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„‟DESIGN OF LANDFILL SITE FOR JHANSI CITY‟‟
Submitted to the
GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW
In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in civil engineering Submitted by Amit Kumar Mall Mahaveer Singh Neeraj Gupta Under the guidance of Dr. AMITABH SRIVASTAVA Krishna Kant Singh Rakesh Verma
Department of Civil Engineering BUNDELKHAND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JHANSI-284128 2011-12
Department of Civil Engineering BUNDELKHAND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JHANSI-284128 2011-12
This is to certify that project entitled “DESIGN OF LANDFILL SITE FOR JHANSI CITY” Submitted by students mentioned below is in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of B.TECH in CIVIL ENGINEERING.It is the record of work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.their performance was excellent and I wish him good luck for their future endeavours.
Amit Kumar Mall (0804300003) Mahaveer Singh (0804300021) Rakesh Verma (0804300031) Neeraj Gupta (0804300025) Krishna Kant Singh (2904300002)
A work of this nature entailing a lot of personal effort can not be completed without the help of some external sources we will be failing in our duty if we don’t acknowledge with the gratitude the invaluable contribution of these resources. From the inner core of our heart we would like to express our undying gratitude to Dr. AMITABH SRIVASTAVA (Project guide) was a perennial source of invaluable guidance an instructions during the course of the project. We are also indebted to the Authorities of JHANSI NAGAR NIGAM and
JHANSI DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY.
We are highly obliged to Er. ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA who has been a constant source of motivation and intellect in this project. We would like to convey our regard to U.P SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PVT. LTD. And A.P.R PROJECTS PVT. LTD. For their cooperation and supports. We are also indebted to Prof. A.K VERMA HEAD of DEPTT.OF CIVIL
ENGEERING and Dr. A.K NIGAM. Amit Kumar Mall (0804300003) Mahaveer Singh (0804300021) Rakesh Verma (0804300031) Neeraj Gupta (0804300025) Krishna Kant Singh (2904300002)
DR. AMITABH SRIVASTAVA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1-INTRODUCTION 2-OBJECTIVES 3-LITERATURE 4-STUDY AREA 5-DATA COLLECTION 6-ANALYSIS 7-CASE STUDY 8-SITE SELECTION 9-LANDFILLING METHOD OPERATION 10-REACTIONS OCCURING IN COMPLETED LANDFILL 11-DESIGN OF SANITARY LANDFILL 1-7 8 8-9 9 10 11-15 15-16 17-18 18-21 21-24 24-38
12-ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF GASES PRODUCED IN A SANITARY LANDFILL 39-42 13-LEACHATE IN LANDFILL 14-GAS AND LEACHATE MOVEMENT AND CONTROL 15-RECOMMENDATIONS 16-CONCLUSION 17-REFERENCES 42-43 43-52 53 54 55
There has been significant increase in generation of Municipal solid waste in India for the last few decades. This largely result of rapid population growth in India. The daily per capita generation of Municipal solid waste in India ranges from 250gm in small town to 650gm in large towns. Although the national level data does not exist for the municipal solid waste generation collection and disposal for the lack of nationwide inventory, the growth of solid waste generation over the years can be selected for a few urban centers. The population of Mumbai increase from around 12.3 million in 1991 to 18.4million in 2001, a growth of around 49%.the current population of Mumbai is around 21 million. The Municipal waste generation however increase from 5355 ton per day to 8942 ton per day in same period, growth of around 67%.This clearly indicate that the growth in municipal waste generation in our urban centers has out past the growth in population in recent years. We are confining our study to city JHANSI. According to Waste generation in present scenario is approximately 200 ton per day which is not a big amount to worry. But in future when JHANSI will be a developed city approximately around in 2020.We will need to dump the waste properly the reason for this could be our changing life style,food habbits and changes in standard of living. MSW in cities is collected by municipalities and transported to the designated disposal site normally a low lying area on the otskirt of a city for disposal. The choice of disposal site is more a matter of what is available then what is suitable.
2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT : An Overview
The overall objective of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse environmental affect caused by the discriminate disposal of solid waste specially hazardous waste. the problem assosciated with the management of solid in todays society are complex because of the quantity and diverse nature of the waste, the development of sprawling urban areas, the funding limitations. For public services in many large cities, the impact of technology and the emerging limitations in both energy and raw materials. The activities assosciated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to the final disposal have been grouped in six functional elements.
Waste generation encompasses those activities in which material are identified as no longer being of value and either thrown away or gathered together for disposal. General sources of Municipal solid waste are--1-Residential 2-Commercial 3-Open Area 4-Treatment Plant Sites Factors that affects Municipal solid waste generation reactions, 1-Geographical Location (4)
2-Season of the year 3-Collection frequency 4-Extent of recycling 5-Public Attitudes 6-Legislation On Site Storage: The waste can not be tolerated for long on individual premises because of their biodegradability and they must be moved within reasonable time---usually less than 8 days. On site storage is of primary importance because aesthetic consideration, public health and economic involvement.
Collection: Collection is provide under various management arrangement such as 1-Municipal Services 2-Commercial---Industrial collection services. In JHANSI earlier system of waste collection was by municipalites, some NGO are also actives in waste collection from medical.They use incineration for bio medical waste. Collection of solid waste was the costliest phase of waste management and it accounts for approximately 60% of the total annual costs of urban solid management. (5)
In JHANSI an advance system of waste collection has been recently introduced in which collection is about to be done on public private partnership. A private firm named A.P.R PROJECTS PRIVATE LIMITED has hired to collect the MSW from individual households. The company will charge a nominal amount of Rs 1 from each house on daily basis.
