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Remote Sensing and Hydrometry Final Report

Remote Sensing and Hydrometry Final Report

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A short Report on Remote Sensing and Hydrometry,
A short Report on Remote Sensing and Hydrometry,

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Published by: Adil Javed Chaudhary on Oct 31, 2012
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Martikelnummer

2709215

Hydrometery and Remote
Sensing
Dr. Jochen Seidel

FINAL REPORT
MUHAMMAD ADIL JAVED

LEHRSTUHL FÜR HYDROLOGIE UND GEOHYDROLOGIE |
Pfaffenwaldring 61, 70569 Stuttgart, Deutschland
|

Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Objectives/Major Assignments ................................................................................................................ 5
Discharge Measurements using Tracer .................................................................................................... 5
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 5
Tracers ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Theory ................................................................................................................................................. 5
Tracer-Velocity Method ................................................................................................................... 5
Trace-Dilution Method..................................................................................................................... 5
Constant Rate Injection Method .......................................................................................................... 6
Point Rate Injection Method ................................................................................................................ 7
Location .............................................................................................................................................. 8
Equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 8
Procedure............................................................................................................................................ 8
Results................................................................................................................................................. 9
Results from Point Injection 1 ........................................................................................................ 10
Results from Point Injection 2 ........................................................................................................ 11
Results from Point Injection 3 ........................................................................................................ 12
Continuous Injection.......................................................................................................................... 13
Results from Continuous Injection Method .................................................................................... 13
Discharge Measurements in the River Glems ......................................................................................... 14
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Theory ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Measuring Stream Flow with propeller/Current Meter ...................................................................... 15
Calibration Process for Current Meter............................................................................................ 17
ADV Flow Tracker .............................................................................................................................. 17
Location ............................................................................................................................................ 18
Equipment ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Results............................................................................................................................................... 20
Velocity data using propeller current meter ................................................................................... 20
Discharge data using propeller current meter ................................................................................ 20
Cross Section from propeller current meter ................................................................................... 21

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Acoustic Doppler Velocity (ADV) Flow Tracker ................................................................................... 22
Discharge calculation using ADV flow tracker ................................................................................. 22
Cross Section from ADV Flow Tracker ............................................................................................ 23
Weather Radar ...................................................................................................................................... 24
Task 1: ............................................................................................................................................... 24
Task 2: ............................................................................................................................................... 24
Task 5 ................................................................................................................................................ 25
Evaluation of Meteorological Data......................................................................................................... 26
Meteorological Data Statistics from the Month of April, 2012............................................................ 26
Meteorological Data Statistics from the Month of May, 2012 ............................................................ 28
Graphs of Meteorological Data from the month of May 2012 ............................................................ 29
Meteorological Data Statistics from the Month of June, 2012 ............................................................ 30
Graphs of Meteorological Data from the month of June 2012............................................................ 31
Long Term Temperature and Precipitation Means ............................................................................. 32
April............................................................................................................................................... 32
May ............................................................................................................................................... 32
June ............................................................................................................................................... 32
Evaluate different Rainfall Events ...................................................................................................... 33
For the month of August ................................................................................................................ 33
For the month of December........................................................................................................... 33
For the month of July ..................................................................................................................... 33
For the month of June ................................................................................................................... 33

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Table of Figures

Figure 1 ArBficial Channel in VEGAS LAB .................................................................................................. 8
Figure 2 Trace is being injected at the upstream of ArBficial Channel ....................................................... 9
Figure 3 ................................................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 4 ................................................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 5Typical river velocity profile in the verBcal plane ....................................................................... 16
Figure 6 Cross-secBon of a stream divided into verBcal secBons for measurement of discharge ............. 16
Figure 7 Electrical Device for Current Meter for showinf number of revoluBons etc. .............................. 17
Figure 8 ADV Flow Tracker measuring velociBes in River ........................................................................ 18
Figure 9 LocaBon of River Glems Gauß-Krüger Koordinaten: RW 3505610 HW 5401940 ........................ 19
Figure 10 Propeller Current Meter Equipment Box ................................................................................. 19
Figure 11 Cross SecBon from Current Meter .......................................................................................... 21
Figure 12 Cross SecBon from ADV Flow Tracker...................................................................................... 23

