552 3 4COpvy


JAK 2 8
































do for the present generation the work accomplished by Dean
Expositors Greek




Alford's in the past.


the influence of

Dean Alford's



book there

It is almost impossible no need to speak. to exaggerate the success and usefulness of Dean Alford's commentary in putting English-speaking students into possession of the accumulated results of the labours of He made the scholars up to the time it was published.

best critical

and exegetical

helps, previously accessible only

to a few readers,







Dean Alford himself would have been
that he undertook a task

to say

too great for one


Though he




twenty years together, from 1841 to 1861, were occupied
in his undertaking.

Since his time the wealth of material

on the


Testament has been steadily accumulating,

and no one has
in a full







and comprehensive way.







committed to various


hoped that the





from the
has been


not sooner.




of Alford's

book has been
that as the


by time and experience,

here with certain modifications, and

have a

English-speaking students will














the commentators

have been


from various churches, and













part of the editor has been to choose them,

and to assign the limits of space allowed to each book.



judgment of
main, and

Dean Alford


appeared to be sound

in the

has been generally


In this

Commentary on

the Synoptical Gospels


give to the

on for many years. These Gospels have taken a more powerful and abiding hold of me
public the fruit of studies carried

than any other part of the Scriptures.


have learnt much
of these years

from them concerning Christ
not a

in the course


since I began to prepare this


for the press.

have done


best to

communicate what

have learned to


have also

under contribution previous comlists

mentators, aijcient and modern, while avoiding the pedantic
habit of crowding the page with long

of learned names.

have not hesitated to introduce quotations, in Latin and
fitted to

Greek, which seemed

throw light on the meaning.

These, while possessing interest for scholars,
over by English readers without
usually indicated.
In the critical notes beneath the


be passed


loss, as their sense is

Greek Text


have aimed
of the


easily accessible to the reader the results

labours of scholars

who have made

the text the subject of










Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort.
Introduction, and,

Readers are requested to peruse what has been stated on




using the comI

mentary, to keep in mind that

have always made what

regard as the most probable reading the basis of comment,



have expressly indicated

at a

opinion in the


notes or not.
these days one

who aims

competent treatment

of the



must keep





methods of handling the story. I have tried to unite somt measure of critical freedom and candour with the reverence

in spite

of honest endeavour,
ideal, let


have not suc-

ceeded always in realising this

be imputed to the




rather than of
this task





with a deepened sense of the wisdom

If what I have written and grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. help others to a better understanding of His mind and heart,

shall feel that


labour has not been in vain.

enjoyed the benefit of Mr. MacFadyen's (of the Free

Church College, Glasgow)

reading the proofs

of the second half of the work, and owe him earnest thanks, not only for increased accuracy in the printed text, but for

many valuable suggestions. The works of Dr. Gould on Mark and
\ate to


Plummer on
appeared too

in the

International Critical Commentary
in this

be taken advantage of

A. B







Thb Connection.






Gospels, bearing the

names of Matthew, Mark

and Luke, have, during the present century, been distinguished by critics from the fourth by the epithet synoptical. The term implies that these Gospels are so like one another in contents that they can be, and for profitable study ought to be, viewed together. That such

the fact


obvious to every reader.

A single

perusal suffices to

shew that they have much in common in contents, arrangement and phraseology and a comparison with the fourth Gospel only deepens the impression. There everything appears different the incidents related, the thoughts ascribed to Jesus, the terms in which they are

expressed, the localities in wh>i<:h Cie Great Personage





subject of air the four narratives exercised His remarkable

teaching and healing ministries.

Yet while these three Gospels present obtrusive resemblances,

they also exhibit hardly less obtrusive differences.



are marked just because the books are on the whole so like one

One cannot
like ?

help asking


Seeing they are so




they not more



be put the other way each Gospel, how does it

do they differ at all ? Or the question Seeing there are so many idiosyncrasies come about that notwithstanding these


bear an easily recognisable family likeness



though not always so obvious as the resemblances, are unmistakable, and some of them stare one in the face. Each Gospel, e.g., has some matter peculiar to itself; the first and the third a Then, while in certain parts of their narratives they great deal. follow the same order, in other places they diverge widely. Again, one cannot but be struck with the difference between the three records in regard to reporting the words of Jesus. Mark gives comcrasies,

the other disperses apparently out of regard to affinity of thought them over his pages. been with Jesus. synoptical problem. 1890. according to the patrons of this hypothesis. willing ears. caught up by and treasured up memories and : behold all that necessary. prominence to the words of Jesus. towards the solution of which a countless num- ber of contributions have been made within the last hundred years. The resemblances are explained by the tendency of oral tradition. to account for all the evangelic phenomena of resemblance difference. This hypothesis implies that before our Gospels there were no All written records of the ministry of Jesus. repeated and added to as occasion required. and assigns to them distinct historical occasions. While not in- and it sensible to the fascination of the subject. These resemblances and differences. while both giving much overlook them. The statement new to be made must be broad and 4. a tendency much helped by the practice of catechetical instruction. to become stereotyped in contents and even in phraseology. as an interesting problem fact that in literary criticism. or at least none of which they Their only source was the imwritten tradition of the memorabilia of that ministry. with many others not This is the referred to. would serve no useful purpf-se to attempt here an exhaustive account of the literature connected with this inquiry. the men who had made use. brief. and these for the most part very weighty and remarkable. especially in non-literary epochs and p>eoples. Tk4 Composition of in tk* Four GotptU. . heads. attempts at solution admit of being classified under four First may be mentioned the hypothesis of oral tradition. inevitably raise a question as to their cause. yet must respect the »/ierefore we in this it work are directly concerned with thj matter only in so far as affects exegesis. Mi. insomuch that one wonders how any one undertaking to write a history of Christ's life could Matthew and Luke again. Many of these have now only a historical or antiquarian interest. The differences are accounted for by the original diversity in the memorabilia communicated by different Apostles. them. even on its I curious side. differ very widely in their manner of reporting The one collects the sayings into masses. .^ 4 paratively few : INTRODUCTION Matthew and Luke very many. by the measure of • On the function of catechists as helping to stereotype the evangelic tradition vid* Wright. having its ultimate origin in the public preaching and teaching of the Apostles. is The statements made by the Apostles from time in faithful to time. 3. Wright '\t • thorough believer the oral tradition. in which the teacher dictates sentences which his pupils are expected to commit to memory.

unsatisfactory. How lasted is matter of conjecture some say long that primitive phase It seems probable that the process of transfrom 30 to 60 a. absorbing interest. They want to see each other's notes. or a with it in contents. less when what was known of Jesus was on the lip only. ferring from the lip to the page began considerably sooner than the When Luke wrote. 5. This points to a literary habit which would naturally exert its power witho>*t dtilay in reference to any matter in which men took an . deemed them may these earlier writings known book substantially identical very freely. and his acquaintance with them. . 1). made to embody the tradition in a written form (Luke i. . Luke was our Gospel of Mark.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS fluidity inseparable 5 from oral tradition due to defective memory. and that he used it to up to the second hypothesis.d. The pre- sumption therefore is that while oral tradition in all probability was a source for our evangelists. That he . so that the second Gospel (in time) borrowed from the first. it was not the only source. such as It points to a vera causa. which is that the authors of the synoptical Gospels used each other's writings. many attempts had been later of these dates. Which borrowed from which depends of course on the order of time in which the Six permutations are possible. probably There were other writings about the not even the chief source acts. and the third from both first and second. are not mere presumptions but facts the only point on which there is room for difference of opinion is how far he took advantage of the labours of his predecessors. wholly left out of account in an endeavour to explain how written There was a time doubtrecords of the evangelic tradition arose. and sufferings of Jesus in existence before they wrote they were likely to know these. at least defective. chiefly in favour among English scholars. In Luke's case the existence of such earlier writings. aims and indiThis hypothesis has been vidualities of the respective evangelists. and words. and every three Gospels appeared. but rather use them so far as serviceable. and if they knew them they would not despise them. and of course in part also by the peculiar tastes. though it can likewise boast of influential supporters among continental critics. the And when this habit prevails writers are not usually content to remain in ignorance of what others have done in same line. be inferred from his making a new contribution that he drew nothing from them is Much can be said for the view that among extremely improbable. each successive writer taking advantage of earlier contributions. last observation naturally leads The . and cannot be Gieseler and Godet.

. hence their agreement in matter and language in How came it to pass But how about their divergencies ? places. whence explained his graphic style. implying Since then a great change of view has taken place. but different recensions of the By this flight into the dark region of conjectural same document. 32).ng that an established fact. recensions. a source for both the other synoptists. ing Griesbach's results. and on the . From it all the three evangelists took common. and utilised by Dr. The third hypothesis is that of om primitive Gospel from The supporters of which all three synoptists drew their material.. ex hypothesi. whereof no trace remains. In this phenomenon. ' Hnrnd-Cofrnntntar. the Urevangelium hypothesi* identical copies of . and servilely copied from both in descriptive passages. but also with studied theological neutrality. Mark.' mear. eschewing on the one hand the Judaistic bias of the teristics. 6. other the Pauline or universalistic bias of the third a later date. comprehensive enough to cover the whole ground. that is to ran. This arrangement was contended for by Griesbach. Their contention is that all were dependent on one original This document. thereby acknowledging that the hypothesis of mutual use likewise has a measure of truth. interest in the question Baur's Acceptliterary was theological rather than literary. p. he charged Mark not only with is dependence on his brother evangelists.6 INTRODUCTION its it one of them has had virtue of the course advocates. not : much in so many one document. that the Mark hypothesis it is a hypothesis no longer. either as we have it or in ao earlier form. that with the same document before them they made such diverse use of it ? The answer is it was due to the fact that they used. same connece. this view do not believe that the evangelists used each other's writings. primitive Gospel was. is : One of the most tnteresting. first Gospel. somewhat frequently recurring. ^ . For some time the prevailing opinion has been that Mark's Gospel the earliest not the latest of the three. set he saw conclusive proof that Mark had Matthew and Luke before say. Peril mand Christian Baur in connection with his famous Tendency-criticism. in Matthew. Holtzmann observe. an Urevangelium as German scholars call it. "at even when the sun did tion in the other synoptical Gospels " (i.g. And he and many others recognise in Mark. Luke. both charac- the literary dependence ana the studied neutrality. and this opinion its is is likely to is hold ground. the combination of phrases used separately in the : him. Griesbach founded on the frequent duality in Mark's style.

He took for his starting-point the word Sn^y^^^t^ *" the introduction of Luke's Gospel. use of copies of the same diegesis. consisting of narratives of actions and events. The majority solution in the directioq of a combination of the second and third hypotheses under modified forms. To a certain extent they recognise use of one Gospel in another.g. and which he specially desired to Each of our evangelists is to be conceived as having so preserve. Some of the particulars. it is ploited . there would be agreement in contents and style in so far as they used Gospelets peculiar to their respective collections. leaving out of account the reports of the teaching of Jesus contained in the first and third Gospels. but it is worth while making ourselves acquainted with what may be called the most probable working hypothesis. The fourth and last hypothesis was propounded by Schleiermacher. It is a familiar observation that. is very much the same in all the three synoptists. the matter that remains. In these matters certainty is unattainable.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS ^ was self-condemned to oblivion. . Not . 9. With it are associated the honourable names of Lessing and Eichhom. 8. With this view I offer here a brief statement as to the present trend of critical opinion on the subject in question. there would be divergence and of course diversity in the order of narration was to be expected in writings compiled from a handful of unconnected leaflets of evangelic tradition. In spite of the great name of its author. e. and constructIn so far as they made ing out of them a larger connected story. this hypothesis has found little support as an attempt to account for the whole phenomena of As a subordinate suggestion to explain the presence the Gospels. as others may have been derived not fron. but rather in many Gospelets containing a record of some words or deeds of Jesus with which the writer had become acquainted. and found in it the hint that not in one primitive Gospel of comprehensive character was the source exby our Gospels to be found. and there is an extensive agreement in the opinion that for the explanation of the phenomena not one but at least two primitive documents must be postulated. but in a leaflet. None of the foregoing hypotheses is accepted by itself as a satisfactory solution of the synoptical problem by any large number look for a of competent critics at the present time. Luke may have been found by him not in any large collection. x^^itten sources large or small. but from a purely oral source in answer to local inquiries. many of these diegeses or Gospelets in his possession.. in any of the synoptists of elements peculiar to himself. 7. peculiar to worthy of consideration.

the teaching by the Sermon on the Mount in chapters v. that had been the case the synv^ptical problem would have been and ther j would hardly have been room for As the case stands the order of narration is difference of opinion. reproducIf ing its contents in the original order. Advocates of the hypothesis that is to say.8 INTRODUCTION It only 80. and was used by both as a source. now believed by is many to have been the actual fact.-vii. as they found manuscript. and in different ways. the original order would be maintained. greatly sir. he relates simply the call of the four fisher Apostles. accordingly seems as if the framework of their story. is that the The explanation additional matter acted as a disturbing influence. and there are many variations in expression. as if to furnish the Great Teacher with disciples who might form an audience for the great Discourse. was under the eye of the compilers of the first and third Gospels when they wrote. the healing by a group of . implies that. of the incidents connected with the in commencement of the Galilean ministry reported Mark. is Matthew and Luke had made Mark This and added to it new material. more or less disturbed. that try to show that the facts answer to this view . so far as order is concerned. when the disturbing influence did not come into play.. Therefore. To that call he appends a general description of the Galilean ministry. Mark's order is is followed in Matthew and from the Luke. and making it the basis it this more elaborate first narratives. but in the was. from their common source in the order of events and in style? The general answer to the question. Sermon on the Mount " evangelist. What it took place was not that the compilers of the and third Gospels simply transcribed the in their second.plified. page by page. specifying as its salient Then he proceeds to features preaching or teaching and healing. it exercised a powerful fascination on the mind of the From first and he desires to bring in as soon as possible. how came it to pass that . One the may here be given Matthew. This crude statement of course requires qualification. except when disturbance illustration " explicable by the influence of the new material.he writers of the first and : third Gospels deviated so much. or a book very like in contents. he has it Obviously in view. illustrate each department of the ministry. it The prevailing idea that our Mark. the remainder practically consists of the contents of the second Gospel. The question is thus raised On the hypothesis that Mark was a source for Matthew and Luke. and each section verbatim. not merely in the sense that they took from it sense of adopting of their longer and substantially as it and that. in respect if the matter common to all the three.

e.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS -miracles contained in chapters viii. Of course. In Him say to the disciples in connection with the reason for departure. one can understand a tendency to replace these characteristics by smoothness and elegance. into whe world? In the incident of the triumphal entry into Jerusalem. Luke iv.. 3. James and John. which can only be dealt with adequately by a detailed comparative exegesis. and instances of accounts can easily be pointed out. Mark makes iown. Two illustrative instances may be In reporting the sudden flight of Jesus from Capernaum the early morning.* to say here th^t it is not difficult to suggest a variety of causes which might lead to literary alteration in the use of a source. without conscious reason. or disinclination to adopt the meaning obviously mentioned. There is which in Luke replaces that of the four. The style of Mark is of the character described. 38. and of the leper in the deviation.«. faulty in gvamm?". Thus. colloquial. from the Luke this is turned into.. Bernhard Weiss on the Gospel of Mark and Suffice it its synoptical parallels. same order. all reported in the first chapter of Luke follows Mark closely. if *-he style of the source was peculiar. when He has had His use of it. ' Mark xi. bid the Mark makes Jesus • owner of the colt. But Matthew and Luke contain * seine synoptischen Parallelcn. Thus ' far of the matter common to the three Gospels. 43." i. the wholesale cures on the Sabbath evening." i. Peter and Andrew. 9 and ix. in regard neither to the sermon nor to the group of miracles can the first Gospel lay claim to chronological accuracy. call of Peter. 1872. Matthew xxi. such as that so admirably exemplified in the great work of The variations in style raise a Dr. comes between the Sabbath evening cures and the cure of the leper. Another cause in operation might be misunderstanding of the meanliterary correction in the parallel ing of the source. The much subtler question. ." i. " straightway he (the owner) will send them (the ass and her colt) ". straightway He (Jesus) will send it back. or what jnay be called the triple tradition. 10.e. of Peter's mother-in-law. Das Marcusevangelium und Mark i. Mark. Sabbath only one reporting the cure of the demoniac in the synagogue of Capernaum.. return it to its owner In Matthew this is turned into. In the corresponding part of his narrative. and the healing of the leper. of many sick people on the evening. markedly individualistic. including the cure of Peter's mother-in-law.' disciples say to the two Yet another source of verbal alteration might be literary taste acting instinctively. leading to the substitution of one word or phrase for another. 3.. "therefore was I sent. in suggested. " to this end came I forth.

and meant to serve distinct purposes.rtry? Jiilicher. which both evangelists knew and used in compiling their suggest forcibly the natural explanation. and though this common element is very differently reproduced as to historic connection and grouping. Peter and ."* The state: two books as the fountains of evangelic written tradiauthortion. These conclusions. which might be reached purely by interna* inspection. who flourished in the first quarter of the second century. Whether both evangelists of sayings spoken by the Lord Jesus. if not exclusively. are questions of subordinate The main question is: Did there exist antecedent to the moment. effect though not in order. iii. concerning books about Christ written by Mark and Matthew. it would follow that this hypothetical second source consisted chiefly. composition of our first and third Gospels a collection of the words of Christ. Historia EccUsiastUa. narratives not identical with as the source of the common to the three Gospels. question in min. much more than of words the additional matter and discourses of Jesus. or whether it came into their hands in different recensions.Matthew. as dictated by his plan. /"he Modern concur in critics. hypothesis of a second source as Assuming that the memoirs of Christ's public Weiss. : modern criticism postulates two main written sources it. possessed this source in the same form. a bock like our canonical Mark. . wrote carefully. the things spoken or " Matthew wrote the Logia in the Hebrew done by Christ ". 39.lO INTRODUCTION this. 11. lib.. ' It is not against this Eusebii. as he remembered them. result that for the explanation of the phenomena presented by the if synoptical Gospels. yet peculiar to itself. Holtzmann. being the interpreter of Peter.. both consisting mainly Each Gospel has not a little in a large amount of teaching material common to the two. as the source of the didactic matter common to Matthew and Luke. such as answering this is the affirmative. and that what needs accounting for is mainly the didactic element. Wendt. and each one interpreted these as he could. genera. are confirmed by the well-known statements of Papiaa. c. formed under diverse influences. language. ments point to presumably identical with our canonical Mark. but there is there is such a pervading similarity in thought and expression as to first its most and third evangelists borrowed their narrative of events from Mark. containing matter guaranteed as reliable as resting on the The first of the two books is ity of two apostles. They are to this " Mark. and had each his own way of using it. and another book contain- ing sayings of Jesus.

of the apostolic document. are altogether reliable. was written in Hebrew. Though. in a hypo- which we have access to the apostle Matthew's contribution only at second hand. though secondary. Even on this view we have the satisfaction of feeling that the three synoptists bring us very near to the original eye and ear witnesses. and of a theory which gives us. Yet the impression left on one's mind by such apologetic attempts is that of special pleading. And it might be added that it is. But the Logia. according to many who at present stand in doubt. a work proceeding directly from the hand If that theory could be established. amid much diversity in form. . cult to compile a collection of sayings that should be interesting or even intelligible without the introduction of more or less narrative. in many instances. according to Papias. in a Gospel from another unknown author which has absorbed a large portion. it be highly satisfactory to thesis. or weighty words spoken by the Lord in the didactic element. Mark is extremely meagre he does report many very remarkable But what of the other book ? Is it to be identisayings of Jesus. Jesus. or perhaps. Hence. if not the whole. The essential identity. inspires confidence that the evangelic reports of these words. which we naturally take to mean a book of oracles. of an honourable bias in favour of a venerable tradition. and by no means excludes such narratives of events as we find in Indeed. This difficulty defenders of the old v-^w do not find insurmountable. provisionally. But. because fied with our Matthew ? the Matthew of Papias is a book of Logia. on the other hand. Primd facie one would say no.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS that Papias represents Mark's II work as including things spoken as well as done by Christ. For this is true of canonical Mark. and our canonical Matthew is in Greek which does not wear the aspect of a translation. of the words ascribed to our Lord in the two Gospels which draw upon the Logia. the result would of an apostle. a minimum amount of narrative would still be necessary to make the report effective. Meantime we must be content to acquiesce. if it were only by way of preface or historical setting. only a minimum of narrative that we find in canonical Matthew. yet might be argued that Logia is simply a designation from the more prominent or characteristic part. Granting that the leading aim was to report words. in canonical Matthew. his historic statements being generally meagre in comparison with those in Mark and Luke. not a few criCJcs and apologists still hold by the old tradition which practically 'dentifleu the Logia of Papias with the Matthew of the New Testament. one ought to say. it might be said that it would be difficanonical Matthew. by comparison with Matthew and Luke.

* the Teaching of ^esus. nith a Critical Reconstruction of tk* Text. and earnestly wish that.II 1 INTRODUCTION 2. T. and conjectural reconstructions of the lost treasure lie We before us in such works as that of Wendt on Gospel. and quotations from the Gospels in the early fathers. Logia. the relation between the two sources used in Matthew and Luke. And. There will be various estimates of the intrinsic value of Personally. natural feeling have recently been made. cannot but wonder that a work so precious as the Logia of Matthew was allowed to perish. Of course they nevertheless they are interesting. vis. Dit L*kre Jeiu. been translated. T. and as near to the actual words of our Lord as {x>ssible. an approach to a consensus of opinion may never be reached. ft * Thi« part of Wcndt'g work has not His exposition of Christ's words has been translated by Messrs. are tentative . From certain pheno- mena brought thinks it to light by a comparative study of the synoptists. much or how 13. Edinburgh. Blair's critical position differs widely from Wcndt't. he in demonstrable that many parts of his narrative Mark leans ' Wcndl. by J. Mr. Auisercanonische ParalUlttxte xu den Evangelism. am not sanguine that much his adventurous attempt But one cannot be sorry that it has been made. to get behind the text of our canonical Gospels. or Luke know and use the Matthew ? Dr. and did Matthew know Luke. second. through the use of Codex Bezae. and his Apostolic Gospel contains • much more besides sayings. Did Mark and. if Attempts at gratifying this possible. will come out of it.* I affirmative and the latter in the negative. first. another aid to so desirable a result. though the discussion is sure to bear fruit in a more intimate acquaintance As with the most authentic forms of many of our Lord's sayings. it might even yet be restored.^ and of Blair on the Apostolic A critical estimate of these essays cannot here be given. and by one who thoroughly believes that he is engaged in a fruitful It is well to leam by exhaustive experiment how line of inquiry. and to reach a truer reflection in Greek of the Hebrew original in the case of many sayings recorded in the Logia of Matthew. . Erster Theil. the relation between these two Gospels. one must give a cordial welcome to such works as that of Resch on Extracanonical Parallel Texts to Resch believes it p>o?"Jble. Bernhard Weiss answers the former question in the the Gospels.. Among those who accept the hyp)othesis of the two sources a difference of opinion obtains on two subordinate points. little may be expected from that quarter. Pulton Blair. and even fascinating to all who desire to get behind the existing records. i8g6. Tht Apostolic Gospel. the old Latin and Syriac versions. Clark.

The contention is that the close similarity can be accounted for only by the assumption that Mark. the Author of the Christian faith. wear the aspect of books aiming at giving a true if not a full account of the life. An instance in point may be found in the respective accounts of the reply of Jesus to the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. and the blind man at Jericho. from Mark. ? The question has been recently propounded and discussed: Die Lehre Jesu. in tively in the Logia and in Mark. whose accounts of evangelic incidents are reproduced in a more faithful manner in the companion Gospels.. Historicity.g. 11. It follows from this. Wendt dissents from the inference of Weiss in bolli classes of cases. took the words from the Logia. How far do the books. was not a mere collection of sayings. The phenomena on which Weiss rests his case are of two kinds. For Christians.. 1880.g. such narratives. and more especially of the public career. writings having such an aim must possess unique interest. in the use of the and eirl KXintjs in the opening sentence of the story of the palsied man. and reproduced also in Matthew and Luke in nearly identical form. but from the Logia. as. it is held. as those relating to the palsied man. Erster Theil. of Jesus Christ. e. The one group of facts he explains by assuming that Luke had access to the first the second group he sees simply accidental correspondences between independent traditions preserved respeccanonical gospel. satisfy this desire ? To what facie : The Gospels primd extent are they historically reliable 2. 191-3. the study of which is to engage our attention. The inference is that these phrases are taken from the Logia. of course. the feeding of the 5000. pp.i Section 1. yet not taken. and This source he takes to be the Logia of the especially in Matthew. There is nothing an earnest believer in Christ more desires to know than the actual truth about Him what He said. e.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS 13 on an older written source. One group consists of minute agreements between Matthew and Luke against Mark words in narratives iSoij common to the three. The other group consists of sayings of Jesus found in Mark's Gospel. implying of course that the story was there for those who chose to use it. but a book containing histories as well. did. Bonn. ^ evangelist used canonical . vide the Abhandlung of Edward Simons. that the Logia apostle Matthew. On the question whether the third Matthew. and experienced. as well as his brother evangelists.

Faith might busy itself \n transforming unwelcome farts so as '^o make the hisFor the historic interest and the religious tory serve its purpose. but only as aids to faith. Carl von Wm- tdcktr Geu/idmtt. philosophical. however scepti- The more moderate statement that the apostolic Church. . the fortunes of humanity. are not identical. tive The suggestion 8tor>' is that the faith of the primiit Church took hold of the of Jesus and so transfigured that the true image of cal. if they do not avow. Church * in its traditions concerning Jesus was simply utilising and Vi<U Von Soden's essay in the Theologiuht Abkandiungcn. 1S92. that apostolic Christianity entirely We escaped this temptation. free to follow its native This indifference might conceivably pass into hostility. the statement is true. will serve its ends. Hence has arisen a powerful reaction of which the watchword is " Back to Christ.— 14 IXTRODUCTIOiN interest did the apostolic age take in the evangelic history ? What and the conclusion arrived at that the earthly life of Jesus interNow. creating an insatiable desire to know the origins of every movement which has affected. and to rely on the inward illumination of the Holy Spirit as the source of all knowledge necessar)' for a godly life. on various grounds. and that the acts and experiences of Jesus were viewed chiefly in the light of verifications of it His claim to be the Messiah. Science wants to know the actual facts. is Him no longer recoverable. ledge of truth. all more or less foster. to any extent. was not interested in them as facts. while knowing and accepting many facts about Jesus. have thus a religious as well as a scientific reason for our desire to We know the actual Jesus of history. unsatisfactory to many thoughtful persons. faith was tendency to be content with its immediate object. but rather as a confirmation of knowledge already possessed. It might well be that the teaching of Jesus was regarded not so much as a necessary source of the knownot without plausibility. whether ecclesiastical. the Risen Lord. does not greatly matter to us what the source of interest in the if the primitive evangelic facts was so long as they are facts .^ that age with the present time. comparing ested it very little. not entitled to assume. We live in an age when the historical spirit is in the ascendant." and to which additional intensity has been given by the conviction that modern types of Christianity. there can be no doubt that. wants facts to be such as sometimes are transforms. has a greater show of reason. or pietistic. \u the primitive era. a priori. indifference to the historic foundations of the faith. Christianity has undergone an evolution resulting in types of this religion which are. Moreover. It religion idealises. even invents history to accomplish this object.

for the historicity of the 3. and sufferings of Jesus as these are recorded.g. while sympathising with his universalism. Paul was an apostle. the other making Him a Pauline universalist. Paul. It would be nearer the truth to say that there was a party interested in facts and another interested chiefly in ideas. i6. e. seeing they make — — main body of the evangelic tradition concerning the words. This hypothesis presents a somewhat distorted view of the situation. . neither party being worthy of implicit trust. there are the main this is the true state of the case. as an exception and to . It may be worth while to mention some of these. the knowledge of Christ Church a party interested phrase. The one valued facts without seeing their significance. if St. think of the majority of his followers as men who. Not only so. what not. I am now concerned to point out is that. be this as it may. ought probably to regard St. The absence from his * 2 Corinthians v. From the statement is made by taken. in in- that the apostle element.. and on this ground denied that St. a Christ party. To the of the former party we might be indebted for knowledge of many life facts in the of Jesus.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS 1$ There is good reason to believe that in not manufacturing history. . grounds for the opinion that the historic spirit interest in facts as facts was not wanting even amid the fervour of the apostolic age. Even within the Pauline party there were those who were interested in facts and in some measure animated by the historical spirit. we 4. the significance of which was not under- stood by the transmitters of the tradition. So far from regarding Paulinists in general as idealists. In this connection it deserves a passing notice that there existed in the primitive in the fact-know" after the flesh " in Pauline ledge of Jesus. deeds. it the text from which the phrase just quoted ferred Paul has been St. Paul under- valued the facts of the personal ministry. in the Gospel of Mark.^ was entirely indiffb. one virtually making Him a narrow Judaist. The assumption underlying the Tubingen tendency-criticism is that there were two parties in the apostolic Church interested in misrepresenting Jesus in different directions. ideas without taking bias the other valued much trouble to indicate the fact-basis. there were those who did There was a party who made acquaintance with these facts a necessary qualification for the apostleship. in his passion for ideas and apparent indifference to biographic detail.ent to the historical The inference seems to me hasty but. shared in no small measure the common Jewish realism. Of this type was Luke.

. accepted Christian belief. brave yet cowardly. : n€TrXT)po4iopT]p^»'WK irpayp. yet under pressure apt to side with Jewish bigots. . man as St. and therefore not sufficiently critical. A . must speak this..ts whose historicity is in question. or occasional want of agreement with each other. to deal with for such a position. impulsive. siderable extent by religious bias. essay above reicrred takes no notice of Lake's preface ' in the to. certainty. felt and wrote to meet a interest in the memorabilia of the Founder. a concerning his beloved Master. and were not with the sources at demand on part of Christians who a keen satisfied command on account of their fragmentariness. capable of honest sympathy with Christian universalism. frank. to be guided by the testimony he means to take pains in the ascertainment of the of eye-witnesses truth. That prefatory statement is full of words and phrases breathing the fact-loving spirit 6irrjp€Tat. This disciple. now on one now on the other. The author wants to deal with facts he wishes. open-hearted and open-mouthed. preconceived opinion. but also a very traditions concerning Jesus. genial. It will not be long before everybody knows what he has to tell concerning the ministry of the Lord. will be remarked on hereafter./e class. meantime I direct attention simply to its opening sentence. We do not need Papias to tell us information he was bound to be. preoccupied with theories. dir* dpxTJs aoToirrai Kal dlKptpws. outspoken. da^xiXcioK. with his sharply defined thorough-going adherence to principle. the historical spirit aim Luke may have been unconsciously influenced to a conevinced. and firm resolute satisfactory source of first-hand if Yes. The question here is not how far he succeeded in his the point insisted on is the aim itself. easily recognisable as that of the same man of whom we have a more finished picture in the Gospels. A most unsatisfactory.l6 INTRODUCTION Gospel of even the rudiments of a doctrine of atonement. And in this desire he doubtless represented a l. We have a rapid pencil-sketch of him in the epistles of St. generous.' 5. so conspicuous a topic in the Pauline epistles. illogical. wholly dependent on the docume. The peculiar character of the apostle who stood at the head of the primitive Jewish Church has an important bearing on the For our knowledge of Peter we are not question of historicity. provoking person Paul. a copious fountain of weak apostle. wide-hearted man not side. . an A source. but he honestly wanted to know the historic truth. excellent witness.dTW*'. and too easily satisfied with evidence . as far as possible. Von Sodcn. will. Paul. inconsistent. that the friend for whose benefit he writes may attain unto believed .

racy. The gift would be most in . as is also the significant incident of the feast following at which Jesus met with a large company of publicans. demand in connection with the teaching of the Master. that the apostle a rough. We are in not con- surprised. 6. and Mark's narrative reflects the style of an impressionable eyewitness. the ex-publican was the likeliest man for that service. which are not in Matthew was the source of the evangelic tradition relating to the words of Jesus. Peter would he would say all in a vivid way. accompanied The use of the pen at the moment by not less remarkable sayings. that the function assigned to Matthew nection with the evangelic tradition is the preservation of the Logia. without regard without perception their bearing on present controversies unmanipulated in this man's line. And of all the members ^f the disciple-circle might be necessary. The other fact mentioned by Papias. Outside the Gospels we have no information concerning this disciple such as we have of Peter in the Pauline letters. 2 . possibly . How far the narratives of the second Gospel bear out this character will appear hereafter. and it might be Christ's desire to utilise that talent for noting down things worthy of record.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS l^ Papias reports that in Mark's Gospel we have the literary record of Peter's testimony. therefore. For Peter .. If it be a faithful report of Peter's utterances the general truth of its picture of Jesus may be implicitly relied on. Jesus associated Matthew with Himself that He might use him as an instrument for initiating a mission to the class to which he had belonged. under the name of Matthew or Levi. but immediate service in connection with the meeting with the publicans that. is told in all the three synoptists. has an important bearing on historicity. What of. There is reason to believe that in calling this disciple our Lord had in view not merely ultimate service as an apostle. But we may safely assume the truth of the Gospel accounts which represent him as having been a tax-gatherer before he was called to discipleship. we expect from him is rather a candid recital of things as they happened. viz. unvarnished story. In his old occupation he would be accustomed to writing. But if the Master might call a fit man to discipleship for form of immediate service. The preservation of that element could not be safely trusted to memories quite equal to the retention of remarkable healing acts. He might call him for more than one Another service the ex-publican might be able to render was one. to. that of secretary. say more than others about Jesus was not a man likely to be biassed by theological tendency. in short. the interest of ideas or theories. The statement is entirely credible. The story of his call.

himself whether this can be reconciled with that. p. Behold the hand of an interWe rather incline to see in the combination of seemingly polator least 1 mcongruous elements the evidence of candid chronicling. we meet with words of an apparently opposite character we are not "reatly startled and ready to exclaim. sensuous hopes In its own way it without a bearing on the question of historicity. •* that Jewish and anti-Jewish. based on Peter's recollections. one may without hesitation endorse the sentiment of Jiilicher. not thought. just such things as we find reported in the second Gospel. revolutionary and conservative. . If. nor accompanied by striking gestures. As little are we surprised that Mark's Gospel. contains Peter was not the kind of man to take so little of the teaching. meet together. in the direction of Judaism. been at all surprising if that Gospel had fallen out of existence. > EinUitung das Neut Testament. ascribed to Jesus of a univcrsalistic character we do not feel in the humane spirit tempted to doubt their authenticity. therefore. As a Galilean he belonged to a half-Gentile community. The mere fact of the preservation of Mark's Gospel is not ness in judgment. the publican might be expected not only a record of Christ's teaching as distinct from His actions. sion on him would be. new and old. responsibility for every expression. testifies to the influence of the historic as distinct from the religious It would not have the early period of the Christian era. It is the case of an honest reporter taking down this and that without asking That a deep.' our impression that Jesus really here speaks 7. and as a pubIt was probably the lican he was an outcast for orthodox Jews. on 'he other hand. freedom and narrow- and a spiritualism blending together present and future. From Matthew record. without undertaking paradoxes is no wise incredible. but an impartial We should not suspect him any more than least of all Peter of theological bias. we find in the Logia any sayings receipt of custom. seeing that its contents have been absorbed into the more compre- spirit in hensive Gospels of Matthew and Luke. were discourses full of deep thought the kind of material What would make an indelible impreshe was likely to remember. but extraordinary deeds. many-sided mind like that of Jesus might give birth to startling Therefore. original brief replies to embarrassing questions and the like. by no means weakens ". in Assuming the correctnesi 231. notes.8 1 INTRODUCTION is That just the part he was fitted to perform. and wide sympathies of Jesus that drew him from the If.

as they with the longer narratives of the same type of the first and third Gospels aimed at superseding the Logia and Mark is a question that need not be discussed. 8. . If he did. 66. comparing it view of its defects. and the Sermon on the Mount. he was not successful. There is evidence of preference and partiality for one Gospel as against another in Clement of Alexandria. as D'Eichthal irreverently but not incorrectly renders the word. whose instinctive impulse would be to obliterate traces of discrepancy. while the fourth Augustine regarded Mark as a mere Gospel showed His spirit. was believed to rest on apostolic testimony. to be easily dislodged. But I worthier reason. and to suppress all writings relating to the Christian origins which in their presentation of Jesus even seemed to sink below the level of the Catholic faith. reports of His teaching and of the resurrection. Mark's Gospel passed for a report of St. and very imperfect . It was apostolic. undervalued all the synoptists as compared with the fourth Gospel. and the detailed appearances after the resurrection. side by side with Matthew and Luke.^ lackey to Still Whether the authors Mark held his place. there- In short. New The foregoing five considerations all tend to make a favour- ' Vide his work Les Evangiles. survived. pedissequus to Matthew. mere to be.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS of modern appeared. therefore to be respected fore to be valued. though it the Master contained no account of the childhood of Jesus. a certain diffused thankfulthink there was also a might be ness for every scrap of information concerning the especially such as Lord Jesus. From Luke's preface it might plausibly be inferred that he did aspire at giving so full and satisfactory an account of the life of Jesus as should render earlier attempts superfluous. The Gospel without the story of the infancy. 19 dis- the Logia of the Apostle Matthew has would be how did it come about that the second Gospel in did not re? disappear also. critical views. en laquais. true to his philosophy. especially garded. and had to be accepted in spite of defects and apparent superfluousness. p. Patristic literature. is a witness to the prevalence in the Church of the first century of the historical spirit acting as a check on the religious spirit. Peter's reminiscences of therefore by all means let it be preserved. . Matthew though some supposed him in part that The reason he had got too strong a hold before the companion Gospels appeared. as apostolic it was trustworthy. the presence of the second Gospel in the Testament. It might be undervalued. because they showed merely the body of Jesus.

all the four Gospels to with disprop>ortionate have lately been subjected a searching analysis in a sceptical spirit rivalling that of Strauss. or by the . . ' DU Evangeliiche Geichichtt und <Ur Ursprung dt% Christmttntms. 1893. if not preceded by a prayer for the murderers.' But and to say the Passion. But even accessories are important. given in fulness. are all more or less of the nature of accessories. These are : betrayal by one of the twelve . then the passion-drama. what did He teach ? what did He do ? how did ing its object : and most urgent demand would be for information concerning the teaching. despairing cry. which even he is constrained to recognise as historical. . that a needful to nive tlie Passion traj^ic sii^niticance. 13-17. voice. but not altering the character of the event as a whole. is *' My God. the preternatural accompaniments of death." at least heralded by a loud all In these particulars we have the skeleton of the story. desertion by all of them . the basis for theological constructions. still leaves to us eight particulars. the mockery of the soldiers. " King of the Jews" death. Brandt. suggesting additional to be lightly given lessons. the interviews with Pilate and Herod. and even to form The items omitted. the memorable incidents. the words from the cross. enhancing greatly the impressiveness of the picture. before the process Sanhedrim. . the two thieves. According to Holtzmann the order was first the Logia. then the anecdotes of memorable I should be inclined to invert the order of the first two items. the more important question is how far can the evangelic records concerning these three departments of the tradition be trusted ? Only a few hints can be given by way of answer here. The narratives of the Passion. my God. is when the tradition broken up into distinct divisions. the sneers of passers-by." after doing his utmost to shake our faith in the trust- worthiness of these pathetic records. and not * Vide Hand-Commffttar.20 More INTRODUCTION special considerations are needful able impression as to the historicity of the evangelic tradition in general. acts. denial by Peter. pp. The tradition consists of three Faith would make three demands for information concernlayers. the parting of the raiment. assistance in carrying the cross rendered by Simon of Cyrene crucifixion on a hill called Golgotha the crime charged indicated by the inscription. Dr. death sentence under the joint responsibility of Jewish rulers and Roman procurator. He suffer ? Some think that the first : : : 9. the Logia. the preferential release of Barabbas. and that only in the second place would there grow up a desire for narratives of facts and experiences.