Fig; Door to Door collection system in Taalpura, Nehru Park, Jhansi
Transfer and Transport The functional element of the transfer and transport involve two steps1-the transfer of waste from the smaller collection vehicles to the longer transport equipment. 2-the subsequent transport of the waste usually over long distance. (6)
Processing and Recovery; The functional element of processing and recovery includes all the techniques equipments and facilities used both to improve efficiency of the other functional elements and to recover usable material, conversion products or energy from solid wastes. Disposal: The final functional elements in the solid waste management system is disposal. Thus the land used planning becomes a primary determinant in the selection, design and operation of land used planning determinant in the selection design and operation of landfill operations. A modern sanitary landfills not a dump, it is a method of disposition of solid waste on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health, such of the breeding of rats and insects the contamination of ground water of public safety.
2 OBJECTIVE: The main objective of our project is as below: Study of existing solid wastes management system. To identify the requirement of solid waste management on the basis of case study of developed cities. To prepare landfill site. To prepare plan for landfill operation. To design sanitary landfill site with provision for leachate collection and gas movement In brief, the main aim of our project is to observe solid waste management in Jhansi major problems related with it and to prepare solution with design and recommendations. So our project is divided in to following parts. • Data collection • Case Study • Landfill site selection and design of landfill • Recommendations. • 3 LITERATURE: Solid waste management may be defined as that discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer, transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in the manner that is accord with the best principles of public health , economic, engineering, concentration, aesthetic and other environmental consideration and that also is responsive to public attitudes.
In earlier days, the most common recognized methods for disposal of solid waste at the form of the century were • Dumping on land • Dumping in water • Plowing in to the soil • Feeding to hogs • Reduction • Incineration Not all these method were applicable to all types of waste. Plowing in to the soil was used for food waste and street sweeping. Feeding to hogs and redactor and present technologies can be summarized as: • Composting • Land filling • Incineration • Bio-methanation • Gasification But we are concentrated on Land filling method only.
5 DATA COLLECTION: The factors that must be considered in evaluating potential solid waste disposal sites include – • Available land area • Impact of processing and resources recovery • Haul distance • Soil condition and Topography • Climatic condition • Surface water hydrology • Geologic and Hydrologic condition
• • • • • •
Local environment condition Potential ultimate uses for the completed site
And the factors on which sanitary land fill design depend on – Population Living standard of the people and waste generation Total waste produced and waste constituents Potential of waste recycling and recovery
For landfill site selection and sanitary landfill design for JHANSI we will consider following data –
Available land area
Potential of waste recycling and resources recovery Haul distance
• Soil condition • Climatic condition • Surface water hydrology • Local environment condition • Population • Living standard of people and Waste generation • Total waste produced 6 ANALYSIS: Now we analyze the following data and determine the required information for the landfill site selection and sanitary design• Population Population directly affects to the total quantity of the waste generation which is to be disposed off safely for healthy environment. The present population of city can be determine by the conducting census- The government of all countries generally carry the survey of interval of ten years (called decennial census).however any project which going to serve a purpose for a particular area should be designed in such a way that it fulfills the requirement for the present population plus increased population in its life span in future.
Hence we will do population forecasting and the future population will be used for design. • Population forecasting – Following methods are used for population forecasting
• Arithmetical increase method • Geometrical increase method • Incremental increase method • Decreasing rate method • Logistic curve method As Jhansi is the fast growing and we have got population of three decades ( 2011 to 2041) . We will use the geometrical increase method. Population forcasting: Present population=4,70,000 Growth rate for first decade20% Growth rate for second decade=22% Growth rate for third decade=24% Geometric mean=(r1× r2×r3)^(1/3) =(20×22×24)^(1/3) =21.96%
Population after three decades P41=4,70,000(1+.2196)^3 P41= 851353 Living Standard of People: The living standard of people in JHANSI is not much high. The use packed food, mineral water etc, is not much here. So the waste generated is not much. But in the coming years waste will increase and we will need to properly manage it. Waste Generation: During the investigation it is found that JHANSI generate about 425 gm per person per day solid waste at present. Total waste generated in tonnes per day =4.98*10*385/10 =74.7 It is too less amount to design a land fill site so we will calculate total waste generated for 2041. Estimated population for year 2041 =13,44,608 The amount of waste generated per person will be different from the present waste generated per head as the living standard will change due to development so we will take average waste generated per person per day from the table below. Average waste for population-----= 425gm/person/day Total waste in tonnes per day--= 200 TPD
AVAILABLE LAND AREA:
In selecting potential land disposal site it is important to ensure that sufficient land area is available. The available land area on the proposed site 15.5 acre, on the JHANSI –LALIT PUR ROAD, BIJAULI. The available land area should be more than the required area by 20 to 40 % site preparation, access loads, utility access etc. Population( range in lacs) 1-5 5 -10 10- 20 20 -50 Above 50 HAUL DISTANCE: The haul distance is one of the important variable in the selection of disposal site. It is obvious that the length of haul can significantly affect the overall design and operation of the waste management system. Although minimum haul distance is desirable, other factor must also be considered. These include collection rout location, local traffic pattern and characteristic of routs to and from the disposal site ( condition of routs, traffic patterns and access conditions) SOIL CONDITIONS AND TOPOGRAPHY: Characteristics of the soil is desired because soil is used as the cover material. The soil in the JHANSI is moorum type. Which is high strength and less permeability which is suited as a cover material. The approximate permeability of the soil in JHANSI region is 10^-6. Local topography of the proposed site is suitable for landfill design. There no need for any excavation and filling work. (14) Avearage Waste(gm/day/person ) 210 250 270 350 Above 500
CLIMATIC CONDITON: JHANSI is hot region and the winter is of two month. Hence the climatic conditions are suitable for landfill site design and no extra provision is needed as the access to the site will not be affected & cover material can also be easily excavated. SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY: There is no natural drain in the vicinity of proposed site & there is no possibility of flood. GEOGRAPHICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL CONDITION: The geological &hydrological condition must be considered to determine the impact of leachate movement on the ground water & other gas. Subsurface & bed rock aquifers. The ground water level in Jhansi is 80 to 100 feets. LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: While it has been possible to build & operate landfill site in closed proximity to both residential & industrial development, extreme care must be taken in the operation if they are to be acceptable with respect to noise odour & dust, flying papers ,plastic films must also be controlled. 7. CASE STUDY: To plan effectively for solid waste management information and data on the expected feature composition of the solid waste are important. In addition technological changes in areas such as food processing and packaging changes in the world economy has also affected the composition of the solid waste.