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Introduc&on
Term Hydrometery simply means measurements of Water. In the past parBcularly stream water flow
measurement was regarded as Hydrometery. But as the Bme passed, many aspects of water
measurements have been included in this field. Hydrometery is concerned with the measurements of all
the variables in the hydrological (water) cycle and hydrological informaBon is therefore necessary for the
pracBce of efficient water management. Water will be a major issue as the world enters the third
millennium where more than one quarter of its populaBon sBll does not have safe drinking water. An
increasing demand is therefore placed on Hydrometery to provide the essenBal hydrometric informaBon
in order that the world's water resources may be managed more efficiently.
Hydrometery is defined as the measurement of flow in water courses, supported of complemented by
measurements of water levels and sediment transport.i
So far, there are many methods, techniques, and instruments out there for Hydrometery. Which include
tracer method, mid-secBon method, slope area method etc. Which method is to be used? This is the
quesBon which can be answered aMer take a look on requirement of accuracy of results, reliability and
the esBmated cost.
The areas which are incorporated in the field of Hydrometery can be visualized in the following figure.

Another very popular tool which is also used with the Hydrometery techniques now days is Remote
Sensing. Remote Sensing can be described as the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring
informaBon about the Earth's surface without actually being in contact with it. This is done by sensing
and recording reflected or emiOed energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that informaBon. ii
One of the methods from the science of Remote Sensing is the RADAR. Which is now been widely used
in a range of fields including Water measurements in the atmosphere.

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Objec&ves/Major Assignments
In this report, I have tried to encompass some methods of Discharge measurements like Discharge
Measurement using Tracer, Discharge Measurement using two instruments (propeller & ADV flow
tracker) and EvaluaBon of Weather Radar Data. Methods and corresponding results have also been
discussed to some extent.

Discharge Measurements using Tracer
Introduc&on
Discharge measurements using tracer may be divided into two categories. The tracer-diluBon method
and the tracer-velocity method. Tracer-diluBon method is generally used where we have no access to
exact geometry of channel or cross secBonal data. This method is more popular than the tracer velocity
method. Both the methods are discussed in the theoreBcal part of this secBon.

Tracers
Basically, a tracer is considered anything that mixes with or travels with the flow and is detectable. A
detectable tracer can be Bmed as it passes through a reach, or tracer concentraBon profiles can be
measured in a reach.iii
Some tracers which can be used are:






Dyes of various colors
Other chemicals such as ferBlizer, salt, and gases
Radioisotopes
Heat
Traveling turbulent eddy pressure sequences
Neutrally buoyant beads
Floats

Theory
Tracer-Velocity Method
It has the advantage if simple injecBon requires a relaBvely small amount of tracer and is not criBcally
dependent on the conservaBon of tracer. Its major disadvantages are the requirements the channel is
uniform and the channel-flow geometry be defined exactly. This method is not frequently used, but it
can be very accurate in canal and pipes where the cross secBonal area is accurately known.

Trace-Dilu&on Method
Measurements from Tracer-DiluBon Method depend on the determinaBon of the degree of diluBon of
an added tracer soluBon by the flowing water.
A soluBon with a known tracer concentraBon is injected at a constant known velocity into the channel
flow. Downstream where the tracer soluBon is thoroughly mixed over the flow cross secBon, a
conBnuous sample is taken and its tracer concentraBon in relaBon to that of the injected soluBon is
determined. The flow reference value is determined by using the tracer balance condiBon between the
injected tracer flow and the diluBng flow.

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The procedure is standardized (ISO 9555-1 and ISO 9555-2 for liquid flow in open channels).iv
Generally chemical salts v were generally use as tracer. RadioacBve tracers have been also used
successfully but handling problems have limited widespread use. Now a days fluorescent dyes as the
traces are used. We also used a fluorescent dye in lab test.
DiluBon method is useful under following condiBons:


Where it is difficult or impossible to use current meter due to high velociBes, turbulence or
debris.
Where, for physical reasons, the flow is inaccessible to a current meter or other measuring
devices.
Where the cross secBonal area cannot be accurately measures as part of discharge
measurement of is changing during measurement. vi

There are two methods that can be used to measure discharge using the tracer method. One method is
constant-rate injecBon method and the other can be sudden injecBon method.

