƔ Ƒİ śĄţ ĆƇŁ ƄĄŬƏą ʼną ũ ŔƏŁ ƂĊƆĆţĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ą ƌİƆĊ ţ Do not shave your
heads until the offering has reached its place of sacrifice.
Ƈƒĉ ƀİ Ƅă šĄ Ɔ muhalliqïn [pl. of intens. act. part. ĽƀIJ ƆĄţą ƈ muhalliq] ones
having their hair shaved (48:27) Ċ ƈŔĄ ʼn ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ʼnŕĿ Ů ĆƉ ŏ Ą ƇŔĄ ũĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ŧŃ ŠĆŬĄ ƈŇƅŔ Č ƉŁ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĿ śĿ ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ Ɗ
Ą ƉƔŃ ũĐ ŰĿ Ƃą ƈĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŬƏą ʼną ũ Ą ƉƔĊ ƂIJ ƆĄ ţą ƈ you shall indeed enter the Sacred Mosque. if
God wills. secure. having your heads shaven or cropped.

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ş [ J [ ž [ ƅ h-l-q-m throat. gullet. windpipe; extreme ends. dates ripe at
one end. Of this root. ĈƇƏŁ ƂŇƆą ţ hulqüm occurs once in the Qur`an.
ć ƅƍĿ ƀŅƄĄ š hulqüm [n.] throat. gullet. windpipe (56:83) Ċ ŚĿ żĿ ƆĄ ŗ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƆĿ ž
Ą ƇƏŁ ƂŇƆą ţŇƅŔ if only when it [the soul of a dying person] comes up to his
throat.

ş [ J [ J h-l-l locale. residing area. township; stopping place. way
station; to unpack. to come down. to take up residence. to
terminate one`s travelling; to become permissible. to become free.
spouse; to untie. to solve; to dissolve; to deserve. Of this root.
nine forms occur 52 times in the Qur`an: İ .Ą ţ halla 14 times; İ .Ą ţ Ō
`ahalla 11 times; İ.Ċţ Ō `uhilla nine times; Į .Ċ ţ hill five times; .ĿƜĄţ
halãl six times; .œĿ ƜĄţ halã`il once; Ľřİ ƆĊţĿś tahillatun once; Į .Ċ ţĄ ƈ mahill
three times and Į .Ċ ţą ƈ muhill twice.
Į Jă š halla I [imperf. ı .Ċ ţĄ Ɣ yahill v. intrans. with .ƅ] 1 [jur.] to be
or become religiously lawful. permissible. allowable (4:19) ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ
ŕć ƍĆũĿ Ƅ Ą ʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ ŔƏŁ ŝŃ ũĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ı .Ċ ţĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ you who believe. it is not
lawful for you to inherit women against their will 2 [with Ɔŷ Ƒ ] to
become deserved. to become inevitable; to fall upon (in the main
reading of the occurrences in verses 11:39; 20:81; 20:86; 39:40)
(20:86) ĆƏĄƈ ĆƇŁ śŇſĿ ƆŇŦ ōĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ĉ ŖĄŲĿ Ż ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ İ .Ċ ţĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ śĆŧĄũ Ō ĆƇ Ō ą ŧĆƎĄ ŸŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .ŕĿ ųĿ ž Ō ƒĊŧĊŷ
did my presence amongst you become a distant memory to you'
or. was my being away too long for you' [lit. did my being
amongst you seem too distant (for you)?] or did you desire that
anger from God befall you, so you broke your promise to me? II
[imperf. ı.ą ţĄ Ɣ yahull] 1 [v. trans.] to untie. to release. to free. to
undo. to loosen (20:27) ƓĊ ƊॠŬ ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ļ ŘĄ ŧŇƂą ŷ .Ł ƆĆţŔĄ Ə and loosen a knot from
my tongue 2 [v. intrans.] a) [jur.] to become free of religious
obligations of the pilgrimage (5:2) ŔĿŨŏĄƏ ŔƏą ŧŕĿ ųĆŰŕĿ ž ĆƇŁ śŇƆĿ ƆĄţ but when you
have quitted [the state of] the pilgrimage sanctity. you may hunt
b) to alight. to ascend (13:31) ĽřĄ ŷŃ ũŕĿ Ɓ ŔƏą ŸĿ ƊĄ Ű ŕĄ ƈŃ ŗ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƔĊ ŰŁ ś ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ .ŔĄ ŪĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄƏ
ĆƇĊƍŃũŔĄŧ ĆƉĊƈ ŕćŗƔŃũĿƁ ı.ą ţĿ ś ĆƏŌ as for those who disbelieve. disaster will not
cease to strike them. or fall close to their homes. because of what
they do c) [with ƑƆŷ] (in a variant reading of the occurrences in
verses 11:39; 20:81; 20:86; 39:40) to come upon. to fall upon
(20:86) ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .ŕĿ ųĿ ž Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĐ ŗĄũ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĈŖĄŲĿ Ż ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ İ .Ċ ţĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĆƇŁ śĆŧĄũ Ō ĆƇ Ō ą ŧĆƎĄ ŸŇƅŔ was my

ş [ J [ J
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absence too long for you'. or did you desire that anger from God
befall you'
Į Jă š Ŋ `ahalla [v. IV] I [trans.] 1 to make something religiously
permissible. make lawful (7:157) Ŀ ŜœŕĄŗĿŦŇƅŔ ą ƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƇĐũĄţą ƔĄƏ ĊŚŕĄŗĐƔİųƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿƅ ı.Ċţą ƔĄƏ
who makes lawful to them good things. and makes unlawful to
them bad things 2 [jur.] to violate the sanctity of religious
obligations œŕĄ ŸĿ Ů ŔƏı ƆĊ ţŁ ś Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ąũ you who believe. do not
violate God's rites II [doubly trans.] to cause someone to take an
abode (14:28) ŃũŔĄƏĄŗŇƅŔ ĄũŔĄŧ ĆƇą ƎĄƈĆƏĿƁ ŔƏıƆĄţŌĄƏ ŔćũŇſŁƄ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĿřĄƈĆŸĊƊ ŔƏŁƅČŧĄŗ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ĄũĿś ĆƇĿƅŌ have
you given thought to those who exchange God's favour for
ingratitude and cause their people to end up in the home of utter
ruin.
ĮJĉš Ŋ `uhilla [v. pass.] to be made religiously allowable (5:5) Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ
Ł ŚŕĄ ŗĐ Ɣİ ųƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ İ .Ċ ţ Ō today all good things have been made lawful for
you.
ĉ š Ĭ J hill I [quasi-act. part.] one who is residing in a place. a
resident (as in one interpretation of verse 90:2) ĊŧĿ ƆĄŗŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƎŃŗ Į.Ċţ ĿŚŇƊŌĄƏ and
you [Prophet] are an inhabitant of this city II [quasi-pass. part.]
[jur.] being religiously lawful. allowable (60:10) ċŚŕĿ ƊĊƈŎą ƈ ČƉą ƍƏą ƈŁśĆƈĊƆĄŷ ĆƉŐĿž
Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƅ Ą ƉƏı ƆĊ ţĄ Ɣ ĆƇą ƍ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Į.Ċ ţ Č Ɖą ƍ Ŀ ƛ Ń ũŕİ ſŁ ƄŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Č Ɖą ƍƏą ŸŃ ŠĆũĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž and if you conclude
that they are believers. do not send them back to the disbelievers.
they are not lawful [as wives] for them. nor do the disbelievers]
make lawful [husbands] for them.
JĽƚăš halãl [v. n./n. in apposition] [jur.] that which is religiously
allowable. lawful or permissible (the opposite of ĈƇŔĄũĄţ harãm
(q.v.)) (16:116) Ň ƅ Ō Ł ŽĊ ŰĿ ś ॠƈ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ŔƏą ũĿśŇſĿśƅ ĈƇŔĄũĄţ ŔĿŨĄƍĄƏ .ĿƜĄţ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĄŖĊŨĿƄŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄŁ śĿƊĊŬ
ĄŖĊŨĿƄŇƅŔ Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ do not describe the falsehood your tongues utter.
[saying]. `This is lawful and that is forbidden'. inventing a lie
about God.
JőĽ ƚăš halã`il [pl. n./quasi-pass. part. .ƔĊƆĄţ halïl and ĽřĿƆƔĊƆĄţ
halïlatun] a spouse. a lawful wife or husband (4:23) ą ƇŁƄœŕĿƊĆŗŌ .œĿ ƜĄţĄƏ
ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ŗĿ ƜĆŰ Ō ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ and the wives of your begotten sons who are of
your loins.
ĻŗĮ ƄĉšĽř tahillatun [n.; v. n.] dissolving. annulling. releasing.
expiating (66:2) ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƊॠƈĆƔ Ō Ŀ řİ ƆĊ ţĿ ś ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą űĄ ũĿ ž ĆŧĿ Ɓ God has ordained a way

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for you [believers] to release you from [such of] your oaths.
Ĭ Jĉ šă Ɔ mahill [n. of place or time] the place and/or the time where
something becomes lawful. permissible. the correct place/time
(22:33) Ċ ƀƔĊ śĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ċ ŚĆƔĄ ŗŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ॠƎı ƆĊ ţĄ ƈ Č ƇŁ ŝ then their correct place of sacrifice is
near the ancient House.
Ĭ Jĉ šĄ Ɔ muhill [act. part.] [jur.] one who violates what God has
made as ĈƇŔĄũĄţ harãm. forbidden. religiously unlawful; or one who
treats something as religiously lawful. or permissible (5:1) Ą ũĆƔĿ Ż
ĈƇą ũą ţ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ŧĆƔČ ŰƅŔ ƓIJ ƆĊ ţą ƈ not considering as permissible killing game
while you are in the state of the pilgrimage sanctity.

ş [ J [ ƅ h-l-m dream. to dream. to have wet dreams. to attain puberty;
to gain wisdom. to be patient. clemency; a sensible person;
nipple. a young goat. Of this root. three forms occur 24 times in
the Qur`an: ĈƇŁ Ɔą ţ hulum twice; Ĉ ƇĿ ƜĆţ Ō `ahlãm four times and ĈƇƔĊƆĄţ halïm
18 times.
ćƅĿ ƄĄ š hulum [v. n./n.] dream. wet dream *(24:58) Ą ƇŁ Ɔą ţŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ żŁ ƆĆŗĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ ŨİƅŔ
those who have not reached or attained puberty [lit. the ones who
have not yet attained wet dreams].
ć ƅĽ ƚąš Ŋ `ahlãm I [pl. of n. ĈƇŇƆą ţ hulm and ĈƇŁ Ɔą ţ hulum] dreams (12:44)
ĄƉƔĊƈƅŕĄŸŃŗ ŃƇĿ ƜĆţ ƗŔ .ƔŃƏōĿśŃŗ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ŕĄƈ we are not knowledgeable in the
interpretation of dreams; *(12:44) ƇĿ ƜĆţ Ō Ł ŜŕĿ żĆŲ Ō muddled. jumbled
dreams [lit. stalks of dreams] II [pl. of nominalised v.n. ĈƇŇƆĊţ hilm]
rationality. sensibility. intelligence. reason. mind (52:30-2) ĆƇ Ō
ĄƉƏŁ ŻŕĿ ų ĈƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƇą ƍ ĆƇ Ō ŔĿ ŨĄƎŃŗ ĆƇą Ǝą ƈĿ ƜĆţ Ō ĆƇą ƍą ũą ƈōĿ ś does their reason really tell them to
do this. or are they simply insolent people'
ćƅƒĉ Ƅă š halïm [intens. act. part.] 1 forbearing. patient. sensible.
prudent (11:75) ĈŖƔĊƊą ƈ ĈƋŔČ ƏŌ ĈƇƔĊƆĄţĿƅ ĄƇƔĊƍŔĄũĆŗŏ Č Ɖŏ for Abraham was
forbearing. tender-hearted and devout 2 an attribute of God
(4:12) ĈƇƔĊ ƆĄ ţ ĈƇƔĊ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə God is All-Knowledgeable. All-Forbearing.

ş [ J [ ƍ - Ɛ h-l-w/y ornament. jewellery. to adorn. to grace; dowry.
gratuity; sweet. to sweeten. to enjoy. Of this root. three forms
occur nine times in the Qur`an: ŔƏı Ɔą ţ hullü four times; Ľ řĄ ƔŇƆĊ ţ hilyatun
four times and ď ƓIJ Ɔą ţ huliyy once.

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ă Ƒİ ƄĄ š hulliya [pass. of v. II Ƒİ ƆĄ ţ hallã. doubly trans.] to be
ornamented. decorated. adorned with (76:21) ċ řČ ŲĊ ž ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ũŃ ƏॠŬ Ō ŔƏı Ɔą ţĄ Ə
and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver.
Ļ ŗă ƒŅƄĉ š hilyatun [coll. n./n.; pl. ď ƓIJ Ɔą ţ hulliyy] adornment.
ornamentation. jewellery/ piece of jewellery (16:14) Ą ũİ ŦĄ Ŭ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə
ŕĄƎĿƊƏą ŬĄŗŇƆĿ ś ĻřĄƔŇƆĊţ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ŔƏą ŠŃũŇŦĿśĆŬĿśĄƏ ŕĎƔŃũĿų ŕćƈĆţĿƅ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ŔƏŁƆŁƄōĿśƅ ĄũĆţĄŗŇƅŔ He it is who
subjected the sea to you that you may eat from it fresh flesh and
bring out from it ornaments you wear; *(43:18) İŮĿƊą Ɣ ĆƉĄƈ ō ƑĊž Ċ řĄ ƔŇƆĊ ţŇƅŔ
little girls [lit. one who is brought up in/wearing jewellery].

ƅš hã mïm two letters initiating the seven suras from numbers 40 to
46. known as 'the family of Hã mïm` ) ƇƔƈŕţ .Ŋ ( ; they are also more
commonly known as `al-hawãmïm ) ŔƏţƅŔ ƇƔƈ ( . a designation
described by °al-Jawharï. as quoted in Lisãn `al-´arab. as 'not
from the idiom of the Arabs`. For various opinions regarding the
meaning of such letters in the Qur`an (see ƃŊ ŧ `alif-lãm-rã); * Ƈţ
and ŘĄŧŠČ ŬƅŔ Ƈţ name of Sura 41. Meccan sura. It derives its name
from a combination of its initial letters together with the kneeling
referred to in verse 37. also called ŚĿƆĐŰŁž (see J/ŭ/Ż f-s-l) It
should be distinguished from Sura 32 which is called ŘĄŧŠČ ŬƅŔ.

ş [ ƅ [ Ŋ h-m-` stinking black mud. (of a well) to accumulate such mud.
to dredge; to be angry. in-laws. Of this root. two forms occur four
times in the Qur`an: ōĄ ƈĄ ţ hama` three times and ř œĊ ƈĄ ţ hami`atun
once.
ŋă Ɔă š hama` [n.] stinking black mud (15:33) ƅ Ą ŧą ŠĆŬ Ɨ ĆƉŁ Ƅ Ō ĆƇĿ ƅ .ŕĿ Ɓ ľ ũĿ ŮĄ ŗ
ľ ƉƏŁ ƊĆŬĄ ƈ ŐĄ ƈĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ .ॠŰŇƆĄ Ű ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ śŇƂĿ ƆĿ Ŧ and he answered. `It is not befitting for
me to bow to a mortal You created from clay formed of stinking
black mud.'
Ļŗ őĉƆăš hami`atun (also read as Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ƈॠţ hãmiyatun) [quasi-act. part.
fem.] foul. muddy. murky. stinking mud (18:86) Ą ŖŃ ũŇżĄ ƈ Ŀ źĿ ƆĄŗ ŔĿ Ũŏ Ƒİ śĄţ
ą Ŗą ũŇżĿ ś ŕĄƍĄŧĄŠĄƏ ŃūĆƈİŮƅŔ ƑĊ ž ċř œĊƈĄţ ľƉĆƔĄŷ until when he reached the
setting-place/time of the sun. he found it set into a murky pool.

ş [ ƅ [ ť h-m-d praise. praiseworthy. to commend. to find to be
praiseworthy. Of this root. seven forms occur 68 times in the

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Qur`an: ŔƏą ŧĄ ƈĆţą Ɣ yuhmadü once; ĈŧĆƈĄţ hamd 43 times; ƉƏą ŧĊƈĿŕţ hãmidün
once; ĈŧƏą ƈĆţĄƈ mahmüd once; ĈŧƔĊƈĄţ hamïd 17 times; ą ŧĄ ƈĆţ Ō `ahmad once
and ĈŧČ ƈĄţą ƈ Muhammad four times.
Ą ƒ Ą ťă Ɔąš yuhmad [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ŧĊ ƈą ţ humida] to be praised. to
be commended (3:188) ŔƏŁƆĄŸŇſĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ ŕĄƈŃŗ ŔƏą ŧĄƈĆţą Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ĄƉƏčŗĊţą ƔĄƏ and they love to
be praised for what they have not done.
ćťąƆăš hamd [n./v. n.] praise (1:2) ĐŖĄũ ĊƌİƆƅ ą ŧĆƈĄţŇƅŔ Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƅŔ Praise
belongs to God. Lord of the Worlds.
ƇƍĄ ťĉƆœăš hãmidün [pl. of act. part. ĈŧĊƈŕĄţ hãmid] those who praise
(9:112) Ą ƉƏą ŧĊ ƈॠţŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ŧŃ ŗॠŸŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ŗ œŕİ śƅŔ those who repent. those who
worship. those who praise Him.
ćťƍĄ ƆąšăƆ mahmüd [pass. part.] praised. exalted. praiseworthy
(17:79) Ŕć ŧƏą ƈĆ ţĄ ƈ ŕć ƈŕĿ ƂĄ ƈ Ą ƃč ŗĄ ũ Ą ƃĿ ŝĄ ŸĆ ŗĄ Ɣ Ć Ɖ Ō ƑĄ ŬĄ ŷ it may be that your Lord may
elevate you to a [highly] praised status.
ćťƒĉƆăš hamïd [quasi-pass./act part.] worthy of great praise. an
attribute of God (31:12) ĈŧƔĊ ƈĄ ţ ď ƓĊ ƊĿ Ż Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž God is All-sufficient.
worthy of all praise.
Ą ťă Ɔąš Ŋ `ahmad [elat.; proper name] most praiseworthy; one of the
names of the Prophet Muhammad (61:6) ƒĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ƓĊśōĄƔ .Əą ŬĄũŃŗ ŔćũIJ ŮĄŗą ƈĄƏ
ą ŧĄ ƈĆţ Ō ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ and bringing good news of a messenger to follow me
whose name will be `ahmad.
ćťċ Ɔ㚥 Ɔ Muhammad [intens. pass. part.; proper name] one worthy
of much and constant praise; name of the Prophet (48:29) ĈŧČ ƈĄ ţą ƈ
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ .Əą ŬĄũ Muhammad is the Messenger of God; * Ą ţą ƈ ĈŧČ ƈ name of
Sura 47. Medinan sura. so-named because of the reference in
verse 2 to the 'Prophet Muhammad`.

ş [ ƅ [ ŧ h-m-r redness. to dye or colour red; (of a person) to be fair in
colour; to be difficult; donkey; big boulders; to scrape off. to flay.
Of this root. four forms occur six times in the Qur`an: ũॠƈĊ ţ himãr
twice; Ĉũą ƈą ţ humur once; ũƔĊ ƈĄ ţ hamïr twice and ĈũĆƈą ţ humr once.
ćŧœăƆĉš himãr [n.. pl. ũą ƈą ţ humur and ũƔĊ ƈĄ ţ hamïr] donkey. ass.
zebra (74:50) ĽŘĄ ũĊ ſŇƊĿ śĆŬą ƈ Ĉũą ƈą ţ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ they are like stampeding zebras.

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ŧąƆĄ š humr [pl. of quasi-act. part. ą ũĄ ƈĆţ Ō `ahmar] red (35:27) ĄƉĊƈĄƏ
ĈŧƏą Ŭ ą ŖƔŃŗŔĄũĿ ŻĄƏ ŕĄƎŁƊŔĄƏŇƅŌ ĽŽĊƆĿ śŇŦą ƈ ĈũĆƈą ţĄƏ ĈűƔŃŗ ĈŧĄŧą Š .ŕĄŗŃŠŇƅŔ and [consider as well]
in the mountains are tracks/layers of white and red of various
hues. and jet black.

ş [ ƅ [ J h-m-l load. burden. to bear. to carry; to bear up. to sustain;
animals of burden; to take up. to carry off; to become angry. to
charge; to depart. a camel`s litter; to forebear; to conceive a child.
pregnancy. to fruit; a lamb. Of this root. 12 forms occur 64 times
in the Qur`an: Ą ţ Ą ƈ . hamala 37 times; .Ċƈą ţ humila four times; .ĐƈĄ ţŁ ś
tuhammil once; .Đ ƈą ţ hummila four times; .ĄƈĿ śĆţĊŔ `ihtamala three
times; .ĆƈĄţ haml seven times; .ŕĄƈĆţŌ `ahmãl once; .ĆƈĊ ţ himl three
times; ƉƔĊ ƆĊ ƈॠţ hãmilïn once; ĽŚĿƜĊƈŕĄţ hãmilãt 11 times; ĽřĿƅŕČ ƈĄţ
hammãlatun once and ĽřĿƅƏą ƈĄţ hamülatun once.
Jă Ɔă š hamala i I [v. intrans. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to attack. to charge.
to drive away (7:176) Ŀ ƆĄŷ .ĊƈĆţĿś ĆƉŏ ŃŖŇƆĿƄŇƅŔ .Ŀ ŝĄƈĿ Ƅ ą ƌŁ ƆĿŝĄƈĿž ŇŜĄ ƎŇƆĄ Ɣ ą ƌŇƄą ũŇśĿ ś ĆƏ Ō ŇŜĄ ƎŇƆĄ Ɣ Ċ ƌĆƔ so
his likeness is as the likeness of a dog. if you attack him. he pants
[with his tongue out] and if you leave him alone. he pants [with
his tongue out] II [v. trans.] 1 to carry (12:36) ĊƊŔĄũŌ ƓIJ Ɗŏ ą ũĿŦƕŔ .ŕĿƁĄƏ Ɠ
Ŕć ŪĆŗŁ Ŧ ƓĊ ŬŌĄ ũ Ŀ ƀĆƏĿ ž .Ċ ƈĆţ Ō and the other said. `I saw myself carrying on my
head bread' 2 to contain (6:146) İ ƛŏ ŕĄƈą ƎĄƈƏą ţŁ Ů ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆƈČ ũĄţ ŃƇĿ ƊĿ żŇƅŔĄƏ ŃũĿ ƂĄŗŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈĄƏ
ॠƈą ƍą ũƏą ƎŁ Ŵ ŇŚĿ ƆĄ ƈĄ ţ ॠƈ and of cattle and sheep. We forbade them their fat.
except what their backs contain 3 to incur. to commit (20:111)
ŕćƈŇƆŁŴ .ĄƈĄţ ĆƉĄƈ ĄŖŕĿŦ ĆŧĿ ƁĄƏ ŃƇƏčƔĿƂŇƅŔ ĐƓĄţŇƆƅ ą ƋƏą Šą ƏŇƅŔ ĊŚĿ ƊĄŷĄƏ faces will become humbled
[or downcast] before the Living. Eternal One, and those who
carry [the burden of having committed] injustice will meet with
failure 4 to assume responsibility. to undertake. to shoulder
(33:72) ĄƉŇƂĿſŇŮŌĄƏ ŕĄƎĿƊŇƆĊƈĆţĄƔ ĆƉ Ō ĄƉĆƔĄŗōĿž .ŕĄŗŃŠŇƅŔĄƏ ŃűĆũƗŔĄƏ ĊŚŔĄƏĄƈČ ŬƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ Ŀ řĿ ƊŕĄƈƗŔ ŕĿ ƊĆŲĄũĄŷ ŕİ Ɗŏ
ą ƉॠŬŇ Ɗ ƙŔ ॠƎĿ ƆĄ ƈĄ ţĄ Ə ॠƎŇ ƊĊ ƈ We offered the trust to the heavens. the earth and
the mountains. yet they refused to carry it and were afraid of it,
but man shouldered it 5 to provide a mount for (9:92) ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĿƛĄƏ
ĊƈĆţ Ō ŕĄƈ ą ŧŃ Š Ō Ŀ ƛ Ŀ ŚŇƆŁ Ɓ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆĊƈĆţĿ śƅ Ą ƃĆƏĿ ś Ō ॠƈ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ Ɔ nor [is there blame attached]
to those who. whenever they came for you [Prophet] to mount
them. you said. `I cannot find anything I can mount you on' 6 to
load upon. to lay upon. to burden (2:286) Ŀ Ƅ ŔćũĆŰŏ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ .Ċ ƈĆţĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄũ ŕĄƈ
ŕĿƊĊƆĆŗĿƁ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌĿ śŇƆĄƈĄţ our Lord. and do not lay upon us a burden
such as You did lay upon those before us 7 to store (29:60) ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƉĐ Ɣ ōĿ ƄĄƏ

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ĆƇŁ ƄŕČ ƔŏĄƏ ŕĄƎŁ Ɓą ŪĆũĄƔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŕĄƎĿƁĆŪŃũ .ĊƈĆţĿś Ŀƛ ċřČ ŗŔĄŧ how many are the creatures who do
not have their sustenance stored up-God sustains them and He
will sustain you 8 to conceive (a child) (41:47) Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ƑĿ ŝŇ Ɗ Ō Ć ƉĊ ƈ .Ċ ƈĆ ţĿ ś ॠƈĄ Ə
ƌĊ ƈŇƆĊ ŸŃ ŗ İ ƛ ŏ ą ŶĄ ŲĿ ś nor does a female bear a child or give birth. but with
His knowledge.
JĉƆĄ š humila [pass. v.] 1 to be carried. to be borne (23:22) ŕĄƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷĄƏ
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĄ ƈĆţŁ ś Ċ ƃŇƆŁ ſŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷĄ Ə and on them and on the ships you are borne 2 to
be lifted up. raised high (69:14) ĻŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ĻřİƄĄŧ ŕĿ śİƄą ŧĿ ž .ŕĄŗŃŠŇƅŔĄƏ ą űĆũ ƗŔ ĊŚĿƆĊƈą ţĄƏ
and the earth and the mountains are lifted up and crushed with a
single crushing 3 to be alleviated. to be lifted off (35:18) ą ŵĆŧĿ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə
ĈʼnĆƓĿ Ů ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ .Ą ƈĆţą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ॠƎĊ ƆĆƈĊ ţ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĽřĿ ƆĿ ƂŇŝąƈ and [even] if a heavily-laden [soul]
calls for its burden (or. sins) [lit. load] [to be carried]. not a thing
of it will be carried.
JďƆă šĿ ř tuhammil [imperf. of v. II. doubly trans.] to load upon. to
burden someone with (2:286) ĊƌŃŗ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ Ŀ řĿ ƁŕĿ ų Ŀ ƛ ॠƈ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĐ ƈĄ ţŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄũ Lord. do
not burden us with more than we have strength to bear.
Jď ƆĄ š hummila [pass. of v. II] 1 to be made to carry something
(20:87) Ń ƇĆ ƏĿ ƂŇ ƅŔ Ċ řĿ ƊƔŃ Ū Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ŕć ũŔĄ ŪĆ Ə Ō ŕĿ ƊŇ ƆĐ ƈą ţ ŕİ ƊĊ ƄĿ ƅĄƏ but we were laden with burdens
of the ornaments of the people 2 to be burdened with. to be placed
upon (24:54) ĆƉ ŐĿ ž ĆƇŁ śŇƆĐ ƈą ţ ŕĄƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄŷĄƏ .Đ ƈą ţ ŕĄƈ ĊƌĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĄƈİ ƊŐĿ ž ŔĆƏİ ƅĄƏĿ ś if you turn away.
[know that] he is responsible for what is placed upon him and
you are responsible for what is placed upon you 3 to be charged
with the responsibility for (62:5) Ŀ ŝĄƈ .ĿŝĄƈĿƄ ŕĄƍƏŁƆĊƈĆţĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ ČƇŁŝ ĿŘŔĄũĆƏİśƅŔ ŔƏŁƆĐƈą ţ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ .
Ŕć ũŕĿ ſĆŬ Ō .Ċ ƈĆţĄ Ɣ ŃũॠƈĊ ţŇƅŔ those who have been charged with obedience to
the Torah. but have failed to carry it out. are like asses carrying
books.
JăƆĽ řąšĉŒ `ihtamala [v. VIII. trans.] 1 to bear away. to carry away.
to bear along (13:17) ŔćŧĄŗĄŪ .ĆƔČŬƅŔ .ĄƈĿ śĆţŕĿž ŕĄƍŃũĄŧĿƂŃŗ ĽřĄƔĊŧĆƏŌ ŇŚĿƅŕĄŬĿ ž ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ .ĄŪŇƊŌ
ŕćƔŃŗŔĄũ He sends water from the sky. so ravines flow. each according
to its capacity. and the flood carries with it a swelling froth 2 to
incur (4:112) ŕĻƊƔŃŗą ƈ ŕćƈŇŝŏĄƏ ŕĻƊŕĿśĆƎą ŗ .ĄƈĿ śĆţŔ ĊŧĿ ƂĿ ž ŕœƔŃũĄŗ ĊƌŃŗ ŃƇĆũĄƔ ČƇŁŝ ŕćƈŇŝŏ ĆƏŌ Ļř œƔĊųĿŦ ĆŖĊŬŇƄĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ
whosoever commits an offence or a sin. and then casts it upon the
innocent. has laid upon himself deceit and flagrant sin.
JąƆăš haml [n./v. n.; pl. .ŕĄƈĆţŌ `ahmãl] 1 pregnancy (7:189) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ĻƜĆƈĄţ ŇŚĿ ƆĄ ƈĄ ţ ॠƍŕİ ŮĿ żĿ ś ŕĻ ſƔĊ ſĿ Ŧ and when he covered her she bore a light

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pregnancy 2 child during pregnancy (65:6) ŇƊ ōĿ ž .ĆƈĄ ţ ĊŚĿ ƛƏ Ō Č ƉŁ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƂĊſ
Č Ɖą ƎĿ ƆĆƈĄţ ĄƉĆŸĄŲĄƔ Ƒİ śĄţ Č ƉŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ if they are with child. pay their maintenance
until they are delivered of their child 3 period of pregnancy
(46:15) Ŕć ũĆƎĿ Ů Ą ƉƏŁ ŝĿ ƜĿ ŝ ą ƌŁ ƅॠŰĊ žĄ Ə ą ƌŁ ƆĆƈĄ ţĄ Ə the bearing of him and the weaning
of him is thirty months.
JąƆĉš himl [n.] 1 load (12:72) ľũƔĊŸĄŗ .ĆƈĊţ ĊƌŃŗ Ąʼnॊ ĆƉĄƈƅĄƏ ĊƃĊƆĄƈŇƅŔ ĄŵŔĄƏąŰ ą ŧĊƂŇſĿ Ɗ ŔƏŁƅŕĿ Ɓ
they said. `We are missing the king's cup and for the one who
returns it there will be a camel-load [of grain]' 2 burden (35:18)
Ňŝą ƈ ą ŵĆŧĿ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə ƑĄŗĆũŁ Ɓ ŔĿŨ ĄƉŕĿƄ ĆƏĿ ƅĄƏ ĈʼnĆƓĿŮ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ .ĄƈĆţą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ŕĄƎĊƆĆƈĊţ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĽřĿƆĿƂ and [even] if a
heavily-laden [soul] calls for its burden (or. sins) [lit. load] [to be
carried]. not a thing of it will be carried.
Ƈƒĉ Ƅĉ Ɔœă š hãmilïn [mas. pl. of act. part. .ƈॠţ hãmil; fem. pl. ŚƜƈŕţ
hãmilãt] those who carry. bear (29:12) ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƍŕĄƔŕĿ ųĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƔĊƆĊƈŕĄţŃŗ ĆƇą ƍ ŕĄƈĄƏ
ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů yet they will not bear any of their sins.
Ļ ŗĽ ƃœċ Ɔă š hammãlatun [intens. act. part. fem.] one who usually
carries. one whose profession is to carry things (111:4) Ŀ řĿ ƅŕČ ƈĄ ţ ą ƌŁ ś ŌĄ ũĆƈŔĄ Ə
ŃŖĿ ųĄţŇƅŔ and [so will be] his wife. the firewood-carrier.
* ŁŔĽ űăšŅƃŒ Ľ ŗĽ ƃœċ Ɔă š (in another interpretation of 111:4) ĿřĿƅŕČ ƈĄţ ą ƌŁ śŌĄũĆƈŔĄƏ
ŃŖĿ ųĄţŇƅŔ and [so will be] his wife. the gossip monger [lit.
firewood-carrier].
ĻŗĽƃƍĄ Ɔăš hamülatun [coll. n.] beasts of burden (6:142) Ń ƇॠŸŇƊ ƗŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
ŁŕĻŮĆũĿ žĄƏ ĻřĿƅƏą ƈĄţ and of the livestock. [He gave you] beasts of burden
and [beasts] as [ providers of] furnishing (ŕĻŮĆũĿž is also interpreted
as: providers of food).