Although we have not done any physical and chemical analysis for solid waste in JHANSI but as we have designing the land fill for 2021 and till then we assume that JHANSI will be a developed city (population around 9 lacs) so that present waste characteristics will change and we are assuming that if it can be obtained from the study of waste characteristics for developed city. Here we are taking example of DELHI and PUNE and also comparison from data NEERI for cities with population ranges from 2 to 5 million people is given. We will JHANSI in between these cities. Table showing percentage of different constituents in MSW.
CONSTITUENTS GLASS/CROCKERY METAL ORGANIC PAPER PLASTIC INERT MATERIAL RAGS
GWALIOR 1.75 3.65 49 6.02 5.75 28.45 8.42
KANPUR 8.71 0.24 52.92 4.02 7.09 28.29 7.09 0.47
JHANSI 0.85 0.75 50.0 6.31 7.5 30.41 7.76 40
NEERI 0.48 0.59 56.67 3.18 ---40.07 ----0.48
And we are evaluating values for JHANSI in between these values. To avoid gross error we have taken consideration of data from NEERI.
8. SITE SELECTION: We already have done site selection. Here we are presenting the required data design purpose of landfill site.
AREA OF SELECTED SITE: The proposed site is located at BIJAULI,LALITPUR ROAD, 15 KILOMETERS in outskirts of JHANSI.The essential details are:
PROJECT AREA GARBAGE QTY. LANDFILL & GREEN BELT COMPOST PLANT AREA GREEN BELT PER DAY PER CAPITA GARBAGE COMPOST PRODUCTION CAPACITY 25.8 acres 230 tonnes/day 19.8 acre 6 acre 6 acre 385 gram 100 tonne/day
LAND FILLING METHOD & OPERATION: To use the available land area at land fill site effectively a plan of operation for placement of solid waste must be prepared. Various operational methods developed primarily on basis of field experience. The method used to fill the dry area substantially different from those used to fill wet areas. Conventional methods for dry areas: 1. Area method 2. Trench method 3.Depression method (18)
1. Area method: Area method is used when the terrain is unsuitable for excavation of the trenches in which to place the solid waste. Operationally the waste are unloaded & long narrow strips on surface of the land in the series of the layers that vary in depth from 16 to 30 inches layer compacted as the filling progress during the course of day until the thickness of the compacted waste reaches the height varying from 6 to 10 feet . At that time and at the end of each days operation a 6 to 12 inches layer of cover material is placed over the compacted field. The filling operation used started by building and earthen liver against which waste are placed in thin layers and compacted. The length of unloading areas varies with the site condition and the size of the operation. The width over which the waste are compacted varied from 8 to 20 feet again depending on the drain. A computed lift, including the cover material is called the cell successive lifts are placed on top of one another until the final grade is reached that was called for in the ultimate development plan. The length of the unloading areas used reach each day should be such that the final height of the fill is reach at the end of each day's operation.
2. Trench method: The Trench Method of land filling is ideally suited to areas where adequate depth of cover material is available at the site and where water table near the surface solid waste are placed in trenched varying from 100 to 400 ft in lenth,3 to 6 ft depth and 15 to 25 ft in width. To start the process a question of trench dug and the dirt is stock tiled to form an embankment behind the first trench. Waste are the placed in the trench. Spread into thin layer (usually 18 to 24 inches range) and compacted. the operation continued until the desired height is reached. The length of the trench used each day should be such that the final height is reached at the end of each day's operation. The length also should be sufficient top avoid costly data for collection vehicle waiting to unload. Cover material is obtained by excavating in adjacent trench or continuing the trench that is being filled.
3.Depression Method: At location where natural or artificial depression exists. It is often possible to use them effectively for land filling operation. Canyons, ravines, dry borrowpits and queries have been used for these purpose. (20)
The techniques to place and compact solid waste in depression land fills vary with the geometry of the site, the characteristics of the cover material. the hydrology and geology of the site and the axes in the site. If a canyon flowis reasonably flat, the first fill in canyon site may be carried out using the trench method operation. Once filling in the flat area has been completed, filling start at the head end of the canyon and ends at the mouth. This practice prevents the accumulation of water behind the land fill. Waste usually are deposited on the canyon flow and from there pushed up against the canyon face at the slope of about 2 to 1.In this way a high degree of compaction can be achieved compacted densities as weight 1.2 lb/yd3 have been reported. Even higher densities have been recorded in the lower portion of the land fill as the height of the land fill increases. 4.Conventional Method: Swamps and marshes, tidal areas and ponds and pits or queries are typical wet area that have been used as a land fill site. Because of the problem associated with the contamination of local ground waters , the developments of odors and structural stabilities, the design of landfills in that areas requires special attention. In the past, land filling in the wet areas was considered acceptable if reasonably adequate drainage work provided and if nuisance conditions did not developed. The usual practice was to divide the area in to cells or lagoons would be filled each year. Often, solid waste were placed directly in water in the areas in the high ground water levels. As an alternative, clean fill material was added up to or slightly above the water level between the waste filling operations were started.
10.Reactions occuring in completed landfills: To plan and sanitary landfills effectively, it is important to understand what they express with in land fill after filling operation have been completed. Solid waste placed in sanitary landfill under go a number of simulaneous biological, physical, chemical changes. Among the more important these changes are the followings 1. Biological decay of organic putrescible material, either aerobically or anaerobically, with the evolution of gases and liquids. 2. The chemical oxidation of materials. 3. The escape of gases from the fill and lateral diffusion of gases through the fill. 4. The movement of liquid caused by differantial heads. 5. The dissolved material by concentration gradient and osmosis. 6. The dissolving and leaching of organic and inorganic materials by water and leachate moving through the fill. 7. The uneven settlement caused by consolidation of material in to voids. The decomposition and stablisation in a landfill depend on many factors, such as the composition of the wastes, the degree of compaction, the amount of moisture present, the presence of inhibiting materials, the rate of water movement, and temperature . Decomposition in landfills: The organic biodegradable components in solid wastes begin to undergo bacterial decomposition as soon as they are placed in a land fill. Initiallty, bacterially decomposition occurs under aerobic condition because a certain amount of air is trapped within the landfiil.