Constant Rate Injec&on Method
In this method, Tracer is injected in the flow with a constant rate for sufficient long period of Bme in
order to achieve a constant concentraBon of tracer at the downstream where the fluorometer is
provided.
The constant rate injecBon method is basically injecBng tracer soluBon into the river in constant flow
rate for a sufficient long period in order to achieve a constant concentraBon of the tracer at the
downstream sampling cross secBon. Based on the conservaBon of mass, discharge can then be
calculated from these following equaBons. vii
Based on the conversaBon of mass, discharge can then be calculated from provided equaBons: 
+  = ( + ) 

−  

=  

−  

=        
= ℎ   ℎ ℎ 
!"    ℎ ℎ 
  ℎ     ℎ 

#   $  ℎ  # %

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Point Rate Injec&on Method
In principal this method is done by instantaneously injecBon tracer soluBon into the channel and
calculaBng the total mass of tracer at the sampling cross secBon. viii According to the conservaBon of
mass, discharge can be calculated from these following equaBon. 
=

& 

(
') (

−  )  

= ℎ   ℎ ℎ
&  ℎ %#     ℎ 
 ℎ #     % #  ℎ #$ $ 
 ℎ !"    ℎ 
 ℎ #
(

The term ') ( −  )  is the total area under the concentraBon-Bme curve. Generally the term
(

') ( −  )  is approximate by the equaBon:
1

*
,2

+(, −  )(,- − ,. )/

2 

 ℎ  #!  #$
3  ℎ  #!  #$ 
,  ℎ # ℎ  #$   !

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Loca&on
Discharge measurement by tracer test was conducted in the VEGAS laboratory of Universität StuOgart.

Equipment
Following equipment was used for this experiment:





Pump
Timer
Computer/SoMware for logging the measurements
Fluorescence
Pipes
ArBficial Channel whose cross secBon was not
known.

Procedure
1. Flow is generated by a pump in the ArBficial Channel
whose cross secBon was not known.
2. Flow rate was kept constant.
3. All the equipment i.e. Fluorometer, pipes, and
notebook/computer were installed to detect the

Figure 1 Ar
ficial Channel in VEGAS LAB

tracer concentraBon in the flow.
4. Coloring with concentraBon of 1 g/l and volume of 5 ml is injected instantaneously into the
arBficial channel at upstream cross secBon
5. ObservaBon of concentraBon manually by eyes and automaBcally by fluorometer for this
condiBon is lasBng approximately 15 minutes.
6. Flow rate was increased to constant level and then again coloring concentraBon of the same as
above and volume of 10 ml was introduced at once.
7. AMer taking down the observaBons, with the same procedure, coloring of 1g/l concentraBon and
10 ml volume was introduce.
8. Coloring with concentraBon of 1 g/l is injected conBnuously with rate of 1,23 ml/sec into the
arBficial channel at upstream cross secBon

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Figure 2 Trace is being injected at the upstream of Ar
ficial Channel

Results

Concentration over time for Point Injection
0.09
0.08

Concentration (mg/l)

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
14:15:22

M. Adil Javed

14:18:14

14:21:07

14:24:00

14:26:53

14:29:46

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14:35:31

14:38:24

14:41:17

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14:44:10

Results from Point Injec&on 1

Point Injection 1 5ml
0.05000
0.04500
0.04000
Concentration mg/l

0.03500
0.03000
0.02500
0.02000
0.01500
0.01000
0.00500

Parameter Name
Value Calculated
C1
1000
V1
5
Cb, before
0,004509735
Cb, AMer
0,004560232 
= 0,5 7 (,89:;8 + ,<9=8; )
Cb
0,00453498
Area Under The Curve
690,543

14:28:19

14:27:36

14:26:53

14:26:10

14:25:26

14:24:43

Time(Sec)

