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the scope and nature of occupational health and safety • Explain briefly the moral social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace. • Outline the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the regulation of health and safety • Identify the nature and key sources of health and safety information • Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system. Q1. Explain using an example in EACH case, the meaning of the following terms; (i) Hazard (ii) Risk Answer: (i) A hazard is the potential of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm. Hazards take many forms including, for example chemicals, electricity and working from a ladder. (ii) A risk is the likelihood of a substance, person, activity or process to cause harm and its resulting severity. Q2. Outline the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with health and safety problem at work. Answer: The internal and external sources of information may be consulted when dealing with health and safety problem at work are as follows; Internal Sources • Accident and ill-health records and investigation reports; • Absence records • Inspection and audit reports taken by the organization and by external organizations such as HSE • Maintenance, risk assessment and training records • Documents which provide information to the workers • Any equipment examination or tests reports. • • • • • • • • • • External Sources are; Health and safety legislation European and British standards International Labor Organization (ILO) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA); European Agency for Safety and Health Work Safe (Western Australia); Health and Safety magazines and journals; Specialist Technical and legal Publications; Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers and; The internet and encyclopedias.
Q3. An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated illhealth. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. Answer: Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include International agencies such as the ILO; national enforcement agencies such as 1
the Health and Safety Executive, EHS, Dubai Municipality guidelines; employers organizations and Trade Unions; national and international standards such as ISO; information from manufacturers, professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH; and consultation with the workers. Q4. (i) Explain the purpose of employer liability insurance. (ii) Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured. Answer: (i) The purpose of Employers’ liability insurance will enable employees to meet the cost of compensation for your employees’ injuries or illness whether they are caused on or off site. (ii) Six costs of the workplace accident might be uninsured as follows; • Product and material damage • Legal costs • Emergency supplies • Cleaning of site • Production Delays • Temporary labor • Lost orders • Investigation time • Fines • Loss of expertise etc Q5. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. Answer: The direct costs include loss of production; plant damage, replacement and cleanup activities; sick pay, recruitment and/or rehabilitation costs; enforcement actions and fines, civil claims from the injured parties and higher insurance premiums. There are also indirect costs related to poor staff morale and high staff turnover and the damage to the organization’s reputation, loss of orders, production delays, time spent for subsequent investigations; and a subsequent decrease in its profitability. Q6. Identify FOUR possible direct and FOUR possible indirect costs to an organization following a serious accident at work. Answer: (i) These are the four possible direct costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. • payment for work not performed; • medical and compensation payments; • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment; • reduction or a temporary halt in production; • increased training expenses and administration costs; • possible reduction in the quality of work; • Negative effect on morale in other workers. • Claims on employer and public liability insurance; • Damage of buildings, equipment or vehicles • The absence of employees • Any attributable production / or general business loss; (ii) These are the four possible indirect costs when a serious accident occurs in an organization. • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced; • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust; • it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker; 2
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time must be devoted to obligatory investigations, to the writing of reports and filling out of forms; accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labour relations in a negative way; poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations. A cumulative business loss; Product or process liability claims; Recruitment or replacement of staff. Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image; Production delays Extra overtime payments;
Q7. (i) Identify the possible consequences of an accident to: (a) The injured worker (b) The employer (ii) Identify the direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work. (iii) Outline the actions an enforcement agency may take the following an accident at work. Answer: (i) (a) The possible consequences of an accident to the injured worker are; • the pain and suffering of the injury or illness • the loss of income; • the possible loss of a job; • Health-care costs. • Loss of salary • Loss of overtime payments • Medical, travel or other expense • Compensation received • Lost savings • Retraining costs • Pay differences from any new employer (i) (b) The possible consequences of an accident to the employers are; • Lost business opportunities • Productivity losses • Salary of the absent injured employee • Expenses reimbursed to the injured employee • Repair, rental or replacement costs • Insurance premium changes and legal costs • Additional training or supervisory costs (ii) The direct and indirect costs to the employer of accidents at work are: Direct costs are: • payment for work not performed; • medical and compensation payments; • repair or replacement of damaged machinery and equipment; • reduction or a temporary halt in production; • increased training expenses and administration costs; • possible reduction in the quality of work; • Negative effect on morale in other workers. 3
Indirect costs for employers are: • the injured/ill worker has to be replaced; • a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust; • it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker; • time must be devoted to obligatory investigations, to the writing of reports and filling out of forms; • accidents often arouse the concern of fellow workers and influence labor relations in a negative way; • poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relation (iii) The enforcement agency may take the following actions while an accident at work are as follows; • Acts • Mandatory regulations • Codes of practices • National and International Standards Q8. Replacement and repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organization may incur following accident at work. Identify EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace accident. Answer: Eight possible costs such as associated with are as follows; • Loss of production • Staff absence • Sick pay • Repair of damaged plant and equipment • Damage to products • Investigation and remedial actions • additional administration incurred, • an increase in insurance premiums, • fines and compensation awarded, • and court and other legal representation. • Also relevant are the intangible costs arising from a loss of business image and the detrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity. Q9. Identify EIGHT possible costs to an organization when employees are absent due to work related illhealth. Answer: Eight possible costs of an organization when employees are absent due to work related ill-health are as follows; • Internal Audit • Decrease of the production • Quality losses • Training of new staff • Technical disturbance • Organizational difficulties • Increased of production costs • Increased of Insurance premium Q10. Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an organization. Answer: 4