ş [ ƅ [ ƅ h-m-m death; to become due; hot boiling water. to heat up. a
bath. to bathe; fever. to develop a fever; coal. black choking
smoke. intense fire; an intimate friend. family. entourage; pigeon.
Of this root. two forms occur 21 times in the Qur`an: ĈƇƔĊƈĄţ hamïm
20 times and ą ƇƏą ƈĆţĄ Ɣ yahmüm once.
ćƅƒĉƆăš hamïm [quasi-act./pass. part.; n.] 1 boiling [water] (22:19)
ą ƇƔĊƈĄţŇƅŔ ą ƇŃƎĊŬƏą ʼną ũ ĊƀĆƏĿ ž ĆƉĊƈ č ŖĄŰą Ɣ ľũŕĿ Ɗ ĆƉĊƈ ĈŖŕĄƔĊŝ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ for them are garments of
fire. scalding water will be poured over their heads 2 intimate
[friend]. close [relative] (69:35) ĈƇƔĊ ƈĄ ţ ŕĿ Ɗą ƍॠƍ Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ ą ƌĿ ƅ Ą ūĆƔĿ ƆĿ ž so today he
has no intimate friend here.

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238
Ą ƅƍĄ Ɔąšă ƒ yahmüm [n.] thick. black smoke; hot fire; canopy of hot
fire (56:43) ľ ƇƏą ƈĆţĄ Ɣ ĆƉĊ ƈ į .Ċ ŴĄ Ə and a shadow of black smoke.

ş [ ƅ [ ƍ - Ɛ h-m-w/y sanctuary. protection. to protect. to rebel. to avoid;
in-laws; to heat up. to become angry. hot-headedness. zeal.
fervour. impetuosity. Of this root. four forms occur six times in
the Qur`an: ƑĄ ƈĆ ţą Ɣ yuhmã once; ƓĊƈŕĄţ hãmï once; Ľ řĄ ƔĊ ƈॠţ hãmiyatun
twice and řČ ƔĊ ƈĄ ţ hamiyyatun twice.
Əă ƆąšĄ ƒ yuhmã [imperf. of pass. v. Ą ƓĊ ƈą ţ humiya. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to
be heated. to be burnt. to be brought to a hot condition (9:35) Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ
ॠƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĄ ƈĆţą Ɣ ƑĊ ž ŕĄƎŃŗ ƐĄƏŇƄŁ śĿ ž ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠ ŃũŕĿ Ɗ ĆƇą ƍą ũƏą ƎŁ ŴĄ Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ Ɗą ŠĄ Ə ĆƇą Ǝą ƍॠŗŃ Š on the day when
they will be heated in the fire of Hell. and their foreheads. sides
and backs will be branded by them.
Ƒĉ Ɔœă š hãmï [nominalised act. part.] an old stud-camel left by
pagan Arabs to spend the rest of its life in peace and tranquillity
(5:103) ŔƏą ũĿſĿƄ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Č ƉĊƄĿƅĄƏ ľƇŕĄţ ĿƛĄƏ ċřĿƆƔĊŰĄƏ ĿƛĄƏ ċřĄŗœŕĄŬ ĿƛĄƏ ċŘĄũƔĊţĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ ŕĄƈ
Ą ŖĊ ŨĿ ƄŇƅŔ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏą ũĿ śŇſĄ Ɣ God did not institute the dedication of such as
bahiratun. sã`ibatun. wasilatun (q.v.) or hãm [to idols], but the
disbelievers invent lies about God.
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ Ɔœă š hãmiyatun [act. part. fem.] burning hot. blazing (88:4)
ĻřĄƔĊƈॠţ Ŕć ũŕĿ Ɗ ƑĿ ƆĆŰĿ ś scorched by a blazing fire.
ŗċ ƒĉ Ɔă š hamiyyatun [v. n./n.] fiery fervour. high spirits. eagerness.
passion. rashness. zeal. impetuousness (48:26) ŔƏą ũĿ ſĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠ ŇŨ ŏ ƑĊ ž
Ċ řČ ƔĊ ƆĊ ƍॠŠŇ ƅŔ Ŀ řČ ƔĊ ƈĄ ţ Ŀ řČ ƔĊ ƈĄ ţŇ ƅŔ ą ƇŃ ƎŃ ŗƏŁ ƆŁ Ɓ while the disbelievers had excited fervour in
their hearts-the fervour of ignorance.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ś h-n-th manhood. maturity; sin. blasphemy. denial of God.
wickedness; breaking an oath. perjury; to purify oneself. to
worship. responsibility. Of this root. two forms occur once each
in the Qur`an: Ł ŜĿ ƊĆţĿ ś tahnath and ŜŇƊĊ ţ hinth.
Ŀ ŚĽ ƈąšĽ ř tahnath [imperf. of v. Ŀ ŜĊƊĄţ hanitha. intrans. with prep. ž Ƒ ]
to break one`s oath. to fail to honour one`s oath (38:44) Ą ƃĊ ŧĄ ƔŃ ŗ ŇŨŁ ŦĄ Ə
ŇŜĿ ƊĆţĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ ĊƌŃŗ ĆŖŃũĆŲŕĿ ž ŕĻŝŇżĊŲ and take in your hand a small bunch of
grass. and strike with it. so as not to break your oath.
ŚŅƈĉ š hinth [v. n.; n.] abomination. sinning. breaking one`s oath.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ɓ
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denial of God (56:46) ŔƏŁ ƊŕĿƄĄƏ Ń ƇƔĊ ŴĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ċ ŜŇƊĊ ţŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏč ũĊ Űą Ɣ and they always
persisted in great sin.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ŝ [ ŧ h-n-j-r larynx. throat. windpipe; to slay. Of this root. ũŃ ŠŕĿ ƊĄ ţ
hanãjir occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ŧŁŞœĽƈăš hanãjir [pl. of Ľ ŘĄ ũĄ ŠŇƊĄ ţ hanjaratun] larynx. throat *(33:10)
ĄũŃŠŕĿƊĄţŇƅŔ ą ŖƏŁ ƆŁ ƂŇƅŔ ĊŚĿ żĿ ƆĄŗĄƏ fear gripped everyone [lit. and hearts rose into
the throats].

ş [ Ƈ [ Ŧ h-n-dh to cause slimming of a horse by inducing sweating; to
mix wine with water. to roast meat by sealing it up inside a fire.
roasted meat. hot water. Of this root. ĽŨƔĊƊĄţ hanïdh occurs once in
the Qur`an.
Ŧƒĉ ƈă š hanïdh [quasi-pass. part.] roasted (11:69) ĆƉ Ō Ŀ ŜŃŗĿ ƅ ŕĄƈĿ ž ĈƇĿ ƜĄŬ .ŕƁ
ċ ŨƔĊ ƊĄ ţ .ĆŠĊ ŸŃ ŗ Ą ʼnॠŠ he answered. `Peace.' and without delay he brought
in a roasted calf.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ż h-n-f inclination of the toes to one side. to incline. to deviate.
to abandon common practices and beliefs. to incline towards the
right religion. the true religion. Of this root. two forms occur 12
times in the Qur`an: ŽƔĊ ƊĄ ţ hanïf 10 times and ą ʼnŕĿ ſĿ Ɗą ţ hunafã` twice.
Żƒƈăš hanïf [quasi-act. part.; pl. ʼnŕĿ ſĿ Ɗą ţ hunafã`] inclined towards
[God]. inclined away [from false deities] and so considered
upright (6:161) Ćŗ ŏ Ŀ řİ ƆĊ ƈ ŕć ƈĄ ƔĊ Ɓ ŕĻ ƊƔĊ ŧ Ą ƉƔĊ ƄŃ ũŇ Ůą ƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə ŕĻ ſƔĊ ƊĄ ţ Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũ an upright
religion. the faith of Abraham. an upright man. he was not one of
the polytheists.'
Hanïf is also used to describe the ascetic monotheists of
Mecca who refused idolatry and its practices. One of their
practices. followed by Muhammad was tahannuf: to retreat
during Ramadan and it was during one such retreat that he
received the first revelation of the Qur`an.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ɓ h-n-k roof of the mouth. to massage the roof of the mouth
with soft dates; to train in ways of the world. wisdom. experience;
a mouth halter. to control. to overpower. Of this root. ą ƃĊƊĿ śĆţ Ō
`ahtanik occurs once in the Qur`an.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ƈ
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Ą ƁĉƈĽ řąš Ŋ `ahtanik [imperf. of v. VIII ĄƃĿ ƊĿ śĆţĊŔ `ihtanaka. trans.] to
devour by the mouth. to devour; to eradicate. to have full control
over. to lead by the mouth/nose (17:62) Č ƉĿƄĊƊĿśĆţ Ɨ ĊřĄƈŕĄƔĊƂŇƅŔ ŃƇĆƏĄƔ ƑĿ ƅŏ ŃƉĿśĆũİ ŦŌ ĆƉœĿ ƅ
Ļ ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ İ ƛ ŏ ą ƌĿ śČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ if You defer me until the Day of Resurrection. I will
have complete control over them (or. lead all of his descendants
by the nose) [I will have full control over them] except for a few.

ş [ Ƈ [ Ƈ h-n-n moaning sound of a she-camel longing for her young.
yearning. mercy. kindness. compassion. wife. Of this root. two
forms occur once each in the Qur`an: Ą ţ ĈƉŕĿƊ hanãn; and ƉĆƔĿ Ɗą ţ hunayn.
ƇœĽƈăš hanãn [v. n./n.] mercy. compassion. tenderness (19:12-
13) ŕĎ ƔĊ ƂĿ ś Ą ƉŕĿ ƄĄ Ə Ļ ŘŕĿ ƄĄ ŪĄ Ə ŕİ Ɗą ŧĿ ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĻ ƊŕĿ ƊĄ ţĄ Ə ŕĎ ƔŃ ŗĄ Ű Ą ƇŇƄą ţŇƅŔ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə while he was still a
boy. We granted him wisdom. tenderness from Us. and purity. he
was devout.
ƇąƒĽ ƈĄ š Hunayn [proper name] name of a valley nearly three miles
from Mecca where the Muslims fought a battle in
8 A.H./630 A.D. with their opponents (9:25) ĆƇŁ ƄŇśĄŗĄŠĆŷ Ō ŇŨŏ ľƉĆƔĿ Ɗą ţ ĄƇĆƏĄƔĄƏ
Ŀ Ů ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĄŷ Ń ƉŇżŁ ś ĆƇĿ ƆĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śĄũŇŝĿ Ƅ ŕ œĆƔ and on the day of the battle of Hunayn. when
you were well pleased with your multitude. but they availed you
nothing.

ş [ ƍ [ Ŕ h-w-b relatives on the mother`s side. parents and brothers and
sisters; mercy. worship; hardship. sorrow; sinning. wrongdoings.
Of this root. ŖƏą ţ hüb occurs once in the Qur`an.
ŔƍĄ š hüb [v. n./n.] abomination. great sin. crime (4:2) ŔƏŁ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə
ą ţ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō ŔƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń ŖĐ Ɣİ ųƅŕŃ ŗ Ŀ ŜƔŃ ŗĿ ŦŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƅČ ŧĄ ŗĿ śĿ ś ĿƛĄ Ə ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅŔĄ ƏĆƈ Ō ƑĄ ƈŕĿ śĄƔŇƅŔ ŕć ŗƏ
ŔćũƔŃŗĿƄ give orphans their property. do not exchange [their] good
things for bad. and do not consume their property with your own-
truly. this is a great sin.

ş [ ƍ [ Ř h-w-t fish. great fish. whale; to hover. to circulate in the air.
to dodge. Of this root. two forms occur five times in the Qur`an:
ĽŚƏą ţ hüt four times and Ĉ ƉŕĿ śƔĊ ţ hïtãn once.
ĻŘƍĄ š hüt [n.; pl. Ĉ ƉŕĿ śƔĊ ţ hïtãn] fish. whale. large fish (37:142) ą ƌĄƈĿƂĿśŇƅŕĿž
Ĉ ƇƔĊ Ɔą ƈ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ł ŚƏą ţŇƅŔ so the great fish swallowed him while he was

ş [ ƍ [ ŧ
241
blameworthy; an epithet of Prophet Jonah *(68:48) Ċ ŚƏą ţŇƅŔ Ń ŖĊ ţॠŰĿ Ƅ
the fellow of the whale.

ş [ ƍ [ Ŝ h-w-j need. wish. errand; poverty; resentment. objection; to
need. to require. the needy. Of this root. ĽřĄŠŕĄţ hãjatun occurs three
times in the Qur`an.
ĻŗăŞœăš hãjatun [n.] desire. wish. need. something necessary.
errand (40:80) ą ŶĊžŕĿƊĄƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĆƇŁƄĿ ƅĄƏ ĻřĄŠŕĄţ ŕĄƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŔƏŁżŁƆĆŗĿ śƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄŃ ũƏą ŧą Ű and in them
[cattle] you have benefits, and that you may attain. on them. a
need/errand in your breasts; *(59:9) ĿƛĄƏ Ą ƉƏą ŧŃ ŠĄ Ɣ ƑĊž ŕČ ƈĊ ƈ Ļ řĄ ŠŕĄ ţ ĆƇĊ ƍŃ ũƏą ŧą Ű
ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō and they do not [find a need in their bosoms for] harbour
resentment on account of what they [the others] have been given.

ş [ ƍ [ Ŧ h-w-dh the back of an animal`s thighs where the tail begins; to
contain. to take possession. property; to seize; to urge. agility. Of
this root. Ŀ ŨĄƏĆţĿ śĆŬĊŔ `istahwadha occurs twice in the Qur`an.
Ľ ŦăƍąšĽ řąŪĉŒ `istahwadha [v. X. intrans. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to seize. to
prevail over. to gain mastery over. to take complete control
(58:19) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ũŇƄĊ Ũ ĆƇą ƍॠŬŇƊ ōĿ ž ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ŀ ŨĄ ƏĆţĿ śĆŬŔ Satan has gained control
over them and made them forget God.

ş [ ƍ [ ŧ h-w-r circle. to encircle. to return to. to go away from; to have
a dialogue. entourage. disciples; discerning power; to decrease;
marked contrast between black and white in a woman`s eye. fair
skin; oyster shell. Of this root. five forms occur 13 times in the
Qur`an: ą ũƏą ţĄ Ɣ yahür once; ą ũŃ Əॠţą Ɣ yuhãwir twice; Ĉũą ƏŕĄţĿś tahãwur once;
ũƏą ţ hür four times and ƉƏč ƔŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ ţ hawãriyyün five times.
Ą ŧƍĄ šă ƒ yahür [imperf. of v. Ą ũॠţ hãra. intrans.] to return. to go
back (84:14) ĄũƏą ţĄ Ɣ ĆƉĿ ƅ ĆƉ Ō Č ƉĿ Ŵ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ and he thinks that he would not
return [to his Lord].
Ą ŧŁ ƍœă šĄ ƒ yuhãwir [imperf. of v. III Ą ũĄ Əॠţ hãwara. trans.] to debate
with. to have a dialogue with (18:34) ą ũĿŝŇƄŌ ŕĿƊŌ ą Ƌą ũŃƏŕĄţą Ɣ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ĊƌŃŗĊţŕĄŰƅ .ŕĿƂĿ ž
ŔćũĿſĿƊ čŪĄŷ ŌĄƏ ƛŕĄƈ ĄƃŇƊĊƈ so. he said to his friend. while disputing with him.
`I am more than you in wealth. and mightier in respect of
supporters.'

ş [ ƍ [ Ũ
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㚼 ř ćŧĄ ƍœ tahãwur [v. n.] debating. engaging in a dialogue.
disputing (58:1) Ą ƃŁ ƅĊ ŧॠŠŁ ś ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ .ĆƏĿ Ɓ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŶĊ ƈĄ Ŭ ĆŧĿ Ɓ ƑĊ ž ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ƓĊ ƄĿ śŇŮĿ śĄ Ə ॠƎŃ ŠĆƏĄ Ū
ॠƈŁ ƄĄ ũą ƏॠţĿ ś ą ŶĄ ƈĆŬĄ Ɣ God has heard the words of her who disputes with
you [Prophet] concerning her husband and complains to God
and God hears your dispute.
ŧƍĄ š hür [pl. of quasi-act. part. fem. ʼnŔĄ ũĆƏĄ ţ hawrã`] pure.
fair-skinned (also said to mean: having eyes marked by contrast
between the deep black and the pure white in them). pleasant
(44:54) ľƉƔĊŷ ľũƏą ţŃŗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊĆŠČ ƏĄŪĄƏ ĄƃƅĿ ŨĿ Ƅ so it will be. and We will wed them
to wide-eyed houris.
ƇƍČ ƒŁŧŒċ ƍăšƃŒ `al-hawãriyyün [pl. of n./quasi-act. part. ď ƒŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ ţ
hawãriyy] the disciples of Christ (61:14) ĄƇĄƔĆũĄƈ ą ƉĆŗŔ ƑĄŬƔĊŷ .ŕĿƁ ŕĄƈĿƄ
ŇƆ ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ũॠŰŇƊ Ō ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ Ą ƉƏč ƔŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ ţŇƅŔ .ŕĿ Ɓ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ ƒŃ ũॠŰŇƊ Ō ĆƉĄ ƈ Ą ƉƔĐ ƔŃ ũŔĄ ƏĄ ţ as Jesus. son of
Mary. said to the disciples. `Who will come with me to help
God''. the disciples said. `We shall be God's helpers.'

ş [ ƍ [ Ũ h-w-z area. domain. holding; to incline. to side with. to press
together. Of this root. ĈŪĐ ƔĄţĿśą ƈ mutahayyiz occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŨď ƒăšĽřĄ Ɔ mutahayyiz [act. part.] one siding with a faction. one who
abandons his position for another (8:16) ċ Ũ œĄ ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ĆƇŃ ƎIJ ƅĄ Əą Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ŕĻžĐũĄţĿśą ƈ İ ƛŏ ą ƋĄũą ŗą ŧ
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ľŖĄŲĿżŃŗ ĄʼnŕĄŗ ĆŧĿƂĿž ċřœĊž ƑĿƅŏ ŔćŪĐ ƔĄţĿśą ƈ ĆƏŌ .ŕĿśĊƂƅ and whoever on that day
turns his back on them-unless manoeuvring for battle or to side
with a [fighting] group-he incurs wrath from God.

ş [ ƍ [ ū h-w-sh an enclosure; unfamiliar; to exclude. to avoid. to turn
away from; to hold off. Of this root. only ŕŮॠţ hãshã occurs twice
in the Qur`an.
ĸ Ľ ūœă š [ ĸ ƏĽŬœăš hãsha li'llãh/hãshã li'llãh (also read as Ļ ŕŮŕţ ĺ
hã shan with tanwïn) [consisting of ŭॠţ hãsha. {denoting
exception and classified as a noun. also said to be a verb¦ +
redundant prep. li ( ŧœŔŪƅŔ ũŠƅŔ Žũţ Ɔ ) {denoting emphasis¦ + Allah
(ĺŔ). Interjection generally expressing dissociation by the speakers
from their having unworthy thoughts of. or commiting certain
actions towards. someone by invoking God as witness and
ascribing to Him remoteness from ever allowing a certain thing].

ş [ ƍ [ ű
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'God forbid!`. Good gracious [lit. God stops one from ever
contemplating shuch-and-such (unworthy thoughts)] (12:31) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ĈƇƔŃũĿƄ ĈƃĿ ƆĄƈ İ ƛŏ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĆƉŏ ŔćũĿ ŮĄŗ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ŕĄƈ Ċƌİ Ɔƅ Ŀ ŭŕĄţ ĄƉŇƆŁ ƁĄƏ Č Ɖą ƎĄƔĊŧĆƔŌ ĄƉĆŸİ ųĿ ƁĄƏ ą ƌĿƊĆũĄŗŇƄŌ ą ƌĿ ƊĆƔ ŌĄũ when
they saw him. they exalted him and slashed their hands. and said.
`God forbid! This is not a human being. this is but a gracious
angel!'

ş [ ƍ [ ű h-w-t wall. fence. to encircle. to encompass. to protect; to
comprehend; to be careful. to guard against; to overwhelm. to
overtake. Of this root. four forms occur 28 times in the Qur`an:
Ŀ ųॠţ Ō `ahãta 14 times. Ŀ ųƔĊ ţ Ō `uhïta three times; ĽųƔĊţą ƈ muhït nine times
and ĽřĿųƔĊţą ƈ muhïtatun twice.
Ľ űœă š Ŋ `ahãta [v. IV. intrans. with prep. .ŗ] 1 to surround. to
enclose. to envelop from all sides (18:29) ĆƇŃƎŃŗ ĿųŕĄţ Ō ŔćũŕĿƊ ĄƉƔĊƈƅŕİŴƆƅ ŕĿƊĆŧĿśĆŷŌ ŕİƊŏ
ŕĄƎŁƁĊŧŔĄũą Ŭ We have prepared for the wrongdoers a Fire whose
pavilion will surround them on all sides 2 to learn. to
comprehend. to gain full knowledge of (27:22) ĊƌŃŗ ŇųĊţŁ ś ĆƇĿ ƅ ŕĄƈŃŗ Ł ŚųĄţ Ō
ľƉƔĊƂĄƔ ŐĄŗĿ ƊŃŗ ŐĄŗĄŬ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃŁśœŃŠĄƏ I have learned something you did not know.
and I have brought to you from Sheba a sure item of news 3 to
overwhelm. to engulf. to take control (2:81) ŇŚĿųŕĄţ ŌĄƏ ĻřœĐ ƔĄŬ ĄŖĄŬĿ Ƅ ĆƉĄƈ ƑĿƆĄŗ
ą ƌŁś œƔĊųĿŦ ĊƌŃŗ truly those who do evil and whose sins have overwhelmed
them.
Ľ űƒĉ š Ŋ `uhïta [pass. of v. IV. with prep. .ŗ] 1 to be encircled from
all directions. to become trapped. to be in mortal danger (10:22)
Ć ƇŃ ƎŃ ŗ Ŀ ųƔĊ ţ Ō Ć Ƈą Ǝİ Ɗ Ō ŔƏı ƊĿ ŴĄ Ə ľ ƉŕĿ ƄĄ ƈ IJ .Ł Ƅ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ą ŞĆ ƏĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ ą Ƈą ƍĄ ʼnॠŠĄ Ə Ľ ŽĊ Űॠŷ Ĉ ŢƔŃ ũ ॠƎŇ śĄ ʼnॠŠ there comes
upon them a stormy wind. and waves come at them from every
side. and they think they are encompassed 2 to be prevented. to be
incapacitated. to be besieged (12:66) ŕĻƂĊŝĆƏĄƈ ŃƉƏŁśŎŁś ƑİśĄţ ĆƇŁƄĄŸĄƈ ą ƌĿƆĊŬĆũŌ ĆƉĿ ƅ .ŕĿ Ɓ
ĆƇŁƄŃŗ ĿųŕĄţą Ɣ ĆƉŌ İƛŏ ĊƌŃŗ ƓĊƊİƊŁśōĿśĿƅ ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ he said. `Never will I send him with you
until you have given me a pledge by God that you will bring him
back to me unless you are prevented.'
ĻűƒĉšĄ Ɔ muhït [quasi-act. part.; fem. ĽřĿųƔĊţą ƈ muhïtatun] 1 that
which/who encompasses or overtakes from all directions (29:54)
ĄƉƔŃũĊžŕĿ ƄŇƅŕŃŗ ĽřĿ ųƔĊţą ƈĿƅ ĄƇİ ƊĄƎĄŠ Č ƉŏĄƏ ŃŖŔĿŨĄŸŇƅŕŃŗ ĄƃĿƊƏŁ ƆŃŠĆŸĿ śĆŬĄƔ they challenge you to hasten
the punishment. Hell will encompass all those who deny the truth
2 one who collects and gathers together (in an interpretation of

ş [ ƍ [ J
244
verse 2:19) İ ƆƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĽųƔĊ ţą ƈ ą ƌ but God will collect together the
disbelievers [on the Day of Resurrection] (or. He will surround
them) 3 [an attribute of God] All-Encompassing. All-
Comprehending (41:54) ĽųƔĊ ţą ƈ ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł ƄŃ ŗ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŏ Ŀ ƛ Ō truly He is
encompassing everything.

ş [ ƍ [ J h-w-l year. to complete a year; to change. to alter. to shift. to
deviate; to prevent. to screen off. to interpose. to bar; to try; to
refer; around. about. circa; power; to plan. to contrive. to beguile;
method; circumstance. conditions. Of this root. seven forms occur
26 times in the Qur`an: .ॠţ hãla twice; .ƔĊţ hïla once; .ĆƏĄţ hawl 17
times; Ń ƉƔĿ ƅĆƏĄ ţ hawlayn once; .Ą ƏĊ ţ hiwal once; ĿřĿƆƔĊţ hïlatun once and
.ƔŃƏĆţĿś tahwïl three times.
Jœă š hãla u [v. intrans.. pass. ƔĊ ţ . hïla] 1 to separate between. to
come between. to cut off from (11:43) ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉŕĿƄĿž ą ŞĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ŕĄƈą ƎĿƊĆƔĄŗ .ŕĄţĄƏ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƁĄ ũŇ żą ƈŇ ƅŔ and the waves came between them and he was among the
drowned 2 to interpose. to intervene. to come between (8:24)
ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĆ ŷŔĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō ĄƉƏą ũĿŮĆţŁś ĊƌĆƔĿ ƅŏ ą ƌİƊŌĄƏ ĊƌŃŗŇƆĿ ƁĄƏ ĊʼnĆũĄƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ .Əą ţĄƔ and know that God
stands between a person and his heart (or. his secret thoughts)
and that you shall be gathered to Him.
Jąƍă š hawl I [n.; dual Ń ƉƔĿ ƅĆƏĄ ţ hawlayn] year (2:233) Ą ƉĆŸĊ ŲĆũą Ɣ Ł ŚŔĄ ŧ ƅŔĄ ƏŇƅŔĄ Ə
Ŀ řĄŷŕĄŲČ ũƅŔ Č ƇĊśą Ɣ ĆƉŌ ĄŧŔĄũŌ ĆƉĄƈƅ ŃƉĆƔĿƆĊƈŕĿ Ƅ ŃƉĆƔĿƅĆƏĄţ Č Ɖą ƍĄŧĿ ƛĆƏ Ō mothers shall suckle their
children for two whole years. for those who wish to complete the
period of nursing II [adverb of place] 1 around (6:92) ƅĄ Ə ƐĄ ũŁ ƂŇƅŔ ČƇ Ō Ą ũĊ ŨŇƊŁ ś
ॠƎĿ ƅĆƏĄ ţ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə and to warn the Mother of Cities and [those who are]
around it 2 [preceded by prep. Ɖƈ] all around. about (39:75) ƐĄũĿ śĄƏ
Ń ŭĆũĄ ŸŇƅŔ .ĆƏĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔIJ žŕĄ ţ Ŀ řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇƅŔ and you see the angels circling around
the Throne.
Jă ƍĉ š hiwal [v. n./n.] turning away. removal from one place to
another (18:108) ƛĄ ƏĊ ţ ॠƎŇƊĄ ŷ Ą ƉƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ॠƎƔĊ ž Ą ƉƔĊ ŧ ƅŕĿ Ŧ there they will remain.
never wishing to turn away from it.
ĻŗĽƄƒĉš hïlatun [n.] a method. means. way out. solution (4:98) İ ƛ ŏ
ƜƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ Ą ƉƏą ŧĿ śĆƎĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ļ řĿ ƆƔĊ ţ Ą ƉƏą ŸƔĊ ųĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ń ƉŔĄŧŇƅŃ ƏŇƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔĄ Ə .ॠŠĐ ũƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ ſĄ ŸĆŲĿ śĆŬąƈŇƅŔ but
not so the truly helpless men. women and children who cannot
find a solution nor any way to leave.