By reference to the first " Eli. This. it is asked." emanated from the great JVIaster ? It is well in this connection to have before our minds the rules by which judgment should be guided. we may admit that there were temptations to such partiality.— CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS over to the tender mercies of sceptical for treating critics. the prophecies did were there. that the word. and Isaiah assumption. . it is all recorded sayings of Jesus do not possess the same attestation. created corresponding facts. a whole group of incidents. " the Sabbath was made for man. some in two. Herod.g. the absence of witnesses. Pilate. The plea of lack of witnesses applies to what took place between Jesus and the various authorities before whom He appeared the High Priests. Texts taken from Psalm xxii. that they did their best to not create the facts. They come mostly under three heads: The influence of Old Testament prophecy. but were obliged to give simply the best information obtainable. at least. Yet in many instances we can feel as sure of the authenticity of sayings found in a single Gospel as of that of sayings occurring in all the three. we may claim for them. Who." are summarily disposed liii. Yet on the whole it may be affirmed that the representation of the evangelists is intrinsically credible as in harmony with tragedy. distribution of As to the alleged prejudice leading to unfair blame for our Lord's authorities and the Roman death between the Jewish governor. Who can doubt. doubtless. The facts . The legitimately be relied on following canons may : . e. and not a few in only one. by way of furnishing themselves with an apologetic for the thesis. 10. Eli. were there to Who likely to be available as witnesses for the see or hear? evangelic tradition ? We cannot tell yet it is possible there was quite sufficient evidence. and the primitive disciples looked out for Messianic oracles to suit them. including the cry. and the bias manifest in the accounts of the trial against the Jews and in favour of the Gentiles. have thought of the texts unless the facts had been there to suggest them. Jesus is the In some cases the links of proof are weak no one could Christ. of.. though also possible. all we know about to the the principal actors in the great of course obvious that With regard tet^=--:ing. arising out of natural dislike of the Jews and unequally natural desire to win the favour of those who held the reins of empire. not man for the Sabbath. Some words are found in all three synoptists. that the evangelists were not in all cases able to give exact verifiable information. This is a gratuitous The facts suggested the prophecies. : 21 them as unhistoric are The reasons assigned not convincing. ascertain the facts.

or the words were referred to a definite case and correspondingly The single saying . and very much restricted in " the three sayings Luke. 7. ser\'e as a rule to believers for the guidance of Hence may be explained the in : topical grouping of sayings e.. This covers not a few omissions by Luke. which might be headed: how members of the Christian brotherhood are to behave towards each other. Matthew and Luke. that the words of the Master might cover fully all present requirements and correspond ? to present circumstances and convictions " On this topic From the beginning Weizsacker makes the following statement: the tradition consisted not in mere repetition. and in the eighteenth. (b) may be may be Sayings unsupported by full synoptical attestation regarded as authentic when their absence from a particular Gospel can be explained by its plan. (e) All sayings may be accepted as self-attested and needing no other attestation which bear the unmistakable stamp of a unique religious genius. in the tenth directory for the mission work of the church. may be accepted as a natural complement in This remark applies to the sayings Luke vii. or by the idiosyncrasy of its author. whose rubric might be a the the former. especially chapter. additions. xv. was multiplied with the multiplication of its uses. and are reported by them simply as unforgettable memories of the great Teacher handed down by a faithful tradition. little ness and concerning the connection between little forgivelove. but a desire to find the words of the Master what might their in life. apology for the (d) All sayings possess intrinsic credibility which suit the general historical situation. this activity increased as time went on. The chief impulse to collecting the sayings of Jesus in was not a purely historical interest. an element very prominent in Matthew. This applies to Christ's antipharisaic utterances. (c) Sayings found only in a single Gospel authentic when they sympathise with and form to other well-attested sayings. Elucidations grew into text. expansions. Would the influence of the practical aim be confined to grouping ? Would it not extend to modifications. which in all are complementary to the saying .g. but in repetition And from the nature of the case combined with creative activity.22 (a) INTRODUCTION attestation Sayings supported by full synoptical regarded as in substance authentic. rise above the capacity of the reporters. even inventions. three synoptists : "the whole together constituting a full need not a physician relations between Jesus and the sinful. and about the joy of finding things lost. 47. The question suggests itself.

* Ibid. able. frankly acknowledged by Harnack. i. * vol. which form the bulk of the narrative of events. It was known what the Master had taught. Weizsacker remarks that very little of the nature of accretion originated elsewhere than in the primitive church. unhistorical. 65. p. was a great fact in the public career of Jesus. Just fears. some of them very remarkall in all the synoptical Gospels. Healing is associated with teaching in our Lord's work." The occasional notices in the Gospels of contemporary opinions. There are good reasons for believing that the healing ministiy. who. 23 words were inserted into the text of Jesus' sayings. vol. miraculous or not miraculous. are reported in general notices of Nine acts of healing. but second thoughts tend to allay our seem to open a door to The aim itself supplied a check to undue freedom. The incidents of the Healing Ministry. Finally. attaches very little apologetic value to them. Those for whom it is an axiom that a miracle is impossible are tempted to pronounce on that ministry the summary and sweeping verdict. * Then there tradition was recent. they would wish to be sure that the reported sayings gave them the thoughts of Jesus at least.^ That is to say. and the question of explicability taken up only in the second place. This is not a scientific procedure." This may licence. and great respect was cherished for His authority. and that the great mass of the evangelic tradition was formed under the influence of the living tradition. If there was no superstitious concern as to literal accuracy.. the freedom of the apostolic age was controlled by knowledge and reverence. The question of fact should be dealt with separately on its own grounds. is reason to believe that the process of fixing the substantially completed when the memory of Jesus was and the men who had been with Him were at hand to guide and control the process. are complicated with the question of miracle. 11. impressions. The healing element the ministry is so interwoven with the didactic that the former This is cannot be eliminated without destroying the whole story.. note 3. especially in the form of instances of narrative. if not His ipsissima verba. ii. * The Apostolic Age. which were only meant to make His utterances more distinct. there was a loyal solicitude that the meaning conveyed by words should be true to the mind of Christ. History of Dogma. if he does not doubt the reality of miracles. . 62.CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS modified. because disciples desired to follow the Master and make His words their law. and theories regai-ding Christ's actions speak to some- thing extraordinary over and above the preaching and teaching. p.

12. by the suggestion of an alliance with Beelzebub. have no permanent religious value. . though not worked out. were to begin How they are to be explained. but the epilepsy. The healing ministry was a tacit but effective asceticism and the dualism on which it protest against and a proof that Jesus had no sympathy with the hard antithesis between spirit and rests. Whether miraculous benevolence of Jesus. '* What is this ? A new spirits. the Men do not theorise about nothing. an dis- eases themselves were serious enough. by viewing demoniacal possession as an Demoniacal possession might be imaginary disease. to the It is acts of Jesus then. and what they imply as Person of the Healer. Herod said: " It is John whom I beheaded risen from the dead and the exercising the power of the spirit world". though indubitable facts. it may be well here to refer to a line of evidence which. in his Bampton Lectures » Mark 27. to neglect the phenomena as unworthy of notice. but the point to be noticed existence of the theories. e. and points to a double surprise created by an original style of preaching.g. The healing with facts. and by an unprecedented power. and especially on His conception life. The Pharisees accounted for it. they equally reveal the wide-hearted They throw a side light on His doctrine of of the ideal of God and of man. explanation of There were remarkable facts urgently demanding some sort."* This a veritable reminiscence. as displayed in the cure of demoniacs.. fiesh. speaking broadly. Still more significant are the theories invented to explain away power. the other absurd. or not.24 • INTRODUCTION Mark's graphic report of the impression produced by Christ's first appearance in the synagogue of Capernaum may be cited as an instance. The one theory was is malevolent. as serious as madness and which appear to have formed the physical basis of the it malady. is not to be supposed that these healing acts. imaginary explanation of certain classes of diseases. it teaching ! — with authority He commandeth even the unclean is and they obey Him. has been suggestively sketched by Professor Sanday i. are questions to not scientific and theology. for science As little is it scientific make the solution easy by under-statement of the facts to be explained. Before leaving the topic of historicity. Finally. as. may belong to an antiquated type of but in other respects their significance perennial. Their use is in the evidences of Christianity apologetic.

" to repentance. Questions as to occasions on which reported words and acts of Jesus were spoken or done. and then rememberest that " Woe unto you. in the main. the temple. therefore.^ the narrative in the first three Gospels took i. is not to be confounded with absolute accuracy. as Matthew's report seems to imply. and it unduly magnified the importance of a solution. or in a form differing verbally from Page » 283." etc. yet conveying a sense sufficiently reflected in all the versions ? Is the Lord's prayer the Lord's at whatever time given to His disciples ? Is the "Sermon on the Mount" made up of real utterances of Jesus. but sinners.. once or twice. That is to say." CONCERNING THE THREE GOSPELS on Inspiration. in this connection or in that. either in oral or in written form. but it is decisive as to much of the material contained in them having assumed fixed shape. even if it had been possible. dispersed in the pages of another. thou art offering thy gift at the altar. the priesthood are still in existence. 13. it is nothing. before the great crisis of Israel.e. whether all spoken at one time. but go thy way. Historicity. as : Jesus actually say whether with the addition. Harmonistic is a thing of the past. as to the diverse forms of sayings in parallel reports. are for us now secondary. hand an insoluble problem. or on in various occasions. words actually spoken by Jesus. priest. now or then. or : a form not exactly reproduced by any of them. This is not decisive as to the date of our Gosfor a critic to decide : pels. . whether the sayings and narratives which lie before him came from the one side of this chasm or the other ? Among the instances he cites are such as these " If. It was a well-meant discipline. the altar. show thyself to the etc. " Was there ever. be it finally noted. Sanday. or perfect agreement between parallel accounts. " an easier problem events ". guides. The broad question we ask as to the words of Jesus is have we here.' " See thou tell no man. as in the genuine text of the same Logioii in Matthew and Mark? Did He speak the parable of the lost sheep whether in " we should infer from Luke's narrative ? Did I came not to call the righteous. whosoever shall swear by the temple. which say. 25 The thesis to be proved is ' that the great mass of its shape before the within less than forty years of the destruction of Jerusalem." — Matthew's form or in Luke's." as it stands in Luke. in separate aphorisms or in connected discourse. in the form reported by this or that evangelist. ye blind thy brother hath aught against thee." asks Dr. as to the connections between sayings grouped together in but it took in one Gospel." etc. or without.

or feel essential truth and . but to publicans. sible to enjoy reality. or —to the theological figment of inerrancy.26 both INTRODUCTION perhaps to neither. it is impos- the Gospel story. in full Till this is its done. to Pharisees. yet conveying in some form and to some audience the great thought that there was a passion in His heart and in the heart of It is greatly to be desired that devout God for saving lost men? readers of the Gospels should be emancipated from legal bondage to disciples.

impression both by His discourse This was simply the commence« Mark i. Jesus returned to Galilee and began to preach the " Gospel of the King- 2.^ of first > dom God ". The second Gospel has no account of the birth and infancy of The narrative opens with the prelude to the public ministry. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK. the preaching and baptism of the prophet John leaux from lem. and most easily and clearly from the second. 1. but it is possible from any one of them to form a general idea of the leading stages of the ministry. Contents. . though. This Gospel wears the aspect of a first sketch of the memorable career of one who had become an object of religious faith and love to the circle of its readers for whose benefit it was written. Section I. In none of the three Gospels can we find a definite chronological plan. Mark i. precedence in After His baptism in the Jordan and His temptation in the wilderness.CHAPTER II. we follow the order in which they are arranged in the New Testament. It is convenient to take Mark first for this further reason. Other considerations pointing in the same direction are its comparative brevity and the meagreness of account of Christ's teaching. . 14. The first stage was the synagogue ministry. its and the sequel consists of a rapid sketch of that ministry in a series of graphic tab- commencement in Galilee to its tragic close in Jerusa- This fact alone raises a presumption in favour of Mark's claim to be the earliest of the three synoptical Gospels. in Capernaum. that from its pages we can form the clearest idea of the general course of our Lord's history after He entered on His Messianic calling. The synagogue appearance of Jesus in The where He at once made a great and by the cure of a demoniac. Jesus. As such it is entitled to an introduction to the three synoptists. 27. 1 was the scene of a synagogue was this preaching. in our detailed comments.

39. not merely aiming at dramatic but reflecting in his narrative a real historical sequence. * lanta. 3. chap. 35.. and that He carried it out to a considerable extent. But he could speak only so long as he was a persona grata. Jttd.* With the anecdote in which the scribes figure as captious The keynote of critics of Jesus a new phase in the story begins.28 INTRODUCTION merit of a preaching tour in the synagogues of Galilee.' But the statement must be taken in earnest so far as to recognise that Jesus had a deliberate plan for a synagogue ministry in Galilee. 4. the unalleBt having 15. * Chap. I. the first chapter is popularity . These extend from chap. constituting the Mark i. in this probably following the example of his voucher. could not but fear that He would not remain such long. haste because He knew that He could preach in the synagogues only by the consent of the authorities. he groups together a series of incidents illustrating the hostile attitude of the scribes. as indicated by Josephus. man might speak there with the permission of the ruler. iii.. .000 inhabiVide his Vita. especially in It is necessary to take this view of the populousness and the multitude of its towns large and small. Any a ready opportunity of coming into contact with the people. The popularity and the opposition were related to each other as cause and effect. and Bttl. Jesus maae no stay in Capernaum. so far as the 3. whom we find lying in wait for Him on His return from the preaching tour to Capernaum. In this juxtaposition the evangelist effect. which might soon be withheld through sinister influence..* He left in such the day because He feared detention by the people. He left the town the day after He preached He left so early in in its synagogue. implied in all the statement Galilee ". synagogue was concerned. How A long this synagogue ministry lasted considerable period is is not expressly : in- dicated. It is not improbable that it was interrupted by the influence of the scribes. and Jesus. ' ii. conscious of the wide cleavage in thought and feeling between Himself and the scribes. iii. It at the outset or not at all. This synagogue preaching naturally The synagogue presented formed the first phase in Christ's work. was now or never. It is true that having once entered on this second topic. * Mark i. very early in the morning. 2. Josephus gives the number of towns at 204. 6. xlv. Peter. ii. that of the next is is opposition.* ** He not preached of Galilee in their synagogues throughout strictly. which have a topical rather than a temporal connection. 1 to chap.

* Vide notes on this section in Matthew and in Mark. chap. reported in chap. the ill-will of their religious Within the second group of anecdotes illustrating the hostility of the scribes. or of deeper. municated. Peter and Andrew. 6. refer to the meeting with the publicans. Of the beginnings of this movement Mark gives us a glimpse in chap. i." That is to say. especially by the observation they followed Him " there were many (publicans and sinners). is another indication of ii.' There is nothing in the Gospels more characteristic of Jesus. 16-20. together set before us the two forces whose action and interaction can be traced throughout the drama. ". the ministry of Jesus.. 29 The two 14-45 being the first. ii. . more lasting significance as to the nature and tendency of the Christian faith. a mission to the practically excom- and in conThat action of of Levi or Matthew. and whose resultant will be the cross leaders. this new movement a second stage in preaching in the synagogues to the Jews of respectable character and good religious habit next.* in alienating the scribes. and they awakening interest in them by the interest they on their side were Without doubt this beginning to take in Jesus and His work. and was large enough to were inviting attention and demand special attention. James and John and in the words it . where he reports the call of the four fishermen. ^ Chap. » Chap. but meantime We . First. of the importance and : significance of this new departure. shows his sense munity. nection with that the call Jesus had a decisive effect have to recognise in this is not the thing to be emphasised. ii. Levi's call. a place is assigned to an incident which ought not to be regarded as a mere subordinate detail under that general 5. 13-17. 15. more than his brother evangelists. non-synagogue-going. Jesus is is reported to have spoken to the first pair of brothers there a clear indication of a purpose to gather about Him a band of men not merely for personal service but in order to training for a high calling. : the favour of the people. the class mission to the publicans bulked the Gospels. i. but rather as pointing to another phase of our Lord's activity co-ordinate I in importance with the preaching in the synagogues. and much larger in fact than it does in the pages of the evangelists or in the thoughts of average readers of must be one of the cares of the interpreter to make it appear in its true dimensions. socially outcast part of the comMark. The third stage in the ministry of Jesus was the formation of a disciple-circle. category.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK second division of the story.

7: "And Jesus with the disciples withdrew towards the sea '*. From this comparatively fruitless ministry among in the many. Himself from the crowd. retirement 8. 7. perly and extending to chap. opportunity to perform the functions of a far short of This desire is master made more apparent by Mark than by the two other them in his report of teaching. gratify Him it rather bored Him. or even an hundred in fold. little fruit.* 7. make possible to form an estimate of the spiritual He judged that a disciple-circle lay His only chance of Hence He naturally sought to extricate deep permanent influence. — that for more and more was His aim. He comes Christ's Christ's desire for undisturbed intercourse with the twelve. fiaBjiriv stands before kvtx'^P^^*' '" the best texts. is from his pages we learn of the escapes of Jesus from the crowds ' firra rmf iii. 3135 . iv. iii.30 the INTRODUCTION same iii. in synagogue and highway. thirty. it. the reasons for It and the persistent efforts of the Master to accomplish His object. and to get away from collisions with unsympathetic scribes. out of which a He selects an inner circle of twelve. This disappointment but He was disappointed with the outcome. and crowded around Him wherever He But this popularity did not went. that the disciples pro- come to the front. 10-25 I ^' 7-^i' . Jesus had preached and healed many. sixty. that He might have leisure to indoctrinate the chosen band ir the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven. quiet. 13. Jesus turned with yearning to the susceptible few find in hope to them a good it soil that should bring forth ripe fruit. : seed sown . among the people. Leisure.* And is at various points in this division of the Gospel the disciple-band in referred to way to indicate that they are assuming a new importance to the part to dissatisfaction with the mind of Jesus. But it is in the section of the Gospel beginning at vi. This importance was due in result of the general ministry often. and had become in consequence ihe idol of the masses who gathered in increasing numbers from all quarters. chap. 13. 7-12. which was really a found expression in the much critical estimate of the synagogue ministry to this sad effect . but he brings out much more clearly than they synoptists. as we read in chap. An intention on the part of the evangelist to give them prominence is betrayed in the pointed way in which he refers to them in iii. He did not weary in well-doing. kind.* A little further on in the same chapter we read of the retirement of Jesus to the mountain with a band of disciples. After a long enough time had elapsed to situation. * • Chap. parable of the sower. Vide iii.

iisciples to the northern limits of the Master had to retire with His land. 13. and even beyond them. first to the borders of Tyre and Sidon. 24. towards the northern borderland. take place in all directions possible for one whose work lay on the towards the hill behind. possibly across the moun» ' > Chap. What He had now to do therefore was to prepare Himself and His disciples for the end. and so to make sure territory. 44. though The second not mentioned by Mark. into Gentile territory. was doubtless communicated. vi.* All had the same end in view the : : . * Chap. and His abhorrence of their doctrines and spirit receives more unreserved After the encounter with the scribes occasioned by expression. Chap. between this place and chap.* then in a northerly direction ' two to the north. . 31 These escapes. Chap. iv. 1-23. desiring that no one should ingly. vii. 27.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK and from the scribes. undisturbed. Accordquestion of time eff'ort reports that after that incident Jesus went thence into the borders of Tyre and Sidon.'' the neglect of the disciple-circle to comply with Rabbinical customs lying in The material the matter of ceremonial ablutions. » Chap. a wide excursion into heathen Sidon. and in the second by the determination of the multitude Therefore. the flights across the lake. 35. • . Chap. vi. the not to let Jesus get away from thej ~. : instruction of the disciples. 13." or the Teaching on the Hill. ^ two to the eastern shore. It was in connection with the first that the " Sermon on the Mount. chap.* and the enmity of the scribes becomes ever more acute as the divergence of the ways of Jesus from theirs becomes increasingly manifest. viii. to make sure. 27 shows us the progress of the drama under the ever-intensifying influence of the two great forces. popularity and hostility. as reported by Mark. 30.® of He could not be hid even privacy He seems to have made through Tyre and iii. viii.* next to the neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi. being frustrated in the first case by an accidental meeting with a demoniac. These last flights of considerably in Jesus take us on to a point in the story advance of the end of the third section. vii. that there He might. Mark know. 9. 24. were unsuccessful. vii. The multitude grows ever larger till it reaches the dimensions of 5000. talk to His disciples about the crisis that He now clearly perceived to be approaching. Jesus to felt that it was a mere when the enmity of His foes would culminate in an compass His death. western shore of the Sea of Galilee Five towards the eastern shore. « • Chap. one to the hill in all are mentioned first in an eastward. vi. Chap. and third attempts. there.

. a great con- or euphemistic circumlocution. and. and the Master began to 10. and the penalties appointed for those whose ruling spirit is ambition. Section 1. the tragic story of the crucifixion.* » Mark's pages. tell His disciples that He was destined ere long to suffer death at the hands of the scribes. or to exhibit when one might be tempted not to state He describes them in a subdued light. * vj. viii. vii. In this respect there third. the necessity of self-sacrifice for all the faithful. with the incidents on the way. states facts as they were. 3. the disciples Apostles. » Vid* chap. not the graphic. 23-4$. is from the trast life. with the stirring incidents of the Passion Throughout this later part of his narrative it is evident that the one great theme of conversation between Jesus and His disciples was the cross: His cross and theirs. Luke's whole style of presentation is manifestly influenced by the piesent position of Jesus and the disciples: Jesus the risen and exalted Lord. He them at all.* Then Philippi. Luke that of in- writes from the view-point of reverential faith. reticence. Chap. 27 33. I have in view here. * Chap. the entry into Jerusalem. between the second Gospel and the and it is only when we have made ourselves acquainted with the peculiarities of the two The Gospels that we are able fully to appreciate those of either.* Week. 32 tains INTRODUCTION towards Damascus. followed. x. the rewards of those who loyally bear their cross. finally. is For Mark Jesus the Jesus of history. an excursion to Caesarea for ever memorable as the occasion on which Peter confessed his belief that his Master was the Christ. . and the It disciples are simply disciples. descriptive. Jesus before He begins His public At the temptation He is driven by the Spirit 31. but the unreserved manner in which he presents the person and character of Jesus and of the disciples. avoiding toning down. Chap. literary style which is generally ascribed to Mark. ix. generalised expression. is Mark from impossible by rapid citation of stances to give an adequate idea of these distinguishing features all that can be done 1 is to refer to a few examples in explanation of what mean. and after so through interval. II.' From that point onwards Mark relates the last scenes in Galilee. difference is this. Decapolis the back to Gahlee. the departure to the south. Characteristics. 33 50 . The outstanding characteristic of Mark is realism. is In career a carpenter. loving vivid recollection.

3. Hand-Commenfar. priority. It Mark's the archaic Gospel. speaks ^o an early date before the feeling of decorum had become controlling as it is seen to be in Luke's Gospel. when He is fully engrossed in His teaching and healing ministries. * i. i. He saying to the disciples Let us go over to the other side they promptly obeying orders suddenly given and carrying Him off from the crowd. i. 32. then pass on to Matthew and Luke. and he speaks from indelible impressions made on his eye and ear. In it we get nearest to the true human personality of Jesus in all its originality and power. xi. 35-38. Peter reverences his risen Lord as much as Luke or any other man.* By-and-by. while Luke reports at secor'd-hand from written accounts for the most part. 21. deeming Him beside Himself. The same realism is a strong argument in favour of unclean : . 35.* Towards the end.^ loses nothing by the hid. iii. even as He was. on the ascent to Jerusalem. But he is one of the men who have been with Jesus. 7."'^ Early the following morning He makes what has the aspect of an unaccountable and undignified flight from Capernaum. iv. Chap. chap. 12. His relatives come to rescue Him from His enthusiasm. 7 * Chap. with the companion Gospels Mark lacks a conspicuous didactic aim. such -^s one might expect from Peter. Chap. ' By comparison Chap. or of present reverence like Luke. realistic the character of Jesus presentation. x. and as coloured by the time and the place. The purpose of the writer seems to be 3. Vide Holtzmann. ' * Chap. He bids the two disciples promise to the owner that the colt will be returned when He has had His use of it.'' 2. Jesus goes before the disciples.'' When He sends for the colt on which He rides into the Holy City.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK into the 33 wilderness. Nothing is told that And The homeliest facts reported by the evangelist only increase our interest and our admiration. teaching 1 With commandeth He even and they obey Him. written under the inspiration not of prophecy like Matthew. One who desires to see the Jesus of history truly should con well the pages of Mark needed to be first.^ is His first appearance authority in the synagogue of : Capernaum is so remarkable that people say to each other " What this ? A new spirits.* On the day of the parable-discourse from the boat He makes another flight. 27. 6 » Chap. but of is Mark fondly cherished past memories. . It is a guarantee of first-hand reports. The realism of Mark makes for its historicity. and His manner is such that those who follow are amazed. p.

literary. Author. . stj'le Among the more obvious characteristics of Mark's literary are the use of dual phrases in descriptive passages. a liking for diminutives. show that in the sequel this programme I am by no means anxious to negative these last suggestions all say is that the didactic purpose is not prominent. the multiplicity of variants." but more simply *• These are written that ye may know Jesus". Skction 1. They could not rest till they had smoothed down everyscribes. is Some have tried an endeavour to read into the evangelic Others have maintained that the history the ideas of Paulinism. not *' These are written that ye may believe that 1 : Jesus city Son of God.' These opposite views may be Others. The Gospel itself contains no indication as to who wrote it. This also makes for the historiis the Chrljt. p. calculated neutrality between Paulinism and Judaism. show that this Gospel a contribution towards establishing Christians in the faith that Jesus was the Messiah. again. both tending to narrative and of the historical vividness and giving the impression of an eye-witness. the Son (iod. the : and early date of the archaic Gosp>el. 4. the frequent employment of present.34 mainly just to to tell INTRODUCTION what he knows about Jesus. So Baur and other members of the Tubingen school. III. vigour and crude grammar in frequently noticeable strengthen this impression. Destination. Dat«. vide Das Marcuicvau^elium. when that faith was tried by a delayed second coming." and atterpnts have been made to steadily kept in view.* purpose of the writer is to observe a studied. The writer seems to say. have found in the book left to destroy each other. Harmonising propensities also are rething to commonplace. The is style is The rough Mark's reports colloquial rather than in due the unsatisfactory state of the Mark's roughness and originality were too much for the text. 23. the less important Gospel sponsible for this To part being forced into conformity with the more important. occasional cu6us in Latinisms. Einleitung. That the writer was one bearing the name of Mark rests solely on an ecclesiastical tradition whose reliableness there has been no The Mark referred to has been from the disposition to question. So Bernhard Weiss. . ' • • So Pfleiderer in his Urchristaithum.* A didactic programme has been supposed to be hinted at in the opening words: f)f "The beginning is of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

and the technical term "common" or "unclean" (v. vii. was the destruction of Jerusalem. 11. 10. in Colossians iv. 2). The dates of the Gospels generally have been a subject of much controversy.e. point to non-Jewish readers. 34. Barnabas on their mission journey companion of Barnabas alone after he had separated from Paul also. whether the absolute confidence written before or after ^ Oa the Appendix of Mark.. and the use of Latinisms is most naturally accounted for by the supposition that the book was written among and for Roman Christians. . THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK earliest times 25 12. q-2o. 3-4). as rendering useful . 39. vide Notes ad loc. as we value of its materials. 2. The explanations vii. say. xvi. between the years 60 and 80. but the historical In this respect the claims of Mark. chap. tf. vii. of Jewish customs. 41. possible.. i. Mark. finally. The very late dates assigned to these writings by the Tubingen school are now generally abandoned. as the son of now a Mary till identified with the . 13. By many competent critics the Synoptical Gospels are placed well within the first century.^". 5. stand high. To condescend upon a precise year is im(chap. Mark named in Acts xii. ceremonial washings and words such as Talitha cumi and Ephphatha. 3. in 2 Timothy iv.^ have seen. in xiii. The point of practical importance is not the date at which a Gospel was composed. as the travelling sei'vices to Paul. as the attendant of Paul and and in xv. and Philemon 24.. as the cousin (dre^lfKJs) of Barnabas and. and the endless diversity of opinion means that the whole matter belongs largely to the region of conjecture. One cannot even determine with earliest of them. .

and xxiii. Contents.). presenting together a critical review of Christ's past ministry among the people. and the Master . connected character is due to the Teacher or to the evangelist has narrative of the archaic Gospel — been disputed. x. I. short pregnant senreproduced in the first Gospel consists not of tences such as Mark has preserved. for the most part belong to the respective occasions with The call for careful which they are connected in the Gospel. naturally and not inappropriately. That Jesus uttered only short pithy sayings presumption is in a gratuitous assumption. were doubtless all spoken by Jesus. critical opinion being strongly in favour Extreme views on either side are to be is avoided. As has been stated in chap. i^ the bulk of Mark's narrative is substantially taken up into Matthew's longer story. but not that day. A similar instance of editorial combination of kindred matter only topically connected may be found Matthew's seven parables in the parabolic discourse (chap. is But to that added much new material. adds weighty words which bear on the more momentous mission of the apostles as the propagandists in the wide world of the Christian faith. conThis teaching as sisting mainly of the teaching of our Lord.CHAPTER III. Section I. disciples. On the other hand. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW. xviii. e^.. the bias of of the latter alternative. on apostolic duties and tribulations. but of connected discourses of the longest and the most important being that considerable length Whether this familiarly known as the " Sermon on the Mount ". forth on their Galilean mission the evangelist. the In connection with deliberate efforts to instruct the fa\«/ur of continuous discourse. On the other hand. some of the discourses reported in Matthew. xiii. The parables spoken from the 1-H)at were prohabh all of one type. agglomeraTo what Jesus said t^/ the twelve m sending them tion is apparent. I am inclined to think that the contents of chaps. admonition to the twelve at Capernaum was urgent. in that in chap.

but rather that of a collection of discourses Sermon on the Mount" comes upon us before we are prepared for it. Though much abbreviated. not popular preaching Didache. And the time occupied in communicating that teaching was probably a week rather than an hour. The didactic interest overshadowed the historical in the evangelist's own mind. Matthew's report. Luke. even in this case. with the result that his story does not present the aspect of a life-drama steadily moving on.. during a season of retreat on the summit of the hills to the west of the Galilean Lake. Jesus addressed Himself to disciples . we should more properly designate it the Teaching on the Hill. That a discourse of some length was delivered on the mountain Luke's report proves. The insertion of great masses of didactic matter into the framework of Mark's narrative weakens our sense of the progress of the history in reading Matthew. in chaps. 2. To appreciate it fully we must realise that before it was spoken Jesus furnished with slight historical introductions. 37 Then nothing could be more fitting than that Jesus should at the close of His life deliver a final and full testimony against the spurious sanctity which He had often criticised in a fragmentai-y way. and to a popular audience. But two questions have to be asked here. Did Jesus address a popular audience ? Did He speak all at one time in the sense of a continuous discourse of one hour or two hours' length ? I am strongly inclined to answer both questions in the negative. ^ The this point vide Notes on the Sermon at the beginning . and which was now at last to cause His death. the feeling is a very natural one that Jesus could hardly have spoken so long a discourse as Matthew puts into His mouth at one time. Now.^ 3. His discourse was teaching.— THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW would have much to say to His offending disciples. but yet he agrees with Matthew in ascribing to Jesus something like an oration. original in The only question which of the two comes nearer the length and contents. The main interest of the question now under consideration revolves around the " Sermon on the Mount ". his report of the discourse is is still a discourse. Instead of calling it the Sermon on the Mount. in that case will have to be viewed as a summary of what the Great Teacher said to His disciples in a leisurely way on sundry topics relating to the Kingdom of Heaven. breaks up much of Matthew's connected matter into short separate utterances. " For further remarks on and througrhout. not Kcrygma. v.-vii.

including the history of the infancy. and the amount of controversial material in the first Gospel speaks strongly in favour of its fidelity to fact in this part of its record. indeed. has been maintained that Matthew's account of our Lord's teaching is not uniform in character is. but Luke that omits. in which that Keen conflict element retires comparatively into the background. to the few. it and was therefore with support in liable to be added to with a view to furnishing as forty-five the teaching of Christ for developing Christianity. with the third. between our Lord and the Scribes and Pharisees was inevitable. the criticised parties not being present. While the connections of . D'Eichthal.. e. . and that its contents were much the same as those found in canonical Mark primitive but that. ' many Lit Evangiles. and the sense of progress in his narrative is comparatively weak. It Here it is not Matthew that adds. This remark applies especially to the criticism of Pharisaism. 5. hides from us the fact was sitting in judgment on His own past pronouncing on it the verdict Much seed. and that to establish and perpetuate His influence He must now devote Himself to the careful instruction of a disciple-circle. e.g.g. as compared.. The miscellancous- ness of the parable-collection that that day Jesus in chap. xiii. but there can be little doubt that Jesus would take occasion there to indicate the difference between His religious ideas and those in vogue at the time. and that a long enough time had elapsed for the Preacher to feel that His ministry had been to a large extent fruitless. there is a manifest correspondence between the discourses he imputes to Jesus and the whole circumstances of the times in which Jesus lived. through being the earliest. as was fitting. it had exceptional authority. 38 INTRODUCTION had preached in many synagogues and to many street crowds. so discrepant as to suggest diff'erent hands writing in diverse interests and with con- — flicting theological attitudes. In the Teaching on the Hill the references to Scribism and Pharisaism are.. little fruit ministry and so justifying Himself for attending henceforth less to the many and : more 4. which occupies so prominent a place in the first Gospel. even as the unique quality of the anti-Pharisaic sayings ascribed to Jesus bears witness to their originality.' D'Eichthal counts as many "Annexes" gradually in- troduced in this way.Matthew's discourses are topical rather than temporal.. didactic rather than controversial. is of opinion that the Matthew was the earliest written Gospel.

therefore. but was frustrated by the unbelief of the people. . etc. He conceives the Gospel.. hence its modest dimensions and superior reliableness material. Estlin Carpenter. indeed. as it now stands. To prove diversity of hand or successive deposits of evangelic tradition by men living at different times. has successfully done this in his work on the Gospel of Matthew and its parallels in Luke. And \ may here add that it would not be difficult to conceive a situation for which the Gospel might have been written by one man. in the above work. The Gospel that was to meet this situation would have to show that Jesus was indeed the IVkessianic King. 39 numerous passages bearing on the Person of Christ.On this topic I may refer readers to what has been already stated in discussing the subject of the historicity of the Gospels. in whose history many prophetic oracles found their fulfilment that He did His utmost to found the kingdom in Israel. J)r. 370. But possibility is one thing. to have been written shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish State. " a place of deposit " for new questionable honour of becoming Carpenter calls it. * 2 The First Three Gospels. and we are not entitled to say a priori has no foundation in fact. 18. remarks ' '• Truly has the first Gospel been called a Gospel of contradictions ' ". This theory that it is plausible. the kingdom was driven forth from Jewish soil.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW parables.' Mark. 19) might possibly be examples probability in point. the Second Advent. 363. according to D'Eichthal. Weiss. and especially of its rulers that. Additions to the Gospels might creep in before they became canonical. : Dr. p. The sayings about the indestructibility of the law (v. and acting in the interest of distinct or even opposing tendencies. the From this Church. that though Jesus had predicted this doom He nevertheless loved His people. had loyally and : : . it is not enough to point to apparently conflicting elements and exclaim " Behold a Gospel of contradictions ". Estlin in point of fidelity to actual historic truth. the Resurrection. p. and there L^d been left to Israel only an inheritance of woe. and was now to be found mainly in the Gentile Church. another. . substantially as we have it. as they crept in afterwards through the agency of copyists. was protected by its greater obscurity and inferior authority. when the faith of Jewish Christians in the Messiahship of Jesus would be the promised Messianic Kingdom sorely shaken by the events passing away irretrievably from Israel and Vrfking up its abode among Gentiles. as Dr. 17-19) and the founding of the Church (xvi.

If last sufferings. whereby an ancient oracle concerning the appearing of a great light in Galilee of the Gentiles received its fulfilment. into Thus Mark's dry statement. * Mark i. the prophetic colouring so conspicuous in Matthew need not detract from the historicity of didactic aim. He may was engaged in consisted in discovering prophetic texts to answer facts ready to his hand. Vid* Weiss. the texts did not create the facts. Mark's matter-of-fact report of the extensive healing function in in Capernaum on the Sabbath evening beautiful citation from Isaiah's is Matthew adorned with a * famous p. as labels to events which Mark reports simply as matters of fact.* Again. for his own satisfaction. 21. The facts suggested the texts. in verified as such by the applicability of many presented as the Christ.40 INTRODUCTION had spoken with reverence of her Godgiven law (while treating with disrespect Rabbinical traditions). His public ministry. Mark Jesus While Matthew He and His 2. accounts. is presented realistically as a man. prophetic oracles to the details of His childhood. and honoured it by personal observance."* referring to Jesus and His followers proceeding northwards from the scene of the baptism. Das Matthdus-Evangelium und seint Lucoi-paralUUn. 1. This hypothesis fairly meets lovingly sought her good. requirements of the case. • Matt. It covers the phenomena of the Gospel. including that which is common He has his prophetic oracles ready to be attached to him with Mark. and it is compatible with unity of plan and authorship. the realism of Mark makes its for the historicity of this Gospel. or it may have been necessary that he should do so in order to strengthen the faith of his first In either case the presumption is that the operation he readers. This feature may be due in part to the personal idiosyncrasy of the writer and in part to his have set himself to verify the thesis. in Matthew's hands assumes the character of a solemn announcement of an epoch-making event. 12-17. In this connection it is important to note that the evangelist applies his prophetic method to the whole of his material. though in some instances they might influence the mode of stating facts.' the Section II. it The most outstanding is characteristic of the first Gospel is that in paints the life-image of Jesus in prophetic colours. . "they went Capernaum. iv. 39. Characteristics. not in first making a collection of texts and then inventing facts corresponding to them. Jesus the Christ.

e. xii. except indeed in a way not contemplated by the evangelist. the Friend of weak^ Matt. to Mark's simple statement that Jesus withdrew Himself to the sea after the collision with the Pharisees occasioned by the healing on a Sabbath of the man with a withered hand. the Beloved of God. the Peacemaker. For us now their value is not apologetic. Such is the fact. Their occasional weakness as proofs of the Messiahship of Jesus can be utilised in the manner above hinted at in support of the historicity of the evangelic tradition. He is not inventing history. it could never have entered into the mind of any one unless the fact of the settlement in Nazareth had been there to begin with. * Matt.g. in which prophetic citations are unusually when we have it in abundant. if at all possible. we observe." and " He shall be called a Out impossible to say whence it is taken . It is " Rachel of Egypt have I called my Son. 15-21. evangelist is simply attaching prophe'^ic oracles to Here too the what he regards has not been in invention has been at work is it This manifest even from the very weakness of some of the citations. Cf. Mark iii. as if to show readers the true From Jesus as opposed to the Jesus of Pharisaic imagination. If historicity.* 41 Once more. 7. But the chief permanent value of these citations lies in the light they throw on the evangelist's own conception of Jesus.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW oracle concerning the suffering servant of Jehovah. We see from them that he thought of Jesus as the Light of Galilee. its The question as is to the historicity of that narrative has ' own I peculiar difficulties. some prophetic anticipation. such as " weeping for Nazarene". but enriching history with prophetic emblazonments for apologetic purposes. The point wish to make that the numerous prophetic references cast its no additional shadow of doubt on as historic data. our power to control his statements by comparison with Mark's. These prophetic passages served their purpose in the apologetic of the apostolic age." her children. . creating a desire to find for it aKso. in the narrative relating to the birth and infancy of Jesus. into which do not here enter. Who could ever have thought of these unless there had been traditional data accepted by the Christian community (and by the writer of the Gospel) as facts ? The last citation is especially far-fetched. his imagination. or for increase of edification. the first evangelist attaches a fine prophetic picture. as. such we may assume to be the fact when we have not that in our power. the sympathetic Bearer of humanity's heavy burden. 17..'' these instances we see his method. viii.

which Christ's part for all lends perennial interest to the texts in which it is embodied. XcYOfiCKOS. MatthdusEvangelium. reverse the logic of the Jewish Church. . contribution to the apologetic argument. is The purpose is is to confirm Jewish Christians is it in the faith that Jesus first the Christ. because on that hangs the . have anticipated to a certain 3. iv ^KttVw By comparison correct. of frequent recurrence. dkaxwpei*'. extent what relates to the question of didactic aim. kot' ovap. of no vital consequence." genealogy did it under the impression that physical descent from David was indispensable to Jesus being the Christ. and that necessary to keep evangelist. at least 4.^ In speaking of the literary ch:\r. in The purpose revealed in the very sentence and the genealogy to which forms a preface. therefore the Christ. X^ymk.Messianic claim the Son of Abraham likewise. but on spiritual fitness to be thj world's Saviour. Ha '^^hocver compiled the is the rod out of the stem of Jesse. such as koI Tois oopat-ois." The Son of David first. We We reason : because the Christ. rore. i. and such phrases as tw xaipw. • Vide Weiss. The logic of it is this: •'The Psalms and Prophets predict the coming of a great Messianic King who shall be a descendant of the house of David this genealogy .^ is ri aoi SoKei. recognise the frequent use of such words as oxXot. In the foregoing remarks I in Him the world. But it does not follow that the genealogy was manufactured to serve that purpose. the Son of David. "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ. A iraxrip 6 if Among the features of the evangelist's own style they TrpoacXOwf. The descent from David might be apologetic aim. in spirit.42 ness. the INTRODUCTION Man who had it by gifts and graces to perform a Truly a noble conception. a well-known fact utilised for an it is For Jesus us. a fellow-countryman of those The genealogy is the first for whose benefit the Gospel is written. 23-4. therefore David's Son. They reasoned: because David's Son. the Son of Abraham. the style of this Gospel • smooth and Vid* notes on Matt. pp. \iyv u(Aif. is though a fact. Gospel has such an aim the prophetic argument is That the first obvious from the careful manner in which elaborated. shows that Jesus possessed that qualification for Messiahship. because that makes Him a Jew. <ruu. with Mark. . Matthew it is these may come from the others may be due to the d|iT]K Critics ascribe to the apostolic source certain phrases i8ou. Our faith that the Christ does not rest on any such external ground.Tcteristics of in mind that some of Logia of the apostle Matthew.pouXiok Xa}Apdk'€i»'. d-rroKpiOei's.

