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Modul Children Learning in Science

Modul Children Learning in Science

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Published by: Mohamad Syafie Bin Samsir on Oct 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Cognitive theorists believe that what you learn depends on your mental process and
what you perceive about the world around you. In other words, learning depends on
how you think and how your perceptions and thought patterns interact.
According to cognitive learning theorists, a teacher should try to understand what a
child perceives and how a child thinks and then plan experiences that will capitalize
on these. Jean Piaget propose that children progress through stages of cognitive

Stages of Piaget’s Theories are


Sensorimotor knowledge ( 0 to 2 year )

Objects and people exist only if child can see, feel, hear, touch or taste their
presence. Anything outside of the child’s perceptual field does not exist.


Preoperational (Representational) knowledge ( 2 to 7 years )

The ability to use symbols begins. Although the child is still focused on the “there
and now” early in this stage, the child can use language to refer to objects and
events that are not in his or her perceptual field.
The child has difficulty understanding that objects have multiple properties. He or
she is not completely aware that a block of wood has color, weight, height and
depth all at once. The child does not “conserves” attributes such as mass, weight,
or number.


Concrete Operation ( 7 to 11 years )

The child can group objects into classes and arrange the objects in a class into
some appropriate order. The child understands the mass, weight, volume, area
and length are conserved. The child has some difficulty isolating the variables in
a situation and determining their relationships. The concepts of space and time
become clearer.


Formal Operation ( 12 years through adulthood )

The child is able to think in abstract terms, is able to isolate the variables in a
situation , and is able to understand their relationship to one another. The child’s
ability to solve complex verbal and mathematical problems emerges as a
consequence of being able to manipulate the meanings represented by symbols.

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