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for c ontinuously improving the quality of products and processes. TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the r esponsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of th e products or services offered by an organization. In other words, TQM requires the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies; Cua, McK one, and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices as:  cross-functional product design process management supplier quality management customer involvement information and feedback committed leadership strategic planning cross-functional training employee involvement