18. But the view that our Greek Gospel of Matthew is a translation by some unknown hand from a book with the same contents in the Hebrew tongue still has its advocates. then that apostle was not its Who . the commission to the disciples in chapter xxviii. e. The destination of the Gospel was in all probability to a community of Jewish Christians. whose faith it was designed to strengthen. III. . 43 Author. On these points the reader is referred to the commentary. is The probable date shortly after the destruction of the Jewish State. Canonical Gospel to the Logia. That he wrote in Greek is held to be proved by the use which he makes of the Septuagint in his citations of Old Testament prophecy. with its Some things have been supposed to imply a much later date. and its doctrine of a spiritual presence. compiled by the apostle Matthew. * Vide bis Commentar uber das Bvangelium des heiligen Mattkdus: Einleitung. § 5. I. its pronounced universalism. That he was a Jew is highly probable.. explicit Trinity. be well founded. the was is unknown.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW Section 1. among whom may be mentioned Schanz.^ 2. that he was a Palestinian Jew has been generally assumed but Weiss calls this in question. Date. How it was fitted to serve this end has been indicated evangelist in Section 3. first If the views of modern critics as to the relation of the author. of Tubingen. Destination.g. and by traces of dependence on the Greek Gospel of Mark.

iv. the Message of the Baptist with relative discourse. the Selfish Neighbour and the Unjust Judge. 2. Then comes in a digression. In the early part of the historj'. as reported in Luke viii. only the second Gospel (Mark iv. 1 to ix. but on the other in hand also considerable additions. from chapters vi. that his peculiar contribution c\iiefly The amount of new matter suffices to raise the question as to its source. 3. therefore. and the Pharisee and Publican. It can hardly be thought that the author of the first Gospel would have omitted so much valuable material. 50.CHAPTER IV. whence Luke drew such Mark and the book of parables as the Good Samaritan. 50). The hypothesis of a third source. 1. for in has greatly enriched the treasure of the this important division of our Lord's teaching lies. The chapters on the infancy and on the re- surrection. so entirely different from the corresponding chapters in Matthew. the author follows pretty closely in the footsteps of Mark. unless we suppose that the third included these. especially the didactic element. Thereafter Luke's narrative again flows in Mark's channel from the parable of the Sower onwards to the end of the Galilean ministry. Luke's Gospel includes much of the narrative of Mark and large portions of the didactic matter contained in are -Tjumerous omissions in Matthew. the Prodigal Son. . had it lain be'ore his eye in the Logia. Laxarus and Dives. readily suggests itself — a collection of reminiscences distinct from beautiful Logia. the Unjust Steward. 16. The distribution of the material in this Gospel arrests atten- tion. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE. might suggest a fourth source. and the woman in Simon's house. containing a version of the Sermon on the Mount. Section L Contents. extending from 17 to viii. There both departments. 31 to vi. the stories of the Centurion and the Widow of Nain. 4 to ix. The third evanjielist it is parables.

departs from the chronological order. iv. Mark vi. the author. he cannot have intended to say that he had made it a leading aim to arrange his material as far as possible in the true order of events. is Therefore. ^ Chap. responsible for this. 23. 33 that there was not a good understanding bevi. 51 begins another longer digression. 1) and he throws the blasphemous insinuation of a league with Beelzebub into chapter xi. the 1 In the main. as in the incident of Christ's appearance in the synagogue of Nazareth. ment perceptible is rather circular than rectilinear. 1-23. 51. may be affirmed. Two important omissions and one transposition are largely . extending from that point to xviii. . 45 to 26 Luke. It is a dog- matic section. Still less can it have been his purpose so to set forth his story that it should ever. Thereafter our author joins beside the company 3. 16-30 . 11. Then at ix. tween Jesus and the Scribes and Pharisees but from Luke's narrative by itself we could not have gathered that matters were so serious. 14. Matt. 30.^ This lengthy insertion destroys the sense of progress in the The stream widens out into a lake. and containing the larger number of Luke's peculiar con- tributions to the evangelic tradition. beyond the point at which he in . in the previous narrative why it — — . When Son 22 we Jesus announcing for the first v^rme that " the of Man must No reason has appeared should come to that.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE that the whole group of incidents contained in * 45 viii. and the demand for a sign (Mark viii. appear a historic drama find in which all events prepare for and at ix. . indeed. 21 v. steadily lead up to tne final catastrophe. 34. 1-20). consisting mainly of didactic is omitted in matter. therefore. Matt." it takes us by surprise. 7-11 . Luke leaves out the collision between Jesus and the Pharisees reference to the washing of hands (Mark vii.. xvi. of Mark once more.^ Whathe meant by Ka0e|Tis in his preface. for Luke's Passion history contains a number of peculiar elements. XV. It has indeed been made clear by sundry indications at chapter v. vii. vide v. and keeps him to the end of the Passion history. within which any movestory. introduces the first announcement of the Passion. 50 suffer many things. consciously and apparently with deliberate intention. that to say. and any indications of time and place it contains are of little value for determining sequence or pointing out the successive stages of the journey towards Jerusalem mentioned in It ix. that throughout this Gospel the interest in historic sequence or in the causal connection of events is weak. Sometimes.

^ Church cared little or nothing The delicate treatment of the Luke. These are contemplated not in the light of memory. Their faults ignorance." is not in this Gospel. and the Apostles of the Church. For particulars may readers are referred to the notea- SeCTION I. mutual rivalries— are acknowledged. behind me. and solemn introductory It is " He if it began to teach them it possessed no particular importance. The truth of this statement can be verified only by u detailed study of the Gospel. . carious inference that the Apostolic for the earthly history of Jesus. may be called the idialisation of the characters of Jesus and the disciples. Jesus appears with an aureole round His head. and the faults of the disciples are very tenderly handled. states that the tendency in question appears mainly in the presentation of the conduct of the disciples drawing from the supposed fact the pre. as in the companion narratives. weak faith. as In connection with this be noted that Luke gives a very defective report of those words of our Lord concerning His death which may be said to contain the germs of a theory as to its significance. . as in Mark. CHARACTBRTSTtCiU of a One very marked feature of this Gospel is what.— 46 necessity it is INTRODUCTION (Sc!) of that tragic issue is not apparent in the sense that the inevitable result of causes which have been shown to be in For Luke the Sci refers exclusively to the prophetic operation. for want better word. reported in a quite casual way. of the disciples are treated with equal consideration. " Get thee spares the tsvelve especially Peter. yet * Vide Theolofnschf Ahkandlungen. And for him it is a matter of course. p. as Schanz remarks. II. in the article already referred to. whom he writes are now the Risen Lord. The stern word. 138. It applies equally to the Master and to His disciples. ever disciples is certainly very apparent. and so he treats Passion is it in his not brought in The announcement of the as a new departure in Christ's communinarrative. but through the brightly coloured medium The evangelist does not forget that the Personages of of faith. with phrase : of the place ". though Von Soden. Jesus must die if these oracles are to be fulfilled. cation with indication His disciples. The narrative of the denial is an But the whole body interesting subject of study in this connection. oracles which predicted Messiah's sufferings. and readers will find indications of proof at appropriate places in the notes.

36-50 . the conversation about the leaven of the Pharisees. 1-24. The hand restored on the Sabbath is the right hand.^ influence of the Christian consciousness of the time in which he wrote is traceable not only in Luke's presentation of the 2.. The characters of Jesus and His disciples. Peter's mother-in-law suffers from a great fever and the leper is full of leprosy. the daughter of Jairus an only daughter.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE 47 touched with sparing hand. and understatement. Among the omissions are the realistic word about that which defileth. xiv. The holiness of Jesus is made conspicuous by the prominence given to prayer in connection with critical occasions. the centurion's servant is one dear to him. and by understatement where the incidents related might to ill-instructed minds seem to compromise that essential characteristic. 37-52 . the son of the widow of Nain is an only son. instead of uttering the reproachful word : " Why are ye cowardly ? Have ye not yet faith ? " Their failure to watch in the garden Gethsemane is apologetically described as sleeping for sorrow. and what houses. . in Luke's version of the story. his portraiture of the of In Lord Jesus the evangelist gives prominence to the attributes of power. and the anointing in Bethany. my is wholly wanting. e. about " dogs " in the story of tVt woman of Canaan which " My God. xi. the ambitious request of James and John. but as spoken of it. emphasis. to^ about. the epileptic boy at the hill of Transfiguration an only child. not as spoken Pharisees by Jesus as a guest in their Much much is omitted. retained is softened by being given.g. To the anti- same category may be Pharisaic element is referred the treatment by Luke of the in Christ's teaching. but in his account of Christ's teaching. referred to as striking illustrative instances of the latter. Weizsacker Luke vit. " Where your asks Jesus in the storm on the lake. is The weak is faith faith ? very mildly characterised. as the disciples is also the flight of all the of " disciples at the apprehension of their Master. and saintliness. The pictorial effect is brought out by omission. benevolence. and the awful cry on the Cross God " Among the things emphasised are those features in acts of healing which show the greatness of Christ's might and of the benefit conferred. are omitted. He seems to have iy viewjthroughout the use of the Lord's has endeavoured to analyse the didactic element in the third Gospel into doctrinal for * words present guidance. Luke's narratives of the cleansing of the temple and the agony in Gethsemane may be : I . Some narratives in which these faults appear very obtrusively.

3. In this Gospel the so-called " Sermon on the Sermon {Kerygma not Ditfnche) delivered to a Christian congregation with all the local and temporary matter eliminated and only the universal and perennial retained. commentary on Luke alternative.' altogether baseless. the Logia. eighth edition) inclines to the latter Thus. giving a Of 4uch a source he finds traces mitigated account of Peter's sin. following in the footsteps of Dr. and the argument by which Peine seeks volume the evangelic traditions to establish 1 it is it entitled on its merits to serious consideration. (. Mount" is really a KaO' ^fie'pac.e. vol. i8qi. A primitive Luke was ready to his hand. The same adaptation to present and general use is apparent in the words. tion. added to the law of cross-bearing (ix. a contribute to it • Vid4 his Umtenuchungen ub*r die Evangelische Cteichichte. but the idea is not primitive Church. a Qrst attempt to work up into a single in Mark. Peine. The question may be asked whether this adaptation of the matter of the evangelic tradition to present conceptions and needs to be set is down to the account of regarded as already existing point there may be room for Luke as editor. J. after the manner of the third Gospel.perfectly legitimate hypothesis for solving certain literary problems connected with this Gospel. he remarks: "A monstrous minimising of the offence if Luke had Mark's account before him " and he accordingly thinks he had not. * Eine vorkanon' sche Uberlieftmng ties Litkas in Evangrlimm und Apostel- gfschichte. but used instead a Jewish Christian source. bias. who had previously endeavoured to establish the existence of i. a precanonical Luke. Weiss in his difference of opinion. He did what ? Added.48 INTRODUCTlOxN pieces bearing on definite religious questions and interests of theThis may be carried too far.Meyer. 23). purpose to utilise the material for edification of believers were all there before he began. perhaps. and he did not even Intenthe colour of his own religious personality.. and other This may be a sources. But account for all the traces of editorial It docs not matter what documents discretion in Luke used he exercised his own judgment in using them. becomes so colourless that one fails to see what occasion there was for that imposing prefatory announcement in the opening sentence. Paul . . . his relation to the work of redacting the memoirs of Jesus hardly think suffices to Luke's Gospel. and his Apostolic ii. throughout Luke's Gospel. Id reference to Luke's mild version of Peter's denial. or is to be On this in the documents he used. If he did not. Age.

Luke omits much. By simply understating.g. to invent A who has what ideas to embody is tempted when he cannot find will suit his purpose.. he becomes a reluctant and therefore reliable witness to the historicity of the matter so dealt with. the chosen people (tw Xa« auToG. oral or n*°. they error of Nor should it be forare not to be confounded with bad faith. xix. 16. The author is not even Paulinist in a theological sense. already remarked on. with The task is a delicate one. e. to confirm in the faith a friend called " most excellent (KpdTurTc) Theophilus. vii. But it does not follow that he did He may omit intentionally what he knows but does not not know.g. Either he adds particulars from fuller information or he exaggerates is for a purpose. 68.. did not invent but at in most touched up stories given to his Luke hand trustworthy traditions. What a writer tones down he tempted to omit. judgment not easy. be cccjthe author of the third Gospel cannot justly be charged with indifference to historic truth. He appears to be an 4 . xiii. 9). ii. is not a Paulinist in the controversial sense of the word. sufficiently proves. but as one seeking to promote the religious welfare of tnose for writes. the salvation brought by Jesus conceived of as belonging to Israel. and execution without practical utility. whom he combine accuracy. his preface to in earnest. as the absence from his is pages of most of the words of Jesus bearing on a theory of atonement.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE few anecdotes and sayings gleaned written 4. Luke often understates. cf. 10. But there is no trace of a dominant theological or controversial aim. 6). "All flesh shall see the salvation of God" (iii. i. Luke often states strongly. and the profession is to be taken But he writing not as a mere chronicler. as appears from his finishing the quotation from Isaiah beginning with. Even in the latter case he witnesses to the truth of writer the basal narrative. instead of omitting. I 49 from other sources. He is doubtless in sympathy with Christian universalism. '•The voice of one crying in the wilderness. appears from the preface. 5. Yet. Even where mistakes are made. e." and ending with. The writer." expecting probably that the book would ultimately be useful for a wider circle. The author it He wrote. strive to and so must gotten that Luke's peculiarities can be utilised for the apologetic purpose of establishing the general credibility of the evangelic tradition. in other places. fidelity to fact. 16.y Notwithstanding this pervading regard to what prehensively called edification. in the history of the infancy. in He professes is have in view acribeia. so of the third Gospel avowedly had a didactic aim. care to report.

Date. tendencies or religious types universalism. 11). is one thing more it than another he desires jrraciousness of Christ. Section 1. Jewish houseroom his ticularism. Jew thinking in Hebrew and Hebraisms reflecting Hebrew idiom in phrase and construction. xxiii. The literary aspect of this abound. such as the primitive for Luke which Heine contends. kindliness of temper. especially : two chapters. to inculcate on readers 22) is is the to " Words of grace " his comprefirst hensive outcast. 36- 50. The author of the third Gospel was also the author of the Acts of the Apostles. iv. 39-43). title for the utterances of Jesus. is the personal characteristic of the evangelist. and his aim from sinful last is to show the Saviour as the friend of the and even of those who suffer justly for 1-10. III. Destination. Two explanations are possible That the author was really a Jew. It not necessarj' to infer that a larger circle of readers was not con- templated either by the writer or by the first recipient of his work- . find Distinct. far oftener the impression is that of j. and by occupation a physician (Col. rather INTRODUCTION than a if man whose mind pages: Pauline is dominated by a great par- ruling idea. and the social their crimes (vii. xix. one gets the impression of a writer having at his command a knowledge of Greek possible only for one to whom it was his native tongue an expert at once in the But vocabulary and the grammatical structure of that language. say a Roman knight. Ebionitic social ideals. apparently a man of rank. Geniality. 2. 1 of the latter work. From the prefaces of the Gospel and the book of Acts we is learn that the author wrote for the immediate benefit of a single individual. in not conflicting. especially in the preface. in which case it would have to be shown that the preface was no such marvellous piece of classicism after all in the first or that he in his was a Gentile well versed in Greek. 6. the companion of Paul. And if there his (iv.. Author. but was entirely dependent on oral and written tradition. that his natural style was Hebrew-Greek. the praise of almsgiving. as appears in chap. Neither book bears the name of the writer. -O eclectic. the blessedness of poverty. Gospel is a complex phenomenon. From the preface to the Gospel we gather that he had no personal knowledge of Jesus. but somewhat slavish copious use of Jewish-Christian sources. but uniform ancient tradition ascribes it to Luke. where the name of Theophilus recurs. i. At times.

in his work entitled Inspiration. As late a date as say A.d. and tne Gospel some time in the five years preceding. Sanday. 80.THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE 3. Paul in his later missionary movements. rj The date cannot be definitely fixed. A. which were publishfeJ about the year 93-94. 90 is compatible with the writer being. later date of a. that the writer used the Antiquities of Josephus.D. Dr. still The certain. Opinion ranges from 63 to the early years of the second century.d. in his younger years. . 100 or 105 would be required if it were which it is not. a companion of St.D. expresses the view that Acts was written about a.

and their results cannot Elzevir's 2nd. were published when the apparatus at command for fixing the true text was scanty. There are many variations in the spelling of proper names. Westcott and Hort.in their favour. are incomparably superior to that of Stephen or of Elzevir. Section L The Text. based. Stephen and Elzevir. Moreover. still it is hoped sufficiently for practical purposes. and it is the Greek original answering to the English Testament still largely in use in public worship and in private reading. That means that to the text must be annexed critical notes showing all important various readings. have been for the most the part disregarded. Variations not affecting the sense. while the experts in modern criticism have done much to provide a purer text. and associated with the names of two famous printers. of which the following are samples: . it is an important historical monument. that the texts prepared by such scholars as Tischendorf. THE TEXT. their judgments in many cases do not accord. This accordingly has been done.— CHAPTER V. and the company of experts to whom we are indebted for the Revised Version. and of the value attached thereto by celebrated editors. and that they must be taken into account by every competent commentator. CRITICAL LANDMARKS. however. whose editions (Stephen's 3rd. CRITICAL TESTS OF READINGS. but merely spelling or grammatical forms of words. 1550. and when the science of textual But criticism was unborn. very imperfectly of course. work that The Greek is text given in this is known as the Textus Rfceptiis. on which the Authorised Version of the New Testament Representing the Greek text as known to Erasmus in the sixteenth centur>'. 1633) be regarded as final. It is certain. it may seem to be entirely out of date. with some indication of the documentary authority. Tregelles.

outws for outw the aorist forms .. TifieXXoK). ouk^ti) ^X0o»'. p. yivr\it. reOarjp. The characteristic feature of Tischendorfs edition is the predominant importance attached to the great Codex Sinaiticus (t^). y. be mentioned the presence cXeyei') . Tj8uv'd|xifji' IfieXXoK. II. with the discovery of which his name is connected. Section 1.o. the assimilation or non-assimilation of iv and auv in compound verbs {crul-qTelv. Tischendorfs eighth edition (the important one which supersedes the earlier) bearing the date 1869. timidly adding notes indicating good readings which they had discovered in the documents accessible to them inaugurated in their time.. cTTtppdirrei. the conjunction or disjunction . p or the reverse . THE TEXT. replaced by forms in a (sl-nay. (fjia/jip. Up till 1831 editors of the New Testament in Greek had been content to follow in the ^ wake of the Textus Receptus. empdirTCi) .. made important in place of contributions towards the ascertainment of the true text by adopting as their main guides the most ancient early printed editions. the omission or in- sertion of n (XiivJ/o|xai. of syllables (ouk in. Critical Landmarks. Introduction. 53 Na^ap^O Ma90atos AauEiS 'HXeios Ka(^apkaouft r€9«nt]fiaj'^ Iwdi'i'Tjs 'lepixu Moj(7T]s 'icpciXcS 'H\tas KairEpcaoufji MuuffTJs riciXciTOS riiXdros Among other insignificant variations y may or absence of final in verbs (eXeye. MSS. etc. single or double augment in certain verbs {ihuvdniriy. the doubling of : n. fia/iuvas yivvrnxa. CRITICAL LANDMARY^S. The critical editions of the .ui'as. Na^apcT MarOaios AajSiS ETC. ivKaK€lv) . 13). ^X0ai') . the later documents which had formed the basis of the Greek New Testament by these scholars appeared about the same time.ai'ei 'Iucikt). CKKaKCif. and too artificially rigid an employment of them.r]Telv . Lachmann in that year by printing a text constructed directly from ancient documents without the intervention of any critical a new era It is not given to pioneers to finish the work they and Lachmann's effort judged by present-day tests was far from perfect. (TUvt. Tischendorf in Germany and Tregelles in England worthily followed up Lachmann's efforts. XT)|x4/ofAoi) . and also by too little care in obtaining precise knowledge of some of their texts" (Westcott and Hort's New Testament. begin. and the work of Tregelles being published in 1870. "This great advance was marred by too narrow a selection of documents to be taken into account. etiroi'. and printed edition.

The last epithet is to be understood only when viewed in relation to the other two. Following up hints thrown out by earlier inBengel and Griesbach. like vestig. made by men who combined to a certain extent the functions of copyist and commentator. to it common Codex Vaticanus (B) and Codex Bezae (D) and the most ancient versions bear the same testimony but what is to be done when the trusted guides follow All goes smoothly when Codex Sinaiticus and . The published in New Testament in thi Greek. like those of Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Ephraemi (C). the Alexandrian literary. This divergent stream broke up into rills.itors. 3. The main representative of the no pure example. and Neutral. The Western text was not merely Western. To these types they gave the names Western.54 INTRODUCTION defect The with the edition of Tregelles is failure to deal on any clear principle with the numerous instances in which the ancient texts on which they placed their reliance do not agree. Alexandrian. before the period of eclectic in which fixed to a great extent the character ot the text actual use throughout the Middle Ages and on to the dawn of modern criticism. The tendency of the one was to alter the primitive tex. The Western and Alexandrian types of text had very well-marked characteristics. they discriminated three in types of text prevalent revision ancient times. by explanatory additions with a view to edification. there is . A text adhering honestly to this programme ought to be the most reliable guide to the original Greek Testament as it proceeded from the hands of the writers. The tendency of the other was to improve the text fro-Q a literary point of view by The neutral text is neutral in the sense of scholarly refinements. The result of investigation has been to justify this expectation. and lost itself as a mere element in mixed texts. It is important to note by the way that these names do not denote local prevalence. avoiding both these tendencies and aiming steadily at the faithful reproduction of the exemplar assumed to approach in its text as near as possible to the autographs. It is ? by the answer which they have given to this question that Westcott and Hort have made an epoch-making contribution to the science of Biblical Criticism in the first volume of Original their monumental work. The Western was paraphrastic. This divergent stream nverfiowed its banks and spread itself widely over the Church. making due allowance for errors in the exemplar and for mistakes in transcription. Western text is Codex Bezae Of the Alexandrian text containing the Gospels and the Acts. (D). divergent paths 2. 1881.

for etc. are disposed to insist that on Codex D . In recent years a certain reaction against the critical results of Westcott and Hort has been manifesting itself to the effect of imputing to them an overweening estimate of Codex B.. in what is called the Curetonian Syriac. The real worth of *his Codex is one of the unsettled questions of New criticism. ETC. I. of both kinds containing the whole or a part of the versions. besides Greek — MSS. affair. belonging like Codex Sinaiticus to the fourth centurj'. but the cursives of later centuries. ix. such as those of J.g. Paul. The fixation of the true text not a simple matter like that of following a single document. honourable monument is Codex Vaticanus (B). the assumption being that when the four-Gospel canon was constructed the text underwent a certain amount of revision. such as Resch in it Germany and Ramsay more value should be in this country. of ancient dates. Egyptian. after applying to it all available tests.. in the early Fathers. A very important conclusion 4. e.. can be sustained. Of the neutral text. and more may be expected. and Catholic epistles. To MS. assign the honour of being on the whole the nearest approach to the original verity in existence. always worthy of respect and often this deserving to be followed when if it it stands alone against all comers. and in the Hence traces of Four Gospels. Section Critical Tests of Readinq*. New Testament. as far as Heb. The evidence when fully its and adduced a formidable demanding much space exhibition . CRITICAL LANDMARKS. ancient quotations is Latin. Testament textual Interesting contributions have been made to the discussion of the question. Syriac. and the epistles of St.THE TEXT. and. Acts. and being. but editors recognise the obligation to take into account all avail- able sources of evidence not merely the great uncial MSS. 14.. but also in the Syriac versions. Rendel Harris. 55 its influence are to be found not merely in the old Latin versions. containing the Gospels. Westcott and Hort. like Codex B. which may be distinguished as the Sinaitic Syriac. analogous to that of Tischendorf for in Codex set fc^. the great. however trustworthy. conspicuous. Some scholars. Every editor may have all his bias in favour of this or that MS. the former finding the principal witness for the text of the Gospels in their precanonical stage. is III. reaching even the East. a nearly pure reproduction of a text uninfluenced by the tendencies of the Western and Alexandrian texts respectively. especially in the recently discovered Syriac version of the Gospels.

but is a highlv^ valuable Codex. Mark Ba. In this will be noticed. and for these combinations some new documents make St. C. besides these. AB. representatives of the different ancient types Western.— 56 — INTRODUCTION (witness Tischendorf s eighth edition in two large octavos). 2. Neutral (D. ancient and non-Western). group L and 33 have hitherto not been referred to. it that this is the '"queen of the cursives". B=. ledge of the critical data through first-hand studies belonLjs to specialists only. B)-. several binary importance. . For it turns out that there are certain groups of witnesses which often go together. represents an ancient text. not to say in his readers. and whose joint testimony is very weighty. 469) with approval the opinion of Eichhorn In the above group. stands for the Greek text of the Graeco-Thcbaic fragments of St. like all cursives. though belonging to the eighth century. this can be done without adducing a very long array of witnesses.are united. though. Dr. When DC combination in and 33 drop out there remains a very trustworthy t^BL. combinations of great following is There for the are. When they agree the presumption that we have the true text is very strong. In such a work as the present the space cannot be afforded nor can the knowledge be Full knowexpected even in the author. and is often in agreement with N and B. In his Prolegomena to Tischendorf s New Testament. BT. BC. and the knowledge of an expert for its appreciation. L (Codex Regius). and to help them to form an intelligent opinion as to the claims of rival readings to represent the true text. N. Alexandrian. Luke and John (centurj' v. They may here be indicated : — For the Gospels the most important and authoritative group is NBCDL 33.. who have made the matter the subject of lifelong But All one can do is to utilise intelligently their results. The : the list given by Westcott and Hort Gospels In BL. Caspar Rene Gregory quotes (p. When D falls out we have still a highly valuable group in t^BCL 33. their appearance. Westcott and Hort have carefully specified these. BD. 33 belongs to the cursive class (which are indicated by figures). labour. B 33. all cannot be specialists it is not profitless to have a because juryman's acquaintance with the relative facts. i-ortunately. of late date. It is the aim of the critical notes placed beneath the Greek text to aid readers to the attainment of such an acquaintance. T St. BZ.

t^c (7th cent. but simply recognising these as the most important MSS. De Camps. but its agreements with B are important. Petropolitanus. gth or loth century (Gospels defective). Oxoniensis et Petropolitanus. K M N P cod. 6th century (fragments of Matthew). cod. To these authorities has to be added. Due note has been taken of the readings of this MS.. The foregoing represent the chief authorities referred to in the In these notes critical notes. gth or loth century (fragments of all the Gospels). meaning thereby no depreciation of the work done by others. 5th century (Matthew and Mark with Uicunae). 6th century (fragments of Luke). . Reference to modern editors has been chiefly restricted to Tischendorf. the revised text A formed by judicious eclectic use of all existing texts. For the Gospels it is of no independent value as a witness to the true text. n <i> cod. edited by Oscar Von Gebhardt of the sixth century. published in 1883. Paris. Seidelii. 6th century (fragments of I. Guelpherbytanus II. comparatively pure. S cod. that is. B^ (10th : cent.. all cod. gth century (contains Matt. the Gospels). Matthew and Mark defectixe). U cod. nearly complete).— THE TEXT. But in have not uniformly indicated my the commentary I have always adopted as I the subject of remark the most probable reading.). Nitriensis.). r cod. palimps. Basiliehsis. G I cod. Monacensis. Mosquensis. viii. a Graeco-Latin MS. 8th century (Gospels nearly entire). and Lk. loth century (four Gospels complete). 57 = is fragments of St. gth century (Luke and John entire). gth century (Gospels nearly complete). A cod. cod. all cod. cod. Oxoniensis Tisch. S ETC. ^^"^ (6th B2 (4th cent. Z cod. and having many ancient readings. CRITICAL LANDMARKS. Petropolitanus Tisch. 5. and Mk. Cyprius. especially in Mark. London. were corrected from time to time. . gth or loth century (Gospels entire). Purpureus. Q R cod. X cod. though showing mixture). A = Codex Sangallensis.). and Westtott and Hort. and often agreeing with the best MSS. 5th and 6th centuries (fragments of Gospels)..). Dublinensis. of the tenth century. the well-known Codex Alexandrinus of the fifth century. LuUe (cent. Corrected copies are referred to by critics by letters or figures: thus. containing Matthew and Mark in full.). gth century (Gospels complete). Nanianus Venetus. personal opinion. Eeratinus. This Codex contains nearly the whole New Testament except Matthew as far as chapter xxv. cod. Besides the above-named documents the following uncials are occasionally referred to in the critical notes E cod. cent. and meant to be the authoritative New Testament. as containing ancient readings. b^» (4th cent. V cod. a chief representative of the " Syrian " text. Guelpherbytanus 6th century (fragments of the Gospels). gth century (Gospels complete). Vaticanus 354. 5th century (fragments from Luke and John). loth century (four Gospels. Codex Purpureus Rossanensis (l).

Schottgen. F. ^59^Commentarii in quatuor Evangelislai (Catholic). 36— method of inter- Chrysoriom's Homilifs on Matthetc. with classical examples. Matthew and Luke Pricaei (Price). . Graece. Archbishop in Bulgaria). Theophylactus (12th century. (erudite and still worth consulting). . . Curae philologicae et critica* in N. 1747- Olearius. T.—— CHAPTER VI. philological. the remainder in a pretation). Evangelia. The Greek text separately edited in three by Dr. De Sermon* Domini in monte. T. Origen's Commentary on Matthew. Palairet (French pastor at London. Polybio. Maldonatus.Reformation period belong in Books x. Annotationes Philologicat in S. Norwm r«/am«t<Mm Bengel. libros. Sacrarum exrrcitationum ad N. but worth consulting). 1644. t 1765)uuros N. Gra^cttm (full of classic citations).. libros (including . 179* choice work). Horae Hebraica^ et Talmudicae in A'. LITERATURE. I75i' I734- Observationes philologico-criticne in 1752. (allegorical Greek (Matt. others are occasionally referred to the notes. Matthaei. Commentarii in quatuor Evangeliitai. C. Arriano et Raphel. Commentarii in varies N.x Evangelistis tribus Annotationes in Novum Testamentum. libri xx. 2. LiGHTFOOT. I7*3174'1733- Wetstein. Five vols. Wolf. Annotationes in N. T. T. To the pre. Commentarii «n Harmonian. T. 1665. Commentariui in Matthtuum (a hasty performance:. . Grotius. From the sixtecntn century downwards . good). xiii. Heinsius. Calvin. Herodoto. Commentarius (a in quatuor Latin*.tx Xenofhonte . Gratce tt 12th century). T.-xvii. 1660. 1644Horae Hebraica* it Talmudicae. The following list of works includes only those in chiefly consulted Many 1. Ed. T. vols. Jerome's Augustine. Field (well worth perusal). Gnomon Novi Testamenti (unique). 33). comfoiitam. EuTHYMius ZiGABENUS (Greek monk. Observationes sacrat ad Evangelium Matthaei. ^SS^Beza. Latin translation xxii.

Commentary on the New Testament. the notes in the other two Gospels being at these points supplementary and comparative. Observationes sacrae in N. largely Weiss). 1881. It is references to passages of Scripture are simply sapplementary to hoped that most abbreviations used the following table may be helpful : will need no special explanation. and Luke. T. 1894). HoLTZMANN. Luke. 1890-92. Four vols. Meyer. 1862. z849-6i. and Buttman. 1892-94. Commentar uber das Evangelium des heiligen Marcus. e Philone Alexandrino (of the same class as Raphel). Sixth edition (T. Bernhard Weiss (Matthew and Mark. & T. Evangelium Matthaei recensuit. Commentar iiber das Evangelium des heiligen Matthdus. Essui d" Interpretation de quelques parties de VEvangile selon Saint Matthieu. 1807. libros (the three last named. Fritzsche. Clark). Fritzsche. Alford. T. De Wette. also largely 1892. Mark. Two vols. Bleek. 1876. Cremer. 3»e edition. Die Synoptiker in Hand-Cjnmentar xum Neuen Testament (advanced but valuable). 1826. In the notes. Das Evangelium des Lucas. ScHANZ. the editor's work). have been consulted. Meyer. both because of its excellence and its accessibility to students. Evangelium Marci recensuit (both philological). KuiNOEL. valuable for patristic references). ScHANZ. The Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges . Weiss. LuTTEROTH. GoDET. are good in all respects. a Catholic theol'^ian. T. ScHANZ. 1879. Matthew. 1830. 1755. historicos. specially 1883. Observationes ad N. Elsner. A new edition of Winer's Grammatik (the eighth) by Schmiedel is in course of publication also of Kiihner by Blass. lexical and grammatical helps. Winer. abound in classic examples). Meyer. problem). Das Marcusevangelium und seine synoptischen Parallelen (a contribution to comparative exegesis in the interest of his critical views on the synoptical 1872. Field. 1836-48. 1864-76. like Pricaeus. Frequent reference has been made to Burton's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament (T. the matter common to the three Gospels is most folly treated in Matthew. 1891-93. Weiss. 1830. Eighth edition by Dr. BoRNEMANN. turn N. Commentarius in libros N. but . Synoptische Erkldrung der drei ersten Evangelien. 1777. Commentar Uber das Evangelium des heiligen Lucas (these three commentaries by Schanz. J. The Greek Testament. 1864. Observationes sacrae in N. Hahn. The well-known The marginal those in the notes. 1767LoESNER. Otium Norvicense. Clark. & T. T.— LITERATURE 59 KypKE. Kurxgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch . T. including Grimm. libros. 1892. . Commentaire sur VEvangile de Saint Luc. SchoUae in Lucae Evangelium. 1888-89. Eighth edition by Weiss (son of Bernhard Weiss . Das Matthausevangelium und seine Lucas-parallelen (a work of similar character).