ş [ Ɛ [ ť
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JƒŁ ƍąšĽ ř tahwïl [v. n.] deviating. turning away. shifting (35:43) ĆƉĿ ƆĿ ž
ĊřİƊą Ŭƅ ĄŧŃŠĿś ĆƉĿƅĄƏ ƜƔĊŧĆŗĿś ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĊřİƊą Ŭƅ ĄŧŃŠĿś ƜƔŃ ƏĆţĿ ś Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ you will never find any
changing in God's way and you will never find any deviating in
God's way.

ş [ ƍ [ Ɛ h-w-y dark colours. particularly reddish black and greenish
black; colour of dead vegetation; container. to collect; coil. to
coil. intestines. Of this root. two forms occur once each in the
Qur`an: ॠƔŔĄ ƏĄ ţ hawãyã and ƐĄ ƏĆţ Ō `ahwã.
œă ƒŒă ƍă š hawãyã [pl. of n. Ľ řČ ƔŃ ƏĄ ţ hawiyyatun. Ą ƔŃ Əॠţ Ľř hãwiyatun; and
ʼnॠƔŃ Əॠţ hãwiyã`] intestines. entrails (6:146) ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ ƊĆƈČ ũĄţ ŃƇĿ ƊĿ żŇƅŔĄƏ ŃũĿ ƂĄŗŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈĄƏ
ċŕĄƔŔĄƏĄţŇƅŔ ŃƏ Ō ŕĄƈą ƍą ũƏą ƎŁŴ ŇŚĿ ƆĄƈĄţ ŕĄƈ İƛŏ ŕĄƈą ƎĄƈƏą ţŁŮ and of cattle and sheep. We
forbade to them their fat. except what their backs carry. and the
entrails.
ƎăƍąšŊ `ahwã [quasi-act. part.] that which has lost its colour.
stale. faded. ashen. wan (87:5) ƐĄƏĆţŌ ćʼnŕĿŝŁ Ż ą ƌĿ ƆĄŸĄŠĿ ž then turned it into
dark debris.

Ŀ Śąƒă š haythu [adverb of place. always in construct ) řžŕŲŏ ( with a
following sentence. occurring 31 times in the Qur`an] 1 wherever
(2:35) ŕĄƈŁśœĊŮ ŁŜĆƔĄţ ŔćŧĿ ŻĄũ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĿƜŁƄĄƏ Ŀ řİƊĄŠŇƅŔ Ąƃą ŠĆƏĄŪĄƏ ĿŚŇƊŌ ĆƉŁƄĆŬŔ ą ƇĄŧŊŕĄƔ Adam. dwell
you and your wife in the Garden and both of you eat freely from
its yield wherever you will 2 [with a preceding prep. Ɖƈ] from
where. from the place where. from the direction where (7:27) ą ƌİ Ɗŏ
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƏĄ ũĿ ś Ŀ ƛ Ł ŜĆƔĄ ţ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌŁ ƆƔŃ ŗĿ ƁĄ Ə Ą Əą ƍ ĆƇŁ ƄŔĄ ũĄ Ɣ he and his forces can see you from
where you do not see them 3 [with a following ŕƈ] wherever
(2:150) ą ƋĄũŇųĿ Ů ĆƇŁ ƄĄƍƏą Šą Ə ŔƏı ƅĄƏĿ ž ĆƇŁ śŇƊŁ Ƅ ŕĄƈ Ł ŜĆƔĄţĄƏ wherever you all may be. turn
your faces towards it.

ş [ Ɛ [ ť h-y-d protrusions. to project; sides; to twist. to bend. to
deviate from. to stray. to swerve. to avoid. Of this root. ą ŧƔĊ ţĿ ś tahïd
occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą ťƒĉ šĽ ř tahïd [imperf. of v. Ą ŧॠţ hãda. intrans.] to swerve. to turn
away. to avoid (50:19) ą ŧƔĊţĿś ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ĿŚŇƊŁƄ ŕĄƈ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ IJƀĄţŇƅŕŃŗ ĊŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ŁŘĄũŇƄĄŬ ŇŚĄʼnॊĄƏ the
throes of death will bring the truth with them (or. they come in
truth). `This is what you have been trying to evade.'

ş [ Ɛ [ ŧ
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ş [ Ɛ [ ŧ h-y-r (there is a degree of overlapping between this root and
root š [ Ə [ ũ h-w-r) a ditch into which flood water is trapped. to go
from one side to the other; to be confused. to be puzzled. to be
distracted. Of this root. ƉŔĄ ũĆƔĄ ţ hayrãn occurs once in the Qur`an.
ƇŒă ŧąƒă š hayrãn [quasi-act. part.] bewildered. confused (6:71) č ŧĄ ũŁ ƊĄ Ə
ą ƉƔĊ ųॠƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƌŇśĄ ƏĆƎĿ śĆŬŔ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŕĿ Ƅ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŕĿ ƊŔĄ ŧĄ ƍ ŇŨ ŏ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŃ ŗŕĿ ƂĆŷ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĊž ĄƉŔĄũĆƔĄţ ŃűĆũ ƗŔ and to be
turned on our heels. bewildered. after God has guided us. like
someone whom devils have lured into the earth.

ş [ Ɛ [ ŭ h-y-s to veer away. to swerve. to dodge; confusion; an
escape. Of this root. ĈůƔĊţĄƈ mahïs occurs five times in the Qur`an.
ćŭƒĉšăƆ mahïs [v. n./n. of place] escaping/a place of escape
(50:36) ŔƏą ŗİ ƂĿ ƊĿ ž ƑĊ ž ľůƔĊţĄƈ ĆƉĊƈ .Ąƍ ĊŧĿ ƜŃŗŇƅŔ so they searched throughout the
land. is there any escape/place to escape to'

ş [ Ɛ [ ů h–y-d flooding. to flood; to menstruate. menstruation. Of
this root. two forms occur four times in the Qur`an: ƉĆŲĊ ţĄ Ɣ yahidn
once and ĈűƔĊţĄƈ mahïd three times.
ă ƒ Ą ůƒĉ š tahïd [imperf. of v. ŇŚĄ Ųॠţ hƗdat. intrans.] to menstruate
(65:4) ĄƉĆŲĊţĄƔ ĆƇĿ ƅ ƓœİƜƅŔĄƏ and for those who have not [yet]
menstruated.
ćůƒĉšăƆ mahïd [v. n.;n. of time] menstruating/period of
menstruating (2:222) Ą ʼnॠŬIJ ƊƅŔ ŔƏŁ ƅŃ ŪĿ śĆŷŕĿ ž ƑĊ ž Ń űƔĊ ţĄ ƈŇƅŔ so keep away from
[do not have intercourse with] women during menstruation.

ş [ Ɛ [ Ż h-y-f deviation. to veer away; to be unjust. to wrong; to
curtail. to impair. Of this root. Ł ŽƔĊ ţĄ Ɣ yahïf occurs once in the
Qur`an.
Ŀ Żƒĉ šă ƒ yahïf [imperf. of v. Ŀ ŽŕĄ ţ hãfa. intrans. with prep. ƑƆŷ] to
make incursions into. to deal unjustly with. to lean heavily on
(24:50) ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ŽƔĊ ţĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ žŕĿ ŦĄ Ɣ ĆƇ Ō ƌƅƏŬũƏ or do they fear that God
and His Messenger might deal with them unjustly'

ş [ Ɛ [ ž h-y-q to surround. to encompass; to come back against.
hardship; retribution. befitting punishment. Of this root. ƀॠţ hãqa

ş [ Ɛ [ Ɛ
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occurs 10 times in the Qur`an.
Ľžœăš hãqa [v. intrans.] to befall. to return upon. to overwhelm.
to rebound (35:43) Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĊƌĊƆĆƍ ōŃŗ İƛŏ ŒĐƔČŬƅŔ ą ũŇƄĄƈŇƅŔ ŁƀƔĊţĄƔ evil plotting only
rebounds on those who plot.

ş [ Ɛ [ Ƈ h-y-n time. period. a certain time; to approach. to draw near.
to watch out for. to await the opportunity. to fix a regular time. Of
this root. two forms occur 35 times in the Qur`an: ƉƔĊ ţ hïn 34
times and ċŨœĿ ƊƔĊţ hïna`idhin once.
Ƈƒĉ š hïn a nominal used in the Qur`an as either a free unit or the
first or second part in construct ) řžŕŲŏ ( : I [as a free unit] time.
point in time. period of time (76:1) Ć ƇĿ ƅ Ń ũĆ ƍČ ŧƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ĉ ƉƔĊ ţ Ń ƉॠŬŇ Ɗ ƙŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĿ ś Ō .Ą ƍ
ŔćũƏŁ ƄŇŨĄƈ ŕœĆƔĿ Ů ĆƉŁ ƄĄƔ has there ever come a point in time when man was
not something insignificant. non-existent [lit. worthy of being
mentioned/remembered]; (2:36) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊž ľƉƔĊţ ƑĿƅŏ ĈŵŕĿśĄƈĄƏ ďũĿƂĿśĆŬą ƈ ŃűĆũƗŔ on
earth you will have a place to settle in and livelihood for a time II
[in construct ) řžŕŲŏ ( ] 1 [as the first part] 'at the time of`. 'when`.
'while` with the second part a) as a noun (28:15) ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĿřĿƊƔĊŧĄƈŇƅŔ .Ŀ ŦĄŧĄƏ
ŕĄƎĊƆĆƍŌ ĆƉĊƈ ċřĿƆŇſĿŻ ŃƉƔĊţ and he entered the city at a moment of
heedlessness from its people b) as a clause (5:101) ॠƎŇƊĄ ŷ ŔƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĿ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə
Ł ś ƉŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ .ČŪĿ Ɗą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ ţ Ćŗ Ą ŧ Ļ ƅ Ł Ƅ ĆƇ but if you ask about them while the Qur'an is
being revealed they will be made known to you 2 [as the second
part of a construct] a while. span of time. regular period of time
(14:25) ॠƎĐ ŗĄ ũ Ń ƉŇ Ũ ŐŃ ŗ ľ ƉƔĊ ţ İ .Ł Ƅ ॠƎĿ ƆŁ Ƅ Ō ƓĊ ś ŎŁ ś yielding its fruit every season by
its Lord's leave.

ş [ Ɛ [ Ɛ h-y-y life. living. to live. to bring to life. to keep alive;
livelihood; animal kingdom; fertility. rain; living quarters.
district; to keep vigil. to occupy with activity. to celebrate the
memory of; to greet. greeting; to be modest. to be shy.
bashfulness; adder. serpent. Of this root. 15 forms occur 189
times in the Qur`an: Č ƓĄ ţ hayya seven times; ŕČ ƔĄ ţ hayyã three times;
Ą ƓĐ Ɣą ţ huyyiya once; ॠƔĆţ Ō `ahyã five times; ƓĊ ƔĆţĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ yastahyï nine times;
ď ƓĄ ţ hayy 19 times; ĈʼnŕĄƔĆţŌ `ahyã` five times; ĽŘŕĄƔĄţ hayãtun 76 times;
ĈƉŔĄƏĄƔĄţ hayawãn once; ĽřČ ƔĊţĿś tahiyyatun six times; Ĉ ʼnॠƔĆ ţĊ śĆ ŬĊ Ŕ `istihyã`
once; ॠƔĆţĄ ƈ mahyã twice; ƓĊ ƔĆţą ƈ muhyï twice; ƑĄ ƔĆţĄ Ɣ yahyã five times

ş [ Ɛ [ Ɛ
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and ĽřČ ƔĄţ hayyatun once.
ċ Ƒă š hayya a [an assimilated form of the verb Ą ƓĊ ƔĄ ţ hayiya.
intrans.] 1 to live (7:25) ĄƉƏą ŠĄũŇŦŁ ś ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈĄƏ ĄƉƏŁ śƏą ƈĿ ś ŕĄƎƔĊžĄƏ ĄƉĆƏĄƔĆţĿ ś ŕĄƎƔĊž .ŕĿƁ He
said. `There you will live, there you will die, from there you will
be brought out' 2 to survive. to remain alive (8:42) Ć ƉĄ ŷ Ą ƃĿ ƆĄ ƍ Ć ƉĄ ƈ Ą ƃĊ ƆĆ ƎĄ Ɣ ƅ
ċřĿ ƊĐ ƔĄŗ ĆƉĄŷ Č ƓĄţ ĆƉĄƈ ŕĄƔĆţĄƔĄƏ ċřĿ ƊĐ ƔĄŗ that he who perished might perish by a clear
proof. and that he who survived might survive by a clear proof.
œċ ƒă š hayyã [v. II. trans.; pass. ƓĐ Ɣą ţ huyyiya] to greet. to salute
(58:8) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ƃĐ ƔĄ ţą Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ ॠƈŃ ŗ Ą ƃĆƏČ ƔĄ ţ Ą ƃƏą ʼnॠŠ ŔĿ Ũ ŏĄ Ə when they come to you they
greet you with words God never used to greet you.
Əă ƒąš Ŋ `ahyã [v. IV. trans.] 1 to bring to life. to give life to
(45:26) ƔĊ ƈą Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊ ƔĆţą Ɣ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ł Ɓ ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ś say. `It is God who gives you life. then
causes you to die' 2 to restore to life (2:164) ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŪŇƊ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə
ॠƎĊ śĆƏĄ ƈ Ą ŧĆŸĄ ŗ Ą űĆũ ƗŔ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ॠƔĆţ ōĿ ž ċ ʼnॠƈ and in the water which God sends down
from the sky to restore life to the earth after it had been lifeless 3
to help to live. to preserve someone`s life (16:97) Ć ƉĊ ƈ ŕć ţ ƅŕĄ Ű .Ċ ƈĄ ŷ Ć ƉĄ ƈ
ĻřĄŗĐƔĿų ĻŘŕĄƔĄţ ą ƌİƊĄƔĊƔĆţŁƊĿƆĿž ĈƉĊƈŎą ƈ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ƑĿŝŇƊŌ ĆƏŌ ľũĿƄĿŨ whosoever does right. whether
male or female. and has faith-We will make them live a good life.
Əă ƒąšĽ řąŪĉ Œ `istahyã [v. X] I [intrans. with prep. Ɖƈ or particle ƉŌ] to
feel shy. to be embarrassed. to be ashamed (33:53) ŔƏą ũĊ ŮĿ śŇƊŕĿ ž ĆƇŁ śĆƈĊŸĿ ų ŔĿ ŨŐĿ ž
Č ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ ƒĊ ŨŎą Ɣ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇŁ Ƅ ƅĿ Ũ Č Ɖ ŏ ċ ŜƔĊ ŧĄ ţ ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ ŬĊƊōĿ śĆŬą ƈ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ ƔĆţĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ƓĊ ƔĆţĿśĆŬĄ ƔĿ ž
then. when you have eaten. disperse. and do not stay on desiring
a chat. for that used to inconvenience the Prophet. but he felt
embarrassed [to ask] you [to go]. but God is not embarrassed by
the truth II [trans.] to spare from killing. to retrieve from death.
to save from death (28:4) Ć Ƈą ƍĄ ʼnॠŬĊ Ɗ ƓĊ ƔĆ ţĿ śĆ ŬĄ ƔĄ Ə Ć Ƈą ƍĄ ʼnŕĿ ƊĆ ŗ Ō ą ŢĐ ŗĿ Ũą Ɣ slaughtering
their sons and sparing the lives of their women.
Ď Ƒă š hayy [quasi-act. part.. pl ĈʼnŕĄƔĆţŌ `ahyã`] 1 living (21:30) ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠĄƏ
ē ƓĄ ţ ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů İ .Ł Ƅ Ċ ʼnॠƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ and We fashioned from water every living thing
2 [Đ ƓĄ ţŇƅŔ `al-hayy an attribute of God]. the Living (25:58) ĄƏĿ ś Ą Ə ƑĿƆĄŷ .İƄ
Đ ƓĄ ţƅŔ put your trust in the Living [God] 3 living things (6:95) ŏ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ
Đ ƓĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ŚĐ ƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ ą ŞŃ ũŇŦą ƈĄ Ə Ċ ŚĐ ƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č ƓĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ŞŃ ũŇŦą Ɣ ƐĄ Əİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə Đ ŖĄ ţŇƅŔ Ł ƀ ƅŕĿ ž it is God who
splits open the seed and the fruit-stone. He brings out the living
from the dead and the dead from the living 4 [adverbially] alive
(19:15) ŕĎ ƔĄ ţ Ł ŜĄ ŸĆ ŗą Ɣ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔĄ Ə Ł ŚƏą ƈĄ Ɣ Ą ƇĆ ƏĄ ƔĄ Ə Ą ŧ ƅą Ə Ą ƇĆƏĄ Ɣ Ċ ƌĆ ƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ĉ ƇĿ ƜĄ ŬĄ Ə peace be on him the

ş [ Ɛ [ Ɛ
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day he was born. the day he dies. and the day he is raised alive.
ĻŖœă ƒă š hayãtun [n.] 1 state of being alive. life as opposed to death
(67:2) ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ƜĄƈĄŷ ą ƉĄŬĆţ Ō ĆƇŁ Ƅč Ɣ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĄƏŁ ƆĆŗĄƔƅ ĿŘŕĄƔĄţŇƅŔĄƏ ĿŚĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ who created death
and life to test you [people and reveal] which of you is best in
deeds 2 this life (as opposed to the next) (20:97) ĄƃĿ ƅ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž ĆŖĄƍŇŨŕĿ ž .ŕĿ Ɓ ƑĊž
Ł ƂĿ ś ĆƉ Ō Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ƌĿ ſĿ ƆŇŦŁ ś ĆƉĿ ƅ Ŕć ŧĊ ŷĆƏĄ ƈ ĄƃĿ ƅ Č Ɖ ŏĄ Ə ĄūॠŬĊ ƈ Ŀ ƛ .Ə he said. `Go! It is for you. in
[this] life. to say. ¨I shall not touch nor will I be touched [lit. No
touching!]'. but you have an appointment that will not be broken'
3 life span (17:75) Ŀ Ũ Ɨ ŔĻŨŏ ĊŚŕĄƈĄƈŇƅŔ Ŀ ŽĆŸĊŲĄƏ ĊŘŕĄƔĄţŇƅŔ Ŀ ŽĆŸĊŲ ĄƃŕĿ ƊŇƁ then We should
have made you taste double [the punishment] of life and double
[the punishment] of death 4 living (16:97) ĆƏŌ ľũĿ ƄĿ Ũ ĆƉĊƈ ŕćţƅŕĄŰ .ĊƈĄŷ ĆƉĄƈ
Ŀ ų Ļ ŘॠƔĄ ţ ą ƌİ ƊĄ ƔĊ ƔĆţŁ ƊĿ ƆĿ ž ĈƉĊ ƈŎą ƈ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə ƑĿ ŝŇƊ Ō Ļ řĄ ŗĐ Ɣ whosoever does right. whether male or
female. and has faith¯We shall make him live a good life 5
survival (2:179) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ń ŖॠŗŇƅ ƗŔ Ɠ ƅƏ ŌॠƔ Ľ ŘॠƔĄ ţ Ń ůॠŰĊ ƂŇƅŔ in [the law of just]
retribution there is survival for you. you who are endowed with
insight; *(2:86) ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ŀ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ life of this world as opposed to the life
Hereafter.
ƇŒă ƍă ƒă šƃŒ `al-hayawãn [n.] the real life. the perfect life (29:64) Č Ɖ ŏĄ Ə
ĄƉƏą ƈĿƆĆŸĄƔ ŔƏŁƊŕĿƄ ĆƏĿ ƅ ą ƉŔĄƏĄƔĄţŇƅŔ ĄƓŃƎĿ ƅ ĿŘĄũĊŦƕŔ ĄũŔČŧƅŔ the Hereafter is the [true] life. if
only they knew.
Ļŗċ ƒĉšĽř tahiyyatun [v. n./n.] greeting. saluting. salutation (33:44)
ĈƇĿ ƜĄŬ ą ƌĿƊĆƏĿƂŇƆĄƔ ĄƇĆƏĄƔ ĆƇą ƎŁ śČ ƔĊţĿ ś their greeting when they meet Him will be,
`Peace.'
ć Ňœă ƒąšĉ řąŪĉ Œ `istihyã` [v. n.] being shy. bashfulness (28:25) ą ƌŇśĄʼnॊĿž
ċʼnŕĄƔĆţĊśĆŬŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ƓĊŮĆƈĿ ś ŕĄƈą ƍŔĄŧĆţŏ then one of the two came to him. walking
shyly.
œă ƒąšă Ɔ mahyã [n./v. n.] life/being alive (6:162) ƓĊƄą ŬŁƊĄƏ ƓĊśĿ ƜĄŰ ČƉŏ .ŁƁ
Ą ƉƔĊ ƈĿ ƅॠŸŇƅŔ Đ ŖĄ ũ Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ ƓĊ śŕĄ ƈĄ ƈĄ Ə Ą ƒŕĄ ƔĆţĄ ƈĄ Ə say. `My prayers. all my acts of
worship. my life/living and my death/dying are for God. Lord of
all Being.'
Ƒĉ ƒąšĄ Ɔ muhyï [act. part.] one who restores to life (41:39) ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ
ĈũƔĊŧĿƁ ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅ ƑĿƆĄŷ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ƑĿ śĆƏĄƈŇƅŔ ƓĊƔĆţą ƈĿƅ ŕĄƍŕĄƔĆţ Ō He who gives it life will
certainly restore life to the dead. He is able to do everything.
Əă ƒąšă ƒ Yahyã [proper name] John the Baptist (Mat.. III.1-12)

ş [ Ɛ [ Ɛ
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(19:7) ŕĎ ƔĊ ƈĄ Ŭ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ Ɗ ĆƇĿ ƅ ƑĄ ƔĆţĄ Ɣ ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ ľ ƇĿ ƜŁ żŃ ŗ Ą ƃą ũIJ ŮĄ ŗŁ Ɗ ŕİ Ɗ ŏ ŕČ ƔŃ ũĿ ƄĄ ŪॠƔ Zachariah.
We bring you good news of a son whose name [will] be John-We
have chosen for him no namesake before. John the Baptist is the
cousin of Jesus. most of his story in the Qur`an appears in Sura 3.
Ļŗċ ƒăš hayyatun [n.] serpent. adder (20:20) ĽřČ ƔĄţ Ą ƓĊ ƍ ŔĿ Ũ ŐĿ ž ॠƍŕĿ ƂŇƅ ōĿ ž ƑĄ ŸĆŬĿ ś
He threw it down and-lo and behold-it is a moving snake.





Ţ / khã`

ŇœĽŤƃŒ `al-khã` the seventh letter of the alphabet. it represents a
voiceless uvular fricative sound.

Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ŋ kh-b-` (there is a degree of overlap between this root and the
root Ţ [ Ŕ [ ƍ kh-b-w) to hide. to keep in safety. to treasure; secrets.
treasure; woollen tents for living in. shelter. Of this root. ĈʼnĆŖĿŦ
khab` occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŇąŔĽŤ khab` [n./v. n.] that which is hidden. that which is kept
safe (27:25) ĄʼnĆŖĿ ŦŇƅŔ ą ŞŃũŇŦą Ɣ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ Ċƌİ Ɔƅ ŔƏą ŧą ŠĆŬĄƔ İ ƛ Ō ƑĊž ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ Ń űĆũ should
they not worship God. who brings forth what is hidden in the
heavens and earth'

Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ř kh-b-t wide low land. deep valley covered with herbage; to
subside. to abate. to lie low; to become humble. to show humility.
to feel tenderness in one`s heart. Of this root. two forms occur
three times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŚĄŗŇŦ Ō `akhbata twice and ĽŚŃŗŇŦą ƈ mukhbit
once.
Ľ ŘăŕŅŤ Ŋ `akhbata [v. IV. intrans.] to become humble. to have a
tender and humble heart. (of one`s heart) to soften; to become
submissive. to become obedient (22:54) ı ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ ą ƌİ Ɗ Ō Ą ƇŇƆĊ ŸŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ śƏ Ō Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ ƔƅĄ Ə
ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁƆŁƁ ą ƌĿƅ ĿŚŃŗŇŦŁśĿž ĊƌŃŗ ŔƏŁƊĊƈŎą ƔĿž ĄƃĐŗĄũ ĆƉĊƈ and that those endowed with
knowledge realise that it [the Revelation] is the truth from your
Lord and believe in it/Him. that their hearts may be humbled
before it/Him.
ĻŘŁŕŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhbit [act. part.] one who humbles himself. one who
has a tender and humble heart; one who submits in obedience and
humility (22:34) ŇƅŔ ŃũIJŮĄŗĄƏ ŔƏą ƈĊƆĆŬŌ ą ƌĿƆĿž ĈŧĊţŔĄƏ ĈƌĿƅŏ ĆƇŁƄąƎĿƅŐĿž Ą ƉƔĊ śŃ ŗŇŦą ƈ your God is

Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ś

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One. so devote yourselves to Him. and [Prophet] give good news
to those humbling themselves [before Him].

Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ś kh-b-th impurities. to be impure; to be bad. to be wicked. to
be corrupt. to be vicious; to be nauseated; bad deeds. crimes. sins.
evil. adultery Of this root. six forms occur 16 times in the
Qur`an: ĿŜą ŗĿŦ khabutha once; Ľ ŜƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ khabïth six times; ƉƏŁ ŝƔŃŗĿŦ
khabïthün twice; Ľ řĿ ŝƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ khabïthatun twice; ĽŚŕĿŝƔŃŗĿŦ khabïthãt twice
and Ł Ŝ œŕĄ ŗĿ Ŧ khabã`ith twice.
Ľ ŚĄ ༠Ť khabutha u [v. intrans.] to be or become bad. to be or
become corrupt (7:58) ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ŀ Ŝą ŗĿ Ŧ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ƌĐ ŗĄ ũ Ń ƉŇŨ ŐŃ ŗ ą ƌŁ śŕĄŗĿ Ɗ ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ ą ŖĐ Ɣİ ųƅŔ ą ŧĿ ƆĄ ŗŇƅŔĄ Ə
Ŕć ŧĊ ƄĿ Ɗ İ ƛ ŏ as for the good land. its vegetation comes up by the will of
its Lord. but [in] that [land] which has become corrupt it comes
up only sparsely [stunted].
ĻŚƒŁŕĽŤ khabïth [quasi-act. part.; pl. ƉƏŁ ŝƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ khabïthün; fem. Ľ řĿ ŝƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ
khabïthatun; pl. ĽŚŕĿŝƔŃŗĿŦ khabïthãt] bad. vicious. wicked. sinful. evil
(3:179) ĄũĿŨĄƔƅ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉŕĿƄ ŕĄƈ ŃŖĐƔİųƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĿŜƔŃŗĿ ŦŇƅŔ ĄŪƔĊƈĄƔ ƑİśĄţ ĊƌĆƔĿƆĄŷ ĆƇŁśŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ
God will not leave the believers in the state you are in until He
distinguishes the bad from the good.
Ŀ Ś őœă ༠Ť khabã`ith [pl. of n. Ľ řĿ ŝƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ khabïthatun] abominations.
obscenities. wickedness. sins. evil deeds (21:74) ŕć ƈŇƄą ţ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn ŕĻ ųƏŁ ƅĄ Ə
Ŀ ŜœŕĄŗĿŦŇƅŔ .ĄƈĆŸĿ ś ŇŚĿƊŕĿ Ƅ ƓĊśİ ƅŔ ĊřĄƔĆũĿ ƂŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆƔČ ŠĿ ƊĄƏ ŕćƈŇƆĊŷĄƏ We gave Lot sound
judgement and knowledge and saved him from the township that
practised obscenities.

