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PSNA

College of EngineeringTechnology &


Kothandaraman Nagar, Dindigul - 624 622. Tamilnadu.

Record Note Book


Reg.No

Certify that this is the bonafide record of work done by Selvan/ Selvi of the the year. in the. Laboratory.

Semester.. Branch during

Staff-in-charge

Head of the Department

Submitted for the University Practical Examination on .. 20

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

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SI No

Date

Content

Page No

Marks Awarded

Remarks

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INDEX
EX.N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 DATE NAME OF THE EXPRIMENTS CAD LAB Study Of Cad Using Solidworks Draw the 2D profile in solid works sketcher mode Draw the 3D profile of given drawing Extrude, Cut Extrude, Revolve. Draw the 3D profile of given drawing Sweep, Draft, Loft. Draw the 3D profile using Edit command Draw the 3D profile in Assembly mode Ex. 1 Draw the 3D profile in Assembly mode Ex. 2 3D Modeling of Machine Elements like Flanged Coupling, Screw Jack. CAM LAB Study of Cam Study of NC part programming NC Part Programming Examples Write the program of given drawing using G Code Make the Part using G01 and G90 Make the object of given figure Using NC code 90 Make the object of the given figure Using G90, G02 and G03 codes Make the object of the given figure Using NC code Using G74 Make the object of the given figure Using NC code G72 PAGE NO MARK SIGN

EXERCISE: 1 STUDY OF CAD USING SOLIDWORKS

DATE :

TECHNOLOGY OF CAD:
CAD Computer Aided Design PAGE 3 OF 57

CAD technology makes use of the computer to create drawings of parts and assemblies on computer files, which can be further analyses and optimized.

REASONS FOR IMPLEMENTING CAD:


To increase productivity of the designer To improve the quality of design To improve documentation To create a database manufacturing BENEFITS OF CAD Productivity Improvement in Design: CAD helps in increased productivity by reducing the time for developing conceptual design, analysis and drafting. It is also possible to reduce the manpower. This depends on, Complexity of the drawing. Degrees of repetitiveness of features in parts. Degree of symmetry in parts Extensive use of defined shapes Shorter Lead Time: Using CAD systems a finite set of drawings and documentations can be prepared in relatively short time. Flexibility in Design: CAD offers the advantages of easy modification of design to accommodate customers specific requirements. Design Analysis: The design analysis routines available in a CAD System help to optimize the design Fewer Design Errors: Interactive CAD Systems have built in capability for avoiding errors in design, drafting and documentation. Standardization of Design and Drafting: The single operating system in CAD provides a command basis for design, analysis and drafting process. With interactive CAD, drawings are standardized. Drawing More Understandable: With the increase in the use of 3D views and solid modeling, it has become easier to comprehend the features of the component readily. One does not have to reconstruct the solid shape from 2D objects. Many software packages allow 3D view generation from a 2D model. Improved Procedures of Engineering Changes: PAGE 4 OF 57

Control and implementations of engineering changes can be significantly and improves with CAD. Original drawings and reports are available and easily accessible. Revised Information can be retained and new drawings with changes can be created without destroying previous features.

Introduction to 3D Modeling Using Solid Works


Solidworks is a 3-D modeling tool. Unlike other 3-D modeling tools, Solidworks is not fully three dimensional. Other programs allow the user to easily draw in three dimensional space. In Solidworks, one draws in a plane and then extrudes solids from the plane. Planes are used to obtain position in three dimensional space. It is possible to draw in three dimensional space using Solidworks, but is very difficult. Therefore the best method of creating three dimensional objects is using planes.