Syriac versions. Vetus Latina (Old Latin. V. the old Latin are distinguished by c. etc.'ypt. Latin versions. Sin. Syriac. R. = = = Matthew. H. H. = Tisch. = W. referred to also as It. . Lat. Vet. Sept. Syrr. B Vulgate (Jerome's revision of old Latin version). A. Latt. b. INTRODUCTION Mk. Minusc.6o Mt. = = = W. = Ej. = Old Testament = New Testament. = Treg.) Syr. =s Muiusculi (Codices). Luke. Syr. Vulg.. = Septuagint. Coptic (called Memphitic by W. Weiss (Dr. New Testament Tischendorf. = Cop. = Ws. T. N. Revised Version. T. Cur. T. V. O. Westcott and Hort.). Cambridge Tregelles. Egyptian versions (vim. The codices of the letters a. Sahidic (called Thebaic by Pesh. Bcrnhard).). anothci name lor cuisivet. = = Authorised Version. C. Mark. the two following). =• Itala). N. H. = ™ = = Curetoman (For Greek equivalent viVf« Bacth gen's EvangtUenfragmtnte. = Sah. Peshito ( = Syrian Vulgate). Sinaitic Syriac (recently discovered). Lk.

variations in spelling occurring in the genealogy. b ver. {Vide Fritzsche against this the older view. Od. EYArrEAlON. (as above) expanded forms occur.. zxzi. i. 9. p. fipTjS (ver. The Jews set much store by genealogies. ^^- '"• i8. n. Tryp. Llci. Kara is Chapter I. ' The title in T. 33.H. xxi. (ver. ion Lectures.. 5) = in IwPtjS. and to Jewish Christians the Messiahship of Jesus depended on its being proved that He was a descendant of A David. 9.« "ioC toi' » ^*j. between the question of fact and the question of faith.i XpitTTOu.H. But the matter can hardly be may distinguish so vital as that. it came very naturally to denote the books in which the Gospel of Jesus was presented in historic form. dry list of names ! It is the tribute which the Gospel pays to the spirit of Judaism. iii. supported by Kuinoel. is late. Other " Aa^iS is found only in minusc. Greek authors (Hom. Finally. 1893. ideals. xviii. in reference to the good news of God. .R. This sense pervades the N. T. 4. ev22. 15. 'APpadp. while suggesting the third. In the titles of the Gospels the word retains its second sense. This is one of several among which may be named Poof = Po€S in W. realising the ideal of the hero king.H. The in the word passed through three stages history of its use.. Vide Sanday. 53. It may be that Jesus We was really descended firom David —many not = of. lo. The genealogy may — things point that way . in the older . Paul was not an apostle in the legitimist sense. ^B have ^B simply Kora MaOOaiov. The use of the word ev- tLyyiXiov in the sense of a book may be as old as the Teaching of the twelve Apostles (Didache. why not Messiah under the same conditions ? He might still be a son of David in the sense in which John the Baptist was Elijah in spirit and power. cvayy* KaTa M. Bampi). 8. Eq. W. 42. why not also the king ? The two hang together. • 'BIBAOI 2. The Genealogy and Birth of Jesus. in Sept. 'laaaK 8e cyeVkirjae i. zzxii. not one of the men who had been with Jesus yet he was a very real apostle. Dial. . but even if He were not He might still be the Christ. 100. 656). 317. nor Kara MaT0aiov = MaT6aiov.& csii. The kingdom of prophecy came only in a spiritual sense. 15) = Maeftav. con. names in the three first Gospels vide p. 66. 13 . The Title.°- A'-^*- 'A|3pad|x. xxii. .TO KATA MAT©AION AnON I. 5) have AavciS. Apol. W. in later Greek. iv. Jas. the fulfiller of O. 14. 166). ayycXia occurs in the earliest sense). For a list of such variations the spelling of Maxeov (ver. though aYcvcaX^yriTos . *he message of salvation. 23. iy€vvr)(T€ rov 'laadK Geo. if He possessed the proper spiritual qualifications.) M. means the good news as reduced to writing by readily appear to us a most ungenial beginning of the Gospel. — . In 2 Sam. Next. as in the Didache and in Justin M. What although the Christ were not David's son in the physical sense ? He was a priest after the order of Melchisedec. 20. as if the sense were: The book called a " Gospel " written by Matthew. 11. |. the bringer-in of the highest good. First. *yivi<Te(o<i 'IHIOY 'oioo Aa|3t8. a reward for bringing good tidings also a thank-offering for good tidings brought (Arist. T. the good tidings itself (2 Sam. 25. 152.

is taken to mean a book on the life of Cknst (liber de vita Christi. What think ye of the whose son is He ? " (Matt.X.) have defended the view on the ground that the corresponding title in O.Apostolic In the body of the evangelistic hisage.'^' is given. con8t"in ia. like St. 6b-ii) Christ. xii. " Christ. 1-17. i. that. David (w. . no further back. i the introductory parts. Of David first. Zig. . not vict not Christ because from David. and in this case one would say. " Who is : my mother ? " (Matt.) denotes not merely a genealogical list. Beza. but added to say by the way that Hf who belonged to the tribe of Judah belonged also to all the tribes of Israel.) . The evangelist is on the outlook for the unusual or preternatural in history as prelude to the crowning marvel of the virgin birth (Gradus futurus ad credendum partum e virgine. vlov A. into : three parts . This is not necessary to the genealogical line. Paul. xxii. Ver. Mk.^ . Matthausevang. or only i. then are ye Abraham's seed". ptpXot 'Y**''*''**** k. So might we say : If Jesus was fit to be the Christ in point of spiritual equipment. vi. (Gen. He would argue from the spiritual to the genealogical. xxxviii.). in accordance %vith the usa^e of the . Zerah added T^y apjf K«l rhv Zapd to Perez the continuator of the line. i forms the superscription of the following genealogy. is the first of four references to mothers . Ik rrf% 6dfiap. Vv. then was He of There is no clear the seed of David.. Kal TOk 3- 'looSas Se iyiyvT\(n r6v '^'^ apes • Zapa ^ Ik rf\% edpap • ly *' ^°^P^i S< ^Y^*'*^*'^* 'Eapwfi 'Ecrpw^ 8c iyivyy]at tov 'Apdfk. On closer inspection it turns out to be not so dry as it at first appeared. but a history of the persons whose Thus the expression geneaiof. only in tory the word is not thus used {Vide Mk.g. Zigab.: — 62 'laKu^.. ) . who argued: the birth of the God-man was the important point. 2-6«) from David to the capfrom the captivity to tivity (w. 27-30). {av6 tov Y^wpi^wrtpov ^aXXev &p(d)ii«vof. 29) " If ye be Christ's. Mention ol the Grot. (Weiss. etc. iii. of Abraham also. (Ebrard. (Non est haec inscriptio totius libri. and Grotius that the expression . because Christ on oih-r higher grounds. T. To note these is the chief interest of nonRabbinical exegesis. i runs on as if continuing the same story. 1-17 ? The first these views have been held. and the other. 13-26).t. much does this heading cover the whole Gospel. Keil. iirX rhv iraXaiorcpov The word vlov in both cases ArriXetv. the two first chapters. . Paul writes (Gal. the question. though not descended from David. because the Gospel is Euthy. : but from David. evidence in the Gospels that Jesus Himself set value on Davidic descent. suggesting the idea that it is the work not ol a dry-as-dust Jewish genealogist. rcmmding of a hardly It readable story (Gen. 27. as many take it.) 'Irjo-otJ Xpicrrov. How Ver. if the skeleton was given to his hand. xxxviii. the whole All of the first chapter. iS a new beginning is made. there arc some things that seem to point the other way e. vend tplov A. KATA MATOAION 'laxu^ hi lyiyyr\(Te rhv 'louSaw Kal tous dBcX4>ou9 auToG. as a great prophet and a renowned king. Christ here is not an appellative but a proper name.).. but tte. It can refer grammatic-lly to David. David is placed first suggests that because he was the better known. Against the second view and the third Weiss-Meyer remarks that at i. . Vv.. St. I. iii. ft far. etc. There is reason to believe 42. 33). . 17. primd facie. at least ideally. a-i6. to suggest that it was by a special providence that the latter was first born (Gen. The genealogy divides from Abraham to : . 3. because with his name was associated the more specific promise of a Messianic king. but of the evangelist or at least worked over by him in a Christian spirit. So Weiss- Meyer. . icai Tovf dSfX(|>ovt avrov. sed particulae primae quae velut extra corpus historiae prominet. Maldon. So might Jesus be a Christ.). : Grotius. There are touches here and there which import into it an ethical significance. . mother wholly unnecessary and unusual from a genealogical point of view.applies only to i. impolitic. 2-6a. The most probable and most generally accepted opinion is that of Calvin. by Euthy. other reference is demanded by the fact that ver. 9 xi. while ii. and involved all the rest therefore the title covers the whole history named from the most important part (kirh t«v Some moderns irvpiwr/pov uipovt). as the less remote. written for the jews. John i.) applies to Christ. because he was the patriarch of the race and first recipient The genealogy goes of the promise.

'leaaal Se iyivvr](Te toj' ^ Aa^lS ^ ^atriXea. indeed. Aa^lS Se • 6 jSaaiXeus iyivvii\cre toi' loXofxurra • ck rfjs ToG Oupiou Tot' 7. Ahaz and Manasseh. iK above. At length we arrive at the great royal name! The materials for the first piirt of the genealogy are taken from Ruth iv. manipulation with a presentable excuse. • 5. In effect. e. concerning one might have expected the genealogy to observe discreet silence: Tamar. 11. ZaXjJiwi' 8e iy€vvif]<r€ Tov Boot. Schanz follows the Fathers. except that he thinks they have over-emphasised the sinful element. ancestry of Jesus. but He giveth grace to the lowly. even though he might find means of doing so in the Jewish habit of glorying over the misdeeds of ancestors (Wetstein). T^v Aa^lS rhv ^aaiX^a. He finds in the mention of the four women a hint of God's grace in Christ tioni occurreretur. CK TT]S 'Paxcip BooJ Sc • i. This view comitself to mends many interpreters both Catholic and Protestant. It is not to be supposed that the evangelist was at — : »11 in the line concerned to make sure that no link was omitted. Ahaziah. Others prefer to bring the four cases under the category of the extraordinary exemplified by the case of Perez and Zerah.y4y»ri](Tt tw 'fl^YjS 6K rfjs 'Pou9 • 'QPt|8 Se iyiyvi](r€ rbv MecrCTai t6»' 6. 5-15Ttjs Tov Ovpiov. ZoXop.) thinks that the introduction of Tamar and Ruth is sufiiciently explained by Ruth iv.wi' 8e €yiyvr\ar€ rbv 'PoPodji • 'PoPodp. 12. the title being added to distinguish him from the rest. 6b-io. Much more probable is the opinion of the Fathers. ZoXo(xuva in BCL and most uncials. vide chief feature in this second division of the genealogical table is the omission of three kings between Joram and Uzziah (ver. in what view ? Jerome favoured the second alternative. 'Apap. viewed as Messianic. Why -je they mentioned ? in whom By way of defence against sinister misconstruction of ihe birth of Jesus ? So Wetstein : because she was the mother of a second culminating in Christ. as Ruth of a first culminating in David. One can. and a desire to brand the kings passed over with the stamp of theocratic illegality. and of Bathsheba sions. were as great offenders as any. ii. Joash.g. • EYAfTEAlON * 63 Se ^y^*'^^*''^ '^^*' 4. His one concern . 'O^ias 8e iyivvi\ae Tof *l(i>(i6afi • 8e iyivvT\<T€ Tov'^'Axa^ * • "A^a^ 8e cy^KJOjae t6k 'E^cKiai> 10. 18-22. as it were the Gospel in the genealogy. 8). Amaziah. It serves the same purpose as if David had been written in line — Ut tacitae Judaeorum objec- Doubtless there is a mental reference to that birth under some aspect. o ^ao-iXcvs omitted in J^B.. How is the omission to be explained ? By inadvertence. These women all became mothers in the line of Christ's ancestry by special providence (Weiss-Meyer). 17) in the second part of the genealogy. and i Chron. Rahab. 'Aad 8e • cyevKKjae toi' 'lwaa<|>aT 8e eyivvt\<Te tok 'Ot. Most modern * So the in A. viz. But the excuse would justify other omis- Vv. and one.. Sc iy€vyT\a€ rov 'AfiifaSa^ 'AfJiifaSa^ Haavaiav Naacauf Be iyivvr\(T€ TOf ZaXfAwf. three of them sinful women. The hypothesis of manipulation in the interest of symbolic numbers can stand on its own basis without any pretext. Doubtless this is at least part of the moral. and if the latter. large letters. and even the low. *E^eKia$ editors omit. imagine the evangelist desiring to exemplify the severity of the Gospel as well as its grace in the construction of the list to say in effect God resisteth the proud. found in C*-. who found in these names a foreshadowing of the gracious character of the Gospel of Jesus.3 — lo. Tamar ind Ruth the other. a foreigner. David the King. and suggested two reasons for the intentional omission a wish to bring out the number fourteen (ver. Ruth. Bathsheba. Nicholson {New Comm. 6a. The — to the sinful and miserable: Rahab and Bathsheba representing the one. Ver. but it is not likely that the evangelist would condescend to apologise before the bar of unbelief. who. Ruth. or by intention. 8e cycV I'Tjac 'A^idi 'A3ia 8e eyeVnrjae tok 'Aad 'l«aa<^dT 8e ey^cnrjo'c Toi' • 8. of Rahab by her connection with the earlier Jesus (Joshua).iav • 'lupdfi • 'lupd^ 'loidida^ 9.

The hypothesis of inadvertence or error in consulting the text by some O. — . § 30. 15).. while the words of ver. His " brethren " are his uncles. The omission of Eliakim (or Jehoiakim) serves the subordinate purpose of keeping the second division of the genealogy within the number fourteen. 1 1 seem to imply that the descendant of Josiah referred to was associated with his brethren in exile. 'Icyo'''***' "<*' Kings xxiv. hi^v i^vitv). in story of the bush occurs.. He can hardly have imagined that his list was complete from beginning to end. but he must have The known tliai the actual succession em- braced more links than four {vide Schanz on ver. Cf. There is an omission here also Eliakim. It must be Jeconiah (Jehoiakin). yet between Hezron and him only two tribe of names occur — four names for 400 years. Zopo^d^eX oiki^m) tn Acu vii. 7). ilisring. 2 a. iv.— '. the omission of tiie three kings included. 14).so in the sojourn " Jeconiah and his brethren. Royalty in the dust. dSeXAous auxoG. Jehocakim. Matt. Alio in J Mat'aaaris 8e iytvvi\tT€ rbv 'Afiuf • AfxwK cveVmac TOf 'iwaiaK ' ' - II. and Mk. No certainty. 11 in the Sept. verb Sj yf|^ ftcToiKCCTiaf Ba^uXufos. the eye leapt from 'OxoCiat to 'Okia^i and so led to omission of it and the two following names.i6. become listless (Ivo jitj avaTrt(rT)T«. sible th. and cf. Ba^vXwvot genitive. : 64 t KATA MATeAlON g^ iyivvr](Te TOf Mak'aaffri Rj • agam ver." partakers in the promise lal. Who is to represent it in the line of succession ? Not Jehoiakim. i. iirl 'A^id6ap. : — — . he leaves ihis one unsolved on the plea that he must not explain everything to his he.tine <>I. 12-15. I Toiis V. must have stood in the copy used by the constructor of the genealogy. As a curiosity in the history of exegesis may be mentioned Chrysostom's mode of dealing with this point. Horn Schanz praises the prudence of iv. his son "vt the second remove. whereby the expression : Tovf aSfX^ovf avTov would retain its natural sense. " at the. on this Frit/sche. the second of four sons ascribed to Josiah in the genealogist's source (i Chron. With his name that doleful time comes into the mind of the genealogist. who was among the captives (2 Kings xxiv." late Greek for fifToiKiaor yitToltn\(r\. rhv 'Icxoviav. . and brethren also at representatives of a calamitous time (vide V\'eiss. II. his grandfather brethren in blood.Meyer). . is conjectural. A86v OaXdo-crrif." the time l>eing of some length the process of deportation wi-nt nn for years. Josiah brings ustothc brink of the period of exile. xii. genealogist may have had this passage in view. indeed. while the two names second allusion to brother" Judah and his brethren. 17. There is a pathos in Judah at the Exodus (Num. is not to be summarily negatived on the ground of an It is posa priori theory of merrancy. in accordance with Genesis xv. Having propounded several problems regarding the genealogy. McToiKco-iat literally change of abode. 43.%. p. 4. . not 'O^iaSf i" the reading m Sept. ii. pressed by the difficulty.) The explanation.irers lest thev hood. Ver. _ 'iwaias Se cveVrnae TOf . _. 4) was the head of the are perhaps similar enough to be mistaken for each other. x. *lc*<rias ly€v. centurj'. But. the sly Greek orator. however.. iii. ('Atop^at. It was noted and made a ground of reproach to Christians by Porphyry. Thus N ahshon (ver. 26 for a similar use of lirl in reference to place: iiri Tov Parov at the place where the Mtra t... T. Mctq iyivvr\at rbv laXaoii^X Se CYtV»'T]a€ (>i«_T- JaXafli^X 8« iy{vvr]ae tok Zopo^d^eX 1 3. imi 15. ^ €iri rns Chron. as some have supposed. Azariah's original name. it is against tho hypothesis as a solution of the difficulty that Jehoiakim did not share in the captivity (2 Kings xxiv. p. deportation. 6). The words Jvl Tiis (MToiKfO'iaf Ba^vXuvot probably supply the key to the solution. Each name or generation represents a 13-16. 26. sons of Josiah. under the high priesthood of .Abiathar.^ lexoKias * I2. but not without hope. favoured of the modern commentators. 4). expressing the terminus ad quftn {vide Winer. for though the deportation began in his reign he was not himself a captive. ver. "carrying away. Mk. iil. T. would be to make sure that no name appeared that did not belong to the line. proposed to substitute for Jeconiah. * urroiKeatas BaSuXwi'os. Vv. but Weiss assumes that the latter. 12 means nflcr not during..it in reading i Chron. son of Josiah and father of Jeconiah. misled by taking ^€toiI 'idc Kf «ria .). Maldonatus.iinable on the matter. is att." in Egypt) the generation of the promise eclipsed.is denoting the state of exile. '" ^^^ '-""^^ division the this .

where the children of Zerubbabel are given. What creates perplexity is that Joseph. but it is not indicated by the.yei^vynr^ tov 'EXiaKeijx 'EXiaKelfx • Be iye. ^ fjs iy(vvy\Qi] 'I. have been diligent in the matter. It is then genealogy ends with jfoseph. nSaai ouv al ycfcal dTro 'Appad|i e«s Aa|3i8. may be taken as representing the concluding term of series 2. i. . vix. but The royal Abiud is not among them. It does not family sank into obscurity. that is not enough to satisfy the presupposition of the whole N. . The evangelist pauses to point out the structure of his genealogy. three parts with fourteen members each . H same e^presbion in 17. There they arc. . symmetrical. Rom. ye^cai SeKax^a- 22 aapes * Kai diro Aa^lS lots ttj$ p. EYAITEAION • 6i • Toc 'APiou'8 'APiouS • Se (. tlie brethren of Jeconiah. and Jeconiahi himself as the first member of seri^^s j. memorable irdorai. fourteen in each. apologetic or dogmatic considerations. After Zerubbabel no name occurs in might have expected the O. if not guaranteed as infallibly accurate by its insertion.. can only have been the legal father of Jesus.vvy]Ge evev'i'Tjo-e Tor 'Al^up TOf 'Ax^ifA 1 4. r4.e. not Mary's. If objection be taken to counting David twice. follow that no pains were taken to preThe priests may serve their genealogy. In would be a motive to carefulness. is not represented cords . The identical number . heading second series. 'laKw^ . genealogical table escapes our control. 17. 3) . begat Jesus. therefore the genealogy rnnst be that of Mary (Nosgen). that Jesus was the s Ver. and prepares for the following explanation 6 XeY<i|uvos Xpicrrds not implying doubt. T. So~ Bengel and De Wette. from the to Josiah. as the father of Jesus. Xpio-ros. any case we must suppose the author of the genealogy before us to give here what He did not construct an he found. undoubtedly. 14 captivity represented by Jeconiah to Christ. He speaks simply of what lies under the eye. included as final term. f r6y ai'Spa Maptas. at His birth. that is. though some suppose that there was originally. And the list. tJ>v 'l«op'fi<j>: the Ver. was betrothed Mary the Virto gin. . and re- may have been preserved in the The Messianic hope temple (Schanz). his uncles. There is no iyivv^a•t in this case. The division naturally suggested by the words of tho text is: firom Abraham to David. EXiouS 8e iytvint]cre roe 'EXed^ap 'EXedJap • St eye'ci/rjae tok MaT0dc • MarOac 8e iyivvy\<Te tok 'laKu^ 16. as Meyer and Weiss think. who regarded Jesus as the Son of Joseph (Holtzmann in H. iii.naitic Syriac Codex has " Joseph.ETOiKC(rias BajSuXuvos. yei'eal ("Jesus called the Christ"). We to find Abiud in i Chron.. ^S iycyvr\Qr] ''It|o-ous 6 Xcyoixcfo." but it does not alter the story otherwise to correspond with Therefore Joseph Joseph's paternity. no one would ever have thought of doubting this. is to set forth Jesus as the legitimate son of Joseph. as the genealogy came from the hand of some Jewish Christian. This was the patristic view. imaginary list. to the captivity as limit. (Weiss-Meyer). so that the genealogy was common to both. as the genealogy showed Hin : . C). 17. 19. The S'. laKwjS Se eyeVnrjo-e rbv '\(Dcrf\i^. this genealogy included. This conclusion can be reconciled with the other alternative by the assumption that Mary was of the same tribe and family as Joseph. 16. 'Al^wp 8e iy4vvi](Te rot' ZaSuK • ZaSuK Be * Axcif* Se iyivvr]<j€ toc 'EXiooS • 15. whom But. does not imply. But for presumably his.— II — ly. and therefore the proper heir of David's throne. Mary's husband. i. T. to be. that in the opinion of the evangelist no links are omitted. evangelist. and has given rise to great divergence of opinion.. xxvii. but suggesting that the claim of Jesus to the title Christ was valid if He were a legitimate descendant of David. termi nating first series. 14 from David. The fact may have been so. But the counting turns out not tobe so easy. actual son of David (Kara trdpKa.. Amid the gloom of the night of legjism which broods over all things belonging to the period. while called the husband (tov dvSpa) of Mary. His aim. it is argued. The peculiar manner of expression is a hint that something out of the usual course had happened. it is a comfort to think that the Messiahship of Jesus does not depend on the absolute accuracy of the genealogical tree. was such as might reasonably be expected to satisfy Hebrew readers. count and satisfy yourself.

ver. read ytvta-^t .'ether in one home as man and' wife. f) TpW is though often xiv. expression points at once to immediate divine causality. .). OiKaio. 30.. theocracy. X. but the evangelist would not think it necessary to state that no such intercourse had taken place That he would between the betrothed. a^o^ indicate the position of Mary in rel.a"Ti\% ^vff-iv fccaivorrf T^ Kara 6voua ttjs ytwr^a-- tm%.%. . (So Olearius. and therefore heir of Dav id's throne. auTTJs. conceived Josepn and Mary to be living together before marriage. V. Rom. the three parts is of no importance in It is a nmuerical symbol uniting three periods. there is no satisfactory evidence. aa Ev. X. For other instances ot U. vivvi|<ri$ is doubtless a coriection of the »cribe to bring the text into conformity with tytvvr\v* in the genealogy.. vidt Hermann ed. anu suggesting comparison in other respects. e. in J^CL..%. in middle Attic. Ver. o-wtX9«Cv might refer to sexual intercourse.) It was apparent (de Wette) surprise. e&vV|p: proleptic. coiiesponds to the verb vapoXaPdv. on ver. not yivrf\v*. which means to take home. : On . and to the holy character of the effect a solemn protest against profane thoughts. is the true reading. .-< '' . however. monpriests archy. the construction oi vplv with the various moods. so fax as the meaning of the word is concerned (yosi-f'h. I'j. Jerome says: "Non ab alio inventa est nisi a Joseph. Devanus. and the recurrence of the ^enealo). Jomum ductrt.' dv^aX«aw. implying possession of a husb. 5). . the purpose being to express the general idea of origin. cxouaa ^k . Y«»'*«i S«KaT<'aaap<s. 7. Vv. a.24. all The occasion for sinister conjecture.judges. 18-25. 66 C Lk b Lk 1 i KAIA MAIWAION n «\il 1 Kf Kar/<Tffopcf • nai . Of this.) remarks that B has a preference for " Christ Jesus ". . point back to ver.ind's rights and responsibilities. with infinitive. be cal'ed th* justi/ication of the (Schani). ii inverts the order of the names (X. as to different forms of government . vii. not the specific idea of .). ver. a .). The sense above assigned to o-vvtX. ortm. ^ eop^firi ^ tV vaarpl . as quickly as possible. decline. The supposed reason for the : ^ It fft ^«vvt. To whom apraicnt not indicated. 18. (iv»)«-T«v0«(«-n« . icai fir] 8Auk auri]'' ' I. liuthy. «^. to add this explanation of a painful fact to remove. vide Mk. . Yet most regard as a matter of course. . word gcner. Zig. Mt. 20.v avT^jv Zic. VTrpli' t| * tti^lorTCu- 19 9ci(r(]9 ^' ^ fA'^Tpos ' auToG Mapi'as ri Iwcd]^. The position of the name Tov 84 I.. and Goodwin's Svntax.»o. or as to Israel's fortunes: redemption \ugrowth.g. uv. This was not apparent it belonged to the The evangelist hastens region of faith. 19. and other older interThere was a discovery and a preters.ition |iT)0'« {h twxy^t\\. but siut concubitu. i TOY Y^^P * . . RpVy i\ awtXO«tv means before married. ^ iv. BaPuX'oi'o? ?'••< tol 8. I. Kuthy. (irammarians (vtde l-'iitzscha) say that practice allege 1 Bost <in not found in ancient Attic. .. 'iwo-f)^ Sc 6 i^p . Antiq. 1 y^vhtis. . qui pene licentia maritali futurae uxoris omnia noverat ". 34> Acts 75- vii. at the head of the sentence. \'er. * The best old MSS.ition to Jo. f^ i8. 16) leads us to expect.seph when her pregnancy was disBricfl\ it wa«: -betrothed. etc. yiy*v\. Weiss (Meyer. Vigcr. thcv came toj. may 10 have existed by Chryand others was the protection of the betrothed (81. 1 '^HK Birth op Jssus.'lace before marriage. : .. 8id.iKirv. * yap omitted in ^BC. Slh ed. < Mk. believing this to have been the usual practice. 4 auTOus. all summed up in Christ. without 1\. KaX^<ra^. S« Inaou ' Xpiarou n . Icings. Cor in XoioTOu. \n Itself. n^eouaros 'Avioo. 9. iCp^Gr) fvowa «vp<0T). vi. Mut.i. not covered. irapiXafi*. that Jesus might justly be rc^au'cd as the legitimate son of Joseph. showing that while the birth was exceptional in nature it yet took place in such circumstances. Chrysosiom. rh Airpo<r8<$K'r|TOV (Kuthy. etc. hierarchy (Schanz).) yivtvi. not ^v. ouicKOcu 19 Trapa- j Ml. XX 90. diro ttj? ^(ToiKcaias .ay. Obierv. Eutby.^ (ver. ruin gently needed. The sense is clearei without it. v/i'nfiais ' oiJtws again xxiv. . The betrothed man had S<i-y»ioa duty in the matter— 8Ucaie« >^vi._ Lk. it being implied that that would not lake . XX. I. This section gives the explanation which of the fathers so understood the word and ''<me. Klotz cd.

ii. —the Greek conVide Lobeck Phryn. . 31 2 Xa0p<j in ^ B and ^' have W. cv6v|XT|8evTOs : the genitive absolute indicates the time of the vision. Affection chose the latter. he and no other. : : mind — ydp . |i. to be signalised by His name Jesus Jehovah the helper. 24. Mapiap. . as thy wife. Sept. The i.t| he is summoned to a supreme act of faith similar to those performed by the moral heroes of the Bible. Vv. xxii. and suggests a contrast between two ways of performing the act Note the pointed at by diroXvcrai. 24. The choice lies between two extremes most unholy. Ti = aliauid secum reputare.H.. Aa^fS the angel addresses Joseph take S^Kaios in the sense of as son of David to awaken the heroic benignitas.— r^v yw&iKd <rotj to take Mary. so in ver. during a (late Meyer). 423. righteous. ^7 20. the birth of Isaac and that of Jesus being thereby placed side by side as similar in their preternatural character. : He was in a strait betwixt two. R. resolute action. after genitive absolute . think of the child about to be born as destined to a great career. "'loj(n^<J>. 27). § 417. brooding anxious thought. implying a spiritual conception of Israel's need. a respecter of the law. Gen. ii. The alternatives were exposure by public repudiation. the accusative. yoseph delivered from his perplexity by angelic interposition. SciypiTCo-ai does not point. Cease from — — . Being S^Kaios. — Kar' 6vop demn©^ by Phrynichus. aiirbs emphatic. • ayY^Xos Kupiou " Kar jxrj ok'ap i^dvT] auTw. 21. KaXeorcic: a command in form of a prediction. 31. as if it had been mood. sche. probably comes from the in the best history of Christ's birth in * Luke The article rev before Kvpiou is omitted MSS. ' 3. auToo \iy(ov. Toora 8c "^ Sei/fiaTiVat. . he desired to deal with her as tenderly as possible: not wishing to expose her (avrf|v in an emphatic posirlcrttx. Fritz- vios : ayaGds. Kiihner. Xya TrXi]pw0g to '' pr\Qiv utto tou * Kupiou 8td iii. ircpC Tivos = Cogitare de re. The style is an echo of O. u. of which Maiy was the ravra . BL (W. ig. subject.H.* cPouX^Ot) ^v. to judicial procedure with its penalty. he could not overlook the apparent fault on the other hand. or quiet cancelling of the bond of betrothal. But there is encouragement as well as command in this future. —— » — 22. d|xapTi«av avrmv interpretation 01 : the name. the latter a deliberate decision between maluit {vide on chapter different courses xi. who by faith made their lives sublime. dream reflecting present distractions. dyCov negativing the other alternative by which he was tormented. without preposition. 9. of the T. i8ou. loving the woman. ravra. "• '9- '3.32.. not the genitive with irept Iv9. vivid introduction of the angelic appearance (Weiss tion before 8eiy|iaT((rai Weiss-Meyer)." n again ver. etc. What a crisis ! —ver. distressing. dp. 21.apTio>>' auTwi'. ^jOpTjG-rjs ° irapaXaPcii/ Mapidp. It is meant to help Joseph out of his doubts into a mood of heroic. sins.. much painful. avr^s — . synonyms 04Xuv and cPovXt)6t].apT. as some have thought. TooTO 8c oXoi' yeyoi'ei'.) boniias or flict. ^"^ '*:4" yu^aiKa aoo to ydp iv auri] y^''*^^^'' tK ° rifeufAaTOS earif '^'^f'P- 'Avioo. 15. The title confirms the view that loved one. and the verb the state of How Ttlerai 'Itjo-ovv: Mary is about to bear a son. text). Relief came at last in a dream. 31. Tc'^erai Se uiof. the classic equivalent). He finally resolved on the expedient of putting her away privately. just. 20-21. T.— lb — £YArrEAION XdOpa^ " diroXuaai avrrfv. so eliminating the element of con- — ePovXT)6i] . Mapiav in the simple verb (SeiyfiaTKrai). emphatic. still part of the angelic speech. 8vap. avTir|v. death XdOpa before diroXvorai is by stoning. 151 auTos ydp tok Xadf auToO Atto twi' du. or the holithe «j>oPti8t]s : — : : . and He is to bear the significant name of Jesus. story.— ISov often in Mt. xvii. rb . . TT)i' ' evQvfii]BivTo^. . genealogy is that of Joseph. €v6. Kal acjcrci KaXeVeis to ocoua aurou '\r\aoOv 22. : est possible. Some (Grotius.. . pchap. p. . distracting thought he had about the matter day and night can be imagined. revolving the matter in thought without clear perception of outlet. ^ ' V*" * " ulos Aa^iS. The former denotes inclination in general.

the Theophy. there is an answering subjective psychological state. <I>? 24. Instead of the words tov vutv a\m\t tov yrp<aToroKov. writers. : that remarkable dream. is substituted for Xf|4'«Tat. j4. sui-puscd to be present to the eye of ihc I'rophct. 7.Meyer concurs. as of all N. ri'-ing up KupCov from /yspddt the sleep (tov <Hrvo«i. .atin The expanded MSS. Euthymius asks Why did he so easily trust the dream in so great a matter ? and answers because the angel revealed to htm the thought of his own heart. * T)u propkftie rtftrmct. perhaps sole business of that day. means the prophecy to form part of the angelic utterance.eOcpfiTjveuofi. 19. have sinip'v vu)v.. is the young woman of . 14. Joiffh ktiitaUi no more: immediate energetic action Lakes the place of painful doubt. 25. as here quoted. in this case. now found to be with child. '\u>crr\<^ M«8' T^fiwf Seos. oracles had exclusive reference to the events in the life of Jesus by which they were fulfilled. used instead of the com- pound of T. to regard the<. . while admitting that in expression they In support reveal the evangelists style. one was that in his family experience as a " son of David. R. in which he had . . 24-25.crai'. T. iq trapO^KOS iv yaaxpl c|«i Efifiak'ooiiX. 41 i. W. Auyepdeis auT<I> ^ John • 4. the Egyptian versions and Syr. . the simple verb cyipOnt in the best texts al. in o omitted in i«jZA bracketed in ov is omitted in U and bracketed W. . and then quote the prophetic oracle ? Finally. Why should not Mary be that virgin. etc. we must conclude that among the thoughts that were passing through Vv. and In favour of it llso her child that son ? ii the consideration that on the opposite view the prophetic reference comes in too soon. Kupioo auTT)»'.. The virgin.— 68 q la.H. ^ I. and indeed al. TovTo 8i Iva IS to be taken here. is doubtless imported iiom Lk. it ways in such connections. it might be urged that the sugthe gestion of the prophetic oracle t mind of Joseph would be an aid to faith. but as a comment of narrator. 'Eii|*avov^X in the oracle 'ISoi . adopt the former view. Emmanuel = " with ui God. the evangelist's habit to cite connection with O. some old I. V. in its strict As is m interest of the evangelist. Kal irapAa^c rfif yu^o^^'^'^ auroo. on that memorable night. it seems reasonable to conclude that the evangelist. koI eix iyivmcKtf yl6v absolute habitual (note the imperfect) abstinence from — . 22.. T.. The oracle in question might readily suggest itself as explaining the nature of the coming event. 25. was purely religious. avrov." implying that God's help will come through the child Jesus. vil. It does not necessarily imply the idea of incarnation. ver. Ver. if we a. for God alone knows the thoughts of the heart.. . R. i. and Weiss. V".Nazareth betrothed to Joseph the carpeitter. the first. Lk.. 22-23. 23— asical ' " 'l8ou. For him O. Why should not the evangelist go on to the end of his story. : . Euthy. phrase of T. : > : : Joseph's mind at this crisis. <coi ouk VYiVuKncef €«s 00* fTtKt rhy^ vlbv auTTJs xif •wpwTOTOdo*''' nal ^KoXcac tA OKopA airrou ' IHIOYN. It speaks of a son to be born of a virgin. of this. Chry. telic sense.ssume that in the case of all objective preternatural manifestations. he proceeded forthwith to execute the Divine command. Ver. On all these grounds. iS). prophecies leading mcidents in the life of Jesus. that her offspring might be his legitimate son and heir of David's throne. D has KaX«<r«is as in Sept." something of great importance for the royal race and for Israel was about to happen. . W^erai r uIok. Is. The ancients. for be understood that the mcsscngtr must have come from God. The . T. . ver.H. vii. with most recent interpreters. KATA MAI UA ION TOO TTpo<^r|TOO. . chief. ^4BZ i.c words. it is natural. as in ver. in prophecy. V| vapd^vof. Kai itaX^aouai ri OKo^a adrou 6 ^<m 8« A ' Mk. and xoXt'iriis changed into the impersonal KaXio-ovo-i. 23. Iva rXtjpwfrfi.' diro • ToG uirwoo i-noir\(Tev irpocreTa^ei' 6 ayycXo. of 14. not as uttered hy the angel. iy^vsta^. Cu:. •» ' Here again. ii. * * (J^BCZ). .. KoI trap^Xo^** He took Mary home as his wife. found in many copies. /p. XeyotTOS. f^ 'cf. — . 33.

not kings in the Gentile world as the legend makes them.^. he (not she) called the child Jesus. The leading aim of the evangelist in this chapter is not to give biographic details as to the time and place of Christ's birth. in wickedness a considerable personage in many ways in the history of Israel. ' . he would have taken pains to prevent misunderstanding. ?S«. Euthymius quot. The event here recorded therefore took place towards the close of his long reign fit ending for a career blackened with many dark deeds. never returned (Schanz). Magi. after the Exile the father. the other the best element Magi. but not of the prosaic sort history with a religious bias. viiL n i." and points to the fertility of the neighbourhood about six miles south of Jerusalem. 7." a very vague indication of time. the sole purpose of the hastened marriage being to legitimise not till then. gave the name to the child at circumcision {Neue Beitrdge zur Erlduierung der Evangelien. E. irpwTOTOKOv is not a stumbling-block to the champions of the perpetual virginity. Our Bethlebirthplace. and beside Me there is no God.) is imported from Luke ii. 1-12. EYArrEAION I. A name of evil omen called the Great great in energy.g. his father Antipater an Edomite. is adversative — : in a quastio vexata Patristic and catholic of theology. . b chap. named in Joshua xix. 12. of this new section. ut abducat nos ab ea re. 355) " Ilia particula eam vim habet. to distinguish it from TTJs MovSaCas another Bethlehem in Galilee (Zebulon). Not a Jew. and wearing a halo of poetry. his mother an Arabian the from Judah sceptre has departed through the influence of Antony appointed King of Judaea by the Roman senate about forty years before the birth of Christ. is hem : hem : Bethlehem-Judah in i and Jerome thought it showid be so written here Bethlehem is called Sam. But the presumption is all the other way in the case before us. and a very different class of men from the reigning King of Judaea. quae proposita est. 15. Ver. Lk. R. the one representing the ungodly ele ment in Israel. The main purpose is to show the reception given by the world to the new-born Messianic King. only to the extent of taking the attention off one topic and fixing it on another connected and kindred. . according to Klotz. —.epai^ HpuSou '. . History of the Infancy CONTINUED. It is history. — 69 in I. ?ws does not settle the question. ^v BueXttji: The first hint of the : . and no hint that Bethlenot the home of the family. and afterthe child. hostility at home foreshadowing the fortunes of the new faith acceptance by the Gentiles. — . I. jam pro vero ponendum esse videatur ". taking the latter The for the name of the whole nation. and intermeddling much by astrological lore with the fortunes of individuals and peoples. wards ? Here comes : . as in i8.s in proof Isaiah xliv. He says (in Devarius.. J II Be 'Itictou y€Vvy]6iyTos tv BriSXeeu. 6. These are disposed of in an introductory subordinate clause with a genitive absolute construc- " Jesus being born in Bethlehem tion of Judaea in the days of Herod the : that is all. Gen.— [I. and I am the last. . Acts 29 xiii. name means "house of bread. The story forms a natural sequel to the preceding account. It is enough for our evangelist to indicate that the birth of Jesus fell within the evil time represented by Herod. but having influence with kings. is the original force of the particle. because the first may be the only. Wiinsche says that before the Exile the mother.\A. rejection by the Jews such is the lesson : . and of the world. iv T||i€pai.. if not the necessary. This. where there are no variants. — : — Chapter II. ^1. who regards 8i as a weak form of 81^. (6w). course of things.. Luke aims at more exactness in these matters. ISovi " Behold " introducing in a p-d-yoi lively manner the new theme.«_. iv^ again ^p.. . missa ilia priore re." Kal cKaXccrev. If the evangelist had felt as the Catholics do. vl6v the extended reading (T. when as a matter of fact it did not occur at all. xvii. It is easy to cite instances of its use as fixing a limit up to which a specified event did not occur.S) " in the days. Visit of the Magi. 8. p. 7 the raven returned not till the waters were dried up in fact. Vv.T tou 0_-.^^ jidyoi diro dlTO *^ ^' avaToKG)v di'ttToXwi' (bis). guarding the sacredness of the virgin's womb. transferatque ad id quod. in magnificence. — : I . The : of Judah. not of Judaea. Herod. p..~ ^aaiX^us. Subsequent intercourse was the natural. King " : Homage from afar. marital intercourse.< 1800.. authors say not till then and never at all. i. 11). The — . • xxiv. viii. 2<i)s 8i in ver. ttjs 'louSaias. xiii. the statement referring back to the command of the angel to Joseph. 6 " I am the first. 27.

