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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation 1) If no one is aware of conflict, it is generally agreed

that ________. A) employee-employer relations will be good B) conflict is subversive C) no conflict exists D) conflict is inevitable E) conflict is psychologically driven as opposed to physically manifest Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict 2) Which of the following is an example of conflict? A) incompatibility of goals B) differences over interpretation of facts C) disagreements based on behavioral expectations D) workplace violence E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict 3) Which of the following is not one of the views of conflict? A) traditional view B) human relations view C) interactionist view D) functional view E) all of the above Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 4) The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict ________. A) cannot be avoided B) helps to generate discussion C) can be avoided D) improves productivity E) must be avoided Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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5) The traditional view of conflict is the belief that conflict is ________. A) harmful B) natural C) necessary D) situationally dependent E) neutral Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 6) Which one of the following is not a perspective of the traditional view of conflict? A) Conflict is inevitable. B) Conflict must be avoided. C) Conflict is dysfunctional. D) Conflict is harmful. E) Conflict is synonymous with irrationality. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 7) Which one of the following views on conflict prevailed in the 1930s and 1940s and may be considered outmoded today? A) human relations B) interactionist C) traditional D) functional E) asymptotic Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 8) The ________ view of conflict argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. A) human relations B) interactionist C) traditional D) functional E) human resources Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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9) The ________ view of conflict argues that conflict is a dysfunctional outcome that may arise from management failure. A) human relations B) interactionist C) traditional D) functional E) conjunctive Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 10) The human relations view of conflict advocates ________ conflict. A) encouraging B) open communication for resolving C) group therapy for resolving D) acceptance of E) rejection of Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 11) It seems that your work group is in conflict much of the time. One colleague has suggested that you, as the supervisor, are responsible for eliminating the conflict so that your work group can function harmoniously. Another colleague has suggested that conflict is good for stimulating creativity and productivity within the work environment. You are unsure about whether you should try to eliminate the conflict within your group or learn to deal with it positively. If you support the idea that conflict should be eliminated, you are supporting which of the following views of conflict? A) the traditional view B) the human relations view C) the interactionist view D) the moderated acceptance view E) the positivistic view Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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12) It seems that your work group is in conflict much of the time. One colleague has suggested that you, as the supervisor, are responsible for eliminating the conflict so that your work group can function harmoniously. Another colleague has suggested that conflict is good for stimulating creativity and productivity within the work environment. You are unsure about whether you should try to eliminate the conflict within your group or learn to deal with it positively. You have decided to accept conflict as a natural occurrence and deal with it. You are supporting A) the traditional view. B) the human relations view. C) the interactionist view. D) the behavior modification view. E) the positivistic view. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 13) You decide to do more research on the view that conflict should be encouraged as a means to achieve change and innovation. This view is termed A) the traditional view. B) the human relations view. C) the interactionist view. D) the acceptance view. E) the promotional view. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 14) When your work group disagrees, the disagreements usually concern how the group's work should be accomplished. The type of conflict experienced by your group is A) task conflict. B) relationship conflict. C) process conflict. D) traditional conflict. E) reactive conflict. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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15) The ________ view of conflict encourages a group to perform effectively by maintaining an ongoing minimum level of conflict. A) human relations B) interactionist C) traditional D) functional E) reactive Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 16) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that functional conflict is ________. A) an indication of the group maturity level B) necessary for effective group performance C) a necessary evil D) always focused around relationships E) universally harmful Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 17) According to the interactionist view, it may be appropriate to A) eliminate all conflict. B) avoid all conflict. C) encourage functional conflict. D) create anti-conflict cultures. E) reward conflict avoiders. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 18) According to the interactionist's perspective, a group that functions without conflict is ________. A) living up to behavioral ideals B) prone to becoming static and apathetic C) likely to be responsive to the need for change and innovation D) the most productive E) a rare phenomenon Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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19) Encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict is part of the ________ view of conflict. A) functional B) traditional C) human relations D) interactionist E) conjunctivist Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 20) ________ conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. A) Formal B) Informal C) Functional D) Dysfunctional E) Reactive Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 21) You have decided to allow conflict to exist so long as it doesn't hinder group performance. You will try to eliminate those destructive forms of conflict that are A) functional. B) dysfunctional. C) task. D) individualized. E) non-communicative. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 22) ________ conflict hinders group performance. A) Formal B) Informal C) Functional D) Dysfunctional E) Reactive Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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23) Conflict that relates to the content and goals of work is termed ________ conflict. A) job B) task C) relationship D) process E) communication Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 24) For process conflict to be productive, it must be ________. A) kept high B) kept low C) kept at low-to-moderate levels D) kept at moderate levels E) subject to managerial control Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 25) For task conflict to be productive, it should be ________. A) kept high B) kept low C) kept at low-to-moderate levels D) kept at moderate levels E) subject to managerial control Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 26) Which of the following is a type of conflict identified by the interactionist view? A) resource B) organizational C) personality D) process E) institutional Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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27) ________ conflict focuses on interpersonal interaction. A) Task B) Job C) Relationship D) Process E) Communication Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 28) ________ conflict relates to how the work gets done. A) Task B) Job C) Relationship D) Process E) Reactive Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 29) ________ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. A) Task B) Job C) Relationship D) Process E) Personal Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 30) An important criterion in determining whether conflict is functional or dysfunctional is ________. A) overall morale B) turnover rates C) absenteeism levels D) management's assessment E) performance Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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31) The first stage of the conflict process is known as A) cognition and personalization. B) behavioral manifestation. C) potential opposition or incompatibility. D) intention. E) habituation. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 32) Which of the following is not considered one of the potential sources of conflict? A) too much communication B) jurisdictional ambiguity C) value similarities D) group size E) too little communication Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 33) The categories of causes or sources of conflict include all of the following EXCEPT A) communication. B) structure. C) group interaction. D) personal variables. E) none of the above. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 34) Which of the following is likely to lead to conflict? A) older group members B) low turnover C) mutually independent groups D) small group size E) high job specialization Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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35) Research has found that tenure and conflict are A) highly positively correlated. B) counterproductive. C) inversely related. D) always present together. E) unrelated. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 36) Which of the following is a personal variable that can lead to potential conflict? A) personality type B) degree of intergroup dependence C) group size D) organizational tenure E) culture Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 37) Stage II of the conflict process deals with conflict being ________. A) perceived and felt B) apparent and experienced C) expressed and perceived D) overt and covert E) internalized Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 38) In which stage of conflict do individuals become emotionally involved? A) potential opposition B) cognition and personalization C) intuitions D) behavior E) reaction and transference Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process