File types
The Default tab contains templates based on the units and drafting standard you selected when you installed Solid Works. Solid Works file types include: Part (.ipt) Assembly (.iam) Drawing (.idw)

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1.CREATING A NEW PART FILE a. Go to File:New b. Select Part i. Solidworks files consist of parts and assemblies. Individual parts ii. are made and combined together in an assembly 2.CHANGING UNITS a. Go to Tools:Options b. Click on Document Properties tab c. Select Units from the tree on the l 3.CREATING A RECTANGLE d. Click on Sketch Sketches are drawings located on a plane e. Click on Rectangle f. Select Top Plane g. Click and Drag to create the rectangle h. Click the Return Button in top left corner 4.SIZING THE RECTANGLE i. Select Sketch1 j. Right Click k. Select Edit Sketch Allows you to modify a sketch you have already drawn l. Double Click the left side of the rectangle A properties box appears where you can edit the starting and iii. ending points, length, and angle of the line. iv. Set the beginning point in the Y direction to -24 v. Set the ending point in the Y direction to 24 vi. Set the beginning point in the X direction to -24 e. Double Click the right side of the rectangle vii. Set the beginning point in the X direction to 24 5.CREATING A SOLID a. Click on Features Features manipulate sketches and creates three dimensional solids b. Click on Extruded Boss/Base This creates a solid by extending a two dimensional sketch into viii. three dimensions. The sketch can be extruded in either or both ix. directions. It can also be extruded a specified distance or up to x. another surface. The extrusion can also be tapered a specified xi. number of degrees c. Change the distance of D1 to 4.25 d. Click the direction arrow so that the normal vector is pointing in the Negative Y direction e. Click the check box 6.FILLETS a. b. c. d. Click on Features:Fillet Set fillet radius to .25 Select the four Top Edges Click the check box PAGE 6 OF 57

7. HOLLOWING THE BOTTOM a. Click the bottom plane of the solid b. Draw a 45x45 Rectangle centered on the plane c. Click on Features:Extruded Cut i. Extruded Cut is similar to Extruded Boss/Base, but is the opposite. It takes a two dimensional sketch and removes part of a solid in the third dimension. d. Change the distance of D1 to 3.5 e. Click the check box 8. SAVING a. Click on b. Name file File:Save

9. CREATING AN ASSEMBLY a. Click on File:New:Assembly with units of Inches b. Insert the Table Top Part c. Click on Insert:Component:Existing Part/Assembly d. Insert the Leg Part e. Click on Insert:Mate f. Select the Left Circle of the hole in the Leg and the Inside of one of the Left Circles on the table g. Click the check box h. Repeat for the three other legs 10. FINISHED

Result:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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EXERCISE: 2

DATE : DRAW THE 2D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim: To Create a 2D profile in sketcher mode of the given diagram by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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58 40 8 H o le s 1 0 34 22 58 6 H o le s 8 40 36 40 R 15 34 R 20 R 20

Fig: 1

36 R 32 4 H o le s 1 0 R12 R32 100 40 4 20 R15

4 H o le s 2 6

65

Fig: 2

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6 h o le s 8 70 48
36

R8 2 h o le s 1 8 28

R 10

R18

82 R10 84 30

72

Fig: 3

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EXERCISE: 3

DATE : DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim: To Create a 3D Part Modeling by Use of Extrude, Cut Extrude, Revolve, in the given diagram by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT: Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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Extrude, Cut Extrude

Extrude, Cut Extrude

Rib Revolve

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EXERCISE: 4

DATE : DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS

Aim: To Create a 3D Part Modeling by Use of Sweep, Draft, loft in the given diagram by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS

PROCEDURE:

RESULT: Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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Loft

DRAFT EXERCISE: 5

SWEEP

DATE : DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS WITH EDIT COMMANDS Aim: To Create a 3D Part Modeling by Use of Move, Pattern, Mirror, Fillet & Chamfer Commands in the given diagram by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS PAGE 14 OF 57

PROCEDURE:

RESULT: Thus the given components have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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RECTANGULAR PATTERN

CIRCULAR PATTERN MIRROR

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EXERCISE: 6

DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS IN ASSEMBLY MODE Aim: To Create a Assembly from 3D Part Modeling Components in the given diagram by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS PROCEDURE:

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RESULT: Thus the given Assembly have been created, using Solid Works.

