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Report (Hydrostatic)

# Report (Hydrostatic)

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# UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNIVERSITY

Department Of Mechanical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics Lab

Report Exp.4
Hydrostatic Forces

Instructor:

Student Name ID number
Salma Ali Al Balooshi 201003770
Alia Salim ALjabri 200908887
Fatima Ali AlRashedi 200919847

Submission date: 21
st
– Mar. – 2012
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Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Theory .............................................................................................................................................. 2
Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................ 2
Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 3
Sample of calculation ...................................................................................................................... 3
Results ............................................................................................................................................. 5
 Tables ................................................................................................................................... 5
 Figures ................................................................................................................................. 6
Discussion ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Error Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 8
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Safety ........................................................................................................................................... 8
References ....................................................................................................................................... 9

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Abstract

Introduction

Theory

Apparatus

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Procedure

Sample of calculation
ρ= 1000 kg/m
3
,D = 0.199 m , L=0.285 m
g= 9.81 m/s
2
, width= 0.075m ,h= 0.095 m
 Calculations for partial immersion
Y=0.028m ; m=0.02kg

m
R= D-y+yp = 0.199-0.028+ =0.189667 m
HC=Y/2 = 0.028/2 = 0.014 m
A= Y width = 0.0280.075 =0.0021 m
2

F= hc ρ g A = 0.014 1000 9.810.0021 = 0.288414 N
Mth=F R = 0.288414 * 0.189667 = 0.0547 N.m
Mexp =mgL = 0.020 *9.81* 0.285 = 0.055917 N.m
Wth = (FR)/L = 0.0547/0.285 =0.1919 N
Wexp = mg =0.020*9.81 =0.1962
%error= [(| Wth - Wexp|)/ Wth)] * 100% = [(| Mth - Mexp|)/ Mth)] * 100%
=[(| 0.1919 – 0.1962|)/ 0.1919)] * 100% = 2.24%
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 Calculation for complete immersion
Y=0.104 m ; m=0.230kg
hc= (h/2)+(y-h) = (0.095/2)+(0.104-0.095) =0.0565 m

()

()

R= D-y +yp = 0.199-0.104+0.0698 = 0.1648 m
A= h* width = 0.095*0.075 = 0.007125 m
2

F = hc * A * g * ρ = 0.0565 *0.007125*9.81*1000 = 3.949 N
Mth=F R = 3.949 * 0.1648 = 0.6507 N.m
Mexp =mgL = 0.230 *9.81* 0.285 = 0.064305 N.m
Wth = (FR)/L = 0.0661 /0.285 =2.283 N
Wexp = mg =0.230*9.81 =2.2563 N
%error= [(| Wth - Wexp|)/ Wth)] * 100% Or [(| Mth - Mexp|)/ Mth)] * 100%
=[(| 2.283 – 2.2563|)/ 2.283)] * 100% = 1.2%

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Results
 Tables
Table 1: calculations results for partial immersion
level
Y
(m)
Mass
m
(Kg)
Yp
(m)
R
(m)
hc
(m)
A
(m
2
)
F (N) M(th)
(N.m)
M(exp)
(N.m)
W(th)
(N)
W(exp)
(N)
%error
1
0.028 0.02 0.0187 0.1897 0.014 0.00210 0.2884 0.0547 0.055917 0.1919 0.1962 2.22
2
0.04 0.04 0.0267 0.1857 0.02 0.00300 0.5886 0.1093 0.111834 0.3835 0.3924 2.33
3
0.05 0.06 0.0333 0.1823 0.025 0.00375 0.9197 0.1677 0.167751 0.5884 0.5886 0.0365
4
0.065 0.1 0.0433 0.1773 0.0325 0.00488 1.5543 0.2756 0.279585 0.9671 0.981 1.43
5
0.072 0.12 0.0480 0.1750 0.036 0.00540 1.9071 0.3337 0.335502 1.1710 1.1772 0.529
6
0.081 0.15 0.0540 0.1720 0.0405 0.00608 2.4136 0.4151 0.419378 1.4566 1.4715 1.019