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39) ________ intervene(s) between people's perceptions and their overt behavior. A) Intuition B) Intention C) Cognition D) Attributions E) Attitudes Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 40) The conflict-handling intention of collaborating is ________. A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) affective and reflective Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 41) The conflict-handling intention of avoiding is ________. A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) assertive and reflective Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 42) The conflict-handling intention of accommodating is ________. A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) reflective and emotional Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process

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43) In assessing conflict-handling intentions, cooperativeness is the degree to which ________. A) one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns B) one party attempts to resolve conflict C) both parties work toward a common goal D) there is an absence of conflict E) one party can empathize with the other Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 44) In assessing conflict-handling intentions, the dimension of assertiveness refers to situations ________. A) in which one party attempts to satisfy his/her own concerns B) in which there is an expression of competition C) involving a major behavior change D) that lead to conflict E) in which one party behaves generously Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 45) Which is not one of the five conflict-handling intentions? A) collaborating B) competing C) accommodating D) avoiding E) resisting Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 46) Which type of conflict-handling intention results in a person seeking to suppress conflict and hoping it will go away? A) competing B) avoiding C) accommodating D) compromising E) collaborating Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process

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47) Trying to achieve your goal at the expense of your co-worker achieving hers is an example of ________. A) competing B) avoiding C) accommodating D) compromising E) collaborating Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 48) Which of the following conflict-handling intentions might involve attempting to find a winwin solution? A) avoiding B) collaborating C) accommodating D) compromising E) mollifying Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 49) If one party is willing to give in to please someone else, this is an example of which type of conflict-handling intention? A) sacrificing B) accommodating C) collaborating D) compromising E) competing Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 50) Which stage of the conflict process is best conceptualized as a dynamic process of interaction? A) Potential Opposition or Incompatibility B) Cognition and Personalization C) Intentions D) Behavior E) Outcomes Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198-199 Topic: The Conflict Process