IL Acts • Trapry^i'orro eU 'J«poa<5Xofia. . as in A. as well as in the Old. combining an assertion with a question. I do not profess I to be able to settle the question./. or at least to avoid its unnecessary extension. lo . Parthia are — — : . homage of offered the Gentiles could not be by worthier representatives. i Cor. : : : after world-wide dominion connected with it. according to the testimony of non-Christian writers such as Josephus and Tacitus. vi. C. that in the case of the Nlagi we have an instance of a sign given. Magi from the cast came not connected the words must be " came from the east " from the east. That a king of the Jews had been born was their mference from the star they had seen. though commentators have inquired. Strauss. The assertion is contained in Ttv^V*. no that in ver. The third view is in favour with students of comparative religion and of criticism. and we desire to know where he can be found " insigne hoc coucisae orationis cxemplum. the natural place for sti angers to come to.. of several rare conjunctions of planets occurring about the beginning of our Vide era or a comet observed in China. xxiv. 2. and invested by men addicted to astrology with a certain significance or mythical. V. 9. accommodated to the false opinions of men. Mark and John. who lay stress on the tact that in ancient times the appearance of a star was expected at the birth uf all great men (l)e Wette). the third among men of naturalistic proclivities. which could not be done by a star in Some modern comthe sky (Horn. wisdom. quiry of the Magi. 1^701 4x6 dvor.scussion on prophecy .— Hs '\*po<rSkv\uk. to guide them to the truth. the Beforehand. the Greek form of the name.«v credible. it ap(>cared and disappeared it descended down to the house where the child lay. meet. 1 heavenly phenomenon escaped them . and are divided into hostile camps on the point: Arabia. \iyoyT€^. such as the Star of Jacob in Balaam's prophecies ? All these views have been held. . were known to the outside world. ag." Fritrscbe.wc ci. Hebrew form lipovoxiXfui is used. Frit28che. but a creation of the religious imagination working on slender data.8ofi. wliat was this the horizon. and the Pauline evangelist the Greek. irov It is very laconic. the elaborate note in Alford's Greek Testament. not in the east.) d vv. Babylon. one would have expected ' only ? an appearance in the heavens miraculously produced to guide the wise men to Judaea and Bethlehem or a real astronomical object. 7. the precise spot conn»<:tcd with their errand to be Note determined by further inquiry. The rival suggestions. 2. T. Persia. the land of the sunrise vague indication It is vain to inquire what of locality. Spinoza in the in his di. it was visible as soon . or a new star appearing.) These diverse theories will probably always find their abettors the first among the devout to whom the miraculous is no stumbling-block. mentators have laid under contribution the investigations of astronoiners.. advocated the first.. Matthew.. that it vi' t star. 70 c KATA MATGAION xiil. precise country is meant. and Holtzmann in H. and also error. — Tractatus theolof^ico-polittcui.. Was it phenomenal celestial portent ? — . vit. basons were such but i'iftx yjovov. the plural being used for Always on the outlook. and who expect mythological elements in the (Vide N. . The Messianic hope of the Jews.ts it appeared above ao-rcpa. . they arrived Jerusalem. content myself with expressing general acquiescence in the idea thrown out by . and . saw His star «'" its risiuf^. Some of the fathers. east generally is the suiuble part of the some of the world at for Magi lo come from on : this errand. the second among those who while accepting the miraculous desire to reduce it to a minimum. not ^vo-fi. " rioo larlv 6 Tcx^els same const. it moved from north to south as these it appeared in the daytime while the sun shone. especially Chrj-sostom. 41. The whole system . and the aspiration first . Media. . and what they said was in that a king has been thus effect born somewhere in this land we know (rom a star we have seen arising. : : supposed the <i«rTTip to have been one the evangelist writing for Jews to have used the Hebrew form. H. superstition so iropry. xv. usual with In Luke. the capital.). neither a miraculous nor a natural phenomenon. /-. The evangelist does not know or care. in whom power. and so indicated the spot. The visit of the Magi in quest of the new-born king is not in<»"rijivaToX-Q. a rare conjunction of planets. the in'lovSaUiv Ver. .

— — 3. Tra«ra: s 'iepoo-d\v|)ta feminine here. of the inhabitants ? (Schanz). is spread by Babylonian Jews. 25 Acts xxvii. xxii. tov Xaov. the order of the words is conformed ' ciirav in ^B. and his present action. R. etc. They bowed to godless power. ad sensum. and his first step to consult the experts in as quiet away as possible. The answer oj the experts. 20 Heb. ^BDZ. 1 o Pao-iXcvs Hpci>8T)s in to that in ver. and cared tor their own interest rather than for Herod's. John xi. but a theological one where. * EYArrEAION KOI TiXOoiieK ^ ' Ai'OToXfJ. R.: — 71 3. present tense. or shall be. is His birth-place ? Hence -ycvvdrai. he must deal with them. together the leading men among the priests and scribes to consult them as to Holtzmann the birth-place of Messiah. 2-4). iii. Act* zziii. that legendary elements might get mixed up in the Christian tradition of the star-guided visit It must be admitted to be possible. not after. 3. It was the answer to be ex- — . so (ri irtpt Tifo. is only the Herod of Christian legend that convenes the Sanhedrim. yet it might be used by Providence to guide seekers after God. remains to add that the use of the word <iomrjp." 'Axouaas 8e • ^ qfan"^^-^'^" 'HpuSvis 6 jSaaiXeus 4. The Herod of history slew the Sanhedrists wholesale. might interest Magians there That it no wise incredible . '' cTap(ix^> iroo-a 'lepoo-oXufxa fier' auroC Kol * auvayayuy irdin-as tous dp^iepets xal ypajifjiaTeis toG 5. yet substantially true. men were weary. K diap. and the Pharisees. The expectation of an epochof astrology making birth was current in the east. has been supposed have an important bearing on the question as to the nature of the phenomenon. . and makes anxious inquiries about Messiah's birthBut the past policy of the king place. i. 26- iit»vQdy€ro irap' auTwv. had predicted that his family would ere long lose its place of power. the two classes being joined together as the theological exHerod called perts of the people. AcU dv. that their astrological lore might lead them to connect some unknown celestial phenomenon with the prevalent expectation is likewise credible. The world is ruled not by truth but by opinion. 8e etiroK Lk. 4. Kttl ird<ra L. scribes and elders not do-Tp(Jv. ^ ^^e' sense °f nsmgj. . and did his It best to lull to sleep Messianic hopes. 12 and Grimm's Lexicon on the two lo . : 2—5.aTcis. and. . It was enough that the fears Here we read only of the people ". uses the fact as an argument against the historicity of the narrative. His fear therefore. He dis- couraged Messianic hopes.). . Kal measures. Whether the king's fears were groundless or not they knew not nor cared. i. The spirit of the city was servile and selfish. (H. vide xxvi. was a delusion. this distinction is not observed. Was this a a-uvayayutv . On the other hand. irpoa-Kui^ffOi '^o-*' ofrrfi. 10. etc. according to Joseph (A.9 understood ? or is it a construction. is : — Vv. hang together. 5-6. though the occasion may seem insignificant. All such forms have been corrected in the text which the T. assuw^jig that a meeting of the Sanhedrim is meant. C). 01 Xaou. xvii. is every way credible. 6 Pao-iXcvs ' Hpw8i]s t Tapdx9»j Paa-iXevis before the name. Herod's Ver. Not likely. it is not a historical question he submits to the experts as to where the Christ has been born. of the chief priests and scribes of the The article is not repeated people. 14. 47. xi. meeting of the Sanhedrim ? as the elders are not "lentioned. irou 6 Xpiar^s ycf mToi. before Ypa|i|j. as reported by the evangelist. as in ver. T. represents and need not be further noticed. now that they have revived in spite of him. h C/. i. according to the accepted tradition. (Vide Luke xxi. to ascertain the whereabouts of the new-born child iirvvdavero. &o-TT)p means an individual But in the star. who are elsewhere named as the representatives of the people. words. the emphatic position suggest- ing that it was as king and because king that Herod was troubled. little It takes to put evildoers in fear. *' the chief priests. Few in that so-called holy city had healthy sympathies with truth and right. This is not a Chrisol 8i ctirov. He had reigned long. existed. or is t| v6k\. In the T. doubtless an exaggeration.) Ver. J. airrpov a constellation^ N. tian opinion put into the mouth ot the scribes. 37. and the tyrant feared the rival would be welcome. The foreigner and usurper feared a rival.

" "among the " among the becomes tl'cusaiids " princes. frequent formula of transition with our evangelist. 34 iwith aor.: 72 *^*H '' KATA MATGAION <""'•?' b"'''' II. i. 'loo8a BT]0X€€'p. 2. proof that Messiah's Scripture birth place was Bethlehem is taken from The oracle put into the Micah V. ^y Kal au." and the closing clause. Syntax. when the actions of the verb and the participle are pracGoodwin. prior according. "who departs shall rule my people Israel. v. jccted from them as reflecting the current opinion of the time. Therefore he made particular inquiries (^Kp(P**<r() as to the time of the sC >r. The " least " becomes "by no means the least. 2. " riopcoOtWes " aKpiPis >*/ 9 * cjeraaaTc oirws p Lk. riptive of the kingly function common to the two places— woi(i*i'ft in Micah V . in whose destinies even the Ver. 8. Such facts are to be taken as they stand. They do not corre-^pond to modern ideas of Scripture proof.seen in its rising. that he also 'HpwSris aaWpos — . I.H. man like Herod. his hypocrisy went further. in ritratrar* «Kpipws ^BCD." Thet«.2. 19 in W. etc. tation of great interest in all that related to the child. . w. IV. Kdyw xi. It is a question of no importance here.. V. who quotes Schegg as denying the statement of Wetstein. Worship. vtf|ii|ras cItc synchronous with the directions according to QeWette. an affecappearing.'s usual order.. another thereafter took place. 6.)- ' Xa6pf as in i. iroi^. but not as a pretended one. second variation arises difTerent pointing of the same The from a Hebrew the word 'C'rt^Z. —rir* (Weber. riitpiPwae » "^ 'lapanX. which accords Vv. 13. 16. and quite likely to be believed by these simple. jQ^5 ' i^ycfioaiK TTOiaai'ci "^ €ic aoo TOk" yap ^^eXtoacxai 7- T^youpewos. God's the connecting link jiromise to David •ipoarently being the poetic word do».. synchronise with the ascent of the star which the Magi had . . as a real motive for a (H.) —ovT«« yip Y«'VP**'rai. John vii.). ^C /h52 = among < ^E N2 = among the heads relation the action expressed participle stands to that expressed by the following finite verb.oi. but it is sometimes an important quesi.av«i« in 2 Sam. But there is an imporThe aorist tant class of exceptions. 17.C.. wished to ascertain precisely when the child the Magi had come to worship was He assumed that the event would born. 2.' from the prophetic oracle altogether. "'E** 8T)0X«€fi TTJs *lou8aias. aCrr^ He bade the strangers go to Bethlehem. John xxi. and Wunsche. John txi.e. p. 8. II. C/. 2 ocb«p. unknown place ~. auron' rof xpoKOK BrjOXttp. ' outw yAp y^YpaTrrai 8iA rou 'louSo. ! ! — : \- 3. " ^. Yet with the Talmudists the Jiiitiu/^i). thousands. II. etc. 26. and borrows from 2 Sam. The rule certainly is that the participle one expresses an action going before thin? having happened. Hfrud'i rifxt : step. Messiah was the one who should come forth from a strange. . xou Aoii'ou. : might go and worship Him. V. 8. v. tind out the whereabouts of the child. 16. sub. (Origen. • I'et. 342).xperts consulted by Herod re !s shape from the hand of the It varies very considerably t both irom the original Hebrew and Irom the Sept. come back and tell him. t. 51. p. and which still continued to be seen (^iro^vovl. " Incredible motive " murder Yes. the time of its first This was a blind.-v HpwSns. 2. ninuth of the e. Die Lehren <Us Talmud.eVoo dorepos. to Meyer. tically one ". enre. < . and refers to Celsus as objectMessiah's birthii fC that this view ^tbout place was not cuirent among the Jews. and 42. ical iTcp. . ircpt tou c o'<c» eiraf 0« TraiOioo *^ <is Acuxvili.Act8vii Miii. Kal ir«fn|»a« stars were involved. participle " may express time coincident with that of the verb. %N-ith Mt. Crlium. p. . eupT^T*. 27. cX6wi' irpoatcorpaw aori. Vide on this point Schanz. The Targum put upon the oracle in Micah a Messianic interpretation (Wetstein. .e. Herod cf. GffTt? toi' Xaof ^ llou I Acts Xa6pa ^ KaXc'aa. • yrj ouSofiws Aa)(io-ni] €i ^ J.<|>as aurous - in here and in ver. ' '" ^'™* irpo^i^TOU. tion in what by the aorist : of thousands. guileless souls from the the sending was east. tous _ jjidyoos. The rirt. 5. and vide article there referred to by . 52. 16. .' " Trap Tore >. diroyyeiXaTe «.

o-4>($Spa. tISov T.Alogi. It grew with time The our evangelist. in which many instances of the kind occur. Lobeck. rh 6vp. legendary spirit loves definiteness. arriving at Bethlehem. reconcilable by assuming that the Magi arrived after they had found refuge in a friend's house (Epiphan. them to Bethlehem ? : this is ^aivo|i. Prof.3'- dcaToXr).. The child 7i)ith His — is the meaning cISov c.. country. but relieving the monotopv caused by too frequent use of — Kal : — . on the application of this rule to the N. The Magi enter anddo homage. Most frequent in the Gospels is the expression diroKpiOds ilirt. *• ^. ctS Trjf 23. (Weiss-Meyer) it really. 187. . cr|iivpvav. errand to Bethlehem. xxvii.^- "• . of course. 9. and here very appropriate kings were furnished with names. It was their celestial it guide appearing again. T. ' TrpoTJYCi' aureus. looking up to heaven as I80V 6 do-T^p they set out on their journey. eijpoi'^ to xviil. 8 (tupTjTc). Hence the inference drawn by stellae pompa tam gravi tempore digna ".iwp. 10 with the beginning of the journey from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. and bring foith gold. They come. a favourite word of less. it took up its position (ifTraAr^ right over the spot where the child was. XiPavov: in classic Greek. 1 to-Taeii in i^^BCD. they were overjoyed. . 10). or in high esteem and costly the star. They re." etc. The case before He sent us may be one of this kind.Arabia nascitur. ver. eastern fashion.). hence the inference that the Magi were three in number. in the view of the evangelist.£vov. vide Epiphanius Adv. That they were ki?igs was deduced from texts in Psalms and Prophetilled — . seemed illusion to go before them by an optical .). o-<{>dSpa: seeing the star standing over predicting that kings would come doing homage and bringing gifts to Messiah. The after iicydXTiv to express exuberant gladOn the convoy of gifts would be products of the givers' ness. says Euthy." but "in answering he said ". "o-<j>68pa' Sc TOk do-Te'pa. the sacred spot. They open the boxes or sacks (Or^o-avpovs. 22. 9. : : firom trees. "^ €i8ov in all uncials. iitoflicr. of identification. II. which does not mean "having first answered he then proceeded to say. and is beautiful but baseat last reached the goal of their long by-and-by the journey. aviTov clSov better than €vpov.6— II. not intentionally.. They do not know the way. the house. as befits those who enter into the presence of a king. ed. Against which implies visibility. the two latter being aromatic gums dis- — . The star Joseph not mentioned. w^ cvpovTCS tov Jabaeos Arabum portionem sed et aurilera est felix Arabia ". vide Phryn. The gifts were of three kinds. is The clause 8v introduced for the purpose . that no wrong suspicions might occur to the Gentiles (Rabanus Kal irccovTes in Aquin. Zig. but the star guides them. they had The legend of the three kings dates as far Their quest was at an end back as Origen. T. II. 6 lorif] ^ ' Oi 8e dKoJaai'T€S too PatrtXews eTTopeo0r]aat' eXZov iy ^1' rfj fiari^p. Some connect the seeing of the star in some that the Magi were from Arabia. who. 9.£vov = Xi^avMTos. regards this as impossible in fact). with probability. c. Psalm Ixxii. the tree. .g. in later Greek and N. some ancient copies seem to have read infjpas = sacculos.J?- lieydXt]!' Kal eXOoi'Tes oiKiai'. p. Ver. cvpov only in minusc. 10. with full hands. x'l'P'i'-*' }*'*V*^^*' cies (e. . 51. dvaroX'g that they had seen the star only at its rising. six. In Luke c. ex'^'P^o^'**' X*''P°^'' ^' if?''". eus cXdu^ lo. T. 1884. T. ecstatic delight. 8). nee thus nisi apud joiced. Theophy. regards as an interpretative gloss that had found its way into the text.. Gold and incense a\(/«v8€crTaT0v oSrjYov . Cat. ov : Ver. them by saying " Go and search. ISovTES S« . the gum. Ballantine in Bibl. So Bengel. and that again it appeared leading. . frankincense and myrrh.. . IT. The Magi go on their Vv. went before and stopped over the house (De Wette. " Myrrha nonnisi in Thus Grotius ver. they once more behold their heavenly guide. oiKlav the shepherds find the holy family in a stable. which Grotius. Came in probably from ver. 25. xxvi. 7.— irpoTJ7€v kept going before them (imperfect) all the way till. 31. 3). and the holy child lying in a manger . etc. 10. Isaiah Ix. finding their way to Jesus without its guidance. iSok'Tes cirdKO) "^ ^V^ ?^' ^''f'^ ou TO TraiStof. c. continuous elSov. Fritzsche remarks : " Fuit certe there. and after him Meyer. Hacr. . which seems to ha\e been introduced by the copyists as not only in itself suitable to the situation. A^if. oi' EYArrEAION • 73 Kal i8ou. : elSov (vv. Sacra. 10..

(. Ilencc a sense of need of guidance. either genetill rally. but away from Herod's neighbourhood. Whence arising we can only conjecture. "The real contents '' of these sections embody an ideal aim (Schanz). ital ia9i ckci iu% Slv xi. ^^ avaKd|x\|/ai. 13-15. xPlpaTiaO^rrcs * 26 = COtt. such a thought does not seem to be in the mind t' of the ev. Kar ovap (<^at '\\' '< i. 'Eyipdils friendly.?. y^^pi]fuirwreturn home by another road.l. . Was the oracle given in answer to a Opinions differ. . Joseph also gets the - necessary direction. in the sense of a Vulg. :k Acts •I.\. but of avoiding Herod &vfx"pi]arav. rrturn to Sataretk. I vv.ist. 11. not to turn back on their steps towards Fritzsche praises the Jerus. MvTfs points to divine guidance given in respomo accepto.. prepared hearts. rviii.— KAIA MATOAION iraiSiof ficToi I II. that the Magi had anxious thoughts currespunding to the (Lvine : . AtyvBTOv Egypt— near. . (Irit/sche aftt-r Lasaubon). mentioning this : : . i. they withdrew not only homewards. 13 . auTw. A skilful dissembler. The fortunes of Christianity foreshadowed in the experiences of the holy child welcomed by Gentiles. niarjjin). not of the shortest road. Vv. take with a view to taking care of {c/. is found cliittl)' in .ii. uamed to Ittcp out of fitrod'i tiaj. 30). \iyinv.itlt^ given. yet not quite successful in concealing his hidden purpose even from these guileless men. John i. They indicate the omens which appear in begininncipiis intsse tolent nings omina (Ovid). k-OKTOs. ital Heb. four times in — . and days . 22).'i'. 12. I give thee further orders (FnUsche) or till I tell thee to return . «lt the refuge of Israel's ancestors in of old. Thi'^e three stories have one aim. V John dz. . '3- ocap fill * dKaKoLp. auTOU. 6 Kar o»'ap tw 'lw<n]4>. 13. The dream reflects the antecedent state of mind. "His own received Him not. 2a iv. 13. may be taken for Divine guidance comes only to granted. Doubts had arisen in their minds about Herod's intentions. iXi^avosI arc iiumiotuci m !-. and Herod.T]Tcpa fiTTiD .tk* Miigi. If tra\cllcr> from Rethlclit-n Tii the f. ri.il'ai irpos 'HpwBr)*'. benigve. 1\. Kai d»'Oi|arr<s tous *6i]aaupou9 auruv Lk. Apart from the question of fact. <^aiv«Ttu assuming that this is the corlect reading. evil entreated by Jews. 15. and his man ner on reflection may have appeared suspicious. icai ncaorr^s npoatKorrjaai' irpocn^t'CYxaf C/.^i. doubtless. the flight to Egypt is represented as following close on the the historic departure of the Magi present. ootu» hutpa. 13. xp\jv6v nai '^\i^avof Kal 'apLupk-ac. communication. too diroXtaai iial ttj*' iz. prayer for guidance ? It may be assumed here. 14. 81' aXXrjs oSou d^cxup^joak' CIS T^>' X'^P"^*' auTwf. 1991. A subjective state of anxiety Is here also to be presumed. X. if also their house of bondage. heard something ol his history and character. moisture in Bethlehmi. Vv. 15. Ai-axojpriadrrwK ' Sc aOrwK. Ital ^cvyc AiyunTOf. ^ytpOels Trap^a^c to vaiSioK fiTjrt'pa «(i>s auTOu Kai dvexwpTjacv els AiyuTTTo*'. . He is thinking. zii. x>i. Their pious trrand fulfilltd. 04. •I. incense as to God. Plight to Egyf-t. Fritzsche -!••§ vol. vividly introducing one scene after another." »apAoPov). a dream (icor Svap) The passive. liiviiic (ii. aoTO. 14. Vcr. felicity of this word as implying that to go by Jerusalem was a roundabout chapter (vv. who thought such n^ystic interpretations beneath so great a scholar. dYY«Xos Kopioo ^aiwcrai . The) had. A word of frequent occurrence in our Gospel. ffoi • fiAXei ydp 'HpciSrjs 'O 8« i^iTtif rb rraihiov. Grotius struck into a nc\^ line: gold = works of mercy incense = prayer myrrh = purity to the disgust of Fritzsche. if not a formal petition for it. i8ou. Kai t| t^k titti H h. . Did the Magi give a hint. u Rev. 14. Herod's name Be that as : it in a significant manner ? may. Plight to Egypt. as in the case of Jobcph (i. mvrrh as to one destined to die {if piAXovrt ytWairftai 6avdTov'.ingelist. "'EyepSeis irapdXa^c ri iraiSiow koI eis xviij. ij. Ver. 12. The fathers delighted in assigning to these gifts of the Magi mybtic meanings gold as to a king. 33. TT]K p. 13-2. TopdXaPt. Heb.KttT ttrJum). Mapias 71)5 fjiT]Tp6s awxoo. (< zmnng the gifts to be brought to Israel in the good time coming. xi.

Iv Bt]9. or In did the prophecy create the fact ? reply. Toi' xpoi'O'' o** TJKpiPoiae irapd rCtv iidyuv. and can therefore only be a typical prophecy. omit rov. only. " 'E| AiyuTTTOu EKciXcaa * toi* uioi' pioo. . in Bethlehem. rov airoXeVai avT(5 Herod's first purpose was to kill Mary's child alone. Ver. above if they . only a few months.: : 12 — 17. insists that these words must be connected. 32 (Acts often). the flight to Egypt. Lie. but with KarwT6p(i>. he would not have killed those younger. Maddened with anger. it less.). a here in I. b 3 . scrupulous. before the death of Herod (Nosgen). deed shocks Christians . he resolves on more truculent measures than he at first intended kill all of a certain age to make sure of the one such is his savage order Incredible ? to his obsequious hirelings. only N. etc. the sense the same (Meyer.. The oracle states a historical fact. of the infinitive to express purpose belongs to comparatively late Greek. 13 are repeated by the evangelist in ver. '€6u|ji(ii0T] BT)6Xeefji z xxvii. Gen. ^ EYArrEATON • 75 UTTO TOO ^ TT)S TcXcUTTjS 'HpoiSou •n-po<|)iiTou. the massacre at Bethlehem. Kal iv -irdtri toIs ' opiois auTTjs. Vva irXT)p<i)6f] another prophetic reference. xxiii. Tdrc: ominous then. T6t6 'HpolSTjs. not with iva. : — — : — — — — — — : — : . not the Sept.. 27. Kal dTTocTTciXas ** e»'€iTaix9il uiro twv fidyotv.xvii. He was likely to add a below if they margin in either case made the age two years. d here C/. xxvii. 15. and not after the latter. the return at the tyrant's death to Nazareth. If. 17). (Gen. T. 34 . Anything is credible of the man who This murdered his own wife and sons. dTTo Sictous Kal KaTWTc'pw. XXX. 15. 23. and in contemporary history. directly from the evangelist I. 2) di'cIXe irdrras tous iralSas tous iv * fornix Ch. all might occur. he argues. 6 8^ eyspOels: Joseph promptly executes the command. of the command. x. XvO. parall. 18 still another prophetic reference. probably. given after the Hebrew. Schanz) time of such new direction is left vague gives reason p-eXXct. Vv. Kal the stay in Egypt cannot fjv €K€i. may be taken either as masculine. The evangelist introduces the prophetic passage in this case. . There are For a good authorities on both sides. Herod would not be very very much. pathetic and poetic certainly. 14. xxii. x. Herod had definitely ascertained from the Magi that the child must be two years old. two years ensured an ample r. xxxi. be it said that the narratives in this chapter of the Infancy all hang together. made — . are all equally credible. but with tot€ (ver. i6. Euthy. When he was certain that the Magi were not going to come back to report what they had found at Herod kept their time and younger added a margin irXdro^ ?T«pov avris It does not seem to matter irpoo-«6iiK€. Kal ev irdo-i Tois opiois avTT|s. They made Mary's child Herod's solicitude credible ? If so. Tr\r]p<i)6f\ TO pKlflec KupiOU y here only in N. Bethlehem. vvktos. Herod was enraged as one who had been befooled (iveirai\9r\). or as a neuter adjective used as a noun = from the age of two years. Ver. . 1 2. Totc citXtjpwOt) to c Ch. xix. For him all enough margin. 14 to emphasise the obedient spirit of Joseph. if the relevance be not conspicuously apparent. The massacre. tSut' oTt \iav.• • • |Ad7<uv. diri Sierovs Kal KaTWT^pw the meaning is clear all children from But Sierovs an hour to two years old. Jerem. Did the fact suggest the prophetic reierence. Not so did it appear to the evangelist. 19. agreeing v^th iraiSos understood = from a twoyear-old child. a bitnatu as in Vulg. It occurs constantly in the Sept. is Zig. i6-i8. etc. If any one of them occurred. He afterwards killed many The genitive to make sure of the one. before the day. The main question is. and in N. vUi. Acts xxiv. Ver. KttTa 17. 13 . — Kara . this time proceeding Hosea xi. t<BCD. iv. have been long. ydp (dv with sub. not with SicTovs. : . whichior^^^ has rcKva avrov. 41. vide i Chron. xv. dirb Herod made his net wide cvKoo-aerovs. to make quite sure. The words of the command in ver. putting a comma after the former word. indicating alarm as well as obedience. and around in the neighbourhood. then the caution of the Magi. events in the life of the Christ possessed transcendent significance. freely reproduced from the Sept.xx. similar phrase. Was it an event at all ? criticism asks. . T. Sept. The event in the life of the infant Jesus may seem an insignificant fulfilment. 8id Tou Xe'yoi'TOS. 32 . but it was a small affair in Herod's career. T.

rotten in body as in soul.3. Ch. and the angelic message comes an end to uncertainty. t«0v^Koo-i yap: in this general manner is the death of Herod referred to. 1800. in a dream which. but wktos (ver. though only a single person is meant {vide Winer. V. 2.T)T€pa aoTou. Rev. Palestine . the order not /lee but return. though of doubtful appositcness in a strict sense. Hp u. and "Arise. OpTJkOS leal* icXaoOfAOS ' ital ' 68op|A6s ' 'Pax^lX Cor. • reOn^tcacri yAp 01 ' ^TjTOOk'Tes tou iraiSiou. There is nothing. of a : horrible loathsome disease. p. Then the word was ^«v-y«.' bury Rachel on the way to Ephratah or Bethlchen) Because (Gen. Rachel hers. T|((oua6T]. a class. • l8. vcr. ay-yeXos Kupiou ' Kar ofap . But the manner of expression may indicate a desire to dissipate completely Joseph's apprehensions. again weeps over her children becaubc she was buried there. at Jericho. Might he not be another of the same Might disorder and confusion type ? not arise ? Would it be safe or wise to return to suggesting a fulhimcnt not regarded as exclusive. . H. Vv. 10 2 'O 8« ^Y^pdcl. — 'E-y«f>0«lt • • 'ia'paf|X: it is expressed in in this Rabbinical literature. Kai iropcuou €is ttjk itai <|<uxt)»' ri. ? Guidance : was needed. Joseph may wait till day the matter is not so urgent. The words. 22-23. north of Jerusalem. . acc. «i<rTjXefv in S'*'^- ^BDZ. sympathetic in all her children's misfortunes. xxxv. 'c -A. 19). i p. reach Egypt.c. They are dead. dicouwas 8e OTi 'Apx<Xaos PoaiXeuei ' 8ui in i>5BCD . Antiq. to put by night. eio-i. desired. expresses a general idea.. iraptXaPe ets yrik' 'lapai^X. It was a flight for life." The words were as a refrain in the life of Juscph in those critical months. 5 Euseb. E." here only.. i. and he buried " her there that she might pray for them {Dan age. vii. the same terms as those of the message directing flight to Eppt. near Gibcah. . 21. he foresaw that the exiles would at some future time pass that way.— 76 ^T)6et' fiiri c f : KATA MATGAION ^ II. . It was poetry to he felt to be hweet. begin with. 3 xiii. "oii'T] iy Pajid iroXu?.^ 4-»i »a-«' 9oiv«Tai ' tw lfa»aT]9 (v AiyuTrrw. every hour or : I .njj gen')' rjXOti' * 22. the daytime are rcllectcd in the dream again — . and it is poetry here. (Weiss in Mcyex). TraiSiot' ttal Tt]i' Jo. 33. except of course that the land is different. TiX«vTHerod died in 750 if<ravTos 8i T. of an angel to inform Joseph of the fact. \ »> ^tYu>^'. Wunschc quotes from the Midrasck : " Why did Jacob . and obtained. There would be no need minute important. Jacob's beloved wife seems to have occupied an imaginative place also . 19-21. - Opi]vos Kai cm. The plural here (ol {TjTovKTit). 'tcp€|xiou too TTpo4>r|TOj. on ouic g with •cc. ' . even in their original place. altogether an unwholesome man {vicU Joseph. nal * . Rachel was to the Hebrew fancy a mother for Israel in all time. to iraiSiov t^v fiT]T€pa auTOu. * » ^aivtTai Kar ovap. and led to its being quoted. *lapaT|X I . and would not take lon^ to . standing for Bethlehem as far to the south. 6 hi iy*p9*\% 'IcparlX prompt obedience follows. Settlement in Nazareth in . Joseph's return. i. no person to fear go Ver. XtyoKTOs. swiftly. The prophetic passage did not create the massacre the tradition of the massacre recalled to mind the prophecy. . i> TtXeoTT^aavTOs Sc tou 'HpwSoo. The scene of Kachcl weeping for her children is mic of several tahliau x. on awaking. in his 70th year. as often. xvii.. ISov &YY*Xot Xiyuv the guidance IS given once more in a dream The anxious thoughts of (Kar' 6vapi. Vv. as if in studious avoidance of the dreaded name. the prophet's Kamah. 8). are highly imaginative. take the child and His mother. 1-5 The news of his death would fly 6. { 27. v«o not . * KXoiouaa xd reKva auTT]S 19. which passed before the prophet's eye in a vision. 20. to style of Evang. * Tj6«XTio-t DZ. But his anxieties would not tliciefore be Who was to succeed Herod ? at an end. . t>)HZ in probably introduced to correspond with Sept. 6.^_ tY<p"eiS yrji' TrapdXa^c to hRom. . and Exodus iv. 16). Bell. 11). 14) is omitted this time. "Qi o«k riOeXt irapOKXT|6Ti»'oi..

10. Ant. but not to and Bethlehem." Archelaos reigns in his father's stead. Matt. This hypothesis goes on the assumption that the original seat of the family was Nazareth. Batanea. — aKovo-a« .. in the tribe of Zebulon. xp^M'''^'''*'''^*^^ ""J' TaXiXaios: again oracular counsel given in a dream. Here with cU it seems to mean going tc settle in. Schanz. — between €K€i and iroi irov.. The narrative of the first Gospel appears to be constructed on the assumption that Nazareth was not the original home of the holy family. oTot oirov. Acts i. 23. Galilee and Peraea to Philip. Galilee. afexwpirjaei' cts ra ixepr) . Ikcio-€ ot oii.— 4<^oPii6t] It is implied that €K«i ttTreXOciv. while not adopting. k Ch. rns Johnxi. XV. 21 1 xvi 13. reigns.. etc. J^BC place HpwSov after t. in an elaborate note. With erri the usual construction therefore its 2 omission here probably correct. 13. Na^apcV. em'- dTreXoei*' Kar ocap. implying again mental perplexity and need of guidance. xviii. But what prophecy ? The reference is vague. the other two parts were assigned to Antipas and fact used regularly for "^^"^ in the Philip. ivaiig. In later Greek authors the distinction : . a £nal prophetic reference winding up the h'story of the infancy. q8. the particular town called Nazaretn. but for a special followed reason. etc. following the Jewish scholars (erudit" Hebraeorum) of his time. but to the prophets in general. of which he gave two to Archelaus.xP^IJ^oiTiCT^eis oc €<|>oPr]0T| 77 'eKCijfor ixflve. Mk. as afterwards Jesus migrated to Capernaum to carry on there His ministry (iv. Arrived in Galilee he transferred his family to Nazareth. els ttoXiv is to be taken along with KaW. but only that the evangelist saw in that choice a fulfilment of prophecy. 17.. but that God judged the despised Galilee a better training school for the future Saviour of publicans. Sirws irXtipcjOTJ. and Fritzsche. says Euthy. .. but with much the same meaning. iraT. 4.. " in what prophets you will not find many prophetic books were lost " (after Chrys. a town in lower Galilee. Tris • EYAITEAION 'louSaias diTt 'HpoJSou too irarpos auTou. They bore the title of Tetrarch. Sept. with promise of a royal title if he conIn ducted himself so as to deserve it. r8 — 22. nowhere mentioned in O. Trachonitis and Auranitis. and to represent a tradition for which Nazareth was the adopted home. gelist did not know that Nazareth was the original seat of the family. Going to Galilee. 20. The idea of remaining is in the mind = He feared to go thither to abide there. New Phrynichus. Omit eirt J^^B and several cursives. Jerome. to settle in Judaea was the natural course to follow. ii. the district of GaHlee. in — Weiss. as usual. Vide Lobeck's Phryn. 2. where mention is — — : — : made of a branch ("12J3) ^*t k1 all . not to any particular prophet. 17. 8. to fear his father. p. 11. Vide for another instance. embracing Judaea. and that it would have beer. Some have suggested that it occurred in some prophetic book or " Don't ask. . p. not He the strict sense of the word. Judaea being out of the question. &iri«s not tva. It does not necessarily imply that a prophetic oracle consciously influenced Joseph in making his choice. tcarotKciv in he earned banishment. is p. suspicious. 3. where the same form of expression recurs). Idumaeaand Samaria. 114. not with IX6uv. also sons of Herod to Antipas. viii. practically disappeared. At Herod's death the Roman emperor divided his kingdom into four parts. states with evident sympathy this view as held by others. T. and with ev in Luke and Acts (Luke xiii. 44. cKei: late Greek for cKcicre. Beth" The evanlehem being the original. taking a hint from Augustine. . 2).. Luke xxi. In no one place can any such statement be found. Zig..). exercised the authority of an ethnarch. A man of kindred nature. mother Judaea 'HpwSov: have expected. to be feared and avoided by such as had cause ^ao-iXcvci." oracle no longer extant. Olearius. or Josephus. adopting as a home.) in the same sense. sinners and Pagans. 4). Ver. truculent (Joseph. ruler of a fourth part (Joseph. KaTo>KT|o-cv. Joseph returns with and child to Israel. ovrov. believed the reierencc to be mainly to Isaiah xi. as we should Rutherford's — sense of to dwell. deeming that city the most suitable home for the Messiah. Others explain the substitution as a case of attraction common in adverbs of place. suggests that Joseph wished to settle in Jerusalem. was not a matter of course. Ant.

Given the prophecies alone and you could with difficulty imagine the history given the history you can easily understand how religious fancy might discover corresponding prophecies. satisfied the taintest allusion or hint . . Of all the incidents mentioned in this chapter. Other spring out of Jesse's root. Chapter III. deeper investigation. the settlement in Nazareth is the only one we have other means of Whether it was the original verifying. the settlement in Nazareth. sprout. therefore. Rachel weeping for her children. this case. 7 : Sri N. John. and from the baptism Jesus passes to the scene of moral trial. unless there had been a fact going before. containing the narrative of the temptation (iv. . This spelling forms occur.Apostolic age was occupied: not creating history. The Ministry ok THE Baptist. This view is scholars. Exfgfse.itung der bihl. The last of the prowould never have phetic references occurred to any one. This chapter and part of the next. and immediately you find new meaning in music. course not to be denied. and adapted to the requirements of faith. Hut let the key be given. might react on the facts and lead to legendary modifications is of the . and presumably in most cases of the kind. and the Baptism of Jesus.) This final prophetic reference in the history of the infancy is the weakest link It is wasted eftort to try in the chain. The new narrative begins with the vague phrase. *Oti Na^upalos aerai. the problem with which the Christian mind in the . Natap«fl in CI. the name of the town being viewed as a derivative from the Hebrew word (a feminine form). instead of the proAnd the phecy creating the history. The evangelist's idea of fulfilment may provoke a smile. i-ii). — "^2J* Isaiah xi. but discovering in evangelic facts even the most minute. Geographie jur d. The epithet Na(wpaios will thus mean: "the man of Nazareth. appears as consecrating Jesus to His Messianic calling by baptism. But given the fact. the rudiments of the story consisting of a collection of Mesyianic : something would do. nai i\9i>v 4 ' naTwKTjffck' eis Ti>t> tt<5Xi»' Xeyofi^tT^i' Na^apcT* kXt]0>'|- Acti vii. and drawing from it an argument in favour of historicity. princes bringing gifts. we certainly know that the historic fact sug(. once suggested.'estcd the prophetic reference. But you are not in his secret. The prophecies are the music the key is the history.ACipaiov Btov fo-rai. The composer has a certain scene or state of mind in his view. to show its value in the proi'hciic arguInstead of domg this. 23. p. and applying what the Jews called Midrasch. at against the throughout. whether the evangelist or any other unknown source of the tradition.78 i KATA MATGAION «. and cannot tell when you hear the music what it means. but IrDm many references in the Gospels we know that it was His In home from childhood till manhood. etc. That the prophecies. 23 With faXiXaias.H. II. ". OTTws TrXTjpwOfj TO pi^fltf 8id irpo<^TjTw»'. the word is used in a double sense in allusion at once to : prophecies the star of Jacob.». apologists ment. compiled to meet a craving for knowledge on the subject. and writes under its inspiration. That was in this case. 1. accepted by most modern Catholic and Protestant. of whom we have not heard before. very weakness of the prophetic rcicrence in this instance raises a presumption that that was the nature of the connection between prophecy and history It is a car. or the adopted home of Jesus may be doubtful. critical theory that in the second chapter of Matthew we have an imaginary history of the infancy of Jesus. but it might also awaken a feeling of thankfulness in view of what has been stated. form the prelude to the public ministry of Jesus. De Wette says " In the spirit of the exegetical mysticism of the time. (So 1-urrer in Die B*Ji -. bib. would act more wisely by frankly recognising the weakncsH. :5. prophetic fulfilments. ' is found in Ji^BDL and adopted by W. and to the name of Nazareth in There may be the suggestion that the reference is to Judges xiii. It is with the prophetic references in the Gospels as with songs without words. the town of the offshoot ". thcie was a strong desire to find some allusion Faith was easily to it in the O. T. In what year of Christ's life these events happened is not indicated. and the idea one livmg apart in a secluded town. This may very legitimately be done.