14:24:00

14:23:17

14:22:34

14:21:50

14:21:07

14:20:24

14:19:41

14:18:58

14:18:14

0.00000

Units
mg/l
ml
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
Mg. second per liter

Point Injection 1
Sum

0,690543

Tracer Amount

M. Adil Javed

5

mg/l
ml

Tracer Concentration

1000

mg/l

Calculated Discharge

7,240

l/s

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Results from Point Injec&on 2

Point Injection 2 10ml
0.090000
0.080000
0.070000
0.060000
Concentration mg/l

0.050000
0.040000
0.030000
0.020000
0.010000

Parameter Name
Value Calculated
C1
1000
V1
10
Cb, before
0.004560232
Cb, AMer
0.004638725 
= 0,5 7 (,89:;8 + ,<9=8; )
Cb
0.004599478
Area Under The Curve
1,050305

14:34:48

14:34:05

14:33:22

Time(s)

14:32:38

14:31:55

14:31:12

14:30:29

14:29:46

14:29:02

14:28:19

14:27:36

14:26:53

0.000000

Units
mg/l
ml
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
Mg. second per liter

Point Injection 2
Sum

1,050305 mg/l

Tracer Amount
Tracer
Concentration
Q

M. Adil Javed

10
1000
9,5210

ml
mg/l
l/s

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Results from Point Injec&on 3

Point Injection 3
10 ml

0.06000
0.05000

Concentration mg/l

0.04000
0.03000
0.02000
0.01000

Parameter Name
Value Calculated
C1
1000
V1
10
Cb, before
0.004638725
Cb, AMer
0,004560232 
= 0,5 7 (,89:;8 + ,<9=8; )
Cb
0.004356853
Area Under The Curve
0,75028

Units
mg/l
ml
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
Mg. second per liter

Point Injection 3
Sum

786.302

Tracer Amount
Tracer Concentration
Q

M. Adil Javed

10
1000
13,3285

mg/l
ml
mg/l
l/s

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14:43:26

14:42:43

14:42:00

14:41:17

14:40:34

Time(s)

14:39:50

14:39:07

14:38:24

14:37:41

14:36:58

14:36:14

14:35:31

14:34:48

14:34:05

14:33:22

0.00000

Results from Con&nuous Injec&on Method 

−  

=  

− 

Results
Pumping rate q
k

M. Adil Javed

1.23
0.1613

Background
Concentration
C1

840000

C1-C2(1st)

839935

C1-C2(2nd)

839860

C1-C2(3rd)

839833

[ml/s]
[µg/l]

4.61
[µg/l]

C2-C0(1st)

60.39

C2-C0(2nd)

135.39

C2-C0(3rd)

162.39

Q1

17.5

l/s

Q2

7.73

l/s

Q3

6.83

l/s

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14:58:34

14:57:07

14:55:41

14:54:14

Time(s)

14:52:48

14:51:22

14:49:55

14:48:29

14:45:36

14:44:10

14:47:02

Continuous Rate Injection

180.00
170.00
160.00
150.00
140.00
130.00
120.00
110.00
100.00
90.00
80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
14:42:43

Concentration(µg/l)

Con&nuous Injec&on

Discharge Measurements in the River Glems
Introduc&on
Rivers are the most important hydrological component. That’s why river water related analysis including
water quanBty and water quality have to be taken into account to opBmize water resources. To use the
river water to its full capacity, it is very important that we should have the exact knowledge of the
concerned river discharge and cross-secBon.
There are many discharge measurement methods out there which were developed with the passage of
Bme by the water engineers and scienBsts. In this case we will use mid-secBon method. The discharge
measurements of the River Glems have been conducted with two different instruments (propeller & ADV
flow tracker). We will calculate discharge of the Glems River on that specific day on which the
measurements were conducted. This will be done by using mid-secBon method as menBon earlier.

