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Running head: ASSIGNMENT NO.

2

DevC202: First Semester, 2012 – 2013 Assignment No. 2: Systems Thinking and the Problematique Map Name: RECIS C. DEMPAYOS Date Submitted: 31 August 2012 Received by: SHERRY JUNETTE M. TAGLE

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................................................................2 TABLE OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................3 SOCIAL PROBLEM: UNDEREMPLOYMENT ............................................................................................4 PROBLEM SITUATION 1 PROBLEMATIQUE MAP .............................................................................................4 PROBLEM SITUATION 1: MORE WORKING HOURS .........................................................................................5 PROBLEM SITUATION 2 PROBLEMATIQUE MAP .............................................................................................7 PROBLEM SITUATION 2: JOBS-SKILLS MISMATCH ...........................................................................................8 REFLECTIVE ESSAY ............................................................................................................................ 10 WORKS CITED .................................................................................................................................. 11

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Table of Figures
FIGURE 1. PROBLEMATIQUE MAP FOR PROBLEM SITUATION 1 FIGURE 2. PROBLEMATIQUE MAP FOR PROBLEM SITUATION 2 4 7

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Social Problem: Underemployment
Problem Situation 1 Problematique Map
There is an increase in employed individuals seeking additional working hours in their present job or in an additional job. A better job allows them to earn more. (They want to earn more.) Current costs of living are high. Companies pay low or minimum wages despite imposed job demands that are high.

Compensation received is not enough to meet daily living expenses.

The “feeling” that the salary that employed individuals receive is not enough compensation for the degree of work that they do.

To fast-track completion of requirements and applications for a better job.

The “feeling” that the quality and type of job of employed individuals do not allow them to earn more.

(They want to earn more.)

Employed individuals desire to attain additional work experience in a different field or to attain working experience hours at a faster rate.

There is an increase in employed individuals seeking additional working hours in their present job or in an additional job.

Figure 1. Problematique Map for Problem Situation 1

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Problem Situation 1: More Working Hours
“Underemployment is a more serious problem than unemployment” (Rivera, 2008). This statement was made by Rivera with reference to Philippine regions that have a low GDP per capita. Accordingly, these regions have higher underemployment rates. It is somewhat contrasting that regions with high underemployment rates, despite having a workforce that compromises to fill-in available jobs, are still producing a low Gross Domestic Product. Why is this case? What scenario in underemployment affects the GDP of a certain region? Currently, the National Statistics Office (NSO) reports that the rate of unemployment fell from 7.3% in 2010 to 7% in 2011 (Employment up in 2011 but job satisfaction down, 2012). However, the rate of underemployment rose from 18.8% in 2010 to 19.3% in 2011. It was further reported that although many more Filipino workers were employed in 2011 than in 2010, a significant number of them wanted to be in another job or to be granted additional hours of work in order to earn more. As stated in Rivera’s conference paper (2008), the NSO in 2005 defined underemployed individuals as those who are employed but still want to have extra working hours in the job they are employed in or in another job; or to have a new job that has longer hours of work. It is on this definition that the problematique map shown in Figure 1 is based on. The problem situation is the increase in number of employed individuals wanting to add working hours to their current job or in another job they are in. The subordinate influential factors are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The desire to earn more, The desire to attain work experience or work hours at a faster rate, Insufficient compensation to meet daily living expenses, Insufficient compensation for the degree of work that employed individuals perform, and The need to complete requirements and applications for another job.

The superordinate influential factors, on the other hand, are the low compensation given by employers and the current high costs of living. Cid L. Terosa from the University of Asia and the Pacific said that many workers feel that the job they are in limit their earning capacity (Employment up in 2011 but job satisfaction down, 2012). This scenario brought about by underemployment reflects the low number of optimum-paying jobs that allows individuals to meet daily expenses. It was then inferred that the current high costs of living is one superordinate influential factor why more and more employed individuals want to add working hours to their current job or in another job that they are in. Another derived subordinate influential factor to the problem situation is the desire for the underemployed to attain more work experience or to rapidly receive working hours as a requirement for application to another job. It was assumed that the reason for apply to another job was to seek better employment opportunities that give workers the ability to earn optimally to meet daily living expenses.

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS PAGE 6 OF 11 DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP Finally, a third subordinate influential factor is the underemployed’s notion that they are not receiving the proper compensation for the degree of work that they do. This is notable in blue-collar jobs that pay minimum, or even below the minimum wage set in their areas. It was assumed that such is the case due to the incapacity of employers to pay what is due to their employees, brought about by poor economic conditions, and such. Underemployment, although it depicts a compromising workforce to attain economic stability, still negatively affects GDP. This is through the loss of skilled resources to fill in high-paying jobs, or the so-called “white collar” jobs. Without a sufficient workforce number for these types of jobs, GDP will continue to be low.

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Problem Situation 2 Problematique Map
There is a mismatch between available jobs and individuals’ acquired skills and completed college degree. A presently poor higher education system that supposedly links employers, companies, research institutions, higher education institutions, and training providers with earlier education.

National planning is based on the demands of the overseas job market, instead of on the needs of the domestic economy.

There are disparities in occupations rooted in tertiary education.

There is an economy mismatch. (Failed development model of globalization imposed upon the Philippine economy.)

Majority of the country’s workers lack the necessary skills and educational background to qualify for formal employment.

There is a deregulation in Philippine education.

There is a mismatch between available jobs and individuals’ acquired skills and completed college degree.