^T^yyiKe ydp i^ ^aaiXeia oupavuv. source of knowledge is reasoning back from the outcome in the full-grown man. i. growth. ii for same ab- c Heb. doubtless. distinct from SiSao-Kuv (iv. There has been much discussion as to what period of time the evangelist had in view. xviii. iL I. abruptly to the new theme.g. Not used either by John or by . & Lk. irapayivcTat 6 I. well known by this : It too. except that of " In those the events to be related. but of the same character. ver.. '^'Ev Be Tats TlJiepats ^cKcifais jBairTtOTIlS. ii. John appears on the stage of history— historical present. in d Cf. John's kingdom was an object of awful dread. Probably the best course is to take it as referring back phrase is coming from the apostolic age to the great creative epoch of the evangelic history = " In those memorable years to which we look back with wistful reverent gaze ". 22 ( = one who keeps us near to God).— KT]pv(r(rciiv. 2. Zig. the pasture lands lying between the central range of hills and the Jordan and the Dead Sea. had its genesis and history. 19. to the kingdom of God. KTJpUCTCTWC €f TT) • €pT)p. Ver. for proclamation of the good news of God. The message of the one was legal. eyyi^oiifi'.U) TTJS 'louSaittS. yohn the Baptist appears Vv. is ref. Ex. passim in Mt. The evangelist gives a genesis of Christ's body. — 79 1-3. 1-6. 11). Some say none. |jiETavoeiTc. . which perhaps did not even exist at that time. OJjtos 5. T. use of a source in which more was told about John. Ex. Jesus' of glad welcome. standing especially in N. from the contents that Jesus has now reached manhood His thoughts and experiences are those of mature years.). " in the days when the following events ha^'pened " (so matter. to This In the peculiar Matthew. C/. perhaps in Rabbinical schools. as well as baptising. but may be the ripe fruit of long brooding thought. i. >x. suitable scene for such a ministry. Euthy. Ver. Jesus used it also when He began to preach. a solemn word (Mark i. 23) . verss." 3. things new and yet old. 2. MovSaias scene of the ministry. and Christ's age at His baptism is given. 11). ' TrapayiceTai 'la)di'i'T]S 6a C/. ind leaves you to guess the length of the interval.Pharisaic spirit and clean-cut descriptions of Pharisaic ways imply antecedent study. Jesus grew. preachitii^. 23). . p. not all belonging to Judaea. I. Luke's method is more satisfactory in a historical point ot view. or anticipation of Mark i. As we sec it in the sequel. John 6 PairTiaTiqs. Mk. Luke iii. used " to give a more animated statement of past events" (Goodwin's Syntax. e. Its currency reveal in part the means and process of The anti. But it is obvious "in those days". i) presents a great contrast. and referred to under that designation by Josephus (Antiq. rtov KOI ^ XeycJi'. John's ministry is there dated with reference to the generahistory of the world. heralding the approach of the Kingdom of Heaven. but Matthew's manner of narraHe passes tion is dramatically effective. different The two watchwords point to Changeof mind John deemed a r\ very necessary as Messiah's advent. on which vide Schiirer Jewish History. Christ is ushered on the scene an unexplained prodigy. xnii. not to be confounded with proselyte baptism. iv St rats '^picpais when most ^Kcivais : vaguely indicated. ii. and eyYvot. 5.. to Its sources. The parables may not have been so extempore as tiey seem. the title is preparation for pao-iXeia rutv ov- Kingdom of Heaven. p. div. From childhood to manhood is an absolute blank in our Gospel. pavcov. " MeracoeiTe solute use. similarly indefinite phrase occurs in the story of Moses (Ex." means simply. but they are not given or even hinted at. ^ icai omitted ^B and Egypt. Believe. Others suggest explanations based on the relation of our Gospel other Gospels it is called the Kingdom of God. One like to know how He reached this unprecedented height of wisdom and The only pos-'ble grace (Luke ii. Iv rfj l^r^^m t. but no genesis ol His mind. the time Luke's narrative here (iii. it is a miracle of wisdom. and the final result may would epithet. of the other evangelic. vol. 2. xxxviii. 1-6.. Repent. 9.— III.. 52). naturally suggests that John's baptism was partly or wholly an originality. EYArrEAION '' III. : — for a momentous — but His distinctive watchword was A conceptions of the kingdom. 1-6). Xfytiiv introduces the burden of his preaching. days. as if with conscious intent to supply a want. vii. where the used in reference to Christ's to be baptised. That was John's great word.

follows a description of his way of life also Suiccr's his clothing and his food. ovTOf yap ia-nv. 35. t^ If8v^a k-wo rpix^f KOfti).. p. clothti. but expresses similarity of mood. is taken from " the apostolic source The story avTb« 4 '1. legs and wings stripped otT. In Arabia boiled or baked in cakes. xi. reports to the same effect as to his own time many eat it in those parts r^rapKxtvy.cxKpiOts • itai /Nl" ji€\t aypiof. "The Heduins of Arabia and of East Jord.— 8o r f Is.honey of the man vocation. etc: the Ver. i<mif' 6 pT]0ei9 otto TTJ ^ 'Haaioo too s irpoc^iiTOo. herald is not merely a type of John in the view of the evangelist. outside and far off from the world {vidf note in H. tAs path ^w). and restricted him to cakes made with honey (fyKpCSat ^v "This same John. 22 |S€pt.st . the opposite view. here and sense of • worn in in par. cu6eias iroieiTt """^ Autos Se 6 |^wit]»- . and identifies him with the herald of W — . returns to the historical person. — : m : only to keen hunger. and girt with a girdle of It need not leather about his loins". not as some have (On this also consult Nicholson. 55)-. In Daniel ii. evangelist here speaks. Rev. not a legendary creation. introducing the prophetic citation is peculiar. Mark (i. > . KATA MAlGAiON yup ^ III." and in the Judaistic period previous to the Christian era. . ' 'ExoiiidaaTe rn^' oSoe Kupiou 4. The imitation in dress does not imply a desire to pass for Elijah. hk '^po^*') ^'^ 1^ diet as poor as his clothing was mean. ^ « pocLcTos iv \iyovros. 8) as " an hairy man. grudged the Baptist even that poor diet. _ . still it seems used by the poor the ea. or to honey alone. even by those did not sympathise with the con- for it God came to be ception of God as transcendent.) thought. be doubted that the investment is historical. but to be ascribed to There does not seem to the evangelist. Euthy. and Grotius." not "that it might be fulfilled".aTin]!' irepi » ttj*' g Ch. iog generally in Mt. i. i. identifying John. Jesus.C. when a transcendent conception of God began to prevail. but Fritzsche takes not of camel skins. John. due to the opinion that John was Elijah rcdivivus. aoTOo . XXII.. auTOu dTTO Tpix^i" Ka/XT]Xoo. aS. R. p. says Weiss. Euthy. and the remainder boiled or roasted. >»e. in their aversion to animal food. yi. 3. " • * u)»'t) epniiu. Jnde 13 (berc«). honey made by wild Xov his characteristic (a^ov) piece of bees in trees or holes in the rocks. the details con34. Gospel read in 11/ Hebreus. 3.-'». the universalist. They they are sold in the market taste not badly" (licnzinger. He finds in John the man of prophecy who proclaims in the desert the near advent of Jehovah coming He quotes Isauih to deliver Mis people. "This is he. suspiciously smooth.ivov Not pleasant food. sub. Custom might employed. 2j. 17.in land eat many locusts. 6. be any urgent reason for this judgment. The mode of the end of the oracle. John took his fashion in dress from Elijah. auToG. 37. xl. v. palatable (pickled). or whence he got his girdle for more wonderful is it that he should live from childhood to manhood in so inhospitable a climate". but with Elijah.. i. a camel's skin Both were used as Heb. » ... but our decision should incline to thinks this an indication that the passage ". goes on to stops. 6. the two are The quotation follows the identical. 3 .. p. — : : We . p. 4." Then l»«XiTi). • t 'o Tpipou. (rpi. 7. is ' avTov after r^v in ^BCD. If we may trust Epiphanius. or a clothing was a rough rude garment woven liquid exuding from palms and fig trees. 2) ouotes Slalachi also.nll. xxviii. ' viro here 3S in ii. Note where Matthew Luke.. Hebratschr Arch&ologie). b Mk. out of camel's hair..e. Sept. xi. and the notes there veying a life-like picture of the manner Thisaiiriis. Kai ix. says: "Do not ask who wove his ganneiit. . roasted. Ver. r\ <e« xpo^T] l^ -•1fc> 'C oc auTOu Tjf .^piSct the last of four kinds of edible locusts named in Lev. . . not only with the v^icc Isaiah's in the desert. 44 the kingdom is spoken of as to be set up by "the God of heaven. son's Gosptl according to tht Hebrews. except that for rov 6fov ^|imv is substituted avrev. Vide Nicholprophecy. Weiss (Meyer) skins worn by some of God's saints. ixpit. 3. Uk. the use of heaven as a syno- nym who cause in. i Ididvyt]^ ' **X* * <»'Suiia off>^ui- ocpp.and tree honey. instead of 8ia in ^BCD. following Chrysostoni. of sheep ixins and goat food.«Xi aypiov: his habits congruous to his opinion is divided bclueeii bei. The T. described (2 Kings i. only.). the Ebionites.

Confession was not exacted as a conditio sine qua non of baptisni. by him. but in diverse order. as all men knew the Jordan was a river. v. 7). similar. firequent in this GospeL i^fKoptvtro imperfect. "All Judaea and all the Jerusalemiics. The remarkable thing is that any came from that quarter. There was a collective confession on tlie great day of atonement. the common Messianic hope. Standing first. vir' aurov." the reference means even Jerusa- — — stirring sight. Dull prosaic scribes might deem it superfluous. The participle means. 'IBwv Si. ' xiii Kut Traaa 'lopSdvT) ^ x] ' ircpixwpos tou auToG. Remarkable by his appearance. xxiii. 16. the one man. But there was explicit confession. It is not said all Jerusalem. not a few. and generally in this Gospel. Luke speaks of — — — — : crowds (iii. utt' ^ e^ofioXoyoufici'oi. 18. The movement of course was gradual. Judaea and the Jordan country. Kai cpaTTTij^orro djiapTias €v tm ' phrase). non delicias ciborum. his message. baptising such a crowd. according to idiosyncrasy and mood. 1 Cb. General or special confession ? Probably both: now one. now the other. bears witness to this. €Tri 7. Mk. Then the movement extended in widening circles into Judaea. 35. n as with the article means "the whole. paTTTKTfxa auTou. nit. John made They took him for a great impression. The evangelist expresses himself just as we should do in a similar case.A10N 5. Kal ipaTTTiJovTo: the imperfect again. fess sin. etc. lopoafoo • o. 34 . Vv. 7-91. "every". (C 33) have in have iravrcs after after c^aTrr. con- James . Ver. zii. cloixoXoyo^jjievoi confession was involved in the act of submitting to baptism at the hands of one whose preaching had for its burden." without. was a delicacy. 5-6. lem.— EYAriii. in what is now called El-Ghor.* €nr€i' auiOis> Similar sense in Acts xix. not that every human being went to the Jordan. and without the "all. but no great spontaneous self-unburdenment of penitent souls— every man apart. one by one. on either side. but that the movement was general. by all means to be retained. frank. Ver. sed necessitatem humanae carnis explere. on the simple ground Bee honey that it was the poorer food. This confession of sins by individuals was a new thing in Israel. a prophet. R. 7-10. on the part of guilt-burdened men and women glad to get relief so. First came those from the surrounding country people living near the Jordan." Matthew. uTreoeisck iti. denoting continued action. slow to be touched by new popular influences. It must have been 3 vegetable honey. ' avTOv omitted ^B and by Origen. full {Ik intensifies). 33. and a prophet was a novelty His message appealed to in those days.a: the Greek form here as in ii. Each evangelist. Effects of yohn's preaching. many indeed (iroXXov«) of the : O ." Jerome. " Habitatori solitudinis congruum est. m Lk. T. and his moral intensity. not. They were baptised as they came. and individual confession in certain specified cases (Numb. ' ^BCA iroTa|i«» which the scribes may have omitted as superfluous. The vegetable product would suit best John's taste and state. John would not want occupation. 7). 3.. disdainful Jerusalem. Repent. among those who visited the Jordan were some. The -wao-a in the other two clauses is of course an exaggeration. Tis to k here and =to iii. "Jerusalem. Mark and Matthew give graphic particulars. then. general note of time. 6. It implies. Lk. and sense). 7. It began on a small scale and steadily grew till It reached colossal dimensions. toLs aurlav. lop. omitted in iroTaficu. 7 (same ' Some copies al." says Mark. 'l8wc 8e TToWous Twi' <^api(Taituk' xai ZaSSouKaiUK ep^Oficfous r€v>'r))iaTa exiofuk'. but there is a touch of nature in it which helps us to call up the scene. Finally it aftected conservative. 7. 'Itpoo-oXvp. Words 0/ rebuke and warning to unwelcome vistors (Luke iii. . const. ev tw °lop» The word iroTafiLoi. and is associated with milk in Scripture in descriptions of a fertile land. T(5t€ e^eiropeuero irpos auToi' 'lcpo(r<5Xufia koX irAaa f\ 8i MouSaiaj Gen. Vv. and proclaimed fulfilment to be at hand. The historical order was probably the reverse of that in Matthew's narrative. provided they confessed. Tore. in his own way. while confessing . xiv. but voluntary. as in Mark.

moral natures instinctivelv sensitive. woiTJaoT* . ISwy how did duplicity and craftiness. aversion. iv. Dit latter Their Pharisufr und die Sadducuer). ^uyeit' diro *Tfjs jitXXooorrjs opyTjs /" . novel phenomenon. Baptist likens the Pharisees and Sadducees to these serj^ents fleeing for their lives (Furrer in Ztitichrift fur Afissioiis- sympathy nor pronouncedly hostile. R. 8.) have thought. . dflOUS . that it is not possible = who encouraged The aorist you to expect deliverance ? — av^ : day wrath impending.xvi.Q. There is grim humour as well as wrath in the similitude. iii. 495. Euthy. The idea of wrath was prominent in John's mind the coming of the Kingdom an awful afl'air Messiah's work largely a work of judgment. though not singled out. presence at the scene of John's ministry Drawn doubtless by mixed is credible. Apyrit. as persons of their type generally are. and about the other two classes.) had recourse in the men of affairs and of the world. iii. irthem. the or never. kx\. somewhat after his own tashion. term ought rather to be connected with the following words about fleeing from The serpents of all the coming wrath. Theophy. largely belonging to the sacerdotal class (consult W'ellhausen. suggests the fires among the dry scrub.— 82 n C/." vide Roon. U. 7 c).». it. infection of re|'>entance yet John does not believe in us depth or permanence. xxvL 33. the Why vipers ? The ancient and medizval interpreters (Chrysos. . ytvrr\yi.8. ' in L) Kopvov a(u>v in (^BCD and many other nncials. The reading may have come in from Lk. ' ' Aty*'*' «•' >« tOUTOlS. P». ^vyciy crisis ? : It was John's business to know all the moral characteristics of his time. p. 21. in T. idea of Lk. troubled — : kunde und Rtligtomwinenichaft. Historical Professor G. i8<)o)... going with verbs of hoping and promising in this sense (Winer. the godless in Israel — Ver. in the higher stretches of the Jordan valley. C/. la p Cb. preluding the advent of the Kingdom. TTJs : now — ' . chasing before them the scorpions and vipers. moral simplicity not being in partly curious. as some tised. the former being the legal precisians. neither decidedly their line . i KOI i. But he rose above ordinary they conceived of Jewish ideas in this the judgment as concerning the heathen peoples he thought of it as concernin of .. A. . I'bcaa. In any case they cannot remain indifferent to a movement so deep and So here they arc coming widespread. }. as the basis of the metaphor. 8. John's baptism. xiv. TTJS ^CTai'OiaS o for Ihe " the ccming wrath. explanation to the fable of the young The viper eating its mother's womb. . Geography of the Holy Land. a\ 7. motives. mi?ht be Esscnes too in the crowd. \ B c If '^ (IT) 005T]T€ vi. The implied thought is S xliv. : lurther signifies a momentary act ^«X.T».%vmy repressible outburst of intense moral : pregnant for " flee and escape from " (De Welte). where it is undisputed. Ii Xiviii. (found The first Pharisees and Sadducees. not to be bapnor coming uf^atnst. there is surprise in the Tif vir«8ii{«v question. whose haunts were the There <Teat centres of population. (Olearius. nated. Can it be possible that even \ ou have learned to fear the approaching Most unlikely scholars. as if to put the movement down. and by their aspect ? How did he identify them as Pharisees and Sadducees ? Mow did the hermit of the desert know there were such people ? make them welcome. 5 x. Aug. by their presence. 6. iroir^aaTe ovv ttapirous ^ 9. sorts lurking in the fields flee when the stubble is set on fire in har\'est in preThe paration for the winter sowing.g. i. These were the matters in which he took supreme interest. The emphasis is not on vipers but on jieemg. shrink from the presence of insincerity. and he doubtless had means of informing himself. the history otherwise having no occasion to mention sudden. in . but coming to witness the strange. 20. The aorist points to possibility. that the Pharisees and Sadducees are They have caught slightly the fleeing. virtuosi in religion. that he knew well about the Essenei neighbourhood. mention of classes of whom the Gospels have much to say. Mk. partly fasciin an ampartly come to spy biguous state of mind. — : KATA MATBAION lifiif III. 8. 8. and took It may be assumed pains to do so. e. and John did not form their impressions. to (iwi) His spirit was Simple.. by the in his living shores of the Dead Sea. By ihey come under his obsersation ? their position in the crowd or on the outskirts of it. but the felicity of the comparison lies in the fact that It implies the epithet suits very well. q Ch. Smith.

The axe — — : many Vv. ii. 18). either : was cogitare. etc. 7-8 contain a word for the leaders of the people. T. g-io. aneye. 7-8 . 33. 6 Si o. The singular is intrinsically the better word in addressing Pharisees who did good actions. 11-12 a word to inquirers about the Baptist's own relation to the — Messiah. Yet John seems to have inculcated retormation in detail (Luke iii. not the Christ. people generally. father. iyu (t€v.< «p)(6fX€fos '' 'Eyw Bairritw uiias . No. 10.era. Any one Gen. 4. But the expression do not think to say within is peculiar : — . Vv. . etc. I^ w«is Jesus who proclaimed 10-14). 16 (irpot n) Kai omitted in PaiTTi^w w|i. 12." That remark might be applied to all that came. is probably borrowed from . els irvp piXXtrai useless for any other purpose except to be firewood. 10) were spoken at a different time. iii. judgment Luke iii. i.as ^BCDA and by most modern editors. 5 (=fit with inf. Phil. come late in the day when the Baptist's fame was at its height. but were not good. jfohn defines his relation 86|iiTC .ai hand. cKKoiTTCTai: the present tense. fruit . etc. My tunction is to baptise with water. - inverted in ^B i.). th/o?. = do — Fritzsche subnot presume to inquiries plainly expressed or hinted unhesitating. Abraham it is enough to be his children the secret thought 01 all unspiritual Jews. 6 8c II. J' •>»xt« ^ec' eoTiK. 9-10 for the people at large. the reading in T. 24. flarcpa CK Twi' ^ EYArrEAION €\ofi. iyu) emphatic. Abraham's children only in the flesh. but it contained an innuendo and in reference to the Pharisees Sadducees that they were insincere even now. as in Gal. 3 Cor. ou ouK cifii iKUfos rd uirooi^p. Kaptrov.€v rov 'APpadfi • X^yw yap T€Ki/a u/xif. symbolic of repentance. in the emphatic position = we have as father. John frankly accepts the position ol herald and forerunner. but with the emphasis of subordination. do not say. is just coming How did John know . 3 Cor. important in its own way. g. but quite secondary and subordinate. R. ye are in earnest o5v. there is a Coming One. He will be here soon. Vv. stantially agrees say. I Cor.Tj iroiovv Kapirov KaXov. 16. " If. c/. 8. Luke iii. produce fruit worthy of repentance means more repentance than confession and being baptised. Protest and warning. xi. . It is probable that these words (w. . (present participle). Amendment is not expected in this case because the repentance is disbelieved in. expressive not so much 01 the usual practice (Fritzsche) as of the near inevitable event. 3 by the citation of the prophetic oracle as descriptive of his ministry. v. KcIrai : —Ver. Wetstein renders or. " ne animum inducite sic apud vosmet yourselves. ft. these being selected as most representative and most relevant to the purpose of the evangelist. Fruit the figure suggests that conduct is the outcome of essential character. unpalatable. w. 'A^paap.etc. on • Su^'arai 6 9*0? ' ^'^^ J^"'^ Xiduc TOUTWK eyclpai d^it'T] Tw 'A^padfA.voiav omaw uou Rom. 11) acts externally good. This is the doom of every non-productive fruit tree. ical can do (ironj<raTC. assigned to him in ver. but only a good man can grow a crop of right acts and habits. vide fiTj has been = perfect passive of ti6tj(i. collective. . then.'' "• Kol jAT) 1^ irpos TT]f pi^af twk SeVSpwi* Kcirai iraf ook S^cSpoe 'ttoioCj' KapTToc iiiv KaXof 'eKKOTTTeTai ^ e»' / Kttl 6is TTop • PdXXcTai. and to a different audience. vv." with whom irarcpa. p. Messiah (Mark i. but to the . II.ara \ uSari els u. 22. Honest repentance carries amendment along with it. — He who cpxop-cvos. not merely to Pharisees and Sadducees. . iti. and men began to think it possible he might be the Christ (Luke iii. 7-12 are a very condensed ministry in summary of a preaching which many weighty words were spoken (Luke iii. His answer to One would have expected do not think within yourselves. not merely fruit of some kind. This prophetic word would 15-17). to the fruit trees is. iii. in case it produce not (jxtj conditional) good fruit.: : — — 83 8— II. the inwardness of true morality.: the meaning is plain do not imagine that having Abraham for father will do instead of repent- = ance that all children of Abraham are safe whatever betide. I have my place. t^Sifj 8e '/'"c/^^ J?*". degenerate. / laxupoTcpos )xou Lk. XV. tiSti Si is •^ a|ivT) . g. Vv.i) at the root of the tree to lay it low as hopelessly barren. as tlie wood of at placed (Keip. about escape. 10. 15).

. inclines to the same piSxtpos fully unfolded in the sequel. the contrast between Him and His and renders: "whose will be the fan. They must be interpreted and who is therefore able to perform the in harmony with John's standpoint. after the O.i8. function uppermost in his mind in connection with the Messianic advent.. . Kal cis * 8iaKa6apici Tqc aXwj'a auTou. kv take ov as assigning a reason rvp(.i slave's office in Judaea. \'idi . Note the 7 the strong east wind which blights unless we grasp this fact. based not on personal knowledge. august a shalt fan them. like the It but on religious preconceptions. Carr. as a baptism. An Oriental magnifi. Then follows an explanation of the modus operandi. Ixiv. T. spirit. personage. Grotjus takes it as a HebraTMr«i reluriu. r. xl. with his wild %he wind leaves. as sweeping away all that is light and worthless in the nation (which. (avrit of ver.84 u Lk.H. fixvpov (in Greek writers not a few usually plural rd axvpa. follows up vcr.aTi iyC^ Bal ri«. "our iniquities. Messiah will baptise with wind and fire. Possibly John had in mind the Christ. a place- . wCh. John wind. stronger than mine. them away". x*^P^ ovtov as epcxegetical. was needed Him the nation was ripe for judgment. Meyer and Weiss humble forerunner. but he knew less of His irvfvfia in the sense of " wind. which is described ism for kv ov x*^p'^ ''° "'TTvov. 11) whose fan is in hand irvtv^Ti a-y^>. 12. : i>^ — . wheat lying on the threshing So store it in His granary. for and after and explains the judicial action emblemed use.. in His hand". John. iSgol. to the Power of Messiah. not from what Jesus proved to be. wind. Ti\v to Oe axopok' Mk. as the tempest and the devastating which flames are mightier than the stream I use aa my element.* Kai o-uwalci to*' * anov auTOo dcrPeorw. vide Grimm). in the His work was ready for fire. is conceived of as the thoroughly (8ia intensifying) cleanse His subject of Messiah's action. late for The whole baptism of classic oiaxa0a(p««. diToWT)(CT]k'. iv. rather than The fire destroys what the individual). marg. These sweeping away and consuming the imtwo verses give us John's idea of the penitent. . 12.ix. T. avxis vfia« ^av. have taken us away. 16: "Thou . I am not fit to be His slave.avTov. carrying to and from Him. the grass {Zeitschn/t fur Missionskund* attributes he ascribes to the Coming und Religionswiiiemchaft. Greece and Rome). " He Notable here are the words. etc. KaTaKauCTCi iropl Uclii. to emblem Judgment observe." spoken of in Is. floor. and the wind shall carry ovic «lfil. He will then collect generally supposed that the Holy Spirit blow the chaff away here represents the grace of Christ. running stream of Jordan.by wind and fire. is with His fan will throw up the wheat. light of St.zii. prophetic imagination. the better to bring out takes Iv r.— oZ t6 wtvov i.— 4v wvru'fi. the fire His judicial function holding that even the fire is gracious as and burn it with fire. Paul's teaching on the Holy Spirit as the immanent source of 8iaKa6apitI from SiaKaOapi^M. view. Hi. as Fritzsche revealed in His work. : — . as Furrer. s/r. floor shall and He &Y10V stormy wind of judgment holy. L omits avrov after o-itov. —iXmv. thinks of three . aoris u(xo9 PaTrTi<TCi iv nfeofiaxi 'Ayi'w rfj X^'^P'^ "tai iropi. for that was the the only way of escape. and refers to Is. and the straw. have known little of Jesus on the or.vilae-oo ri tttuoi' iv Lk. Ver.43. 17. The idea is: He sanctification. 6 differs widely from the reality." Is.Moiig with strength goes dignity— ol He is so great. Christ is is not here at a The irvivjia . This ver. 1 BL have «»Tot> after a-tro&riKTiv (W. leaving behind only the righteous. xli. n." suggests. or in the part assigned to Him ". X ootou. His sandals (.niso Is. He baptises with water.'n. We cannot understand his words the " wind of God. elements as representing the functions of himself and of Messiah water. amendment. as John conceives it. that the wind may It has been a baptism of judgment. 4.). understood. xThe construction is variously cent exaggeration.''''— loTC^One. And the sweeping wind and the consuming fire are the emblems and measure of His power. 17. purifying. I think that the grace of the all. KATA MATBAION Poordirat • III. The main one Cambridge G. and collect the : It was the Messiah was jast coming ? an inference from his judgment on the Messiah moral condition of the time. mixed with the chaff. who I find also takes can outer side. the Messiah. manner. prpphetic word.

imputing to the Baptist all that we believe concerning Jesus as the Christ and the sinless one. z Ch. He was the baptiser. It is enough to suppose that the visitor from Galilee had made a profound moral im- to enter into personal friendly relations with him (vide John i. : : »2 — 15.). with dramatic effect) from Galilee. Ver. Mark (i. but eager to be baptised the Jordan in His mind from the day He leaves home. and not only willing. or on a top exposed to the breeze. I _»_ _> irpos Cor.. — Ver. John 10 Tjp. and specially a grain store. i. incipient convictions as to who He might be. not the sympathetic fellow-sinner. the real Christ how widely different from the Christ conceived by the Baptist we know from the whole evangelic history. irp^s riv . the historical presentagain. W. 10. towards the 'l<i>av. Vv. o oe ^ t6i' y here only for force of tense n ^J- '1 Iwai'i'Tjs » ' '\ t oicK(i>Au€i' auTOi'. we may obtain significant hints concerning the stranger from Galilee from the present narrative. r. TOTJ PaiTTicrOTJvoi vir* words at SiEKciXvev imperfect. sharing his passion for righteousness. 14-15. in a field made firm by a roller. •1 ' 6 'Itjctous diro Trjs » ^ R lopoamr)!' irpos TOk ' 1 ' Iwai'i'Tji'.H. apTi ootw xb yap ' irpciro*' tcrrii' >\c« ii. vers. 13-17. versions have avTM. .after John had described the Messiah. Matthew represents the intermediate phase. TTpos Tov 6(6v). b Heb. and xi. 37. to fut. It is usually understood hill rocky yestis appears. » ' Kiyiav. adopt it. yohn re/uses. 21-22). 14. . 85 PaXiXaias ' 13. xiii. opp. a fact not without bearing on the dates and relations of the three Gospels. EYAITEAION Tore irapaytccTai . as if consoious that he was on delicate ground. : (irapayivexai. These once suggest a contrast between Jesus and the Pharisees and Sadducees. as if a sinner : . (W. ziiL la <now.. John was severe Jesus was sympathetic. fully appreciating the symbolic significance of his baptism. in order to be baptised by him (genitive of the infinitive express- Baptist (irpos) Jesus comes thoroughly in sympathy with John's movement.ii. -a D~ tou paimCTDTjv'ai \ / uir '''-. Bleek takes the epithet aa-^ianio applied to the fire as signifying inextinguishable till all the refuse be consumed. Nor ought we to take tuo seriously the Baptist's statement "I have need to be baptised of Thee ". . His reason was a feeling that if cither was to be baptised the relation ought to be inverted. avrov. it. Jesus comes to the Jordan (iiri). John was the baptiser of sinners Jesus wished to be baptised.— . 2i) passes lightly over the event in a participial clause. xiv. omit. and presumably in the minds of Christians for whom he wrote. pointing to a persistent (note the 8id) but unsuccessful attempt to prevent. 6 'I. But shutting off knowledge gathered from other sources. • «< 'e Eyw » « XP^^'"''' ^X*^ "'"''* °'°'' ^'J- '• 59- ^'^'^ j3aTrTia9f|i'ai. . Hitherto he had had no thought of being baptised himself. its . With ace. Matthew reports {lerplexities created in the mind of John by the desire of Jesus to be baptised. But the sequel suggests a contrast also between Him and John ing purpose). His baptism accompaniments (Mark i. The three narratives exhibit successive phases of opinion on the subject. where He has lived since childhood.. ciire const. |Jlc . Though weakly attested this reading accords best with the usage of the Evangelist.H. is His account intrinsically : credible. 1 luavviis omitted in ^B sah. auTOU. and awakened thoughts.^ A<p€9 a John ziii. himself. . pression on him by His aspect and conversation. It is instructive to compare the three synoptical evangelists in their respective narratives of the baptism of Jesus. Vv. A very different person this from the leaders of Israel. faXiXaias ^/if«. and between the Christ of John's imagination and the Christ of reality.) ' For irpos avrov B and vg. cop. a^/frtrs ou the scene absolutely. Kal au epxn irp^s »"• " » I5' 'ATroKpiOels 8e 6 'irjaoOs >'2u''ix auTOf . g) simply states the fact.. time). diro6i]KT) means generally any kind of store. g-ii Luke . '6. They came to the baptism as a phenomenon to be critically observed. L'uke (iii. Tdre irapo. as in ver. inf. jfesus. hopes. And just here lies the contrast between John and Jesus. 13. He comes iirl t6v I.ii' (same i Cor. To understand this feeling it is not necessary to import a fully developed Messianic theology into it. not one feeling need to be baptised the censor of sinners. often underground. . and . 13. " « cirl 'S» 14. Pharisaic or Sadducaic.

almost evasive. in the ethical sphere. congruous. In my judgment they concern Jesus principally and in the first place. but something far deeper. mostly theological. Their ideas of righteousness separated the two men by a wide gulf which is covered over by this general. -Evan. does justice to the feeling of Jesus. such an one. vide Meyer). must guide His action.Many exstand the baptism of Jesus. a brother of the sinful. 10. paniments. ital clSe to n^cupa tou 6eou Karo- pairricr*«is 8« in t^BC vg. One of the most feasible is that of Weiss Himself. Acts X. cop. we can learn from the dove-like vision and the voice occupied our confine our comments has Does vet strong in its very gentleness. and adopting as its Christ's policy aloofness from sinners ? baptism might create misunderstanding. manner. this means more than meets more than could be explained to a man like John.Meyer) ? We but I doubt if the suggestion it. His answer io gentle. dignified. Love. phrase all righteousness or every form of it. 9uid desiring to know the spirit. irXr|p(Ii<7ai III. and calling. planations of it have been given (for these. simple. Jesus came to be baptised in the Bcnse of dying to the old natural relations to parents.yna){^r\<Tay ^ auTu * o'l oupakoi. that to all objective supernatural experiences there are subjective psychological experiences corresponding. neighbours. ovTfa» Y*P "pt'Tov a mild word when a stronger might have been used.— 86 cLk. So at length he yielded— r^rt &^iT)(riv : a{/r6v. denying the objective clement in the experience. ii. the other because. Whereas the truth is that. yet deep. or even on the ground of sinlessncs-i. re- spectful. 17. Can we conceive sinlessness being so conscious of itself. The special form meant is not the mere compliance with the ordinance of baptism as administered by an accredited servant of God. to Ueat John's baptism as a thing with which He had no concern. and for Jesus. iii. But he saw that under the mild words of Jesus a very earnest purpose was hid. the subjective at . The reasoning with which Jesus replies to John's scruples is char- earthly passion for righteousness. which the new era will unfold. Tore tu9os - d^irjaif aoT^K. KATA MAXeAlON II. not a sense of dignity or of moral faultlessness. legal." -rao-av Siicaiingf. because into . ' * * For ttv«pT) (vOvs i^B have cuOvs B has i^vfwx^w**'- ^B omit «vTw. it refers to John as well as Jesus becoming. opri imply a tacit acceptance of the high position assigned to Him by John may read that (Weiss. 15. . they rush to the conclusion that there was no experience at all. for the Baptist. . in the sympathetic spirit of Jesus which made Him maintain an attitude of solidarity with the sinful rather than assume the position of It was impossible for critic and judge. — from heaven the thoughts which had been passing through the mind of Jesus These thoughts at this critical period. ' 6. the acquaintance of Jesus for the first time. whatever is to be said as to the objective element. 561. severe. 1 6. (Matt. 'A^€« ipri— deferential. yet it is it most concerns us to know just these thoughts that both believers and naturalistic unbelievers are in danger of overlooking the one through regarding the objective occurrences as alone important. The preternatural accomVv. attention. John did not understand that love is the fulfilling of the law. Kai tSoJ. The Baptist had a o<rvvi]v : In the arc to under. we may Applying the principle to this aspect. -naaav ^ 8iicaio<TuKT)i'. Ver. that in accordance with the symbolic significance of the rite as denoting death to an old life and rising to a new. light of this contrast wc the ear. and vocation of mysterious birth Him whose acteristic. II ' PaTTTi(T0«ls ' 6 'It](tou9 &vi^r] diro too oSarog • Kal Acurii. fitting. He was content to be misunderstood.). Avf^ii. h»ll-yielding. yet his conception of righteousness was narrow. These have been variously viewed as meant for the people. and devoting Himself henceforth to His public Messianic vocaThe true solution is to be found tion. on the ground of being the Messiah. vide Heb. where the same word is used in reference : to the relation of God to Christ's suffer" It became Him. and axe so viewed by the And as we arc now making evangelist. 16. sah. just as His associating with publicans and sinners did.

vision. to interpreters. <rv €v J e-uSoK. el. ' X. which Tischendorf follows. and love. : — — together as interpreting the consciousness of Jesus before and at this time. gives an answer which may be quoted for its quaintness: "They say that John had the people under water up to the neck till they had confessed their sins. : — 17. according to some . events is W. 16. T. the following inferences are sug(i) The mind of Jesus had been gested. Him My . The spirit of John revelled in images of awe and terror. xlii. It is in every way credible that the baptism ol Jesus with its con- . De Dialecto Macedonica et Alexandrina. The Temptation.<rr(pa. ovTos €o-tiv '' this is. and THE Beginning of the Galilean Ministry. the occurrence was of the nature of a vision. was full of prophetic utterances. 9. purity. (2) The chief Messianic charism appeared to Him to be sympathy.— r6 . laughs at the good monk. letting approach it those who have robbed it of its young.evei. delight in sweet smells I know not but I appreciate the insight into the spirit of Christ which specifying such particulars in the emblematic significance What is the O. " Outos iariv 6 ulos jiou 6 dyainrjTog. of the dove implies. ist. My of the Fathers. Probably Gen. The gentler spirit of Jesus delighted in words depicting the ideal servant of God as clothed with meekness. 24. according to Sturz. Kal tq cvwSia x*>'^P^''* Whether the dove possesses all these philanthropy. I. as in T. The voice recalls and in some measure echoes servant. 16. ii. — — 2 VSH- . koi l8oi» When Jesus ascended ^ve(Jx6T|o-av. ^uv^] cK Tuv oupavlav \eyouaa. * t>^CL have tivSoK. all real : and symbolised voice. The Fathers insisted on the Euthy. like that of John. or tion. I uphold Is. 17. to denote the inner event = my good pleasure decided itself once for all for Him. cu8<5KT|ora. soft gentle movement as it sinks down on its place of rest. ^ikavdpwKov y^p e<rTi." The title Taking the baptism Son " recalls Ps. Cor.aTy]ii many many in Him. exercised in thought upon the Messianic vocation in relation to His own future. Thus we obtain a contrast between John's conception of the spirit and that of Jesus as Chrys. eiiOvs It is commonly hyp'erbaton (Grotius). on the use of the aorist. 5. "Behold soul delights chosen one. 5. XVII. but a different class of oracles had attractions for Him. and that Jesus having none to conFritzsche fess tarried not in the river ".^ — Dove-like what was the point ol comparison? Swift movement. : say straightway ascended ? Euthy. and the TrepioTTcpas. aW ouk : tiirtv on Iv 4>v(rck Iv €i8ei irept. Winer. According But why a Hebraism. p. but Schanz There substantially adopts his view. and correctly taken along with avc^T). the voice. (3) His religious attitude towards God was that of a Son towards a Father. basis of the symbol ? Grotius hints at this without viii. including €vixyytKi. or with •f\vfax6r\(rav in the following clause by a Ver. 7. cf. (4) It was through the sense of sonship and the intense love to men that was in His heart that He discovered His Messianic vocation. 87 d Ch. X. 17. 169). 38 (all with <v and dat. etc.. 10. love. patience. the appearance of a 6 dove coming out of the heavens. altogether adopting the view. for His religious meditations.i ^B omit KM. EYAl lEAION * TtepiiTTtpdy. ^alvov uail Lk. outofthewater the heavens opened and He (Jesus) saw the spirit of God descending as a dove coming upon Him. according to others. cvSokciv. may For John tli<> in the vision. R. in the thoughts reflected the vision and the be connected with paTTTio-etis. Kai oviSev fj-rrov Tovs Kal Kadadiro<rT€povvTas irpocitTai. water was past. of the spirit was the stormy wind of judgment for Jesus the dovc with the olive leaf after the judgment by reflected emblem ." as if addressed to the Baptist in Mk. koi iSou. z.aor- either to express habitual satisfacafter the manner of the Gnomic Aorist {vide Hermann's Viger. pwrarov Itrri. with av^^T). icai these thus avE^iKaKov • oiroerTcpovfievov y^P '''•**' v€0<r<rtiv virofi. Chapter IV. Kai^ ep^oficfoi' iiv' aoro*'. as if addressed to Jesus. patient endurqualities ance of wrong. ii. So Schanz . sums up qualities of the dove. 1 CI' (0 €U u86 KTJ aa. might be worse explanations. is not Attic but Hellenistic. § 40. (5) Prophetic texts gave direction to and supplied means of expression His mind. Heb. 9.H. I have put " My My spirit upon Him. Ver. 5. i. wisdom.

wfipao-flTJvai. tj (to lead up from the dead). rvi. T4t€. omission oi tov before infinitive. primary meaning to attempt. left home under a poweriul impulse with The the Jordan and baptism in view. c IV. ^^^ 'c*^ "P' into the higher. Acts ix. 6) in an ethical sense common in O.39. 2. v-wb in later Jewish theology T. Luke — — — : : . ir«ipai|a) a later form for »«ipa«». one readily theory. and I. i. Whatever baptism was a decisive act. I. tU. xiii. and nothing remain but an cx'. . especially the descent of the Spirit. unique vocation. understand how in one Gospel (Mk. but the fact is simply stated. theatrical transaction which utterly fails to impress the lesson that Jesus was veritably tempted as we are. In the earlier period iv. before the opening of His public career. TbeM. it one may dare to sav so.ci n. should uected incidents should be lollowed by a season 01 moral trial. regret. strong inclination to look back and return to Nazareth ? In this experience Jesus was alone No inwardly as well as outwardly. sense). It reto a new. involved in idea.H. conr^traints Jesus had taken a great leap in the d. and unbelief over the supernatural element in the story all sense of the inward psychological reality may be lost.enpth of time. to be tempted.. mained now to realise by reflection what this calling. kindred m meaning. bracketed in W.ivi^x^. i. no attempt is made to describe the TemptaAnd tio:t. Under powerful spiritual ject ot study. The divine Spirit has to do with our darker experiences as well as with our bright. joyous ones. 7. T.^e of other religious initiators like Nor Duddha «re to be deprecated. i-ii.^. ?r«ipa(T8T}i'ai otto «-c\-00»\ tou oiapoXou. Jesus was mightily impelled bv the Spirit at And as this time (c/. life past ol meant iarcwell to obscurity and consecration it Thf Temptation (Mk. high. b beaides paralL i Cor. xxiv. and N. ziii. more tiie it might mean. ii. Mk. C. in the season of reflection. — : . T. and it was never more likely He had to be put in practice than now. X. to try to do a thing {vide for then this use .uke.. associated in some texts {e. ^• Kai inrjorcuaas ' i^jjiepas TCffCTOpa1 t ' Rom.that the detailed Temptation in Matt. deep. 26. implying close connection with the events recorded in last chapter. more solitary region of the wilderness. God's Spirit is never more with a man than in his spiritual struggles. shrinking. cf. clear. the haunt of wild beasts (Mk. it is much more important to grasp the ) fact as a great reality in Christ's inner experience than to maintain anxiously the literal truth of the representation in In the tight of faith Matt. execution. KATA MATGAION la. by a period of retirement for earnest thought on the future career Retirement so solemnly inaugurated. One can forth in symbol or in parable.^cts ix..38 a Lk. : ix. or. Ver. 5) with 8okiNote the )id(«*. What wonder if. Acts ziii.'s JK^cLXXfi). temptations arose to doubt. for prayer and meditation was a habit with Jesus. SiapoXov the devil is the agent in all temptation with evil design. The same Spirit who brought Jesus from Nazareth to the Jordan afterward led Him to the scene of trial. parallels or by reflection on the critical points in Christ's subsequent history. 2.ark. IV. j (same Ch.il. T. 12.) should rather regard it as having its ultimate source in an attempt by Jesus to convey to His disciples some faint idea of what We He had gone Vv. 13) rather than of men. rvfv^aTOf. ^So Holtzmann in H. JV. to try or tempt either with good or with bad intent. 14. the power exerted was not physical but moral. and experiIt was a large.7. and take up with the account of the Luke by is a composition suggested simply O. miraculous. 5. to which He had been set apart by John and by heavenly omens. adequate account could be given of It could only be taintly 8hado\vcd it. through. iii. not necessarily covering the whole experience of those days. severely and for a '. the fact points to intense menta) preoccupation.. difficult subence. : ToT€ o ^ lt]aous anrjxOi] ets Ti]v tpr\\i. 13. The theory of desertion hinted at by Calvin and adopted by Olshausen is based on a superficial view of religious experience. viri tov i. vi. He is with the sons of God in their conflicts with doubt not less than in their moments of noble impulse and heroic resolve. in a representative manner anticipating the experiences All attempts to dispose of later date. to express it more generally. ' B omits o. Heb.ov 6tto tou rifCupiaTo. summarily of the whole matter by reference to similar temptation let^enJs in the ca. in classic Greek. 1-13). then. but noting a specially important phase to be tempted mttr alia. 2 Cor. 5.