Ţ [ Ŕ [ ŧ kh-b-r experience. to experience. expert. to be informed; to
inform. news. to seek information; to test; sense. intrinsic. the
inner self. Of this root. four forms occur 52 times in the Qur`an:
ĈũĆŗŁ Ŧ khubr twice; ĈũĄŗĿŦ khabar twice; ĄŗŇŦ Ō Ĉũŕ `akhbãr three times and
Ĉ ũƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ khabïr 45 times.
ćŧąŕĿ Ť khubr [v. n.. adverbially used] knowledge of the internal
secret state. understanding. comprehension *(18:91) Ċ ƌĆƔĄ ŧĿ ƅ ॠƈŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊŇųĄ ţ Ō
ŔćũĆŗŁ Ŧ We encompassed all that he has in [Our] knowledge. We
knew every thing about him.
ćŧă། khabar [n.. pl ĈũŕĄŗŇŦŌ `akhbãr] 1 item of news. tidings. report

Ţ [ Ŕ [ J
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(28:29) ľũĄŗĿ ŦŃŗ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊśŔĄʼn ƓIJ ƆĄŸĿƅ ŔćũŕĿ Ɗ Ł ŚĆŬĿƊŔĄʼn ƓIJ Ɗŏ ŔƏŁ ŝŁ ƄĆƈŔ ĊƌĊƆĆƍƗ .ŕĿ Ɓ he said to his
household. `Wait! I have caught sight of a fire. maybe I will bring
you news from there' 2 record of affairs (47:31) Ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĿ Ɗ Ƒİ śĄ ţ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ ƊĄ ƏŁ ƆĆŗĿ ƊĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ć ƇŁ ƄĄ ũॠŗŇ Ŧ Ō Ą ƏŁ ƆĆ ŗĿ ƊĄ Ə Ą ƉƔŃ ũŃ ŗŕČ ŰƅŔĄ Ə Ć ƇŁ ƄŇ ƊĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊŧĊ ƍॠŠą ƈŇ ƅŔ We will try you till We know who
strive hard among you. and are steadfast, and We examine your
record.
ćŧƒŁŕĽŤ khabïr [intens. act. part.] 1 one who knows well. one in
the know (in an interpretation of 35:14) Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƄĆũĊ ŮŃ ŗ Ą ƉƏą ũŁ ſŇƄĄ Ɣ Ċ řĄ ƈॠƔĊ ƂŇƅŔ Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔĄ Ə
ľ ũƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ .ŇŝĊ ƈ Ą ƃ œĐ ŗĿ Ɗą Ɣ and on the Day of Judgement they will deny your
associating [them with God]. and none can inform you like
someone in the know 2 [an attribute of God] the All-Knowing.
All-Aware (31:16) Ĉ ũƔŃ ŗĿ Ŧ Ľ ŽƔĊ ųĿ ƅ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ for God is All-Subtle and
All-Aware

Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ũ kh-b-z to beat with two hands. to drive hard; to subside. to be
beaten low; to knead. to bake. a baker. bread. Of this root. ĈŪĆŗŁ Ŧ
khubz occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŨąŕĿ Ť khubz [n.] bread (12:36) ą ũĆƔİ ųƅŔ .Ł ƄōĿ ś ŔćŪĆŗŁ Ŧ ƓĊŬŌĄũ ĿƀĆƏĿž .ĊƈĆţ Ō ƓĊƊŔĄũŌ ƓIJ Ɗŏ
ą ƌŇƊĊ ƈ I see myself carrying on my head bread from which the birds
are eating.

Ţ [ Ŕ [ ű kh-b-t to beat. to beat about. to strike with two feet. to beat
off leaves for animals; to go about aimlessly; to be confused. to
be insane; to brand. Of this root. Ł ųČ ŗĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ yatakhabbat occurs once in
the Qur`an.
Ŀ űċ ༠ŤĽ řăƒ yatakhabbat [imperf. of v. V Ŀ ųČ ŗĿ ŦĿ ś takhabbata. trans.] to
confound. to drive insane. to confuse. to craze. to madden (2:275)
Ŕ ĄƉĊƈ ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ą ƌŁ ųČ ŗĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ą ƇƏŁ ƂĄƔ ŕĄƈĿƄ İ ƛŏ ĄƉƏą ƈƏŁ ƂĄƔ Ŀ ƛ ŕĄŗĐ ũƅŔ ĄƉƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Đ ūĄ ƈŇƅ those
who take usury will not rise [up on the Day of Resurrection]
except like those who Satan confounds by [his] touch.

Ţ [ Ŕ [ J kh-b-l corruption; loss of limbs. wounds; a type of jinn. to be
touched by jinn. to be insane. to be confounded. degeneration; to
decrease. to cheat on an agreement. the Devil. Of this root. .ŕĄŗĿŦ
khabãl occurs twice in the Qur`an.

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Jœă ༠Ť khabãl [n./v. n.] 1 corruption. ruination (3:118) ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŕĄƎč ƔŌŕĄƔ
Ŀ ƊƏŁ ƅōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĻřĿ ƊŕĿ ųŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ ŨĊŦİ śĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄ ʼn ĆƇı śĊ ƊĄ ŷ ॠƈ ŔƏč ŧĄ Ə Ļ ƛॠŗĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ Ƅ you who believe.
do not take for your intimates such outsiders [of your group] as
spare no effort to bring you ruin, they love what causes you
distress 2 trouble. confusion (9:47) İ ƛ ŏ ĆƇŁ ƄƏą ŧŔĄ Ū ॠƈ ĆƇŁ ƄƔĊ ž ŔƏą ŠĄ ũĿ Ŧ ĆƏĿ ƅ ĻƛŕĄŗĿŦ
Ŀ řĿ ƊŇśĊſŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ƊƏŁ żĆŗĄ Ɣ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĿ ƜĊŦ ŔƏą ŸĄ ŲĆƏ ƗĄƏ had they gone forth with you. they would
only have given you trouble. scurrying around in your midst.
trying to sow discord among you.

Ţ [ Ŕ [ ƍ kh-b-w (there is a degree of overlap between this root and
root Ţ [ Ŕ [ Ŋ kh-b-`) a small bedouin woollen tent. a house; the
encasing of grains inside the ear of corn; (of fire) to abate. to die
out. to become extinct. Of this root. ŇŚĄ ŗĿ Ŧ khabat occurs once in the
Qur`an.
œă ༠Ť khabã u [v. intrans.] to become extinct. to abate (17:97)
Ŕć ũƔĊ ŸĄ Ŭ Ć Ƈą ƍŕĿ ƊĆ ŧŃ Ū Ň ŚĄ ŗĿ Ŧ ॠƈİ ƆŁ Ƅ ą Ƈİ ƊĄ ƎĄ Š Ć Ƈą ƍŔĄƏ ōĄ ƈ Hell is their Home. whenever it
abates. We increase the blaze for them.

Ţ [ Ř [ ŧ kh-t-r numbness. relaxation. corruption; treachery. to betray.
to corrupt. Of this root. ũŕİ śĿŦ khattãr occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŧœĮ řĽ Ť khattãr [intens. act. part.] very treacherous. one given to
treachery. perfidious (31:32) ľ ũƏŁ ſĿ Ƅ ľ ũŕİ śĿ Ŧ ı .Ł Ƅ İ ƛŏ ŕĿ ƊĊśŕĄ ƔŋŃŗ ą ŧĄ ţĆŠĄ Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə only a
treacherous. thankless person rejects Our signs.

Ţ [ Ř [ ƅ kh-t-m a seal. sealing material. to seal up. to enclose. to block.
to secure. to cover up. to brand. to mark. a ring. to wear a ring; to
complete. to conclude. the end part. the concluding one.
conclusion. Of this root. four forms occur eight times in the
Qur`an: ĄƇĿ śĿ Ŧ khatama five times; ĈƇĿśŕĿŦ khãtam once; ĈƇŕĿśĊŦ khitãm once
and ĈƇƏŁ śŇŦĄƈ makhtüm once.
ăƅĽ řĽ Ť khatama i [v. trans. with prep. ƑĿ ƆĄŷ] to seal up (36:65) Ą ƇĆƏĄ ƔŇƅŔ
Ć ƇŃ ƎƔĊ ŧĆ Ɣ Ō ŕĿ Ɗą ƈIJ ƆĿ ƄŁ śĄ Ə Ć ƇŃ ƎĊ ƍŔĄ ƏŇ ž Ō ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ą ƇĊ śŇ ŦĿ Ɗ on this day We will seal up their mouths.
but their hands will speak to Us.
ćƅĽřœĽŤ khãtam [act. part./n.] concluding one. final seal (33:40) ŕĄƈ
Ą ƉƔĐ ƔŃ ŗİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƇĿ śŕĿ ŦĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .Əą ŬĄ ũ ĆƉĊ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄƅॠŠŃ ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ ŧĄ ţ Ō ॠŗ Ō ĈŧČ ƈĄ ţą ƈ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ MuÝammad is not

Ţ [ ť [ ų
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the father of any one of your men, he is God's Messenger and the
seal of the prophets.
ćƅœĽ řĉ Ť khitãm [v. n./n.] concluding/conclusion. end part. seal/
sealing; crowning touch (83:26) ĈƃĆŬĊƈ ą ƌą ƈŕĿ śĊŦ whose seal (or. end
part. conclusion) is musk.
ćƅƍĿ řŅŤăƆ makhtüm [pass. part.] that which is sealed. concluded.
ended (83:25) ľ ƇƏŁ śŇŦĄ ƈ ċ ƀƔĊ ţĄ ũ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉĆƏĿ ƂĆŬą Ɣ they are given to drink of pure
wine. sealed.

Ţ [ ť [ ť kh-d-d cheek. pillow. lateral side; furrow. groove. ditch.
trench. to furrow. (of a flood) to cut a channel. to become divided
into factions. Of this root. two forms occur once each in the
Qur`an: ď ŧĿ Ŧ khadd and ŧƏą ŧŇŦ Ō `ukhdüd.
Ď ťĽ Ť khadd [n.] cheek *(31:18) ĄƃČ ŧĿ Ŧ ĆũĐ ŸĄ ŰŁ ś to be arrogant. to treat
arrogantly [lit. to turn your cheek towards someone/away].
ćťƍĄ ťŅŤ Ŋ `ukhdüd [n.] a trench. ditch. furrow (85:4) ĊŧƏą ŧŇŦƗŔ ą ŖŕĄţĆŰŌ .ĊśŁƁ
perish the people of the trench!; * ŧƏą ŧŇŦƗŔ ŖॠţŰ Ō the people of the
trench. said by °ibn °ishaq to refer to Jewish convert, King Dhu
Nuwas, and some people of Najran who persecuted Christians
there by burning them in a trench (see Ŕ [ ŧ [ Ŝ b–r–j). This
provoked the Christian Abyssinians to conquer southern Arabia.
and to attack the Ka°ba in the 'Year of the Elephant` when the
Prophet Muhammad was born (see ŭ [ ş [ Ŕ s-h-b).

Ţ [ ť [ ų kh-d-´ to cover up. to cover. to hide; an inner room. bed
chamber; to cheat. to deceive. to delude; to take precautions; to
become bad. to become stagnant; the jugular veins. Of this root.
three forms occur five times in the Qur`an: ą ŵĄ ŧŇŦĄ Ɣ yakhda´ twice;
ą ŵĊ ŧŕĿ Ŧą Ɣ yukhãdi´ twice and ĈŵĊŧŕĿŦ khãdi´ once.
Ą ųă ťŅŤă ƒ yakhda´ [imperf. of v. ĄŵĄŧĿ Ŧ khada´a. trans.] to cheat. to
deceive (8:62) ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƃĄ ŗĆŬĄ ţ Č Ɖ ŐĿ ž Ą ƃƏą ŷĄ ŧŇŦĄ Ɣ ĆƉ Ō ŔƏą ŧƔŃ ũą Ɣ ĆƉ ŏĄƏ if they intend to
deceive you. surely God is sufficient [as protector] for you.
ƇƍĄ ŵĉ ťœĽ ŤĄ ƒ yukhãdi´ün [imperf. of v. III Ą ŵĄ ŧŕĿ Ŧ khãda´a. trans.] to
seek to deceive. to engage in deception. to try to double-cross
(2:9) Ć Ƈą ƎĄ ŬŁ ſŇ Ɗ Ō İ ƛ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ŷĄ ŧŇ ŦĄ Ɣ ॠƈĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƊĄ ƈŔĄ ʼn Ą ƉƔĊ ŨİƅŔĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ŷĊ ŧŕĿ Ŧą Ɣ they seek to deceive

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God and the believers but they only deceive themselves.
ćųĉťœĽŤ khãdi´ [act. part.] one who deceives. one who causes
others to be deceived (4:142) ĆƇą Ǝą ŷĊŧŕĿŦ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ ĄƌİƆƅŔ ĄƉƏą ŷĊŧŕĿŦą Ɣ ĄƉƔĊƂĊžŕĿƊą ƈŇƅŔ ČƉŏ the
hypocrites try to deceive God. but it is He who causes them to be
deceived.

Ţ [ ť [ Ƈ kh-d-n friend. companion. confidant; to take a friend; lover.
Of this root. ĈƉŔĄŧŇŦŌ `akhdãn. occurs twice in the Qur`an.
ćƇŒăťŅŤŊ `akhdãn [pl. of quasi-act. part./n. ĈƉĆŧĊŦ khidn] friend.
companion. lover (4:25) ċŚŕĄţĊžŕĄŬą ƈ ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ċŚŕĿ ƊĄŰĆţą ƈ ĊŽƏą ũĆŸĄƈŇƅŕŃŗ ČƉą ƍĄũƏą ŠŌ ČƉą ƍƏŁśŔĄʼnĄƏ
ľƉŔĄŧŇŦŌ ĊŚŔĿŨĊŦİśą ƈ Ŀ ƛĄƏ give them their dowries according to the norms
[governing marriage practices. taking them] as married women.
but not [as] adulteresses or those taking lovers.

Ţ [ Ŧ [ J kh-dh-l straggler; to stay behind. to be left behind; to fail to
support; to weaken. to stay put. Of this root. three forms occur
once each in the Qur`an: .Ł ŨŇŦĄ Ɣ yakhdhul; .ƏŁ ŨĿŦ khadhül and .ƏŁ ŨŇŦĄƈ
makhdhül.
JĿ ŦŅŤă ƒ yakhdhul [imperf. of v. .Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧ khadhala. trans.] to let down.
to deny one`s assistance to. to forsake (3:160) Ą Ŗ ƅŕĿ Ż Ŀ ƜĿ ž ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĆũą ŰŇƊĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ŏ
Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆ ŸĄ ŗ Ć ƉĊ ƈ Ć ƇŁ Ƅą ũą ŰŇ ƊĄ Ɣ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ŔĿ Ũ Ć ƉĄ ƈĿ ž Ć ƇŁ ƄŇ ƅŁŨŇ ŦĄ Ɣ Ć Ɖ ŏĄ Ə Ć ƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ if God helps you. no one can
overcome you, if He forsakes you. who is it that will help you
other than [lit. after] Him'
JƍĿ ŦĽŤ khadhül [intens. act. part.] one given to letting others
down. one characterised by forsaking friends. a deserter in the
time of need (25:29) ŃƉŕĄŬŇƊƚƅ ą ƉŕĿųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ ĄƉŕĿƄĄƏ Ļ ƛƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧ Satan has always let
humankind down.
JƍĿ ŦŅŤăƆ makhdhül [pass. part.] one who is let down. forsaken.
deserted. abandoned (17:22) Ļ ƛƏŁ ŨŇŦĄ ƈ ŕć ƈƏą ƈŇŨĄ ƈ Ą ŧą ŸŇƂĿ śĿ ž Ą ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼn ŕć ƎĿ ƅ ŏ Ċ ƌİƆƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ƈ .Ą ŸĆŠĿ ś Ŀ ƛƏ
do not set up with God another god. lest you end up reproved and
forsaken.

Ţ [ ŧ [ Ŕ kh-r-b to pull down. to lay waste. to level. to destroy. to ruin;
ruins; to desert. to neglect; to pierce. Of this root. two forms
occur once each in the Qur`an: ą ŖŃ ũŇŦą Ɣ yukhrib (also read as ą ŖĐũĿ Ŧą Ɣ

Ţ [ ŧ [ Ŝ
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yukharrib) and ĈŖŔĄũĿŦ kharãb.
Ą ŔŁ ŧŅŤĄ ƒ yukhrib [imperf. of v. IV ĄŖĄũŇŦ Ō `akhraba. trans (variant
reading ą ŖĐũĿ Ŧą Ɣ yukharrib. imperf. of v. II ĄŖČ ũĿ Ŧ kharraba. trans.] to
lay waste. to ruin. to destroy (variant to desert. to abandon) (59:2)
ĆƇą ƎĿśƏą Ɣą ŗ ĄƉƏą ŗŃũŇŦą Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈŇ ƅŔ ƒĊ ŧĆ Ɣ ŌĄ Ə Ć ƇŃ ƎƔĊ ŧĆ Ɣ ōŃ ŗ destroying their homes with their
own hands and the hands of the believers.
ćŔŒăŧĽŤ kharãb [v. n.] laying to waste. destruction. demolition.
desertion. abandonment (2:114) İ ƆƅŔ Ą ŧŃ ŠŕĄ ŬĄ ƈ Ą ŶĿ ƊĄ ƈ ĆƉČ ƈĊ ƈ ą ƇĿ ƆŇŴ Ō ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄũĿ ƄŇŨą Ɣ ĆƉŌ Ċƌ
ƑĄ ŸĄ ŬĄ Ə ą ƌą ƈĆŬŔ ƑĊ ž ॠƎŃ ŗŔĄ ũĿ Ŧ who could be more wicked than those who
prohibit the mention of God's name in His places of worship and
strive for their destruction (or. desertion)'!

Ţ [ ŧ [ Ŝ kh-r-j to exit. to issue. to emerge. to come out. to leave. to
eject; to explain. to deduce; to cultivate; to show ability. to
blossom. to yield. a yield. land taxation; to gain experience; taste.
(of colour of herbage) to be patchy. Of this root. 14 forms occur
192 times in the Qur`an: ĄŞĄũĿ Ŧ kharaja 53 times; ĄŞĄũŇŦ Ō `akhraja 86
times; Ą ŞŃ ũŇŦ Ō `ukhrija 13 times; ĄŞĄũŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhraja four times; ĈŞƏą ũŁ Ŧ
khurüj five times; ĈŞŔĄũŇŦŏ `ikhrãj six times; ĈŞŃũŕĿŦ khãrij once; ƉƏą ŠŃũŕĿŦ
khãrijün twice; ĈŞĄũŦĄƈ makhraj 11 times; ĈŞŃũŇŦą ƈ mukhrij three times;
ĈŞĄũŇŦą ƈ mukhraj once; ƉƏą ŠĄ ũŇŦą ƈ mukhrajün four times; ĈŞĆũĿŦ kharj
twice and ĈŞŔĄũĿŦ kharãj once.
ăŜăŧĽ Ť kharaja u [v. intrans.] 1 to go out. to exit. to go forth. to
leave (5:22) İ śĄţ ŕĄƎĿ ƆŁ ŦĆŧĿ Ɗ ĆƉĿƅ ŕİ ƊŏĄƏ ĄƉƔŃũŕČ ŗĄŠ ŕćƈĆƏĿ Ɓ ŕĄƎƔĊž Č Ɖŏ ॠƎŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏą Šą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ Ƒ there is a
fearsome people in this land. and we will not enter it until they
leave 2 to come out (16:69) ą ƌŁ ƊŔĄƏŇƅŌ ĽŽĊƆĿ śŇŦą ƈ ĈŖŔĄũĿ Ů ŕĄƎĊƊƏŁ ųą ŗ ĆƉĊƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄƔ out of
their bellies comes a drink of diverse hues 3 to grow out of. to
spring from (23:20) Ą ƉƔĊ ƆĊ ƄƖ ƅ ľ źĆ ŗĊ ŰĄ Ə Ń ƉĆ ƍč ŧƅŕŃ ŗ Ł Śą ŗŇ ƊĿ ś Ą ʼnŕĿ ƊĆ ƔĄ Ŭ Ń ũƏŁ ų Ć ƉĊ ƈ ą Şą ũŇ ŦĿ ś Ļ ŘĄ ũĄ ŠĿ ŮĄ Ə
and a tree. springing out from Mount Sinai. that produces oil and
relish for those who would eat 4 to issue (86:7) Ń ŖŇƆč ŰƅŔ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ
ŔĄũİ śƅŔĄƏ Ń Ŗ œ it issues from between the loins and breast-bones 5 to
burst forth (41:47) ą ŶĄŲĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ƑĿ ŝŇƊ Ō ĆƉĊƈ .ĊƈĆţĿ ś ŕĄƈĄƏ ŕĄƎĊƈŕĄƈŇƄŌ ĆƉĊƈ ċŚŔĄũĄƈĿ ŝ ĆƉĊƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĿ ś ŕĄƈĄƏ
Ċ ƌĊ ƈŇƆĊ ŸŃ ŗ İ ƛ ŏ and no fruit burst forth from their sheaths. nor does a
female conceive or give birth. but with His knowledge 6 to
emerge. to rise (from the grave) (30:25) ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ń űĆũ ƗŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ļ ŘĄ ƏĆŷĄ ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄॠŷĄ ŧ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ
Ą ƉƏą Šą ũŇŦĿ ś when He calls you once. out of the earth. you [will all]

Ţ [ ŧ [ Ŝ

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emerge.
ăŜăŧŅŤ Ŋ `akhraja [v. IV. trans.; pass. Ą ŞŃ ũŇŦ Ō `ukhrija] 1 to drive out.
to eject. to expel (27:56) ĆƉĊƈ ċųƏŁ ƅ .ŔĄʼn ŔƏą ŠŃũŇŦ Ō ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ĆƉŌ İ ƛŏ ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿƁ ĄŖŔĄƏĄŠ ĄƉŕĿƄ ŕĄƈĿž
ĆƇŁ ƄĊśĄƔĆũĿ Ɓ but the answer of his people was only to say. `Expel the
household of Lot from your town!' 2 to produce (20:88) ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĄŞĄũŇŦ ōĿ ž
ĈũŔĄƏŁŦ ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔćŧĄŬĄŠ ƜĆŠĊŷ so he produced for them a calf in body with
lowing sound 3 to bring forth (48:29) ą Ƌ ōŇųĿ Ů Ą ŞĄ ũŇŦ Ō ľŵĆũĄŪĿ Ƅ like seeds
that put forth their shoots 4 to cast out. to cast forth (6:93) ƐĄ ũĿ ś Ć ƏĿ ƅĄ Ə
İ ŴƅŔ Ċ Ũ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ƈ ƅŕ ƑĊ ž ą ƇŁ ƄĄ ŬŁ ſŇ Ɗ Ō ŔƏą ŠŃ ũŇ Ŧ Ō Ć ƇŃ ƎƔĊ ŧĆ Ɣ Ō ƏŁ ųĊ Ŭॠŗ Ł řĿ Ƅ œĿ ƜĄ ƈŇ ƅŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚĆ ƏĄ ƈŇ ƅŔ Ċ ŚŔĄ ũĄ ƈĿ Ż if only you
could see the wicked in the throes of death. as the angels
stretching out their hands [to them. say]. `Cast out your souls' 5
to take out. to rescue from. to bring out. to deliver (4:75) Ą ƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ
ॠƎŁ ƆĆ ƍ Ō Ń Ƈ ƅŕİ ŴƅŔ Ċ řĄ ƔĆ ũĿ ƂŇ ƅŔ Ċ ƋĊ ŨĄ ƍ Ć ƉĊ ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆ ŠŃ ũŇ Ŧ Ō ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ those who say. `Our Lord. deliver
us from this town whose people are oppressors!' 6 to expose
(47:29) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ŖĊ ŬĄ ţ ĆƇ Ō ƑĊ ž Ł Ɓ ĆƇą ƎĿƊŕĿżĆŲŌ ą ƌİƆƅŔ ĄŞŃũŇŦą Ɣ ĆƉĿƅ ĆƉŌ ĈűĄũĄƈ ĆƇŃƎŃŗƏŁƆ do the
corrupt at heart [lit. those in whose hearts is sickness] assume
that God will not expose their malice'
ăŜăŧŅŤĽ řąŪŒ `istakhraja [v. X. trans.] 1 to extract. to bring out with
effort (35:12) Ą Ə ŕĄƎĿ ƊƏą ŬĄŗŇƆĿś ĻřĄƔŇƆĊţ ĄƉƏą ŠŃũŇŦĿ śĆŬĿ śĄƏ ŕĎ ƔŃũĿ ų ŕćƈĆţĿ ƅ ĄƉƏŁ ƆŁ ƄōĿ ś į .Ł Ƅ ĆƉĊƈ yet from
each you eat succulent meat and extract ornaments which you
wear 2 to dig out. to excavate (18:82) ॊŃũŇŦĿ śĆŬĄƔĄƏ ŕĄƈą ƍČ ŧŁ Ů Ō ŕĿ żŁ ƆĆŗĄƔ ĆƉŌ Ąƃč ŗĄũ ĄŧŔĄũ ōĿ ž
ŇƊĿ Ƅ ॠƈą ƍĄ Ū so your Lord intended that they reach maturity and then dig
up their treasure.
ćŜƍĄ ŧĿ Ť khurüj [v. n.] 1 coming or getting out. exiting. escaping.
way out (40:11) .ƔŃŗĄŬ ĆƉĊƈ ľŞƏą ũŁŦ ƑĿ ƅŏ .ĄƎĿž then. is there any way to get
out' 2 going out. joining the fighting company (9:46) ŔƏą ŧŔĄũŌ ĆƏĿƅĄƏ
Ļ ŘČ ŧą ŷ ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔƏč ŧĄ ŷ Ɨ Ą ŞƏą ũŁ ŦŇƅŔ had they desired to go forth [on the expedition].
they would have made preparations for it; *(50:11) ą ŞƏą ũŁ ŦŇƅŔ
Resurrection [lit. emergence [from graves]]; *(50:42) ą ƇĆƏĄƔ Ń ŞƏą ũŁ ŦŇƅŔ
the Day of Resurrection [lit. Day of Emergence].
ćŜŒă ŧŅŤ ō `ikhrãj [v. n.] 1 driving out. expelling. turning out
(2:217) Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ŧŇ ƊĊ ŷ ą ũĄ ŗŇ Ƅ Ō ą ƌŇ ƊĊ ƈ Ċ ƌĊ ƆĆ ƍ Ō ą ŞŔĄ ũŇ Ŧ ŏĄƏ and expelling its people from it.
are still greater offences in God's eyes 2 bringing forth.
resurrection (71:18) ŕć ŠŔĄ ũŇŦ ŏ ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŠŃ ũŇŦą ƔĄ Ə ॠƎƔĊ ž ĆƇŁ Ƅą ŧƔĊ Ÿą Ɣ Č ƇŁ ŝ then He returns you
into it. then He will bring you forth a [new] bringing forth.

Ţ [ ŧ [ ŧ
259
ćŜŁŧœĽŤ khãrij [act. part.; pl. ƉƏą ŠŃ ũŕĿ Ŧ khãrijün] one coming out.
coming forth (6:122) ą ƌŁƆĿŝĄƈ ĆƉĄƈĿƄ ƑĊ ž ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ľŞŃũŕĿŦŃŗ ĄūĆƔĿ ƅ ĊŚŕĄƈŁƆıŴƅŔ just like
someone in [deep] darkness. out of which he is not emerging.
ć Ŝă ŧŅŤă Ɔ makhraj [v. n./n. of place] solution/way out (65:2) Ċ ƀİ śĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
ŕć ŠĄ ũŇŦĄ ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ .Ą ŸĆŠĄ Ɣ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ and whoever is mindful of God. God will find a
way out for him.
ćŜŁŧŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhrij [act. part.] 1 one who brings forth (6:95) ą ŞŃũŇŦą ƈĄƏ
Đ ƓĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ċ ŚĐ ƔĄ ƈŇƅŔ and He is the one who brings out the dead from the
living 2 one who exposes. shows up. brings to light (9:64) .Ł Ɓ
ĄƉƏą ũĿŨĆţĿś ŕĄƈ ĈŞŃũŇŦą ƈ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖŏ ŔƏ œŃŪĆƎĿśĆŬŔ say. `Carry on mocking. God will
bring to light what you fear.'
ćŜăŧŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhraj [v. n./n. of place/pass. part.; pl. ƉƏą ŠĄ ũŇŦą ƈ
mukhrajün] coming out. way out. one who is brought out (17:80)
Ł ƁĄ Ə ċ ƀĆŧĊ Ű Ą ŞĄ ũŇŦą ƈ ƓĊ ƊĆŠŃ ũŇŦ ŌĄ Ə ċ ƀĆŧĊ Ű .Ŀ ŦĆŧą ƈ ƓĊ ƊŇƆĊ ŦĆŧ Ō Đ ŖĄ ũ . and say. `My Lord. lead
me in with a true incoming and lead me out with a true outgoing.'
ćŜąŧĽŤ kharj [n.] regular payment. tribute. dues. toll. duty
(18:94) Ňſą ƈ Ą ŞƏą ŠōĄ ƈĄ Ə Ą ŞƏą ŠōĄ Ɣ Č Ɖ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ŧĊ Ŭ ƑĊž .Ą ŸĆŠĿ ś ĆƉ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕćŠĆũĿ Ŧ Ą ƃĿ ƅ .ĄŸĆŠĿ Ɗ .Ą ƎĿ ž ŃűĆũ ƗŔ
ŔĎ ŧĄ Ŭ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƊĆƔĄŗĄƏ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ Gog and Magog are causing destruction in the land.
so may we assign to you a tribute in return for you setting up a
barrier between us and them'
ćŜŒăŧĽŤ kharãj [n.] regular payment. dues. tribute. toll. duty
(23:72) ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ą ƃĐ ŗĄ ũ ą ŞŔĄ ũĿ ŦĿ ž ŕć ŠĆũĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƅ ōĆŬĿ ś ĆƇ Ō do you [Prophet] ask them for
dues'. dues from Your Lord are best.

Ţ [ ŧ [ ť [ J kh-r-d-l mustard seeds; a large chunk of meat. to cut into
small pieces; (of a palm tree) to shed its fruits before they are
ripe. Of this root. .ĄŧĆũĿŦ khardal occurs twice in the Qur`an.
JăťąŧĽŤ khardal [coll. n.] mustard seed (21:47) ĆƉĊ ƈ ċ řČ ŗĄ ţ .ŕĿ ƂŇŝĊ ƈ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə
ॠƎŃ ŗ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ś Ō .Ą ŧĆũĿ Ŧ and if there be even the weight of a mustard seed. We
will produce it.

Ţ [ ŧ [ ŧ kh-r-r sound of blowing wind. falling water or falling stones;
rumbling. snoring. purring; to enjoy affluence; to surprise; to fall.
to crumble. to collapse; to die. Of this root. Č ũĿ Ŧ kharra occurs 12
times in the Qur`an.

