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Training manual 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 01 Edition 2002
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© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
1 Introduction to the synchronous system
1.1 Transmission networks 1.2 Plesiochronous hierarchy 1.3 Synchronous hierarchy 1.4 SDH transport network
Base frame components
2.1 Container : Cn 2.2 Virtual container : VCn 2.3 Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG) 2.4 Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG) 2.5 ITU-T Multiplexing Structure 2.6 ETSI Multiplexing Structure 2.7 Base Frame : STM-1 2.8 Base elements : Overview
3.1 Definition of Path and Section 3.2 Example of Path and section 3.3 STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH 3.4 STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH 3.5 STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH
4.1 AU-4 Pointer addressing area 4.2 Au- Pointer management 4.3 AU-4 Pointer settings 4.4 AU-4 Pointer and justification use 4.5 Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
VC-12.1 VC-4.3 VC3->TUG3->VC-4 Generation 5.1 Byte interleaved Multiplexing 6. VC-11.01 Page 0.Contents 5 Path Overhead. VC-3 POH 5.5 Example : Layers used by a Low Order Path 7. Low rate Multiplexing Mapping 5.8 Organisation of the STM-1 made up of VC-12 5.10 ATM cell insertion into a VC-4 6 High-Rate Multiplexing 6.3 Contiguous Concatenation 7 Usage of SDH Networks 7.5 VC-2.4 SDH Layer Networks 7.7 Relation between Reference Points & Transport Entities 8 The Functional Model 8.6 Definition of reference Points 7.1 Example of SDH Network 7.4 Atomic & Basic Functions in a Network Element © Alcatel University .4 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 Layer Function : Termination 8.3 Layer Function : Connection 8.6 Asynchronous mapping at 2 Mbit/s 5.7 Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe 5.2 140 Mbit/s mapping 5.2 Principle of Partitioning & Layering 7.2 STM-N Section Overhead 6. POH 5.3 Partitioning of Layer Networks & Sub-Networks 7.1 Layer function : Adaptation 8.9 TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4 5.4 STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3 5.
6 Linear Networks without SSM 11.2 Network Protection 10.1 Communication Alarms 9.3 Automatic laser Shutdown : ALS 12.5 Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes 9.5 Synchronisation Signals : Quality and Priority 11.3 Remote Defect Indication : RDI 9.1 Synchronisation Distribution 11.4 Laser Operation Actions 13 Appendices © Alcatel University .3 Network Restoration 11 Network Synchronisation 11.4 Synchronous Equipment Timing 11.Contents 9 Alarm and Error Handling 9.6 Alarm and Error Processing 9.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 Alarm Indication Signal : AIS 9.01 Page 0.7 Performance Monitoring : PM 9.1 Classification of Optical Interfaces 12.3 Synchronisation Diagram 11.7 Linear Network with SSM 12 Optical Interfaces 12.4 Alarm and Error Processing within an NE 9.8 Tandem Connections 10 Protection and Restoration 10.5 .2 Clocks Types and Distribution in the Network 11.1 Equipment Protection : EPS 10.2 Laser Safety 12.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 .Page intentionally left blank © Alcatel University .01 Page 0.
To be able to describe the multiplexing of STM1 frames 7. To be able to describe the layering of SDH Networks 8.7 . centre) : Language : English Number of trainees : Surname. return this sheet to the trainer at the end of the training Instructional objectives Yes (or Globally yes) No (or globally no) Comments 1. To be able to describe the functional model in SDH 9. To be able to describe the function of the pointer 5. To be able to list the advantages of SDH 2. To be able to describe the principles of synchronisation of SDH networks 12. to be able to describe the multiplexing structure in an SDH frame 6.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. To be able to describe the different kinds of protection in SDH 11. First name : dates from : Location : Contract number : to : Did you meet the following objectives ? Tick the corresponding box Please.Self assessment of the objectives Course title : Fundamentals of SDH Client (Company. To be to be able to describe the function of OH bytes 4. to be able to describe the way the alarms are managed in an SDH network 10.01 Page 0. To be able to describe the SDH frame 3. To be able to list the optical interfaces used in SDH © Alcatel University .
Self assessment of the objectives (continued) Instructional objectives Yes (or Globally yes) No (or globally no) Comments Other comments Thank you for your answers to this questionnaire © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.8 .01 Page 0.
01 Page 1.1 © Alcatel University .1 Introduction to the synchronous system © Alcatel University .01 1.1 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.
4 SDH transport network 1.1 Introduction to the synchronous system Session presentation Objective: to be able to list the advantages of SDH program: 1.3 Synchronous hierarchy 1.1 Transmission networks 1.01 Page 1.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 .2 Plesiochronous hierarchy 1.2 © Alcatel University .
1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Transmission networks Mobile communication network Subscriber system Intelligent network Switching system Access system exchange Narrowband Broadband Copper Optical Radio Voice Data Images Subscriber system Switching system PDH / SDH transport network Optical Microwave Satellite Access system exchange Narrowband Broadband Copper Optical Radio Voice Data Images Management network 1.3 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 1.3 The "Transport" function comprises the transmission of traffic : from one exchange to another from one access system to another directly between subscriber terminals © Alcatel University .
048 EUROPE *4 Frame structure not defined in the ITU-T Values in Mbit/s 1.4 .200 UNITED STATES 1.01 Page 1.368 G.992 2.755 274.802) G.752 JAPAN G.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy : PDH G.544 G.736 *6 *3 G.742 6.702) © Alcatel University .752 *7 44.312 G.448 *4 34.751 8.752 *5 32.728 *4 397.751 *4 139.4 The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH): is NOT designed for high rates is based on three different standards does not provide optical interconnections for interfaces supplied by different manufacturers defines a cost intensive and fairly inflexible multiplexing structure has a low binary rate dedicated for monitoring and a limited transmission quality does not provide centralized network management has an exclusively point-to-point connection topology The PDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 1988 (G.064 *3 97.264 *4 564.757 G.176 Interoperation (G.753 *4 *3 G.
the frame and the multiplexing processes. The SDH is defined as an assembly of normalized digital transport structures. high-rate telecommunication networks standard.5 © Alcatel University .5 . The SDH is an international. The first SDH standards were approved by the ITU-T in 11/1988 (recommendation series G.1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Synchronous Digital Hierarchy : SDH The SDH results from the SONET concepts proposed in the USA.7xx): They define the rate.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 1. The SDH provides centralized network management.01 Page 1.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 .01 Page 1.6 © Alcatel University .1 Introduction to the Synchronous System SDH transport network Plesiochronous Signals Plesiochronous Signals SDH Network ATM ATM 1.
01 Page 1.7 © Alcatel University .7 .1 Introduction to the Synchronous System Evaluation Objective: to be able to list the advantages of SDH Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 1.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
1 .01 Page 2.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 Base frame components © Alcatel University .1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01 2.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.2 Virtual container : VCn 2.8 Base elements : Overview 2.2 © Alcatel University .4 Administrative Unit (Group) : AU (AUG) 2.7 Base Frame : STM-1 2.5 ITU-T Multiplexing Structure 2.6 ETSI Multiplexing Structure 2.2 Base Frame Components Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the SDH frame program: 2.3 Tributary Unit (Group) : TU (TUG) 2.1 Container : Cn 2.2 .
01 Page 2. 4) The rate of a container depends on the signal which is being transported.368 Mbit/s 2.312 Mbit/s 34.544 Mbit/s C-n n = 12 n=2 n=3 2.3 C-n: Container.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 12.707 © Alcatel University .048 Mbit/s 6.3 . The mapping of a signal in the corresponding container is specified in G. 3.264 Mbit/s 44.736 Mbit/s n=4 n=3 n = 11 1. n = index of the container (n = 11.2 Base Frame Components Container : Cn 139. 2.
g.048 Mbit/s VC-n P O H VC-11 C-11 1. it is made up of a C-n and a POH POH: Path OverHead The POH is an additional transport-capacity designed for the container: it carries details on e. 2.312 Mbit/s P O H VC-12 C-12 2.736 Mbit/s 34.4 VC-n: Virtual Container.264 Mbit/s P O H VC-3 C-3 P O H P O H 44. 4 © Alcatel University .01 Page 2. VC-n = C-n + POH n = 11. the payload contents. 12.2 Base Frame Components Container : VCn P O H VC-4 C-4 139.544 Mbit/s 2.368 Mbit/s C-n VC-2 C-2 6.4 . 3.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
12. VC-4) see: Administrative Unit (AU) TU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 11.5 TU: Tributary Unit.264 Mbit/s TU-3 P O H VC-3 C-3 P O H 44.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.5 .01 Page 2.2 Base Frame Components TU P O H VC-4 C-4 139. For high order container (VC-3. 2. 3 © Alcatel University . 3) and a pointer The pointer is an additional rate used to locate its VC-n within the TU: Pointers allow to transport virtual containers phase shifted related to their TU. which facilitates data processing in the network element.12.736 Mbit/s 34. it is made up of a low order VC-n (n=11.544 Mbit/s 2. 2.048 Mbit/s TU-11 high order P O H VC-11 low order C-11 1.368 Mbit/s TU-2 VC-2 C-2 6.312 Mbit/s TU-12 P O H VC-12 C-12 2.
368 Mbit/s X1 TUG-2 X3 TU-2 VC-2 C-2 6.6 .01 Page 2. The TUG is obtained through byte interleaved multiplexing.048 Mbit/s TU-11 high order P O H VC-11 C-11 1. For high order container (VC-3.312 Mbit/s TU-12 X4 P O H VC-12 C-12 2. 12.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. the TUG-2 / TUG-3 can consist of several types of capacity payloads with different sizes. The TUG-3 is 7 X TUG-2 or 1 X TU-3. The TUG-2 is 4 X TU-11 or 3 X TU-12 or 1 X TU-2.2 Base Frame Components TUG P O H VC-4 X3 C-4 139.544 Mbit/s low order 2. VC-4) see: Administrative Unit Group (AUG) TUG-k = m * TU-n n = 11.264 Mbit/s TUG-3 X1 TU-3 P O H VC-3 X7 C-3 P O H 44.736 Mbit/s 34. 2.6 TUG: Tributary Unit Group. 3 © Alcatel University .
3) This entity contains a single container n associated with the POH.7 .4) and a pointer. The AU-3 multiplexing structure is designed for compatibility with SONET frames. 4) This entity contains either a single container n or a TUG (Tributary Unit Group) assembly (TUG-2 or TUG-3) associated with the POH. VC-3 can be: lower order TU-3 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4 or higher order AU-3 AU-n = VC-n + PTR n = 3.312 Mbit/s TU-12 X4 P O H VC-12 C-12 2.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Higher order VC-n (n = 3.736 Mbit/s 34.544 Mbit/s high order low order 2.12.048 Mbit/s TU-11 P O H VC-11 C-11 1. 4 AUG = 1 * AU-4 or 3 * AU-3 © Alcatel University . Two types of virtual containers VC-n are used: Lower order VC-n (n = 11.01 Page 2.7 AU: Administrative Unit. it is made up of a high order VC-n (n = 3.2 Base Frame Components AUG X1 AUG P O H AU-4 VC-4 X3 C-4 139. 2.368 Mbit/s TUG-2 TU-2 VC-2 C-2 6.264 Mbit/s X3 X1 TUG-3 X7 TU-3 P O H VC-3 AU-3 P O H VC-3 X7 X1 X3 P O H C-3 44.
736 Mbit/s 34.264 Mbit/s X3 TUG-3 X1 TU-3 P O H VC-3 C-3 44.01 Page 2.2 Base Frame Components ITU-T Multiplexing Structure *N X1 AUG STM-N AU-4 P O H VC-4 X3 C-4 139. 16.8 .8 N = 1. 4.368 Mbit/s STM-0 X1 AU-3 P O H X7 VC-3 X7 TUG-2 X1 X3 High rate multiplexing TU-2 P O H VC-2 VC-12 C-2 C-12 6.312 Mbit/s Low rate multiplexing TU-12 X4 P O H 2.544 Mbit/s 2.048 Mbit/s Insertion of the SOH TU-11 P O H VC-11 C-11 1. 64 STM: Synchronous Transport Module ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication sector SDH-SONET compatibility: see Appendix A2 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
544 Mbit/s 2.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame: STM-4 at 622. It focuses on European digital signals to simplify equipment.280 Mbit/s © Alcatel University . i. 64 ETSI: European Telecommunication Standard Institute. ETSI-standard will be handled in the following chapters In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels: mapping of digital signal to container C-n multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base frame.9 . multiplexing of base frame.320 Mbit/s STM-64 at 9953.048 Mbit/s Insertion of the SOH P O H VC-11 C-11 1. It is a subset of ITU-T standard.9 N = 1. e. 16.264 Mbit/s TU-3 P O H VC-3 44. STM-1 frames at 155.080 Mbit/s STM-16 at 2488.368 Mbit/s X7 C-3 X1 TUG-2 X3 P O H TU-2 VC-2 TU-12 P O H VC-12 C-12 2. 4.01 Page 2.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.736 Mbit/s 34.2 Base Frame Components ETSI Multiplexing Structure *N X1 AUG STM-N AU-4 P O H VC-4 X3 TUG-3 X1 C-4 139.
2 Base Frame Components Base Frame STM-1 270 columns (bytes) 9 1 1 RSOH 270 9 rows (bytes) AU-4 pointer P O H C-4 MSOH 2430 MSOH + RSOH= SOH VC-4 2.520 Mbit/s Payload : 2340 bytes i. e. speech channel) STM Synchronous Transport Module MSOH Multiplex Section Overhead RSOH Regenerator Section Overhead SOH Section Overhead STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 2.g.e. 8000 frames/s Rate : 155.760 Mbit/s 1byte i. 149.10 The STM-1 base frame is structured with the following characteristics: Length : 2430 bytes Duration : 125 µs i.e. 64 kbit/s (e.10 .