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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EXERCISE: 7

DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE USING SOLID WORKS IN ASSEMBLY MODE Aim: To Convert from 3D Solid Modeling to 2D Drawing and Create the Different Views, Sections View, Isometric View and Dimensioning by using Solid Works. TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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To Create a documented drawing of a simple Assembly. The skills you learn are:

Creating basic drawings Placing views Cutting sections Using model dimensions Adding drawing dimensions Creating a parts list Adding balloons

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EXERCISE: 8

DATE :

DRAW THE 3D PROFILE OF MACHINE PARTS USING SOLID WORKS Aim: To Create a 3D Modeling of Machine Elements in Flange Coupling & Screw Jack diagram by using Solid Works.

TOOLS USED : SOLODWORKS PROCEDURE:

RESULT:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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Exercise No: 9 Study of CAM COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING

Date:

Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) can be defined as the use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control the operations of a manufacturing plant through either director or indirect computer interface with the plants production resources. As indicated by the definition, the applications of computer aided manufacturing fall into two broad categories: 1. Computer monitoring and control. These are the direct applications in which the computer is connected directly to the manufacturing process for the purpose of monitoring or controlling process. 2. Manufacturing support application. These are the indirect applications in which the computer is used support of the production operation in the plant, but there is no direct interface between the computer and the manufacturing process. Basic components of an NC system: An operational numerical control system consists of the following three basic components: 1. Program of instructions 2. Controller unit, also called a machine control unit (MCU) 3. Machine tool or other controlled process. The program of instructions serves as the input to he controller unit, which in turn commands the machine tool or other process to be controlled. We will discuss the three components in the sections below. Program of instructions: The program of instructions is the detailed step-by-step set of directions, which tell the machine tool what to do. It is coded in numerical or symbolic from on some type of input medium that can be interpreted by the controller unit. The most common input medium today is 1-in-wide punched tape. Over the years, other forms of input media have been used, including punched cards, magnetic tape, and even 35-mm motion picture film. PAGE 25 OF 57

There are two other methods of input to the NC system, which should be mentioned. The first is by manual entry of instructional data to the controller unit. This method is called manual data input, abbreviated MDI, and is appropriate only for relatively simple jobs where the other will not be repeated. The second other method of input is by means of a direct link with a computer. This is called direct numerical control, or DNC. The program of instructions is prepared by someone called a part programmer. The programmers job is to provide a set of detailed instructions by which the sequence of processing steps is to be performed. For a machining operation, the processing steps involve the movement between the cutting tool and the work piece. Controller unit: The second basic component of the NC system is the controller unit. This consists of the electronics and hardware that read and interpret the program of instructions and convent it into mechanical actions of the machine tool. The typical elements of a conventional NC controller unit include the taper reader, a data buffer, signal output channels to the machine tool, feed back channels from the machine tool, and the sequence control to coordinate the overall operation of the foregoing elements. It should be noted that nearly all-modern NC systems today are sold with a microcomputer as the controller unit. This type of NC is called computer numerical control (CNC). The tape reader is an electromechanical device for winding and reading the punched tape containing the program of instructions the data contained on the tape are read into the data buffer. The purpose of this device of this device is to the store the input represents one complete step in the sequence of processing elements. The signal outputs are the observation to the servomotors and other controls in the machine tool. Through these channels, the instructions are sent to the machine tool machine tool from the controller unit. To make certain that the instruction have been properly executed by the machine, feed back data are sent back to he controller via feedback channels. The most PAGE 26 OF 57

important function of this return loop is to assure that table and work parts have been properly located with respect to the tool. Sequence controls coordinate the activities of the other elements of the controller unit. The tape reader is actuated to read data into the buffer from the tape, signals are sent to and from the machine tool, and so on. These types of operations must be synchronized and this is function of the sequence controls.