However, the oxigen in the trapped air is soon exhausted, and the long term decomposition occurs under an aerobic condition. the principal source of both the aerobic and the anaerobic organism responsible for decomoposition if the soil material that is used as a daily and final cover. The overall rate at which the organic material decompose depends on their characteristics and, to a large extent, on the moisture content. In general the organic material present in solid wastes can be divided in to major classification 1. Those that content cellulose or derivatives of cellulose. 2. Those that do not content cellulose or cellulose derivatives 3. Plastics, rubber and leather Cellulose is a major constituent of a organic wastes such as paper, rags, string, straw, and plant tissues. with the exceptions of plastic , the principal noncelulose organics are proteins, corbohydrates ,&fats. minerals salts in very limited quantities & moisture are almost always associated with theses materials. with the above wastes, the principal end products of anarobic decomposition are parially stabilised organic materials, intermidiate volatile organic acids, various gases,(including CO2,CH4,N2,H2,HS).under normal conditions the rate of decomposition as measured by gas production, the reaches apeak in the first two years & then slowly tapers off ,continuing in may cases for periods up to 25 years or more. if moisture is not added to the wastes in a well compacted landfill, it is not a uncommon to find materials in their originally from years afters they were buried.
Gases in landfill: Gases found in landfills include air, NH₃, CO₂, CO, H₂,H₂S,CH4 N₂&O₂. CO₂&CH4, nitrogen, and oxygen. Carbon dioxide and methane are the principal gases produced from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic solid waste component. The initially percentage of carbon dioxide is the result of aerobic decomposition .Aerobic decomposition continues to occur until the oxygen in the air initially present in the compacted wastes is depleted. Thereafter, decomposition will proceed anaerobically. DESIGN OF SANITARY LANDFILL: Once a limited number of potential sites have been selected on the basis of a review of the available preliminary information , it will usually be necessary to prepare an engineering design repeat for each sites to assess the cost associated with preparation of the sites for filling , placement of solid waste and completing the site once filling operation ceased. But we have proposed only sites so our design is preliminary in nature, there may be some other potential landfill sites .The engineering consist of following important steps: 1.Land requirement 2.Types of waste that must be handled 3.Evaluation of seepage control facilities 4.Design of drainage Landfill Design Criteria : Design considerations for sanitary landfill development are primarily guided by the characteristics of the proposed site and the guidelines framed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Part II, Section 3, Sub-Section (ii), Rule 6(1), 6 (3) and 7 (2) of these guidelines indicate that the sanitary landfill shall comply with the following conditions: (24)
• The minimum bottom liner specifications shall be a composite barrier having 1.5 mm High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane overlying 900 mm of soil(clay/amended soil) having permeability coefficient not greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec. The surface below amended soil layer should be well compacted • Waste shall be compacted adequately and provided with daily cover of minimum 10cm of soil inert debris • Prior to commencement of monsoon, intermediate cover of thickness of about 45 cm has to be provided with proper compaction and grading to prevent infiltration during monsoon. Proper drainage berms shall be provided to divert runoff from the active cell of the landfill • The final cover shall have a barrier layer comprising of 60 cm of clay/amended soil with permeability coefficient not greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec., on the top of the barrier soil layer there shall be a composite barrier having 1.5 mm High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) sheet. Over that there shall be a drainage layer of15 cm and on the top of drainage layer there shall be a vegetative layer of 45 cm thick • The post closure care of landfill site shall be conducted for at least fifteen years and long-term monitoring plan shall be prepared. • In order to prevent the pollution problems storm water diversion drains, leachate collection and treatment system and preventive measures for runoff from landfill area entering any stream, lake, river or pond shall be provided. • Buffer zone around the landfill site and a vegetative cover over the completed site shall be provided. • Leachate monitoring well has to be provided.
Preparation of Liner System : • Liner system within a landfill involves prevention of percolation of leachate from waste in landfill to the subsoil by a suitable protective system (liner system), which comprises of a combination of barrier material such as natural clay and amended soil and a flexible geo-membrane. The liner system will be of low permeability and will be robust, durable and to resist the chemical attack, puncture, rupture etc. • The liner system is designed in compliance with Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules2000 and, will comprise, a 90cm thick compacted clay or amended soil of permeability not greater than 1x10-7, a HDPE geo-membrane liner of thickness 1.5mm and a drainage layer of 15cm thick granular material of permeability not greater than 1x10-2 cm/sec. • Preparation of Amended Soil Liner. The permeability of local soil varies depending upon the soil condition. To reduce the permeability to 1x10-7, the soil will be amended with bentonite, which is known to have permeability of the order 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec. • Based on the soil characteristics, it is recommended to maintain the soil and bentonite proportion as 80:20and mix the additives on site, before it is placed at the base of the landfill site, as a barrier layer. • After the preparation of the amended soil liner, the liner should be constructed in series of lifts each of 25cmcompacted to about 15cm by four to five passes of sheep foot roller. The finished thickness of the liner should be 90 cm and the final permeability of the amended soil should also be checked for the desired permeability of 1 x 10 -7.