11 In the SDH signal (or data) processing takes place in three levels: mapping of digital signal to container C-n multiplexing of low order containers to high order containers via TUGs and finally via AU (AUG) into the STM-1 base frame multiplexing of base frame. e. 3 m = 4. i. 1. 12.080 Mbit/s STM-16 at 2488.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 3.01 Page 2. STM-1 frames at 155. 4 n = 11. 2.320 Mbit/s STM-64 at 9953. 2. 3. 4 n = 11. 7 n = 11. 3 k = 2.11 . 3. 2. 12. 16. 16 2.280 Mbit/s © Alcatel University . 2. 64 m = 1.520 Mbit/s with each other to create a high-rate frame: STM-4 at 622. 3 Administrative Unit Administrative Unit Group AU-n = VC-n + PTR AUG = 1 * AU-4 or 3 * AU-3 n = 3. 4. 4 Synchronous Transport Module STM-1 = AU-4 + SOH STM-N = 4 * STM-m (Base Frame) N = 4.2 Base Frame Components Base Elements : Overview Container Virtual Container Tributary Unit Tributary Unit Group C-n VC-n = C-n + POH TU-n = VC-n + PTR TUG-k = m * TU-n n = 11. 12. 12.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.12 .2 Base Frame Components Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the SDH frame Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 2.01 Page 2.12 © Alcatel University .
01 3.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.3 Section Overhead © Alcatel University .01 Page 3.1 .1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.
3 STM-1 Section Overhead : SOH 3.3 Section Overhead Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the function of OH bytes program: 3.5 STM-1 Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH 3.2 .01 Page 3.1 Definition of Path and Section 3.2 Example of Path and section 3.4 STM-1 Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH 3.2 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
© Alcatel University .3 Section Overhead Definition of Path and Section Terminal.3 .or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer POH VC SOH Regenerator STM-N C VC STM-N Terminal.3 C VC POH SOH Container Virtual Containe Path Overhead Section Overhead The SECTION is the link between two network elements. The PATH connects the two points where the POH is generated / analyzed.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.or Cross-Connect-Multiplexer SOH Regenerator STM-N POH VC C plesiochronous Signal C plesiochronous Signal STM-N VC C Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Multiplex Section Path Regenerator Section 3.01 Page 3.
4 NE Network Element Overheads carrying specific info of every path or section. Path 1 between NE-A and NE-E) © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.4 . from one end to the other (e.3 Section Overhead Example of Path and Section 2 Mbit/s Section 2 on cti 1 STM-16 Se -1 M ST NE-B NE-C S T th M 2 -1 Pa SDH Network Path 1 NE-A STM-4 NE-D STM-4 NE-E STM-4 NE-F 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s 3.01 Page 3.g.
* Unscrambled bytes. radio relay system. The Section OverHead (SOH) is divided into two subassemblies: RSOH: Regenerator Section OverHead MSOH: Multiplex Section OverHead © Alcatel University .01 Page 3..5 .5 All unmarked bytes are reserved for future international normalization (medium dependence.) ∆ 3..8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. .3 Section Overhead Section Overhead : SOH 9 bytes * A1 B1 D1 * A1 D D * A1 D D * A2 E1 D2 * A2 D D * A2 * J0 F1 D3 * * RSOH AU-4 pointer 9 rows B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 Z2 M1 E2 MSOH Z1 Z1 Z2 Bytes reserved for national use. Their contents should therefore be monitored. additional national use and other purposes). Bytes depending on the medium (satellite.
before scrambling of the actual STM frame.6 A1.D3 User Channel. E1 Engineering Orderwire (EOW). It is used to transmit data and speech for service and maintenance.6 . Data Communication Channel at 192 kbit/s (DCCR).8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. A2 The Frame Alignment Word is used to recognize the beginning of an STM-N frame.01 Page 3. B1 Bit Error Monitoring. This channel is used to transmit management information via the STM-N frames © Alcatel University . This message receiver to check the continuity of its connection with the desired transmitter. It is used to give a path through an SDH Network a ‘Name’. It can be used to transmit speech signals beyond a Regenerator Section for operating and maintenance purposes.3 Section Overhead Regeneration Section Overhead : RSOH * A1 B1 D1 * A1 D D * A1 D D * A2 E1 D2 * A2 D D * A2 * J0 F1 D3 * * RSOH: Regenerator Section OverHead 3. A1: 1111 0110 = F6 (HEX) A2: 0010 1000 = 28 (HEX) (Name) enables the J0 Path Trace. This check is carried out with a Bit Interleaved Parity check (BIP-8). The B1 Byte contains the result of the parity check of the previous STM frame. F1 D1 .
01 Page 3. Z2 Spare bytes bits (former MS_FEBE: © Alcatel University . D4 to D12 Data Communication Channel at 576 kbit/s (DCCM). Same function as E1 in RSOH. K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS). K2 Bytes through the SDH Network.7. before scrambling of the actual STM frame. number of interleaved which have been detected to be erroneous in the received B2 bytes.3 Section Overhead Multiplexing Section Overhead : MSOH B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 Z2 M1 E2 MSOH: Multiplex Section OverHead Z1 Z1 Z2 3. (See also D1-D3 in RSOH) S1 (Bit 5 .7 B2 : Bit Error Monitoring. In case of a failure. except the RSOH. Assigned to the multiplexing section protection (MSP) protocol.811 10-11/day frequency drift 0100 G. The B2 Bytes contains the result of the parity check of the previous STM frame. M1 MS_REI: Multiplex Section Remote Error Indicator.812T transit 10-9 /day frequency drift 1000 G.7 .812L local 2*10-8/day frequency drift 1011 G. Multiplexing Section Far End Block Errored) Z1. K1.8) Synchronization quality level 0000 Quality unknown 0010 G. This check is carried out with a Bit Interleaved Parity check (BIP24). K2 (Bit6.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.813 5*10-7/day frequency drift 1111 Not to be used for synchronization E2 Engineering Orderwire (EOW).8) MS_RDI: Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (former MS_FERF: Multiplex Section Far End Receive Failure). the STM frames can be routed new with the help of the K1.
3 Section Overhead Evaluation
Objective: to be able to describe the function of OH bytes
Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
4 Pointer Session presentation
Objective: to be able to describe the function of the pointer program: 4.1 AU-4 Pointer addressing area 4.2 Au- Pointer management 4.3 AU-4 Pointer settings 4.4 AU-4 Pointer and justification use 4.5 Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
3 .01 Page 4.3 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.4 Pointer AU-4 Pointer addressing area Pointer addressing area AU-4 Pointer VC-4 Au-4 Pointer 4.
4 Pointer AU-4 Pointer management pointer interpretation received STM-1 VC-4 VC-4 pointer generation transmitted STM-1 VC-4 VC-4 extraction retrieved clock of the SOH local clock of the NE insertion of the SOH 4.4 . which facilitates data processing in the network element.4 The rate of a transmitted VC-4 is consistent with the rate of the received VC-4.01 Page 4. Pointers allow to transport virtual containers phase shifted related to their TU respectively AU.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University .
Positive justification: Clock 1 < Clock 2 The rate of the incoming STM-1 is lower than the capacity of the outgoing STM-1.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Pointer movement 4. Additional stuffing bits must be used in the outgoing STM-1 to reduce its useful capacity © Alcatel University .01 Page 4. Additional bits must be used to increase the capacity of the outgoing STM-1. STM-1 NE-B STM-1 NE-C STM-1 (Clock 4) Plesio.4 Pointer AU-4 Pointer settings Clock 1 Clock 2 Clock 3 NE-A Plesio. Plesio.5 .5 Negative justification: Clock 1 > Clock 2 The rate of the incoming STM-1 is higher than the capacity of the outgoing STM-1.
Positive justification: If the frame rate of container VC-n is too slow compared to that of the AUG.4 Pointer AU-4 Pointer and justification use PTR(n) H3 Frame N PTR(n) H3 PTR(n) H3 Frame N + 1 PTR(n) H3 PTR(n-1)H3 Frame N + 2 PTR(n+1) H3 B PTR(n-1)H3 Frame N + 3 PTR(n+1) H3 Negative Justification Positive Justification 4. the alignment of container VC-n must be periodically advanced in time and the pointer‘s value reduced by one unit.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 . A positive or negative justification corresponds to a 3-byte offset in the AU-4. © Alcatel University . the alignment of container VC-n must be periodically delayed in time and the pointer‘s value increased by one unit.6 PTR(n): H3: B: Pointer with value n 3 stuffing bytes used for negative justification 3 stuffing bytes used for positive justification Negative justification: If the frame rate of container VC-n is too fast compared to that of the AUG.01 Page 4.
H1+H2: NNNNSSPP PPPPPPPP NNNN New data flag (4 bits) SS Type of pointer. Section Supporting Bits (2 bits): 10 for AU-4 / AU-3 pointer 01 for TU-3 pointer 00 for concatenated payload PPPPPPPPPP Pointer value (10 bits): every third byte in VC-4 must be addressable: (261 * 9) byte / 3 = 783 addresses H1*+H2**: 1001SS11 11111111 SS Concatenation Indication (CI): 00 SDH-SONET interworking 01 SDH © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.4 Pointer Pointer and justification use (continuation) 3 negative justification opportunity bytes 1 1 2 3 4 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 0 * * ** ** 5 87 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 86 86 86 9 10 3 positive justification opportunity bytes 270 9 522 782 4.7 The value of the pointer remains constant for at least 3 consecutive frames (G.7 .707). The maximum justification therefore takes place in 1 out of every 4 frames.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.10-4 Difference of incoming clock to equipment clock ≈300 ppm 6.02 4.8 A 1-ppm clock difference causes a pointer action frequency of 6.10-8 3.8 . Maximum clock difference: One justification event every 4 frames (ITU-T) 3 bytes / (2430 bytes x 4) ≈ 300 ppm © Alcatel University .4 Pointer Pointer justifications depending on clock deviation Number of pointer justification events / second 2000 200 20 Forbidden area 3.48 Hz 2 0.10-7 1 ppm 3.10-9 3. one action every 1235 frames.10-6 3.10-5 3.2 0.48 Hz.01 Page 4.
4 Pointer Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the function of the pointer Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 4.9 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 4.9 © Alcatel University .
5 Path Overhead.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.1 © Alcatel University .01 Page 5.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.1 .01 5. Low rate Multiplexing Mapping © Alcatel University .
9 TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4 5.10 ATM cell insertion into a VC-4 5.3 VC3->TUG3->VC-4 Generation 5.6 Asynchronous mapping at 2 Mbit/s 5. POH 5. VC-3 POH 5. Mapping Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing structure in an SDH frame program: 5.01 Page 5.7 Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe 5. VC-11.2 140 Mbit/s mapping 5. VC-12.1 VC-4.5 Path Overhead.8 Organisation of the STM-1 made up of VC-12 5.2 . Low Rate Multiplexing.2 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.4 STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3 5.5 VC-2.
Mapping VC-4 .3 C2: Signal label .5 Path Overhead.01 Page 5. 0.181 specific mapping VC-AIS signal © Alcatel University . payload not specific TUG payload structure (TUG-2/ TUG-3) TU alignment. Fiber Distributed Data Int) tests signal.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. locked TU mode asynchronous mapping of signals at 34 / 45 Mbit/s in a C-3 container asynchronous mapping of signals at 140 Mbit/s in a C-4 container ATM mapping MAN mapping (DQDB) FDDI mapping (100 Mbit/s. VC-3 POH 5. Low Rate Multiplexing. VC-3 POH POH J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 C-4 or C-3 VC-4 .3 .indicates the composition of C-4 / C-3 (HEX-values) 00: 01: 02: 03: 04: 12: 13: 14: 15: FE: FF: path not equipped path equipped.
bit 5: HP_RDI: Higher Path Remote Defect Indication remote alarm Failure) Return (former HP_FEBE: Far End Block Error) Path (former HP_FERF: Far End Receive G1. Multiframe Indicator: used to designate a specific use of the VC-4's capacity: VC-2. G1. VC-12. to indicate in which VC-4 they start. VC-11 Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel (bits 1 to 4) Tandem connection monitoring (TCM) function (bits 1 to 4). Low Rate Multiplexing.01 Page 5. 5. VC-11s. If they are not used. F3 H4 K3 N1 Path user channels: assigned to the user's communication requirements. 64-byte character string or one 16-byte frame. multiframes are spread over 500 µs.4 . transmitted in 64 resp. bit 6 to 7: reserved for optional use (transmission of remote alarm with fault differentiation). A multiframe synchronization is required if the VC-4 contains VC-2s. bit 1 to 4: HP_REI: Higher Path Remote Error Indication of the remote B3 (BIP-8 code) G1.5 Path Overhead. bit 8: H4: reserved for future use. 16 consecutive STM frames (64*125µs or 16*125µs) BIP-8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. These It is therefore necessary © Alcatel University . VC-12s.4 G1. they shall be set to 00 or 11. identifier of the path It is used to check that the path connection between transmitter and receiver is maintained. VC-3 POH (continuation) J1 Path trace. Data link (bits 5 to 8). Mapping VC-4. parity block check of the previous VC-4 / VC-3 before scrambling Signal Label Path status of the opposite path terminal J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 B3 C2 G1 REI 1 2 3 4 RDI 5 reserved 6 7 spare 8 F2.
5 Breakdown of C-4 into 180 blocks of 13 bytes ((9 * 20) * 13 = 2340 bytes payload) © Alcatel University . Mapping 140 Mbit/s Mapping 1 1 blocks 20 rows 9 180 blocks C-4: 20 blocks of 13 bytes on 9 rows 5.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Low Rate Multiplexing.5 Path Overhead.01 Page 5.5 .
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Mapping 140 Mbit/s Mapping (continuation) Structure of one of the nine lines in container C-4 1 12 bytes W 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D Y 96 D X 96 D Y D R O S C 96 D Z 96 D W X DDDDDDDD CRRRRROO Y Z RRRRRRRR DDDDDDSR Data bit Fixed stuff bit Overhead bit Justification opportunity bit Justification control bit 5. CCCCC = 11111 means that bit S (in byte Z) is a justification bit. © Alcatel University .6 . Majority vote for protection against decision errors (data or justification bit).5 Path Overhead.01 Page 5.6 The overhead bits (O) are reserved for future communication requirements CCCCC = 00000 means that bit S (in byte Z) is a data bit. Low Rate Multiplexing.