Ţ [ ŧ [ ŭ

260
ċ ŧĽ Ť kharra i [v. intrans.] to collapse. to fall down (7:143) Č ũĿ ŦĄ Ə
ŕĻ ƂĊ ŸĄ Ű ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ and Moses collapsed unconscious; *(17:109) Ą ƉƏč ũĊ ŦĄ Ɣ
ƉŕĿ ƁŇŨ Ƙƅ they fall down on their faces. they prostrate themselves [lit.
they fall to the chins].

Ţ [ ŧ [ ŭ kh-r-s palm tree branch; to estimate the amount of fruit
carried by a palm tree; guessing. conjecturing. approximation;
lying; a large water basin. estuary. Of this root. two forms occur
five times in the Qur`an: ą ůŃ ũŇŦĿ ś takhris four times; and ƉƏą ŰŔČũĿŦ
kharrãsün once.
Ą ŭŁ ŧŅŤĽ ř takhris [imperf. of v. ůũĿŦ kharasa. trans.] to guess. to
speculate. to conjecture (also said to mean to lie) (43:20) ĆƏĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə
Ą Ɣ İ ƛ ŏ ĆƇą ƍ ĆƉ ŏ ľ ƇŇƆĊ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƃ ƅĿ ŨŃ ŗ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ॠƈ ĆƇąƍŕĿ ƊĆŧĄ ŗĄ ŷ ॠƈ ą ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƅŔ Ą ʼnŕĿ Ů Ą ƉƏą Űą ũŇŦ they say. `If the
Lord of Mercy had willed it we would not have worshipped them.
but they do not know that-they are only conjecturing.'
ƇƍĄ ŮŒċ ŧĽ Ť kharrãsün [pl. of intens. act. part. ĈůŔČ ũĿŦ kharrãs ] ones
given to guessing. conjecturing (also said to mean liars) (51:10) .Ċ śŁ Ɓ
ĄƉƏą ŰŔČ ũĿ ŦŇƅŔ perish the conjecturers/the liars.

Ţ [ ŧ [ ű [ ƅ kh-r-t-m nose. trunk (of an elephant). to hit on the nose. to
bottle up one`s anger; notables. Of this root. ƇƏŁ ųĆũŁ Ŧ khurtüm
occurs once in the Qur`an.
ƍĿ űąŧĿ Ť ćƅ khurtüm [n.] nose. snout (also said to mean face. in
general) (68:16) ŃƇƏŁ ųĆũŁ ŦŇƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ą ƌą ƈĊŬĿƊĄŬ We will brand him on the snout!

Ţ [ ŧ [ ž kh-r-q gap. hole. perforation; rag; to pierce; to invent. to
feign; to lie; to be foolish. to be ignorant. to be confused. Of this
root. Ŀ ƀĄũĿ Ŧ kharaqa occurs four times in the Qur`an.
Ľ žăŧĽ Ť kharaqa i [v. trans.] 1 to pierce. to make a hole in (18:71)
ॠŗĊ ƄĄ ũ ŔĿ Ũ ŏ Ƒİ śĄţ ŕĿ ƂĿ ƆĿ ųŇƊŕĿ ž ƑĊž ॠƎĿ ƁĄ ũĿ Ŧ Ċ řĿ ƊƔĊ ſČ ŬƅŔ so they proceeded until. when they
boarded a boat. he made a hole in it 2 to falsely attribute. to
invent (6:100) ľ ƇŇ ƆĊ ŷ Ń ũĆ ƔĿ żŃ ŗ ċ ŚŕĿ ƊĄ ŗĄ Ə Ą ƉƔĊ ƊĄ ŗ ą ƌĿ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƁĄ ũĿ ŦĄ Ə Ć ƇąƎĿ ƂĿ ƆĿ ŦĄ Ə Č ƉŃ ŠŇ ƅŔ Ą ʼnŕĿ ƄĄ ũŁ Ů Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ ŔƏŁ ƆĄ ŸĄ ŠĄ Ə
and they ascribe as partners to God. the jinn. though He created
them. and they invent sons and daughters for Him without any
true knowledge.

Ţ [ Ũ [ ƍ - Ɛ
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Ţ [ Ũ [ Ƈ kh-z-n store. storing place. treasury; to store up; to hide. to
keep secret. a storekeeper; to take a shortcut. Of this root. three
forms occur 13 times in the Qur`an: ƉƏŁ ƊŃ ŪŕĿ Ŧ khãzinün once; ĽřĿ ƊĄŪĿ Ŧ
khazanatun four times; ą Ɖ œŔĄ ŪĿ Ŧ khazã`in eight times.
ƇƍĿ ƈŁŨœĽŤ khãzinün [pl. of act. part. ĈƉŃŪŕĿŦ khãzin] one who stores
up. one who keeps control. storekeepers (15:22) ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ ōĿ ž
ĄƉƔĊƊŃŪŕĿ ŦŃŗ ą ƌĿƅ ĆƇŁ śŇƊ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ƋƏą ƈŁ ƄŕĿƊĆƔĿƂĆŬōĿž and We bring down out of the sky water
and we give it to you to drink-and you are not its keepers.
ĻŗĽ ƈăŨĽ Ť khazanatun [pl. of n. ĈƉŃŪŕĿŦ khãzin] keeper. warden (67:8)
ĈũƔĊŨĿƊ ĆƇŁƄĊśōĄƔ ĆƇĿƅŌ ŕĄƎŁśĿƊĄŪĿŦ ĆƇą ƎĿƅōĄŬ ĈŞĆƏĿž ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƓĊƂŇƅŌ ŕĄƈİƆŁƄ every time a group is cast into
it. its keepers ask them. `Did no warner come to you''
ćƇőŒăŨĽŤ khazã`in [pl. of n. ĽřĿƊŔĄŪĊŦ khizãnatun] 1 treasure house.
storehouse. treasury (12:55) ŃűĆũ ƗŔ ŃƉœŔĄŪĿŦ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ƓĊƊŇƆĄŸĆŠŔ .ŕĿƁ he said. `Put
me in charge of the nation's storehouses' 2 knowledge. control.
resources. storehouses (15:21) İ ƛŏ ą ƌŁ ƅĐ ŪĿ ƊŁ Ɗ ŕĄƈĄƏ ą ƌŁ ƊœŔĄŪĿ Ŧ ŕĿ ƊĄŧŇƊĊŷ İ ƛŏ ċʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƉĊƈ ĆƉŏĄƏ
ľƇƏŁƆĆŸĄƈ ľũĄŧĿ ƂŃŗ there is nothing of which We do not have control. only
sending it down according to a well-defined measure.

Ţ [ Ũ [ ƍ - Ɛ kh-z-w/y to compel. to manipulate. to exercise self -control.
to humiliate. to humble. to abase. to shame. to disgrace;
abasement. a disgraceful act. Of this root. five forms occur 26
times in the Qur`an: ƐĄŪŇŦĿƊ nakhzã once; ŇŦ Ō ƐĄŪ `akhzã (1) 12 times;
ĈƒĆŪĊŦ khizy 11 times; ƐĄ ŪŇŦ Ō `akhzã (2) once and ƒŃ ŪŇŦą ƈ mukhzï once.
Ǝă ŨŅŤĽ ƈ nakhzã [1
st
pers. pl. imperf. of v. ĄƒŃŪĿ Ŧ khaziya. intrans.]
to be disgraced. to be shamed. to suffer humiliation (20:134) ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄ ũ
Ŀ ŚŇƆĄ ŬĆũ Ō Ŀ ƛĆƏĿ ƅ ƐĄŪŇŦĿƊĄƏ İ .ĊŨĿ Ɗ ĆƉŌ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃĊśŕĄƔŔĄʼn ĄŶŃŗİ śĿƊĿž ƛƏą ŬĄũ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ ƅŏ Lord. if only You
had sent us a messenger. so that we might have followed Your
revelations. before we suffered humiliation and disgrace!
ƎăŨŅŤŊ `akhzã (1) [v. IV. trans.] 1 to disgrace. to humble. to
humiliate (3:192) ą ƌĿ śĆƔĄŪŇŦ Ō ĆŧĿƂĿž Ąũŕİ ƊƅŔ .ĊŦĆŧŁ ś ĆƉĄƈ Ąƃİ Ɗŏ ŕĿ ƊČ ŗĄũ Lord! You truly
humiliate those You commit to the Fire 2 to embarrass. to shame
(11:78) Ń ƉƏą ŪŇŦŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ŔƏŁ Ƃİ śŕĿ ž ƑĊ ž ƓĊ ſĆƔĄ Ų so have some fear of God and do
not disgrace me with my guests.
ćƐąŨĉŤ khizy [n.] disgrace. humiliation (5:33) ĈƒĆŪĊŦ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ƑĊ ž ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊ ž Ĉ ƇƔĊ ŴĄ ŷ Ĉ ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŷ Ċ ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ such [punishment] will be a disgrace for

Ţ [ ũ [ Ŋ

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them in this world. and in the Hereafter a terrible punishment.
Ǝă ŨŅŤ Ŋ `akhzã (2) [elat.] more/most humiliating. disgracing
(41:16) ĄƉƏą ũĄŰŇƊą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ƐĄŪŇŦŌ ĊŘĄũĊŦƕŔ ą ŖŔĿ ŨĄŸĿ ƅĄƏ but the chastisement of the
life to come is more humiliating. and they will not be helped.
ƐŁ ŨŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhzï [act. part.] one who causes disgrace. humiliation
(9:2) Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ žŕĿ ƄŇƅŔ ƒŃ ŪŇŦą ƈ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ ŌĄ Ə and that God will disgrace the
disbelievers.

Ţ [ ũ [ Ŋ kh-s-` to drive away. to chase out; to cast out; to humble;
rejected. spurned; to defeat. to impair; to confuse. to dull. to
frustrate. Of this root. three forms occur four times in the Qur`an:
ŔƏ œĄŬŇŦŔ `ikhsa`ü once; ŒĊŬŕĿŦ khãsi` once and ƉƏ œĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ khãsi`ün twice.
Œƍ őă ŪŅŤŒ `ikhsa`ü [imper. of v. ōĄŬĿ Ŧ khasa`a. intrans.] to chase. to
shame. to scorn (23:108) ŔƏ œĄŬŇŦŔ .ŕĿƁ ŃƉƏą ƈIJƆĿƄŁś Ŀ ƛĄƏ ŕĄƎƔĊž He will say. `Away
with you!. in you go!. do not speak to Me!'
Őĉ ŪœĽ Ť khãsi` [act. part.; pl. khãsi`ün] 1 chased away. driven
away. rejected. cut off. forsaken. outcasts (7:166) ŔƏą ƎŁ Ɗ ॠƈ ĆƉĄŷ ŔĆƏĿ śĄŷ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ą ƎĿ ƅ ŕĿ ƊŇƆŁ Ɓ ą ƌŇƊĄ ŷ Ą ƉƔ œĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ Ļ ŘĄ ŧĄ ũĊ Ɓ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ Ƅ ĆƇ but when they became too proud to
abandon that which they were forbidden [to do]. We said to them.
`Be [like] apes!. outcasts!' 2 unsuccessful. in vain. frustrated.
unable (67:4) Ć ŖĊ ƆĿ ƂŇ ƊĄ Ɣ Ń ƉĆ ƔĿ śČ ũĿ Ƅ Ą ũĄ ŰĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ń ŶŃ ŠĆ ũŔ Č ƇŁ ŝ Ĉ ũƔĊ ŬĄ ţ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə ŕ œĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ ą ũĄ ŰĄ ŗŇ ƅŔ Ą ƃĆ ƔĿ ƅ ŏ Look
again and again! Your sight will return to you frustrated and
dimmed.

Ţ [ ũ [ ŧ kh-s-r to go astray. to lose one`s way. to perish; to incur a
loss. to lose. a loss; to decrease. to give less than what is right. to
give short measure; to misguide. Of this root. 10 forms occur 65
times in the Qur`an: ĄũĊŬĿ Ŧ khasira 16 times; ƉƏą ũĊ ŬŇŦą Ɣ yukhsirün
twice; ĈũĆŬŁ Ŧ khusr twice; ƉƏą ũĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ khãsirün 32 times; Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ
khãsiratun once; ĈũĿŕŬĿŦ khasãr three times; ĈƉŔĄũĆŬŁ Ŧ khusrãn three
times; ƉƏą ũĄ ŬŇŦ Ō `akhsarün four times; ũƔĊ ŬŇŦĿ ś takhsïr once and ƉƏą ũĊ ŬŇŦą ƈ
mukhsirün once.
ăŧĉŪĽ Ť khasira a [v. trans.] 1 [with no obj.] to suffer a loss. to
lose [as in a race] (10:45) Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ĊʼnŕĿƂĊƆŃŗ ŔƏą ŗİ ŨĿ Ƅ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄũĊŬĿ Ŧ ĆŧĿƁ those who denied
the meeting with God have indeed lost 2 to lose something (7:9)

Ţ [ ũ [ ŧ
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ĆƇą ƎĄŬŁſŇƊ Ō ŔƏą ũĊŬĿŦ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ĄƃœĿ ƅƏōĿž ą ƌŁƊƔŃŪŔĄƏĄƈ ŇŚİſĿŦ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ and those whose scales [good
deeds] are light will be the ones who have lost their souls.
Ą ŧĉ ŪŅŤĄ ƒ yukhsir [imperf. of v. IV ĄũĄŬŇŦ Ō `akhsara. trans.] to give
less than the correct amount. to shortchange. to give short
measure/weight (55:9) Ą ƉŔĄ ŪƔĊ ƈŇƅŔ ŔƏą ũĊ ŬŇŦŁ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ċ ųĆŬĊ ƂŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƉĆŪĄ ƏŇƅŔ ŔƏąƈƔĊ Ɓ ŌĄ Ə set up the
balance with justice. and do not give short measure [lit. cause the
balance to lose/be lost].
ćŧąŪĿ Ť khusr [v. n./n.] loss. failure. ruin (65:9) ĄƉŕĿ ƄĄƏ ŕĄƍŃũĆƈ Ō .ŕĄŗĄƏ ŇŚĿƁŔĿ ŨĿ ž
Ŕć ũĆŬŁ Ŧ ॠƍŃ ũĆƈ Ō Ł řĄ ŗĊ Ɓॠŷ and it tasted the ill effect of their conduct-the
result of their conduct was ruin.
ƍĄ ŧĉ ŪœĽ Ť Ƈ khãsirün [pl. of act. part. ĈũĊŬŕĿŦ khãsir. fem. Ľ ŘĄ ũĊ ŬŕĿ Ŧ
khãsiratun] one who loses the right way. a loser. a sinner (10:95)
Ą ƉƔŃ ũĊ ŬŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ƄĿ śĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŚŕĄ ƔŋŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŗİ ŨĿ Ƅ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č ƉĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə and do not be one of
those who deny the revelations of God for then you will become
one of the losers.
ćŧœăŪĽŤ khasãr [v. n.] loss. losing (71:21) ą Ƌą ŧĿ ƅĄ ƏĄ Ə ą ƌŁ ƅॠƈ ą ƋĆŧŃ ŪĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ ĆƉĄ ƈ ŔƏą ŸĄ ŗİ śŔĄ Ə
Ŕć ũॠŬĿ Ŧ İ ƛ ŏ and followed those whose riches and children only
increased their losses.
ćƇŒăŧąŪĿ Ť khusrãn [v. n.] loss. losing (4:119) ĆƉĊ ƈ ŕĎ Ɣ ƅĄ Ə Ą ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ Ċ ŨĊ Ŧİ śĄ Ɣ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə
ŕĻ ƊƔŃ ŗą ƈ ŕĻ ƊŔĄ ũĆŬŁ Ŧ Ą ũĊ ŬĿ Ŧ ĆŧĿ ƂĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ƉƏą ŧ whoever takes Satan as a patron instead
of God. has surely suffered a clear loss.
ƇƍĄ ŧă ŪŅŤ Ŋ `akhsarün [pl. of elat. ą ũĄ ŬŇŦ Ō `akhsar] most losing.
greatest losers. farthest astray from the right path (18:103) .Ąƍ .Ł Ɓ
ƛŕĄƈĆŷ Ō Ą ƉƔŃũĄŬŇŦ ƗŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ Ƅ œĐ ŗĿ ƊŁ Ɗ say `[Prophet] shall I tell you who lose most by
their actions''
ćŧƒĉŪŅŤĽř takhsïr [v. n.] loss. losing (11:63) ą ŰŇƊĄƔ ĆƉĄƈĿž ĆƉ ŏ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ Ɗą ũ
ľũƔĊŬŇŦĿś ĄũĆƔĿ Ż ƓĊƊĿ ƊƏą ŧƔŃŪĿ ś ŕĄƈĿ ž ą ƌŁ śĆƔĄŰĄŷ who could protect me from God if I
disobeyed Him'. you would only make my loss greater [lit. you
would not increase me other than in loss].
ƇƍĄ ŧĉ ŪŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhsirün [pl. of act. part. ŇŦą ƈ ĈũĊŬ mukhsir] one who
gives less than due. one who gives short measure. one who cheats
in dealing with others (26:181) Ą ƉƔŃũĊŬŇŦą ƈŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə .ĆƔĿ ƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ žĆƏ Ō give
full measure. do not be among those who give others less than
their due.

Ţ [ ũ [ Ż

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Ţ [ ũ [ Ż kh-s-f to cave in. to subside. to be swallowed by the earth; to
eclipse. to have an eclipse; to disappear into the earth (of water);
to humiliate; to decrease; to be hungry. to become emaciated. Of
this root. Ŀ ŽĄŬĿ Ŧ khasafa occurs eight times in the Qur`an.
Ľ ŻăŪĽ Ť khasafa i I [v. intrans.] to go into an eclipse (75:8) Ŀ ŽĄ ŬĿ ŦĄ Ə
ą ũĄ ƈĿ ƂŇƅŔ and the moon goes into eclipse II [v. trans.] to cause the earth
to swallow up. to cause the earth to subside or to cave in (28:81)
ĄűĆũ ƗŔ ĊƋŃũŔĄŧŃŗĄƏ ĊƌŃŗ ŕĿ ƊŇſĄŬĿ ŦĿ ž We caused the earth to cave in over him and
his dwelling.

Ţ [ ū [ Ŕ kh-sh-b wood. timber; to stiffen up. to be dim-witted. to be
scrawny; to mix together. to be untamed. Of this root. ĈŖŁ ŮŁ Ŧ
khushub occurs once in the Qur`an.
ćŔĿ ŬĿ Ť khushub [pl. of coll. n. Ŀ Ŧ ĈŖĿŮ khashab] lumps of wood.
pieces of timber (63:4) ĆƇŃƎƅĆƏĿƂƅ ĆŶĄƈĆŬĿś ŔƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔ ĆƉŏĄƏ ĆƇą Ǝą ƈŕĄŬĆŠŌ Ąƃą ŗŃŠĆŸŁ ś ĆƇą ƎĿśĆƔŌĄũ ŔĿŨŏĄƏ
ĽŘĄŧİ ƊĄŬą ƈ ĈŖŁ ŮŁ Ŧ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ōĿ Ƅ when you see them. their outward appearance
pleases you, when they speak. you listen to what they say. but
they are [as useless] as propped-up timbers.

Ţ [ ū [ ų kh-sh-´ barren dead land. low land with dry vegetation. a low
hillock; to be eclipsed; to be humble. to humble oneself. to show
respect. to be quiet. to be submissive. Of this root. seven forms
occur 17 times in the Qur`an: ĄŶĿ ŮĿ Ŧ khasha´a twice; ĈŵƏŁ ŮŁ Ŧ khushü´
once; ĈŶĊŮŕĿŦ khãshi´ once; ƉƏą ŸĊ ŮŕĿ Ŧ khãshi´ün six times; ĈŶİ ŮŁ Ŧ
khushsha´ once; Ľ řĄ ŸĊ ŮŕĿ Ŧ khãshi´atun five times and ĽŚŕĄŸĊŮŕĿŦ khãshi´ãt
once.
ăŴĽ ŬĽ Ť khasha´a a [v. intrans.] 1 to hush. to become low (20:108)
ŕć ŬĆƈĄ ƍ İ ƛŏ ą ŶĄ ƈĆŬĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ń ƉĄ ƈĆţČ ũƆƅ Ł ŚŔĄƏĆŰ ƗŔ ĊŚĄŸĿ ŮĿ ŦĄƏ and voices will be hushed for
the Lord of Mercy. so you will hear nought but whispering 2 to
feel humble. to be seized with awe (57:16) ĊŨİ Ɔƅ Ń ƉōĄ Ɣ ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō ĄŶĿŮŇŦĿś ĆƉŌ ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn ĄƉƔ
IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ .Ą ŪĿ Ɗ ॠƈĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũŇƄĊ Ũ ƅ ĆƇą Ǝą ŗƏŁ ƆŁƁ is it not time for the believers that their
hearts become humble at the remembrance of God and the truth
that has come down'
ćųƍĿ ŬĿ Ť khushü´ [v. n.] humility. awe (17:109) ĄƉƏŁ ƄĆŗĄƔ ŃƉŕĿ ƁŇŨ Ƙƅ ĄƉƏč ũĊŦĄƔĄƏ
ŕć ŷƏŁ ŮŁ Ŧ ĆƇą ƍą ŧƔŃ ŪĄ ƔĄ Ə they fall down on their faces. weeping. and it [the

Ţ [ ŭ [ ŭ
265
Qur'an] adds to their humility.
ćŴĉŬœĽŤ khãshi´ [act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŸĊ ŮŕĿ Ŧ khãshi´ün and ĈŶİ ŮŁ Ŧ
khushsha´; fem. Ľ řĄ ŸĊ ŮŕĿ Ŧ khãshi´atun pl. Ą ŸĊ ŮŕĿ Ŧ ĽŚŕ khãshi´ãt] 1 one
who is full of humility. one who is seized with awe (59:21) ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō ĆƏĿ ƅ
ĊƌİƆƅŔ ĊřĄƔŇŮĿŦ ĆƉĊƈ ŕćŷĐŧĄŰĿśą ƈ ŕćŸĊŮŕĿŦ ą ƌĿśĆƔŌĄũĿƅ .ĄŗĄŠ ƑĿƆĄŷ ĄƉŔĄʼnĆũŁƂŇƅŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ had We sent this
Qur'an down to a mountain. you would have seen it humbled and
split apart in awe of God 2 dead. barren. desolate (41:39) Ċ ƌĊ śŕĄ ƔŔĄ ʼn ĆƉĊ ƈĄ Ə
ŇŚĄŗĄũĄƏ ŇŚČŪĿśĆƍŔ ĄʼnŕĄƈŇƅŔ ŕĄƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ ŕĿƊŇƅĄŪŇƊŌ ŔĿŨŐĿž ĻřĄŸĊŮŕĿŦ ĄűĆũ ƗŔ ƐĄũĿś ĄƃİƊ Ō and of His signs is
that you see the earth desolate. but when We send water down
upon it. it stirs and swells.

Ţ [ ū [ Ɛ kh-sh-y to fear. to dread. to dislike; to hope; to know; dates
killed by frost. dry rotten herbage. Of this root. two forms occur
48 times in the Qur`an: ĄƓĊŮĿ Ŧ khashiya 40 times; and ĽřĄƔŇŮĿŦ
khashyatun eight times.
ăƑĉŬĽ Ť khashiya a [v. trans.] 1 to fear (3:173) ČƉŏ ą ūŕİƊƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĿƅ .ŕĿƁ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ
ŕĻ ƊॠƈƔ ŏ ĆƇą ƍĄ ŧŔĄ ŪĿ ž ĆƇą ƍĆƏĿ ŮŇŦŕĿ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ ŔƏą ŸĄ ƈĄ Š ĆŧĿ Ɓ Ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ those to whom the people said.
`The people [your enemies] have amassed [an army] against you,
therefore fear them.' but it [only] increased them in faith 2 to feel
concern (4:9) ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŔƏŁ žŕĿ Ŧ ŕĻžŕĄŸĊŲ ĻřČ ƔĐ ũŁ Ũ ĆƇŃƎĊſŇƆĿŦ ĆƉĊƈ ŔƏŁ ƄĄũĿś ĆƏĿ ƅ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ Ŀ ŭŇŦĄƔŇƅĄƏ and let
those who. if they left behind them weak offspring. would be
concerned for them [lest someone would treat them as badly] fear
[in their behaviour towards orphans] 3 to stand in awe of (36:11)
ŃŖĆƔĿ żŇƅŕŃŗ ĄƉĄƈĆţČũƅŔ ĄƓĊŮĿ ŦĄƏ ĄũŇƄIJŨƅŔ ĄŶĄŗİśŔ ŃƉĄƈ ą ũĊŨŇƊŁś ŕĄƈİƊŏ you can warn only those who
will follow the Reminder and hold the Merciful in awe. though
they cannot see Him (or. in secret).
ĻŗăƒŅŬĽŤ khashyatun [n./v. n.] 1 fear (4:77) Ąūŕİ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĆƏĿŮŇŦĄƔ ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊƈ ĽƀƔŃũĿž ŔĿŨŏ
Ļ řĄ ƔŇŮĿ Ŧ Č ŧĿ Ů Ō ĆƏ Ō Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ řĄ ƔŇŮĿ ŦĿ Ƅ behold!. a party of them fear mankind even as
they fear God or more so [lit. with greater fear] 2 awe (2:74) Č Ɖ ŏĄ Ə
ŕĄƈĿƅ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ČƉŏĄƏ ą ʼnŕĄƈŇƅŔ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄƔĿž ŁƀİƂİŮĄƔ ŕĄƈĿ ƅ ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ČƉŏĄƏ ą ũŕĄƎŇƊƗŔ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ą ũČŠĿ ſĿ śĄƔ ŕĄƈĿ ƅ ĊŘĄũॊĊţŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ
ƌİƆƅŔ ĊřĄƔŇŮĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ŁųŃŗĆƎĄƔ for there are rocks from which streams gush forth.
and others split so that water issues from them and others that
tumble down in awe of God.

Ţ [ ŭ [ ŭ kh-s-s small holes in a sieve; a keyhole; small breaks in the
clouds; to be in dire straits. to be hard up; to belong to a small

Ţ [ ŭ [ Ż

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circle; to choose above others. to single out. to favour. Of this
root. three forms occur four times in the Qur`an: č ůĿ śŇŦĄ Ɣ yakhtass
twice; ĽřČ ŰŕĿŦ khãssatan once; ĽřĄŰŕĄŰĿŦ khasãsatun 11 times.
Č ŭĽ řŅŤă ƒ yakhtass [imperf. of v. VIII. trans.] to favour. to single
out (2:105) Ą Ə ą ʼnŕĿŮĄƔ ĆƉĄƈ ĊƌĊśĄƈĆţĄũŃŗ č ůĿśŇŦĄƔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ God chooses for His mercy
whomever He will.
ĻŗċŮœĽŤ khãssatan [quasi-act. part. used adverbially] in particular.
specifically. alone. only (8:25) Ŀ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊ ƈ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Č ƉĄ ŗƔĊ ŰŁ ś Ŀ ƛ Ļ řĿ ƊŇśĊ ž ŔƏŁ Ƃİ śŔĄ Ə Ļ řČ Űŕ
beware of discord that harms not only the wrongdoers among
you.
ĻŗăŮœăŮĽŤ khasãsatun [n.] poverty. straitened circumstances. need
(59:9) ĽřĄŰŕĄŰĿŦ ĆƇŃƎŃŗ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƏĿƅĄƏ ĆƇŃƎĊŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĄƉƏą ũĊŝŎą ƔĄƏ and they give [others]
preference over themselves. even if they themselves are in need.

Ţ [ ŭ [ Ż kh-s-f to stitch together. to lace together. to mend; to cover
up. to stick on; to mix colours. to be of two colours. Of this root.
Ń ƉŕĿ ſĊ ŰŇŦĄ Ɣ yakhsifãn occurs twice in the Qur`an.
Ŀ Żĉ ŮŅŤă ƒ yakhsif [imperf. of v. Ŀ ŽĄŰĿ Ŧ khasafa. trans.] to attach. to
stick together. to cover (20:121) ŕĿ ƂĊſĿ ųĄƏ ŕĄƈą ƎŁ śŊĆƏĄŬ ŕĄƈą ƎĿƅ ŇŚĄŧĄŗĿ ž ŕĄƎŇƊĊƈ ĿƜĿƄōĿž
řİ ƊĄ ŠŇƅŔ Ċ ƀĄ ũĄ Ə ĆƉĊ ƈ ॠƈŃ ƎĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ń ƉŕĿ ſĊ ŰŇŦĄ Ɣ they both ate from it. so their shameful
parts appeared to them and they began to stitch upon themselves
leaves of the Garden.

