Punctuation Pattern Sheet

"An independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence because it doesn't depend on anything else to complete the thought” (Harris 148). "A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a complete sentence because it depends on another clause in the sentence to complete the thought" (Harris 151). 1. Independent clause.

2. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause.
and but for or so yet


3. Independent clause; independent clause.

4. Independent clause; independent clause marker, independent clause.
therefore, however, nevertheless, consequently, furthermore, moreover, in contrast,

5. Dependent marker dependent clause, independent clause.
If Because Since When While Although After

6. Independent clause dependent marker dependent clause.
if because since when while although after 7. Independent clause: A, B, and C.

8. Frankenstein says, “The world was to me a secret which I desired to divine”
(Shelley 242). MLA documentation style Ivan Ilyich “increasingly made work the center of gravity in his life” (Tolstoy 57). 9. Clause/Phrase/Word, nonessential clause/phrase/word, clause/phrase/word. Examples: Agamemnon sacrifices Iphigenia, his daughter, to seal the victory for his country. Oedipus slays Laius, who is his actually his biological father, setting in motion the events that cause his tragic downfall.

10. Introductory material, independent clause.
Use a comma after introductory words, phrases, and clauses: Long prepositional phrases (usually four words or more): Examples: In Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Paul Baumer talks about the events that he encounters in World War I. At the beginning of the stories, both characters appear friendly. Phrases with –ing verbals, -ed verbals, and to + verb: Examples: Returning home after a brief absence, Organ inquires into the health of his household. Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus moves among the suitors undetected. To overpower the Moor, Iago frames Desdemona as an adulterous wife.

Works Cited Harris, Muriel. Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage. 66h ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2006. Numbers 1 to 6 adapted from Muriel Harris's Teaching One-to-One: The Writing Conference, 129-130, and Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage, 6th ed., 151-152. Used with permission of the Presbyterian College Writing Center http://web.presby.edu/writingcenter

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