89 auTw' 6 ireipdj^wk' cnrei'. as long as it is desirable. Ver. in which vd with subjunctive entirely — suggestion to use His miraculous power in His own behoof.'*' ucttcooi' eTrctvaae. clircv : Christ's reply in this case as in the others is taken from 7 — : Deuteronomy (viii. 3-4. and retained by Tisch. Mlc.. At bottom the issue raised was selfishness or self-sacrifice. 25. T. «o»Ta^ ^ojK Kttl ' — : EYAriEAlON fUKTas Teaff(!ipaKO»'Ta." and implies a closer order of sequence than Luke's Kal (iv.) says that the chief deviation in the N. from classic usage is that tva appears not only after complete predicates. ». implies that the tempter is conceived by the narrator as approaching outwardly in literally " speak visible form. through Vv. Hunger represents human wants. 4. 11 God tempts David to number the people in i Chron.. man is to live a life of faith in Bread is a and dependence on God. 2. hunger. supplying their necessary complements iliri here may {cf. present with dramatic effect carries seizes hold of ttjv Him and dyiav iriXiv Jerusalem so named as if with affection {vide v. or loyal acceptance of them as part of Messiah's experience. to. o 8^ diroK. 5). Rev. — e-ireivaaev. Zt]v c-irl is unusual. Weiss (Meyer) disputes the usual view that the temptation of Jesus lay in the — -irapaXap. ^ KrTt\(r€v in J^^BCDZ 33. R. which seems to have been one of His favourite books. " reypairrai. Buttmann mend it to His mind. Trapa\afjipai'et aiirov auTOf Ch. both places in ^BCL. irapaXaix. He at last felt This verb like 8ix|/d(u contracts Both in a rather than tj in later Greek. Mk. why should He not use it for His own benefit as well as other men's ? He could only call into play by faith the power of God.'w ^Tjaerai* akOpwTTOS. in ccirev ^ ' • Tt<ro-ap. 53.H. Some grammarians see in this use of ivo with the subjunctive a progress in the later Macedonian Greek onwards towards modern Greek. * ^BCD. 01 XiOot oiiToi.H. . and the temptation lay in the suggestion that His Messianic vocation was doubtful it God did not come to His help at this time. take an accusative in Matt.aT05 0€ou. 3. . mere detail in that life. xxi. not necessary though usually given. Vv. 30). 6. the line of separation between the divine and the diabolic was not so carefully defined. before ^D (Tisch. 5-7. Ver. in i Thess. tov icpov totc has the force of "next. W. hinting at the desert character of the scene. — ver. ill. but Jesus did not desire it. be classed among verbs of commanding which take tva after them. Kal vtjor- The fasting was spontaneous. nri in Sept. etc. . Kol Z(m]<Tt. 5. these stones lying about. that the rude pieces of stone may be turned miraculously into loaves.pdvci. with laws even for protecting the animals. I it is Satan. ^B omit this avrw and ^BD insert one after wKxas (D with xai before ifirev). f OoK ctt' apxu |Ji6. would com- supersedes the infinitive. of the N. not ascetic. The word quoted means.ix. 3. Tart. another of the evangelist's favourite words. rtvaras. conforms to irapaXa|jiPavci. He had no such power.).). apToi yev. ix. but good Greek (De Wette).). ciirc tea * 3. irpocrtKdotv. Second temptation. 'O 8e aTTOKpiOtls ciirc. Sept. Kai upocreX-d € J mip. as a statement of design. This seems a refinement. v. elirc iva in order that ". xxiv.— «—5.y^ eirl t6 T€<r<rtp. exrl^ TravTi Ch" xvii. .. In such a place there was no food to be The had. CD have cv . 35 and especially xxvii.' " Ei oios ei too »c\»~ dW ToT€ 5- ->><» 6eou. p^fiari eC/." ' 4. and the question was: whether Sonship was to mean exemption from these.'i « Sid^oXos ^ CIS TTjK dytai' iroXii'. i. -to . : (Gram. i. and if He had. due to mental preoccupation. Rorist implies that a period of fasting preThe period ceded the sense of hunger. T. as 01 «Bubst. Its humane spirit. but after incomplete predicates. In 2 Sam. The reading in T. xxvii. vi. and W. historical . of forty days and nights may be a round number. cKuopEuofXEku oia CTTop. Him where the designation recurs). hunger. 209 (Tisch. insert o before avOpwiros. First temptation. Selfishness would have been shown either in the use of personal power or in the wish that God would use it. and sure to be supplied somehow. Xi6oi oijTOi apTOt ye'^'wi'Tai.

saying: "Is Jehovah among us or not ? " An analogous situation in the life of Jesus may be found in Gethiemane. aa. (ii]-iroTe Trpoffttovlrrjs Heb. naive suggestion. xTii. The second temptation. (vi. This is the condition. tois dyYtXois aorou i Ch. the interests of truth. ras paai\cias too Koap. pdX« v*avThv Kara*: This suggestion makes for the strongly symbolic or parabolic nature of the whole representation. not other " Scriptura per scripturam qualifying interpretanda et concilianda. Lk. in proof of which the Psalter is quoted Fs. viii. "If it be possible". ' trrtXciTai TTcpl aou. belongs to the category of need. Y^Ypa'K-rai. There is no such mountain in the world. ^ adrw. Kal SciKfuaik' tt]!* k Ch. the scene of this petulant outburst receiving the commemorative name of Massah and . 16). " Ei otos . - people virtually charged God with bringing them out of Egypt to perish with thirst. and claims power to give effect to the dazzling Ver. paXc CTtauToi' kcitu 9. ''iwTw iraaa. The mad proposal could hardly be a temptation to such an one as Jesus. 15. and God. " fldXif 8. xvii.«7. at that crisis down Before passing from this temptation I note that the hypothesis that it was an appeal to vanity presupposes a crowd at the foot to witness the performance. Lk. " not to be sought for in terrestrial geography. A homage to Satan as the superior. The vision ot all the kingdoms and their glory was not physical. where the of contemporary Jews. 12). jav irtaiiiv irpoo'.xii. >v.9. IV. but rather to reckless escape from desperate situalions. it stands written.' or all the world. I Cor. What world? Palestine merely. iij." and overhanging a precipice. or indeed to any man in his senses.Meribah because they Nowhere means. the name tempted Jehovah. as belonging to the devil." fldXiK irapaXap^dvci auTOK 6 Sid^oXos cis opos inlfTjXoK Xiaf. but pointing to a subtle form of temptation. in Lk. who regarded the heathen world as distinct trom the Holy Land. n here aod trrtpuyioy ToG Upou. but contradicting hand. The transit through the air from the desert to the winglet. Jesus replies by another quotairaXiv. Nothing tests righteousness. like the first. Ook ' ttciretpdaets Kupio^ tov Qtov aou. 16) simply represent the category of preoccupiition. .00 Kai ckircr. Ver 7. Commentators busy themselves discussing what precisely and where it was. but uttered the sub- missive. '" must have been " in the visions of God (Ezck. The danger is greatest when the " The end sanctifies the end is f^ood. S-io. The tempter points in the direction of a universal Messianic empire. On . ported. KvvTJo-Qs fioi. roil Kdo-fiov. Third temptation. vi. and the suggestion to cast Himself down a parabolic hint at a class of temptations. 3). where He did not complain or tempt.'^cape from the cross at the cost of duty. 1-7). seh-seeking men succumb. yt'ypaTrrai. 6. to which all ambitious. On this account many Satan with charge coninicntators mutilating and falsiiying Scripture. YtypaTrrai icai ^irl yap. xiv.' 7. i xi. prospect. the clause tow Sia^vXd(ai 7f ky ira<raic raif iSoIc vov being omitted. Vv. not even in the highest ranges. Kai ' For \«ytt Z hn- TfTepuyiov Tou part of the " the of winglct. X. oo§a»' aoTwf. 11. Vcr. xci. as the excuses in the parable of t/u Supper (Lk. What is the class repre: Upov some temple bcarint. Xido*' )(eipu»' dpouai ae. «U Spof v\)/T)\bi' XCav: a mountain high enough for the purpose." more common than is homage in to Satan connection with sacred causes. _ ^ . Palestine excepted — .x. • Kal Xtvci .— 90 '' KATA MATOAION 6. Palestine included ? All these alternatives have been supThe last is the most likely. The physical fall from the pinnacle is an emblem of a moral fall. q. The reference is to the incident at 1 Wettc. The Satanic suggestion is that there can be no sonship where there are such mextricable situ.5. 9. on the tion from Deut." Bengel. not precisely as Satan quotes it. The second harmonises witli the ideas — — : Kephidim (Ex.' ' «I too &€ou. ot which there is no mention. 'E4)il auTW 6 'iTjaous. purity ot motive so thoroughly as tempta- . or all the world. that of gaining power by compromise with evil.itions. The leap would have consisted in seeking e. like that of Ezekiel. carried by a lock ot his hair from Babylon to Jerusalem." says De ' ) through Not temptations sented ? vanity or presumption. irpos ToK TToSa ' " ctou.

Some MSS. 12. 23. Him (John — practice this homage. * ttik r 'irapaSaXaaatai'. 10. being substituted for trpoaKwrfo-d^ ^o^ii]Br\<r-\] (the |idv(i> in second clause is omitted in Swete's Sept. 15). Further particulars as to this are given in chapter xiv. Vv. q Zaram . Kai 180V ayycXoi. 12-25. ia Sept. 14. neither after the type imagined by the Baptist. : to explain the choice of Galilee as the Na^apeT. sphere of labour. EYArrEAION " Taura irdvTa aoi . nor according to the liking of the Jews and their leaders. J^BCZ . II. the agent of Satan in a temptation of Christ's the same sort being a disciple. and in ydp. 19. (DLZ) o I. He has in view the great Sermon on the Mount. and he gives first a summary description of Christ's varied activities by way of introduction. with food. 12 xvi. Jesus naturally went to Nazareth first. So He gained universal empire. when t«5t€ a<|)iT)«riv Ver. YTrayc. because it denotes worship proper (Weiss-Meyer). into the hands of his enemies. cost. - i» 'iriaous. 91 1 Xe'vci^ . Jesus passionately repels the Satanic sugThe vi7raY€ o-. • YeypaTrrai very frcq. ayycXoi TrpoaTiAOoc Ktti -\fl OS oiT|KO»'ouk' ' auTb). the peremptory viroye had been spoken. would have taken the form of conciliating the Pharisees and Sadducees.. if Jesus had been willing to render it. . . ' Kal iSou.8.H. Tcire dt^irjaic auTO»' 6 Sid^oXo. in MSS. omit ^BCDZ probably the insertion the older is due to commencing a lesson in Lectionaries. with several cursives.). Vv. and that the reference to John's imprisonment is meant simply after the tkcn. insert oitio-m jjww. as out by W. 12. 13. but how hard to work it out faithfully in life! signifying that angels ministered constantly to one who had decidedly chosen the path of obedience in preference to ^^ that of self-pleasing. but He did not tarry there. di'€XwpTQ<yei' ttju ii. Christ's ministry in Galilee began when the Baptist's came to an end how long . 37. 2^) in Capernaum. Kal ' KaTaXnrwf Na^apex. MSS. against them. final word to the tempter is an absolute. ' Kal auTw fiofw " Xarpeu' m II. in the providence of God. found nothing of this sort 30). 27. TTjf raXiXaiar 13. iv.g. .e. and became a Christ. (^BDZ). and panderHe ing to the prejudices of the people. where it does suit. in Him passionate of some (aou . imported from ver. i. in the view of the evangelist. OLKOvo-as 8^ . 10.oi. edd. ^ This name is spelt Ka<j>flp. xi.iv. as in ver. Weiss (Meyer) thinks that in the view of the evangelist it was immediately after.. 23. optois q Heb. Ver. ffcts. KaT(Jtcr]<r€v cU Kaircpvaovft. In — wisdom always roused The ottio-w aversion. Lk. i. iv cX6u)k p ch. slightly Deut..). ' ' ScJctw. Kupioi/ Toi' " ©cof cou " irpoaKUciicrcis. 13). aiwaysinwith ace. Yet He condescends to support His authoritative negative by a Scripture text. Jesus returned to Galilee on hearing that John was delivered up. In a few rapid strokes the evangelist describes the opening of the Messianic work of Jesus in Galilee. The quotation states a principle in theory acknowledged by all. T6t€ Xe'yei ' aoTw 6 . viiL ^ ^BCDZ iravTa have fiirev (most mod. i7>. adapted. iv. and the group of wonderful deeds he means thereafter to report. peremptory Begone. TaXiXaiav note of time.: 6 — 13. obviously ' ' ^ <roi tr. The suggestions of worldly character. here only in N. 14.. Beginnings of the Galilean ministry (Mk. The angels were ministering to Him. xvi. The Christ was proof prince of the world in tions of this class. xiv. — — . Ver. It takes the accusative here instead of dative. €iS AKOYIAI €15 Se 6 'Itjo-oos* oti • 'irapcSoOr). It might be taken in a wider sense. (e. 3 Chron. 9. which is adopted throughNothing was to be made of one who would not do evil that good might come. again from (vi. KttTWKTiO'ci' Kairepwaouji. x. in Lie. '\(ii<ivvr\s - 8^ Rev. . does not suit' this place it is imported from Matt. 13. took His own path. baptism and temptation not indicated. ^df ireaui' irpoo-KOfMatis "^ ' p. presumably. 15 . is true to His gestion. He went to settle (as in This migration to ii. auTw. in N T. T. but at a great vTraye aaTava.

" from the old to the new " (iiri Tfjs iraXaias ltr\ ry\v koivtjv) =a change For the evangelist this from within. because it is viewed as a reference to Peraea. Jesus chose Capernaum Vv. underpreachers.. " y. on the Capernaum The thought great. being implied in tjptaTo (Dc Wctle) next as not classic. The oracle is — reproduced from Is. but not in spirit. the (I. . twk ^ pao-iXcia n^Tpok-. these by confines of Zebulun and Galilee). 1 JamoB II •» i. 92 Ch. not applicable. . -»• -«*«• -4 om lo. vitU Winer. .6.' — KATA MATGAION IV. ^w< pfya. iv (ncoT€i ^ ' faXtXaia tuv y iQvioy. yfj Ne4>6aX€ifi. KT)pv<ra'fiv. iv. p. i).wfa TOf xiii. . of doubtful situation. ZaPouXwi' ital Nc4>6aXcifi. Syr. in the view of the evangelist. - 6. u Ch. " Repent. pdXXorras Mk. Grimmt ' w again I. monk though he was.. is possibly that caused by the imprisonment of the Baptist The consolation comes in (Fritzsche). 17. V. z. clause preceding. From the very first. being no longer in Tel Hum and Khan Minyeh existence. ^Sof 6aXdacrn9 ittpay toO 'lopSdwoo. and Cur.6. is the same for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. as has been seen even in connection with the baptism. tfo n-XT)p«0T] to pr]9kv Sia 'Hcraiou 15. ' O-KOTIA. with John meant " in so far as with ye have erred " = amendment Jesus. omit p. 16.). . even the greatest. Actsx. ncpiTraTUk' oe o lT]aous' 8«5o d8«X4)oos. " beyond Jordan. and on a great But the evaninternational highway. — : Well known then. 22. etc. in two ways. emphasised by repetition and by is enhanced description of the benighted situation of those on whom the light " in the very home and shadow arises highly graphic and poetic. There He as best suited for His work. I. and instructs to say rather i^ txtivov icy\pv<T(TtLv. a place where The races mix.. Christ's ministry. there was a deepbetween the two seated difference Even Euthy. same word as in describing the ministry And the message of the Baptist (iii. BD. a border papulation. ToO irpo^'pTou. The style is very laconic land of Zebulun and land of Naphthali. to the land of Galilee more than to other parts of the land descriptive of misery rather than of sin. Galilee of the Gentiles. 45). K''y*^» ^ . and near others.^ a xi.\fter settling in Capernaum Jesus began The phrase iirb t«St« offends lo preach. as The same It may seem as it the will appear soon. - 4k»s before €i8<v in b^BCI (W. of the KoiKij. Lk.obeck's ed. Zig. but to pave the way for another prophetic reference. of death " : . Repent. i. sufficiently defined " on the sea (of words. " McTai'oeiTe _ • T]YYiK€ Y^'^P . first as redundant. f A (all in- trans. in a busy town. but Capernaum appears in all the synoptists aB the main ccnue rijv ministry. way of the sea (ASov absolute accusative for : rpry = versus. itai oupavuf. — m . etc. 14. iwo T<}Ti Vcr. . Ihe form of a greater light. viii. stood this. '^ i ^ ^ elSe _ ^ws .H.). omit * The o I. the darkness referred to. was the absolute beginning of Christ's . Mk. being one of the degeneracies I'hrynichus forbids Ik rirt. 14-16.ox'-. ji. Ch. "^ " » rrj ZaPouXw*' Kal _ o . ix. he says. freely following the original with glances at the Sept. "^"^^ Kavr]^^." vord but not in thouf^ht. Tr]v OdXaffffttf Tiis TaXiXatas eISc T^v Iip.(on force of this . was in the heart of the world. is not formally noted in the other Gospels. The evangelist describes the position not lo satisfy the curiosity of geographers. . Xaos 6 Kadiiuefos 7. irapo. C/..(Tavo<iTC before Tjyyn"- * found in ELA: ^BCD (beginning of a new lesson). on the shore of a sea that was full of fish. { 23). also a scene of IvaKorii^.ivoi. Sin. evangelist meant to represent Jesus as simply taking up and continuing the So He arrested ministry of the Baptist. was in form and to outward appearance. "'*'• . now Naphlhali ". MtTovoiiT*. of Christ's Galilean irapaOoXao-o-iav. XcyOfiCKOK 'Ak'Spta*' dStX^ok' auTou. xiii. *Att6 TOTt 'r^p^aTO 6 'lT]aoos KT]poaaeik' KalXtyeik'. gelist finds in the choice a fulfilment of prophecy Iva irXT)p«*fr5.8e< a/. •ompete for the honour of the site.— Ver. * ' Xe'yoiTOS." is not omitted. nowever. 5.iii.

xi.) is the more usual construction. 28 with reference to the labouring and heavy-laden. etc. a sweep-net carried out in a boat. Vv. § 64). i).^ 19. R. He knows nothing of an earlier activity. KarapTi^oKTas rd SiKToa auTwi' aoTOos. ' t<^BC have €v oXtj -rt\ FoXiXaia. ot Si tvOiun a^ivTf%. may have seen them before. and far-farned. 'laKojPok' to»' tou Ze^e- Saiou Kal 'ii>idvvir]v t6»' auTOu. This seems and we naturally postulate previous knowledge in explanation. From the most critical point of view a genuine saying of Jesus.). 27I the four fishermen felt it. . 21. a verb of commandhere after me . li. 23-25. that tropical sea (800 feet below level of Mediterranean) abounding in fish. Kal 'irepitJYef oXt)>' ttji' faXiXaiai' 6 'lT]crous. i. and they Him. 19 Acvtc . The ace.. . Oi 5e eudeus rd SiKTua TiKoXouflrjaai' auTw. av9pMVMv. TiKoXoudTjaaf auTw. to throw) is the general name a. the time is inde- One day when Jesus was walk- ing along the seashore He saw two men.a z Ch. then drawn in from the land (vide Trench^ Synonyms of N. and thought them likely men." verb in 20. another pair of brothers.fj. by occupation fishers. (T. Kal ^ Kijpuao'atk' to cuayycXiofc' rrjs ^aaiXcias. 21. aXXov« 8-io. ""AcuTe dmo-u d<|)^t'Tes X here onl> in N.<|>ipdXX(i>). He saw them. the first distinctively individual word of the Galilean ministry as recorded by Matthew and Mark. SiKTva: ap. i. 16 17. (KaTapTi5ovT€s). ef tw irXoio) ficrd ZcPeSaiou • ToG Trarpos airCtv. ministry. conceived by the evangelist as antecedent to the Sermon on the Mount not necessarily covering a long period of time. varied.g.i^i^X'qo'Tpov in ver. 34. the gathering of disDisciples are referred to in the ciples. of place 35 vi. 14—23. . Scvr* and 4Xi«i« (= sea: ! Vv. a with fc TrpojSds eKciOec. Full 01 significance as a selfrevelation of the speaker. It points to a ministry in Galilee. i. anything cast around. people) are samples of old poetic words revived and introduced into prose by later Greek writers. AcvTc plural form of Scvpo = 8cvp' Itc. ing being understood imperial yet kindly. Kal ^C have oXecis. 28.. But : immediate cv6c<ds o<^€vt€s. Call of four disciples. extensive. surprising. with their father. and He said to them. T. Ver. The first pair were casting their nets. 6. Ver. names given. a hint at a process always going on. Authoritative : — indications point to the uniquely impressive personality of Jesus. . B omits o lt]o-ovs. 20. plan for winning men by select men. 22. Siktvov (from Sikciv. finite. *l Kal iKoXetrev irarepa auTwc here only (true text). They too followed immediately. B aXdcis. aui'aYwyais auTwf. and which had probably advanced a considerable way before the sermon was delivered. indicating a poetic idealistic temperament and a tendency to speech figurative betraying the rudiments of a . therefore it is meet that it be shown how Jesus came by them. 18. i. <rayrfvr\ .. Kai Keyei auTois. e. Lk. the audience in the synagogue of Capernaum felt it on the first appearance of Jesus there (Mk. elZtv aXXous Suo dSeXij)©^ dSeXtfjoiis.v. brothers. the second were mending them. Here we have simply a sample. Kal iroiTi<roj ufxds dXisis avQp(I>ir(j)v. more specifically a net thrown with the hand o-aytjvr). John felt it .^ SiSdo'Kut' ck rais xxiii. * EYArrEAlON CIS TTjc 93 ' dfi(()i|3\noTpo»' OaXacTaac fiou. ace. . 47 occurs a third word for a net. 16 in Sept. XXV. yet genial. used again in Matt. T.^LpXTjorpov (dp. James and John. ver. as in D. the main industry of the locality. 15. The effect was — The preceding very general statement is followed by a more specific narrative relating to a very important department of Christ's work. 8e cuOeus d<^erres to irXoiof Kal rot' with ix. Scvpo being an adverb of place with the force of command. . A colourless general statement serving as a mere prelude to chapters v.-ix. Sermon on the Mount (v. Mk. Ver. — . — ship. 22. all — irepiiraTwv new S^ : 8i simply introduces a topic. though if the expression " teaching in their synagogues " be pressed it must imply a good many weeks {vide on Mk. a garment. 18-22. Summary account of the Galilean ministry. sons of Zebedee. y Mk. . leaving nets. Kal Mk. hence preferred by ancient revisers. and father (vide Mk. In xiii. 20) behind. 23. • ijcraf ydp dXicis. the four together an important instalment of the twelve.

frapoTpoiTTj ttjs tov awparos jiaXoKia as liie weakness iti which begins (apx'H x*^'"**'*'*' awjiaros. and the disciples. might be The Teaching on the Hill. . evangelist and teacher alternately. 9cpn7rcuu»' iraaav dirfjXdc*' ^ T| t'oo'oi' Kal Trdtraf eis .94 bCb. not to the kerygma. fxaXaKiaf iv Tr\v t<Ii Xaw ' 24. ministry embraced three functions Kr]p\iaamv. Chapters V. course may represent the teaching.aThe disOtiral are the audience proper. x. which suggests a concio ad populum. it The subjects of vpoaYYtXos v6ao\n.ij. yet here the leading theme of : Xpovia ?{€«•«). It may be a combination of several lessons. Peraea. icol * ' Saifioi'i^ofickous. The Sermon on THE Mount. Our surprise is all the greater that there is so little antecedent narrative. (Pdaavof. Decapolis east.ses are named— the kaI in T. al. defines voaos as ailment. epileptics (their following the phases of the moon). not of a single hour or day. . speak to wisdom. ii. nosv become a considerable band. <. Zig. ver. I xxiv. » - > • tcai '\ T)Ko\ou(h]crai' > \ 'fl iCh. and the four fishermen. Nothing goes before to prepare us to expect anything so transcendently great. ^ axoi]. graphically called torments.' ' dicoT] V auTOu oXtji' auTu . not the Evangelist. : : . function first in accordance with the character of his gospel. blindness) ^evcr.. . the hill to get away from the crowds below. .H. function is represented as exercised on a wavav v6aov xai iroaav large scale (laXaKiar. irapaAuTiKou. Others may not be excluded. They brought to Him iravTa« t. the chronic subversion of health {i\ : and Judaea. every form of disease and Eulhy. A better name for these chapters than the Sermon un the Slvunt. and a healer Matt. f^i/'is I. is misleading. KATA MAieAlON 3$' . R. xai c Ch. Galilee. 28. IV. a master.ovitofi/trov%. teaching. «l« SXtjr ttjv Ivpiay. o pcura^'ois iroiKiAais foaois Kai Ivpiay • -X . Pythia. d Ch. liv.. was an evangelist. zvi. Kai \ \ " > y coepaTreucrec < auTou. as in n«ipifTi 8i koi Pindar. force of Kai = and especially. among Gentiles as well as Crowds gathered around the Jews. iropaXvTiKout — seizures demoniacs. Jerusalem iftlictcd . vUi. healing are divided mto two classes. interviews with disciples. ' oukCXopeVous. only once mentioned hitherto (iii. 27). Kai ' ' aeXT)via]^o|AtVous.. 14. irak'Tas tous d KaKwg ^a ' - e)(ovTa9. seized with diseases of a tormenting nature. ail who were with various diseases (such as also those leprosy.-VII. before SaifiOK. By an eifort of imagination we have to realise that much went before preaching. thcfoUowing words are cpcxcgetical 8aip. Kai eLk. The first gospel is weak in the evangelistic element comSiSax^i 's more pared with the third healing 1 he prominent than KTJpvYfia. S3. ' > 25. preachmg. conflicts with Pharisees. south on the eastern side ol the lake.) marvellous ministry naturally spread widely. 6. . this speaks to an extraordinary impression. first a touch-stone. which we may assume to have been to . 7 1. poo-dvoif <nivcxo)uvovt. exhausting ministry below. gather about Him.xvil. : : The scimon belongs to the dtJuche. in So in BU (W. ^C. teaching.). i. wonderful Man from all quarters west. This extended utterance of Jesus comes upon us as a surprise. The impressions iiiaiic uii die Baptist. afXuviatojuVovt.iroiiciXan foo-ois. Jesus is here the I Ic ascends Master. of such a disease. and all over Galilee rest being sought in variation of work. One very outstanding topic is Pharisaic righteousness. . The SiSdaKHK. — Ix. but not so as to make us take the sermon as a thing of course. 24 — 25. Jesus 23). These forms of disease are paralytics. The : * BC omit which is in C'U. as here. : discourse. north.ydiu. 105 Xpvabs iy ^affavw irp(ir<i Kal v6o<i up66f then an instrument of torture 10 L\trac: then. ^r^X^tv Kai. Kai ircpai' tou 'lopBd^ou. but the \t. hcalinR. and personal charm. of which three cla?. With every allow ance for the exaggeration of a popular account. puts the teaching of disease. auTo) o)(\oi iroAAoi airo n]s » V - I- laAiAaias Kai AcKaiTo\cu>9 Kai \ \ » "i Icpo- aoXufiojK Kai ' louSaias. 0(pairfvuv (ver. the people in Capernaum Synagogue (Mk. Christ evidently made it His business in one of the hill lessons to define controversially His position in relerence to the prevailing type 01 piety. kqI npoa^]v€yKav . power. but of a period of retirement from an exciting. throughout the whole province to which Palestine belonged. tormenting forms of truth The fame. .

iv. vi. xiii.. c8i8ao-K6v. Lk. Some general observations may helpfully introduce the detailed exegesis of these : He — . 49. aiirov) taking the teacher's position (cf." But be on our guard against a double misunderstanding that might be suggested by the statement in ver. ix. like Buddha. even the Beatitudes and the disciples. tation. disciples that they might meant He taught teach the world and so be its light. The hill. Introductory statement by evangelist. are near heaven golden words. XV. xxiv. 48. 16. as in Lk. 1-3. — 95 ' •V. i. 29. especially by modern Jews desirous to credit their Rabbis with such good things. or as an ordination discourse in connection with the setting apart of the Twelve (Ewald). the various parts cohere and sympathise wonderfully so as to present the appearance of a unity but that need not hinder us from regarding the whole as a skilful combination of originally distinct lessons. . the mountain tops away from the bustle and the sultry heat of the region below. though there is a truth in that title. the air cool. For comparison of Matthew's version of the discourse with Luke's see notes on Lk. He. 45 . 65) takes Ka6io-avros as meaning to camp out (camper). quiet all around. eSi'SaaKci' aureus. xi. nowhere else in N. ni. Zig. I find. and Acts. truth is that these portions formed one of the lessons given to disciples on the hill in their holiday summer school. possessing the generic unity of the Teaching on This view I prefer to that the Hill. xiv. because there was more room there for the crowd than below. Vv. 3-12. They breathe the On We .He passed from the healing of the body to the cure of souls. another for the few. Acts xviii. tions on admonitions against covetousness and care (vi. providing varied benefit. As these chapters stand. . according to some. xi. was for the million. or in its original parts an anti-Pharisaic manifesto and addressed Himself henceforth to His as if they alone were the objects of His care. But what then ? They are in the Talmud as a few grains of wheat lost in a vast heap to that. 1-2. or the magna charta of the kingdom (Tholuck). 3. I. 35. 23. may be most naturally taken to mean the elevated plateau rising above the seashore. Lk. one for the many. and we may say if we choose that the resulting body of teaching is the Sermon Perhaps the on the Mount (so Weiss). "He ascended the near hill. This was His habit. The originality of these sayings has been disputed. Epb. 11. and divine tranquillity within. to remain for a time. e. Lk. the third. adopts the view I have indicated of the sermon as a summary of all the discourses of Jesus on the hill during a sojourn of some duration. as •if in ascetic retirement from the world. Mk. Jesus was not monastic in spirit. iv. akoi^as to 01 a same 23 ch.g. i.. His highest teaching. 3 trans. The portions of the discourse which bear on that subject can be picked out. intrans. p. " dt'ePr] €ts to opos Kol Kai '^ KaOiaakTo. d again in i. bracketed as doubtful in W. instrucprayer (vi. i Ch. imperfect. also Heb. and He had not two doctrines. and so on. the blue sky overhead. 20 a/. TO opos. 6.Some of them. xiii. auToG. beautiful discourse against care. iv. •c " MaKapiOL . i Cor. It is idle to inquire what particular hill is intended. in xiii. V. even in the Talmud. . 4. here. avoi|as to <rTopa solemn description of the beginning of a weighty discourse. may be found in substance in the Psalter. Xc'ywi'. passing from that to this and from this . 1 B omits avTw . vi. 6 e Ch. Christ ascended the hill. 20-49. I prefer the view well put by Euthy. irequent in Gospp. we must . implying continued discourse. 19-34) ^ fourth.. T. Chap. spirit of the scene.13. i. sat down (Kadio-avTo. to avoid the din of the crowd (9opv^ovs) and to give instruction without distraction for . or to teach them an esoteric doctrine with which the multitude had no concern.H. irpooTiXOok' aurw oi * (jia0T)Tal auTou oTOfia aoTOu. purpose His disciples came to For this Him when (Weiss-Meyer). xiii. The Beatitudes. and possibly many. *ISwv 8J els to opos. 2. and others not relating thereto eliminated. The Beatitudes might form another. 5. C<rui'fir). ii. that Jesus went up to the mountain. EYArrEAION lAAN 8e Tous oxXous ^ V. Lutteroth {Essai d'lnterpre35. ix. Ver. 35. s. 3). 7-15) a third. 2. 18. or all of them. Mk. 1. Him a subject of long and careful study before the opening of His public career. which regards the sermon as a compendium of Christ's whole doctrine (De Wette).:. irrwxoi b here and Mk.

) or " Blessed the poor in spirit (Matt. The existence of another version of the discourse (in Lk. for. not in the spirit of an antiquated Harmonistic. " him do I call a BraJhrnana. io . true to his habit ot massing the teaching of Jesus in topical groups. paradoxes. The thesis. iz. and making them as prominent as the Ten Commandments. 25-34). and in Meyer). for." annexed to many of the moral sentences in the Footsteps of the Law in the Buddhist Canon. but there are incidental notices from which we can The disciples asked learn somewhat.1. but speaks mildly to his tormentors— him do I call a Brahmana. They vary in the diticrent Beatitudes as reported. b Ch. and 3rd IJeatiiudcs (w. sec. that it proceeded not from Christ. when assailed. 1 ." So " Blessed the poor..) ? This raises a larger question as to the manner of Christ's teaching on the hill.. It has been maintained that only certain of the Beatitudes belong to the authentic discourse on the mount. collecting them. when they vary from the refrain. " I am not come to destroy but to fulfil " (ver. say "Blessed the poor" " (Lk. but occasionally enThe Sermon on the Mount larged. it appears that He not only uttered great thoughts in aphoristic form.. "blessed they who mourn. "blessed the meek. Evan.. not Christ's. view both lorms ol the first this Beatitude might be authentic. auToi rlLv • oopavwf.g. contains at least two instances of such enlargement. arc to be viewed as explanatory comments. . teaching. and some parts of the expansion On have been preserved (w. . It is perhaps the most startling of all the . but simply as a contribution to historical •n-Twxoi. for theirs is the kingdom of heaven"." is amply expanded (vv. Tisch. questions and the Master answered them. This is the view of Weiss (in Matt. the other as comment. 21-48). Cur." etc. A iropciKXT)0T]croi'Tai. 4. > ' for the k. in ' iii. . adopts this orde r. 4. as reported. and heirs. Of course. possibly based on true logia of Jesus spoken at another time. one of the beatitudes we find in traces of explanatory enlargement Even in . being added by the evangelist. does not resist. " Blessed are the persecuted ". The originality of Jesus lies in putting the due value on these thoughts. This view goes with the theory that Christ's discourse on the hill had reference exclusively to the nature oi true and lalse righteousness. conceivable that in the original It is themes the reason annexed to the first was common to them all. to Weiss ct al. — — the last. with varying forms of the sayings. that of the first being "for theirs is the kingdom of heaven ". The 2nd and in Syr. the expansions. another view of the expansion is possible. and would need enlargement greatly. It was understood to be repeated like the refrain of a song. 96 g the KATA MATGAION name tw TTveoiiaTi ' • V. iiaKtipioi * 01 h TTCJ'flourres on . 3. or like the words. then A modern biographer expansions. which as a thesis might be stated thus: " Blessed are the cafe-free. of G. Each Beatitude has a reason annexed. put into the Baptist's month. No greater service can be rendered to mankind than to rescue from obscurity fore. as neglected moral commonplaces. accompanied with announced. " He who. A final much lesa important quea> The is copiously illustrated (w. Christ. 3.). but from the transmitters of His sayings. 6. 17). most old Latin texts. counsel against care. e. Luke puts it. the It. has raised a Did question as to the original form. Jesus explained some of His parables to From certain parts of His the twelve. . He thinks only three are authentic the first. 5. many things might be said on each leadThe theme would be ing proposition. Maxapioi Matthew preserving one of oL criticism. theme would always be put in the iewest possible words the first Beatitude there. * of chaff. oTt fl aoTWk' • iariv r. the one as The theme. would have prefaced a discourse like this with an introductory account of the Teacher's method. the hungry." etc. His. 10 12). ^aKapioi X BaacXcia Mt. not necessarily the only one. and fourth all pointing to the righteousness of the kingdom as the summum bonum the first to righteousness as not yet possessed the second to the want as a cause of sorrow the third to righteousness as an object of desire. 4. it« conditions. But this hypothesis is not a whit more legitimate or likely than the other. 5) are transposed in D.. There is no such account in the Gospels. I make this observation. Suppose one day in a week of instruction was devoted to the subject of happiness. . The actual reasons annexed. 15. third. J.