• Geo-Membrane Liner: Geo-membrane is relatively a thin sheet of flexible thermoplastic or thermo polymeric material. Because of their inherent impermeability, geo-membranes are proposed as barrier layer in landfillsite. Even though geo-membranes are highly impermeable, their safety against manufacturing, installation , handling and other defects is essential criteria in design of liner system. The effectiveness of barrier layers basically depends on the hydraulic conductivity of the day / amended clay liner and densit of geomembrane. The clay liner is effective only if it is compacted properly and geomembrane liner is effective only if it has a density or mass per unit area is sufficient enough against puncture. • In order to strengthen the base to avoid any seepage of generated leachate, a layer of 1.5 mm thickness Geomembrane (HDPE liner) is laid over the clay liner. This liner is laid with the help of double wedge hot shoe welder to prevent leakage and testing is done for the same. The liner shall be anchored at the top of landfill side wall and side cutting beyond the stipulated area of the fill. • Granular Soil Material with 6 mm stone aggregate. At the bottom of the liner, coarse sand would be spread. The thickness of the sand would be 300mm thick. Settling Process in a Landfill : • Primary consolidation: During this stage, a substantial amount of settling occurs. This settlement is caused by the weight of the waste layers. The movement of trucks, bulldozers or mechanical compactors will also enhance this process. After this primary consolidation, or short-term deformation stage, aerobic degradation processes occur. • Secondary compression: During this stage, the rate of settling is much lower than that in the primary consolidation stage, as the settling occurs through compression, which cannot be enhanced.
• Decomposition: During the degradation processes, organic material is converted into gas and leachate. The settling rate during this stage increases compared to the secondary compression stage and continues until all decomposable organic matter is degraded. The microbial degradation process is the most important biological process occurring in a landfill. These processes induce changes in the chemical and physical environment within the waste body, which determines the quality of leachate and both the quality and quantity of landfill gas. Since, landfills mostly receive organic wastes microbial processes will dominate the stabilization of the waste and therefore govern landfill gas generation and leachate composition. Soon after disposal, the predominant part of the wastes becomes anaerobic, and the bacteria will start degrading the solid organic carbon, eventually to produce carbon dioxide and methane. The biotic factors that affect methane formation in the landfill are pH, alkalinity, nutrients, temperature, oxygen and moisture content. ESTIMATION OF LANDFILL CAPACITY, LANDFILL HEIGHT, LANDFILL AREA : 1. Current Waste generation per year = W (tons per year) = (tons per year) 2. Estimated rate of increase (or decrease)of waste generation per year = 4.5 (percent) (use rate of population growth where waste generation growth rate estimates not available) 3. Proposed life of landfill (in years) = 30 (years) 43.28× 365= 15797.2
4. Waste generation after n years = W (1 + x )n (tons per year) = 15797.2 (1 + .045 )˄30 (tons/year) = 59165.53 5. Total waste generation in n years (T) in tons T = 1/2 [W + W (1 + x )n] n (tons) T = 1/2 [73000 + 73000 (1 + .045 )^30] 30 (tons) = 1124441.096 (tons) 6. Total volume of waste in n years (Vw) (on the assumption of 0.85 t/cm.m density of waste) Vw = T/0.85 (cu.m.) 1124441.096/0.85 (cu.m.) = = 1322871.876 (cu.m) 7. Total volume of daily cover in n years (Vdc) (on the basis of 15 cm soil cover on top and sides for lift height of 1.5 to 2 m) Vdc = 0.1 × Vw (cu.m.) = 0.1×1322871.876 = 132287.188 (cu.m.)
8. Total volume required for components of liner system and of cover system (on the assumption of 1.5m thick liner system (including leachate collection layer) and 1.0 m thick cover system (including gas collection layer) Vc = k Vw (cu.m.) = .25×1322871.876 = 330717.969 (cu.m.) (k = 0.25 for 10 m high landfill, 0.125 for 20 m high landfill and 0.08 for 30 m high landfill. This is valid for landfills where width of landfill is significantly larger than the height) 9. Volume likely to become available within 10 years due to settlement / biodegradation of waste Vs = m Vw = .10×1322871.876 = 132287.188 (m = 0.10 for biodegradable waste; m will for less than 0.05 for incinerated/inert waste) 10. First estimate of landfill capacity (Ci) Ci = Vw + Vdc + Vc - Vs (cu.m.) = 330717.969 – 132287.188 = 1653589.845 (cu.m.) 1322871.876 + 132287.188 +
11. Likely shape of landfill in plan and section (To be based on topography of area, depth to ground water table and other factors) : (Area type, trench type, slope type, valley type, combination) 12.Estimate of landfill height and area Required landfill Area Assume height of landfill = 11m Possible maximum average landfill = Hi (typically between height ,10 to 20 m, rarely above 30 m.)
Area required for landfilling seperations Ai = CI / Hi (sq.m.) (valid for area type landfill) = 1653589.845/11 = 150326.31( sq.m.) = 37.15 Acers Total area estimate) required (including infrastructural facilities) (first
Ai = 1.15 Ai = 1.15×37.15 = 42.73 Acers
Approximate Plan Dimensions = 280 m x 140 m
LANDFILL SECTION AND PLAN : (a) Landfill Section and Plan is evaluated on the basis of (i) 4:1 side slope for the above -ground portion of the landfill. (ii) 2:1 side slope for the below-ground portion of the landfill. (iii) Material balance for daily cover, liner and final cover material through excavation at site. (iv) Extra space around the waste filling area for infrastructural facilities. (b) The final plan and section adopted (c) Additional 30m land is acquired around the landfill to place infrastructure facilities. Final size of landfill = 310 m x 170 m. Facilities: (a) Temporary Holding Area: Excavated portion of half phase to be use (b) Surface water drain: Adjacent to arterial road along periphery (c) Leachate collection pipe: Adjacent to arterial road along periphery (d) Leachate holding tank: 20x10x3m (e) Leachate treatment facility: 40mx20m (in plan) (tentative) (f) Gas Flaring facility: 20m x 10m (in plan) (tentative) (g) Surface water sedimentation tank : 40 x 10 x 1.5m
LINER AND LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM (a) Liner System The liner system will comprise of the following layers below the waste: (i) 0.30 m thick drainage layer comprising of sand (coarse sand) or gravel (stone dust with no fines) (ii) 0.2m thick protective layer of sandy silt (iii) 1.50mm thick HDPE geomembrane (iv) 1.0 m thick clay layer/amended soil layer (sinceis not easily availabllayer comprising of local soil + bentonite is to be designed)
(b) Amended Soil Layer Design Through Laboratory Testing Sandy silt mixed with bentonite in proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% in laboratory and permeability determined. Minimum bentonite content determined for achieving permeability of less than 109m/sec. 5% Bentonite + sandy silt assumed in preliminary design. (c) Leachate Collection Pipes Dia of HDPE pipes (perforated) = 15 cm Spacing of pipe required (hydraulic analysis) = 22m (d) Leachate Holding Tank Size of holding 3 days of leachate = 20 x 10 x 3 m
COVER SYSTEM DESIGN (a) Cover System The cover system will comprise of the following layer above the waste. (i) 0.45 m thick gas collection layer comprising of gravel (stone dust with no fines) (ii) 0.6 m thick barrier layer (sandy silt + 5% bentonite) (iii) 0.3m thick surface layer of local top soil for vegetative growth (b) Passive Gas Vents Passive gas vents 1m high (above ground surface) will be provided at a spacing of 75mx75m. Type of waste: Hazardous waste should be disposed on separate site as they require special treatment and in JHANSI they will be handled by NGOs . Demolition waste is also excluded waste to be disposed.Demolition waste may be used as a embankment stabilization so only municipal solid waste will be disposed in the sanitary land fill. Evaluation of seepage potential: Core sample must be obtained to evaluate the seepage potential of a site strategic formulation under the proposed site can be established from the surface to the upper portion of the bed rock or other confining layer. The resulting information is used – • To determine the general direction of ground water movement under site.