Bytes H1 H2 H3 of the TU-3 pointers are the bytes of rows 1. © Alcatel University .7 . The TU-3 pointer is similar to the AU-4 pointer and serves the same purpose. 5 and 6 of the VC-4.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 A VC-3 POH has the same structure as the VC-4 POH. The TUG-3 defines the locations of the TU-3s in the VC-4. Mapping VC-3 --> TUG-3 --> VC-4 Generation POH VC-3 1 1 J1 B3 C2 G1 rows F2 H4 F3 K3 9 N1 VC-3: 85 columns of bytes 1 TUG-3 A stuffing 1 2 3 .. P O H 9 VC-4 PTR PTR PTR A B C 85 125 µs periodicity 86 1 TUG-3 B 86 1 TUG-3 C 86 A B C A C A B C 261 5. Low Rate Multiplexing.. 2 and 3 of columns 4.5 Path Overhead.01 Page 5.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
5 Path Overhead. C) +3 * 3 bytes (3 * Pointer) +3 *12 bytes (3 * stuffing) © Alcatel University . B.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Mapping STM-1 made up of 3 x VC-3 POH VC-4 1 MSOH 9 10 G1 F2 RSOH AU-4 pointer H4 F3 K3 N1 J1 B3 764 764 764 C2 84 84 84 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 J1 B3 764 764 764 C2 84 84 84 G1 F2 A B C 270 MSOH H1 H1 H1 595 595 595 H2 H2 H2 680 680 680 H3 H3 H3 0 0 0 1 85 85 85 86 82 83 83 83 VC-3#A VC-3#B Stuffing RSOH AU-4 pointer MSOH H1 H1 H1 595 595 595 H2 H2 H2 680 680 680 H3 H3 H3 0 0 0 1 85 85 85 86 VC-3#C 82 83 83 83 A B C A B C A C A B C 5.8 261 columns of bytes Payload: 2340 bytes = 3 * 9 * 85 bytes (3 * VC-3: A.01 Page 5. Low Rate Multiplexing.8 .
not specific asynchronous bit synchronous (not used) byte synchronous reserved for future use test signal. 6.9 . Mapping VC-2.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.181 specific mapping VC-AIS signal RDI LP_RDI: Lower Path Remote Defect Indication Indicates connection and server faults © Alcatel University . 0. VC-11 POH V5 1 BIP-2 2 REI 3 RFI 4 5 Signal label 6 7 RDI 8 J2 N2 K4 Path trace (16-byte frame) Network operator byte (Monitoring function) Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel (bits 1 to 4). Low Rate Multiplexing.9 V5: BIP-2 REI more errors RFI even parity of order 2 of the previous VC-2 / VC-12 / VC-11 LP_REI: Lower Path Remote Error Indication Set to 1 and returned to the source of the path if the BIP-2 parity detects one or Remote Failure Indication in the path (optional) A failure is a fault which lasts longer than the maximum duration of the transmission systems protection mechanisms.5 Path Overhead. 5. VC-12.01 Page 5. Signal label (bit 5. 7) indicates the composition of C-2 / C-12 / C-11: 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 not equipped or monitoring not equipped equipped .
© Alcatel University .50 ppm synchronization tolerance. Justification process upon mapping within the C-12 to enable a +/.10 The 2 Mbit/s signal is placed in a C-12 without taking ist composition into consideration: No link between the 2 Mbit/s frame and the C-12. VC-12s (35 bytes in 125 µs) of 4 consecutive STM-1 frames (4 x 125 µs = 500 µs) are combined to a multiframe (140 bytes in 500 µs) to reduce overhead / useful signal ratio.10 . Low Rate Multiplexing.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Bits are placed in the C-12 as they arrive. Mapping Asynchronous Mapping at 2 Mbit/s V5 RRRRRRRR 32 bytes RRRRRRRR J2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 32 bytes 140 bytes RRRRRRRR N2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 32 bytes RRRRRRRR K4 C1 C2 R R R R R S1 S2 D D D D D D D 31 bytes RRRRRRRR VC-12 Multiframe (= 4 * VC-12) D R O S C data bit fixed stuff bit overhead bit justification opportunity bit justification control bit 5.01 Page 5.5 Path Overhead.
5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping Generation of a VC-12 Multiframe
byte H4 status XXXXXX00 TU-12
VC-12 0 µs
VC-12 Multiframe = 4 * VC-12
35 bytes XXXXXX01 125 µs
35 bytes XXXXXX10
35 bytes 375 µs
35 bytes 140 bytes capacity of 4 container VC-12: multiframe (bytes/500 µs) 5.11
TU-n pointer: 4 bytes V1, V2, V3, V4 V1, V2: pointer value V3: negative justification opportunity V4: spare H4: multiframe indicator - used for location within the 500 µs multiframe (see VC-4 POH) Different sizes of virtual containers VC: VC-11 26 bytes VC-12 35 bytes VC-2 107 bytes
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping Organization of the STM-1 made up of VC-12
125 µs Multiframe No 1
N 1 J 1 B 3 C 2 N N N P P P I I I
1 2 3
63 1 2 3
63 1 2 3
63 1 2 3
G 1 F 2 H 4
F 3 K 3
Multiframe No 2 Multiframe No 3
N 1 J 1 Stuffing
1 2 3
NPI: Null Pointer Indication (bytes used for STM-1 made up of 3 VC-3s via TUG-3) VC-12 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
5 Path Overhead, Low Rate Multiplexing, Mapping TU-12 Unit Numbering in a VC-4
TUG-2 # VC-12 #
1 1 1 1 2 3
2 2 2 1 2 3
3 3 3 1 2 3
4 4 4 1 2 3
5 5 5 1 2 3
6 6 6 1 2 3
7 7 7 1 2 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 TUG-3 # TUG-3 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 TUG-3 # 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 3 TUG-2 # 1 23 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 VC-12 # 1 11 1 1 1 1 2 2 22 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
V C 4 P O H
4 3 5
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 ... 000000000111111111122222 123456789012345678901234 123123123123123123123123 111222333444555666777111 111111111111111111111222 ...
70 72 256 258 260 69 71 73 ... 257 259 66660 01231 556666 890123
Number of VC-4 container column x Time period number K L address M
123123 3 1 2 31 6 7 7 7 1 ... 6 6 6 7 7 7 333333 33331
Each TU-12 unit has an address (K, L, M), where K = TUG-3 number (1 to 3) L = TUG-2 number (1 to 7) M = TU-12 number (1 to 3) VC-12 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 VC-4 AU-4
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
virtual container obtained through the Contiguous Concatenation of m containers C-2. Low Rate Multiplexing.14 ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM cell is a 53 byte indivisible cell The cell train is mapped in the containers in accordance with the byte structure ATM cells may overlap a VC-4 container frame boarder Number of cells inside C-4: 2340 bytes / 53 bytes = 44 ATM-cells and 8 bytes remainder Mapping of ATM cells in containers: VC-4-Xc. VC-2-mc © Alcatel University . VC-12. VC-11 (G. VC-4. I. VC-2.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.14 . VC-3.432) VC-4-Xc virtual container obtained through the Contiguous Concatenation of X containers C-4.01 Page 5.707. VC-2-mc. Mapping ATM Cell Insertion into VC-4 Header Payload 5 48 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 5.5 Path Overhead.
5 Path Overhead.01 Page 5. Mapping Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing structure in an SDH frame Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 5.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Low Rate Multiplexing.15 .15 © Alcatel University .
01 Page 6.01 6.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 High-Rate Multiplexing © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.1 .1 © Alcatel University .
3 Contiguous Concatenation 6.2 STM-N Section Overhead 6.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 High Rate Multiplexing Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing of STM-1 frames program: 6.1 Byte interleaved Multiplexing 6.2 .01 Page 6.2 © Alcatel University .
280 Mbit/s © Alcatel University . 64 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 at 155.6 High Rate Multiplexing High-Rate Multiplexing 270 x N 9xN 261 x N RSOH AU-PTR 9 PAYLOAD MSOH 125 µs periodicity 6. 4.488.080 Mbit/s at 2. 16.01 Page 6.3 .320 Mbit/s at 9. N = 1.3 A STM-N frame is made up of N * 270 columns of 9 lines each.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.953.520 Mbit/s at 622.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.4 © Alcatel University .4 .6 High Rate Multiplexing Byte interleaved multiplexing PTR AU-4 VC-4 #1 Nx9 VC-4#1 3 PTR MULTIPLEXING AU-4 VC-4 #2 Addition of the STM-N RSOH (byte interleaving) VC-4#2 Nx9 N x 261 RSOH MSOH STM-N PTR AU-4 VC-4 #3 VC-4 #3 PTR AU-4 VC-4 #N Addition of the STM-N MSOH VC-4#N 5 Nx9 6.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 6. Exception: .B2 Z0: to keep accuracy of frame detection to keep accuracy of block check for the increased block size reserved for future international normalization.5 MSOH D6 RSOH .16) row.6 High Rate Multiplexing STM-N Section Overhead N * 9 bytes * A1 B1 D1 * A1 * A1 N * A1 * A1 * A1 * A2 E1 D2 * A2 * A2 * A2 * A2 * A2 * J0 F1 D3 * Z0 * * * * 9 rows N * AU-4 pointers B2 D4 D7 D 10 S1 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D 11 K2 D9 D 12 E2 M1 Bytes reserved for national use. 16. NOTE: All unmarked bytes are reserved for future international normalization (medium dependent. A2 . 64 All OH-Bytes are related to section. additional national use and other purposes). to be used in the event of interoperation with a remote equipment using the module identifier function STM (C1) and with the equipment using the regeneration section trace function. byte Unscrambled bytes. * position (9.A1. 4. 4.5 N = 1. Most of them therefore exists only once.01 Page 6. 9. 3) max (9. Their contents should therefore be monitored. © Alcatel University . block.
01 Page 6.6 High Rate Multiplexing Contiguous Concatenation 270 x 4 = 1080 9 x 4 = 36 261 x 4 = 1044 RSOH STM-4 4 * AU-PTR 9 J1 MSOH Payload VC-4-4c stuffing VC-4 POH N1 6. the other 3 pointers indicate Concatenation Indication (CI): three columns with stuffing bytes H1*+H2**: 1001SS11 11111111 Concatenation Indication (CI): SS: 00 SDH-SONET inter-working 01 SDH © Alcatel University . which allows their combined capacity to be used as a single container.6 .6 Contiguous Concatenation is a procedure associating several virtual containers.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Contiguous Concatenation is defined for TU-2 and AU-4 (SONET: also for AU-3) This technique has the advantage of optimizing the frame filling relative to the mapping of a higher rate container. STM-4 / STM-16 is used to transport a VC-4-Xc signal (SONET: STM-1 for VC-3-3c) Application: for bit streams which can not be contained in a VC-4 typical: ATM signals with a bandwidth of 600 Mbit/s Procedure: the first AU-pointer indicates the J1-byte (POH VC-4).
7 .7 © Alcatel University .6 High Rate Multiplexing Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the multiplexing of STM-1 frames Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 6.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 6.
01 7.7 Usage of SDH Networks © Alcatel University .1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.1 .01 Page 7.
1 Example of SDH Network 7.2 Principle of Partitioning & Layering 7.4 SDH Layer Networks 7.2 .3 Partitioning of Layer Networks & Sub-Networks 7.2 © Alcatel University .7 Relation between Reference Points & Transport Entities 7.6 Definition of reference Points 7.5 Example : Layers used by a Low Order Path 7.01 Page 7.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.7 Usage of SDH Networks Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the layering of SDH Networks program: 7.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 7.7 Usage of SDH Networks Example SDH Network ATM-Equipment ATM VP PDH Equipment 2 Mbit/s SDH-Network -4 ST M PDH Equipment ST M ST M4 M ST -1 6 6 -1 STM-1 ST M -4 34 Mbit/s ST M -4 1 MST ATM VP PDH Equipment ATM Equipment PDH Equipment 7. STM-4 140 Mbit/s ST M M ST 6 -1 -1 6 45 Mbit/s © Alcatel University .3 SDH networks are used to transport PDH signals ATM signals ATM VP: Virtual Path of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode An SDH network can be seen as a set of different network layers (path layers.3 . physical layers) and can also be divided into different sub-networks. section layers.
7 Usage of SDH Networks Principles of Partitioning and Layering
Sub-networks Path layer network Links
Section layer network
Physical layer network
Layering view (client/server association)
Partitioning concept Orthogonal views of layering and partitioning 7.4
Application of the partitioning concept The partitioning concept is important as a framework for defining: the network structure within a layer network administrative boundaries between network operators jointly providing connections within a single layer network domain boundaries within a layer network of a single operator to allow the apportioning of performance objectives to the architectural components routing domain boundaries within the layer network of a single operator the part of a layer network or sub-network that is under the control of a third party for routing purposes (e. g. customer network management) Application of the layering concept The layering concept of the transport network allows: each layer network to be described using similar functions the independent design and operation of each layer network each layer network to have its own operations, diagnostic and automatic failure recovery capability the possibility of adding or modifying a layer network without affecting other layer networks from the architectural viewpoint simple modeling of networks that contain multiple transport technologies
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
7 Usage of SDH Networks Partitioning of layer networks and sub-networks
National part sub-network
International part sub-network
Local part sub-network in a national part sub-network
Transit part sub-network in a national part sub-network 7.5
Partitioning concept In general a sub-network is constructed by representing the physical implementation as links and sub-networks, starting from the matrix that is the smallest (indivisible) sub-network. A set of sub-networks and links may be abstracted as a higher (containing) sub-network. The way in which the contained sub-networks are interconnected by links describes the topology of the containing sub-network. The ports at the boundary of the containing sub-network and the interconnection capability must fully represent, but not extend, the connectivity supported by the contained sub-networks and links. Therefore a higher level sub-network may be partitioned to show the level of detail required. Thus in general, any sub-network may be partitioned into a number of smaller (contained) sub-networks interconnected by links. The partitioning of a sub-network cannot extend or restrict its connectivity i.e.: The ports on the boundary of the containing sub-network and the interconnection capability must be represented by the contained sub-networks and links. The contained sub-networks and links cannot provide connectivity that is not available in the containing sub-network.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
7 Usage of SDH Networks SDH Layer Networks
PDH or ATM VP layer network
Lower-order path layer network Path layer Higher-order path layer network
The transport network can be decomposed into a number of independent layer networks with a client/server relationship between adjacent layer networks. A layer network describes the generation, transport and termination of a particular characteristic information. Client/server relationship Any two adjacent network layers are associated in a client/server relationship. Each transport network layer provides transport to the layer above and uses transport from the layer below. The layer providing transport is termed a server. The layer using transport is termed a client. VC-n path layer The VC-n path layers can be divided into High Order Path layer and Low Order Path layer. They handle the termination of the high- or low order paths. This includes the termination and generation of the POH. Alarms and anomalies transmitted in this part of the signal arise at this layer. On the other direction a new overhead is created and overhead bytes can be added to it. Additionally the incoming signals are mapped into containers and the TUG structure (if necessary) is created. Regenerator section layer/ Multiplex section layer The regenerator/multiplex section layer handles the RSOH/MSOH of the SDH signal. also the AU-pointer is processed.
