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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 4 Job Attitudes 1) Which of the following is the best definition of attitudes?

A) Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event. B) Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one's actions. C) Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event. D) Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone. E) Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47 Topic: Attitudes 2) The belief that "violence is wrong" is an descriptive statement. Such an opinion constitutes the ________ component of an attitude. A) cognitive B) affective C) reflective D) behavioral E) reactive Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 3) What are the three components of an attitude? A) cognitive, behavioral, and dissonant B) cognitive, affective, and behavioral C) dissonant, affective, and behavioral D) behavioral, affective, and correspondent E) correspondent, cognitive, and affective Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes 4) The ________ component of an attitude is the emotional or feeling component of that attitude. A) affective B) cognitive C) behavioral D) evaluative E) reaffective Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes

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5) Jan is a security officer. Jan believes that it is important to know exactly who is in the office at any given time. She notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they take lunch, which makes it impossible to keep track of who is actually in the office. Jan becomes frustrated with those employees. She makes note of them and reports them to their supervisors. What is the behavioral component of Jan's attitude to the employees who did not sign out of the office? A) Jan believes that it is important that she know exactly who is in the office at any given time. B) Jan notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they take lunch. C) Jan finds it impossible to keep track of who is actually in the office. D) Jan becomes frustrated with those employees who do not sign out of the office. E) Jan notes which employees leave the office without signing out, and reports them to their supervisors. Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 6) Which of the following is an example of the affective component of an attitude? A) Satisfaction with a job well done. B) The observation that most dogs have four legs. C) The opinion that it is never acceptable to steal. D) Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing. E) The avoidance of a restaurant where one once received bad service. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 7) Which of these actions are the most likely to be taken by Sarah if she behaves in a way that is inconsistent with an attitude that she holds? A) Change the behavior. B) Change the attitude. C) Rationalize the behavior. D) Ignore the inconsistency. E) All of the above. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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8) Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in ________. A) organizational dissonance B) cognitive dissonance C) attitudinal clarification D) values clarification E) affective reactance Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 9) When there are inconsistencies between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes, individuals will attempt to A) increase their job-related social relationships. B) confront their supervisor. C) reduce their job involvement. D) reduce dissonance. E) increase their job satisfaction Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 10) The primary organizational implication of cognitive dissonance theory is that it helps to predict ________. A) overall job satisfaction for employees B) the likelihood of a given employee engaging in impression management C) the overall level to which the workforce will accept gender, racial or other types of bias D) the willingness of the workforce to accept company rules and work practices E) the inclination towards attitude and behavioral change of the workforce Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 11) The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ________. A) Maslow B) Festinger C) Hofstede D) Skinner E) Pavlov Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes

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12) "Dissonance" means ________. A) reactance B) constance C) resistance D) consistency E) inconsistency Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 13) Leon Festinger argued that ________ follow(s) ________. A) behavior; job satisfaction B) behavior; attitude C) attitudes; behavior D) attitudes; job satisfaction E) job satisfaction; behavior Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 14) If Joe knows that stealing from the company is wrong, but he continues to take paper for his computer home fro his son's homework, Festinger would argue that Joe is experiencing A) deviant work behaviors. B) cognitive dissonance. C) a poor conscience. D) job dissatisfaction E) disengagement Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 15) Festinger argued that dissonance is ________. Therefore, people will attempt to reduce it. A) monotonous B) confounding C) physically painful D) exhausting E) uncomfortable Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes

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16) Jo is a courier, delivering parcels throughout the metropolitan area. Although she considers herself law abiding, she often breaks the speed limit while making her deliveries. Which of the following statements does not reflect a likely response to the conflict between her attitude and her behavior? A) "It's not a problem that I speed a little bit, it's not much over the limit, and everyone else speeds some." B) "The speed limits are just too low around here; anyone driving at a reasonable speed will break them." C) "This speeding is irresponsible. From now on I am observing the speed limits." D) "I've got to drive fast sometimes, otherwise I will not make all my deliveries and I'll lose clients." E) "It's wrong to break even minor laws, but I'll probably keep speeding anyway." Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 17) According to Festinger, people will seek a(n) ________. A) variable state with variable dissonance B) stable state with maximal dissonance C) unstable state with maximal dissonance D) unstable state with minimal dissonance E) stable state with minimal dissonance Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 18) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that workers' rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas is likely experiencing ________. A) cognitive dissonance B) unresolved anger C) ethical evasion D) uncertainty avoidance E) social pressure Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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19) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that worker's rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas is experiencing cognitive dissonance. In this situation Mrs. Jonas has a(n) ________ that is in conflict with a(n) ________. A) behavior; behavior B) attitude; attitude C) social need; social interest D) social need; social need E) behavior; attitude Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 20) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that worker's rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. It is safe to say that this wouldn't be a problem if Mrs. Jonas was ________. A) a worker rather than a supervisor B) working for the construction company C) more of an ethical character D) an undocumented worker E) indifferent to workers' rights Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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21) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that worker's rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas comes to you for an explanation of why she is so uncomfortable. You might refer her to the theories of ________. A) Hofstede B) Maslow C) Skinner D) Festinger E) Surber Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 22) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that worker's rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas can be expected to relieve the discomfort she is experiencing by engaging in which of the following behaviors? A) deciding this issue is unimportant B) rationalizing that it is not her problem since she is not the contractor C) attempting to stop the contractor using undocumented workers D) coming to accept that using undocumented workers does not harm workers' rights E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 23) Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by three factors including the ________. A) values of the elements creating the dissonance B) degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements C) degree of positive affect the person has toward the behavior D) fact that values and attitudes will vary over the short term E) awareness that dissonance exists Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes

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24) Which of the following is not a moderating variable of the attitude-behavior relationship? A) direct experience B) correspondence to behavior C) power D) accessibility E) importance Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 25) The attitude-behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if the attitude ________. A) refers to something that the individual has direct personal experience with B) must be defended against the attitudes of society at large C) is perceived to be of little importance D) is related to organizational structure E) is not regularly discussed and examined Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 26) The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________. A) job satisfaction B) job involvement C) job stability D) organizational commitment E) social embeddedness Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 27) A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds A) positive attitudes toward the job. B) negative attitudes toward the job. C) positive attitudes toward the organization. D) negative attitudes toward the organization. E) indifferent attitudes toward both the organization and the job. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes

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28) ________ refers to an individual's general attitude toward his or her job. A) Job satisfaction B) Job involvement C) Job stability D) Organizational commitment E) Social investment Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 29) Which of the following statements would have been most likely made by an employee with a high degree of job involvement? A) "My skills make me exceptionally valuable to the company." B) "I'm a harder worker than most of my colleagues, even to the degree I am carrying some of the lazier ones." C) "It felt great to get promoted; I guess the guys upstairs really did appreciate the way I had been running things." D) "I love my job, it is engaging, well-paid, and low pressure enough that I don't have to be always worrying about it in my time off." E) "I enjoy working with my hands, so much so that on the days when my job requires me to actually physically build something time flies by without me even noticing it." Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 30) In her work in the publishing industry, Vera seeks out new authors who she considers promising. In the past two years she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. Vera believes that the decision not to publish these authors was based on personal rivalries within management, rather than the quality of her writers' work. She is extremely frustrated, dreads coming into work each morning and is seriously thinking of resigning. How can Vera's job attitudes best be described? A) low job satisfaction and low job involvement B) low job satisfaction and high job involvement C) high job satisfaction and low job involvement D) high job satisfaction and high job involvement E) low organizational commitment Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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31) OB research has focused on all of the following attitudes EXCEPT A) job satisfaction. B) job involvement. C) employee engagement. D) perceived organizational support. E) employee turnover Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 32) Job satisfaction is best described as ________. A) a result B) a value C) an attitude D) causing high performance E) a valued discipline Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 33) The following answer choices are quotes from employees about their job at Healthy Eating, a chain of health food stores. Which quote most likely comes from an employee who has a great deal of organizational commitment? A) "I am a great believer in the importance of a healthy diet, so I'm glad I am working for a company that is trying to make simple, healthy food available to all." B) "I like the fact that in my role as a buyer for Healthy Eating I get to make choices about which food is good enough for us to sell." C) "Even though I only work in the produce department for now, it's good to know that the suggestions I make about how the store could be improved are heard and considered by my managers." D) "The challenging nature of the work and the thoughtful and generous way they treat their staff has made Healthy Eating the best place I have ever worked." E) "With the benefits it provides, it is vital for me to keep my job. In fact, I will stay with Healthy Eating for as long as I possibly can." Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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34) Organizational commitment is defined as ________. A) the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization they work for and its goals B) an employee's belief that the organization they work for will go to considerable lengths to ensure that its employees are treated fairly C) the degree to which an employee's sense of fulfillment and self-worth is related to their job D) the amount of effort an employee will make in order to keep or advance their position in an organization E) the degree to which an employee believes their work impacts their organization Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 35) Sam works for the SPCA because of their involvement with animals. He is demonstrating which dimension to organization commitment? A) general organizational commitment B) affective commitment C) continuance commitment D) normative commitment E) involvement commitment Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 36) Which dimension to organizational commitment is reflected in the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it? A) general organizational commitment B) affective commitment C) continuance commitment D) normative commitment Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 37) Which dimension to organizational commitment describes an employee who is "tethered" to an employer simply because there isn't anything better available? A) general organizational commitment B) affective commitment C) normative commitment D) continuance commitment Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes

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38) Of the following, the best predictor of turnover is ________. A) job satisfaction B) job involvement C) affective commitment D) cognitive dissonance E) affective dissonance Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes 39) High levels of job involvement are related A) positively to organizational citizenship. B) negatively to absences. C) positively to job performance. D) negatively to resignation rates. E) all of the above. Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes 40) High job involvement means identifying with ________, while high organizational commitment means identifying with ________. A) your employing organization; your specific job B) your specific job; your employing organization C) your profession; your specific job D) your co-workers; your specific job E) your specific job; your co-workers Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes 41) The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being is known as A) employee engagement. B) job involvement. C) perceived organizational support. D) job satisfaction. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes

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42) What can a manager do to ensure his employees perceive the organization as supportive? A) Ensure rewards are deemed fair. B) Allow employees a voice in decisions. C) Provide a participative environment. D) Provide support for employees. E) All of the above. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 43) An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he performs is known as A) employee engagement. B) job involvement. C) loyalty. D) job satisfaction. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52-53 Topic: Attitudes 44) Those employees who have been described as "retired on the job" are considered A) dissatisfied. B) disengaged. C) disloyal. D) uninvolved. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52-53 Topic: Attitudes 45) Which of the following is NOT generally found in businesses whose employees have highaverage levels of engagement? A) higher levels of customer satisfaction B) higher levels of productivity C) higher profits D) higher turnover E) lower accident rates Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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46) "It is suggested that with a weakening of the loyalty of employers to employees (and viceversa) in today's workplace, organizational commitment may be replaced with ________ commitment." A) family B) occupational C) hierarchical D) department E) socially stratified Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53 Topic: Job Satisfaction 47) What are the most widely used approaches to measuring job satisfaction? A) engagement surveys B) a single global rating and a summation score C) supervision and pay ratings D) standardized job involvement surveys Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54 Topic: Job Satisfaction 48) Which of the following might be a typical element in a job used to measure job satisfaction? A) nature of the work B) supervision C) present pay D) promotion opportunity E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54 Topic: Job Satisfaction 49) Which of the following statements is NOT true about job satisfaction ? A) More workers are satisfied with their jobs overall than are dissatisfied. B) U.S. trends are generally applicable to other developed countries, C) Employees tend to be most satisfied by the work itself. D) Rate of pay is strongly correlated with job satisfaction for almost all workers. E) Employees tend to be least satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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50) Which major job-satisfaction facet is the one most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction? A) advancement opportunity B) pay C) enjoying the work D) supervision Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55 Topic: Job Satisfaction 51) All of the following are true about pay and job satisfaction EXCEPT A) For people who are poor, pay correlates with job satisfaction. B) Once an individual; reaches a level of comfortable living, pay correlates highly with job satisfaction. C) People in the U.S. who earn $75,000 experience no greater levels of job satisfaction than those who earn $40,000. D) There is no relationship between average pay and average level of job satisfaction. E) The richest people on the Forbes 400 list do not have significantly higher overall well-being scores than Maasai herdsmen in East Africa. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55-56 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 52) The exit-voice-loyalty framework aids in understanding the consequences of A) pay. B) low motivation. C) dissatisfaction. D) lack of loyalty. E) low levels of employee engagement. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56 Topic: Job Satisfaction 53) Which response is demonstrated when Joe speaks up to support his company's actions even when the local newspaper is criticizing them? A) exit response B) voice response C) loyalty response D) neglect response E) performance response Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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54) When Joe responds to his dissatisfaction with his job by discussing his problems with his manager, he is using which response? A) exit response. B) voice response. C) loyalty response. D) neglect response. E) performance response. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 55) Which responses to dissatisfaction allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations? A) exit and neglect responses. B) neglect and loyalty responses. C) voice and neglect responses. D) voice and loyalty responses. E) exit and voice responses. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 56) When union members express dissatisfaction through the grievance procedure, this allows them to continue in their jobs while convincing themselves they are acting to improve the situation. Which response is being used? A) exit response B) voice response C) loyalty response D) neglect response E) performance response Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 57) Which of the following is NOT a response to dissatisfaction? A) exit response B) voice response C) loyalty response D) neglect response E) performance response Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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58) Which of the following is NOT true? A) Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees. B) Making workers happy causes higher levels of productivity. C) Happy workers are likely to be productive workers. D) The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is no longer considered a myth. E) Job satisfaction is a determinant of OCB. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 57 Topic: Job Satisfaction 59) In which facet of job satisfaction are people least satisfied? A) work itself B) pay and promotion opportunities C) job overall D) supervisor E) coworkers Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: Exh 4-2 Topic: Job Satisfaction 60) Evidence suggests that job satisfaction A) creates productive workers. B) is unrelated to performance. C) is the major determinant of a worker's OCB. D) is unrelated to fairness of outcomes, treatments or procedures. E) is caused by high pay. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57 Topic: Job Satisfaction 61) Early studies of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) assumed that it was closely linked with satisfaction. More recent evidence suggests that satisfaction influences OCB, but through perceptions of ________. A) fairness B) consistency C) productivity D) leadership ability E) out marketing Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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62) Which of the following statements are true? A) Employee satisfaction is related to positive customer outcomes for those employees with regular customer contact. B) Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction. C) Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee's job dissatisfaction. D) Satisfied employees increase customer loyalty. E) All of the above. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction 63) Which of the following statements is NOT true? A) Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. B) Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee's job dissatisfaction. C) In service organizations, customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how frontline employees deal with customers. D) Satisfied employees are likely to be more productive. E) The most effective way to improve job satisfaction is a raise in pay. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction 64) Why do satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction? A) Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly. B) Satisfied employees are less prone to turnover. C) Customer satisfaction and loyalty are built with employees who customers are familiar with. D) Customer retention is highly dependent on their interactions with front line employees. E) All of the above. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 65) Service-oriented businesses like Southwest Airlines obsess about pleasing customers. To accomplish this end, they also focus on A) providing the best benefits to employees. B) building employee satisfaction. C) paying the highest salaries. D) offering flextime. E) offering tuition reimbursement Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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66) To focus on building a service-oriented business, companies might do all of the following EXCEPT A) hire upbeat, friendly employees. B) provide training in customer service. C) conduct external pay surveys. D) reward customer service. E) track employee satisfaction through attitude surveys. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 67) Which company was the focus of a study on how satisfaction directly leads to attendance? A) Neiman Marcus B) Southwest C) Sears D) Macy's E) Four Seasons Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 58-59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 68) What did the study of Sears employees that examined satisfaction and absenteeism find? A) Workers with high satisfaction scores had much higher attendance than those with lower satisfaction levels. B) Workers with high satisfaction scores had much lower attendance during snow storms. C) Workers with low satisfaction scores had much higher attendance than those with higher satisfaction levels. D) There was no relationship between satisfaction and attendance. E) Even satisfied employees will experience high absenteeism during snow storms. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 58-59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 69) Job satisfaction is negatively related to A) turnover. B) absenteeism. C) customer satisfaction. D) turnover and absenteeism. E) turnover and customer satisfaction. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 58-59 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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70) Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism? A) There is a consistent positive relationship between the two. B) There is a consistent, moderate negative relationship between the two. C) There is a curvilinear relationship between the two. D) When fairness is controlled for, there is a direct relationship between the two. E) No relationship can be established between the two. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58-59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 71) An important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the ________. A) employee's level of performance B) organization's culture C) management's style D) employee's values and attitudes E) employee's level of workplace deviance Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 72) Which of the following statements is NOT true? A) An important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the employee's level of performance. B) Job satisfaction is more important in influencing superior performers to stay than in influencing poor performers to stay. C) Job satisfaction is more important in influencing poor performers to stay than in influencing superior performers to stay. D) Superior performers are more likely to remain with the organization because of other rewards they receive. E) All of the above. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 73) Which of the following factors is likely to impact the job satisfaction-turnover relationship? A) labor-market conditions B) length of time with the organization C) expectations about alternative job opportunities D) employee's level of performance E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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74) Which of the following is a predictor of deviant behaviors in the workplace? A) turnover B) absenteeism C) dissatisfaction D) loyalty E) job involvement Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 75) Jason has been spending a great deal of work time talking to his co-workers about how dissatisfied he is with the job. He has spent quite a bit of time discussing unionization. he has arrived at work intoxicated twice in the last week and has repeatedly taken office supplies home with him. His behavior might be classified as A) job enlargement. B) deviant behavior. C) separation anticipation. D) theft. E) cognitive dissonance. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 76) Dissatisfied employees who don't like their jobs will attempt to "get even". This may manifest itself in which of the following behaviors? A) quitting B) surfing the Internet on company time C) stealing from the company D) spending more time socializing on the job E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 77) A study conducted by a management consulting firm found that those companies with higher morale A) experienced a larger growth in their stock prices. B) experienced a larger growth in market share. C) experienced a smaller decrease in their stock prices. D) experienced a smaller decrease in their market share. E) had more dissatisfied employees. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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78) In a study of large employers, the text reported that ________ percent of senior managers believe the organization treated its employees well and ________ percent of the employees agreed. A) 86; 55 B) 55; 86 C) 55; 55 D) 100; 100 E) 100; 0 Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 79) Survey results highlighting the discrepancy between employee morale as perceived by management and employees themselves suggests that managers need to A) do more to improve employee morale. B) administer salary surveys more frequently. C) care about job satisfaction and then measure it rather than assuming everything is fine. D) treat employee better. E) all of the above. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 80) Which of the following statements about job satisfaction is NOT true? A) Most of the research on job satisfaction has not been conducted in the U.S. B) People in other cultures form judgments of job satisfaction. C) Similar factors cause job satisfaction across cultures. D) Pay is weakly related to job satisfaction in industrialized nations. E) all of the above. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 60 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 81) The highest levels of job satisfaction have been reported in A) Japan. B) all the collectivist cultures. C) the U.S. and western Europe. D) western Europe. E) most of Asia. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: Exh 4-4 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