• To determine weather any unconsolidated or bed rock aquifer are indirect hydraulic collection with landfill. • To estimate the vertical seepage that might occur under the landfill site. But we do not have boring data, so we will need this computation. Drainage and seepage control: In addition to seepage analysis it is also necessary to develop an over all drainage plan for the area that shows the location of storm drains ,culverts ,ditches and subsurface drain as the filling operation proceeds In some cases it may also be necessary to stall seepage control facilities . To ensure the rapid removal of drain of rain fall from the completed land fill and to avoid formation of puddles ,the final cover should have a slop about 1% .Where relatively impervious cover material such as clay is used ,lesser slope values may be feasible .if it will assumed that1-Cover material is saturated. 2-A thin layer of water is maintained on the surface. 3-There is no resistance to flow below the cover layers.
Then the theoretical amount of water that could enter the land fill per unit area in an 24 hours period for various material.
Clearly these data are only theoretical values but they can be used in assessing the adverse possible situation. Among the method to control the seepage in to and out of land- fills are – 1.The use of impermeable cover material. 2.The interception of high ground water before it reaches the fills. 3.Equlisation of water levels within & outside the landfills. 4.The use of an impervious layer of clay material or other sea lands.
The nessesary computation for the use of an impermeable clay layer are as below. Let us determine the thickness of clay layers that must be placed in the bottom of the landfills if the seepage flow rate is to be limited to about 0.05meter cube per day. then as we know that Analysis for clay liner thickness: Lets us assume the seepage flow rate is limited to about 2.36*10^-10 assuming the water table is located at 5 meter below the bottom of the landfill & the leachate level in the landfill above the clay levels is to be maintaind at 60cm by pumping. The k value for clay material is to be limited at about 9.46*10^-11. So we know that Q=K*A*dh/dl Or Q/A=K*dh/dl
Lc=thickness of clay layers in cm. Types of waste: Knowledge of type of waste to be handled is important in the design & layout of a landfill, specially is hazards waste are involved. It is usually waste to develop separate disposal site for hazards waste because under most condition special treatment of the site will be necessary before hazards waste can be landfill. The associated cost are often significant & is wasteful to use this landfill capacity for waste that do not required special precaution. If significant
quantities of demolition waste are to be handled it may be possible to use them for embankment stabilization. In some cases it may not be necessary to cover demolition waste on daily basis.
LANDFILL OPERATION PLAN: The layout of side & the development of a workable operating schedule are the main features of a landfill operation plan. SITE LAYOUT: In planning the layout the of landfill site, the location of the following must be determined 1-Access roads 2-Equipment centers 3-Scale if used 4-Storage site for special wastes 5-Top soil stock pills site 6-The landfill areas 7-Planting
OPERATING SCHEDULE: Factors the must be considered in developing operating schedules includes 1-Arriavals sequences for collection vehicles 2-Traffic pattern at the site 3-The time sequences to be followed in the filling operations 4-the effect of wind & other climatic conditions 5-Commercial public access
Solid waste filling plan: Solid waste should be filled by trench method. When 2 years is completed (6 to 6m) for an area then use an additional area & is used for 30 years once the general layout of a landfill site has been stabilised, it may be necessary to select the placement method to be used & to layout & design the indivisal solid waste cells. The spatial methods of filling will depend of characteristics of the site such as amount of available cover material, the topographic & the local hydrology & geology & at last calculation for gas production & leachate have done earlier. 12. ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF GASES PRODUCED IN A SANITARY LANDFILL: STEP 1: Assume that the initial moisture content of the wastes=20% Total quantity of solid waste = 197tpd Organic wastes =82.68 tpd (42%) Recyclable wastes =15.75 tpd (8%) Drain Silt and street sweeping waste = 19.69 tpd(10%) Mixed wastes= 19.69 tpd (10%) Construction Wastes = 59.06 tpd (30%) Organic material on dry basis =82.68-0.20*197 =43.28 tpd
STEP 2: Derive an empirical formula the decomposable organic material. Assume that the organic material can be describe with a formula of form CaHbOcNd, then the coefficients are estimated from the data in table given below Mole of organic material would be Element C H O N Percent 49 6 44 1 Mole (0.49×197)/12 Result 9.1875
(.06×197)/1 11.82 (.44×197)/16 (.01×197)/14 5.4175 0.1407
When the value of Nitrogen is set equal to 1. C H O N (9.1875/o.1407)=65.29 (11.82/0.1407)=84.00 (5.4175/0.1407)=38.50 (0.1407/0.1407)=1.00
Step3:Estimate the amount of CH4 and CO₂ using equatoin CaHbOcNd+(4a-b+2c+3d)/4H₂O→(4a+b-2c-3d)/8 b+2c+3d)/8 CO2+d NH3 CH4 +(4a-
From step 2 a=65.29 b=84.00 c=38.50 d=1.00 the resulting equation is C65.29 H84 O38.50N+25.79 H2O→33.145CH4+32.145 CO2+NH3 Step 4: Determine the weight of CH4 and CO2 from the equation derived in step 2 Methen=(530.32/1399.2)×43.28 =16.40TPD Corbon di oxide=(1414.38/1399.20)×43.28 =43.75TPD Step 5: Convert the weight of gases to volume assuming that the densities of methane an carbon di oxide are 0.7167 kg/m3 and 1.9768 kg/m3 respectively . Methane=16.4×103/0.7167 =22,882.65 m3
Carbon di oxide =43.75×103/1.9768 = 22,131.728 m3 (41)
STEP 6: Determine the percentage composition of the resulting as mixture CH4 % =(22,882.65)/(22,882.65+22,131.728)×100 =50.83% CO2 % =(22,131.728)/(22,882.62+22,131.728)×100 =49.17%
13.Leachate in Landfills Leachate may be defined as liquid that has percolated through the solid waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended material from it. In most landfills the liquid portion of the leachate is composed of the liquid produced from the decomposition of the waste and liquid that has entered the landfill from the external sources, such as surface drainage, rainfall ground water and water from the underground springs when the leachate percolates through the solid waste that are undergoing decomposition both biological material and chemical constituents are picked up. In general it has been found that the quantity of leachate is a direct function of the amount of external water entering the landfill. In fact if a landfill is constructed properly, the production of miserable quantities of leachate can be eliminated.