Ţ [ ŭ [ ƅ kh-s-m opposite side of a cloud; corners/edges of a sack;
handles; to dispute. to argue. to defeat in an argument. to quarrel;
antagonist. opponent. opposing party; defendant; to claim. Of this
root. eight forms occur 18 times: ĄƇĄŰĿ śŇŦŔ `ikhtasama seven times;
ƉƏą ƈĐ ŰĊ ŦĄ Ɣ yakhissimün once; ĈƇą ŰŕĿŦĿś takhãsum once; ĈƇĆŰĿŦ khasm once;
Ń ƉॠƈĆŰĿ Ŧ khasmãn twice; ƉƏą ƈĊŰĿŦ khasimün once; ĈƇƔĊŰĿŦ khasïm three
times and ĈƇŕĄŰĊŦ khisãm twice.
ăƅăŮĽ řŅŤŒ `ikhtasama [v. VIII. no object (imperf. ƉƏą ƈĐ ŰĊ ŦĄ Ɣ
yakhissimün at (36:49) is a geminated. perhaps a more emphatic.
form of the regular ƉƏą ƈĊ ŰśŇŦĄ Ɣ yakhtasimün occurring elsewhere)] 1
to dispute with. to disagree over (22:19) ŔƏą ƈĄŰĿ śŇŦŔ ŃƉŕĄƈĆŰĿŦ ŃƉŔĿŨĄƍ ƑĊ ž Ą ũ ĆƇŃƎĐ ŗ
these two opposing camps are in disagreement about their Lord 2

Ţ [ ŭ [ ƅ
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to recriminate. to make counter accusations (50:28) ŔƏą ƈĊ ŰĿ śŇŦĿ ś Ŀ ƛ .ŕĿ Ɓ
Ċ ŧƔĊ ŷĄ ƏŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ Ł ŚĆƈČ ŧĿ Ɓ ĆŧĿ ƁĄ Ə Č ƒĄ ŧĿ ƅ He said. `Do not accuse one another in my
presence, I gave you advance warnings' 3 to argue. to contend
(3:44) Ą ƉƏą ƈĊ ŰĿ śŇŦĄ Ɣ ŇŨ ŏ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĄ ŧĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə Ą ƇĄ ƔĆũĄ ƈ .Ł ſŇƄĄ Ɣ ĆƇą Ǝč Ɣ Ō ĆƇą ƎĄ ƈĿ ƜŇƁ Ō Ą ƉƏŁ ƂŇƆą Ɣ ŇŨ ŏ ĆƇŃ ƎĆƔĄ ŧĿ ƅ Ŀ ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə
you were not present among them when they cast lots to see
which of them should become guardian of Mary, you were not
present with them when they argued [about her].
ćƅĄ ŮœĽŤĽř takhãsum [v. n.] mutual recrimination. disputing.
wrangling (38:64) Ńũŕİ ƊƅŔ .Ćƍ Ō ą Ƈą ŰŕĿ ŦĿ ś ĮƀĄ ţĿ ƅ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ Č Ɖ ŏ that is real. the
wrangling of the inhabitants of Hellfire.
ćƅąŮĽŤ khasm I [coll. n.] disputants. litigants (38:21) ōĄ ŗĿ Ɗ Ą ƃŕĿ ś Ō .Ą ƍĄ Ə
ĄŖŔĄũĆţĊƈŇƅŔ ŔƏą ũČ ƏĄŬĿś ŇŨŏ ŃƇĆŰĿŦŇƅŔ has the story come to you of the litigants.
when they climbed into the private quarters' II [n.. pl. ĈƇŕĄŰĊŦ
khisãm] disputant. litigant. opponent (in one interpretation of
2:204) ą ƌŁƅĆƏĿ Ɓ Ąƃą ŗŃŠĆŸą Ɣ ƉĄƈ ŃūŕİƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈĄƏ ƑĊ ž ॠƈ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą ƌŅ ƆƅŔ ą ŧŃ ƎŇ Ůą ƔĄ Ə ॠƔŇ Ɗč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇ ƅŔ ƑĊž č ŧĿ ƅ Ō Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ċ ƌŃ ŗŇƆĿ Ɓ
Ń ƇॠŰĊ ŦŇƅŔ there is the man whose views on the life of this world may
please you. he [even] calls on God to witness what is in his heart.
yet. he is the most bitter of opponents.
Ł Ƈœă ƆąŮĽ Ť khasmãn [dual n.] 1 two litigating/antagonistic
parties/persons (38:22) Ŀ ƊĿ ƊĆƔĄŗ ĆƇŁ ƄĆţŕĿ ž ľ űĆŸĄ ŗ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ŕĿ Ɗą ŲĆŸĄŗ ƑĿ żĄŗ Ń ƉŕĄƈĆŰĿ Ŧ ŇŽĿ ŦĿ ś Ŀ ƛ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ ŕ
IJ ƀĄ ţŇƅŕŃ ŗ they said. `Do not fear. [We are] two litigants. one of us has
wronged the other. so judge between us fairly' 2 adversaries
(22:19) ŔƏą ƈĄŰĿ śŇŦŔ ŃƉŕĄƈĆŰĿŦ ŃƉŔĿŨĄƍ ƑĊ ž Ć ƇŃ ƎĐ ŗĄ ũ these are two opposing camps
in disagreement about their Lord.
ĉŮĽ Ť ƇƍĄ Ɔ khasimün [pl. of intens. act. part. ĈƇĊŰĿŦ khasim] one
given to disputing. contentious person (43:58) ॠƈ Ą Əą ƍ ĆƇ Ō ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ ŕĿ ƊŁ śĄ Ǝ ƅŊ Ō ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ ƁĄ Ə
ĄƉƏą ƈĊŰĿŦ ĈƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĆƇą ƍ .Ąŗ ƛĄŧĄŠ İƛŏ ĄƃĿ ƅ ą ƋƏą ŗĄũĄŲ saying. `Are our gods better or
him''-they cite him only to provoke you. they are a contentious
people.
ćƅƒĉŮĽŤ khasïm [intens. act. part.] 1 one given to antagonism. a
contentious person (16:4) ĈƉƔŃŗą ƈ ĈƇƔĊŰĿ Ŧ ĄƏą ƍ ŔĿŨŐĿž ċřĿ ſŇųŁ Ɗ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉŕĄŬŇƊƙŔ ĿƀĿƆĿŦ He
created man from a drop of fluid. and behold the same man
becomes an open contentious person 2 defendant. advocate
(4:105) ŕćƈƔĊŰĿ Ŧ ĄƉƔĊƊœŕĿŦŇƆƅ ĆƉŁ ƄĿ ś ĿƛĄƏ do not be an advocate for the
treacherous.

Ţ [ ů [ ť

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ćƅœăŮĉŤ khisãm [n./v. n.] contention. animosity (in one
interpretation of 2:204) Ą ƈ Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈĄ Ə ą ƌŁ ƅĆƏĿ Ɓ Ą ƃą ŗŃ ŠĆŸą Ɣ ĆƉ ƑĊ ž Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ ą ŧŃ ƎŇŮą ƔĄ Ə ॠƔŇƊč ŧƅŔ Ċ ŘॠƔĄ ţŇƅŔ
ॠƈ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĊ ž ŃƇॠŰĊ ŦŇƅŔ č ŧĿ ƅ Ō Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə ĊƌŃŗŇƆĿ Ɓ there is the man whose views on the life
of this world may please you. he [even] calls on God to witness
what is in his heart. yet it is the most bitter of contentions.

Ţ [ ů [ ť kh-d-d to twist. to crack. to cut the thorns off a branch; to
become stale. to become shrivelled; to munch on soft fruit; to be a
glutton. Of this root. ŧƏą ŲŇŦĄƈ makhdüd occurs once in the Qur`an.
Ą ŰŅŤă Ɔ ćťƍ makhdüd [pass. part.] one with its thorns cut off.
thornless. laden with fruit (56:28) ƑĊž ċ ŧƏą ŲŇŦĄ ƈ ľ ũĆŧĊ Ŭ among thornless
lote trees.

Ţ [ ů [ ŧ kh-d-r meadows. herbage. plantation. trees. green. fresh.
soft. fragrant. verdant. youthful. inexperienced. new; to be
blessed. Of this root. four forms occur eight times in the Qur`an:
ĈũĊŲĿŦ khadir once; ą ũĄ ŲŇŦ Ō `akhdar once; ĈũĆŲŁ Ŧ khudr five times; and
ĽŘČ ũĄŲŇŦą ƈ mukhdarratun once.
ćŧĉŰĽŤ khadir [quasi-act. part.] that which is green. green
herbage. plant. green foliage (6:99) ŕĿ ƊĆŠĄũŇŦ ōĿ ž ćʼnŕĄƈ ĊʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ .ĄŪŇƊŌ ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄƏą ƍĄƏ
Ŕć ũĊ ŲĿ Ŧ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ŕĿ ƊĆŠĄũŇŦ ōĿ ž ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů IJ .Ł Ƅ Ŀ ŚŕĄŗĿ Ɗ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ He it is who sends down water from
the sky. then with it We produce the shoots of every plant [lit.
thing]. then from it We bring out greenery.
Ą ŧă ŰŅŤ Ŋ `akhdar [quasi-act. part.; pl. ĈũĆŲŁ Ŧ khudr] 1 green (in
colour) (18:31) ľ ūą ŧŇƊą Ŭ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ŕć ũĆŲŁ Ŧ ŕć ŗॠƔĊ ŝ Ą ƉƏą ŬĄ ŗŇƆĄ ƔĄ Ə and wearing garments of
fine green silk 2 fresh (not dry) (12:43) Č Ɖą ƎŁ ƆŁ Ƅ ōĄ Ɣ ľ ƉॠƈĊ Ŭ ċ ŚŔĄ ũĿ ƂĄ ŗ Ą ŶĆ ŗĄ Ŭ ƐĄ ũ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ ŏ
ĆŗĄ Ŭ ċ ŚŕĄ ŬŃ ŗॠƔ Ą ũĿ Ŧ ŌĄ Ə ľ ũĆŲŁ Ŧ ċ ŚĿ Ɯą ŗŇƊą Ŭ Ą ŶĆŗĄ ŬĄ Ə Ľ ŽŕĄŠĊ ŷ Ĉ Ŷ I see [in my dream] seven fat
cows being eaten by seven lean ones, seven green ears of corn
and [seven] others. withered.
ĻŖċ ŧăŰŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhdarratun [fem. act. part.] that which becomes
green. verdant. alive with green (22:63) ĆƇĿ ƅ Ō ć ʼnॠƈ Ċ ʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ .Ą ŪŇƊ Ō Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖ Ō Ą ũĿ ś
Ļ ŘČ ũĄ ŲŇŦą ƈ ą űĆũ ƗŔ ą ŢŃ ŗĆŰŁ śĿ ž do you not see how God sends water down
from the sky and the earth becomes verdant'

Ţ [ ů [ ų kh-d-´ downward inclination of the neck. to lower one`s

Ţ [ ű [ Ŋ
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head; to be submissive; to be lonely; to abase oneself; sound of
battle; rumbling in the stomach. Of this root. two forms occur
once each in the Qur`an: ą ŶĄ ŲŇŦĿ ś takhda´ and ƉƏą ŸĊŲŕĿŦ khãdi´ün.
Ą Ŵă ŰŅŤĽ ř ´takhda [imperf. of v. ĄŶĄŲĿ Ŧ khada´a both trans. and
intrans.] to be meek. to be submissive; to be yielding (33:32) Ą ʼnॠŬĊ ƊॠƔ
ƒĊŨİ ƅŔ ĄŶĄƈŇųĄƔĿ ž .ĆƏĿƂŇƅŕŃŗ ĄƉĆŸĄŲŇŦĿś Ŀ ƜĿ ž Č ƉŁ śĆƔĿƂİ śŔ ŃƉŏ ĊʼnŕĄŬIJ ƊƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ċŧĄţōĿƄ Č ƉŁ śĆŬĿ ƅ Đ ƓŃŗİ ƊƅŔ ƑĊ ž Ĉ űĄ ũĄ ƈ Ċ ƌŃ ŗŇƆĿ Ɓ
wives of the Prophet. you are not like any of the other women. if
you show piety. do not be yielding in your speech. lest he in
whose heart is sickness should [be moved to] desire/covet [you].
ƇƍĄ ŶĉŰœĽŤ khãdi´ün [pl. of act. part. ĈŶĊŲŕĿŦ khãdi´] those bowing.
those showing submission. those humbling themselves (26:4) ĆƉ ŏ
ĄƉƔĊŸĊŲŕĿ Ŧ ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ĆƇą ƎŁ ƁŕĿ ƊĆŷ Ō ŇŚİ ƆĿŴĿž ĻřĄƔŔĄʼn ĊʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇŃƎĆƔĿƆĄŷ .Đ ŪĿ ƊŁ Ɗ ōĿŮĿƊ if We wish. We can
send down upon them from heaven a sign. so that their nobility
(or. necks) would [become humble to it] bow [humbly] to it.

Ţ [ ű [ Ŋ kh-t-` to miss the target. to veer away from the correct path. to
err. to commit a crime. to sin; a mistake. a crime. a sin. Of this
root. eight forms occur 22 times in the Qur`an: ōĿ ųŇŦ Ō `akhta`a
twice; ōĿ ųĿ Ŧ khata` twice; ōŇųĊŦ khit` once; ƉƏ œĊ ųŕĿ Ŧ khãti`ün five times;
ĽřœĊųŕĿŦ khãti`atun twice; Ľř œƔĊ ųĿ Ŧ khatï`atun three times; Ľ Śŕ œƔĊ ųĿ Ŧ
khatï`ãt twice and ॠƔŕĿ ųĿ Ŧ khatãyã five times.
ŋĽ űŅŤ Ŋ `akhta`a [v. IV. intrans.] to err. to be mistaken (33:5) Ą ūĆƔĿ ƅĄ Ə
ॠƈƔĊ ž ĈšŕĿ Ɗą Š ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ĆƇŁƄą ŗƏŁƆŁƁ ŇŚĄŧČƈĄŸĿ ś ŕĄƈ ĆƉĊƄĿƅĄƏ ĊƌŃŗ ĆƇŁśōĿųŇŦŌ and there is no blame on
you regarding the mistakes you make. only [you are blamed] for
what your hearts deliberately intend.
ŋĽ űĽ Ť khata` [v. n./n.. adverbially used] by mistake. in error
(4:92) Ą Ə ōĿ ųĿ Ŧ İ ƛŏ ŕĻƊĊƈŎą ƈ .Ł śŇƂĄƔ ĆƉŌ ľƉĊƈŎą ƈƅ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ it is not [conceivable] for a
believer to kill another believer. except by mistake.
ŋŅűĉŤ khit` [n./v. n. implying intensity] mistake. sin. crime. an
act of disobedience (17:31) Ō ŔƏŁ ƆŁ śŇƂĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŕČ ƔŏĄƏ ĆƇą ƎŁ Ɓą ŪĆũĿ Ɗ ą ƉĆţĿ Ɗ ċ ƀĿ ƜĆƈ ŏ Ŀ řĄƔŇŮĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ŧĿ ƛĆƏ
ŔćũƔŃŗĿ Ƅ ŕœŇųĊŦ ĄƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƇą ƎĿƆŇśĿƁ Č Ɖŏ do not kill your children for fear of poverty-
We shall provide for them and for you-killing them is a great sin.
Ƈƍ őĉűœĽŤ khãti`ün [pl. of act. part. Ŀ Ŧ ŒĊųŕ khãti`; fem. ĽřœĊųŕĿŦ
khãti`atun] 1 those who sin. sinners (12:97) ŕĿ ƊĄ ŗƏŁ ƊŁ Ũ ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅ ĆũĊ ſŇżĿ śĆŬŔ ŕĿ Ɗॠŗ ŌॠƔ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ
ĄƉƔœĊųŕĿŦ ŕİ ƊŁ Ƅ ŕİ Ɗŏ they said. `Father. ask God to forgive us our sins-we

Ţ [ ű [ Ŕ

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were indeed sinners' 2 [of deeds] sinful. erroneous (69:9) Ą ʼnॠŠĄ Ə
Ċř œĊųŕĿ ŦŇƅŕŃŗ Ł ŚŕĿ ƄĊſĿ śŎą ƈŇƅŔĄ Ə ą ƌĿ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə ą ƉĆƏĄŷĆũĊž Pharaoh. those before him. and the
ruined cities-[all] committed sinful [deeds].
ĻŗőƒĉűĽŤ khatï`atun [n.. pl. ŚŕœƔĊ ųĿ Ŧ khatï`ãt and ॠƔŕĿ ųĿ Ŧ khatãyã]
evildoing. sin. crime (71:25) Ċ ƈ ŔćũŕĿƊ ŔƏŁ ƆĊŦĆŧ ōĿ ž ŔƏŁ ƁŃũŇŻ Ō ĆƇŃƎĊśŕœƔĊųĿ Ŧ ŕČ ƈ because of
their sins they were drowned and then made to enter a Fire.

Ţ [ ű [ Ŕ kh-t-b an affair. matter. concern. business. situation; a public
speech. to address a group. a sermon. a speech. to speak; to
propose in marriage to a woman. a marriage proposal. Of this
root. four forms occur 12 times in the Qur`an: ĄŖĿ ųŕĿ Ŧ khãtaba three
times; ĈŖŇųĿŦ khatb five times; ĈŖŕĿųĊŦ khitãb three times; Ľ řĄ ŗŇųĊ Ŧ
khitbatun once.
ăŔĽűœĽŤ khãtaba [v. III. trans.] 1 to talk to. to address (25:63) ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
ŕćƈĿƜĄŬ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿƁ ĄƉƏŁ ƆĊƍॊŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎĄŗĿųŕĿŦ and when the ignorant speak to them. they
say. `We have nothing to do with you [lit. are quit of you]' (or.
they say `Peace') 2 [with prep. Ɠž] to speak on behalf of. to
intercede. to plead (11:37) ƓĊƊĆŗĊųŕĿŦŁ ś ĿƛĄƏ ƑĊž Ą ƉƏŁ ƁĄ ũŇżą ƈ ĆƇą Ǝİ Ɗ ŏ ŔƏą ƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ do not
plead with Me for those who have done wrong-they will be
drowned.
ćŔŅűĽŤ khatb [n./v. n.] matter. affair. ailment. trouble *(20:95) ŕĄƈĿž
Ą ƃą ŗŇųĿ Ŧ and what was the matter with you'
ćŔœĽűĉŤ khitãb [n./v. n.] 1 address. talking. discourse (78:37)
ŕćŗŕĿųĊŦ ą ƌŇƊĊƈ ĄƉƏŁ ƄĊƆĆƈĄƔ Ŀƛ ŃƉĄƈĆţČ ũƅŔ Lord of Mercy. no one will have it in their
power to force speech with Him (or. they will have no authority
from Him to speak) 2 argument (38:23) Ļ řĄ ŠĆŸĿ Ɗ Ą ƉƏą ŸĆŬĊ śĄ Ə ĈŶĆŬĊ ś ą ƌĿ ƅ ƓĊ Ŧ Ō ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ Č Ɖ ŏ
ƓĊƊČ ŪĄŷĄƏ ŕĄƎƔĊƊŇƆĊſŇƄ Ō .ŕĿ ƂĿ ž ĽŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ĽřĄŠĆŸĿƊ ĄƓƅĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ń ŖŕĿ ųĊ ŦŇƅŔ this. my brother. has
ninety-nine ewes and I have one ewe. so he said. `Put her in my
charge.' and he prevailed over me in argument; *(38:20) .ĆŰĿ ž
Ń ŖŕĿ ųĊ ŦŇƅŔ decisive talk. sound judgement.
Ļ ŗă ŕŅűĉ Ť khitbatun [n.] marriage proposal (2:235) ॠƈƔĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ Ą šŕĿ Ɗą Š Ŀ ƛĄ Ə
ĆƇŁśŇƊĿ ƊŇƄ Ō ĆƏŌ ĊʼnŕĄŬIJƊƅŔ ĊřĄŗŇųĊŦ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌŃŗ ĆƇŁśĆŲČũĄŷ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŁ ƄĊ ŬŁ ſŇƊ Ō no blame will be attached to
you if you give a hint of [an intended] marriage proposal to
[these] women or keep it to yourselves.


Ţ [ ű [ ƍ
271
Ţ [ ű [ ű kh-t-t furrows. roads; lines. pen markings. writing. stripes;
living quarters; affair. plan. intention; to write Of this root. ıųŁ ŦĿś
takhutt occurs once in the Qur`an.
įűĿ ŤĽř takhutt [2
nd
pers. imperf. of v. İ ųĿ Ŧ khatta. trans.] to write
down. to transcribe (29:48) Ą ƃĊ ƊƔĊ ƈĄ ƔŃ ŗ ą ƌı ųŁ ŦĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə ľ ŖŕĿ śĊ Ƅ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ċ ƌĊ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ƏŁ ƆŇśĿ ś Ŀ ŚŇƊŁ Ƅ ॠƈĄ Ə
Ą ƉƏŁ ƆĊ ųĆŗą ƈŇƅŔ Ą ŖŕĿ śĆũĿ ƛ ŔĻ Ũ ŏ and you never recited. before it. any book, nor
did you write one down with your own right hand. [Had you done
so]. those who are bent on denial might [then] have had [cause]
to doubt.

Ţ [ ű [ Ż kh-t-f to snatch. to grab; to dazzle. to blind; to be fast. to walk
briskly; a hook. to hook; to sail. to miss the target. Of this root.
four forms occur six times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĊųĿ Ŧ khatifa three times;
Ł Žİ ųĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ yatakhattaf once; Žİ ųĿ ŦĿ śą Ɣ yutakhattaf twice; and Ľ řĿ ſŇųĿ Ŧ
khatfatun once.
Ľ ŻĽ űĽ Ť khatifa a [v. trans.] 1 to snatch away (22:31) Ą ƉĊ ƈ Č ũĿ Ŧ ŕĄƈİ Ɗ ōĿ ƄĿ ž
ą ũĆƔİ ųƅŔ ą ƌŁ ſĿ ųŇŦĿ śĿ ž Ċ ʼnŕĄƈČ ŬƅŔ as if he has fallen down from the skies. so the
birds snatch him up 2 to dazzle. to blind (2:20) Ł ŽĿ ųŇŦĄ Ɣ Ł ƀĆũĄ ŗŇƅŔ ą ŧŕĿ ƄĄ Ɣ
ĊƌƔĊž ŔĆƏĿŮĄƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ ĄʼnŕĄŲ Ō ŕĄƈİ ƆŁ Ƅ ĆƇą ƍĄũŕĄŰĆŗ Ō the lightning almost blinds their sight.
whenever it flashes on them they walk on in it.
Ľ ŻĮ űĽ ŤĽ řăƒ yatakhattaf [imperf. of v. V Ŀ Žİ ųĿ ŦĿ ś takhattafa. trans.;
pass. Ł Žİ ųĿ ŦĿ śą Ɣ yutakhattaf] to sweep away. to do away with. to grab
from all directions (8:26) ŇŨ ŏ ŔƏą ũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə ĄƉƏŁ ſĄŸĆŲĿśĆŬą ƈ .ƔĊƆĿƁ ĆƇŁ śŇƊŌ ƑĊž Ą ƉƏŁ žŕĿ ŦĿ ś Ń űĆũ ƗŔ
ą ūŕİ ƊƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿ ſİ ųĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ ĆƉ Ō and remember when you were a few. considered as
weak in the land and afraid that people might grab you from all
directions.
Ļ ŗĽ ŽŅűĽ Ť khatfatun [n. of unit] a snatch. a grab/a snatched object
(37:10) ĈŖĊƁŕĿŝ ĈŖŕĄƎĊŮ ą ƌĄŸĄŗŇś ōĿ ž ĿřĿſŇųĿŦŇƅŔ Ŀ ŽĊųĿ Ŧ ĆƉĄƈ İ ƛŏ except for he who snatches
away a fragment [of conversation]. and so is pursued by a
piercing flame.

Ţ [ ű [ ƍ kh-t-w step. to take a step; way. tracks; to overtake. to avoid.
Of this root. ĽŚŔĄƏŁ ųŁ Ŧ khutuwãt occurs five times in the Qur`an.
ĻŘŒăƍĿ űĿ Ť khutuwãt [pl. of n. of unit khutwatun] footsteps (2:208)
Ń ƉŕĿ ųĆƔİ ŮƅŔ Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏŁ ųŁ Ŧ ŔƏą ŸŃ ŗİ śĿ ś Ŀ ƛĄ Ə and do not follow in Satan's footsteps.

Ţ [ Ż [ Ř

272
Ţ [ Ż [ Ř kh-f-t weakness caused by hunger. to become feeble; to
become inaudible. to die down. to become soft. (of voice) to
become subdued. to become still. to die suddenly. Of this root.
two forms occur three times in the Qur`an: Ł ŚĊ žŕĿ ŦŁ ś tukhãfit once;
and Ł ŚĿ žŕĿ ŦĿ śĄ Ɣ yatakhãfat twice.
Ŀ Řĉ żœĽ ŤĿ ř tukhãfit [imperf. of v. III Ŀ ŚĿ žŕĿ Ŧ khãfata. intrans.] to
endeavour to muffle one`s voice. to keep one`s voice inaudible
(17:110) ƜƔŃŗĄŬ ĄƃƅĿŨ ĄƉĆƔĄŗ ŃźĿśĆŗŔĄƏ ŕĄƎŃŗ ŇŚĊžŕĿ ŦŁś ĿƛĄƏ ĄƃĊśĿ ƜĄŰŃŗ ĆũĄƎĆŠĿś Ŀ ƛĄƏ and do not be
loud in your prayer. or too quiet. but seek between these [lit. this]
a way.
Ŀ ŘĽ żœĽ ŤĽ řă ƒ yatakhãfat [imperf. of v. VI Ŀ ŚĿ žŕĿ ŦĿ ś takhãfata. intrans.] to
enjoin quietness on one another. to hold an exchange in low
voices. to whisper (68:23) ĄƉƏŁ śĿ žŕĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ ĆƇą ƍĄ Ə ŔƏŁ ƂĿ ƆĿ ųŇƊŕĿ ž so they went off.
speaking to each other in whispers.

Ţ [ Ż [ ů kh-f-d low flat land. a low flat hill; to lower; to be affluent.
affluence. easy. relaxing situation; to take it easy. to walk at ease;
to die. Of this root. two forms occur four times: ĆűĊ ſŇŦŔ `ikhfid three
times and Ľ řĄ ŲĊ žŕĿ Ŧ khãfidatun once.
ąůĉ ŽŅŤŒ `ikhfid [imper. of v. ĄűĿ ſĿ Ŧ khafada. trans.] keep low.
lower. bring down *(15:88) ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƆƅ ĄƃĄţŕĿ ƊĄŠ ĆűĊſŇŦŔĄƏ be
accommodating. be friendly. be tender [lit. lower your wing] to
the believers; *(17:24) .ı ŨƅŔ Ą šŕĿ ƊĄ Š ॠƈą ƎĿ ƅ Ć űĊ ſŇ ŦŔĄ Ə IJ and humble yourself to
them. be tender to them [lit. lower to them the wing of
humbleness].
Ļ ŗă Űĉ żœĽ Ť khãfidatun [fem. act. part.] bringing down. humbling.
debasing. demoting *(56:3) Ľ řĄ ŸĊ žŔĄ ũ Ľ řĄ ŲĊ žŕĿ Ŧ abasing [some] and
exalting [others].

Ţ [ Ż [ Ż kh-f-f light load. a small group of people; camel`s foot. to
travel at ease. (of camels) to travel in single file; to be light. to be
light-hearted. to move quickly. to be quick-witted; to take lightly.
to treat with contempt. to consider as easily influenced. to die. Of
this root. seven forms occur 17 times in the Qur`an: İ ŽĿ Ŧ khaffa
three times; ĿŽİ ſĿŦ khaffafa three times; Ł ŽİſĿ Ŧą Ɣ yukhaffaf five

Ţ [ Ż [ Ɛ
273
times; İ ŽĿ ŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhaffa three times; Ľ ŽƔĊ ſŇŦĿ ś takhfïf once; ĽŽƔĊſĿŦ khafïf
once and ĽŽŕĿſĊŦ khifãf once.
Į ŻĽ Ť khaffa i [v. intrans.] to be. become or prove to be light or
scanty *(7:9) ą ƌŁ ƊƔŃ ŪŔĄ ƏĄ ƈ ŇŚİ ſĿ Ŧ ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə the one whose scales are light. the
one who brought little to the weighing. the one whose good deeds
did not weigh much.
Ľ ŻĮ ŽĽ Ť khaffafa [v. II. trans.; pass. yukhaffaf imperf. of ĿŽIJ ſŁ Ŧ
khuffifa] to lighten. to lessen (40:49) Ń ŖŔĿ ŨĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ ŕć ƈĆƏĄ Ɣ ŕİ ƊĄ ŷ ŇŽIJ ſĿ Ŧą Ɣ ĆƇŁ ƄČ ŗĄ ũ ŔƏąŷĆŧŔ
ask your Lord to lighten our suffering [even] for one day.
Į ŻĽ ŤĽ řąŪŒ `istakhaffa [v. X. trans.] 1 to consider as light. to
consider light enough to carry or handle. to take lightly. to make
light of (16:80) ŕĄƎĿƊƏı ſĊŦĿśĆŬĿś ŕĻśƏą Ɣą ŗ ŃƇŕĄŸŇƊƗŔ ĊŧƏŁ Ɔą Š ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƅ .ĄŸĄŠĄƏ and He provided
for you from the hides of cattle houses [tents] you find light 2 to
consider as easy to influence. to consider as rash and incapable of
serious thoughts (43:54) ą ƋƏą ŷŕĿ ų ōĿ ž ą ƌĄ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ İ ŽĿ ŦĿ śĆŬŕĿ ž so. He deemed his
people easy to influence and they obeyed him 3 to urge. to hasten
(in one interpretation of 43:54) ą ƋƏą ŷŕĿ ų ōĿ ž ą ƌĄ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ İ ŽĿ ŦĿ śĆŬŕĿ ž so. He urged his
people [to disobey Moses] and they obeyed him.
ĻŻƒĉŽĽŤ khafïf [quasi-act. part.. pl. ĽŽŕĿſĊŦ khifãf] 1 light (7:189) ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ŕĻ ſƔĊſĿ Ŧ ƜĆƈĄţ ŇŚĿ ƆĄ ƈĄ ţ ॠƍŕİ ŮĿ żĿ ś and when he mated with [lit. covered] her she
conceived a light pregnancy 2 lightly armed. lightly equipped;
easy moving (9:41) ĆƇŁƄĊŬŁſŇƊ ŌĄƏ ĆƇŁƄƅŔĄƏĆƈōŃŗ ŔƏą ŧĊƍॊĄƏ ƛŕĿ ƂĊŝĄƏ ŕĻžŕĿſĊŦ ŔƏą ũĊſŇƊĊŔ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ .ƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ
so go forth. lightly and heavily [armed]. and struggle for the way
of God with your possessions and your persons.

