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: Harry Sudarma : 07120080060 : Clinical Exposure – Risk Factors

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) a. Non-Modifiable Risk Factor 1. Age In general, people older than 35 year old is at higher risk. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Through early middle age, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after menopause. (Men > 45 year old, Women > 55 year old) 2. Race High blood pressure is particularly common among blacks, often developing at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, such as stroke and heart attack, also are more common in blacks. 3. Family History High blood pressure tends to run in families. 4. Gender Men are generally at greater risk for hypertension than premenopausal women. After menopause, though, a woman's risk increases and is slightly greater than that of a man of the same age.

but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. 2. Secondhand smoke can also increase your blood pressure 4. but studies are finding a higher rate of hypertension in people with sleep apnea regardless of their weight. increasing your blood pressure. The relationship between sleep apnea and hypertension has been thought to be largely due to obesity. Too much sodium in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid. Diet  Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. a disorder in which breathing halts briefly but repeatedly during sleep. the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. Obese The more you weigh. so does the pressure on your artery walls. 3. . Alcohol Consumption Over time. as it may cause body to release hormones that increase blood flow and heart rate. is present in many patients with hypertension. 5. Having more than two or three drinks in a sitting can also temporarily raise blood pressure.b. As the volume of blood circulated through your blood vessels increases. OSA Obstructive sleep apnea. Smoking Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily. which increases blood pressure. heavy drinking can damage the heart. This can cause your arteries to narrow. Modifiable Risk Factor 1.

heart disease. established risk factors for high blood pressure or heart disease. If you don't get enough potassium in your diet or retain enough potassium. people under stress may overeat or eat a less healthy diet. Some scientists have noted a relationship between coronary heart disease risk and stress in a person's life. For example. An inactive lifestyle increases the chance of high blood pressure. drink. 6. moderate-tovigorous physical activity .  Too little vitamin D in your diet. It's uncertain if having too little vitamin D in your diet can lead to high blood pressure. Lack of Physical Activity Physical activity is good for your heart and circulatory system. How you deal with stress may affect other. blood vessel disease and stroke. Stress Being in a stressful situation can temporarily increase your blood pressure. Vitamin D may affect an enzyme produced by your kidneys that affects your blood pressure. Give yourself the gift of improved health and lower blood pressure with regular. smoke or misuse drugs 7. but science has not proven that stress causes high blood pressure. health behaviors and socioeconomic status. put off physical activity. Inactivity also makes it easier to become overweight or obese. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. you may accumulate too much sodium in your blood. Too little potassium in your diet.

Modifiable risk factors 1. 2. Stopping tobacco use can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. no matter how long you have smoked. Tobacco use Whether it is smoking or chewing tobacco. It can be prevented and successfully treated but only if you have it diagnosed and stick to your recommended management plan. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. increases risks of cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes It is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Abnormal blood lipid levels That is high total cholesterol. Hypertension It is the single biggest risk factor for stroke. 3. Physical inactivity Physical inactivity increases the risk of heart disease and stroke by 50%. high levels of low-density lipoprotein or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol all increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Obesity is a major risk for cardiovascular disease and predisposes you to diabetes. smoke heavily or are a woman. The risk is especially high if you started smoking when young. 5. 4.Cardiovascular risk factors a. Having diabetes makes you twice as likely as someone who does not to develop cardiovascular disease. exercise and medication can modify your blood lipid profile. Changing to a healthy diet. high levels of triglycerides. If you do not control diabetes then you are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease at an earlier age than other . Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It also plays a significant role in heart attacks.

3. Gender is significant: as a man you are at greater risk of heart disease than a pre-menopausal woman. If you are a pre-menopausal woman. Certain medicines may increase the risk of heart disease such as the contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). 7. Simply getting old is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. 6. Family’s history of cardiovascular disease indicates your risk. a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s. 4. b. 2. But once past the menopause. Non-modifiable risk factors 1. People with African or Asian ancestry are at higher risks of developing cardiovascular disease than other racial groups.people and it will be more devastating. risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55. Ethnic origin plays a role. If a firstdegree blood relative has had coronary heart disease or stroke before the age of 55 years (for a male relative) or 65 years (for a female relative) your risk increases. your diabetes cancels out the protective effect of estrogen and your risk of heart disease rises significantly. . Alcohol consumption 8. A diet high in saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. It is estimated to cause about 31% of coronary heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide.

. Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals. 2. Modifiable-risk factors : 1. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke. The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. Long-term exposure to chemical fumes. Pipe smokers.Coronary Artery Disease Modifiable CAD Risk Factors Cigarette smoking Obesity 90 mmHg) Physical inactivity Kidney disease Diabetes mellitus Alcohol consumption Stress Kidney disease Elevated LDL Reduced HDL Non-modifiable CAD Risk Factors Males > 45 years Females > 55 years Males disease Hypertension (blood pressure >= 140 / Family history of coronary artery COPD a. vapors and dusts can irritate and inflame your lungs. Chronic inhalation of marijuana smoke also can be injurious. the greater your risk. cigar smokers and people exposed to large amounts of secondhand smoke also are at risk. Exposure to tobacco smoke.

Age COPD develops slowly over years. Genetics.b. Researchers suspect that other genetic factors may also make certain smokers more susceptible to the disease. . Non-modifiable Risk factor 1. 2. A rare genetic disorder known as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the source of a few cases of COPD. so most people are at least 40 years old when symptoms begin.

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