At multiplex section layer
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
A complete example of Layering is given in appendix C1 A Trail defines a section inside an SDH network between two basic functions where any kind of overhead information (POH+SOH) is generated or analyzed.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. The trail definition exists for several transmission layers: RS Trail (RS layer) / MS Trail (MS layer) VC-4 Trail (HO path layer) VC-3 / VC-12 Trail (LO path layer) A Path is a specific kind of trail inside an SDH network between two basic functions that generate and analyze the Path Overhead (POH) of a Virtual Container. The path definition exists for the following transmission layers: VC-4 path (HO path layer) VC-3 / VC-12 path (LO path layer) © Alcatel University .7 Client/server relationship between adjacent layers is one where a link connection in the client layer is supported by a trail in the server layer network.7 Usage of SDH Networks Example: Layers used by a Low Order Path LO PATH / TRAIL LO LINK CONNECTION HO PATH / TRAIL HO LINK CONNECTION MS TRAIL PHYSICAL CONNECTION HO LINK CONNECTION MS TRAIL PHYSICAL CONNECTION LO LINK CONNECTION HO PATH / TRAIL HO LINK CONNECTION MS TRAIL PHYSICAL CONNECTION NE NE NE NE 7. Client Server Example: link connection trail MS trail supports HO Link Connection HO trail supports LO Link Connection Link Connection: represents a pair of adaptation functions and a trail in the server layer.7 .01 Page 7.
8 Every trail is terminated by an AP: Access Point Adapted Information. The information at the AP is called AI: © Alcatel University . Every connection is terminated by a CTP: Connection Termination Point Two CTPs are combined to a CP: Connection Point.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.7 Usage of SDH Networks Definition of Reference points AP trail AP CTP connection CTP CTP connection CTP CTP connection CTP 7.01 Page 7. the related reference is called a TCP: Termination Connection Point ITU-T definition: A bi-directional TCP consists of a pair of collocated unidirectional TCPs. the payload and some parts of the path/section overhead. if they are connected in the same layer If the information in a CTP is given to/got from a termination function.8 . A unidirectional TCP is the binding of an output of a trail termination source to an input of a unidirectional connection or the output of a unidirectional connection to the input of a trail termination sink.
7 Usage of SDH Networks Relation between Reference Points and Transport Entities NE 1 LOPA source LOP AP LOPT source LOP TCP HOPA source HOP AP HOPT source HOP TCP MSA source MS AP MST source MS TCP RSA source RS AP RST source RS TCP RS LC RS trail MS LC MS trail HOP LC HOP trail LOP LC LOP trail LOPA sink LOP AP LOPT sink LOP TCP HOPA sink HOP AP HOPT sink HOP TCP MSA sink MS AP MST sink MS TCP RSA sink RS AP RST sink RS TCP 7.01 Page 7.9 LC : Link Connection : Adaptation : Termination : Bi-directional Trail Connection The complete functional model (G.9 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.805) is given in Appendix C2. NE 2 LOP layer HOP layer MS layer RS layer © Alcatel University .
10 .10 © Alcatel University .01 Page 7.7 Usage of SDH Networks Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the layering of SDH Networks Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 7.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.8 The Functional Model © Alcatel University .1 .01 Page 8.01 8.
01 Page 8.4 Atomic & Basic Functions in a Network Element 8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 .2 Layer Function : Termination 8.8 The Functional Model Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the functional model in SDH program: 8.3 Layer Function : Connection 8.1 Layer Function : Adaptation 8.2 © Alcatel University .
3 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.3 .8 The Functional Model Layer Function: Adaptation Layer Z Y/Z Y Y/Z Y Layer Y Client Y Server Sink Source Layer X 8.01 Page 8.
8 The Functional Model Layer Function: Termination Layer Z Y/Z Y Y/Z Y Layer Y Client Y Server Sink Source Layer X 8.01 Page 8.4 .4 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
5 .8 The Functional Model Layer Function: Connection Layer Z Y/Z Y Y/Z Y Layer Y Client Y Server Sink Source Layer X 8.01 Page 8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.5 © Alcatel University .
6 .6 © Alcatel University .8 The Functional Model Atomic and Basic Functions in a Network Element LPA Sm/Pq Sms LSUT LTCT Sms LPOM Smm SmD LPT Sm LTCA SmD/Sm Sm LPC LTCM SmDm Low Order Path Layer LPA Sn/Pq Sns HSUT HPT Sn HPA Sn/Sm HTCA SnD/Sn HTCT Sns HPOM Snm SnD Sn HPC HTCM SnDn High Order Path Layer MSA MSP MSn/Sn MSnP MSnPC MSn/MSnP MSn Multiplex Section Layer MST RSn/MSn RST RSn Regenerator Section Layer Physical Layer OSn/RSn or ESn/RSn Eq/Pqs or Eq/Pqx SPI PPI Eq OSn or ESn 8.01 Page 8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
7 .8 The Functional Model Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the functional model in SDH Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 8.01 Page 8.7 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
9 Alarm and Error Handling © Alcatel University .1 .01 9.01 Page 9.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
1 Communication Alarms 9.2 © Alcatel University .9 Alarm and Error Handling Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the way the alarms are managed in an SDH network program: 9.4 Alarm and Error Processing within an NE 9.6 Alarm and Error Processing 9.2 .5 Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes 9.2 Alarm Indication Signal : AIS 9.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.7 Performance Monitoring : PM 9.01 Page 9.8 Tandem Connections 9.3 Remote Defect Indication : RDI 9.
3 Communication alarms can be subdivided in primary and secondary alarms and alarms which have to be send in reversed direction.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. The most common primary alarms are: LOS Loss of Signal LOF Loss of Frame Secondary alarms in forward direction are: AIS Alarm Indication Signal SSF Server Signal Failure: Alarm detected in a Client Layer indicating that in a Server Layer another Alarm has been detected before Secondary alarms in reversed direction are: RDI Remote Defect Indication Errors are bit errors of PM: Performance Monitoring © Alcatel University .3 .01 Page 9.9 Alarm and Error Handling Communication Alarms SDH-Network PDH 140Mbit/s ADM MSN DXC ADM MSN DXC Regenerator ADM MSN DXC PDH 2 Mbit/s 9.
4 AIS: Alarm Indication Signal.AIS RSOH AU-Pointer MSOH 1 P O H 1 1 1 1 TU – AIS 9.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm Indication Signal .4 .AIS RSOH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MS . means the signal is adapted to all ONES It is generated to replace the normal SDH signal when it contains a defect condition In this way it prevents consequential failures or alarms in the following NEs The AIS alarm is send to the following NE in forward direction AIS can be identified as: MS-AIS: Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal the MS-AIS is generated as a consequence of a LOS or LOF on the receiving side of a regenerator element complete payload and MSOH are set to one AU-AIS: Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal AU-AIS is characterized by all ones in the complete Administrative Unit all bits of AU-pointer and payload are set to one TU-AIS: Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal a port that detects a serious alarm on the receiving side generates a TU-AIS all bits of TU-pointer and TU-payload are set to one © Alcatel University .01 Page 9.AIS RSOH 1 MSOH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 AU .
LOF or AIS RDI was previously known as FERF (Far End Receiver Failure) RDI can be identified as: MS-RDI: Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication transmitted via the K2-Byte in the MSOH HP-RDI: High-order Path Remote Defect Indication transmitted via the G1-Byte in the HP-POH LP-RDI: Low-order Path Remote Defect Indication transmitted via the V5-Byte in the LP-POH © Alcatel University .. 1 1 8 G1 G1-Byte HP-RDI V5 1 ..5 RDI: Remote Defect Indication. 8 1 V5-Byte LP-RDI 9.01 Page 9.5 ...9 Alarm and Error Handling Remote Defect Indication . 1 1 1 8 K2 0 K2-Byte MS-RDI . signal which is returned to the transmitting NE upon detecting a LOS.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed..RDI ..
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 .01 RSn Detection MS-AIS Generation AU-AIS TU-AIS TU-LOM TU-PLM LP-UNEQ LP-TIM LP-BIP LP-REI LP-RDI LP-PLM TU-AIS TU-AIS PDH-AIS Page 9.Alarm and Error Processing within an NE Physical Section Layer Regenerator Section Layer Multiplex Section Layer Higher Order Path Layer Lower Order Path Layer Sm/PG Sm Sm Sn/Sm Sn Sn MSn/Sn MSn OSr/ESr LOS A1/A2 J0 B1 K2 B2 M1 K2 LOF RS-TIM RS-BIP MS-AIS MS-BIP MS-REI MS-RDI AU-AIS AU-LOP C2 J1 B3 G1 G1 HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-BIP HP-REI HP-RDI TU-AIS TU-LOP H4 C2 V5 J2 V5 V5 V5 V5 © Alcatel University .
6. 6. VC-m (m = 2. 8 to 10 invalid pointers Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 Covers entire VC-3 C2 = "0" for ³ 5 frames Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in byte J1 Number of detected B3 errors in the sink side encoded in byte G1 (bits 1. Covers entire VC-n VC-3: C2 = "0" for >= 5 frames.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 12): V5 (bit 8) = 1 for ³ z multiframes (z = 3. H2 8 to10 NDF enable. 7) = 000 for ³ 5 multiframes Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in byte J1 (VC-3) or J2 VC-3: Number of detected B3 errors in the sink side encoded in byte G1 (bits 1. 7. 11. 2. 7) Page 9. V2 Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label in byte V5 8 -10 NDF enable. 11. 8) = 110 for ³ z frames (z = 3-5) All "1" in the AU pointer bytes H1. 8) = 111 for ³ 3 frames Number of detected B2 errors in the sink side encoded in byte M1 of the source side K2 (bits 6. byte V5 (bits 3) = 1 on the source side VC-3: G1 (bit 5) = 1 for ³ z frames. A2 incorrect for ³ 625 µs If OOF persists for ³ 3ms (to be defined) Mismatch of the recovered and computed BlP-8 Covers the whole STM-N frame Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in byte J0 Mismatch of the recovered and computed N x BIP-24 covers the whole frame.Explanation of Alarm and Error Codes LOS OOF LOF RS BIP Error RS-TIM Alarm / Error Loss of Signal Out of Frame Loss of Frame Regenerator Section BIP Error (B1) Regenerator Section Trace identifier Mismatch Multiplex Section BIP Error (B2) Multiplex Section AIS Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication Administrative Unit AIS Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer HO Path BIP Error (B3) HO Path Unequipped HO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch HO Path Remote Error Indication HO Path Remote Defect Indication HO Path Payload Label Mismatch Tributary Unit Loss of Multiframe Tributary Unit AIS Tributary Unit Payload Table Mismatch Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer LO Path BIP Error LO Path Unequipped LO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch LO Path Remote Error Indication Detection criteria Drop of incoming optical power level causes high bit error rate A1. 8) multiframe not recovered for X ms X = 1 to 5 ms All "1" in the TU pointer bytes V1.7 MS BIP Error MS-AIS MS-REl MS-RDI AU-AIS AU-LOP HP BIP Error HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-REI HP-RDI HP-PLM TU-LOM TU-AIS TU-PLM TU-LOP LP BIP Error LP-UNEQ LP-TIM LP-REI LP-RDI LO Path Remote Defect Indication LO Path Payload Label Mismatch LP-PLM © Alcatel University . 5 or 10) Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label in byte C2 or V5 (bits 5. except RSOH K2 (bits 6. VC-m (m = 2. 12): If one or more BIP-2 errors detected in the sink side. 4) of the source side G1 (bit 5) = 1 for ³ z frames (z = 3. 12): V5 (bits 5. 4) of the source side. 11. 3. VC-m (m = 2. 7. 2). 2.01 . 8-10 Invalid pointers Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 (B3) or BIP-2 (V5 bits 1. 3. 5 or 10) Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label in byte C2 H4 (bits 7.
01 Page 9.8 Regenerator Section: between regenerators Multiplex Section: between multiplexers Trail / Path: End to End connection Examples for errors: Interruption of a line No input signal Failure of a NE © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.9 Alarm and Error Handling Example Network SDH-Network PDH 140Mbit/s ADM MSN DXC ADM MSN DXC Regenerator Section Multiplex Section Trail / Path Regenerator ADM MSN DXC PDH 2 Mbit/s Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Multiplex Section 9.8 .
level STM-1 Optical Section layer.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. In a multiplexer also the MSOH is rebuilt and the output then is an AU-AIS. © Alcatel University . level STM-1 Performance Monitoring Regenerator Section layer.01 Page 9.9 MS1 OS1 PM RS1 Multiplex Section layer.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm and Error Processing in a Regenerator RS1 / MS1 RS1 / MS1 OS1 / RS1 OS1 / RS1 OS1 OS1 RS1 RS1 LOS LOF RS-TIM RS-BIP(PM) MS-AIS MS-AIS RSOH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Detection Generation 9.9 . level STM-1 The regenerator is the only NE which can cause the MS-AIS alarm because the RSOH is built completely new.