Theory
Discharge measurements are done simple to calculate the amount of flow of water per second.
Discharge can be defined as the volume rate of flow of water including any substances suspended or
dissolved in the water and is usually expressed in cubic feet per second or cubic meters per second. ix
This definiBon can be expressed as mathemaBcal formula which is : 
= > % ? 
= # ℎ   # A
@

% = %B    #⁄

? = #     #

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Measuring Stream Flow with propeller/Current Meter
The most common method used by many professionals is mechanical current-meter method. In this
method, the stream channel cross secBon is divided into numerous verBcal subsecBons (diagram to the
leM). In each subsecBon, the area is obtained by measuring the width and depth of the subsecBon, and
the water velocity is determined using a current meter (leM-side picture below). The discharge in each
subsecBon is computed by mulBplying the subsecBon area by the measured velocity. The total discharge
is then computed by summing the discharge of each subsecBon.x

Figure 3

Figure 4

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The velocity of the streamflow is measured using a current meter. An electronic signal is transmiOed
by the meter on each revoluBon allowing the revoluBons to be counted and Bmed. Because the rate
at which the cups revolve is directly related to the velocity of the water, the Bmed revoluBons are
used to determine the water velocity.
For best results, the cross-secBon of the stream at the point of measurement should have the
following ideal characterisBcs:







The velociBes at all points are parallel to one another and at right angles to the crosssecBon
of the stream.
The curves of distribuBon of velocity in the secBon are regular in the horizontal and verBcal
planes.
The cross-secBon should be located at a point where the stream is nominally straight for at
least 50 m above and below the measuring staBon.
The velociBes are greater than 10-15 cm/s
The bed of the channel is regular and stable.
The depth of flow is greater than 30 cm.
The stream does not overflow its banks.
There is no aquaBc growth in the channel.

It is rare for all these characterisBcs to be present at any one measuring site and compromises
usually have to be made.

Figure 5Typical river velocity profile in the ver
cal plane

Figure 6 Cross-sec
on of a stream divided into ver
cal sec
ons for measurement of discharge

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Calibra&on Process for Current Meter
There is a need of calibraBon for the propeller current meter before it is used to measure velocity.
From the calibraBon, following equaBons have to be used for calculaBon of stream velocity.
&),DE = 0,06 ∗  + 0,03  0,74 <  < 1,65
&),DE = 0,05 ∗  + 0,05   > 1,65
Nℎ     1A    ℎ #!   $ # # ##

Figure 7 Electrical Device for Current Meter for showinf number of revolu
ons etc.

ADV Flow Tracker
The ADV uses the Doppler Effect to determine water velocity by sending a sound pulse into the water
and measuring the change in frequency of that sound pulse reflected back to the ADV by sediment or
other parBculates being transported in the water. The change in frequency, or Doppler ShiM, that is
measured by the ADC is translated into water velocity. The sound is transmiOed into the water from a
transducer to the boOom of the river and receives return signals throughout the enBre depth. The ADV
also uses acousBcs to measure water depth by measuring the travel Bme of a pulse of sound to reach
the river boOom at back to the ADV.

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Figure 8 ADV Flow Tracker measuring veloci
es in River

Loca&on
This experiment was conducted at the River Glems. LocaBon is specifically shown in the following maps.
(Gauß-Krüger Koordinaten: RW 3505610 HW 5401940)

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Figure 9 Loca
on of River Glems Gauß-Krüger Koordinaten: RW 3505610 HW 5401940

Equipment
This experiment included following equipment.



Propeller current meter
Width and depth measurement equipment
Meter rod, Bmer, pen, note book
AcousBc Doppler Velocity flow Tracker

Figure 10 Propeller Current Meter
Equipment Box

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Results
Velocity data using propeller current meter
Point

Distance from
LB (m)

Depth (m)

n1 (rotaons
per 30 sec)

n (calibrated)=
n1/t

V0,6d (m/sec)

Le% Bank

0

,01

0

0,23

0,044

1

0,2

0,11

7

3,50

0,23

2

0,4

0,11

105

5,60

0,33

3

0,8

,09

168

5,47

0,32

4

1,2

0,095

164

5,33

0,32

5

1,6

0,10

160

4,93

0,30

6

2,0

0,10

148

4,50

0,28

7

2,4

0,10

135

1,10

0,096

8

2,6

0,105

33

0,00

0,03

9

2,8

0,032

0

0,23

0,044

Discharge data using propeller current meter
Profile

Depth (m)