Settlement and structural characteristics of landfills: Before a decision is reached on the final use to be made of a complited landfill, the settlement and structural characteristics of landfill must be considered. The settlement depends on the initial compaction, characteristics of wasted, degree of decomposition, and effect of consolidation when water and air are formed out of the compacted material. The height of the compacted fill with also influence the initial compaction and degree of consolidation. 14.GAS AND LEACHATE MOVEMENT AND CONTROL Under ideal conditions, the gasses generated from a landfill should be either vented to the atmosphere collected for the production of energy. The leachate should be either contained within be landfill or removed for treatment. Unfortunately, these conditions are found only in a few modern landfills, and so the movement of gasses and leachate from landfills, and so the movement of gasses and leachate from landfills is an important aspect of solid best disposal. Gas movement In most cases, over 90% of the gas volume produced from the decompositions of solid wastes consists of methane and carbon dioxide. when methane is present in the air in concentrations between 5 and 15 percents, it is explosive. however there is no oxygen in a landfill when methane concentrations in it reach this critical level, and so there is no danger that the fill will exploade. Although most of the methane escapes to the atmosphere both methane and carbondioxide have been found in concentration of upto 40% at lateral distances of upto 400-120 meter feet from the edges of landfills. If methane is vented into the atmosphere in an uncontrolled manner, it can accumulate below building or in other enclosed spaces on, or closed to, a sanitary landfill. (43)
With proper venting , methane should not pose a problem. Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, is troublesome because of its density. Carbon dioxide is about 1.5 times as dense as air and 2.8 times as dense as methane; thus it tends to move toward the bottom of the landfill. As a result, the concentration of carbondioxide in the lower portions of a landfill may be high for years. Ultimtely, because of its density, carbon dioxide will also move downward through the underlying formation untill it reaches the ground water. Because carbon dioxide is readily soluable in water ,it usually lowers the pH , which in turn can increase the hardness and mineral content of the ground water through solubilization. The reaction of carbon dioxide with water, which results in the formation of carbonic acid, is CO₂ + H₂O ------> H₂CO₃ If solid calcium carbonate is present in the soil structure, the carbonic acid will react with it to form soluble calcium carbonate,a/to be following reaction : CaCO₃ + H₂CO₃ ---- --> Ca²+ + 2HCO₃ similar reactions occur with magnesium carbonates. If a given free carbon dioxide concentration is present. H₂O + CO₂ CaCO₃ + H₂CO₃ --> Ca²+ + 2HCO3-
thus, any process that increase the free carbon dioxide available the solution will cause more calcium carbonate to dissolve.
GAS COLLECTION SYSTEM
DATA ON THE ABSORTION COEFFICIENTS FOR THE GASES FOUND IN SANITERY LANDFILL GAS Air Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulfide Methane Nitrogen Oxygen Vapor pressure of water,m m of Hg FORMU LA CO₂ Co H₂ H₂S CH₄ N₂ O₂ MOLECULE R WEIGHT 44 28 2.016 34.08 16.03 28.02 32 TEMPERATUR E C(degree) 0 29.18 17.13 35.40 21.5 46.7 55.60 23.5 48 4.58
10 20 22.84 18.68 11.94 08.78 28.3 19.6 33.9 23.2 18.2 25.82
41.80 33.1 18.60 15. 50 38 31 9.21 17. 5
Corresponding concentration of a gas in solution can be computed by Henry law: CS = kS p Where CS = Saturation concentration of gas in water KS = Coefficient of absorption ml/l (46)
P = Partial pressure of gas in the gas phase expressed as a fraction Let us determine the concentration of Carbon dioxide gas in the upper layer of the ground water in contact with Landfill gasses at 760mm of Hg at 10⁰C. We assume that composition of gas is 50% of CO₂ and 50% of CH₄ and the gases is saturated with water vapour. For that 1. Let’s determine the partial pressure of CO₂ for correcting vapour of water. Partial pressure of CO₂ = .5*(760-9.21)mm/760mm Hg = 0.49
2. Now determine the value of Cs by using the equation CS = KS p = 1.194*0.49 = 585.1 ml/l 3. Convert the Carbon dioxide determine in step 2 in mg/l saturation concentration
Carbon dioxide = 585.1*44*10³/22.412 = 1.149mg/l =1.15kg/m³
Control of gas movement by permeable methods: The lateral movement of gases produce in a landfill can be controlled by installing vents made of material that of more permeable than the surrounding soil. Typically gas bends are constructed by gravels. The spacing of sell vents depends on the width of the waste cells but usually varies from 60 to200 ft. the thickness of the gravel layer should be such that it will remain continuous even thought there may be differential settling: 12 to 18 in is recommended. Barrier vents or well vents also can be used to control the lateral movement of gases. Control of the downward movement of the gases can be accomplished by installing perforated pipes in the gravel layer at the bottom of the landfill. If wells and to vent the pumped gas to the atmosphere. A gravel layer is often used in conjunction with one or more of the impermeable method of control. Leachate movement (seepage): Under normal conditions, leachate is found in the bottom of landfills. From there its movement is through the underlying strata, although some lateral movement may also occur, depending on the characteristics of the surrounding material. Because of the importance of the vertical seepage in the contamination of ground water, this subject is consider further in the following discussion.