Figure 2. Problematique Map for Problem Situation 2

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Problem Situation 2: Jobs-Skills Mismatch
The second problem situation of the social problem, underemployment, revolves around the mismatch between available jobs and the skills learned and the college degrees earned by potential employees or new graduates. This situation is usually seen as the problem that magnifies the underemployment situation in the Philippines. Despite an increasing number of college graduates every year, it would seem that most of these graduates are unable to find satisfactory employment within the bounds of their academic disciplines. The subordinate influential factor for the mismatch between available jobs and individuals’ acquired skills and completed college degree are as follows: 1. Majority of the country’s workers lack the necessary skills and educational background to qualify for formal employment, 2. An economy mismatch, 3. A deregulation in Philippine education, 4. Disparities in occupations rooted in education, and 5. A national plan that is based on the demands of the overseas job market instead of on the needs of the domestic economy. The superordinate influential factor seen is the present poor higher education system that supposedly links employers, companies, research institutions, higher education institutions, and training providers with potential workers’ earlier education. Country Director Lawrence Jeff Johnson of the International Labor Organization said that 7.9 million Filipinos are working poor who lack essential skills and education to be formally employed (Torres, 2012). Supporting this statement is the current disparity or inconsistency seen by Senate Finance committee chief, Sen. Franklin Drilon, in various occupations (Torregoza, 2011). Accordingly, the mismatch between graduates and available jobs lead to low productivity, the end-result of which is low wages. This disparity in occupations is attributed to gaps in the higher educational system (Ordinario, 2012). Enumerated gaps include a weak information system on the relationship between universities, industries, and trends in employment; inadequate resources; and meager incentives for adapting and refining curricula to meet current standards. The deregulated or lenient education system in the country is also seen as a subordinate influential factor. Because of deregulation, economic planning, which means to make the educational system serve development needs, cannot push through (Magtubo, 2009). This deregulation is then assumed to be caused by gaps in the educational system, notably in higher education institutions. A further argument in the problematique map is the failed development model of globalization that was imposed on the Philippine economy (Magtubo, 2009). This failure was termed as an “economy mismatch”. The economy mismatch is attributed to the national planning process wherein the mentality is to address the needs of foreign job markets instead of focusing on the needs of the local job scene. This mistaken national planning process is assumed to be rooted in a poor higher educational system

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS PAGE 9 OF 11 DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP referencing the weak information system on the relationship between universities, industries, and trends in employment and the meager incentives for adapting and refining curricula to meet current standards. For this problematique map, the main issue to be addressed to curb away jobs-skills mismatches is to refine the current higher education system. Researches and upgrades have to be conducted to make sure that curricula meet the needs of the present local job market first. Standards that meet the international labor market can be met only after sufficiently furnishing local needs. Of course, it is also of significance that wages or compensation in the local employment scene is sufficient to meet the everyday expenses of laborers.

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Reflective Essay
Underemployment may not be taken as seriously as unemployment by most people, but undeniably, it is a determining factor of our country’s current economic and employment state. Basing from NSO’s definition of underemployment, we can infer that most employed Filipinos find the compensation provided by local jobs to be insufficient. As such, they opt to sign up for better jobs when they can get the chance, most of which are found overseas. This results in a brain-drain of our skilled resources, which leads to low productivity and low national GDP. Another manifestation of underemployment is the wrong mindset of most people when choosing to enroll in a college degree. Most of them choose a Bachelor’s or even a Certificate degree in programs that they believe will enable them to immediately be employed in a job overseas; which they also believe has a better pay than local jobs. What they fail to realize is the difficulty to be qualified in a foreign job market due to competition. Also, there are the setbacks brought from obtaining a work permit for overseas employment. As such, these people are forced to first look for available job openings in the local job market. The problem is, the local and the foreign job markets have different needs, which hits back on the “misguided” but skilled potential workers. Finally, underemployment reflects the variety of degree programs available in the country. Most of these degrees are suited for foreign job markets. Only a handful of these are tailored to address development issues in the country. While institutions are also geared towards their own incomegeneration by addressing local demand for such degree programs, it would be of utmost advantage to the country if more programs that address current development issues are offered.

RECIS C. DEMPAYOS DEVC202: FIRST SEMESTER, 2012 – 2013 ASSIGNMENT NO. 2: SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE PROBLEMATIQUE MAP

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Works Cited
Employment up in 2011 but job satisfaction down. (2012, February 3). Retrieved August 30, 2012, from INQUIRER News: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/138549/employment-up-but-so-isunderemployment Magtubo, R. (2009, May 1). Job mismatch a myth. Retrieved August 30, 2012, from INQUIRER.net: http://opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/letterstotheeditor/view/20090501-202500/Jobmismatch-a-myth Ordinario, C. U. (2012, March 1). WB: Efficient fund use will solve job-skills mismatch. Retrieved August 30, 2012, from Business Mirror: http://businessmirror.com.ph/home/top-news/23984-wbefficient-fund-use-will-solve-job-skills-mismatch Rivera, E. B. (2008, November 18). Redefining the labour force framework: Some inputs from the Philippine experience. Retrieved August 30, 2012, from International Labour Organization: http://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/meetings-and-events/WCMS_100704/lang-en/index.htm Torregoza, H. L. (2011, August 29). Drilon: Solve job-skill mismatch. Retrieved August 30, 2012, from mb.com.ph: http://mb.com.ph/node/332487/drilonTorres, E. (2012, May 1). DOLE jobs fairs expose ‘skills mismatch’. Retrieved August 30, 2012, from Business Mirror: http://www.businessmirror.com.ph/home/economy/26560-dole-jobs-fairsexpose-skills-mismatch