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82) Higher levels of job satisfaction have been reported in the U.S. and western Europe. This may be because A) individuals in western cultures need to work. B) individuals in western cultures emphasize positive emotions. C) there is more industrialization in western cultures. D) individuals in western cultures are more self-critical and geared toward continuous improvement. E) these are collectivist societies not focused on individual happiness. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 60-61 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 83) Which of the following statements is NOT true about attitudes? A) Managers need to focus more on keeping resignations and absences down than on employees' attitudes. B) Managers should be interested in their employees' attitudes since they give warnings of potential problems. C) Managers should be interested in their employees' attitudes since they influence behavior. D) Measurement of overall job attitude is a useful piece of organizational information. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 61 Topic: Implications for Managers AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 84) Given that managers want to keep resignations and absences at a minimum, they should focus on generating A) positive job attitudes. B) happy employees. C) the highest pay rates. D) the best benefit package. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 61 Topic: Implications for Managers AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 85) The most important thing a manager can do to raise employee satisfaction is to focus on A) employee pay. B) benefits. C) work hours. D) intrinsic parts of the job. E) employee productivity. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 61 Topic: Implications for Managers

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86) Attitudes are evaluative statements about objects, people or events that reflect how we feel about something. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 47 Topic: Attitudes 87) When Sarah says "I don't like Paris Hilton", she is expressing an attitude. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 47 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 88) Attitudes are often concrete matters of fact. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 47 Topic: Attitudes 89) Attitudes and values are synonymous terms. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes 90) There are three components of an attitude: cognition, affect, and behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes 91) The intent to act in a certain way is the affective component of an attitude. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes 92) It is often difficult to separate cognition, affect, and behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48 Topic: Attitudes 93) In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 94) Festinger argued that behavior follows attitudes. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes

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95) Research has concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes but not between their attitudes and behavior. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 96) According to Festinger, people seek consistency among their attitudes and between attitudes and behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 97) If dissonance arises over behavior that people are compelled to take, then their propensity to act to reduce that dissonance is reduced. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 98) The theory of cognitive dissonance seeks to explain the linkage between values and attitudes. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 99) Festinger argued that individuals will seek a stable state where there is a minimum of dissonance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 100) If there is an inconsistency between an individual's attitude on a specific issue and his or her behavior, there are only two courses of action availablealter the attitude or alter the behavior. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49 Topic: Attitudes 101) Recent research shows that attitudes predict future behavior and refute Festinger's belief about moderating variables. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49-50 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 102) Cognitive dissonance helps to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49-50 Topic: Attitudes

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103) The desire to reduce dissonance between attitude and behavior is in general not moderated by outside factors. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 104) If the elements creating dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 105) If individuals perceive the dissonance to be an uncontrollable result, they will be more motivated to reduce dissonance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 106) Rewards can offset dissonance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 107) The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link between the two. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 108) Moderating variables in the attitude behavior relationship include the importance of the attitude, its applicability, its accessibility, social pressures, and direct experience with the attitude. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50 Topic: Attitudes 109) A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 110) Jane strongly identifies with her teaching job and regularly communicates how much she cares about her work. She has a high level of job involvement. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 111) Job involvement refers to an individual's general attitude toward his or her job.
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Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 112) High levels of job involvement are positively related to higher absences. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51 Topic: Attitudes 113) An organizational commitment to remain with a company because of moral or ethical obligations is affective commitment. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51-52 Topic: Attitudes 114) Organizational commitment is a more global response to the organization than is job satisfaction. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51-52 Topic: Attitudes 115) Organizational commitment is a measure of the personal compatibility of a person and their position. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51-52 Topic: Attitudes 116) Organizational commitment is probably less important in predicting job satisfaction today than it was a generation ago. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes 117) Occupational commitment may be more relevant today because it better reflects today's fluid workforce. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 52 Topic: Attitudes 118) The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and care and their well-being is known as employee engagement. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 52-53 Topic: Attitudes

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119) Disengaged employees have "checked out" and have been described as "retired on the job". Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52-53 Topic: Attitudes 120) Research has shown that people who have a negative personality are usually less satisfied with their jobs. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54 Topic: Attitudes 121) When measuring job satisfaction, the research has supported the summation score approach. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54 Topic: Job Satisfaction 122) Overall, studies over the past 30 years indicated that workers in the U.S. are generally more satisfied with their jobs than dissatisfied. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54-55 Topic: Job Satisfaction 123) Of the major job-satisfaction facets, the one most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction is pay. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55 Topic: Job Satisfaction 124) Individuals who are more highly compensated generally have higher average job satisfaction. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55-56 Topic: Job Satisfaction 125) The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework helps us understand why employees are disengaged from their jobs. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction 126) The loyalty response to job dissatisfaction involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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127) When dissatisfied employees still remain with the organization, it might be explained by the voice and loyalty response. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 128) At the individual level, satisfaction generally leads to productivity. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57 Topic: Job Satisfaction 129) If Marie is more satisfied with her job, we might expect her to engage in more OCBs. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 130) The evidence indicates that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction 131) Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee's job dissatisfaction. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 132) There is a strong negative relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction 133) The propensity to quit a job tends to be inversely related to job satisfaction. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 134) Your supervisor is trying to assess the degree to which those working for her are satisfied with their jobs. You are trying to gather information from your peers that might help her in her aim to improve job satisfaction. She will find that turnover and absenteeism are both negatively related to satisfaction, but the correlation is stronger for absenteeism than for turnover. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 58-59 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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135) Job satisfaction has greater influence on poor performers than superior performers as it relates to turnover. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 136) Job satisfaction can affect a company's bottom line and stock prices. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 59 Topic: Job Satisfaction 137) The research has suggested that job satisfaction is a U.S. concept and other cultures do not form judgments of job satisfaction. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 60 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 138) The highest levels of job satisfaction been reported in the U.S. and Asia. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 60 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 139) Managers should be interested in their employees' attitudes because attitudes influence behavior. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 61 Topic: Implications for Managers 140) One of the most important things managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is to make the work challenging and interesting. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 61 Topic: Implications for Managers 141) Discuss the three components of an attitude. Answer: The three components of an attitude are cognition, affect, and behavior. The cognitive component is a value statement. Affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Viewing attitudes as being made up of three components helps to understand the potential relationship between attitudes and behavior. Page Ref: 48 and Exh 4-1 Topic: Attitudes