Table 2: calculations Results for complete immersion
level
Y
(m)
Mass
m
(Kg)
Yp
(m)
R
(m)
hc
(m)
A
(m
2
)
F (N) M(th)
(N.m)
M(exp)
(N.m)
W(th)
(N)
W(exp)
(N)
%error
1
0.104 0.23 0.0698 0.1648 0.0565 0.00713 3.9491 0.6509 0.6430 2.2837 2.2563 1.20
2
0.109 0.25 0.0737 0.1637 0.0615 0.00713 4.2986 0.7038 0.6990 2.4695 2.4525 0.68
3
0.12 0.3 0.0829 0.1619 0.0725 0.00713 5.0675 0.8203 0.8388 2.8782 2.943 2.25
4
0.128 0.33 0.0898 0.1608 0.0805 0.00713 5.6266 0.9050 0.9226 3.1755 3.2373 1.94
5
0.138 0.37 0.0988 0.1598 0.0905 0.00713 6.3256 1.0109 1.0345 3.5470 3.6297 2.33
6
0.147 0.4 0.1071 0.1591 0.0995 0.00713 6.9547 1.1062 1.1183 3.8814 3.924 1.09

6 | P a g e

 Figures

Figure 1: weight versus water level for partial immersion

Figure 2: theoretical weight versus the experimental for partial immersion
0.0000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
0.8000
1.0000
1.2000
1.4000
1.6000
1.8000
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
W
(
t
h
)

(
N
)

Y(m)
Weight Vs. hight
for partial immersion
W(th)
W(exp)
Linear (W(th))
Linear (W(exp))
-0.2000
0.0000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
0.8000
1.0000
1.2000
1.4000
1.6000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
w
(
t
h
)

(
N
)

W(exp) (N)
W(th) Vs. W(exp)
for partial immersion
W(th) Vs. W(exp)
Linear (W(th) Vs.
W(exp))
7 | P a g e

Figure 3: weight versus water level for complete immersion

Figure 4: theoretical weight versus the experimental for complete immersion

0.0000
0.5000
1.0000
1.5000
2.0000
2.5000
3.0000
3.5000
4.0000
4.5000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
W
(
N
)

y(m)
Weight Vs. Height
for compelet immersion
W(th)
W(exp)
Linear (W(exp))
0.0000
0.5000
1.0000
1.5000
2.0000
2.5000
3.0000
3.5000
4.0000
4.5000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
W
(
t
h
)

W(exp)
W(th) Vs. W(exp)
W(th) Vs. W(exp)
Linear (W(th) Vs. W(exp))
8 | P a g e

Discussion
As a result, for partial immersion as shown in table 1, the distance R from the
center of pressure till the knife edge decrease while the area of partial immersion
increase and the water level increase due to increasing the water level. The hydrostatic
force of the partial immersion has a proportional relation with the water level increase,
and the magnitude of moment increases with the R and the hydrostatic force.
In complete immersion as shown in table2, the area and second moment of area
are constants while the hydrostatic force increases with the water level. So the
magnitude of moment is increase with the hydrostatic force and R. Moreover, the
increase in the weight cause increase in the water level for partial immersion and
complete immersion, to balance the arm make it in equilibrium.

Error Analysis
From tables 1 and 2 it can be seen that the percentage error for both partial and
complete immersion does not exceed 3%, which means that our results has high
accuracy. Moreover, Figures 1 and 3 shows the error bars with 5% error on the
experimental weight values and it can be noticed that the error is less than 5%.
However, error bars are not so clear due to the small error; that is why figures 2 and 4
are used. They show that the angle between the W(th) and W(exp) is almost 45 degrees
with confirms the accuracy of the results.
The main source of error in this experiment is personal error; rounding of numbers in
calculations may affect the results also, the angles of view play an important part in
getting the correct results (in leveling the balance arm and in taking the readings of the
immersed height).
Conclusion
In conclusion, the validity of the formula for the resultant force and the position
of the center of the pressure on a vertical rectangular plate were verified. The result
shows that there is a direct relation between the hydrostatic force and the water level.
Theoretical weight and the experimental for partial immersion were compared for
complete immersion and partial immersion, and the result is acceptable.
Safety
It is important to be careful while moving the apparatus because it could fall and hart someone.
9 | P a g e

References
 Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual , department of Mechanical Engineering , UAEU
 Fluid Mechanics (fundamental and applications), Yunus A. Cengel . John M. Cimbala

......................................................................... 8 Error Analysis .......................... 2 Introduction ........... 8 References ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Results ..................................................................................... 5   Tables............................................................................ 8 Safety ....................................................................................................................... 3 Sample of calculation ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Figures ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Discussion ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Abstract .... 9 1|Page ............................................................... 2 Theory.......................................................................... 2 Procedure ................................................... 8 Conclusion .. 2 Apparatus .......................................................................................................................................................................................

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