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# Solar Radiation & Its Measurement-1

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MEASUREMENT
CHAPTER 2

BY
DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR
10/30/2012 1 DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR
OUTLINE
 Solar constant
 Solar Radiation at the Earths surface
 Sun at Zenith
 Altitude angle
 Zenith Angle
 Solar Azimuth angle
 Local Solar time
 Pyranometer
 Pyrheliometer
 Estimation of Average solar Radiation
 Solar Radiation on Tilted surface
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INTRODUCTION
 Converted Directly /indirectly - Heat & electricity.
 Drawbacks:
1. Intermittent & variable manner in which arrives at the earths surface
2. Large area required to collect the energy
Electromagnetic waves- Wave length range from 0.2 to 4.0 micrometer
Consist of 1. Ultraviolet radiation – 8%
2. Visible light - 46%
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SOLAR CONSTANT

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 SOLAR CONSTANT [I
sc
] The rate at which solar energy
arrives at the top of the atmosphere.
 This is the amount of energy received in unit time on a
unit area perpendicular to the suns direction at the mean
distance of the earth from the sun.
 According to NASA , I
sc
= 1353 W/m
2

= 116.5langleys/hr.
= 1165 kcal/m
2
/hr

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 The distance between the earth & the Sun varies a little
through the year.
 The earth is closest to the sun in the summer and
farthest away in the winter.
 This variation in the distance produces a nearly
sinusoidal variation in the intensity of solar radiation, I
that reaches the earth.
 This can be approximated by the equation

where n is the day of the year

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365
n x 360
cos 0.033 1+ =
sc
I
I

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 The air mass AM = 1 when the sun is at the zenith i.e.

 ( Sun at Zenith : Position of the sun directly over

 AM = 2 when zenith angle is 60
0
 AM = sec Θ when AM > 3
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ZENITH ANGLE Θ
Z
 It is the complementary angle of sun’s altitude angle. It is a vertical
angle between the sun’s rays and a line perpendicular to the
horizontal plane through the point. i.e. the angle between the beam
from the sun and the vertical.
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· ÷ =
2
t
u
Z

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(Altitude angle)
Azimuth angle(γ
s
)

 It is the horizontal angle measured from north to the
horizontal projection of the sun’s rays

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DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR
25

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LOCAL SOLAR TIME

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The Local Solar Time (LST) is based on the definition
of noon at a given location as being the instant when
the Sun is at its highest position (greatest altitude above
the horizon) in the sky.

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The Equation of Time (EoT) is an
empirical equation that factors in the
eccentricity of the Earth’s elliptical orbit and
the tilt of the Earth’s axis.

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LST = ST ± 4( ST LONGITUDE – L O C) + EOT

 Where
 LST = Local solar Time
 ST = Standard Time
 LOC = Longitude of Location
 EOT = Equation of Time correction
 The negative sign is applicable for the eastern
Hemisphere
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HOUR ANGLE (e)
 The hour angle e is the angle through which the
earth must turn to bring the meridian of a point
directly in line with the sun’s rays.
 e equivalent to 15
0
per hour
 It is measured from noon based on the LST
 It is positive in the morning and negative in the
afternoon.
e = 15( 12 – LST)

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DAY LENGTH
 Since 150 of the hour angle are equivalent to 1 hour,
 The Day length t
d
( in hours)

 t
d
= (2 e)/15

=

where | is the latitude of location
o is the declination angle

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( ) c ÷
÷
tan tan cos
15
2
1
|
 According to Angstrom, the monthly average
horizontal solar radiation is given by

 Where a & b are constants depending upon the
location
 n is the average daily hrs. of bright sunshine
 N = t
d
is the max. daily hrs of bright sun shine
for the same period

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
N
n
b H
0
a H
av
 N= t
d
= daily length

 =
( ) c ÷
÷
tan tan cos
15
2
1
|

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