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142) Discuss cognitive dissonance theory and three ways in which individuals might alleviate dissonance. Answer: Cognitive dissonance was proposed in the late 1950s by Leon Festinger. The theory seeks to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. Dissonance means an inconsistency. Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behavior and attitudes. Individuals will seek a stable state where there is a minimum of dissonance. Individuals may change their behavior, reduce dissonance by concluding that the dissonant behavior is not so important after all, or change their attitude. Page Ref: 49-50 Topic: Attitudes 143) Discuss the most powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship. Answer: The most powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship are the importance of the attitude, its correspondence to behavior, its accessibility, whether there exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude. Attitudes that individuals consider important tend to show a strong relationship to behavior. The more closely the attitude and the behavior are matched, the stronger the relationship. Attitudes easily remembered are more likely to predict our behavior. Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power. And he attitudebehavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct personal experience. Page Ref: 50-51 Topic: Attitudes 144) Explain the difference between job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Answer: Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. Organizational commitment is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. So high organizational commitment means identifying with one's employing organization. Page Ref: 51-52 Topic: Attitudes

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145) What are the three dimensions to organizational commitment? Answer: Organizational commitment is a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization. The three dimensions to organizational commitment are affective, continuance and normative. An affective commitment is an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. A continuance commitment is the perceived economic value of remaining with the organization compared to leaving it. And a normative commitment is an obligation to remain with the organization for ethical or moral reasons. Page Ref: 51-52 Topic: Attitudes 146) What are the major causes of job satisfaction? Answer: The major job satisfaction facets are the work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, and coworkers. Enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction. Most people prefer work that is challenging and stimulating over work that is predictable and routine. For people who are poor or who live in poor countries, pay does correlate with job satisfaction and with overall happiness. But, once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living the relationship virtually disappears. Personality also plays a role in job satisfaction. Research has shown that people who have a negative personality (for example, those who tend to be grumpy, critical, and negative) are usually less satisfied with their jobs. Page Ref: 55-56 Topic: Job Satisfaction 147) Explain the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework. Answer: The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework is helpful in understanding the consequences of dissatisfaction. The exit response involves directing behavior toward leaving the organization. The voice response involves actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. The loyalty response involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve and trusting the organization to do the right thing. The neglect response involves passively allowing conditions to worsen. Page Ref: 56-57 Topic: Job Satisfaction 148) Discuss how job satisfaction can impact productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Answer: Happy employees are more likely to be productive employees. Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees. There is a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate. Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what was found for absenteeism. An important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the employee's level of performance. Page Ref: 57-58 Topic: Job Satisfaction

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149) Discuss how employee satisfaction is related to customer satisfaction. Answer: The evidence indicates that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. In service organizations, customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how front-line employees deal with customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsivewhich customers appreciate. And because satisfied employees are less prone to turnover, customers are more likely to encounter familiar faces and receive experienced service. These qualities build customer satisfaction and loyalty. Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee's job dissatisfaction. Employees who have regular contact with customers report that rude, thoughtless, or unreasonably demanding customers adversely effect the employees' job satisfaction. Page Ref: 58 Topic: Job Satisfaction 150) Discuss whether job satisfaction is a U.S. concept. Answer: While most of the research on job satisfaction has been conducted in the U.S., the evidence strongly suggests that this is not a U.S. concept. People in other cultures form judgments of job satisfaction. Furthermore, similar factors cause, and result from, job satisfaction across cultures. Page Ref: 60 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

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