10 MS1 OS1 PM RS1 S4 Multiplex Section layer.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm and Error Processing in a Multiplexer: VC-4 Passthrough RS1 / MS1 RS1 / MS1 OS1 / RS1 Detection OS1 / RS1 MS1 / S4 MS1 / S4 MS1 MS1 MS-AIS MS-BIP (PM) MS-REI (PM) MS-RDI OS1 OS1 RS1 RS1 S4 LOS LOF RS-TIM RS-BIP(PM) AU-AIS MS-AIS AU-AIS RSOH 1 MSOH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Generation 9. level STM-1 Optical Section layer. level STM-1 Performance Monitoring Regenerator Section layer.10 .01 Page 9. level STM-1 VC-4 path layer © Alcatel University .
11 .11 MS1 PM S4 Multiplex Section layer.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm and Error Processing in a Multiplexer: VC-4 Termination MS1 / S4 S4 / S12 MS1 S4 S4 S12 AU-AIS TU-AIS AU-AIS AU-LOP HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-BIP (PM) HP-REI (PM) HP-RDI TU-AIS TU-AIS RSOH AU-Pointer MSOH 1 P O H 1 1 1 1 Detection Generation 9.01 Page 9. level STM-1 Performance Monitoring VC-4 path layer © Alcatel University .
HP-RDI NE B: NE C: detection: LP-RDI © Alcatel University . A. AU-AIS.01 Page 9.12 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.12 Assumptions: Bi-directional 2Mbit/s-Path between NE C and NE D via NE B. HP-RDI. TU-AIS.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm Processing via a complete Network: Path fault 2Mbit/s NE A LO-passthrough NE B HO-passthrough NE C LOS Reg. generation: PDH-AIS Alarms in direction D → C : NE D: generation: MS-RDI. F. E Path fault: Unidirectional interruption (C → D) in section A-F Alarms in direction C → D : NE F: detection: generation: MS-AIS NE E: NE D: detection: LOS MS-AIS. F Reg. E NE D 9. LP-RDI NE E: NE F: NE A: detection: MS-RDI.
E Reference fault: Loss of input signal Alarms in direction C → D : NE C: detection: LOS NE D: generation: PDH-AIS © Alcatel University . E NE D 9. A. F Reg.9 Alarm and Error Handling Alarm Processing via a complete Network: Reference fault 2Mbit/s LOS NE A LO-passthrough NE B HO-passthrough NE C Reg.01 Page 9.13 Assumptions Unidirectional 2Mbit/s-Path between NE C and NE D via NE B. F.13 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
number of block errors per second 8.000 8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP).000 * N (STM-N) 8. 16. 4.000 B3 (HP-POH) VC-4 VC-3 VC-12 Multiframe V5 (LP-POH) 2.01 Page 9.14 Performance Monitoring (PM) is used to monitor the signal quality The signal quality depends on the occurrence of: Bit Errors = Anomalies Alarms = Defects The performance parameters are based upon the measurement of Blocks: a set of consecutive bits associated with the path and the section Each block is monitored by calculating a checksum e.9 Alarm and Error Handling PM Basics Error checksum B1 (RSOH) Block size STM-N max.000 B2 (MSOH) 801 bits * N 192. VC-12 or VC-11 path (LP) B3 V5 = = © Alcatel University . 64) BIP24 STM-1 BIP96 STM-4 BIP384 STM-16 BIP1536 STM-64 BIP8 for VC-4 or VC-3 path (HP) 2 bits perform a BIP2 of VC-2.000 9.14 . These block errors can be monitored on several layers inside each NE: B1 B2 = = BIP8 for a regeneration section N*BIP24 for a multiplex section (N= 1.g.
A second containing one or more errored blocks.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.15 Errored Block (EB) Errored Second (ES) Block containing one or more errored bits. Errored block (EB) occurring outside a severely © Alcatel University . Background Block Errors (BBE) errored second (SES).15 .01 Page 9. A second containing at least 30% of errored blocks Severely Errored Second (SES) or at least one defect.9 Alarm and Error Handling Principles of data collection Monitored seconds Defects ? Yes No No Anomalies ? Yes % EB >= 30 ? Yes No cES = cES + 1 cES = cES + 1 cBBE = cBBE + EB(s) cSES = cSES + 1 Extracted from G 826 End 9.
16 .16 Unavailable Time (UAT) time.9 Alarm and Error Handling Definition of Unavailability x t in sec 10 sec < 10 sec < 10 sec 10 sec Unavailable Time (UAT) Available Time Begin of detection: ES := ES .01 Page 9.10 UAS := UAS + 10 Inhibition of counters: ES / SES / (BBE) SES ES which is not a SES Non errored second End of detection: ES := ES + x SES := SES UAS := UAS .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of unavailable A new period of the onset of 10 consecutive non-SES events. A period of unavailable time (UAT) begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SES events.10 SES := SES .10 9. available time begins at Unavailable Second (UAS) Time (UAT). An unavailable second (UAS) is a second which is part of the Unavailable © Alcatel University .
17 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.17 Near End counters are incremented if in the received STM-N frame anomalies (bit errors) or defects (alarms) have been detected. Far End counters are incremented if the transmitted STM-N frame was erroneous: anomalies (bit errors) or defects (alarms).9 Alarm and Error Handling Near End / Far End counters STM-N with errors NE A NE B STM-N with REI Far End Counters: FEBBE FEES FESES FEUAS Near End Counters: BBE ES SES UAS 9. is informed about the bit errors by receiving Remote Error Indications (REI) MS-REI: HP-REI: detected in B3 LP-REI: M1-Byte inside MSOH contains the number of erroneous blocks detected in B2 G1-Byte (Bits 1 to 4) of HP-POH contains the number of erroneous blocks V5-Byte (Bit 5) of LO-POH: there is the indication if BIP2 errors are detected (<>0) The transmitting Network Element is informed about the alarms by receiving Remote Defect Indications (RDI) © Alcatel University . The Network Element which is transmitting an errored signal.01 Page 9.
01 Page 9.783).8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. in 1996 (G.707) © Alcatel University .18 .18 In transmission networks it is normal that signals are transported over multiple domains managed by different network operators The signal is entering the network at the Path Source (SDH POH is added) and leaves the network at the Path Sink (SDH POH is terminated) Statistic models assume that within each domain and inter-domain link equally distributed bit errors are inserted into the signal Problem: It is not possible to check the performance of domain1 and domain 2 or the link between the two domains Usage of the Performance Monitoring counters on path basis would indicate only the overall bit errors without any hint where and how many bit errors are introduced Solution: Tandem Connection Monitoring is the solution for this problem The TCM standards were approved by the ITU-T in 2000 (G.9 Alarm and Error Handling Why Tandem Connections VCn-Path Path Source Path Sink Domain 1 [total biterrors] Inter Domain Link Domain 2 Bit errors added in domain 2 Bit errors added between domain 1 and domain 2 Bit errors added in domain 1 Bit errors added before domain 1 Near end bit errors counted by path monitor (PM) [location] 9.
© Alcatel University . Tandem Connection (TC) monitors the performance (bit errors and alarms) on a configurable fragment of the path. “Egressing TC” or “TCT TX”. Full PM is supported TCs are applicable for VC12 / VC3 / VC4 / VC4-nc signals In the example above the operator created three Tandem Connections for supervising the performance of the signal in a specific domain TC1 counts only bit errors that have been added in Domain1. a inter domain link) The functions TC1 sk and TC2 sk are created behind matrix. Each operator can decide where and when to use a TC. This TC supervises a domain external signal arriving at the domain ingress (e. The function TC12 sk (sink) is created before matrix. therefore this TC is called “TC Before Matrix”.19 The complete VCn path is virtually split into fragments. TCs are independent from each other. “Ingressing TC”or “TCT RX” .9 Alarm and Error Handling Function of Tandem Connections VCn-Path TC 1 TC 12 TC 2 Path Source Path Sink Domain 1 Domain 2 Inter Domain Link sk so sk so sk [total biterrors] so so: source sk: sink Near end bit errors counted by Tandem Connections (TC) [location] 9. therefore they are called “TC After Matrix”. TC12 counts only bit errors that have been added on the Inter Domain Link TC2 counts only bit errors that have been added in Domain2.01 Page 9. This type of TCs allow to supervise a domain internal signal shortly before the domain egress.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. where an independent monitor considers only effects on this fragment.19 .g.
76: FAS 64*2 Bit= 16Byte TC-TI TC-RDI ODI all ‘0’ 9.8 contains several information in a multi frame (consisting of 76 frames) FAS Frame Alignment Signal TC-TI Tandem Connection . for the VC12 path the N2 byte of the VC12 multiframe is used Every modification of the N1 byte has to be compensated so that no BIP failure occurs because of this modification N1byte: Bit 1 .20 Existing path is not affected by the TC.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.20 .01 Page 9.4 contains number of errors in the signal before the TC starts (range=0-8) calculated via 8 bits of BIP8 (B3 byte) Bit 5: Remote Error Indication (REI) is used to indicate block errors to the TC-source. necessary for Far End PM Bit 6: Outgoing Error Indication (OEI) necessary for counting of outgoing Far End PM data Bit 7 . which is transparent for the path layer For a working TC it´s necessary that the start and end point exchanges management information in a bidirectional way.Remote Defect Indication ODI Outgoing Defect Indication © Alcatel University . VC-3) J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 Payload N1 used for TCs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Number of bit errors detected by TC source REI OEI frame 1-8: frame 9-72: frame 73: frame 74: frame 75.Trail Identification TC-RDI Tandem Connection.9 Alarm and Error Handling Overhead Bytes used for Tandem Connections Virtual Container (VC-4. Therefore TC uses a part of the already existing Path Overhead (POH) For the VC4 or the VC3 path the N1 byte is used (see figure above).
(N1 value). to find out how many bit errors happened inside Domain 1 on the VC-4 path TC Source of NE 1 calculates arriving bit errors (BBE = 2) and inserts the number into Bit1-4 of the N1 byte Between NE 1 and NE x 4 additional bit errors occur TC Sink of NE x calculates the current bit errors: 2+4=6 of the signal (using BIP). NE_BBE: 6 . These are called “outgoing bit errors” because they’re in the outgoing signal of the TC Sink TC Sink of NE x calculates the bit errors on TC segment: (bit errors detected) .2 =4 SDH port N1=0 Path SPI RST MST MSA TC after Matrix TC after Matrix SPI RST MST MSA N1=0 Path N1=0 SPI RST MST MSA NE 1 NE x SPI RST MST MSA N1=0 Domain 1 9.21 .2 =4 As for the path we have signaling information to do Far End PM on bidirectional TCs: NE_BBE sent in backward direction as REI (Remote Error Indication) Alarms on the TC Segment sent in backward direction as RDI (Remote Defect Indication) Outside an TC the N1 byte is set to 0 to indicate that no TC is created on this path segment © Alcatel University .21 Example: In NE 1 and NE x of Domain 1 a “TC after Matrix” is configured.9 Alarm and Error Handling Tandem Connection Termination: TCT TC 1 (Egressing Tandem Connection) BBE = 2 N1:=2 SDH port BBE = 6 N1 = 2 NE_BBE := 6 .01 Page 9.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
(N1 == 0.9 Alarm and Error Handling Tandem Connection Monitoring: TCM Before Matrix TCm RX After Matrix TCm TX SPI RST MST MSA TC Path SPI RST MST MSA SDH Port SDH Port 9. The following creation rules have to be fulfilled: NO “Nesting” allowed NO “Overlapping” allowed “Cascading” is allowed The TC Monitor function (same as the TC sink) is able to detect: Bit errors Alarms SSF: Server Signal Failure. no TC info received) LTC: Loss of Tandem Connection. (N1 <> 0 and no multi frame detected) TC-TIM: Tandem Connection Trail Identifier Mismatch (difference between expected received TC-identifier) DEG: Degraded Signal. (TC bit errors exceeds the degraded threshold) and © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.22 . (consequence of a Loss of Pointer (LOP)) UNEQ: Unequipped.01 Page 9.22 Additional to the Tandem Connection Termination (Source and Sink function) a Monitor function can be used for: TCM before Matrix (TCm RX) to supervise for example the TC of a inter domain link TCM after Matrix (TCm TX) to supervise for example the TC of a domain Creation of TC terminations without failures.
23 © Alcatel University .9 Alarm and Error Handling Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the way the alarms are managed in an SDH network Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 9.01 Page 9.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.23 .
1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.1 .01 10.10 Protection and Restoration © Alcatel University .
3 Network Restoration 10.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.10 Protection and Restoration Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the different kinds of protection in SDH program: 10.2 Network Protection 10.1 Equipment Protection : EPS 10.01 Page 10.2 .2 © Alcatel University .
01 Page 10. Control and Power Conversion Part System is protected via EPS (1+1) All electrical I/O boards are optionally protected via EPS (1:N) Multiplex Section Protection .3 Equipment Protection Switching (EPS): The Matrix.10 Protection and Restoration Equipment Protection: EPS Equipment Protection Switching (EPS) Multiplex Section Protection Linear Trail (MSP) W W W 2 W 2 W W P P P P 1+1 1:N 1+1 Protection against equipment failure and line failure Protection against equipment failure 10.3 .Linear Trail (MSP) Contains two kinds of protection Equipment protection inside the NE Line protection between two adjacent multiplex elements (further information is provided in Chapter "Network Protection") All optical I/O boards inside the NE are optionally protected via MSP (1+1) © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. Clock.
4 The 1+1 EPS protection type means that one working equipment is protected by one redundant equivalent.10 Protection and Restoration EPS 1+1 Equipment 1 Equipment 2 10. © Alcatel University . The mode of 1+1 EPS protection is non revertive.01 Page 10.4 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. The EPS mechanism ensures that transmission is continued and the faulty equipment can be exchanged should equipment failure occur.
5 The 1:N EPS protection type means that N working pieces of equipment are protected by just 1 protecting equivalent. During normal operation without equipment failure the protecting equipment is inactive.01 Page 10. © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.5 .10 Protection and Restoration EPS 1:N Equipment 1 Line 1 Equipment 2 Line 2 Equipment N Line N Equipment P 10. The mode of 1:N EPS protection is revertive.