V (m/sec)

Distance
between two
points (m)

Le% Bank

,01

0,044

1

0,11

0,23

2

0,11

3

Width of mid
secon (m)

LB-A

Q (m3/sec)

0,1

0,000044

0,2 A-B

0,2

0,00506

0,33

0,2 B-C

0,3

0,01089

,09

0,32

0,4 C-D

0,4

0,01152

4

0,095

0,32

0,4 D-E

0,4

0,01216

5

0,10

0,30

0,4 E-F

0,4

0,012

6

0,10

0,28

0,4 F-G

0,4

0,0112

7

0,10

0,096

0,4 G-H

0,3

0,00288

8

0,105

0,03

0,2 H-I

0,2

0,00063

RB

0,032

0,044

0,2 I-RB

0,1

0,000141

Total Discharge

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0,06652 m3/sec
66,525 lit/sec

20/32

Cross Sec&on from propeller current meter

0

0 A

B

D
1

0.5 C

E 1.5

F

2

H

G

I

2.5

3

-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1
-0.12 LB

1

2

4

3

5

7

6

8

RB

Figure 11 Cross Sec
on from Current Meter

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2

-0.02

2.4

2.6

2.8

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.1
-0.12

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Acous&c Doppler Velocity (ADV) Flow Tracker
Discharge calcula&on using ADV flow tracker
Profile

Depth
(m)

V (m/sec)

Distance Distance
from LB Between
(m)
2 Points

Width of midSecon (m)

LB

0

0

LB-A

1

0,098

0,035

0,20

2

0,139

0,151

3

0,148

4

Q (m3/sec)

0,1

0

0,2 A-B

0,25

0,0008575

0,50

0,3 B-C

0,35

0,0073462

0,212

0,90

0,4 C-D

0,4

0,0125504

0,149

0,233

1,30

0,4 D-E

0,4

0,0138868

5

0,152

0,214

1,70

0,4 E-F

0,4

0,0130112

6

0,153

0,199

2,10

0,4 F-G

0,4

0,0121788

7

0,162

0,169

2,50

0,4 G-H

0,35

0,0095823

8

0,138

0,032

2,80

0,3 H-I

0,3

0,0013248

RB

0

0

2,95

0,15 I-RB

0,15

Total Discharge

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

0
0,070738 m3/sec
70,7380 lit/sec

22/32

Cross Sec&on from ADV Flow Tracker

0
-0.02

A

0

B

0.5

C

D

1

E

F

1.5

G

2

2.5

H

I

-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1
-0.12
-0.14
-0.16
-0.18

LB

1

2

4

3

5

7

6

8

RB

Figure 12 Cross Sec
on from ADV Flow Tracker

0
0
-0.02

0.2

0.5

0.9

1.3

1.7

2.1

2.5

2.8

2.95

-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
-0.1
-0.12
-0.14
-0.16
-0.18

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

23/32

3

Weather Radar
Task 1:
Calculate the elevaBon above ground of the center of the Radar Beam from the Radar Türkheim at the
site of the IWS Weather staBon, as well as the upper and lower edges. How many and which ranges bins
of the MRR lie within the radar beam of the Türkheim radar (lower to upper edge)?
Answer
Due to the earth’s curvature and refracBon in the atmosphere, the height of the radar beam can be
calculated as followsxi:

Calculations
H
r
Re
elevatin angle
H

1842.755

m

52500

m

8490000

m

1
767

degree
m

Task 2:
Determine the volumes which are captured by the Türkheim Radar and the MRR (for the complete
Türkheim Radar beam) at the site of the weather staBon site?
Hint: You have to calculate a rough order of magnitude not a factor with 4 trailing decimals!
Beam of RADAR is in the shape of cone. It scaOers as it travels. So from this we can calculate volume
capture by a RADAR.
Surface Area and volume of conexii

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

24/32

O = P
O     
       !#
P      !#
So by CalculaBons,
O 52500  

3008,117 "#
P QA180
1 
&#  ∗ Q ∗ 
∗ 
3 
4,951723T10D "#@ 

Task 5
The figure below shows an annual accumulaBon sum for the Radar Türkheim.