Machine tool or other controlled:


The third basic component of an NC system in machine tool or other controlled process. It is the part of the NC system which performs useful work. In the most common examples of an NC system, one designed to perform machining operations, the machine tool consists of the worktable and spindle as well as the motors and controls necessary to drive them. It is also includes the cutting tools, work fixtures, and other auxiliary equipment need in the machine operation, NC machine range in complexity from simple tape-controlled drill presses to highly sophisticated and versatile machining centers. The NC machining centre was first introduced in the late 1950s. it is a multifunction machine which incorporates several time saving features into is capable of performing a verity of different operations, drilling tapping, reaming, Milling, and boring. The tools are kept in a tool drum or other holding device. When the tape calls a particular tool, the drum rotates to positions the tool for insertion into the spindle. The automatic tool changer then grasps the tool and places it into spindle chuck. The machine table can orient the job so that it can be machined on several surfaces, as required. Finally, a fourth feature possessed by some machining centres is the presence of two tables or pallets on which the work piece can be fixtures. While the machining sequence is being performed on one work part, the operator can be unloading the previously completed piece, and loading the next one. This improves machine tool utilisation because the machine not have to stand idle during loading and unloading of the work parts.

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TYPES OF CNC MACHINES 1. Vertical Machining Centres 2. Horizontal machining centres 3. Machining centres with indexing heads 4. Multi-axis machining centres 5. Unmanned machining centres 6. Head changer machines 7. Plano millers 8. Milling machines 9. Drilling machines 10. Horizontal Axis Turning machines 11. Vertical axis Turning Machines 12. Surface grinders 13. Cylindrical grinders 14. Tool and cutter grinders 15. Fixed RAM Electro Discharge machines 16. Wire EDM 17. Punching and nibbing machines with plasma arc or laser beam machining 18. Forming machine Pipe bending machines Sheets bending machines Stretch forming machines Flow forming machines 19. Gear cutting machines Gear hobbing machine Gear shaping machine Gear grinders 20. Coordinate measuring machines 21. Inspection systems 22. Welding systems 23. Packing equipment PAGE 28 OF 57

Exercise No: 10
NC PART PROGRAMMING

Date:

NC part programming is concerned with the planning and documentation of the sequence of processing steps to be performed on a Numerical Control machine. It is usually accomplished by a person whose title is part programmer. The panning portion of part programming requires knowledge of machining (or other processing technology for which the NC machine is designed) as well as geometry and trigonometry. The sequence of processing steps in NC involves a series of movements of the processing head with respect to the machine table and work part. The documentation portion of part programming involves the input medium that is used to transmit the program of instructions to the NC controller unit (the MCU). The most common input medium is used over the last 30 years is 1 wide punched tape. Recently other ways of entering the program to the MCU have been developed. The use of magnetic tape and floppy disks has been growing in popularity since they represent more modern storage technologies for numerical control. The advantage of these input media is their much higher data density. For example, one floppy diskette is capable of storing the equivalent of several thousand feet of punched tape. In addition, techniques for transmitting the program directly from a central computer to the individual machines in the factory have been introduced. This form of program input is called direct numerical control (DNC)

NC WORDS
Following is a list of the different types of words used in the formation of block. Not every NC machine uses all the words. Also, the manner in which the words in a block are given in the order below: SEQUENCE NUMBER (N-WORDS). This is used to identify the block PREPARATORY WORK (G-WORDS) This word is used to prepare the controller for instructions that are to follow.

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For example, the word G02 is used to prepare the NC controller unit for circular interpolation along an arc in the clockwise direction. The preparatory word is needed so that the controller can correctly interpret the data that follow it in the block. Come typical examples of G-words are given in the Table below. Some Common G-Words CODE G00 G02 G03

PREPARATORY FUNCTIONS
Used with countering systems to prepare for a point to point operation Linear interpolation in contouring systems Circular interpolation, clockwise

COORDINATES (X-, Y-, Z-, WORDS): These give the coordinate positions of the tool. In a two-axis system, only two of the words would be used. In a four or-five-axis machine, additional a-words, b-words would specify the angular positions. FEED RATE: This specifies the feed rate in a machining operation. Units are mm/min or inch/min. CUTTING SPEED: This specifies the cutting speed of the process, the rate at which the spindle rotates. Units are revaluations per minute. In a machining operation it is usually desirable for the tool engineer to specify the speed in terms of the relative speed of the tool and work. The units would be metre per minute. It is there necessary for the part programmer to make the conversion from using the machining process equations given. TOOL SELECTION: This word would only be needed for machines with a tool turret of automatic tool changer. The t-word specifies which tool is to be used in the operation. For example, T05 might be the designation of 6mm drill bit ion turret position 5 on an NC turret drill.

MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION: PAGE 30 OF 57

The m-word is used specify certain miscellaneous or auxiliary functions which may be available on the machine tool. Of course, the machine must posses the function that is being called. A partial but representative list of is given below. The miscellaneous function is the last work in the block. To identify the end of instruction, an end of block (EOB) symbol is punched on the tape. Some typical M-Words: CODE MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS M03 Start spindle in clockwise direction M04 Start spindle in counter clockwise direction M05 Stop spindle TAPE FORMATS: The organization of words within blocks is called the tape format. Three tape format seem to enjoy the most widespread use: 1. Word address format 2. Tab sequential format 3. Fixed block format The tape for mat refers to the method of writing the words in a block of instruction. Within each format there are variations because of differences in machining processes, type of machine, features of the machine tool, and so on. WORD ADDRESS FORMAT: In this format, a letter precedes each word and is used to identify the word type and to address the data to a particular location in the controller unit. The X-prefix identifies an X-coordinate word; an S-prefix identifies spindle speed and so on. The standard sequence of words for two-axis NC system is M-word G-word X-word Y-word F-word S-word T-word EOB

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However, since the type of word is designed by the prefix letter, the words can be presented in any sequence. Also, if a word remains unchanged from the previous block or is not needed, it can be deleted from the block. FUNCTION (G CODES) G G00 G01 G02 G03 G04 G20 G21 G28 G40 G41 G42 G50 G70 G71 G72 G73 G74 G76 G81 G90 G94 G96 G97 G98 G99 Codes are instruction describing machine tool movements. Fast Traverse Linear interpolation (cutting feed) Circular Interpolation (clockwise) Circular Interpolation (counter clockwise) Dwell Imperial (Input in Inches) Metric (input in mm) Go to Reference Cutter Compensation Cancel Cutter Compensation Right Cutter Compensation Left Coordinate Setting Finishing Cycle Stock Removal in Turing Multiple Facing Pattern Repeating Peck Drilling Multiple Thread Drilling Cycle Turning Cycle Facing Cycle Const. Surface Var. Surface Feed per Minute Feed Per Rev

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MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION (M CODES) M Codes are instructions describing miscellaneous functions like calling the tool, spindle rotation, coolant on etc., M00 M01 M02 M03 M05 M06 M08 M09 M10 M11 M13 M15 M25 M26 M30 M38 M39 M98 M99 Program Stop Optional stop Program end Spindle On Spindle Stop Tool Change Coolant On Coolant Off Vice Open Vice Close Spindle Forward, Coolant on Spindle Reverse, Coolant on Quill Extend Quill Retract Programme End Door Open Door Close Subprogram call subprogram exit

G00 FAST TRAVERSE


A G00 causes linear motion to the given position at the maximum federate from the current position. Examples: G00 X0.0 Z0.0

G01 LINEAR
A G01 causes linear motion to the given position at the last specified federate from the current position. Examples: G01 X30.0 Z-1.0 F100.0 G01 X0.0

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G02 CLOCKWISE ARC A G02 causes a clockwise arc to the specified position. Examples: G02 G01 G03 X40 Z-20 I15 X20 Z-10 F120 X30 Z-15 R5.0

G03 COUNTER CLOCKWISE ARC


A G03 causes a counter clockwise arc to the specified position. Examples: G01 G03 G02 X20 Z-10 F120 X30 Z-15 R5 x40 Z-20 K-5

G04 DWELL
A G04 causes the program to wait for a specified amount of time. The time can be specified in seconds with he X or U prefix or in milliseconds with the P prefix. Examples: G04 G04 G04 X1.5 U1.5 P1500

G20 IMPERIAL
A G20 causes positions to be interpreted as being in imperial units. All the input values are inches. This can only be at the start of the main program.

