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MEASUREMENT
CHAPTER 2
BY
DR.A.M.SURENDRA KUMAR
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OUTLINE
Properties of Radiations:
Solar constant
Solar Radiation at the Earths surface
Sun at Zenith
Solar Radiation Geometry
Altitude angle
Zenith Angle
Solar Azimuth angle
Local Solar time
Solar Radiation measurement
Pyranometer
Pyrheliometer
Estimation of Average solar Radiation
Solar Radiation on Tilted surface
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INTRODUCTION
Solar energy  Received in the form of Radiation
Converted Directly /indirectly  Heat & electricity.
Drawbacks:
1. Intermittent & variable manner in which arrives at the earths surface
2. Large area required to collect the energy
Radiated as electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves Wave length range from 0.2 to 4.0 micrometer
Consist of 1. Ultraviolet radiation – 8%
2. Visible light  46%
3. Infrared Radiation  46%
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SOLAR CONSTANT
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SOLAR CONSTANT [I
sc
] The rate at which solar energy
arrives at the top of the atmosphere.
This is the amount of energy received in unit time on a
unit area perpendicular to the suns direction at the mean
distance of the earth from the sun.
According to NASA , I
sc
= 1353 W/m
2
= 116.5langleys/hr.
= 1165 kcal/m
2
/hr
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The distance between the earth & the Sun varies a little
through the year.
The earth is closest to the sun in the summer and
farthest away in the winter.
This variation in the distance produces a nearly
sinusoidal variation in the intensity of solar radiation, I
that reaches the earth.
This can be approximated by the equation
where n is the day of the year
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365
n x 360
cos 0.033 1+ =
sc
I
I
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The air mass AM = 1 when the sun is at the zenith i.e.
directly over head
( Sun at Zenith : Position of the sun directly over
head)
AM = 2 when zenith angle is 60
0
AM = sec Θ when AM > 3
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ZENITH ANGLE Θ
Z
It is the complementary angle of sun’s altitude angle. It is a vertical
angle between the sun’s rays and a line perpendicular to the
horizontal plane through the point. i.e. the angle between the beam
from the sun and the vertical.
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· ÷ =
2
t
u
Z
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(Altitude angle)
Azimuth angle(γ
s
)
It is the horizontal angle measured from north to the
horizontal projection of the sun’s rays
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LOCAL SOLAR TIME
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The Local Solar Time (LST) is based on the definition
of noon at a given location as being the instant when
the Sun is at its highest position (greatest altitude above
the horizon) in the sky.
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The Equation of Time (EoT) is an
empirical equation that factors in the
eccentricity of the Earth’s elliptical orbit and
the tilt of the Earth’s axis.
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LST = ST ± 4( ST LONGITUDE – L O C) + EOT
Where
LST = Local solar Time
ST = Standard Time
LOC = Longitude of Location
EOT = Equation of Time correction
The negative sign is applicable for the eastern
Hemisphere
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HOUR ANGLE (e)
The hour angle e is the angle through which the
earth must turn to bring the meridian of a point
directly in line with the sun’s rays.
e equivalent to 15
0
per hour
It is measured from noon based on the LST
It is positive in the morning and negative in the
afternoon.
e = 15( 12 – LST)
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DAY LENGTH
Since 150 of the hour angle are equivalent to 1 hour,
The Day length t
d
( in hours)
t
d
= (2 e)/15
=
where  is the latitude of location
o is the declination angle
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( ) c ÷
÷
tan tan cos
15
2
1

AVERAGE SOLAR RADIATION
According to Angstrom, the monthly average
horizontal solar radiation is given by
Where a & b are constants depending upon the
location
n is the average daily hrs. of bright sunshine
N = t
d
is the max. daily hrs of bright sun shine
for the same period
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ =
N
n
b H
0
a H
av
N= t
d
= daily length
=
( ) c ÷
÷
tan tan cos
15
2
1

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