Ground CluOering Effect

Intense Rain Drops aOenuaBon
May be the aero planes in sky

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

25/32

Evalua&on of Meteorological Data
Meteorological Data Sta&s&cs from the Month of April, 2012
Parameter

Value

Mean Temperature

8.258903 2m[ーC ]

Mean Air Humidity

69.85585 [%]

Mean Air Pressure

954.5691 [hPa]
[mm]

Precipitation Sum (Float &
Syphon)
Precipitation Sum (Tipping Bucket)
Evapotranspiration

Units

49.7 [mm]
59,51 mm
Date

Time

Max Temperature

30.02 2m[ーC ]

28.04.2012 16:00:00

Mi. Temparature

-3.44 2m[ーC ]

17.04.2012 06:00:00

Max Humidity

100.5 [%]

05.04.2012 09:00:00

Min. Humidity

18.1 [%]

28.04.2012 16:00:00

Max Air Pressure

969.02 [hPa]

04.04.2012 10:00:00

Min. Air Pressure

940.24 [hPa]

19.04.2012 16:00:00

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

26/32

April 2012
25
Relative Humidity %

Average Daily Temperature

Relative Humidity %

100

Temp (degree Centigrade)

120

20

80

15
60

10
40
5

20
0
27.03.2012

01.04.2012

06.04.2012

11.04.2012

16.04.2012

21.04.2012

26.04.2012

01.05.2012

0
06.05.2012

26.04.2012

01.05.2012

06.05.2012

April 2012
970
Average Air Pressure

[hPa]

960
950
940
930
920
27.03.2012

01.04.2012

06.04.2012

11.04.2012

16.04.2012

21.04.2012

April 2012
Precepitation

Evapotransipiration

12
10

mm

8
6
4
2
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Days

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

27/32

Meteorological Data Sta&s&cs from the Month of May, 2012
Parameter

Value

Units

Mean Temperature

14.65676 2m[ーC ]

Mean Air Humidity

69.40467 [%]

Mean Air Pressure

962.7164 [hPa]

Precipitation Sum (Float &
Syphon)

[mm]

Precipitation Sum (Tipping
Bucket)

43.1 [mm]

Evapotranspiration

97 [mm]
Date

Time

Max Temperature

29.27 2m[ーC ]

11.05.2012 14:00:00

Mi. Temparature

-0.25 2m[ーC ]

14.05.2012 05:00:00

Max Humidity

100.64 [%]

23.05.2012 07:00:00

Min. Humidity

29.33 [%]

14.05.2012 17:00:00

Max Air Pressure

978.6 [hPa]

12.05.2012 22:00:00

Min. Air Pressure

945.32 [hPa]

21.05.2012 19:00:00

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

28/32

Graphs of Meteorological Data from the month of May 2012

May 2012

Relative Humidity

Daily Average Temperature
25

80

20

60

15

40

10

20

5

Centigrade

Relative Humidity %

100

0
26.04.2012

01.05.2012

06.05.2012

11.05.2012

16.05.2012

21.05.2012

26.05.2012

0
05.06.2012

Average Air Pressure

May 2012

980

31.05.2012

[hPa]

970

960

950

940
26.04.2012

01.05.2012

06.05.2012

11.05.2012

16.05.2012

21.05.2012

May 2012

26.05.2012

Precepitation

31.05.2012

05.06.2012

Evapotransipiration

14
12

mm

10
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Days

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

29/32

Meteorological Data Sta&s&cs from the Month of June, 2012

Parameter

Value

Units

16.7114 2m[ーC ]

Mean Temperature
Mean Air Humidity

75.92921 [%]

Mean Air Pressure

962.2469 [hPa]
[mm]

Precipitation Sum (Float &
Syphon)
Precipitation Sum (Tipping Bucket)
Evapotranspiration

87.4 [mm]
89,68
Date

Time

Max Temperature

31.13 2m[ーC ]

29.06.2012 17:00:00

Mi. Temparature

6.02 2m[ーC ]

05.06.2012 05:00:00

Max Humidity

100.57 [%]