Remark Sealant Classification Compacted soil Representative type Should contain some clay or fine silt Compacted clay Bentonite, kaolinites Most commonly used sealant for landfill ,layer thickness values from 6 to 48 inches, layer must be continuous and not allowed to dry out and crack Inorganic chemicals Sodium carbonate Use depend on local ,silicate soil characteristics Synthetics chemicals Polymer ,rubber latex Experimental use not well established Synthetic membrane Polyvinyl, chloride , Expansive may be liner butyl rubber, nylon justified where gas is reinforced liners be recovered Asphalt Modified asphalt, Layer must be thick rubber impregnated enough to maintain asphalt to continuity under settling conditions Others Gunite concrete, soil cement, plastic soil cement
Darcy‟s law: The rate of seepage of leachate from the bottom of landfill can be estimated by darcy’s law, which can be expressed as Q=-KA dh/dl Where, Q=leachate discharge per unit time K=coefficient of permeability A=cross-sectional area through which the leachate flows The mines sign in Darcy’s formula arises from the fact that the head loss dh is always negative. The coefficient of permeability is also known as the hydraulic conductivity, the effective permeability, or the seepage coefficient. The permeability of a soil is influenced by particle size, void ratio, composition degree of saturation, & temperature. From empirical observation, it has been found that the coefficient of permeability can be defined in terms of some characteristics size of the porous medium & the properties of the fluid. The relation is K=Cd²*ɣ/μ Where C= dimensionless constant d=diameter of pores ϒ=specific weight of water μ=viscosity of water
the term cd² is known as the specific (or intrinsic) permeability k & is thought to be a characteristics of the medium alone. Neglecting the effect of temperature on density, we find that Ks/Kt=μṭ/μ₆ₒ Where, Ks=laboratory standard coefficient of permeability defined as the flow Of water at 60 in gallons per day through medium having a cross sectional area of one feet square under a hydraulic gradient of one feet per feet. Kt=coefficient of permeability at temperature t. μ₆ₒ=viscosity at 60 μṭ=viscosity at temperature at t
Typical permeability coefficients for various soil: Material Coefficient permeability,Ks meter/ day Uniform coarse sand .439 Uniform medium 1.098 sand Clean, well graded 1.098 sand & gravel Uniform fine sand 4.389 Well graded silty .429 sand & gravel Silty sand .099 Uniform silt 0.048 Sandy clay 0.0048 Silty clay 0.00099 Clay(30 to 50 % clay .000099 size) Colloidal clay .0000009 of Liter/day/mt² 4.1 1.026 1.026 16.98 4.00 .90 .95 0.0049 0.009 .0009 0.000009
In meter per second units, the coefficient of permeability is expressed in liter per day per square meter, or meter per day. Control of leachate movement: A leachate percolates through underlying strata , many of chemical & biological constituents originally contained in it will be removed by the filtering & adsorptive action of the material composing the strata. In general, the extent of this action depends on the characteristics of the soil, especially the clay content. Because of the potential risk involved in allowing leachate to percolate to the ground water, best practice calls for its elimination of containment.
When gas is to be recovered, it is especially important to content the leachate because the initial moisture content must be significantly higher than normal (50 to 60 ). RECOMMENDATION: 1. For economical landfill site some other potential site should be considered in preliminary design.Considered parameters and the site which require lesser cost, should be considered in final design. 2. Proper boring should be done to obtain seepage potential ,so that ground water can be protected against contamination by leachate. 3. Soil testing must be done ,tp get the hydraulic conductivity of the soil ,and to hence control the leachate control ,requirement of lining material . 4. Resources recovery must be done to reduce the discard material volume and also to use scrap. 5. Hazardous waste must be disposed of separately . 6. For solid waste collection,handling,transportation and final disposal,supreme court must be followed. 7. The solid waste must be tested for physical and chemical property . 8. Proper construction plan and operation plan for sanitary landfill must be documented . 9. Potential for most use of landfill site must be considered ,requisite provision must be provided before using completely filled landfill site . 10. Required non development zone around the landfill site must be provided. 11. Proper safety measures must be taken.
CONCLUSION: Following conclusions are drawn from the analysis of the available data1. Presently there is no need for solid waste disposal but there will be great demand for proper solid waste management in near future. 2. The environmental & climatic conditions are suitable for effective sanitary landfill. 3. As for as present hygienic conditions are considered there is no need of solid waste management, but it should be adopted soon because prevention is better than cure against any degradation.
REFERENCE 1.Municipal solid waste management rules 2000 2.American public works association: municipal refuse disposal, 3d ed, public administration service, Chicago,1970 3.Environmental engineering howard s. peavey, Donald r. rowe, George tchobanoglous 4.Noble,g: Sanitary landfill design handbook, technomic, west port, conn 1976 5.G. tchobanoglous, h.theisen ‘Integrated solid waste management; engineering principles and management 6.Jhansi Nagar Nigam 7. NEERI 8. A.P.R PROJECTS PVT. LTD.
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