Ţ [ Ż [ Ɛ kh-f-y (the opposite concepts of appearing and disappearing
are covered by this root. so affecting the interpretation of some of
the verses in which derivatives of it occur) digging up.
excavating. a grave robber; to disappear; to be unperceived. to
hide; secret; secondary feathers in a bird`s wing; jinn. Of this
root. nine forms occur in 34 places in the Qur`an: ƑĿ ſŇŦĿ ś takhfã six
times; ƑĿ ſŇŦ Ō `akhfã (1) 17 times; Ą ƓĊ ſŇŦ Ō `ukhfiya once; ƉƏŁ ſŦĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ
yastakhfün three times; ď ƓĊ ſĿ Ŧ khafiyy twice; ƑĿ ſŇŦ Ō `akhfã (2) once;
Ľ řĄ ƔĊ žŕĿ Ŧ khãfiyatun once; ĽřĄƔŇſŁ Ŧ khufyatun twice and ƓĊ ſŇ ŦĿ śĆ Ŭą ƈ mustakhfï
once.

Ţ [ Ż [ Ɛ

274
ƏĽ ŽŅŤĽ ř takhfã [imperf. of v. ĄƓĊſĿ Ŧ khafiya. intrans.] to hide. to be
hidden (40:16) Ą Ɣ ĈʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƇą ƎŇƊĊ ƈ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄ ŷ ƑĿ ſŇŦĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƉƏą ŪŃ ũॠŗ ĆƇą ƍ Ą ƇĆƏ on the Day
when they will come forth. and nothing about them will remain
hidden from God.
ƏĽ ŽŅ Ť Ŋ `akhfã (1) [v. IV. trans.; pass. Ą ƓĊ ſŇŦ Ō `ukhfiya] 1 to hide
something. to conceal (2:271) ŏ ॠƍƏŁ ſŇŦŁ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə Ą ƓĊ ƍ ŕČ ƈĊ ŸĊ ƊĿ ž Ċ ŚŕĿ ƁĄ ŧČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏą ŧĆŗŁ ś ĆƉ
ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ĉ ũĆƔĿ Ŧ Ą Əą ƎĿ ž Ą ʼnŔĄ ũĿ ƂŁ ſŇƅŔ ॠƍƏŁ śŎŁ śĄ Ə if you openly give charity. it is
praiseworthy. but if you keep it secret and give to the needy [in
private]. that is better for you 2 to remove that which conceals. to
make explicit. to bring out into the open (in some interpretations
of verse 20:15) ॠƎƔĊ ſŇ Ŧ Ō ą ŧŕĿ Ƅ Ō Ľ řĄ ƔĊ śŔĄ ʼn Ŀ řĄ ŷŕČ ŬƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ the Hour is coming. I am
almost making it explicit [lit. removing that which makes it
hidden] (or. keeping it hidden).
ƑĉŽŅŤĽřąŪăƒ yastakhfï [imperf. of v. X ƑĿ ſŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhfã. intrans.] to
seek to hide. to endeavour to hide or conceal oneself (4:108)
Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ſŇŦĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛĄ Ə Ń ūŕİ ƊƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƏŁ ſŇŦĿ śĆŬĄ Ɣ they endeavour to hide from
people. but they do not [try to] hide from God.
Ď Ƒĉ ŽĽ Ť khafiyy [quasi-act. part.] 1 obscure. well-hidden *(42:45)
ēƓĊſĿ Ŧ ċŽĆũĿų ĆƉĊƈ ĄƉƏą ũŁŴŇƊĄƔ glancing furtively [lit. from a hidden eye] 2
secret. silent. unspoken. inaudible (19:3) ŕĎ ƔĊ ſĿ Ŧ ć ʼnŔĄ ŧĊ Ɗ ą ƌČ ŗĄ ũ ƐĄ ŧŕĿ Ɗ ŇŨ ŏ when
he called to his Lord silently imploring Him.
ƏĽ ŽŅ Ť Ŋ `akhfã (2) [elat.] more/most unperceived. more/most
concealed. more/most hidden (20:7) ƑĿ ſŇŦ ŌĄ Ə Č ũĐ ŬƅŔ ą ƇĿ ƆĆŸĄ Ɣ ą ƌİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž .ĆƏĿ ƂŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆũĄƎĆŠĿ ś ĆƉ ŏĄ Ə
whatever you may utter aloud. He knows the secret and what is
even more hidden [less perceived].
Ļ ŗă ƒĉ żœĽ Ť khãfiyatun [fem. act. part./n.] that which is deeply hidden.
that which conceals itself. a secret; also the jinn (the sing. fem.
gender denotes emphasis) (69:18) ƑĿ ſŇŦĿ ś Ŀƛ ĄƉƏą ŲĄũĆŸŁ ś ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ ĽřĄƔĊžŕĿŦ ĆƇŁ ƄŇƊĊƈ on
that Day you will be exposed (or. you will be brought to
judgement) and not a secret of yours will remain hidden.
ĻŗăƒŅŽĿ Ť khufyatan [v. n. used adverbially] in secrecy. privately.
silently. in the mind/thoughts (7:55) Ł ƄČŗĄũ ŔƏą ŷĆŧŔ č ŖĊţą Ɣ Ŀ ƛ ą ƌİ Ɗŏ ĻřĄƔŇſŁ ŦĄƏ ŕćŷč ũĄŲĿ ś ĆƇ
Ą ƉƔĊ ŧĿ śĆŸą ƈŇƅŔ call on your Lord humbly and in your thoughts-He does
not like those who transgress His bounds.

Ţ [ J [ ť
275
ƑĉŽŅŤĽřąŪĄ Ɔ mustakhfï [act. part.] interpreted both as hidden.
well-concealed or as apparent. visible (13:10) .ĆƏĿƂŇƅŔ ČũĄŬ Ō ĆƉĄƈ ĆƇŁƄŇƊĊƈ ĈʼnŔĄƏĄŬ
Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŕŃ ŗ Ĉ ŖŃ ũॠŬĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŕŃ ŗ ċ ŽŇŦĿ śĆŬą ƈ Ą Əą ƍ ĆƉĄƈĄ Ə Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ą ũĄ ƎĄ Š ĆƉĄ ƈĄ Ə alike among you is he
who conceals his words and he who speaks them openly. he who
hides himself under cover of night. and he who sallies forth by
day (or. appearing by night and hiding himself by day).

Ţ [ J [ ť kh-l-d mountains. rocks; to remain put for a long time. to be
forever. to be eternal. eternity. to grow old without showing
physical signs of old age; to be well contented. to like someone or
some place; to wear some kind of trinkets; mind; heart; spirit; a
mole-like animal. Of this root. seven forms occur 87 times in the
Qur`an: ƉƏą ŧŁ ƆŇŦĿ ś takhludün twice; ĄŧĿ ƆŇŦ Ō `akhlada twice; ĈŧŇƆŁ Ŧ khuld six
times; ĈŧƅŕĿŦ khãlid four times; ƉƏą ŧ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlidün 70 times; ĈŧƏŁ ƆŁ Ŧ khulüd
once; and ƉƏą ŧİƆĿ Ŧą ƈ mukhalladün twice.
Ą ťĿƄŅŤĽř takhlud [imperf. of v. ĄŧĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khalada. intrans.] to remain. last.
endure for a long time or forever. to gain immortality (26:129)
Ŀ ƅ ĄŶĊƊŕĄŰĄƈ ĄƉƏŁ ŨĊŦİ śĿ śĄƏ Ą ƉƏą ŧŁ ƆŇŦĿ ś ĆƇŁ Ƅİ ƆĄ Ÿ and do you build fortresses. so that you
may remain forever'
㝼 ƄŅŤ Ŋ `akhlada [v. IV] 1 [intrans. with prep. Ƒƅŏ] to incline to. to
take to. to cling to. to give oneself completely to (7:176) ŕĿ ƊœĊ Ů ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə
ĊƄĿ ƅĄƏ ŕĄƎŃŗ ą ƋŕĿ ƊĆŸĿ žĄũĿ ƅ ą ƋŔĄ ƏĄ ƍ Ą ŶĄ ŗİ śŔĄ Ə Ń űĆũ ƗŔ ƑĿ ƅ ŏ Ą ŧĿ ƆŇŦ Ō ą ƌİ Ɗ and had We willed. We could
have raised him up by their means. but he clung to the earth and
followed his desire 2 [trans.] to cause to be immortal. to cause to
remain or live forever (104:3) Č Ɖ Ō ą ŖĄ ŬĆţĄ Ɣ ą ƋĄŧĿ ƆŇŦ Ō ą ƌĿ ƅŕĄƈ thinking his wealth
will make him live forever.
ćťŅƄĿ Ť khuld [v. n./n.] immortality (21:34) ĄŧŇƆŁŦŇƅŔ ĄƃĊƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ľũĿ ŮĄŗƅ ŕĿ ƊŇƆĄŸĄŠ ŕĄƈĄƏ
We have not granted to a human before you [Prophet] everlasting
life.
ćťƃœĽŤ khãlid [act. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŧƅŕĿŦ khãlidün] 1 immortal (7:20) .ŕĿ ƁĄ Ə
ĄƉƔĊŧƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ŕĿ ƊƏŁ ƄĿś ĆƏ Ō ŃƉĆƔĿƄĿƆĄƈ ŕĿƊƏŁ ƄĿ ś ĆƉŌ İ ƛŏ ĊŘĄũĄŠİ ŮƅŔ ĊƋĊŨĄƍ ĆƉĄŷ ŕĄƈŁ Ƅč ŗĄũ ŕĄƈŁ ƄŕĄƎĿ Ɗ ŕĄƈ he said.
`Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or
of the immortals' 2 one living or remaining forever or for a long
time (9:100) ŔćŧĄŗŌ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƉƔĊŧƅŕĿŦ ą ũŕĄƎŇƊƗŔ ŕĄƎĿ śĆţĿ ś ƒŃũĆŠĿ ś ċŚŕİ ƊĄŠ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ Č ŧĄŷ ŌĄƏ He prepared
for them Gardens through which streams flow. in which they

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abide forever 3 to live. to remain. to endure for a certain period of
time without interruption (11:107) ą űĆũ ƗŔĄƏ ŁŚŔĄƏĄƈČŬƅŔ ĊŚĄƈŔĄŧ ŕĄƈ ŕĄƎƔĊž ĄƉƔĊŧƅŕĿŦ
there remaining in it for as long as the heavens and earth endure.
ćťƍĿ ƄĿ Ť khulüd [n./v. n.] immortality. eternity. remaining for ever
(50:34) ĊŧƏŁƆŁŦŇƅŔ ą ƇĆƏĄƔ ĄƃƅĿ Ũ ľƇĿƜĄŬŃŗ ŕĄƍƏŁƆŁŦĆŧŔ enter it in peace-this is the Day of
Eternity.
ƇƍĄ ťĮƄĽ ŤĄ Ɔ mukhalladün [pl. of pass. part. Ĉŧİ ƆĿŦą ƈ mukhallad]
interpreted either as beautifully attired or as forever youthful
(76:19) ŃƎĆƔĿ ƆĄŷ ŁŽƏŁųĄƔĄƏ Ŕć ũƏŁ ŝŇƊĄ ƈ Ŕ ŎŁ ƅŎŁ ƅ ĆƇą ƎĿ śĆŗĊ ŬĄ ţ ĆƇą ƎĿ śĆƔ ŌĄ ũ ŔĿ Ũŏ Ą ƉƏą ŧİ ƆĿ Ŧą ƈ ĈƉŔĄ ŧŇƅŃ Ə ĆƇ [the]
eternally youthful [lit. eternal youths] (or. beautifully attired
youths) will attend them-if you could see them. you would think
they were scattered pearls.

Ţ [ J [ ŭ kh-l-s purity. to be unblemished. to purify. to extricate. to
extract. to select above others. to befriend; to bring to safety. to
reach safety; to arrive. to join someone. to be alone with; to be
sincere. Of this root. nine forms occur 31 times in the Qur`an:
Ŀ Ŧ ĄůĿ Ɔ khalasa once; ĄůĿ ƆŇŦ Ō `akhlasa twice; ĄůĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhlasa once;
ĈůƅŕĿŦ khãlis twice; Ľ řĄ Ű ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlisatun five times; ĈůĊƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlis
three times; ƉƏą ŰĊ ƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlisün eight times; ĈůĿƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlas once
and ƉƏą ŰĿ ƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlasün eight times.
Ľ Ť ăŭĽ Ƅ khalasa u [v. intrans.] to extricate oneself. to draw away
from others. to draw or retire to one side (12:80) ą ƌŇ ƊĊ ƈ ŔƏą Ŭ œĆ ƔĿ śĆ ŬŔ ŕČ ƈĿ ƆĿ ž
ŕĎ ƔŃ ŠĿ Ɗ ŔƏą ŰĿ ƆĿ Ŧ when they despaired of [retrieving] him. they retired to
one side. as a conferring group.
Ŋ ăŭĽ ƄŅŤ `akhlasa [v. IV. trans.] 1 to devote. to dedicate oneself or
something entirely to (4:146) ĊƌİƆƅŕŃŗ ŔƏą ƈĄŰĿśĆŷŔĄƏ ŔƏą ţĿƆĆŰŌĄƏ ŔƏą ŗŕĿś ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ İƛŏ
ƌİ Ɔƅ ĆƇą ƎĿƊƔĊŧ ŔƏą ŰĿƆŇŦŌĄƏ not so those who repent. mend their ways. hold fast
to God. and devote their religion entirely to Him 2 to purify. to
make someone pure; or to distinguish someone with. to favour
someone with something exclusively; or to make someone
devoted to (38:46) ŃũŔČ ŧƅŔ ƐĄũŇƄĊŨ ċřĄŰƅŕĿŦŃŗ ĆƇą ƍŕĿƊĆŰĿƆŇŦŌ ŕİ Ɗŏ We have rendered
them pure by a pure quality (or. We have favoured them. to the
exclusion of others. with a quality particular to them; or. We have
made them devoted [to Us] by a quality of their own). [namely]

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their keeping in mind the [ultimate] abode.
Ą ŭĉ ƄŅŤĽ řąŪ Ŋ `astakhlis [1
st
pers. imperf. of v. X ĄůĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhlasa.
trans.] to select someone or something above all else. to dedicate
someone/something to oneself (12:54) ą ƌĆŰĊ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬ Ō Ċ ƌŃ ŗ ƓĊ ƊƏŁ śœŔ ą ƃĊ ƆĄ ƈŇƅŔ .ŕĿ ƁĄ Ə
ƓĊ ŬŇſĿ Ɗ ƅ the king said. `Bring him to me. so I may attach him to my
person.'
ćŭƃœĽŤ khãlis I [quasi-act. part.; fem. Ľ řĄ Ű ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlisatun] pure.
complete. total. true (39:3) ą ů ƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ ą ƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ Ċ ƌİ Ɔ ƅ Ŀ ƛ Ō true [also: pure. total.
complete] devotion is due to God alone II [fem. n. Ľ řĄ Ű ƅŕĿ Ŧ
khãlisatun] entitlement to the exclusion of all others. a privilege.
that which is particularised (33:50) Ć Ɖ ŏ Đ ƓŃ ŗİ ƊƆ ƅ ॠƎĄ ŬŇ ſĿ Ɗ Ň ŚĄ ŗĄ ƍĄ Ə Ć Ɖ ŏ Ļ řĿ ƊĊ ƈ Ŏą ƈ Ļ Ř ŌĄ ũĆ ƈŔĄ Ə
ĄƉƔĊƊĊƈŎą ƈŇƅŔ ŃƉƏą ŧ ĆƉĊƈ ĄƃĿ ƅ ĻřĄŰƅŕĿ Ŧ ŕĄƎĄţĊƄŇƊĿ śĆŬĄƔ ĆƉŌ č ƓŃŗİ ƊƅŔ ĄŧŔĄũŌ also any believing
woman who offers herself [without dowry in marriage] to the
Prophet and if the Prophet wishes to seek her in marriage-this is
an exclusive [privilege] for you [Prophet] and not for the [rest of
the] believers.
ćŭĉƄŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhlis [act. part.. pl. ą ŰĊ ƆŇŦą ƈ ƉƏ mukhlisün] 1 one who
devotes or dedicates oneself or something to (39:2) Ą ƃĆƔĿ ƅ ŏ ŕĿ ƊŇƅĄ ŪŇƊ Ō ŕİ Ɗ ŏ
ĄƉƔĐ ŧƅŔ ą ƌĿƅ ŕćŰĊƆŇŦą ƈ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċŧą ŗĆŷŕĿž IJ ƀĄţŇƅŕŃŗ ĄŖŕĿśĊƄŇƅŔ indeed. We have sent down the
Book to you with the Truth. so worship God. devoting to Him the
religion 2 one who is sincere (2:139) ŕĿ ƊĿ ƊƏč ŠŕĄ ţŁ ś Ō .Ł Ɓ ƑĊž ĆƇŁ Ƅč ŗĄ ũĄ Ə ŕĿ Ɗč ŗĄ ũ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ
Ą ƉƏą ŰĊ ƆŇŦą ƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ ą ƉĆţĿ ƊĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƅॠƈĆŷ Ō ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĄ Ə ŕĿ ƊŁƅॠƈĆŷ Ō ŕĿ ƊĿ ƅĄ Ə say [to the people of the
Scripture] How can you argue with us about God when He is our
Lord and your Lord' Our deeds belong to us. and yours to you.
We are sincere to Him.
ćŭĽƄŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhlas [pass. part.. pl. ƉƏą ŰĿ ƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlasün] the chosen
one. the purified one (38:83) ĄƉƔĊŰĿ ƆŇŦą ƈŇƅŔ ą Ƈą ƎŇƊĊƈ ĄƃĄŧŕĄŗĊŷ İƛŏ except for Your
chosen/purified servants; * ƙŔ ůƜŦ name of Sura 112. Meccan
sura. so-named because of the 'purity of faith` it describes. also
called ŧĄ ƈĄ ŰƅŔ and řČ ƔĊ ŧĄ ƈĄ ŰƅŔ (see ť/ƅ/ŭ s-m-d).

Ţ [ J [ ű kh-l-t to mix. to blend. a mixture. a component. the four
humours; base people. common people; to intermingle. to
associate. to be familiar with; partnership. partners; husband.
cousin. neighbour; to confuse. to be mad. Of this root. four forms

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occur six times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ųĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khalata once; Ł ų ƅŕĿ ŦŁ ś tukhãlit
once; Ŀ ųĿ ƆĿ śŇŦŔ `ikhtalata three times and ĈʼnŕĿųĿƆŁ Ŧ khulatã` once.
Ľ űĽ ƄĽ Ť khalata i [v. trans.] to mix (9:102) Ć ƇŃ ƎŃ ŗƏŁ ƊŁ ŨŃ ŗ ŔƏŁ žĄ ũĿ śĆ ŷŔ Ą ƉƏą ũĿ ŦŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə
ŕœĐƔĄŬ ĄũĿ ŦŔĄʼnĄƏ ŕćţƅŕĄŰ ƜĄƈĄŷ ŔƏŁųĿƆĿŦ and others confessed their sins. they
mixed a righteous deed with another evil one.
ĿűƃœĽŤĿř tukhãlit [imperf. of v. III Ŀ ųĿ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlata. trans.] to associate
with. to mix with. to intermingle with. to combine with (2:220)
ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƊŔĄƏŇŦŐĿž ĆƇą ƍƏŁ ųƅŕĿ ŦŁ ś ĆƉŏĄƏ ĈũĆƔĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƎĿƅ ĈšĿ ƜĆŰŏ .Ł Ɓ ƑĄƈŕĿśĄƔŇƅŔ ŃƉĄŷ ĄƃĿƊƏŁ ƅ ōĆŬĄƔĄƏ and they ask
you about the orphans. say. `It is good to set things right for
them. if you mix their affairs with yours [lit. mix with them] [also
interpreted as: if you intermingle with them] [remember] they are
your brothers and sisters.'
Ľ űĽ ƄĽ řŅŤŒ `ikhtalata [v. VIII. intrans.] to become mixed/mingled
with. to be combined with (18:45) Ł ŚŕĄŗĿ Ɗ Ċ ƌŃ ŗ Ŀ ųĿ ƆĿ śŇŦŕĿ ž ĊʼnॠƈČ ŬƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ ą ƋŕĿ ƊŇƅĄŪŇƊ Ō ċ ʼnŕĄƈĿ Ƅ
ŃűĆũ ƗŔ like water We send down from the sky. so the vegetation of
the earth combines with it [absorbs it].
ć ŇœĽ űĽ ƄĿ Ť khulatã` [pl. of n. ĽųƔĊƆĿŦ khalït] partners. business
associates. kinfolk (38:24) ĄƉĊƈ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ Č ƉŏĄƏ ĊƌŃŠŕĄŸĊƊ ƑĿ ƅŏ ĄƃĊśĄŠĆŸĿƊ .ŔŎą ŬŃŗ ĄƃĄƈĿ ƆĿ Ŵ ĆŧĿƂĿƅ
ľűĆŸĄŗ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƇą Ǝą ŲĆŸĄŗ ƓĊżĆŗĄƔĿƅ ĊʼnŕĿųĿƆŁŦŇƅŔ he has done you wrong by demanding
your ewe in addition to his ewes. and many partners transgress
against one another.

Ţ [ J [ ų kh-l-´ to take off. to draw off. to draw out. to dislodge; to
disown. to break a pledge; to be alone. to be mad. to be foolish;
tattered garment. Of this root. ĈŶƆŇŦŔ `ikhla´. occurs once in the
Qur`an.
ć ŴƄŅŤŒ `ikhla´ [imper. of v. ĄŶĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khala´a. trans.] take off (20:12)
Ɛć ƏŁ ų Ń ūČ ŧĿ Ƃą ƈŇƅŔ Ċ ŧŔĄ ƏŇƅŕŃ ŗ Ą ƃİ Ɗ ŏ Ą ƃĆƔĿ ƆĆŸĿ Ɗ ĆŶĿ ƆŇŦŕĿ ž so take off your shoes, you are in the
sacred valley. Tüwã.

Ţ [ J [ Ż kh-l-f back. backside. behind. in the rear; to stay behind. to be
put behind; to delay. to be a straggler; to replace. to succeed. to be
appointed as successor; a ruler. representative. governor; an
offshoot. a son. a generation. a follower; to differ. to be different.
to be contrary; to fail to keep a promise. to let down. to alternate.

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Of this root. 23 forms occur 127 times in the Qur`an: Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khalafa
five times; Ŀ ŽIJ ƆŁ Ŧ khullifa once; Ł Ž ƅŕĿ Ŧą Ɣ yukhãlif twice; Ŀ ŽĿ ƆŇŦ Ō `akhlafa
13 times; Ł ŽĿ ƆŇŦŁ ś tukhlaf once; Ł Žİ ƆĿ ŦĿ śĄƔ yatakhallaf once; ŇŦŔ Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĿ ś
`ikhtalafa 33 times; and Ŀ ŽĊƆŁ śŇŦŔ `ikhtulifa twice; Ŀ ŽĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ `istakhlafa
five times; ĽŽŇƆĿŦ khalf twice; ƉƏŁ ſ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlifün once; ĽŽĿƜĊŦ khilãf six
times; ĽřĿſŇƆĊŦ khilfatun once; Ł Ž ƅŔĄ ƏĿ Ŧ khawãlif twice; ĽřĿſƔĊƆĿŦ khalïfatun
twice; Ł ŽœĿ ƜĿ Ŧ khalã`if four times; ĈʼnŕĿſĿƆŁ Ŧ khulafã` three times; ƉƏŁ ſİ ƆĿŦą ƈ
mukhallafün four times; ĽŽĊƆŇŦą ƈ mukhlif once; ĽŽĿƜĊśŇŦŔ `ikhtilãf seven
times; ĽŽĊƆĿśŇŦą ƈ mukhtalif eight times; ƉƏŁ ſĊƆĿśŇŦą ƈ mukhtalifün twice and
ƉƏŁ ſĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬą ƈ mustakhlafün 11 times.
Ľ Ť Ľ ŻĽ Ƅ khalafa u I [v. intrans.] to succeed. to follow. to come
after (19:59) ĊŚŔĄ ƏĄ Ǝİ ŮƅŔ ŔƏą ŸĄŗİ śŔĄ Ə Ŀ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏą ŷŕĄŲ Ō ĽŽŇƆĿ Ŧ ĆƇĊƍĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ŀ ŽĿ ƆĿ ŦĿ ž but there
came after them successors neglecting prayer and following lusts
II [v. trans.] 1 to act as deputy. to replace (7:142) ĊƌƔĊŦ Ɨ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ .ŕĿƁĄƏ
ƓĊ ƊŇ ſŁ ƆŇ ŦŔ Ą ƉƏą ũॠƍ ƑĊ ž ƓĊ ƈĆƏĿ Ɓ and Moses said to his brother Aaron. `Take my
place among my people' 2 to act or do something during
someone`s absence (7:150) ĄŗĆŲĿ Ż ĊƌĊƈĆƏĿƁ ƑĿ ƅŏ ƑĄŬƏą ƈ ĄŶĄŠĄũ ŕČ ƈĿ ƅĄƏ ŕĄƈĄŬœŃŗ .ŕĿ Ɓ ŕĻſĊŬ Ō ĄƉŕ
ƒĊ ŧĆŸĄ ŗ ĆƉĊ ƈ ƓĊ ƊƏą ƈŁ śŇſĿ ƆĿ Ŧ and when Moses returned to his people. angry and
grieved. he said. `How foul your conduct has been after my
departure!' (or. `What a foul thing you have put in my place after
me!').
Ľ Żİ ƄĿ Ť khullifa [pass. of v. II Ŀ Žİ ƆĿ Ŧ khallafa] to be left behind
(9:118) ŔƏŁ ſIJ ƆŁ Ŧ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ĊřĿ ŝĿ Ɯİ ŝƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷĄƏ and to the three who were left behind.
ĿŻƃœĽŤĄ ƒ yukhãlif [imperf. of v. III Ŀ ŽĿ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãlafa. trans.] 1 [with
prep. Ƒƅŏ] to act or do something contrarily to someone after
having forbidden such an act to him; to impact on something
behind someone`s back (11:88) ą ƌŇƊĄŷ ĆƇŁ ƄŕĄƎŇƊŌ ŕĄƈ ƑĿƅŏ ĆƇŁ ƄĿſƅŕĿŦ Ō ĆƉŌ ą ŧƔŃũ Ō ŕĄƈĄƏ and
I do not want to do. behind your backs. that which I have
forbidden you to do 2 [with prep. Ɖŷ] to go back on. fail to
keep/obey (24:63) ĊƋŃũĆƈ Ō ĆƉĄŷ ĄƉƏŁ ſƅŕĿ Ŧą Ɣ ĄƉƔĊŨİ ƅŔ ŃũĿ ŨĆţĄƔŇƆĿ ž and let those beware
who go back on His (or. the Prophet's) command.
Ľ ŻĽ ƄŅŤ Ŋ `akhlafa [v. IV. trans.] 1 to go back on. to break or to fail
to keep (e.g. a promise) (20:87) ŕĿƊĊƄŇƆĄƈŃŗ ĄƃĄŧĊŷĆƏĄƈ ŕĿ ƊŇſĿ ƆŇŦ Ō ŕĄƈ ŔƏŁ ƅŕĿ Ɓ they said.
`We did not break our word to you of our own accord' 2 to act
contrary to. to let down. to fail (14:22) ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śĆŧĄŷĄƏĄƏ IJ ƀĄţŇƅŔ ĄŧĆŷĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĄŧĄŷĄƏ Ąƌİ ƆƅŔ Č Ɖŏ