12.06.2012 05:00:00

Min. Humidity

36.2 [%]

16.06.2012 13:00:00

Max Air Pressure

971.94 [hPa]

23.06.2012 08:00:00

Min. Air Pressure

950.41 [hPa]

12.06.2012 05:00:00

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

30/32

Graphs of Meteorological Data from the month of June 2012
100

25

Temp (degree Centigrade)

June 2012
20

Relative Humidity %

80

60

15

40

10

20

Relative Humidity %

0
26.05.2012

31.05.2012

05.06.2012

10.06.2012

15.06.2012

20.06.2012

975

Average Daily Temperature

25.06.2012

5

0
05.07.2012

30.06.2012

Average Air Pressure

June 2012
970

[hPa]

965

960

955

950
26.05.2012

31.05.2012

05.06.2012

10.06.2012

15.06.2012

20.06.2012

25.06.2012

30.06.2012

05.07.2012

20

June 2012

mm

15

Precepitation

10

Evapotransipiration

5

0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Days

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

31/32

Long Term Temperature and Precipita&on Means
Do a research on the long term means (1961-1990) of temperature and precipitaBon (April, May,
June) for StuOgart and compare these values with the data of 2012. Discuss the differences of the
climate means vs. the measurements of 2012 for these three months.

April
Parameter

1960-1990

2012

Mean Temperature

8,9

8,25

Evapotranspiration

54

59,51

Max Temperature

8,28

30,02

Mi. Temperature

-4,7

-3,44

We can see there is not much difference between the two data sets. Only difference which we can
see is in the max. Temperature. This difference is not that important. Because max temperature can
occur only in one day through the month. There is not much difference in the mean temperatures.

May
Parameter

1960-1990

2012

Mean Temperature

3,13

14,65

Evapotranspiration

65

97

Max Temperature

4,31

29,27

-0,7
-0,25
There is a stark difference in values. This shows overall increase in the temperature in the month of
May as compared to the era 1960-1990. We can realize, there is increase in atmospheric temperate
since 1990. Which can be due to global warming and industrializaBon.
Mi. Temperature

June
Parameter

1960-1990

2012

Mean Temperature

4,16

16,7

Evapotranspiration

73

89,68

Max Temperature

32,9

31,13

Mi. Temperature

1,9

6,02

There is difference in Mean temperature and minimum temperature in two data sets. This is also
due to the steady increase in the atmospheric temperature.

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

32/32

Evaluate different Rainfall Events
Evaluate different rainfall events located in the folder “single_precip_data” in terms of precipitaBon
amount and intensity/intensiBes from the float&syphon rain gauge. Try to characterize the weather
situaBon that caused these events.

For the month of August
It shows very high value of precipitaBon. Sudden decrease in the curve shows the bucket empBed and
again fills. It happens four Bmes. AMer that curve is again normal.

For the month of December
This Graph clearly shows snow and snow melBng in the area. That’s why, we can see from the graph
curve, it steadily goes upwards and the snow melts and gain a rise in the curve shows further
precipitaBon.

For the month of July
Steady increase in the curve shows a conBnuous precipitaBon for almost 2 and half days. The curve
becomes straight which shows no further precipitaBon.

For the month of June
Curve shows a heavy precipitaBon on 16th day of the month. PrecipitaBon is so high that bucket has to be
drained once.

i

(W. Boiten. 2005)
(Natural Resources Canada nrcan.gc.ca)
iii
WATER MEASUREMENT MANUAL A WATER RESOURCES TECHNICAL PUBLICATION usbr.gov
iv
Finnish AccreditaBon Service hOp://www.mikes.fi
v
Osterm, 1964
vi
Frederick A. Kilpatrick and Ernest D. Cobb (1985)
vii
(Rantz, S.E., 1982)
viii
Rantz, S.E., 1982
ix
hOp://wikipedia.org/wiki/Discharge
x
hOp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/streamflow2.html
xi
(Bech et al. 2003)
xii
hOp://math.about.com/od/formulas/ss/surfaceareavol_2.htm
ii

M. Adil Javed

Matrikelnummer 2709215

33/32

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