G21 METRIC
A G21 causes positions to be interpreted as being in metric units (mm). This is can only be at the start of the main program.

G28 GOTO REFERENCE POINT


A G28 causes a fast traverse to the specified position and then to the machine datum. Examples: G28 G28 X34.0 Z5.0 U0 W0 PAGE 34 OF 57

G40 CANCEL COMPENSATION


A G40 Cancels tools nose radius compensation.

G41 COMPENSATE RIGHT


A G41 enables tool nose radius compensation to the right of the programmed path.

G42 COMPENSATE LEFT


A G42 enables tool nose radius compensation to the left of the programmed path.

G50 COORDINATE SETTING


G50 enables tool nose radius compensation to the left of the programmed path G50 has 2 users. A coordinate setting block has as X, Z, U or W upon it. A maximum spindle speed block does not.

G70 FINISHING CYCLE


A G70 causes a range of blocks to be executed, then control passes to the block after the G70. The P and Q values specify the N block numbers at the and end of the profile. Examples: G70 P10 Q20

G71 MULTIPLE TURING


A G71 causes the profile to be roughed out by turning. Control passes on to after the last block of the profile. Two G71 blocks are needed to specify all the values. Examples: G71 U2 R1.5 Specifies a depth of cut (radius) of 2 and an escape of 1.5.

G72 MULTIPLE FACING


A G72 causes the profiles to be roughed out by facing. Control passes on to after the last block of the profile. PAGE 35 OF 57

Two G72 blocks are needed to specify all the values. Examples: profile. G72 profile. The U and W specify the distance and direction of the finishing allowance on the X and Z axis. P10 Q20 U1.0 W1.0 The U and Q values specify the N block numbers at the start and end of the G72 W2. R1.5 Specifies a depth of cut specify the N block numbers at the start and end of the

G74 END FACE PECK DRILLING


G74 is a Z axis pecking cycle. Two blocks are required. Examples: G74 G74 R1.0 Z-40 Q5000 R0.5 F100

Z depth, Q depth of cut in Z direction, F Feed rate. The R in the first block is the return amount.

G76 THREADING CYCLE


G76 is a multiple pass threading cycle. Two blocks are required. Examples: G76 G76 P031560 Q150 R0.5 X17.96 Z-50 P1020 Q250 F1.5

The P value is: - 03 = No of Finishing passes 15 = Pull out angle 60 = Angle of thread The Q is the minimum cutting depth times 1000, in this case 0.15mm. The R is the finishing allowance, here its 0.15mm. The 2nd block is identified by specifying a coordinate. G76 X17.96 Z-50 R0.0 P1020 Q250 F1.5 The X and Z are the end of the thread. The R must be 0. The P is the height of the thread times 1000, here its 1.02mm. The Q is the height of the thread times 1000, in this case 0.25mm. The F is the threads Lead, Not the federate, here it is 1.5mm. PAGE 36 OF 57

G81 DRILLING CYCLE


A G81 is a drilling cycle. An explicitly specified G81 will Linear to new position. Fast traverse to start positions A modally specified G81 differs in that it will first traverse to 1 mm short on the last drilling position. If only an X axis value is entered then grooving will be performed. If only a Z axis value is entered then drilling will be performed. Examples: G81 G81 U-4.0 U-8.0 Z-2.0 Z-4.0

G90 TURNING CYCLE


A G90 is the diameter cutting cycle It is the equivalent of Rapid to X position Fred to Z position. Feed to start X position. Rapid to start Z position.