There are three reasons for promoting and maintaining Good safetystandards in work place.1 - M o r a l 2 - L e g a l 3- Financial1 . M o r a l : - It’s moral obligation of the employer to provide a safe Environment to theEmployees where they can enjoy their work and feel happy while returning home. Injury and accident leads to pain and suffering not only to victim but to family andfriends. Everyone who goes out for work is because of economic necessity and not consents with injury and accident.2 . L e g a l : - It’s also legal obligation by the country’s law that employer should provide anenvironment that is totally safe for working just like HASAWA (Health and safety atwork etc. Act) 1974. Non-compliance to the legal binding can result in penalties,fines and even prohibition of the work.3 . F i n a n c i a l : - A work place without good safety working standards can lead to accidentswhich have direct and indirect financial impacts. Accident cause a great deal of money specially when we add damage caused by some accidents.Direct costs include fines, compensation payouts, medical costs and sick pay etc.Indirect costs include production delay, personal allocated to investigate the accidents, damage to equipment, loss of reputation and loss of good will.So maintaining a good and safer
working environment is more cheaper in longer terms
The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are the moral, legal and financial. • • • The moral reason includes the responsibility of the employer to protect workers, others and neighbors, from occupational hazards and risks. The legal reasons are focused on to protect employees and others, by issuing prohibitions and fines. The financial reasons include the financial losses incurred with accidents and their investigations; such as production loss, employee absence, and high insurance premiums.
Q11. (i) Explain reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace. (ii) Identify sources of information that an organization may use to help maintain and promote good standards of health and safety in the workplace. (iii) Outline possible reason why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may not be achieved. Answer: (i) Q12. (i) Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and safety management model in HSE’s successful health and safety management (HSG65). (ii) Outline the part that each element of the HSG65 model plays within the health and safety management system. Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance Q13. (i) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management system describe in the HSE publication Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65). (ii) Outline TWO components of the health and safety management system. Answer: (i) The flowchart (ii) The components are: • Setting policy: to show commitment of management of health and safety and to set clear aims and objectives. 5
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Organizing: there should be a framework of roles and responsibilities for health and safety allocated to individuals throughout the organization from senior management to shop floor. Planning & implementing: this refers to: The detailed specification of health and safety standards to be applied in all areas & aspects of work. The measures needed to ensure standards applied. Important is risk assessment and devising safe system of work. Monitoring and review: monitoring performance by the use of active and reactive monitoring methods. Inspection, surveys, sampling, tours and environmental monitoring methods while accident investigation and enforcement actions are examples of reactive methods. Auditing: this refers to collecting information on the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of the total safety system in the organization
Q14. Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system. Answer: The key elements of the health and safety management system include Policy, which is the top management commitment with a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and safety aims and objectives of the company. Organization includes the allocation of responsibility to appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving competency, control, communication and consultation. Planning and implementation involves carrying out risk assessments, the setting of standards and targets and the introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve them. Proactive and reactive monitoring systems would need to be introduced to provide data on the achievement or non achievement of the objectives and targets set. Review and audit should be carried out to check whether the planned arrangements are being implemented and to consider options for improvement and to set new targets where necessary. Q15. Outline the economic benefits that an organization may obtain by implementing a successful health and safety management system. Answer: A hazard is the potential of a substance
Q2. Identify possible influences on an organization’s health and safety management standards. (8) Answer: The possible influences on an organization’s health and safety management standards include regulatory and enforcement authorities, and individual governments, industry based standards of good/safe practice; shareholder demands and expectations; trade union demands; insurance companies; production demands, the competence and experience of the workforce and finally the commitment of members of senior management themselves in setting and enforcing high standards for their company. • 6
Q4. (a) Explain, giving an example in EACH case, the circumstances under which a health and safety inspector may serve: (i) an improvement notice (3) (ii) a prohibition notice. (3) (b) State the effect on EACH type of enforcement notice of appealing against it. (2) Answer (a): (i) (ii) A health and safety inspector serves an improvement notice when there is a breach of relevant statutory provisions. Example: the absence of manual handling assessments absence of PPE. A health and safety inspector serves a prohibition notice if there is a risk of serious personal injury. Example a dangerous machine lacks the necessary safeguards.
(b) The effect of an appeal against an improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is held, whereas a prohibition notice continues in force during this time.
What types of hazards are there?
A common way to classify hazards is by category: • biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc., • chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical. • ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc., • physical - radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc, • psychosocial - stress, violence, etc., • safety - slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment malfunctions or breakdowns
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