10 Protection and Restoration Protection Mechanisms against Network Faults Item to be protected Protection architecture Protection mechanism SNCP/I connection dedicated to a Path Linear structure SNCP/N Linear structure Linear MSP Section Ring structure MS-SPRING 10. Protection mechanisms at path level: SNCP/N. selection of the best signal.6 . Section protection mechanisms on a linear network: Linear MSP redundancy at section level between two nodes.01 Page 10.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. SNCP/I broadcast of the signal to be transported.6 MSP MS-SPRING SNCP/N SNCP/I Multiplex Section Protection (linear) Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring Sub Network Connection Protection with non intrusive monitoring Sub Network Connection Protection with inherent monitoring The protection mechanisms are defined by ETSI and ITU-T at section or path level. ring network: MS-SPRING loopback to bypass the section declared faulty. © Alcatel University .
and selected upon reception.01 Page 10.7 . non revertive: traffic is switched back to the working channel when the fault has disappeared. SNCP is also called PPS: Path Protection Switching 2 operating modes: revertive: has elapsed. Signal is broadcasted on the working and protecting path.7 SNCP: Sub Network Connection Protection is performed on the path (VC-n) level Dedicated protection mechanism: 1+1.protecting path 10. © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. once the wait-to-restore time (5 to 12 minutes) no switch back.10 Protection and Restoration Sub Network Connection Protection: SNCP Sub Network selection broadcast VC-n VC-n broadcast selection Sub Network _____ working path ----.
8 . Switching criteria .protecting path 10.10 Protection and Restoration SNCP: switch criteria Sub Network Switching criteria (external commands) Switching criteria (automatic) Sub Network _____ working path ----.01 Page 10.External commands: protection mechanism lock forced protection switching manual protection switching forced switching to the normal channel manual switching to the normal channel © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.8 SNCP/I: Sub Network Connection Protection with inherent monitoring.Automatic: SNCP-I: LOS LOF LOP AU-/TU-AIS SNCP-N: LOS LOF LOP AU-/TU-AIS HP-/LP-UNEQ HP-/LP-E-BER HP-/LP-DEG HP-/LP-TIM B3-/BIP-2-SD Switching criteria . SNCP/N: Sub Network Connection Protection with non intrusive monitoring.
01 Page 10.9 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.10 Protection and Restoration Section Protection on a Linear Network: MSP NE A Multiplex Section Working T X RX Protecting 1+1 protection NE B T X T X High priority line Working Low priority line Protecting RX RX 1:1 protection T X T X Working Working Protecting RX 1:N protection X RX 10. non revertive protection for low priority purpose which is suspended in case of protection event. revertive The configuration as 1:1 protection is used in the case of APS: Automatic Protection Switching EPS: Equipment Protection Switching Switching criteria: MS-AIS LOS LOF © Alcatel University .9 Protection called MSP: Multiplex Section Protection MSP (linear) is also called APS: Automatic Protection Switching Protection strategies 1+1 = 1 plus 1 1: N = 1 for N dedicated to protection capacity can be used.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.10 The signal is transmitted simultaneously on both lines: broadcast The receiving signal is selected on reception. Maximal useful rate: rate of a single line 1 + 1 protection may be single ended without using protocol K1 K2 1 + 1 protection is a dual ended protection when protocol K1 K2 (MSOH) is used: used for spare connection for both directions © Alcatel University .10 Protection and Restoration MSP 1+1 broadcast selection TX Line A RX Multiplex section RX Line B TX selection broadcast 10.10 .01 Page 10.
the protecting line may be used for “extra traffic”: low priority line Maximal useful rate = sum of both lines’ rates.11 .10 Protection and Restoration MSP 1:1 TX TX RX RX High priority line RX RX TX TX Multiplex section TX extra traffic RX TX RX Low priority line RX TX RX extra traffic TX 10.11 When the protected/working line operates normally.01 Page 10. EPS: a spare unit/board fully replaces a faulty unit/board © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
Switching criteria: MS-AIS / LOS / LOF © Alcatel University . The communication protocol must enable the installation of up to 16 nodes in a ring.12 Protection called MS-SPRING: Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring it enables a larger flow of traffic to be processed than with other resources Shared Protection: protection architecture in which m protection entities are shared between n traffic entities (m:n). normal channels and protection channels: 8 working AU4 #1-8 and 8 protection AU4 #9-16 for STM-16 fiber When ring switching is invoked. Principle: Purpose: LOOPBACK to bypass the sections declared faulty Share the same protection among different resources Two types of ring with MS-SPRING: 2-fiber ring and 4-fiber ring for STM-16 fiber Two-fiber rings with shared protection: Each fiber simultaneously carries both. The ring protection switching protocol is performed by the K1 and K2 bytes in the protection channels MSOH.10 Protection and Restoration Section Protection on a Ring Network: MS-SPRING (2 fiber) Overview of the ring Node A Node B Node D Node C Node A Transmission direction Section overhead Normal traffic channels Protection channels Section overhead Normal traffic channels Protection channels Node B Detailed view of the ring STM-16 fiber: Normal channel: AU4 #1-8 Protection channel: AU4 #9-16 10. the VCs which carry the normal channels are switched over to the VCs carrying the normal or the protection channels going in the opposite direction. Protection entities may be used to transport additional traffic.12 .01 Page 10.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
NE4.13 Signal flow through NEs: without failure: NE1. 4th. NE3. NE5.10 Protection and Restoration Two fiber MS-SPRING: failure study PROTECTED SIGNAL SWITCH BRIDGE SWITCH BRIDGE Failure 1 6 2 5 3 4 (*) (*) (*) WORKING CHANNELS PROTECTING CHANNELS 1 fiber carries both type of channels (*) All protecting AU-4 are put in passthrough in the 1st.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. NE 3.01 Page 10. NE4 with failure in NE 2: NE1. NE1. NE2. NE2.13 . 5th and 6th NE PROTECTED SIGNAL 10. NE4 BRIDGE: function) SWITCH: sends the traffic of the working channel additionally to the opposite port via the protecting channel (broadcast uses for receiving traffic the protecting channels of the opposite port (selection function) © Alcatel University . NE6.
4f-MS-SPRING supports: span switching ring switching A fault condition present only on the working link determines a SPAN PROTECTION: High Priority traffic is restored by switching to the protection channels of the same span. Switching criteria: MS-AIS / LOS / LOF © Alcatel University . Four-fiber rings enable ring switching for protection purposes. A fault condition present on both working and protection links determines a RING PROTECTION: The High Priority traffic travelling the failed span is restored by switching to the protection channels travelling in the opposite direction (away from the failure).14 Four fibers for each ring span.14 . as well as span switching. The normal and the protection channels are materialized on different fibers.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10. but not both simultaneously.10 Protection and Restoration Span Protection on a Ring Network: MS-SPRING (4 fiber) Overview of the ring Node A Node B Node D Node C Fiber carrying the normal traffic Fiber carrying the protection traffic Node A Transmission direction Node B Section overhead Normal traffic channels Detailed view of the ring Section overhead Protection channels Section overhead Normal traffic channels Section overhead Protection channels 10.
15 .15 SPAN switching: the protection channels of the affected span are used to carry the working channels.01 Page 10. When the working channel operates normally.10 Protection and Restoration Four fiber MS-SPRING: failure study Failure 1 2 3 6 5 4 Working channel Protection channel 1 fiber carries one type of channel Normal path Path after span failure 10. The corresponding low priority connections (protection channel) crossing the span are preempted (AU-AIS insertion on LP paths). the protecting channel may be used for “extra traffic”: low priority line / traffic © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
16 An alternative approach to the network protection is the network restoration. With its knowledge about the routes and bearers of the network as well as of the current interconnections it can recalculate alternative routings for possible network failures. In case of a failure. AFECD The recalculated cross connection commands are sent to the relevant DXC which immediately performs them. © Alcatel University . The networks contains extra capacity which can be used for the recovery of any failed traffic.16 .g. the SDH Network Manager analyses the location of the failure and initiates the relevant restoration scenario: Working circuit path: ABCD Failure on section: BC NMS decides optimum routing: e. The spare capacity can be reduced drastically compared to the 1+1 protection scenarios. reported from one (or several) DXC.01 Page 10.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. DXC supports together with SDH Network Manager a restorable network providing: Path restoration on VC-n level MSP and SNCP SNCP protection and restoration combined All the VC-n connections of the network are configured and supervised by the SDH Network Manager.10 Protection and Restoration Network Restoration Failure VC-n A B C VC-n D F E A few seconds later Failure VC-n A B C VC-n D DXC F E any NE 10.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 10.17 © Alcatel University .10 Protection and Restoration Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the different kinds of protection in SDH Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 10.17 .
1 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 11.8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01 Page 11.11 Network Synchronisation © Alcatel University .1 © Alcatel University .
3 Synchronisation Diagram 11.11 Network Synchronisation Session presentation Objective: to be able to describe the principles of synchronisation of SDH networks program: 11.01 Page 11.6 Linear Networks without SSM 11.1 Synchronisation Distribution 11.5 Synchronisation Signals : Quality and Priority 11.2 © Alcatel University .7 Linear Network with SSM 11.4 Synchronous Equipment Timing 11.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.2 .2 Clocks Types and Distribution in the Network 11.
11 Network Synchronisation Synchronization Distribution PRC SSU SSU SSU 11. Master-Slave synchronization: The PRC provides synchronization to the first node hierarchical level These nodes provide synchronization to the next hierarchical level Stability and precision level defined for each level.3 . This plan indicates the way each NE is synchronized. A synchronization plan must be set up to ensure that synchronous NEs in a network really run synchronously.3 PRC: SSU: Primary Reference Clock Synchronization Supply Unit The synchronization networks architecture must accept faults (path cutoffs. one acting as the master and the others as slaves. an NE receives a sync signal it has generated. via a sequence of slave clocks.01 Page 11.e. Strictly forbidden are synchronization loops: i. Degradation of the PRC due to the justification during multiplexing of a higher-order signal (jitter). 4 levels maximum The PRC is doubled (tripled in some countries) on different sites (for safety). equipment failures) providing auxiliary paths and spare clock systems.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University .
813): 10-8 / day frequency drift (1 slip in 3.811): Rubidium-clock or GPS: 10-11 / day frequency drift (1 slip in 145 days) (Cesium-clock: 10-13 / day frequency drift) SSU Synchronization Supply Unit (G.46 h) 1 1 PRC SEC SEC SSU SEC SEC SEC 60 10 SSU SEC SEC SEC SEC 1 20 11.4 Do not exceed 60 network elements in total SSU is used for refreshing synchronization signals after 20 network elements No more than 10 SSU in a chain The PRC provides the best clock accuracy.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.11 Network Synchronisation Clock types and distribution in the Network PRC Primary Reference Clock (G. Holdover Mode: If the NE looses its reference clock.812T (SSU A): Local node: 10-9 / day frequency drift G.812): Transit node: G. it enters the Holdover Mode to provide synchronization at the last average of the phase locked frequency Free running Mode: The NE operates at the frequency of its own generator/oscillator without timing reference any © Alcatel University .01 Page 11.812L (SSU B): 2*10-8 / day frequency drift SEC Synchronous Equipment Clock (G. which decreases via the SSU up to the SEC The SSUs are located at strategic nodes: they are designed to filter the accumulated jitter and wander and have good stability in holdover mode.4 .
A synchronization link has three parts: The 2-MHz link between the SSU and SEC (T3 access). The 2-MHz link between the last SEC (T4 access) and the SSU. SDH sections transmitting the synchronization and the SSM: Message (indicates quality of transmitted clock) Synchronization Status © Alcatel University .5 .11 Network Synchronisation Synchronization Diagram PRC level PRC PRC SSU SSU SSU level SSU SSU SSU SSU SSU SSU SEC level NE MSP NE containing SSU 11.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.5 The lines of the SSU level represent the synchronization links carried by the STM-N signals.01 Page 11.
T2. reference inputs Selector © Alcatel University . T3) are possible. LOF. clock signal send to another NE SETG Squelch Synchronous Equipment Timing Generator (PLL) Function used to inhibit a clock below a certain quality level (e.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. degraded errors rate) Selection of timing reference according SSM algorithm (manual selection by operator is also possible) synchronization source.6 Depending on specific NE more reference inputs (T1. T0 SDH equipment internal clock T1 2 MHz signal derived from an STM-N port (SDH) T2 2 MHz signal derived from a 2 Mbit/s port (PDH) T3 2 MHz signal of external clock (coming from: separate clock network / SSU / PRC) T4 Sync output of an SDH equipment. g.11 Network Synchronisation Synchronous Equipment Timing optional SSU Selector A Squelch Selector T4 C reference inputs T1 T2 T3 Selector SETG B Squelch T0 Oscillator 11.01 Page 11. MS-AIS. in case of signal faults of the reference signal) upon detection of signal faults (LOS.6 .
7 .812L source STM-N signals with a G. priority table: each reference input is given a certain priority (by operator) If the SSM (Synchronization Status Message) is not managed.01 Page 11.813 source Not to be used for synchronization © Alcatel University . If a port is selected as the synchronization reference. selection via Quality and Priority 11. its output carries an S1-byte whose quality is QL6: value is ‘1111’ (don’t use) to avoid sync loops.11 Network Synchronisation Synchronization Signals: Quality and Priority NE A S1:SEC S1:PRC T1A S1:PRC T1B Quality * T1A T1B T1C T2 T3 internal 2 MHz signal.7 Selection criteria: SSM indicates quality level (QL) of each T1 reference. only the priority table is taken into account and the transmitted qualities have QL6: not to be used for synchronization.811 source STM-N signals with a G. Quality Levels: S1-byte 0000 0010 0100 1000 1011 1111 Clock --PRC SSU-Transit SSU-Local SEC --- QL2: QL1: QL3: QL4: QL5: QL6: Quality unknown (invalid) STM-N signals with a G. external clock T3 S1-Byte S1-Byte S1-Byte SSU PRC SEC Priority 1 (highest) 2 3 4 5 0 (lowest) T1 (PRC) * SEC S1:PRC S1:PRC T1 NE C * T2 SEC NE B S1:PRC T1 S1:Don‘t use * S1:Don‘t use T1C S1:PRC S1:PRC PDH: 2 Mbit/s T2 SEC * : Selected Clock.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.812T source STM-N signals with a G.
priority 1 T1 from E.8 Correct NE configuration / Without faults: In a linear network. priority 2 : Sync-loops in case of failure Ring Networks without SSM: see Appendix B1 © Alcatel University . Incorrect NE configuration: T1 from W.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. all NE extract their synchronization from the West (or East) STM and switch to holdover mode if the link is lost (no sync loops).11 Network Synchronisation Linear Networks without SSM W Without faults E W E W E W Correct E W E W E Equipment in holdover mode W Incorrect E W E W E Sync loop 11.8 .01 Page 11.