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51) In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible? A) illumination B) intentions C) potential opposition or incompatibility D) behavior E) cognition and personalization Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 52) Conflict is constructive when it ________. A) improves the quality of decisions B) stimulates creativity and innovation C) fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change D) encourages curiosity among group members E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 53) Which one of the following might not be a functional outcome of the conflict process? A) stimulates creativity B) increases innovation C) fosters environment of self-evaluation D) relieves tensions E) reduces group cohesiveness Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 54) Last month, Jennifer's department experienced constructive conflict during a meeting. Which of the following is not an outcome of this functional conflict? A) The quality of decisions is improved. B) Creativity and innovation are stimulated. C) Tensions are released. D) Groupthink is increased. E) Interest and curiosity are encouraged. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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55) When "yes" people are hired and promoted, ________ outcomes are likely to result. A) improved organizational B) functional C) dysfunctional D) enhanced policy E) harmonious Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 56) Conflict is an antidote for A) the risky shift. B) groupthink. C) emotional intelligence. D) a poor decision. E) creativity. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 57) Which of the following statements is true regarding conflict? A) It challenges the status quo. B) It can be dysfunctional. C) It can arise from diversity. D) It can lead to the demise of an organization. E) all of the above Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 58) One of the departments in Jennifer's organization has almost no conflict. In observing this department, which of the following is Jennifer least likely to observe in this department? A) The members of the department have difficulty responding to change. B) The group often makes decisions based on weak assumptions. C) The group thoroughly considers relevant alternatives when making policy decisions. D) The members of the department rarely reassess the department's goals. E) Individuals within the department don't usually question the decisions of their managers. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills

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59) Conflict is dysfunctional when it ________. A) provides a medium to release tension B) reduces group cohesiveness C) fosters an environment of self-evaluation D) provides a means for expressing frustration E) leads to change Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 60) Jennifer's boss asks for her recommendations on strategies for promoting functional conflict within the company. Which of the following is Jennifer most likely to recommend? A) punishing individuals who support beliefs that management has rejected B) empowering employees to question their bosses with impunity C) implementing a policy of promoting personnel who are conflict avoiders D) training managers to discourage devil's advocates in the decision-making process E) encouraging managers to reward employees who keep their opinions to themselves Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 61) Jennifer's boss decides to implement a new policy whereby employees provide regular, formalized feedback to their supervisors. Employees are encouraged to evaluate and criticize their superiors. Based on your understanding of functional conflict, is this policy likely to benefit Jennifer's company? A) no, because the evaluations will promote relationship conflict, which is always dysfunctional B) yes, because the evaluations will encourage groupthink, which increases turnover C) no, because the evaluations will create a climate of insecurity for the company's management D) no, because the evaluations will generate dysfunctional conflict, which breeds discontent E) yes, because the evaluations will encourage functional conflict, which improves organizational performance Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 62) All of the following can be effective techniques to encourage conflict EXCEPT A) reward dissenters. B) punish conflict avoiders. C) build devil's advocate roles into the decision making process. D) reward those who support the status quo. E) train managers to listen to bad news they may not want to hear. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process

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63) When a co-worker agrees to assist with a project in exchange for a future favor, they are engaged in which process? A) negotiation B) conflict resolution C) direct authority D) delegation E) pressure Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 201 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 64) Negotiation can be defined as a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon ________. A) the exchange rate for those goods and services B) acceptable bargaining strategies for obtaining the goods and services C) a model of the negotiation process for resolving differences D) effective arbitrators for disputes E) the monetary value of the exchanged items Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 65) The terms negotiation and ________ are used interchangeably. A) win-lose B) bargaining C) collaboration D) accommodating E) arbitration Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 66) The two general approaches to bargaining are known as ________. A) emotional and rational B) affective and reflective C) distributive and integrative D) formal and informal E) legal and restrictive Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation

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67) The example of labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies ________ bargaining. A) integrative B) reflective C) distributive D) restrictive E) affective Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 68) ________ bargaining is negotiation that seeks to divide a "fixed pie." A) Distributive B) Integrative C) Reflective D) Affective E) Conjunctive Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 69) The point below which either negotiating party would break off negotiations is known as the party's ________ point. A) resistance B) refusal C) target D) negative E) assistance Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 203 Topic: Negotiation