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ĆƇŁ ƄŁ śŇſĿ ƆŇŦ ōĿ ž God surely promised you a true promise. I promised you.
and failed you 3 to compensate or replace something spent or lost.
to reward something spent (34:39) ą ƌŁ ſĊ ƆŇŦą Ɣ Ą Əą ƎĿ ž ċ ʼnĆƓĿ Ů ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ śŇƂĿ ſŇƊ Ō ॠƈĄ Ə
whatever you give in alms He will reward it.
ŅŤĿ ř Ŀ ŻĽ Ƅ tukhlaf [2
nd
pers. imperf. of pass. v. IV Ŀ ŽĊƆŇŦ Ō `ukhlifa] (of a
promise) to be denied. to be broken (20:97) ą ƌĿſĿƆŇŦŁś ĆƉĿ ƅ ŔćŧĊŷĆƏĄƈ ĄƃĿƅ ČƉŏĄƏ
and you have a promise you will not be denied.
Ŀ ŻĮ ƄĽ ŤĽ řăƒ yatakhallaf [imperf. of v. V. intrans.] to stay behind. to
hold back from. to be absent (9:120) ĄƉĊƈ ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅĆƏĄţ ĆƉĄƈĄƏ ĊřĿ ƊƔĊŧĄƈŇƅŔ .Ćƍ Ɨ ĄƉŕĿƄ ŕĄƈ
ƌİƆƅŔ .Əą ŬĄũ ĆƉĄŷ ŔƏŁſİƆĿŦĿśĄƔ ĆƉŌ ŃŖŔĄũĆŷƗŔ it is not proper for the people of
Medina and those around them of the desert Arabs to hold back
from following the messenger of God.
Ľ ŻĽ ƄĽ řŅŤŒ `ikhtalafa [v. VIII. intrans.] 1 to differ. to vary. to be
different (8:42) ĆƇŁ śŇſĿ ƆĿ śŇŦĿ ƛ ĆƇŁ śĆŧĄ ŷŔĄƏĿ ś ĆƏĿ ƅĄ Ə ƑĊž Ċ ŧॠŸƔĊ ƈŇƅŔ had you promised each
other [to fight/meet]. you would surely have differed [in keeping]
the appointment 2 to dispute (with). to disagree (with). to differ in
opinion (on) (42:10) Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ƑĿƅŏ ą ƌą ƈŇƄą ţĿž ċʼnĆƓĿŮ ĆƉĊƈ ĊƌƔĊž ĆƇŁ śŇſĿƆĿśŇŦŔ ŕĄƈĄƏ whatever you
may differ about is for God to judge.
Ľ ŻĉƄĿ řŅŤŒ `ikhtulifa [pass. of v. VIII] to be disputed (11:110) Ć ŧĿ ƂĿ ƅĄ Ə
Ċ ƌƔĊ ž Ŀ ŽĊ ƆŁ śŇŦŕĿ ž Ą ŖŕĿ śĊ ƄŇƅŔ ƑĄ ŬƏą ƈ ŕĿ ƊĆƔĿ śŔĄ ʼn We gave Moses the Book. but it was
differed about [lit. differences were expressed in respect to it].
Ľ ŻĽ ƄŅŤĽ řąŪŒ `istakhlafa [v. X. trans.] to appoint as successor. to
cause to follow (24:55) ĆƇą Ǝİ ƊĿ ſĊ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬĄ ƔĿ ƅ ƑĊ ž ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƆĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ŀ ŽĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬŔ ॠƈĿ Ƅ Ń űĆũ ƗŔ He
will certainly make them successors in the land. as He made those
before them successors.
ĻŻŅƄĽŤ khalf I [n.] 1 succeeding generation. successors (7:169)
Ŀ ŦĿ ž ƑĿ ƊĆŧ ƗŔ ŔĿŨĄƍ ĄűĄũĄŷ ĄƉƏŁ ŨŁ ŦōĄƔ ĄŖŕĿ śĊƄŇƅŔ ŔƏŁ ŝŃũĄƏ ĽŽŇƆĿŦ ĆƇĊƍĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ Ŀ ŽĿ Ɔ so a generation
succeeded them who inherited the Book. choosing the fleeting
gains of this lower [world] 2 behind. rear *(41:42) Ć ƉĊ ƈ .Ċ ųॠŗŇ ƅŔ Ċ ƌƔĊ ś ōĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƛ
Ċ ƌĆƔĄ ŧĄ Ɣ Ń ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ĊƌĊſŇƆĿ Ŧ ĆƉĊƈ Ŀ ƛĄƏ falsehood cannot approach it from any direction
[lit. before or from behind] II [adverb of place] at the back. in the
rear. behind (19:64) ŕĿ ƊĿ ſŇƆĿ Ŧ ॠƈĄ Ə ŕĿ ƊƔĊ ŧĆƔ Ō Ą ƉĆƔĄ ŗ ॠƈ ą ƌĿ ƅ to Him belongs what is
before us and what is behind us.
ƇƍĿ Ž ƃœĽ Ť khãlifün [pl. of act. part. ĽŽƅŕĿŦ khãlif] those who stay

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behind after others have gone to carry out a task. particularly war
(9:83) Ą ƉƔĊ ſ ƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ Ą ŶĄ ƈ ŔƏą ŧą ŸŇƁŕĿ ž ċ ŘČ ũĄ ƈ .Č Ə Ō Ċ ŧƏą ŸŁƂŇƅŕŃ ŗ ĆƇŁ śƔĊ ŲĄ ũ ĆƇŁ Ƅİ Ɗ ŏ you chose to sit at
home the first time. so stay [now] with those who stay behind.
ĻŻĽƚĉŤ khilãf [v. n.] being contrary. being in opposition; being
behind. staying behind (9:81) Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ .Əą ŬĄũ ĿŽĿƜĊŦ ĆƇĊƍĊŧĄŸŇƂĄƈŃŗ ĄƉƏŁ ſİ ƆĿŦą ƈŇƅŔ ĄšŃũĿž
those who were left behind [and did not join in the Campaign of
Tabük] rejoiced at their staying behind the messenger of God;
*(7:124) ċŽĿ ƜĊŦ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ Ɔą ŠĆũ ŌĄƏ ĆƇŁ ƄĄ ƔĊ ŧĆƔ Ō Č ƉĄŸIJ ųĿ Ɓ Ɨ I will cut off your hands and
feet upon alternate sides [on opposite sides].
ĻŗĽŽŅƄĉŤ khilfatan [v. n./n.] (the act of) coming one after the other.
replacing one another; being different. alternating (25:62) ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Əą ƍĄ Ə
Ļ řĿ ſŇƆĊ Ŧ Ą ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə .ĆƔİ ƆƅŔ .Ą ŸĄ Š He it is who made the night and day replace
one another (or. come one after the other).
Ŀ Ż ƃŒă ƍĽ Ť khawãlif [pl. of n. ĽřĿſƅŕĿŦ khãlifatun. also said to be pl. of
act. part. ĽŽƅŕĿŦ khãlif] ones staying behind; women (because they
stay at home when men go forth to war); the laggards. contrary
ones (9:93) ĄƏ ĄƃĿƊƏŁƊĊŨōĿ śĆŬĄƔ ĄƉƔĊŨİƅŔ ƑĿ ƆĄŷ .ƔŃŗČŬƅŔ ŕĄƈİƊŏ Ą ŶĄ ƈ ŔƏŁ ƊƏŁ ƄĄ Ɣ ĆƉ ōŃ ŗ ŔƏą ŲĄ ũ ą ʼnॠƔĊ ƊŇŻ Ō ĆƇą ƍ
Ċ Ž ƅŔĄ ƏĿ ŦŇƅŔ censure. however. is for those who sought your permission
and. though rich. were pleased to be with the laggards (or. [at
home] with the women).
ĻŗĽ Žƒĉ ƄĽ Ť khalïfatun [n.. pl. Ł ŽœĿ ƜĿ Ŧ khalã`if and ĈʼnŕĿſĿƆŁ Ŧ khulafã`] 1
representative. (2:30) .Ċŷॊ ƓIJ Ɗŏ ĊřĿ ƄœĿ ƜĄƈŇƆƅ Ąƃč ŗĄũ .ŕĿƁ ŇŨŏĄƏ ƑĊ ž Ļ řĿ ſƔĊ ƆĿ Ŧ Ń űĆũ ƗŔ when
your Lord told the angels. `I am putting a representative on
earth' 2 successor. heir (7:74) Ą ʼnŕĿ ſĿ ƆŁ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƆĄ ŸĄ Š ŇŨ ŏ ŔƏą ũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄ Ə ĆƇŁƄ ŌČƏĄŗĄƏ ċŧŕĄŷ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ƑĊ ž
ŃűĆũ ƗŔ and remember when He made you heirs after ´ãd and
established you in the land.
ƇƍĿ ŽĮ ƄĽ ŤĄ Ɔ mukhallafün [pl. of pass. part. ĽŽİ ƆĿŦą ƈ mukhallaf] one who
is left behind (48:16) Ćŷ ƗŔ ĄƉĊƈ ĄƉƔĊſİ ƆĿ Ŧą ƈŇƆƅ .Ł Ɓ Ń ŖŔĄ ũ tell the desert Arabs
who were left behind.
ĻŻĉƄŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhlif [act. part.] one who does not keep a promise. one
who goes back on a promise (14:47) ą ƌĿ Ɔą Ŭą ũ Ċ ƋĊ ŧĆŷĄ Ə Ŀ ŽĊ ƆŇŦą ƈ Ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Č ƉĄ ŗĄ ŬĆţĿ ś Ŀ ƜĿ ž so
do not think that God will break His promise to His messengers.
ĻŻĽƚĉřŅŤŒ `ikhtilãf [v. n.] 1 difference (between). diversity.
succession (10:6) Č Ɖ ŏ ƑĊ ž ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ॠƈĄ Ə Ń ũॠƎİ ƊƅŔĄ Ə .Ć Ɣİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŽĿ ƜĊ śŇ ŦŔ ƑĊž Ń űĆũ ƗŔĄ Ə Ċ ŚŔĄ ƏĄ ƈČ ŬƅŔ

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ĄƉƏŁ Ƃİ śĄƔ ľƇĆƏĿ Ƃƅ ċŚŕĄƔ ƕ in the succession of night and day. and in what God
created in the heavens and earth. there truly are signs for those
who are mindful [of God] 2 discrepancy. contradiction.
inconsistency (4:82) Ċ ƌƔĊ ž ŔƏą ŧĄ ŠĄ ƏĿ ƅ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ń ũĆƔĿ Ż Ċ ŧŇƊĊ ŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ Ą ƉŕĿ Ƅ ĆƏĿ ƅĄƏ Ą ƉŔĄ ʼnĆũŁ ƂŇƅŔ Ą ƉƏą ũČ ŗĄ ŧĿ śĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƜĿ ž Ō
Ŀ ƜĊśŇŦŔ ŔćũƔĊŝĿ Ƅ ŕĻž will they not ponder on the Qur'an'. if it had been from
anyone other than God. they would surely have found much
inconsistency in it.
ĻŻĉƄĽřŅŤĄ Ɔ mukhtalif [quasi-act. part.; pl. ƉƏŁ ſĊ ƆĿ śŇŦą ƈ mukhtalifün] 1
different from [one another]; disputing with one another (11:118)
ĄƉƔĊſĊƆĿśŇŦą ƈ ĄƉƏŁ ƅŔĄŪĄƔ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĻŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ĻřČ ƈ Ō Ąūŕİ ƊƅŔ .ĄŸĄŠĿ ƅ Ąƃč ŗĄũ ĄʼnŕĿŮ ĆƏĿ ƅĄƏ had your Lord willed.
He would have made humankind one nation. but they continue to
be different 2 varying. diverse (16:69) ĆƉĊ ƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ Ľ ŽĊ ƆĿ śŇ Ŧą ƈ Ĉ ŖŔĄ ũĿ ٠ॠƎĊ ƊƏŁ ųą ŗ
Ńūŕİ ƊƆƅ ĈʼnŕĿ ſĊŮ ĊƌƔĊž ą ƌŁ ƊŔĄƏŇƅ Ō from their bellies comes forth a drink of diverse
hues in which there is healing for humankind 3 opposing.
contradictory (51:8) ċŽĊƆĿ śŇŦą ƈ .ĆƏĿƁ ƓĊſĿƅ ĆƇŁƄİƊŏ you are of opposing
opinions.
ƇƍĿ ŽĽ ƄŅŤĽ řąŪĄ Ɔ mustakhlafün [pl. of pass. part. Ľ ŽĿ ƆŇŦĿ śĆŬą ƈ mustakhlaf]
those who are appointed as successors. inheritors. heirs. or
trustees (57:7) ĊƌƔĊž ĄƉƔĊſĿƆŇŦĿśĆŬą ƈ ĆƇŁƄĿ ƆĄŸĄŠ ŕČƈĊƈ ŔƏŁƂĊſŇƊŌĄƏ and give out of that over
which He has made you successors.

Ţ [ J [ ž kh-l-q to create. to originate. to design. creation. the entire
creation. the human race; natural disposition. innate nature; to be
shapely. comely; to deal tactfully with others. to assume a certain
disposition; to attribute falsely; to estimate; to be of good
character; luck. share; to be capable; (of a garment) to wear out; a
fragrant substance. Of this root. 10 forms occur 239 times in the
Qur`an: Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khalaqa 151 times; Ŀ ƀĊƆŁ Ŧ khuliqa 11 times; ĽƀŇƆĿ Ŧ khalq
52 times; ĽƀƅŕĿŦ khãliq eight times; ƉƏŁ ƂƅŕĿŦ khãliqün four times; Ľƀİ ƜĿŦ
khallãq twice; Ľ řĿ Ƃİ ƆĿ Ŧą ƈ mukhallaqatun twice; ĽƀĿƜĊśŇŦŔ `ikhtilãq once;
Ľ ƀĿ ƜĿ Ŧ khalãq six times and ĽƀŁ ƆŁ Ŧ khuluq twice.
Ľ žĽ ƄĽ Ť khalaqa u [v. trans.] 1 to create anew. to bring into being
(25:54) ą ƍĄ Ə Ŕć ũĿ ŮĄ ŗ Ċ ʼnॠƈŇ ƅŔ Ą ƉĊ ƈ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ƒĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ą Ə and He it was who created from
water a human being 2 to form or to shape (3:49) Ą ƉĊ ƈ ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ Ł ƀŁ ƆŇŦ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ Ō
Ċƌİ ƆƅŔ ŃƉŇŨŐŃŗ ŔćũĆƔĿų ą ƉƏŁ ƄĄƔĿž ĊƌƔĊž Ł ťŁ ſŇƊōĿž ŃũĆƔİ ųƅŔ ĊřœĆƔĄƎĿƄ ŃƉƔIJ ųƅŔ I will shape for you out of
clay [a thing] like the form of birds. then I will breathe into it and

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it will become a bird by God's will.
Ľ žĉƄĿ Ť khuliqa [pass. v.] to be created (25:3) Ŀ ƛ Ļ řĄ Ǝ ƅŔĄ ʼn Ċ ƌĊ ƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ŔƏŁ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔĄ Ə
ĄƉƏŁƂĿƆŇŦą Ɣ ĆƇą ƍĄƏ ŕœĆƔĿ Ů ĄƉƏŁƂŁƆŇŦĄƔ they take aside from Him gods that create
nothing. and are themselves created.
ĻžŅƄĽŤ khalq I [v. n.] the act of creating. (3:190) Č Ɖ ŏ ƑĊ ž ĊŚŔĄƏĄƈČŬƅŔ ĊƀŇƆĿ Ŧ
ŃŖŕĄŗŇƅƗŔ ƓƅƏƗ ċŚŕĄƔƕ ŃũŕĄƎİƊƅŔĄƏ .ĆƔİƆƅŔ ĊŽĿƜĊśŇŦŔĄƏ ŃűĆũ ƗŔĄƏ truly. in the creation of
the heavens and earth. and in the alternation of night and day.
are signs for those endowed with minds II [n.] 1 creatures. all
creation. human race (31:11) Ċ ƌĊ ƊƏą ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ĄƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ Ŀ ƀĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ŔĿ Ũॠƈ ƓĊ ƊƏą ũ ōĿ ž Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ł ƀŇƆĿ Ŧ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ
this is God's creation. Now. show Me that which those besides
Him have created 2 design of creation. shape. stature (7:69)
ĆƇŁ ƄĄŧŔĄŪĄƏ ľšƏŁ Ɗ ŃƇĆƏĿ Ɓ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ĄʼnŕĿ ſĿ ƆŁ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĿƆĄŸĄŠ ŇŨŏ ŔƏą ũŁ ƄŇŨŔĄƏ ƑĊ ž ĻřĿ ųĆŬĄŗ ĊƀŇƆĿŦŇƅŔ and remember
when He made you successors after the people of Noah and
increased you in stature 3 stage of creation (39:6) ĆƇŁ ƄŁ ƂŁ ƆŇŦĄ Ɣ ƑĊ ž Ń ƉƏŁ ųą ŗ
ċƀŇƆĿ Ŧ ĊŧĆŸĄŗ ĆƉĊƈ ŕĻƂŇƆĿ Ŧ ĆƇŁ ƄĊśŕĄƎČ ƈ Ō ƑĊž ċŜĿ ƜĿ ŝ ċ ŚŕĄƈŁ ƆŁ Ŵ He creates you in your mothers'
wombs. one stage [of forms] after another in three-fold [depths
of] darkness 4 lying. fabrication (according to one reading of
verse 26:137) ƀŁ ƆŁ Ŧ İ ƛ ŏ ŔĿ ŨĄ ƍ ĆƉ ŏ ) ƀŇƆĿŦ ( ƉƔƅČƏƗŔ this is none but the
fabrication of those gone past.
ĻžƃœĽŤ khãliq I [act. part.. pl. ƉƏŁ Ƃ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãliqün] one engaged in
creating (38:71) Ŀ ƜĄƈŇƆƅ Ąƃč ŗĄũ .ŕĿƁ ŇŨŏ ľƉƔĊų ĆƉĊƈ ŔćũĿŮĄŗ ĽƀƅŕĿŦ ƓIJƊŏ ĊřĿ Ƅœ when your
Lord said to the angels. `I am creating a human from clay' II [n.
with the definite article: an attribute of God] the Creator. the
Maker (59:24) őŃ ũॠŗŇƅŔ Ł ƀ ƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ He is God. the Creator. the
Originator.
ĻžĮ ƚĽŤ khallãq [intens. act. part.] the greatest creator (15:86) Č Ɖ ŏ
ą ƇƔĊ ƆĄ ŸŇƅŔ Ł ƀİ ƜĿ ŦŇƅŔ Ą Əą ƍ Ą ƃČ ŗĄ ũ your Lord is the Supreme Creator. the All
Knowing.
Ļ ŗĽ ƀĮ ƄĽ ŤĄ Ɔ mukhallaqatun [fem. pass. part.] formed. shaped (22:5) ŕİ Ɗ ŐĿ ž
Ŀ ƆĿ Ŧ ċřĿ Ƃİ ƆĿ Ŧą ƈ Ń ũĆƔĿ ŻĄ Ə ċřĿ Ƃİ ƆĿ Ŧą ƈ ċ řĿ żĆŲą ƈ ĆƉĊƈ Č ƇŁ ŝ ċřĿ ƂĿ ƆĄŷ ĆƉĊ ƈ Č ƇŁ ŝ ċ řĿ ſŇųŁ Ɗ ĆƉĊƈ Č ƇŁ ŝ ľŖŔĄ ũŁ ś ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŕĿ ƊŇƂ We
created you from dust. then a drop of seed. then a clinging mass.
then a lump of flesh. both shaped and unshaped.
ĻžĽƚĉřŅŤŒ `ikhtilãq [v. n.] fabrication. lying. invention (38:7) ŕĿ ƊĆŸĊƈĄŬ ŕĄƈ
ŔĿ ŨĄ ƎŃ ŗ ƑĊ ž ĽƀĿ ƜĊśŇŦŔ İƛŏ ŔĿ ŨĄƍ ĆƉŏ ĊŘĄũĊŦƕŔ ĊřİƆĊƈŇƅŔ we did not hear of this in the former
faith. this is nothing but invention.

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Ļ žĽ ƚĽ Ť khalãq [n.] share. portion; standing (3:77) Ċ Ũİ ƅŔ Č Ɖ ŏ Ą ƉƏą ũĿ śŇŮĄ Ɣ Ą ƉƔ
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƅ Ŀ ƀĿ ƜĿ Ŧ Ŀ ƛ Ą ƃ œĿ ƅƏ Ō ƜƔĊ ƆĿ Ɓ ŕĻ ƊĄ ƈĿ ŝ ĆƇŃ ƎĊ ƊॠƈĆƔ ŌĄ Ə Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ċ ŧĆƎĄ ŸŃ ŗ ƑĊ ž ŘĄ ũĊ ŦƕŔ those who sell out
God's covenant and their own oaths for a small price-those will
have no share in the Hereafter.
ĻžĿ ƄĿ Ť khuluq [n.] interpreted as habit. custom. character. natural
disposition. traits. manners. way of life (68:4) ľ ƇƔĊ ŴĄ ŷ ċ ƀŁ ƆŁ Ŧ ƑƆĄ ŸĿ ƅ Ą ƃİ Ɗ ŏĄ Ə
truly you are of great moral character.

Ţ [ J [ J kh-l-l opening. aperture; to go in between; to persuade; to be
poor; character. trait. attribute; friendship. a close confidant;
lover. loved person; wife; wine. vinegar; a tattered garment;
anklets. Of this root. four forms occur 13 times in the Qur`an: Ľřİ ƆŁ Ŧ
khullatun once; .ĿƜĊŦ khilãl eight times; .ƔĊƆĿŦ khalïl three times and
Ĉʼnİ ƜĊŦŌ `akhillã` once.
ĻŗĮ ƄĿ Ť khullatun [n.. pl. .ĿƜĊŦ khilãl] friendship (2:254) Ą ƉƔĊ Ũİ ƅŔ ॠƎč Ɣ ŌॠƔ
ĽřĄŷŕĿſĿŮ Ŀ ƛĄƏ Ľřİ ƆŁ Ŧ Ŀ ƛĄƏ ĊƌƔĊž ĈŶĆƔĄŗ Ŀ ƛ ĈƇĆƏĄƔ ĄƓĊśōĄƔ ĆƉŌ .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊƈ ĆƇŁ ƄŕĿƊŇƁĄŪĄũ ŕČ ƈĊƈ ŔƏŁ ƂĊſŇƊ Ō ŔƏŁ ƊĄƈŔĄʼn you
who believe. give from what We have provided for you. before the
Day comes in which there is no bargaining. no friendship. and no
intercession.
JĽƚĉŤ khilãl I [pl. used adverbially] 1 (small gaps. breaches.
openings) through. amongst. between. within (9:47) ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅĿ ƜĊŦ ŔƏą ŸĄ ŲĆƏ ƗĄƏ
řĿƊŇśĊſŇƅŔ ą ƇŁ ƄĿƊƏŁ żĆŗĄƔ they would have scurried about in your midst. trying to
sow discord among you 2 [with prep. Ɖƈ] among. within
(30:48) Ċ ƌ ƅĿ ƜĊ Ŧ ĆƉĊ ƈ ą Şą ũŇŦĄ Ɣ Ŀ ƀĆŧĄ ƏŇƅŔ ƐĄ ũĿ śĿ ž you see the rain issuing from
within them II [either v. n. of v. III or pl. of noun Ľřİ ƆŁ Ŧ khullatun]
the act of being friendly. having friends; friendships (14:31) .ĆŗĿ Ɓ ĆƉĊ ƈ
.Ŀ ƜĊŦ ĿƛĄƏ ĊƌƔĊž ĈŶĆƔĄŗ Ŀƛ ĈƇĆƏĄƔ ĄƓĊśōĄƔ ĆƉ Ō before a Day comes when there will be
no trading or friendship.
Jƒĉ ƄĽ Ť khalïl [n.. pl. Ĉʼnİ ƜĊŦŌ `akhillã`] 1 a very close intimate friend
(43:67) ďƏą ŧĄŷ ľűĆŸĄŗƅ ĆƇą Ǝą ŲĆŸĄŗ ċŨœĄƈĆƏĄƔ ą ʼnİƜĊŦƗŔ on that Day. close friends will
become each other's enemies 2 (an epithet of Abraham) the close
friend of God (4:125) Ą ƇƔĊ ƍŔĄ ũĆŗ ŏ ą ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ ŨĿ Ŧİ śŔĄ Ə ĊƆĿ Ŧ ĻƜƔ God took Abraham as a
close friend.

Ţ [ J [ ƍ kh-l-w to be vacant. to be solitary. to vacate. to be vacated;

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wide open space; to be set free. to divorce; to be alone or in
seclusion with someone; a cell. a hive; to devote oneself to
something; to go past in time. something of the past. passage of
time; to produce herbage. pasture. Of this root. four forms occur
28 times in the Qur`an: ƑĿ ƆĿ Ŧ khalã 25 times; Ƒİ ƆĿ Ŧ khallã once; Ƒİ ƆĿ ŦĿ ś
takhallã once and Ľ řĄ Ɣ ƅŕĿ Ŧ khãliyatun once.
ƏĽ ƄĽ Ť khalã u [v. intrans.] 1 to become of the past (2:141) Ľ řČ ƈ Ō Ą ƃŇƆĊ ś
ŇŚĄŗĄŬĿ Ƅ ŕĄƈ ŕĄƎĿ ƅ ŇŚĿƆĿŦ ĆŧĿ Ɓ this is a community that has become of the past,
for them is what they earned 2 to be alone. to be by oneself. to be
in seclusion (3:119) ą ƇŁ ƄĆƔĿ ƆĄ ŷ ŔƏč ŲĄŷ ŔĆƏĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ ĊŴĆƔĿ żŇƅŔ ĄƉĊƈ .Ċ ƈŕĿ Ɗ ƗŔ but when they
are alone. they bite [their] fingertips in rage at you 3 to become
empty. to become free. to become clear *(12:9) ĆƇŁ ƄƔŃ ŗ Ō ą ƌĆŠĄ Ə ĆƇŁ ƄĿ ƅ .ŇŦĄ Ɣ
your father's undivided attention will be yours [lit. your father's
face becomes free for you] 4 to become the norm. the practice. to
become time-honoured (40:85) Ň ŚĿ ƆĿ Ŧ Ć ŧĿ Ɓ ƓĊ śİ ƅŔ Ċ ƌİ ƆƅŔ Ŀ řİ Ɗą Ŭ ƑĊ ž Ċ ƋĊ ŧॠŗĊ ŷ this is
God's way which has become established as the norm for His
creatures 5 [also with prep. Ɠž] to come and go past [in time]
(35:24) ĈũƔĊŨĿ Ɗ ŕĄƎƔĊž Ŀ ƜĿ Ŧ İ ƛŏ ċřČ ƈ Ō ĆƉĊƈ ĆƉŏĄƏ there is not a community. but a
warner has come [lit. passed] among them 6 [also with prep. Ƒƅŏ]
to meet in seclusion with. to be alone with (2:14) ƑĿ ƅŏ ŔĆƏĿ ƆĿ Ŧ ŔĿ ŨŏĄƏ
ĆƇŃƎĊƊƔĊųŕĄƔĿ Ů ĆƇŁƄĄŸĄƈ ŕİƊŏ ŔƏŁƅŕĿ Ɓ when they come to be secluded with their devils
[devilish leaders]. they say. `We're [really] with you.'
ƏĮ ƄĽ Ť khallã [v. II. trans.] to let go *(9:5) Ŕą ƏĿ śŔĄ ʼnĄ Ə Ŀ ŘĿ ƜČ ŰƅŔ ŔƏą ƈŕĿ Ɓ ŌĄƏ ŔƏą ŗŕĿ ś ĆƉ ŐĿ ž
ĆƇą ƎĿ ƆƔŃ ŗĄ Ŭ ŔƏı ƆĿ ŦĿ ž Ŀ ŘŕĿ ƄČ ŪƅŔ but if they repent. maintain prayer and pay the
prescribed alms. let them go on their way.
ƏĮ ƄĽ ŤĽ ř takhallã [v. V. intrans.] to let go; to become vacant. to
become free; to make oneself vacant or free (84:4) ॠƎƔĊ ž ॠƈ ŇŚĿ ƂŇƅ ŌĄ Ə
ŇŚİ ƆĿ ŦĿ śĄƏ and it casts out what is in it and becomes empty.
ĻŗăƒƃœĽŤ khãliyatun [fem. quasi-act. part.] that which has gone past
(in time). (of time) gone by (69:24) ĆƇŁ śŇſĿ ƆĆŬ Ō ŕĄƈŃŗ ŕœƔĊƊĄƍ ŔƏą ŗĄũŇŮŔĄƏ ŔƏŁ ƆŁ Ƅ ƑĊ ž ŃƇŕČ ƔƗŔ
Ċ řĄ Ɣ ƅŕĿ ŦŇƅŔ eat and drink with enjoyment as a reward for what you have
done in days gone by.

Ţ [ ƅ [ ť kh-m-d (of fire) to die out. to abate; to faint. to be silent.
contemplative. Of this root. ƉƏą ŧĊ ƈŕĿ Ŧ khãmidün occurs twice in the

Ţ [ ƅ [ ŧ

286
Qur`an.
ƇƍĄ ťĉƆœĽŤ khãmidün [pl. of act. part. ĈŧĊƈŕĿŦ khãmid] spent. extinct.
expired. dead (36:29) ĄƉƏą ŧĊƈŕĿ Ŧ ĆƇą ƍ ŔĿŨŐĿž ĻŘĄŧĊţŔĄƏ ĻřĄţĆƔĄŰ İƛŏ ŇŚĿ ƊŕĿƄ ĆƉŏ it will be
but one blast. and they will be expired.

Ţ [ ƅ [ ŧ kh-m-r to mix. to infect. to intoxicate. intoxicating drinks.
wine and spirits. to ferment; to leaven. to raise; to hide.
head-cover. (of a woman) to cover the head and face; to bear a
grudge. Of this root. two forms occur seven times in the Qur`an:
ĈũĆƈĿŦ khamr six times and Ĉũą ƈŁ Ŧ khumur once.
ćŧąƆĽŤ khamr [n.] 1 intoxicating drink. spirits. wine in particular
(2:219) ĈũƔŃŗĿƄ ĈƇŇŝŏ ŕĄƈŃƎƔĊž .ŁƁ ŃũĊŬĆƔĄƈŇƅŔĄƏ ŃũĆƈĿ ŦŇƅŔ ŃƉĄŷ ĄƃĿƊƏŁƅ ōĆŬĄƔ they ask you
[Prophet] about intoxicants and gambling. say. `There is great
sin in both' 2 grapes and other fruits that may be fermented into
wine (12:36) ŏ ŕĄƈą ƍą ŧĄţ Ō .ŕĿ Ɓ Ŕć ũĆ ƈĿ Ŧ ą ũĊ ŰĆ ŷ Ō ƓĊ ƊŔĄ ũ Ō ƓIJ Ɗ one of them said. `I see
myself pressing grapes.'
ćŧĄ ƆĿ Ť khumur [pl. of n. Ĉ ũॠƈĊ Ŧ khimãr] head-covers (24:31) Ą ƉĆŗŃ ũĆŲĄ ƔŇƅĄ Ə
ČƉŃƎŃŗƏą Ɣą Š ƑĿ ƆĄŷ ČƉĊƍŃũą ƈŁŦŃŗ and they should draw their head scarves to
cover their necklines.

Ţ [ ƅ [ ũ kh-m-s five. fifth. one fifth. to make five. to become five. to
become the fifth. Thursday; great army. Of this root. four forms
occur eight times in the Qur`an: ĽřĄŬĆƈĿŦ khamsatun three times;
Ľ řĄ ŬĊ ƈŕĿ Ŧ khãmisatun twice; ƉƏą ŬĆƈĿ Ŧ khamsün twice and Ł Ŧ ĈūĆƈ khums
once.
ĻŗăŪąƆĽŤ khamsatun [card. no.] (18:22) ĆƇą Ǝą ŗŇƆĿƄ ĆƇą Ǝą ŬĊŧŕĄŬ ĽřĄŬĆƈĿŦ ĄƉƏŁ ƅƏŁ ƂĄƔĄƏ ĻŕƈĆŠĄ