9 Initially W (West) ports have the highest quality level Configuration of Network elements: NE synchronization source.9 .01 Page 11. reference input taken from T3 from PRC T1 from E Prio Quality Level PRC S1-Byte S1-Byte S1-Byte S1-Byte SSU 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2..8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed..11 Network Synchronisation Linear Networks with SSM PRC PRC PRC PRC PRC 1 1 E PRC W E PRC W E PRC W E 1111 2 1 1 1 E SEC SEC W E SEC W E SEC W 2 2 E SEC W E SEC W E SEC W 2 E SSU W E 1111 W E 1111 W 2 1111 3 1111 4 W E SEC W E PRC W 1111 3 1111 3 1111 3 SSU 3 1111 4 1111 4 SSU 4 SSU 4 SSU phase 1 SSU phase 2 SSU phase 4 SSU phase 5 SSU phase 7 Equipment in holdover mode 11.3 T1 from W T1 from E 4 T1 from W T3 from SSU Ring Networks with SSM: see appendix B2 © Alcatel University .
10 © Alcatel University .10 .11 Network Synchronisation Evaluation Objective: to be able to describe the principles of synchronisation of SDH networks Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 11.01 Page 11.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
1 .01 12.01 Page 12.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.1 © Alcatel University .12 Optical Interfaces © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.
01 Page 12.2 .4 Laser Operation Actions 12.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.12 Optical Interfaces Session presentation Objective: to be able to list the optical interfaces used in SDH program: 12.1 Classification of Optical Interfaces 12.3 Automatic laser Shutdown : ALS 12.2 © Alcatel University .2 Laser Safety 12.
64 Suffix number1 or blank: 2: 3: 1310 nm (G.2 L-1.2 JE L-16.2 JE L-64.653 <2 I-1 I-4 I-16 I-64 S-1.1 S-16. S. L STM level 1.1 ~ 15 S.1 S-4.653) Three main application categories: Intra-station (I): Inter-station (S: Short-haul): Inter-station (L: Long-haul): distances of less than approximately 2 km distances of approximately 15 km distances of approximately 40 km with 1310 nm distances of approximately 80 km with 1550 nm If these categories are inadequate.1 L-16. Inter-station Joint Engineering (JE) shall be used: distances of approximately 90 km with 1550 nm The distances are used for classification and NOT specification purposes.2 JE L-4. 4.3 L-4.3 L-64.3 L-16.652 / G. 16. km) STM-1 STM-4 STM level STM-16 STM-64 1310 1550 G.2 L-4.01 Page 12.1 S-64.652 G.3 Classification of optical interfaces according to G.1-2 S.1 L-4.652) 1550 nm (G.4-2 S.652 G.12 Optical Interfaces Classification of Optical Interfaces Inter-station Short-haul 1310 1550 1310 G.652 G.2 L-64.654 ~ 80 L-1.64-2 ~ 40 L-1.2 L-16.Z Application I.1 ~ 90 L-1.654) 1550 nm (G.957 Application code: X: Y: Z: X-Y.652 G.3 .1 L-64. © Alcatel University .2 JE 12.16-2 S.652 G.3 Long-haul 1550 Joint Engineering Application Intrastation Rated source wavelength (nm) Fiber type recommendation Distance (max.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
12 Optical Interfaces Laser Safety Laser classifications complying with IEC 69825-2 Board Application Code complying with ITU-T REC.1 (Long Haul 1310 nm) 1 L-16. X dBm = 10 x/10 mW 0 dBm = 1 mW © Alcatel University . G.2JE1 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 L-16.1 (Long Haul 1310 nm) 1 S-16.4 They might be different from laser classifications complying with IEC 60825-1: The reason is that hazard levels are assigned under consideration of reasonable events whereas laser classification is made under consideration of one single fault.2 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 L-16.2JE2 (Long Haul 1550 nm) 1 OA-10 / OA-13 / OA-15 1 (if ALS is activated) 1 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A Hazard level limits for single mode fibers with 11 µm mode field diameter Wavelength 1310 nm 1550 nm Hazard Level 1 8.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. The optical transmitters and amplifiers used in the system emit optical power in the invisible infra-red spectrum range. without optical fibers connected to the output and taking one single component failure into account.5 dBm) 10 mW (+10 dBm) Hazard Level 3A 24 mW (+13. The hazard levels of optical transmitters and optical amplifiers in the system are classified according to IEC 60825-1.4 .957 Hazard Level complying with IEC 60825-2 Laser Classification complying with IEC 60825-1 STM-1 optical STM-16 OA: Optical Amplifier S-1.1 (Short Haul 1310 nm) 1 L-16.8 dBm) 50 mW (+17 dBm) 12.85 mW (+9.01 Page 12. the optical power is transferred in the fibers and is not accessible.1 (Short Haul 1310 nm) 1 L-1. Under normal operating conditions.
4. cut-off LOS 1 (detected in NE2) ALS (command sent to Laser2 in NE2) LOS 2 (detected in NE1) ALS (command sent to Laser1 in NE1) © Alcatel University . 5.01 Page 12.12 Optical Interfaces Automatic Laser Shutdown: ALS NE 1 Port A Cutoff Laser1 NE 2 LOS 1 Port B A.5 .5 ALS: Automatic Laser Shutdown A cut-off which triggers a Loss of Signal (LOS) causes the laser in the opposite direction to be turned off automatically.L. Timing: 1.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 2. command Laser2 LOS 2 12.L.S. 3. command A.S.
put into a low power state or disconnected before any work is started on exposed fiber. Do not stare directly into the beam or use any unapproved collimating device to view the fiber ends or connector faces or point them at other people. Use test equipment of the lowest class necessary and practical for the task. Do not use test equipment of a higher class than the location hazard level.12 Optical Interfaces Laser restart management Start Automatic laser shutdown Section in normal operation ALS in service Automatic Restart Manual restart Manual restart for testing Yes Signal received from remote end ? No Timeout (60-300)s No Loss of transmitted signal for t > = (550 ± 50) ms ? Yes Laser in operation for (2 ± 0. Always attach end caps to unmated connectors. etc. connectors. They shall not be readily visible and sharp ends shall not be exposed.6 The following working practices are strongly recommended: Where possible. When using optical test cords. Check the optical power in a fiber only by using a calibrated optical power meter. the optical power source shall be the last to be connected and the first to be disconnected.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.6 . optical transmission or test equipment should be shut down. Replace damaged optical safety labels or attach new labels if labels are missing. © Alcatel University .25) s Laser in operation for (2 ± 0.25) s Laser in operation for (90 ± 10) s 12.01 Page 12. Use only approved filtered or attenuating viewing aids. Any single or multiple fiber ends or ends found not to be terminated shall be individually or collectively covered when not being worked on. Do not make any unauthorized modifications to any optical fiber system or associated equipment.
7 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.7 © Alcatel University .12 Optical Interfaces Evaluation Objective: to be able to list the optical interfaces used in SDH Thank you for answering the self-assessment of the objectives sheet 12.01 Page 12.
8AS 90200 0551 VT ZZA Ed.01 13.1 .1 © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13.13 Appendices © Alcatel University .
bit rate order q (q=11.01 Page 13.12.21. level n (n = 3. 4) Administrative Unit Group Background Block Error Background Block Error Ratio Bit Error Ratio Bit Interleaved Parity Container.703 type electrical signal. G.2 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.184.108.40.206) Errored Second Electrical Section Error Second Ratio European Telecommunication Standard Institute Electrical Transmit © Alcatel University . 12. level n (n= 11.783) Connection Point Craft Terminal Connection Termination Point Data Communication Channel Data Communication Network Decrement Degraded Distributed Queue Dual Bus Digital Cross-Connect (NE) Electrical interface signal 64 kbit/s Electrical interface signal 1544 / 2048 kbit/s Electrical interface signal 8448 kbit/s Electrical interface signal 34368 / 44736 kbit/s Electrical interface signal 139264 kbit/s Errored Block Excessive Bit Error Ratio Embedded Communication Channel Engineering Order Wire Equipment Protection Switching Equipment G.List of abbreviations ADM AI AIS ALS AP APS ATM AU AU-n AUG BBE BBER BER BIP C-n CI CMI CP CT CTP DCC DCN DEC DEG DQDB DXC E0 E11/ E12 E22 E31/ E32 E4 EB E-BER ECC EOW EPS EQ Eq ES ES ESR ETSI ETX Add-Drop Multiplexer (NE) Adapted Information Alarm Indication Signal Automatic Laser Shutdown Access Point Automatic Protection Switching Asynchronous Transfer Mode Administrative Unit Administrative Unit. 3. 2. 4) Characteristic Information Coded Mark Inverted (electrical signal.
3 .Telecommunication sector JE Joint Engineering LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation LC Link Connection LED Light Emitting Diode LO Lower Order LOF Loss Of Frame LOM Loss Of Multiframe LOP Loss Of Pointer LOP Low Order Path LOPA Low Order Path Adaptation LOPT Low Order Path Termination LOS Loss Of Signal LOVC Lower Order Virtual Container LP Lower order Path LPA University .List of abbreviations FAW F_B F_DS F_EBC FEBE FERF FDDI FM G.Lower order0551 VH ZZA Ed.abc HCS HDLC HO HOA HOI HOP HOPA HOPT HOVC HP HPA HPC HPI HPOM HPP HPT HSUT HTCA HTCM HTCT HUG ID INC IP ISO ITU-T Frame Alignment Word Far-end Block Far-end Defect Second Far-end Errored Block Count Far End Block Error (now REI) Far End Receive Failure (now RDI) Fibre Distributed Data Int Fault Management Recommendation abc according ITU-T Higher order Connection Supervision High level Data Link Control Higher Order Higher Order Assembler Higher Order Interface High Order Path High Order Path Adaptation High Order Path Termination Higher Order Virtual Container Higher order Path Higher order Path Adaptation Higher order Path Connection Higher order Path termination Interface Higher order Path Overhead Monitor Higher order Path Protection Higher order Path Termination Higher order path Supervisory Unequipped Termination Higher order path Tandem Connection Adaptation Higher order path Tandem Connection Monitor Higher order path Tandem Connection Termination Higher order path Unequipped Generator IDentifier INCrement Internet Protocol International Standards Organization International Telecommunication Union .01 © Alcatel 8AS 90200 Path Adaptation Page 13.
16. Administration. 16.List of abbreviations LPC LPOM LPP LPT LSUT LTCA LTCT LTCM LUG MAN MSA MS-AIS MS-FERF MSN MSn MSOH MSP MS-RDI MS-REI MS-SPRING MST NA NC NDF NE NPI NRZ NSAP NU OAB OAM&P OAM OFS OOF ORX OS OSn OSI OTx OW P-AIS P0x P11x / P12x P12s P21x/P22x P22e Lower order Path Connection Lower order Path Overhead Monitor Lower order Path Protection Lower order Path Termination Lower order path Supervisory Unequipped Termination Lower order path Tandem Connection Adaptation Lower order path Tandem Connection Termination Lower order path Tandem Connection Monitor Lower order Unequipped Generator Metropolitan Area Network Multiplex Section Adaptation Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal Multiplex Section Far End Receive Failure Multiple Service Node (NE) Multiplex Section layer. level n (n=1. 4.01 Page 13. Administration.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. G. 64) Multiplex Section OverHead Multiplex Section Protection Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication Multiplex Section Shared Protection in a Ring Multiplex Section Termination Not Applicable Network Connection New Data Flag Network Element Null Pointer Indication Non Return to Zero (optical signal. and Maintenance Out of Frame Second Out Of Frame Optical Receiver Operation System Optical Section layer. level n (n=1. 64) Open Systems Interconnection Optical Transmit Order Wire Path Alarm Indication Signal 64 kbit/s layer (transparent) 1544 / 2048 kbit/s layer (transparent) 2048 kbit/s PDH path layer with synchronous 125µs frame structure 6312 / 8448 kbit/s layer (transparent) 8448 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 2048 kbit/s © Alcatel University .4 . 4.783) Network Service Access Point National Use Optical Amplifier Board Operations. Maintenance and Provisioning Operations.
01 Page 13. bit rate order q (q=11. 125µs frame structure 139264 kbit/s layer (transparent) Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Physical Interface Pointer Justification Phase Lock Loop Payload Label Mismatch (= SLM) Performance Monitoring Path OverHead Plesiochronous Physical Interface Path Protection Switching (SNCP) Plesiochronous path layer.707 (option 2) Section Adaptation Signal Degrade Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Synchronous Equipment Clock Synchronous Equipment Management Function Severely Errored Second Synchronous Equipment Timing Generator Synchronous Equipment Timing Physical Interface Synchronous Equipment Timing Source Signal Failure Signal Label Mismatch (= PLM) © Alcatel University . 32. 12. 4. level n (n=1. 21. 16. 4) Primary Reference Clock PoinTeR Embedded Control Channel Quality Level Remote Defect Indication (former FERF) Remote Error Indication (former FEBE) Regional Manager Regenerator Section layer.5 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 22. 31. 64) Regenerator Section OverHead Regenerator Section Termination Received Signal Label Received Trace Identifier VC-11 / VC-12 path layer VC-11 / VC-12 tandem connection sub-layer VC-11 / VC-12 path protection sub-layer VC-2 / VC-3 / VC-4 path layer VC-2 / VC-3 tandem connection sub-layer VC-2 / VC-3 path Protection sub-layer VC-3 / VC-4 tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex C/G.707 (option 1) VC-4 tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex D/G.List of abbreviations P31e P31s P31x/P32x P4a P4e P4s P4x PDH PI PJ PLL PLM PM POH PPI PPS Pq PRC PTR QECC QL RDI REI RM RSn RSOH RST RxSL RxTI S11/S12 S11D/S12D S11P/S12D S2 / S3 / S4 S2D / S3D S2P/S3P/S4P S3T / S4T S4D SA SD SDH SEC SEMF SES SETG SETPI SETS SF SLM 34368 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 8448 kbit/s 34368 kbit/s PDH path layer with synchronous 125µs frame structure 34368 / 44736 kbit/s layer (transparent) 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with 3 plesiochronous 44736 kbit/s 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with 4 plesiochronous 34368 kbit/s 139264 kbit/s PDH path layer with synch.