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70) Labor and management at DJ Trucking cannot agree upon a contract for the truck drivers. The drivers are threatening to strike, and management knows that such a strike would be very costly. Each side contends that they are bargaining fairly, but no agreement seems to be possible. Both sides agree that they are competing over a fixed amount of resources. Each side feels that what one side wins, the other loses. The two sides are engaged in A) integrative bargaining. B) distributive bargaining. C) mediation. D) BATNA. E) arbitration. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 71) Which of the following is a characteristic of distributive bargaining? A) I win, you lose B) long-term focus C) convergent or congruent interests D) most preferable bargaining for intraorganizational behavior E) high information sharing Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202-203 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 72) Labor and management at DJ Trucking cannot agree upon a contract for the truck drivers. The drivers are threatening to strike, and management knows that such a strike would be very costly. Each side contends that they are bargaining fairly, but no agreement seems to be possible. At first, the disputing parties resist your offer to help create a win-win situation for both groups. They are each highly focused on their demands in the negotiation, otherwise known as their ________. A) bargaining chips B) distribution points C) resistance points D) settlement ranges E) target points Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills

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73) You have decided to try to find a win-win situation to help labor and management resolve their differences. You are attempting to engage in A) integrative bargaining. B) distributive bargaining. C) mediation. D) BATNA. E) arbitration. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 74) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intra-organizational behavior? A) positive negotiation B) distributive bargaining C) integrative bargaining D) equal bargaining E) equity splitting Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation 75) The focus on relationships in distributive bargaining is ________. A) accommodation B) long term C) short term D) win-win E) lose-lose Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation 76) Integrative bargaining focuses on ________. A) competition B) short-term benefits C) zero-sum gains D) ensuring balanced inputs E) long-term relationships Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation

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77) Which of the following is not a step in the negotiation process? A) definition of ground rules B) clarification and justification C) bargaining and problem solving D) process evaluation E) preparation and planning Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 205 Topic: Negotiation 78) Your ________ determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement. A) BATNA B) margin of error C) bid price D) asking price E) hidden value Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation 79) During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands? A) opening and initiating B) definition of ground rules C) clarification and justification D) bargaining and problem-solving E) integration of preferences Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation 80) Which of the following statements is true pertaining to the role of personality traits in negotiations? A) Personality of the negotiators will definitely determine who prevails. B) Recent research has shown that extraverts are less effective negotiators in distributive bargaining than introverts. C) High risk takers will definitely be better negotiators. D) Individuals who are agreeable and with an internal locus of control will be better negotiators. E) Individuals who are concerned with appearing competent make excellent negotiators. Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation

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81) Which of the following statements is false concerning gender differences in negotiations? A) Women are penalized when they initiate negotiations. B) Women's attitudes toward negotiation and toward themselves as negotiators appear to be quite different from men's. C) Managerial women demonstrate less confidence in anticipation of negotiating. D) Women and men negotiate differently. E) Men tend to negotiate slightly better outcomes than women. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 207 Topic: Negotiation 82) In a study examining nonverbal negotiation tactics, which culture was found to make more physical contact? A) Americans B) Canadians C) Japanese D) Brazilians E) Russians Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 83) Which of the following is correct about cultural differences in negotiation? A) The Japanese tend to communicate directly. B) The Chinese draw out negotiations. C) Americans are known for their patience. D) Arabs rely on facts and appeal to logic. E) Russians tend to reciprocate concessions. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 84) In an emergency situation, which conflict-handling technique is recommended? A) collaboration B) competition C) accommodation D) avoidance E) compromise Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210 Topic: Implications for Managers