I an R value is specified tapering will be performed. The initial rapid move will be to the X position plus the R value (Radius)

G92 THREADING CYCLE


G92 performs one threading pass. The position specified is that of the end of the thread. The F value specifies the pitch, Not the feed. Examples: G92 U-0.25 W-20 F1.5

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G94 FACING CYCLE


A G94 is an end face cutting cycle. It is the equivalent of Rapid to Z position. Feed to X position Feed to star Z position Rapid to start X positing.

If an R value is specified tapering will be performed. The initial rapid move will be to the Z position pules R value. Examples: G94 U-4 W-2.0 R8.0 F140 W3.0 W-4.0

G96 CONSTANT SURFACES SPEED


G96 Enables constant surface speed. Examples: G96 S100 Sets the surfaces speed to 100 meters a minute.

G97 NORMAL SPINDLE


G97 cancels constants surface speed. The spindle speed all not change the next S value is reached. Example: G97

G98 FEED PER MINUTES


G98 stets the feed per minute mode. This is the default. Example: G98

G99 FEED PER REVOLUTION


G99 sets the feed per revolution modes.

M00 Program Stop


A cycle operation is stopped after a block containing M00 executed. Examples: M00 PAGE 38 OF 57

M01 Optional Stop


Cycle operations is stopped after a block containing M01 is executed. This code is only effective when the optional stop switch on the machine control panel has been pressed. Examples: M01

M02 Program end


Stopes the spindle. Turns the coolant off. Terminates the CNC program. Examples: M02

M03 Spindle Forward


Starts the spindle spinning forward at the last specified spindle rate. Examples: M03 S1200

M04 Spindle Reverse


Starts the spindle spinning forward at the last specified rate. Example: M04 S1200

M05 Stop Spindle


Stops the spindle without changing the spindle speed. Example: M05.

M06 Tool change


The T prefix causes a tool change, it need not be paired with an M06. The left most digit of the T ignoring zeros selects the new tool. Example: M06 And And All select tool 2. M08 Coolant On M08 turns the coolant on. M09 Coolant Off PAGE 39 OF 57 T20 T2 TO200

M09 turns the coolant on. M10 Chuck Close M10 opens the chuck. M11 Chuck Close M11 close the chuck. M13 Spindle Forward, Coolant On Sets spindle rotation forward and coolant on. Example: M13 S1000. M14 Spindle Reverse, Coolant On Example: M14 S1000 M25 Quill Extend Extends the quill (tailstock). M26 Quill Retract Retracts the quill (tailstock). M30 Program End Stops the spindle. Turns the coolant off. Terminates and resets the CNC program. Example: M30 M38 Door Open Opens the door, waiting until the door is open. M39 Door Close Close the door, waiting until the door is closed. M98 Subprogram call M98 causes another program to be executed. The P value specifies the program number and the number of times to execute it. The rightmost 4 digits are the program number. The digits to the left are the number of repetitions. There can be up to 999 repetitions, if the value is omitted it is called once. Example: M98 P12 and M98 P10012 both execute cnc program 12 once. M99 Subprogram Exit Returns control to the program that called the current program.

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If a P value is specified then execution begins from the block with the same N number, otherwise it is from the block after the subprogram call. If an M99 is specified in the main program then the execution is from the start of the program. Example: M99 Returns to the block following the call. M99 P10 Returns to the block with N value 10.

Result:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

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Exercise No:

11

Date:

NC PART PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES


Facing Operation: for 5 mm

30

65

[BILLET X30 Z65 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0202 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G01 Z-1 F45 G01 X0 G01 Z1 G00 X30 G01 Z-2 G01 X0 G01 Z1 G00 X30 G01 Z-3 G01 X0 G01 Z1 G00 X30 G01 Z-4 G01 X0 G01 Z1 PAGE 42 OF 57

G00 X30 G01 Z-5 G01 X0 G01 Z1 G00 X30 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

SIMPLE TURNING (USING G90)

30

30 65

[BILLET X30 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G90 X29 Z-30 X28 X27 X26 X25 G00 Z1 G28 U0 W0 M05

