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Introduction to Music Theory Shenandoah Conservatory, Fall 2012

Name:_____________________ Homework #1: Intervals

Begin by reading Benjamin, Horvit, and Nelson, pp. 3–12. PART A. GENERIC AND SPECIFIC INTERVALS • • • Generic intervals are intervals within the diatonic group of seven letters. For generic intervals, accidentals do not matter. Specific intervals are intervals within the chromatic group of twelve pitch classes. For specific intervals, accidentals matter. Intervals larger than an octave are termed “compound,” but we usual call them by their “simple” equivalent. Tenths and thirds are equivalent in this way.

1. Produce the generic intervals indicated. Then determine the specific interval you’ve produce. The first is done for you.

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and perfect fifths (P5). you’ll first work towards memorizing about a quarter of the intervals: minor seconds (m2). major thirds (M3). An analogy for decomposition familiar from mental math might be calculating 37+65 as 37+60+5 = 97+5 = 102. !" !# $% &" $% !# &# $% $% !" &# $% %& #$ !" !$ !" %& %& #$ !" %& %& !$ #& %& #$ !" %$ %$ !" #$ %$ !" !" #$ . One method of producing intervals quickly is decomposition. minor thirds (m3). AND MAJOR SECONDS FOR IMMEDIATE RECALL. Produce the given intervals. whereby you break an interval into two parts (one of which you’ve memorized) and add them successively. MAJOR THIRDS. MEMORIZING PERFECT FIFTHS. • p. In order to quickly produce large intervals through decomposition. major seconds (M2). This is too many to memorize for immediate recall.Name: ________________________ PART B. The first is done for you. 2 of 6 • • There are roughly 200 intervals that you’re likely to encounter in music. 2.

*+ $%&'... Complete the following expressions: P4 = P5 – M2___ m7 = P5 + _____ m6 = P5 + _____ M7 = P5 + _____ M6 = P5 + _____ A4/d5 ≈ P5 – _____ 4. PRODUCING OTHER INTERVALS THROUGH DECOMPOSITION. and producing this smaller interval. . • p.. ) & $%&'. stating the smaller interval needed to complete the larger interval. *+ $%&'.... !+ $%&'. *" $%&'. !" $%&'.. *+ $%&'... !"#$%&'!( !+$%&'..... M3.. 3...... First you need to clarify how intervals are decomposed. ) & $%&'......... *" $%&'. *+ $%&'.......... !+ $%&'.. !" $%&'.... 3 of 6 With m2.. !" $%&'.. !+ $%&'........ !+ $%&'.Name: ________________________ PART C... !" $%&'..... M2.... *+ $%&'. !+$%&'.... *"$%&'... Produce the following large intervals through decomposition by first producing a perfect fifth.. !" $%&'......... !+$%&'.. *+ $%&'. and P5 available for immediate recall. *+ $%&'.. !" $%&'.. !+ $%&'......... !+ $%&'.. !" $%&'... *" $%&'. Use closed note heads for the perfect fifths and open notes for the target notes. you can produce all the other intervals more quickly..

A5 ≈ ______ 6. A4/P4. M3/m3. but they are different generic intervals. an A2 on the keyboard looks exactly like a m3. A6 and d7. A8 ≈ m2 5. the respelling of Eb as a kind of D. To use this method. One is alter their diatonic cousins by. A6 ≈ ______ 2. 5. The first is done for you. 4 of 6 PART D. P5/d5. for example finding a M2 and expanding the interval by a half step to get an A2. d3. A2 ≈ ______ 4. d7 ≈ ______ 3.” For example. so an A3 above Bb is D#. !' !% !( #" #& #& !' !% !' #& #$ !% !( #& !% #$ !" !" Note: a major second is “expanded” to an augmented second. • Non-diatonic intervals have diatonic cousins that are “enharmonically equivalent. you must memorize these enharmonic equivalences. d3 ≈ ______ 6. All other intervals are “non-diatonic. For example.1 • The other method is to find the diatonic cousin and respell the note. NON-DIATONIC INTERVALS • For each generic interval (except the unison) there are exactly two specific intervals that occur in the diatonic collection (“a major scale”): M2/m2. and M7/m7.Name: ________________________ p. Produce the following non-diatonic intervals. What is the diatonic cousin of the following non-diatonic intervals? 1. • There are two methods of producing these intervals.” • Common non-diatonic intervals include A2. 1 . an A3 and a P4 are enharmonically equivalent. Whether this expansion means you move a pitch up or down depends on whether you’re producing an interval above or below a given note. M6/m6.

5 of 6 • • Intervals related by inversion combine to form an octave. 7ths invert to 2nds). Indicate the interval of inversion. For example. o Replace the specific component (the quality) by swapping major for minor and augmented for diminished. m6 is the inversion of M3. 3rds invert to 6ths..Name: ________________________ PART E. as shown in the example. 7. Perfect intervals are still perfect under inversion. For example. PRODUCING INTERVALS THROUGH INVERSION • • p. !"#$# %&'# () !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# !" $ +++' ()# %* $ +++' ()# !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# !" $ +++' ()# !* $ +++' ()# %" $ +++' ()# PART F. Produce the following large intervals using inversion. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 8. The mental math corollary would be finding 87+96 as 87+100–4=183. Measure the following intervals. To invert an interval: o Replace the generic component with the number that when added equals 9 (e. .g. It may be faster to produce large intervals using inversion. ↑m7 = ↓M2 + P8.

p. & bw M2 nw #w M3 #w nw P5 bw P4 bw nw m6 d5 bw M6 #w A4 ? nw m2 #w m2 bw M6 bw d4 A5 m3 .Name: ________________________ 9. Produce the following intervals above the given pitch. Produce the following intervals below the given pitch. 6 of 6 & ? nw m3 nw P4 nw M7 #w m6 nw M3 nw nw d5 m6 bw M6 bw #w M2 m7 nw bw A4 A6 bw bw A2 P5 10.

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