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85) All of the following are recommendations for improving your negotiating effectiveness EXCEPT A) Set ambitious goals. B) Pay particular attention to initial offers. C) Research your opponent. D) Address the problem, not personalities. E) Be creative and emphasize win-win solutions. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210-211 Topic: Implications for Managers 86) Conflict implies opposition. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict 87) Negotiation is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict 88) Conflict covers the full range from overt and violent acts to subtle forms of disagreement. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict 89) The presence of conflict is a reliable indicator of a poorly functioning group or organization. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 90) The traditional view toward conflict seeks to retain the functional conflict in a group. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 91) The traditional view of conflict sees conflict as a dysfunctional outcome. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 92) The traditional view of conflict states that conflict is natural and inevitable and therefore must be accepted. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
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93) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that too little conflict can hinder a group's performance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 94) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that conflicts are inevitable. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 195 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 95) Dysfunctional conflict can be constructive. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 96) Relationship conflict focuses on how work gets done through people. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 97) For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept at low levels. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 98) Process conflict relates to the content and goals of a group's work. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 99) The first stage of the conflict process is cognition. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 100) The three conditions that create the opportunity for conflict are communication, structure, and organizational variables. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 101) The potential for conflict can actually be increased if too much information is communicated. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 196 Topic: The Conflict Process 102) The size of a group can lead to potential conflict.
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Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 103) Reward systems can create conflict when one person gains at another's expense. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 104) Participation and conflict are generally highly correlated, because participation encourages the promotion of differences. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Reflective Thinking Skills 105) Jurisdictional clarity is an example of a personal variable that can lead to conflict. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 106) The degree of interdependence between groups is an example of a structural variable that can lead to conflict. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 197 Topic: The Conflict Process 107) Once a conflict is perceived, it is automatically personalized. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 108) In the conflict process, emotions play a role in shaping perceptions. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 109) You have to be directly informed of another's intent in order to know how to respond to his or her behavior. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process

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110) As a conflict-handling intention, avoiding is the opposite of competing. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 111) Avoiding encompasses both assertive and uncooperative behaviors. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 112) If you place your opponent's interest above your own, you are engaging in collaborating. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 113) Accommodating consists of unassertiveness and uncooperativeness. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 114) Collaborating consists of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 115) Competing consists of assertiveness and uncooperativeness. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 116) Avoiding consists of unassertiveness and uncooperativeness. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 117) In the conflict process, individuals' intentions are rigid and will rarely change due to an emotional reaction to the behavior of the other party. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 118) Many open conflicts in work groups can be functional. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process

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119) A devil's advocate may encourage conflict in a group. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 120) Conflict always improves the quality of group decision making. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 121) Dysfunctional conflict hinders a group's performance. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 122) Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200 Topic: The Conflict Process 123) A company that purposely encourages big, unruly, and disruptive meetings may be attempting to create friction and stimulate creative ideas. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process AASCB Tag: Analytic Skills 124) Those organizations that don't punish dissent may find their survival threatened. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process 125) One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process 126) Negotiation permeates the interactions of almost everyone in groups and organizations. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 201 Topic: Negotiation

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127) Compromise is defined as a process in which two or more parties agree to trade particular goods or services. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 128) There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 129) If you are negotiating the price of a car, you are probably using an integrative bargaining strategy. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202 Topic: Negotiation 130) An individual's target point represents the lowest outcome that he or she would accept during a negotiation process. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203 Topic: Negotiation 131) If the aspiration ranges of two parties overlap, then a settlement range for the conflict exists. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203 Topic: Negotiation 132) Integrative bargaining is widely used in to solve problems within today's business organizations. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation 133) For negotiating agreements within organizations, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204 Topic: Negotiation 134) When you can anticipate your opponent's position in the negotiation process, you are better equipped to counter arguments with the facts and figures that support your position. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 205 Topic: Negotiation

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135) Your BATNA determines the target value you hope for in a negotiated agreement. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation 136) The clarification and justification stage of negotiation when initial positions are clarified must be confrontational. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation 137) The best distributive bargainer tends to be a disagreeable introvert. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 206 Topic: Negotiation 138) The research supports the belief that women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than are men. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 139) Even when their performance and the outcomes they achieve are similar to men, female managers demonstrate less confidence in anticipating their negotiations and are less satisfied with their performance after the process is complete. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207 Topic: Negotiation AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 140) The cultural backgrounds of negotiators have no significant effect on bargaining. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 208 Topic: Global Implications AASCB Tag: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding 141) How is conflict defined? Answer: Conflict is defined as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. This includes the full range of conflict levelsfrom overt and violent acts to subtle forms of disagreement. Page Ref: 194 Topic: A Definition of Conflict

