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Published by Tejbinder Singh

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Published by: Tejbinder Singh on Oct 31, 2012
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In April 2001. China Unicom began to construct CDMA networks—the largest in the world (about 70Million line now). the first CDMA standard IS-95 was issued.    In1993. CDMA technology was put into commercialization in Hong Kong and America on large scale. almost 20% of all users in the world. CDMA commercial networks are established in about 40 countries or area. In 1995. At present. .

There are predominantly three types of multiple access methods: 1.TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) 3.CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) .FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple Access) 2.

Usually implemented in narrowband systems. No other user can share the same channel. Continuous transmission. Inefficient if customer does not use the channel.• • • • • • • Assigns different channels to individual user. . AMPS first analog cellular system uses FDMA/FDD. No synchronization and framing bits are needed as in TDMA systems.

No duplexers are required. Transmission is non continuous. High synchronization overhead is required. Only one user allowed in each time slot to transmit and receive .         Divides the spectrum into time slots. Multiple slots per user possible. GSM uses TDMA technique. Cyclic usage of the slots. Less expensive than FDMA. .

All users use the same carrier frequency. Sender and receiver know the codeword in advance. Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword. cdma2000 uses CDMA technique. Other ongoing communication appears as noise. Performance degrades with increase in number of users. .


All the users can transmit at all times and at all frequencies.    Spread spectrum – a transmission technique wherein data occupy a larger bandwidth than necessary There is no restriction on time and frequency in this scheme. . Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword which is approximately orthogonal to all other code words.

Because users are isolated by code. they can share the same carrier frequency. This technology is used only when the network interacts with the subscriber or the subscriber interacts with the network.   The receiver needs to know this codeword used by the transmitter and it performs correlation to detect only the specific desired signal. . eliminating the frequency reuse problem encountered in other technologies.

Rc Bandwidth. Ri Bandwidth .Rc Bandwidth. Wc SPREADING SEQUENCE Chip Rate .INTERFERENCE JAMMER FILTER INFORMATION SIGNAL i(t) Data Rate. W s(t) r(t) d(t) c(t) SPREADING SEQUENCE Chip Rate. Wc .Wi c(t) BANDWIDTH.

  CDMA is a spread spectrum multiple access technique. .a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. In CDMA . A spread spectrum technique spreads the bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power.

(Tc is much smaller than Tb ). The bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / Tb and the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is 1 / Tc.   The figure shows how a spread spectrum signal is generated. **REVERSE PROCESS IS FOLLOWED AT RECIEVER SIDE** . The ratio Tb / Tc is called the spreading factor or processing gain and determines to a certain extent the upper limit of the total number of users supported. The data signal with pulse duration of Tb is XOR’ed with the code signal with pulse duration of Tc.

. Improved call quality: CDMA provides better and more consistent sound quality than systems based on other technologies. Fewer dropped calls due to handoff. Dynamic allocation of channels is possible. Enhanced privacy when compared to systems using other technologies. Longer Talk Time. Allows the largest number of subscribers to share the same radio frequencies. Longer Battery Life and Smaller Phones.       No SIM card is required.

 Near-far problem is a serious hindrance. which dominates the performance in most CDMA systems. Tight synchronization is required to use orthogonal codes.  Quasi-orthogonal codes cause self-interference. . ‘ROAMING’ on CDMA is limited.  Since most countries have chosen the GSM standard.

      Daily Downloads : characters. E-mail. Sending photos over the air: MMS messages. instant messaging. images. navigation assistance. SMS. . Games and entertainment: magazine. comic book store. Position location services: friend finder. Real time stock quotes Text Communication : chat. horoscopes.

• Technology of choice for 3G generation because of it’s Greater total capacity Outstanding voice quality Fewer dropped calls • RF planning and implementation is simplified by it’s Capability of re-using single cell frequency Non-contiguous bandwidth requirement • It’s use in satellite communication is of great importance .

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