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25

STEP TURNING

30

30

15

15

[BILLET X30 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G90 X29 Z-30 F35 X28 X27 X26 X25 G00 X25 Z1 G90 X24 Z-15 F35 X23 X22 X21 X20 G00 Z1 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

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20

25

TAPER TURNING

30

30

25

20 25

[BILLET X30 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G90 X30 Z-30 R0.0 F30 X29 R0.5 X28 R1.0 X27 R1.5 X26 R2.0 X25 R2.5 X24 R3.0 X23 R3.5 X22 R4.0 X21 R4.5 X20 R5.0 G00 X30 Z-30 G90 X30 Z-55 R0.0 F30 X30 R-0.5 R-1.0 R-2.0 R-3.0 R-4.0 R-5.0 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30 PAGE 45 OF 57

CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

R 14
R18

30

20

1 0 1 0 10 1 0 1 0

[BILLET X30 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G90 X30 Z-10 F30 X29 X27 X25 X23 X22 X20 X18 X16 X14 X12 X10 G00 X10 Z-10 G02 X20 Z-20 R18 F30 G00 X30 Z-10 G90 X30 Z-30 F40 X28 X26 X24 PAGE 46 OF 57

10

X22 X20 G00 X20 Z-30 G03 X30 Z-40 R14 F30 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

THREAD

15

30

[BILLET X20 Z50 G21 G98 G28 U0W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G90 X20 Z-40 F45 X19 X18 X17 X16 X14 X12 G00 X13 Z1 M06 T0404 M03 S700 G92 X12 Z-30 F2 X11.75 X11.5 PAGE 47 OF 57

M12

20

X11.4 G00 X20 Z0 G28 U0W0 M05 M30

DRILLING

75

[BILLET X30 Z60 G21 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G00 X30 Z1 G90 X30 Z-35 F45 X28 X26 X25 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0202 G00 X0 Z1 G74 R2 G74 Z-25 Q500 F20 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

PAGE 48 OF 57

10

30

25

Exercise No: 12
Make the object as shown in figure Using G01
5

Date:

Procedure:

Result:

60

MARKS STAFF SIGN

PAGE 49 OF 57

Exercise No: 13

Date:

Make the object as shown in given figure Using codes G01 and G90

40 20

60

40

20

20

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

PAGE 50 OF 57

Exercise No: 14

Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code G90

40

40

20

20

Procedure:

Result:

20

60

MARKS STAFF SIGN

PAGE 51 OF 57

Exercise No:15

Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using G90, G02 and G03 codes
40

R10 R10

20

R15 60

40

20

25

Procedure:

Result:

MARKS STAFF SIGN

PAGE 52 OF 57

Exercise No: 16

Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code Using G74

60

30

Procedure:

Result:

20 40

MARKS STAFF SIGN

PAGE 53 OF 57

Exercise No: 17

Date:

Make the object as shown in the following figure Using NC code G72

40 M 12 x 2 P

60

30

20

30

Procedure:

Result:

PAGE 54 OF 57

TUTORIALS
NC PART PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES
LINEAR INTERPOLATION

70

[BILLET X100 Y100 Z20 G21 G94 G91 M06 T0101 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M03 S1000 G90 G00 X15 Y15 Z5 G01 Z-2 F60 G01 X85 Y15 G01 X85 Y85 G01 X15 G01 Y15 G00 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30

PAGE 55 OF 57

70

CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

15

30 R15

30

15

15

15

30

15

G21 G94 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M06 T0101 M03 S1000 G90 G00 X20 Y35 Z10 G01 Z-5 F60 G02 X35 Y20 R15 G01 X65 Y20 G02 X80 Y35 R15 G01 X80 Y65 G02 X65 Y80 R15 G01 X35 Y80 G03 X20 Y65 R15 G01 X20 Y35 G00 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30

PAGE 56 OF 57

15

30

Circular Interpolation

15 15

65

15

50

15

Circular Pocketing

R 10

30

40

80

PAGE 57 OF 57

80