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142) Compare and contrast the three schools of thought regarding conflict in groups and organizations. Answer: The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict must be avoided. Conflict indicates a malfunctioning within the group. The early approach to conflict assumed that all conflict was bad. Conflict was viewed negatively, and it was used synonymously with such terms as violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation. Conflict, by definition, was harmful and was to be avoided. The traditional view was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group behavior in the 1930s and 1940s. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees. The human relations view argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and that it need not be evil, but rather has the potential to be a positive force in determining group performance. Since conflict was inevitable, the human relations school advocated acceptance of conflict. Proponents rationalized its existence: It cannot be eliminated, and there are even times when conflict may benefit a group's performance. The human relations view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid-1970s. The third, and most recent perspective, proposes not only that conflict can be a positive force in a group but explicitly argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. The interactionist view encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation. The major contribution of the interactionist approach, therefore, is encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflictenough to keep the group viable, self-critical, and creative. Page Ref: 195-196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 143) Distinguish between functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict. Answer: Some conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance; these are functional, constructive forms of conflict. Additionally, there are conflicts that hinder group performance; these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought 144) Discuss the three types of conflict: task conflict, relationship conflict, and process conflict. Answer: There are three types of conflict: task, relationship, and process. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. However, low levels of process conflict and low to moderate levels of task conflict are functional. Low to moderate levels of task conflict consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion of ideas that helps groups perform better. Page Ref: 196 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought

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145) Outline and discuss the conflict process. Answer: The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes. The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to surface. These conditions are communication, structure, and personal variables. If the conditions cited in Stage I negatively affect something that one party cares about, then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage. The antecedent conditions can only lead to conflict when one or more of the parties are affected by, and aware of, the conflict. Stage II is cognition and personalization. This is where conflict issues tend to be defined. In Stage III, intentions intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. These intentions are decisions to act in a certain way. When most people think of conflict situations, they tend to focus on Stage IV because this is where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. The action-reaction interplay between the conflicting parties results in consequences. These outcomes in Stage V may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group's performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. Page Ref: 196-201 Topic: The Conflict Process 146) Discuss the three general categories of conditions which may be the sources of conflict. Answer: The three general categories of conditions which may be the sources of conflict are communication, structure, and personal variables. Communication represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and "noise" in the communication channels. Differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict. The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. Structure includes variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems, and the degree of dependence between groups. Personal variables include individual value systems that each person has and the personality characteristics that account for individual differences. Page Ref: 196-197 Topic: The Conflict Process

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147) Identify the behaviors to be expected from persons who exhibit each of the five primary conflict-handling intentions. Answer: When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, he or she is competing. In collaborating, the intention of the parties is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. In avoiding, a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. When one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party may be willing to place the opponent's interests above his or her own. In order for the relationship to be maintained, one party is willing to be self-sacrificing by accommodating. In compromising, there is no clear winner or loser. Rather, there is a willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties' concerns. Each party to the conflict seeks to give up something and sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome. Page Ref: 198 Topic: The Conflict Process 148) Discuss functional and dysfunctional outcomes of conflict. Answer: Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity among group members, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of selfevaluation and change. Conflict can improve the quality of decision making by allowing all points, particularly the ones that are unusual or held by a minority, to be weighed in important decisions. Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. It doesn't allow the group passively to "rubber stamp" decisions that may be based on weak assumptions, inadequate consideration of relevant alternatives, or other debilities. Conflict challenges the status quo and therefore furthers the creation of new ideas, promotes reassessment of group goals and activities, and increases the probability that the group will respond to change. Destructive outcomes of conflict include the following: uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties, and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Conflict can also reduce group effectiveness. Among the most undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness, and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members. At the extreme, conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group's survival. Page Ref: 200-201 Topic: The Conflict Process

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149) How can functional conflict be created? Answer: To create functional conflict, organizations must encourage and support dissent. They should encourage their people to challenge the system and develop fresh ideas. Companies can encourage unruly and disruptive meetings to create friction and stimulate creative ideas. They can reward dissenters by recognizing those who go against the grain. They can criticize their bosses and question without impunity. Some may build devil's advocates into the decision process. One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. Managers have to learn to take the bad news without flinching. Page Ref: 201 Topic: The Conflict Process 150) Discuss the two general approaches to negotiation. Answer: There are two general approaches to negotiation ∙ distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Distributive bargaining is characterized by zero-sum conditions. Each negotiator has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable ∙ the point below which they would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. The area between these two points makes up each one's aspiration range. As long as there is some overlap between A and B's aspiration ranges, there exists a settlement range where each one's aspirations can be met. Integrative bargaining operates under the assumption that there exists one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. Both parties must be open with information and candid about their concerns, have a sensitivity to each other's needs, the ability to trust one another, and a willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility. Page Ref: 202-204 Topic: Negotiation

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