707 VC-n (n=3. 3) path layer supervisory-unequipped SDH Management Network SDH Management Sub-network higher order VC-n layer (n=3. N= 1. level n (n= 11. 4.List of abbreviations Sm SmD Smm SmP Sms SMN SMS Sn SnD Snm Snp Sns SnT SNCP SNCP/I SNCP/N SOH SONET SPI SSD SSF SSM SSU ST STM-N STS TCM TCP TI TIF TIM TMN TP TP TT TTF TTI TTP TU-n TUG-k TxSL TxTI UAS UAT UNEQ VC-n VC-n-Xc WDM lower order VC-m layer (m=11.01 Page 13. 12. 3. 4) path layer supervisory-unequipped VC-n (n=3. 12. 16. 2. 2. 3) path layer non-intrusive monitor VC-m (m=11. 12. 2. 12. 12. 4) Concatenation of X virtual containers of level n Wavelength Division Multiplexer (NE) © Alcatel University . 3) path protection sub-layer VC-m (m=11.6 . level n (n= 11. 4) tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex G. 4) path layer non-intrusive monitor VC-n (n=3.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. 4) VC-n layer (n=3. 12.707 Sub Network Connection Protection (PPS) Sub Network Connection Protection with Inherent Monitoring Sub Network Connection Protection with Non-intrusive monitoring Section OverHead Synchronous Optical NETwork Synchronous Physical Interface Server Signal Degrade Server Signal Fail Synchronization Status Message Synchronization Supply Unit Section Termination Synchronous Transport Module N (N*155 Mbit/s. 3) Tributary Unit Group. 3) VC-m (m=11. 2. 2. 4) path protection sub-layer VC-n (n=3. 64) Synchronous Transport Signal (SONET levels) Tandem Connection Monitor Termination Connection Point Timing Information Timing Input Fail Trace Identifier Mismatch Telecommunication Management Network Timing Point Termination Point Trail Termination function Transport Terminal Function Trail Trace Identifier Trail Termination Point Tributary Unit. level k (k= 2. 2. 3) tandem connection sub-layer VC-m (m=11. 12. 2. 4) tandem connection sub-layer using TCM definition according annex G. 3) Transmitted Signal Label Transmitted Trace Identifier UnAvailable Second UnAvailable Time UNEQuipped (signal) Virtual Container.
7 .01 Page 13.Appendix A1 Management Hierarchy Service Manager SML SDH Network Manager NML SDH NE Manager EML CT CT CT CT CT ECT DXC ADM WDM Microwave Submarine EL 13. SML: Service Management Layer Handles the setup of services in the network and ensures their availability © Alcatel University .7 EL: Element Layer All the different kinds of Network Elements (NE) are located in this layer ECT: Equipment Craft Terminal All different kinds of Network Elements can be managed locally. EML: Element Management Layer Handles the physical configuration of the network resources Collects and processes the alarms emitted by the NEs to inform the operator Collects performance data of the NEs to allow preventive maintenance Ensures the availability of the network resources NML: Network Management Layer Sets up end-to-end paths using the network resources available Optimizes the use of the network resources Correlates performance data to paths and provides statistics of the quality to paths. depending on the type of NE and the type of local management interface operation.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.
84 155.520 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 622.01 Page 13. STS-12 SONET STS-12 622.080 2488.280 SONET: Synchronous Optical NETwork SDH: STS: STM: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Synchronous Transport Signal (SONET levels) Synchronous Transport Module (SDH levels) © Alcatel University .84 Mbit/s (STM-0) Plesiochronous origin signals (European standard) Plesiochronous origin signals (US standard) 13.52 Mbit/s synchronous STS-1 STS-1 51.320 9953.840 Mbit/s binary rate: STM-0 SONET FRAME RATE (Mbit/s) SDH FRAME RATE (Mbit/s) STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 STS-12 STS-48 STS192 51.08 Mbit/s 3 x 3 bytes 9 bytes Same frame structure STM-1 STS-1 STS-3 155.520 466.8 Low-or medium-rate systems using radio or satellite technologies in the SDH hierarchy have not been designed to use STM-1 signals: They operate with a 51.8 .560 622.840 155.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.Appendix A2 SDH-SONET Compatibility SDH 4 x 9 bytes STM-4 resp.320 STM-0 STM-1 51.080 2488.
8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.9 © Alcatel University .01 Page 13.Appendix A2 SDH-SONET Compatibility (continuation 9 bytes A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D D E1 D F1 D3 X X X X 3 bytes A1 A2 C1 9 bytes A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 C1 C1 C1 B1 B1 B1 E1 E1 E1 F1 F1 F1 D1 D1 D1 D2 D2 D2 D3 D3 D3 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 B2 B2 B2 K1 K1 K1 K2 K2 K2 D4 D4 D4 D5 D5 D5 D6 D6 D6 D7 D7 D7 D8 D8 D8 D9 D9 D9 D10 D10 D10 D11 D11 D11 D12 D12 D12 Z1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Z2 E2 E2 E2 RSOH B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 H1 H2 H3 SOH Pointer D1 D D D2 D AU-4 Pointer 9 rows B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 X X B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 MSOH D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 Z1 Z2 E2 Line OH S1 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2 #1 #2 STS-1 #3 Section overhead : byte assignment 13.9 .
10 © Alcatel University .840 Mbit/s.01 Page 13.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.10 . Frame Structure 1 1 A1 A2 C1 B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 H1 H2 H3 B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 J1 B3 C2 90 STM-0 Frame VC-3 fixed stuff G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 9 S1 M1 E2 29 30 31 VC-3 POH 58 59 60 fixed stuff 13.Appendix A3 STM-0 Interface at 51.
01 Page 13. priority 1 no second reference NE other configuration: T1 from W. priority 1 no second reference Incorrect NE1 configuration: T3 (from PRC).8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed. priority 2 NE other configuration: T1 from W.11 . priority 1 T1 from E.Appendix B1 Ring Networks without SSM 6 5 4 No fault Path fault Correct 1 2 3 Switch to holdover mode 6 5 4 1 2 3 Sync loop Incorrect 6 5 4 1 2 3 Switch to holdover mode Reference fault Correct 1 6 5 4 holdover 2 3 Sync loop Incorrect 6 5 4 13. priority 1 T1 from E.11 Correct / No fault NE1 configuration: T3 (from PRC). priority 2: sync loops in case of line failure or PRC failure No SSU available © Alcatel University .
Appendix B2 Ring Networks with SSM
PRC E PRC
PRC "1111" "1111" PRC PRC "1111"
PRC "1111" "1111"
W PRC E
PRC SEC "1111" "1111"
"1111" PRC SEC
"1111" "1111" PRC SEC
"1111" "1111" PRC SEC
PRC "1111" PRC "1111"
"1111" "1111" PRC "1111"
Initially W (West) ports have the highest quality level No SSU available Configuration of Network elements:
Synchronization source reference input take from T3 (PCR)
Quality Level PCR
T1 from W T1 from E
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
Appendix C1 Example of Layering in RM Systems
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
Appendix C2 Functional Model G.805
G.702 path link connection IOSA intra-office section trail IOST LOPA AP LOPT TCP G.703 interface HOPA AP HOPT TCP SA AP ST LOP link connection HOP trail HOP link connection STM-N section trail LOPSN connection TCP TCP HOPA AP
G.702 path link connection LOP trail LOPSN LOP link connection HOPA HOP trail HOP link connection STM-N section trail HOPSN connection SA SA AP AP ST ST HOPSN HOP link connection STM-N section trail STM-N section link connection LOPA AP LOPT TCP
G.702 path link connection IOSA intra-office section trail IOST
G.703 HOPA interface AP HOPT TCP SA AP ST TCP
TCP TCP SA SA AP AP ST ST TCP TCP LOP LOPA LOPT LOPSN
STM-N section TCP link connection AP CP TCP IOST IOSA Access Point Connection Point Termination Connection Point Intra-Office section termination Intra-Office section adaptation
STM-N section link connection TCP TCP
Lower-order path e.g. VC-12 Lower-order path adaptation Lower-order path termination Lower-order path sub-network
HOP Higher-order path e.g. VC-4 HOPA Higher-order path adaptation HOPT Higher-order path termination HOPSN Higher-order path sub-network SA STM-N section adaptation ST STM-N section termination
Application of the functional architecture of the case of PDH supported on SDH 13.14
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01
15 .8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.783 Ppx_CP Pps_CP Sm/Pqs Ppx_CP Sm/Pqx Pps_CP Sm/Pqs TSF TSD Smm TSF TSD Sms Sms Sm_RI Lower order path layer TO_TP SmD/Sm SmD/Sm SmD_AP SmD SmD Sm_RI Sm/Pqx SmDm TSF SD Sm Sm_RI Sm Sm Sm_CP Sn/Sm Ppx_CP Sn/Pqx User_CP Sn/User Sm_CP Sn/Sm Ppx_CP Sn/Pqx User_CP Sn/User Higher order path layer SnD/Sn SnD/Sn SnD_AP SnD SnD Sn_RI SnDm TSF SD Sn Sn_RI Sn TSF TSD Snm Sns TSF TSD SnS Sn_RI Sn Sn_CP D4-D12 MSn/DCC Sn_CP S1[5-8] E2 Multiplex section layer D4-D12 MSn/DCC E2 MSn/OW S1[5-8] MSn/SD MSn/Sn MSn/Sn MSn/SD MSn/OW MSn MSn_RI MSn MSn MSn_CP D1-D3 RSn/DCC MSn_CP F1 Regenerator section layer E1 RSn/OW E1 RSn/OW F1 RSn/SD RSn/Sn RSn/Sn D1-D3 RSn/DCC RSn/SD RSn RSn RSn SDH physical layers OSn/RSn OSn/RSn ESl/RSl ESl/RSl OSn OSn ESl ESl OSn OSn_CP © Alcatel University .01 ESl ESl_CP Page 13.Appendix C3 General Functional Block Diagram G.
813 G.826 G.707 G.16 .703 G.Appendix D ITU-T recommendations G.811 G.16 © Alcatel University .957 Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC) Error performance parameters and objectives for international.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.01 Page 13. constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate (Performance Monitoring) Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy 13.805 G.783 G.654 G.653 G.652 G.702 G.812 Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber cable Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fiber cable Digital hierarchy bit rates Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Synchronous Digital Hierarchy bit rates Characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy multiplexing equipment Generic functional architecture of transport networks Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks G.
REI TU-AIS HP-LOM HP-LOP "1" "1" "1" "1" "1" SSF Unused HPC Output HP-UNEQ SSF "1" AU-AIS TU-AIS SSF Unused LPC Output LP UNEQ "1" W% W% W% W % % % % LP-UNEQ LP-TIM LP-SLM LP-BIP errors LP-RDI LP-REI W% W% W% W% W - forward direction © Alcatel University .PLTM B3 errors HP-RDI HP-REI W% W% W% W% W LP. Error HP-DS HP-REI HP-RDI HP-RDI HP-REI TU-AIS HP-LOM/TU -LOP LO path signal passed through LOVC with POH and unspecified payload signal LO unequipped signal LP.BIP Error (B1) Regenerated signal passed through (K2) (B2) (B2) (M1) (K2) (K2) (M1) ”1" MS-AIS MS-Exc.PLTM LP-Exc.Appendix E Alarm scheme SPI LOS LOF "1" RST MST MSA HPOM/HSUT HPC HPT HPA LPOM/LSUT LPC LPT LPA "1" AU DS HOVC HP HPA HPC HPOM HPT HSUT LOF LOM LOP LOS LOVC LP LPA LPC LPOM LPT LSUT MSA MST PLTM PTM OOF RDI REI RST SPI SSF TU UNEQ VC Detection Generation Insertion of all ones (AIS) Signal Administration Unit Degraded Signal Higher Order Virtual Container Higher Order Path Higher Order Path Adaption Higher Order Path Connection Higher Order Path Overhead Monitor Higher Order Path Termination Higher Order Supervisory Unequipped Generator Loss of Frame Loss of Multiframe Loss of Pointer Loss of Signal Lower Order Virtual Container Lower Order Path Lower Order Path Adaption Lower Order Path Connection Lower Order Path Overhead Monitor Lower Order Path Termination Lower Order Supervisory Unequipped Generator Multiplex Section Adaption Multiplex Section Termination Payload Type Mismatch Path Trace Mismatch Out of Frame Remote Defect Indication (FERF) Remote Error Indication (FEBE) Regenerator Section Termination Physical Section Interface Server Signal Fail Tributary Unit Unequipped Signal per G.RDI LP.PTM LP.17 . MS-DS MS-REI MS-RDI MS-RDI MS-REI AU-AIS AU-LOP HO path signal passed through HOVC with POH and unequipped payload signal HO unequipped signal HP-UNEQ (J1) (C2) (B3) (B3) (G1) (G1) (G1) (G1) HP-PTM HP-PLTM HP-Exc.01 backward direction optional Page 13.% W W MS-AIS B2 errors MS-RDI MS-REI AU-AIS AU-LOP HP-UNEQ HP.PTM HP.REI LP. Error .709 Virtual Container (no system clock) SSF RS.% .RDI LP.8AS 90200 0551 VH ZZA Ed.UNEQ (J2) (V5) (V5) (V5) (V5) (V5) (V5) (V5) LOS LOF OOF B1 errors . Error LP-DS LP.
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