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Fish Histology Manual v4 S. Turkmen

Fish Histology Manual v4 S. Turkmen

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Published by Serhat Turkmen

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Published by: Serhat Turkmen on Oct 29, 2012
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08/30/2013

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Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System

HEART

Blood circulates from the heart to the gill arches to be oxygenated by diffusion through
the epithelium of the gill lamellae. It is then pumped from the dorsal aorta to the arteries,
down to the peripheral capillaries before it is returned via the venous system. The heart
in teleosts has four chambers through which blood flows in simple succession: sinus
venosus, atrium, ventricle, and bulbous arteriosus. Walls of the heart are made of 3
layers: inner endocardium, myocardium (muscle),and the outer pericardium.
Deoxygenated venous blood enters the sinus venosus from the ductus cuvieri, or
common cardinal veins, and main veins. There are no inlet valves and the sinus is so
small that it can hardly be recognized as a discrete cardiac chamber. The wall is thin,
composed mainly of collagenous connective tissue, although in some species it is
muscular and contractile.

Through two sino-atrial valves the blood passes into the atrium which lies dorsal to the
ventricle. The atrium has a thin wall, and muscular trabeculae traverse the lumen in a
loose meshwork. The endothelial lining is therefore large in area and has a phagocytic
activity as part of the reticuloendothelial system. Contraction of the atrium forces the
blood through valves into the ventricle.

Chapter 2 - Normal Histology

Fish Histology and Histopathology

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