9. is. quaintly says. 7-10 Lk. ireifwrrcs Kal 8i<|/urr€$ T^f SiKaioaurqf Sti adrol xop'''<*<'6'l'''o*^<'"' j Het. cix. qualifications TTTuo-o-w. Ti. i. Ver. xiv. accounted by the world miserable. This savours of Rabbinical pedantry. ^ij? Ps. in accordance with one of his tendencies and the impoverished condition of most members of the apostolic Church. 10-12 being regarded as a transition to a new topic. tion in reference to the Beatitudes is that which relates to their number. 11 one.. absolute and unqualified at least to begin with. but to include that or even to emphasise it in given circumstances was no error. emphatic position theirs. But in Biblical Greek irrwxoi. Delitsch.aKdpioi. e. a future possible even for the mendicant. 11. Possibilities are — w. 17. as if spirit indicated the element in which the poverty is manifest poor intellect: "homines ingenio et eruditione parum fliorentes" (Fritzsche) = the vrjirioi in Matt. of course. but it does not end there. or xl. \aip€Tt Kai ayaXXiao-Oc. therefore.4-6. ol 'irpacis* EYArrEAION oTt 97 6.) are ye if ye do Notable in this connection is the expression in i Tiiri. to be connected with TTTwxol. is seven vv. irruxo? and irevris originally differed. 25 but subjectively. t>o in the following verses airol and avT«iv. 14. the most abject sense. but in present possession. This seems arbitrary. — — to ver. irevTjTts. and ver. The implied truth is that the happiness of the Christian God consists in being a Redeemer.-fi(rou<n t^v yfjK. The poor man paiseu ir to the 1/lessedness of the kingdom *s soon as he realises what a man is or ought to be Poor in purse or even in character. 39. under no disabilities. is in tVie inan who is reallv — : . to fear. adv. 12 being an en- The traditional number. . X. "The Gospel of the glory of the happy God". Mar. raircivof are used indiscriminately for the same class. Vide Hatch. Self-estimate is the essence of the matt«. note it well. Zig. xi. (paKoipiot. The comment on the theme passes from the lower to the higher sphere. This is one of the words which have been transformed and ennobled by N. the former destitute. A high ideai of life li s beneath all. Tertull. 16. bearing the burden of the world's sin and misery.— «oti. ol ittwxo^ •'rTwx<5s — • in Sept. though lacking the (jiaKapioi. The term is used here in a pregnant sense. One would say at a first glance eight. iv. its claim resting on the exulting words. Luke seems to have the social aspect in view. cower Blessedness possible for the poor in every sense they. av%-o>v. not with p. Note that the physical and spiritual lay close together in Christ's mind. in John xiii. anxious to establish an analogy with the Decalogue. not merely in prospect. T. xi. see notes there). makes out ten seven from ver.hac idoal lis the tii\k between the sotial and the spiritual. happy them ". p. Only the noble think meanly of thems-ilvits. things. XXV k Ch. taken even in not certainties to turn the one into the other the soul or will of the individual must come in. for as Euthy. poor in their own esteem. Hepassed easily from one to the other (John iv. 12. The kingdom of heaven is often presented in the Gospels apocalyptically as a thing in the future to be given to the worthy by way of external recompense. From and always used till Christ taught the poor man to lift up his head in hope and self-respect the very lowest social class not to be despaired of. 11. fiaKcCpiot oliCh. Ai d . the poor of an oppressed country. nothing involuntary can bless (ovSeV Twv iirpoaipcTuv |iaKapio-T<iv). " if ye know these . Christ's thought includes the physical and social. 10 as one. 3 largement. or with rare and difficult conduct. as in the Beatitudes. auTOi K\ir\povofi. T^ irv. the latter meaning poor as opposed to rich. come after. 20. ind is compatible with real wealth. To limit the meaning to that were a mistake. -iTpaeis. 3. Tw Trvevpaxi. however. 42. Ch. the tenth . 4. in dispiritment in an evil sense . Poor in spirit is not to be taken objectively. counting ver. 76. — . paKapioi. 10 one. stands for IV^fc^ Ps.r. no man is beggared who has a vision of Man's chief end and chief good. " In spirit" is. use by association. But this view pertains rather to the form of thought than to the essence of the matter. lii.g. Christ speaks oi: the kingdom here not as a known quan- goodness humble. The soul ol . wise—such is the first and fundamental lesson. added to develop and define the idea of poverty. How different from the Epicurean idea of God ! Our word " blessed" represents the new conception of felicity. 18: the poor. with unusual conditions. ver. in comparison with others. mendici. rather contrari- Poverty bxid to heart passeinto riches. 34. Heb. la. . Essays in Biblical Greek. ver.

for D^IM-* qualification. Necessary connection is asserted in this aphorism. .«.ti. The meek of England.•>orrow If not. a "world-conquering principle " (Tholuck). a grief that has the thing it grieves for in the very grief. noble nature abides permanently Ver.her sorrow of the soul. requiring and What sort of the question hunger is it which is sure to be satisfied ? That might be the original form of the aphorism as given in Luke. 17). otj/orrai.nil kinds of sorrow tend to awaken reflection on the real good and ill of human life. like all verbs of desire. Ver. ol ircv6ovvT€«. "^ Kapoca 22. se' vcs. q. b. the "joy in the Holy Ghost " mentioned bv St. will inevitably come to birth. I «'. future. It is at least true as a doctrine of moral tendency. and that is given in the sorrow which laments the lack of it. Meekness after all is a power even in this world. xxxvii./. but for the present there is no conscious joy. ol vpMit : in Sept. But Jesus promises to the meek the empire of the solid earth ttjv KXY)povo)itja'ovo'i Surely a startling paradox That Ytjv. Jerome.. 8. but as a thing whose nature He is in of defining by the aphorisms He utters. that this thought was far {gam fern) from Christ's mind. and to affirm \ er. But the connection beneath the surface is in favour of the order as it stands in T. L }.17. e. 7.ssing the tendency of all grief to end in consolation. The men without bitterness or desire for revenge.. aTini. ~/ on xii. 11. and favoured by some of the Fathers. however. passion for righteousness is righteousness in the deepest sense of the word. a class who in this world are apt to go to In this case we should have the wall. — I — Weiss (Meyer) is quite sure. irtivwvTft Kal 8i\)/wvTfs. which gives us a clue to the Their class described as ol Trtv^oerrts. The sorrow reveals love of the good. but The joy. the English the empire of the sea to the Germans belongs the empire of the air". sorrow. inverse order of the second and The The com- It lies in then no outward good. KaOapoi 01 I ^aKdpioi 01 ^Acp^OKCs' OTi auTol TT] ii. of is which an echo. and the natural sequence of possession of the the two promises kingdom of heaven and inheritance of the earth. in No the The greater the house of mourning. for moral . ^aicdpiot jl pLaKCipioi 'I im i.— 98 I KATA MATGAION V. expected the Teacher to end with the this Beatitude who suffer \*Tong which contains is the hunger its own satisfaction. the greater the ultimate gladness. that being the only thing they are likely to get. I venture to think he is mistaken. Codex D. m Kom I Heb. The comfort »apaicXtj9TiaoKTai. ordinarily take Hare and in the genitive of the object. so many that life is Did Jesus mean to not worth living. 5. meet this position with a direct negathat there is no tive. and that love is possession.. peculiar sorrow ivust be one which comforts itself.. But two ideas are most cases there no apparent necessary connection. In so far as . The answer to the question it suggests is similar to that given under Beatitude i. thf ict are grieve ? Then this Beatitude would give utterance to ri thoroughgoing optimism. It The good. but " inherit the earth "—the land of Canaan or any other part of this planet is it not a delusive promise ? Not altogether. xiv. ? 4. the meek should find a foremost place in the kingdom of heaven is very intelligible. R. litv. is latent in the very grief. Jean Paul " The French Richter humorously said have the empire of the land. It is curin stales of mind. the second Beatitude may be taken absolutely as expre. If so. : common : . a right state of soul. the true ideal human. Who they AH who on any account . then it consists essentially It is within. for the in correlative. Pessimists say that there are many griefs for which thi fc is no remedy. Paul among the essentials of the kingdom of God (Rom. might be plausibly justified by the aflinity betu-een poverty of spirit and meekness. The hunger whose satisfaction is sure is that mation raising : in Ps. for they shall be filled. ^»^^^o-l auTOi TOf ocok 14 (seeing God)- £XcT]67]aorrai. fort is refrain theirs is the kingdom of heaven. If the object of the hunger and thirst had not been mentioned this fourth Beatitude would have been parallel Blessed the in form to the second hungry. Id o Tina. 13. howonly poignant sor:ow. have inherited the continent of America. These verbs. and so to issue in the hii. should then have another absolute affirthird Beatitudes found in : : We ever. o Heb. driven from their native land by religious intolerance. then without remedy ? provoking a puzzle What grief thoughtful scholars to ask is that which will without fail find comfort ? There can be no comfort where He propounds : there is is no grief..

The chief reference may be to the mercy of God in the final awards of the kingdom. bracketed in W.av <{>i\o<ro(}>(as = kingdom as the summum bonum with undivided heart. twi' Col. the two-souled (8i4ruxos. hov/ever faulty in temper or otherwise. 36. they are qualified for seeing. 01 ''etpTii'OTroioi oi 0€di(i)Yfi. access to God's presence. ^ avroi omitted in it." says Euthy. Some have thought that 8ia is to be understood after The man who has is attained to (Matt. thus distinguishes the tive. goes without saying from Christ's point of view. truly conceiving God and all that relates to the moral universe.(|)aa6is. the single-minded. It was lacking in Pharisaic righteousness (Matt. the seat of thought. omitted by homceoteleuton and it seems needed for emphasis.H. It is the pure in heart who are able to see and say that "truly God is good" (Ps. it philosophy . ol Ka6apol Tfj KapSiqi. With it character. The exercise of mercy (cXeos. Some think the reference is not to the faculty of clear vision but to the rare privilege of seeing the face of the Great King (so Fritzsche and Schanz). syr. q vioi &. by tears" (Sia SaKpvuv). EYArrEAlON • 99 lO. That purity is in the heart. V!. the men who ieek the by the : numerical list goes for nothing. 10. In the words of Augustine. motive. They shall see. may be an explanatory addition to indicate the region in which purity shows itself. singleness of mind. in His view perfect 21). Ver. ^CD It may have been other places in N. viii. t. 14. Grotius understands by Sik. ovtw Kal ti Ka0apa ij/wx*) 8€x€Tai o\|/iv 6«ov. XX. — . Here there is a wide range of suggestion. two constructions to thirst : 8t\|. is ennobled and redeemed. It needed much to be inculcated in him that hath Christ's time. Zig. 8nj>. it was His habit to insist on the connection between clear vision and moral simplicity to teach that it is the single eye that is full of light (Matt. iii.. 8. This Beatitude states a selfacting law of the moral world. the way or doctrine of righteousness. oti auxwi' ccttik Lk. 7. 19. " but by word. i. 8) man i« Without it a large of virtues and good habits — .aK(ipioi p here . Ixxiii. ^ . Mercy is an element in true righteousness (Mic. Theophylact illustrates the connection between purity and vision thus uoiTEp Yap TO KaToirrpov. and that the meaning is " Blessed they who suffer natural hunger and thirst on account of righteousness ". James i. 26. but the truth to be insisted on in connection with this Beatitude is that through purity. Blessed the pure. 23). Ver. § xxx. The last is the most relevant to the general connection and the most deserving to be insisted on. Moral simplicity is the cardinal demand in Christ's ethics. and if you have nothing. rbv flebv o^JovToi: their reward is the beatific vision. Ver.. • only. xix. so that only the most intimate circle behold the royal countenance" (Schanz) = the pure have access to the all but inaccessible. ol clpiivo'Troioi not merely those who have peace in their own soul* -() : . xxiii. "not by money alone. vul. the mundum cor is above all the simplex cor. a theory which fostered a pitiless type of righteousness (Schanz). «' The expression has its origin in the ways of eastern monarchs. T. . KapS. This idea does not seem to harmonise with Christ's general way of conceiving God. which one not merely desires to participate in. <^i\oiro(^iav = to thirst for possession of philosophy as a whole. blind. ia Gal. It is true that the pure shall have 22). i^ PaatXcia Rom. The pure may be the spotless or faultless in general the continent with special reference to sexual indulgence those whose very thoughts are clean or the pure in motive. i) and rightly to interpret the whole phenomena of life in relation to Pro vidence. but He means the pure are th< men who see. Winer. . says Jesus casting His thought into eschatologica form. desire. but the application need not be restricted to this. but to possess in whole. On the other hand. ^av Kadapbv rdre 8cxcTat tos cp. active pity) tends to elicit mercy from others God and men. u." etc. when sympathy was killed theory that all suffering was penalty of special sin. ^ The verb 20. 8).. The doctrine of Christ abounds in great ethical principles of universal validity: "he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. This Beatitude suitably follows the preceding. knowing. they take the accusathe object being of a spiritual nature. before 8ik.: : 7 — lo. Mercy may be practised by many means.cVoi cKCKe*' SiKaioo-uVris <c«/a on auTOi^ 'uiol 0€ou KX'riS'naorrai. who rarely show themselves in public. the double-minded. not in the outward act. 9." " to — shall be given. vi.

culminating in wilful. men have few friends. It may have been added to make the sense clear. Christ. the Beatitudes is expressly repeated here to theirs emphatically is the hint that Kingdom of Heaven. ovp.ire m. Wetstein). . 11. ' This word CAZ) i ^^BD. iraf ptatcdpioi im.irked men. Their efforts largely consist in keeping aloof from sectional strifes and the passions which beget them. In any case Jesus saw clearly what was coming. 2. Do you repent following Him ? No reason why. * » Ka0 v|iMv before vav in in D. — : — ness. serenity. strong word of Hellenistic coinage. .^BC ai. and living Such tranquilly for and in the whole. but 1 tell you. part. Vv. II. ipcti. The disciplc> may already have had experience of Pharisaic disfavour (Mk. KATA MATGAION LoupaKUf. hut mrn who hear abidiucr true a of it in their chnroiter. The one was siue to give rise to the other. disciplined spirit It is temper developed The Teacher exktrrt. on 6 pita66s u^dik' TroXiis iv Tois oupafois (in outw y^P ^SiwColk toos omitted in iTpo<^T)TQS toos Trpo opiwk. i\i. I not only exhort you to it. This joy is inseparable from the heroic iyar and aXXo^ai.ill The common 7v«K(v J|^ov: illustrative details pointing to persistent relentless persecution by word and deed. but in the sense of deliberately inventing the most improbable lies their only excuse being that violent prejudice leads the calumniators to think nothing too evil to be believed against the objects of their malice. that suffering disciples — might be inspired by the thought that their Lord had so spoken ? It is possible to be too incredulous here. ci'ckci' '. and buoyancy about them. 10-12. The original form of the Beatitude was probably : Blessed the persecuted. — avrwy ka-r\v refrain of r\ fi.: lOO rRocn.hia-*ta\. )(aipeTC • Kai dyaXXidadc. the ideal peace-maker. every conceivable est sort calumny «|frv8ofi(i'oi. party passion. when party strifes and passions have ceased. .¥ tion. joy. * iron^pof icao ufiwK ' * <)/euoo^e^oi. in after generations. you canr ot — — . 46. veil a . nay. 81K. ol 8<8iwy. lying not merely in the sense that the statements are false. inevitable. ^aKdpto( patiates as if it were a favourite theme. but the active heroic promoters of peace in a world full of alienation. found through purity (Augustine).): the persecuted are not merely men who have passed through a certain experience. They . exultation is i. iii. added words only state what is a matter No one deserves to be called of course.ver. lying imputations of the gross«ov "irov^p^y. their compensation viol 9«ov kXv)#^o-orroi. — Stok 6vt\. God owns the disowned and They shall be distrusted as His sons.o\i. i'vfKtv ifiov for Him who has undertaken to make you fishers of men. Who and whence? veteran soldiers of righteousness with an unmistakable air of dignity. is the whole discourse about persecution not a reflection back into the teaching of the Master of the later experiences of the apostolic age. a persecuted one unless be suffers for righteousness. called at the great consummation even before that.commands his respect. or the peaceloving (Grotius. are ye. pT)fia * oraf ^feiSiawcif ifxas Kai Siw^wai. " flections " Blessed Is h likely that Jesus would speak so early — of this topic to disciples ? Would He not wait till it came more nearly within the range of their experience? Nay. — help being in this mood. x^^P*'''* "^^ In spite of all.). and prompts the They are question. possible— nay. ^. Ver. Ver. 12. Kai eiirciHn V. It is the proper guerdon of the soldier of righteous. and strife. It arrests the notice of the passer-bv . giving a personal turn to His further re- within him in and the heroic by trial. malicious.iz. and bear the stamp of trial on their faces. . the his now. was alone in a time given But they have up to sectarian division. The and He deemed it fitting to lift the little that His disciples might get a glimpse of it. 16.y. If it was not too soon to speak of Pharisaic righteousness it was not too soon to sneak of suffering for true righteousness. He had had an apocalypse of the dark future in the season of tempta They shall be called because they are. T. 5. if once ^ou vourscivcs enthusiastically mto 'AyoXXiaM is a the warlaxe of God.. ii. 12. etc. . from throw to leap much. Omitted in D . and men have come to see who were the true friends of the Divine interest in an evil time. signifying irrepressible demonstrative gladness. ol SfSiwy^/voi f.

31. Nil sole et sale utilius was a Roman proverb (Pliny. S3. but it is more natural to take it in its widest significance in harmony with k6vy. therefore. a. Vitally important functions are indicated by the two figures. If we take the yap as giving weak now. but why and for what ? TTJs YT)s might mean the land of — Disciple /unctions. . The sun lightens all lands.wpai'Ofj. w here and in it Mk.— — ti— 13. Meyer. Before you not only in time but in vocation and destiny. and thinks it is also pointed to here by the expression Trjs YTJs. C. It is the joy of the Alpine climber standing on the top of a snowclad mountain. Both harmonise with. Israel — .wv words skilfully chosen to raise the spirit. ovtus yap e. Your predecessors in function and suffering take up the prophetic succession and along with it. . cheerfully. and reflection on their noble career was fitted to infect disciples with their spirit. p\T]9 V in ^BC I. and the citizens of the kingdom perform the same function for the earth. 13-16. xiv. but were desponding and querulous. The functions assigned to disciples here are not more ambitious than that alluded to at the time of their call. 33. and greatly helped martyrs and confessors. It is quite credible that these sentences formed part of the Teaching on the Hill. 14. IV. rather than a condition on which its function in nature depends. was strong be indeed the salt of the earth and the light of the world. There is inspiration in the " goodly fellowship of the prophets. Origen. In Schanz's view there is a confusion of the metaphor with its moral interpretation. 6. The last mentioned property is specially insisted on by Schanz. 9). which carries along with the omission of Kai After 4<»- temper. and the second more than the third and above all. The second and third are doubtless the main points to be insisted on. The first. fiwpavdfj. that is. N. preserves against corruption. who finds a reference to it in Lk. Jesus might say these things at a comparatively early period to the men to whom He had already said I will make you fishers of men.) sets K6or|Jiov down to the account of the evangelist. will a reason for the previous statement the sense will be you cannot doubt that the prophets who suffered likewise have received an eternal reward (so Bengel. and thinks '^r\% in the narrow sense more suited to the views of Jesus.50. ix. Schanz. there was no inspiration to be got from thinking of them. aXo9. Both also show how alien it was from the aims of Christ to be the teacher of an esoteric faith. ttjs y^? * cat' 8c tS flXas 'u. ^ xiv. treatment on pensating reward ovpavois. Salt arrests or prevents the process of putrefaction in food. Fritzsche.\iaQ-c\<T€Tat eis ooBej' loxuei en. But we may take it as giving a co-ordinate reason for joy = ye are in good company. the latter points expressly to. u Mk. tovs irpo^i]Tas. H. masculine. 49. For evil is a comheaven. aXas. Necessary certainly.ov. primitive in Christianity. Col. so. Rom. Ver. the joyous mood commended to His disciples by Jesus . (Achelis. and postulates possession of the attributes named in the Beatitudes. i. Better Beza and Erasmus. its tribulations. V Lk. a late form for aXs. and as a manuring element helps to fertilise the land. and more generally that they did not rise to : Ver. irifatuahts If the salt become insipid. tovs irpb v|i. ^ e^w. 13. On that side. mentators have enumerated four. 34. With these the disciples : Vv. The properties of salt assumed to be known. The new section rests on what goes before. earth there . Holtzmann (H. 34. purity. a universal destination of the new religion. : . gives flavour to food. in moral elevation. But they were thoroughly loyal to righteousness at all hazards. i Cor. 13.' " 'YfAcis eoTc rh * fiXas . for the people who dwell on it. Fritzsche limits the point of comparison to indispensableness = ye are as necessary an element in the world as salt is a needlessly bald interpretation? is . €i pXT]6T]Kai i. €»' — EYArrEAION — lOI ix. jit) Tin * LlCi xiv. 35. is a quality of salt per se. Bergpredigt). are ComSalt pure.. It is to be noted that the prophets themselves did not get much comfort from such thoughts." quite as much as in thought of their posthumous reward. This hope. so as fuerit. The Vulgate renders the verb evanuerit. Weiss). to lack its proper preserving virtue can this happen ? Weiss and others reply: It does not matter for the poin. But the Teacher gives two reasons to help inexperienced disciples to rise to that 'Sti 6 fjiia6os .

perhaps durSchanz says ing the hours of sleep. 381). The reading pXT)6iv is much — all.. hopelessly insipid. De Gtlijkeniisen. und A similar statement is made R. goes on to caution disciples against the policy of obscuration. as prominence to KaxairaTcio^ai verb. i8yo). Tiu. ordinarily neuter = urert .. in Evan. to make footpaths of. K«i ovo-i.I02 Lk. consisted of a single room.. cast out as refuse. The " salt of the earth can become not only partially but wholly. an earthenware grain measure. 305). by which it becomes really another sort of stuff. reminding us of Heb. p.). 14. k. sionally for special reasons. good for nothing else any more (fr*). metu infamiae damnorum aut mortis mfatuati. which is much more strikingly apt if degeneracy can happen in the of the comparison. pointing to a kind to which insipid salt can after all mam giving as the of use be put. therefore without danger of setting it on fire (Koetsveld. Nothing so hopeless as apostate discipleship with a bright past behind it to which it has become dead— begun in the spirit. But Christ knew that there would be strong temptation for the men that had it in them to be lights to hide their light. not as Beza thought. with what shaU the insipid salt be : But what a downcome : from being saviours of society to supplying materials for footpaths Ver. neither can a light fail to be seen — unless it be expressly prevented from shining. Erasmus gives a realistic description of the ca>uses of degeneracy " Si vestri mores fuerint in these words amore laudis. «U oiSiv. not the rule done occa- tiny light sufficed for — : to be preferred to pXridfivat. zii. etc. so it has often been observed in our time that salt loses somewhat of its sharpness in the storehouses of Syria and Palestine. losing the qualities which constitute its conservative power as set forth in the Beatitudes and in other parts of Christ's teaching {e. Omitted MSS.. etc. libidine vindicandi. the lamp burned all night. figure is taken from lowly cottage life. 21). not. i. Hebraism examples occur in late Greek The authors {vide Kypke. and statement. KAIA MATGAION itaTairaTtiCTOai oiro re 5.—tl \kr) pXTiOiv." etc. it undergoes with other substances a chemical process. "Yfitis ^OTTc TO KcifAe'nf) • ^is 15' Heb. the sun of the moral world conceived of as full of the darkness of ignorance and sin. accendere.ss for salting. The disciple function is now viewed as illuminating. p. '^ in dXX itn 18 al. but it does matter for the fehcity of the metaphor.salting process be done ? but. fur M.^. a A — — : salted ? The meaning is is property irrecoverable. so here the danger to be avoided is that of obscuring the light. ment. or under the bed (Mk. This is a kind of humorous alicrthought except indeed.). high to keep clear of serpents. that is its nature. Perhaps not. named preceding note. No pains need to be taken to For secure that the light shall shine. ' qoSc in Kaiouai Xoykok Kal TiO^aaiK aurbv uiro t6k ixoSiok. to kindle. A that the lost stern statevi. parabolic word pointing out that sach a policy in the natural sphere is unheard of and absurd. (Paraph. natural as well as in the spiritual sphere. There is no room for doubt as to whether the case supposed can happen in the " spiritual sphere. It would draw the world's attention to them. the light. 15. iv. by Thomson {Land and Book. 14. if pains be not taken to bide ! it. V. 6. to be trodden under foot of man. But that would be the exception. Matt. with what shall the Iv rivi aXi« so necessary . xviii. x29too Heb. Tholuck also thinks people might cover the light when they wished to keep it burning. Obser. Sac). so that the . 3j. Gathered in a state of impurity. As a city situate on the top of a hill cannot be hid. Mat. cupiditate pecuniarum. The light will shine. There was a projecting stone in the wall The house on which the lamp was set. xii. when they bad occasion to leave . ov Svvarai -ir^Xis. that it is enough to be a light. ending in the flesh. and that when they wanted darkness they put it on the floor and covered it with the " bushel ". studio voluptatum. but true to the fact in the spiritual sphere. Long ago Maundrell maintained that it could.e. Koafjiou ' • 00 Sukarai iroXis Kpu^f]vai eird^u) opous ' in LL. twk avVputTruy. And as under the figure of salt the danger warned against was that of becoming insipid. usele. rh 4>tis t. Ver. and so expose them to the ill will Therefore He of such as hate the light.. modern Furrer travellers confirm his : " As it was says observed by Maundrell 200 years ago. while retaining its old appearance " {ZUckt. It might now and then be placed under the modius.

ignoble. The double-sided doctrine of this loi^ioii of Jesus is that the divine is revealed by the heroic in human conduct. But Christ's method of teaching was not He defined terms scholastic or formal. And assuming their genuineness. let your light shine. p.g. impressive: your Father. At the period of the Teaching on the Hill Jesus felt constrained to define His ethical and religious position all round. as human fathers find joy in sons who acquit themselves bravely. Christ's distinctive name for God. p. Vcr. for the first time in the Gospel. and also to contemporary presentations of righteousness. XajA\\iciTti. C.7. the reward of heroism. etc. with reference to the O. There is no reason to doubt their substantial authenticity though they may not reproduce the precise words of the speaker no ground for the suggestion of Holtzmann (H. 16. A Cf. for an example of a *' good work ". EYArrEAION Kal "Xiifnrei iraai tois cf rfj 103 16. oircjs ufiut' toj* i8uo'i>' rd ' KaXol Actsxii. entirely different from the scribes (Mk. The words of great epoch-making men generally have this fate. zzTi. Their conduct Jesus represents as disloyalty to God. Father. as a name for God. Don't use means to prevent it. they might easily be misunderstood. says : ov Jesus wanted. on the other hand. heroic. Though apparently contradictory they might all proceed . But their "light " is not true heaven-kindled light their works are not xaXa. It comes in as a thing of course.»- TO <^d»s ofiwi' ep-irpoffOex twk dKOpoSirui'. — unpleasant consequences to oneself. or be taken hold of in rival interests. Jesus Himself is the highest illustration of the twofold truth. KcXeiJCL OeaTpi^civ tt|v ap€TT)v. by discriminating tcse . . The temptation arises j&om the fact a stern law of the moral world that just when most glory is likely it is to accrue to God. It is full. — — / goodness. Cowards can always find plausible excuses for the policy of obscuration reasons of prudence and wisdom: gradual accustoming of men to new ideas . Arch. 10. but irovTipa (vii. at best of the conventional type in fashion among religious people. solemn. thinks it would be put under a cover only when they wished to put it out (Matt. 6. and that the moral hero is the true son of God. God.. "Father. Mt. but generally the true reason is fear of : — noble conduct. wa learn.. At a first glance the various statements may appear inconsistent with each other. so extinguishing your light. avoidance of rupture by premature outspokenness . 17-20. The hiding of the light means withholding glory. MIc.—oirws. the room for a time. 17). noble. Does it presuppose previous instruction ? (So Meyer. This is theatrical ." occurs. xvii •. 23) in a manner that at once arrested attention and led hearers to recognise in Him a new type of teacher (Mk. ziv. according to Benzinger (Heb. i. an anti-Pauline programme of the Judaists. Vv.14 — 16. and that we must find in these w. This first use of the title is very significant.) that so decided a position either for or against the law was not likely to be taken up in Christ's time. e. Many are ready enough to let their light shine when honour comes to themselves. and wrought often in a spirit of vanity and ostentation. ouTw. It is suggestive of reasons for faith45. The disciples had already heard Him teach in the synagogues (Matt. The sentences before us contain just such a statement of the Teacher's attitude as the previously awakened surprise of His audiences would lead us to expect. Do ye as they do in cottage life apply the parable. It hints at a reflected glory. epya. 144). as the recognised authority. and give rise to disputes in the apostolic age. Zig. outu ufiuf Xap. reasons of love and reverence. TTjv \ux>'io»' oiKia. or at least rendering it useless.) One might have expected so important a topic as the nature and name of God to have formed the subject of a distinct lesson. i. 124).-Evan. The shining of light from the good works of disciples glorifies God the Father in heaven.. The noble works which glorify the Father reveal the workers to be sons. worthless. turning the rare exception of household practice into the rule. Note that here. as Father delights in noble conduct. Kal Soldaoxn tok irar^pa iv tois oupat'ois6. 22). 27). fulness. but not necessarily. by using it as a motive to . iv. T. Jesus may have given formal instruction on the point. deference to the prejudices of good men .«|faT(i) z Lk. But was it ever put out ? Not so. . which is emphatically not what Euthy. least glory comes to the light-bearer not glory but dishonour and evil treatment his share. Weiss. The motive suggested throws light on the name. yesus defines His position. He who is in the heavens so again in ver.

irdvTa Y**"T''ai.g. xxiv. Lk. and NVeiss). Beth .. same e James 10. T. than . and that therefore O. and view a Judaistic look. though totally opphets are not to be conceived of as legislation. 344). of the base line in 9\ implies that the attitude actually taken up is the same towards both. He is not come of solemn asseveration. He brings in a law of the spirit which cancels the law of the letter. &»> iwra cf fj ^la with iof. general : is acquaintance with the of Christ's teaching (vide Wendt. biitray a consciousness that there was setting aside the crude details of their that in His teaching and bearing which conception of the Messianic time. What rdle does He thereby claim ? Such as belongs to one whose attitude is at once free and reverential. coming under the category of law posed to the spirit of the scribes. T. well weighed. T. Die I.irap^X6^. 17.Moses and the prophets.Appendix ii. and have been are a protest against taking a surface impression for the truth.representing the minutiz in the Mosaic Christ. oi (*t) it. is more luminous than at first it may seem.s of this as a possibility To the ordinary expresses here m the strongest manner religious Jew the mere conception would His conviction that the whole O. J. — Du : . often used by to disannul either the law or the proJesus. is appear a prof. Yet the passage by itself..significance which must be recognised ence for the institutions and sacred in the ideal fulfilment. dXXd irXi^pwacu. V. xir. or set down abrogate. in fulfilling He necessarily abrogates in effect. and be so reported by the genial Galilean publican in his Lo^ia. ( 510. but a as law. • lyixtpta in both W.. prophets and psalms seem to strong way of saying never (so Tholuck be in Lk. the little with reference to which different atti projecting point in some of the letters. under that head. ii. 17. Christ's attitude small. law " (Wendt.H. as above interpreted. revelation Goodwin. 39. same as that towards the law. a second and of salvation which Jesus taught bore protasis introduced with 7ws explanatory vide of the first Iws &r -rap/Xdhr^ the same relations to the O. T. a kingdom Mtj fo^io-ip-f These words which realises prophetic ideals. the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet. theory and practice an ideal to which O. The best guide to the meaning of the momentous declaradrift protests that He came not as an abrogator. or (n accus. Christ more exact statement of Christ's thought.. here only. which the law will pass away. is every minutest precept has religious here. is not = xal. irapAOi] too Rom. We must bring to the words sympathetic insight fnto the whole significance of Christ's ministry. 34 (OTl ^A- irpo^i^xas ootc KaraXuaai. d Ch. What freedom of evangelist.— Imto. ^4. These verses wear on first might create such an impression. 17.tf on ^XGov* * KaraXuaoi rif i'6\lov f\ toos here and in X. 44. to set aside in the exercise of to the credit of an over-conservative legislative authority. would (Weiss). but a kindred O. 18. while \'er. d^fjf y^^P * Xeyu oftener ufiif. but which they do not adequately express. T. not saying the same as His doctrine of righteousness to the eternal. " Law" and " Prophets" are not taken etc. lasting. tion they contain He fulfils by realising in — ! — — : — — . but as distinct part^. " Mt) * vo\il<n\Te riXOo*' &. "The idea of God . sense Acts v. Vide Kiihner. 6 oupaf^s Kal r\ 18. Vv. fus pi. the Sermon contains no illustrations Gram. not intended to fix a period after here as one idea = the O. found doubled phets. T. V**« &*.\nity.. towards them in that capacity is the interest to make this clear. but as retaining their distincnot allow them to have a monopoly of tive character as rcvealers of God's real for the commandments great and It was important in a polemical nature and providence. 38. ivi. 330). Scriptures. ews fiT) * -napikdr^ diri y*). 10. till adequately fulfilled the latter the irXripwcrai: the common relation is expressed by this weighty word. But they may be reconciled mmd is implied in the bare suggestion with ver.ou. ivi. The pro. while repudiating the spirit of a destroyer. ii. never by apostles. \ 516. Jesu.). thing. 'AnTjy. Verbal exegeiiis will not do much for us. irpo^. I Lie. ziiv. T. . K«pa(a. L. ludes might conceivably be taken up. with Cor. formula books of His people. though elliptical = do not fear lest. c in i. 17..IQ.— I04 b with KATA MATeAION in 17. g also Goodwin's Syntax. institutions and revelations point. A greater than the a Divine revelation. . both e.. from the many-sided mind of Jesus. but as ^fulfiller. only in fourth Gospel. to regarded as an interpolation..ehre Jesu. {) before r. ' Kcpaia 00 inf. KaraXvo-ai. Therefore. But the Greater is full of rever. y*v. tm% iv w. K($p.

but one who lives above the past and the present in the ideal. ^.Jesus has in view O. without thought. * V. great and small class 3 set aside the great for the sake of the little. where only the moral has value. : We — stood ovTOs (*^Y*'. 18. dream or purpose of change. etc. Tfjs SiKaio<rvvT]5 being understood after irXetov.. but he is not a moral nullity. : gently. which is the He key to his iconoclastic conduct. 20. rn PaaiXeta i^ twi' Xeyw yap ofj. That place is reserved We shared the prophetic disgust at formalism. where the great ethical laws and the precepts respecting ritual are both alike — . It explains the eXdixio^os of the previous verse. ical tyj 10. 19. recognises him therefore as possessing real moral worth. This nev ype gives us Twv yp. because. R.v gjohn 35. in spite of his earnestness in action and sincerity in teaching. 6s 8* aviroii]OT] Kal SiSdli). iii. there are always such men. T. It belongs to Christ Himself. He takes for granted that he is an earnest man. taking our attention off two types described in the previous sentence and Yet there fixing it on a distinct one. And the second is greater. * KXT]0rjo-eTai. Christ's statements concerning these classes of the Jewish community. xii-i?. 15. Rom. but. Christ's some respects such a man. a compendious comparison. in virtue of his impatient radical-reformer temper. about such really A Christ's judgment scribe or Phari- nothing. Ver.etot' tt]*' €is »0\' xwi' YpafAfiaTewK Tiav j pacri\eiai' oupavuy. somewhat puzzling. for the scribe irXcXov least. with a passion for righteousness. I call him is Note now what is. great there is a higher grade still. who is neither a sophistical scribe. spirit. cX^Xio'TOS KXTjoi^acTai ck paaiXeia Tuv oupavui' ci' og TroiTjoT) oupat'U). outos fieyas 20. the little and the great. not the zero. i Kai with irap« in Eccle*.-i const. Kal SiSd^T). /'jy^rvfl eiae^OTjre 00 firj ( oiKaioaun^ ufiwi' > irA. nor an impatient reformer. have totally neglected the temple worship and sacred festivals. but wishes it to come . saints. and is wearing towards its decline and The fall.'. 3^. disposition has supreme vaJue in the Kingdom. The y^P >' expect Si. thus Class I set aside the least commandments for the sake of the great class 2 conscientiously did all. He Baptist was in He seems to the moral zero. &s lav ovv XiJorjj. They differed from the two classes named in ver. T. as in SU2. vfuov before ti8iK. i. the divine for the sake of the traditional. ovv pointing to a natural inference from what : view being such as indicated. while zeal for the ethical is good. TreptaacuoTj <t>api. a sweetness and graciousness. the piety reflected in the Psalter. little. Here is another type still. We have had two degrees of worth. k. is a hidden logic latent in the yap. for another class. That threw them outside the Kingdom. that of the scribes His own In such was and Pharisees. know now who is least who The man who does and is great ? teaches to do all the commands great and small great not named but underetc. ouTw Tous • EYArrEAION tuv iXaYiffTO)*'. and men in time living in their spirit. the Fulfiller. He must so judge of the setter aside of any laws however small. elsewhere recorded. = your righteousness) in ^BLA al. Him value these sweet saintly souls. akin to the Kingdom as He conceived it. and so as to do full justice to all . Jesus simply calls him the least in the Kingdom of Heaven. C/. higher. not great. see would regard a breaker of even the least commandments as a miscreant. .aai(>)f. ellipt. 19.— 17 — 105 : . 6. goes before. 8' &. the ethical for the sake of the ritual. respected. kiyu yap. on " ccik fxrj Lk. The earnest reformer is a small character compared with the sweet wholesome performer. ii. These valuations of Jesus are of great importance as a contribution towards defining the nature of the Kingdom as He conceived it.ii'. v. only little in the scale of true moral values. When a religious system has lasted long. John the Baptist was possibly in His mind. lacking in the character of the hot-headed lawThe geniality of Jesus made breaker. Ver. than the first. temper. walking humbly with God in the old ways. 18. Nothing. nor a strict performer of all laws great and small. enable us to understand the verdict He pronounces here. sim. the highest. or some others not known to us from the Gospels. 85 cai' ouv '\6<n\ tiiav tS>v ^ ivroktov Tourutv SiSa^T] di'OpojTrous. knows that a change is impending. [ohn 3. —ao.

but by common humanity. 18. an instance of the " gnomic " use. not the provincial seven. :^xii. says Theophy. but the supreme seventy. — : Weiss and Holtrmann (H.6fitvo<. not by reading it themselves. of the tribunal. the Sanhedrim that tried the roost heinous offences and sentenced to the severest venerable. from which the great Teacher sought to It will be best to deliver His disciples. Often in Acts. t* Ch. divine. y. common people knew the law by hearing it read in the synagogue. and is adopted by Meyer.. 21. 332). L. Oil * <^o»'eu<7Cis • Ss S &» again ver. but omitted in ^B. Ver. o Cb. pi. »a« . a correct statement. 17. here four times a Cor. Vv. He goes back on the roots of crime in the feelings anger. but it was not Christ's habit to supplv qualifications.— ewoxos = lvfyi6\L€¥o%. eyw 8c Xtyw If 0^05 cotqi rji " ufii*". m » ith gen. How far To back does Christ go in thou£:ht ? Moses or to Ezra ? The expression is vague. Zig. it could forbid and punish only the outward act. The second is in accord with N.19. 'Paxd. 8. . bold inaugurator of a new time. on • irds 6 6pyi'l. as a painter fills in a rude outline of a picture lo-Kiaypa^iaf). Rom.^ e^oxos eorai tw : auveSpiw Mk. 59. In connection with this and the following exemplifications ot Christ's ethical method. Tholuck thinks there may be an allusion to the tradition of the scribes. 'Paxa left untranslated in A. 22.ssion. * liicT) is an ancient gloss found in VMlgate. The our way. text in Ji^LMA al. s. — . in MSS. a word of little meaning. ii. ii. The reference is to the provincial court of seven (Deut. V. ' *ppy\9r\ in BD. tfit Zi \iym Christ supplies the defect. His is the unique greatness of the reverently conservative yet free. 2 Chron. This . «pp«0Ti was more usual in later Greek.io6 k I RATA MATGAION ix.). 21-26. universal interdict avTot. — — . T. xxvi. here as in ver. or by the ancients. in tendency — : — . V. 14) possessing power to punish capital Christ's words offences by the sword. are of course not to be taken literally as if He w-ere enacting that the angry man So understood be tried as a criminal. 12. taken from the Sixth Commandment. and might cover the whole past. not only of the Pharisaic interpretation of the law. 8. of punisht. and we : . xix. 5. The implied doctrine is that every man is my brother companion doctrine to the universal Fatherhood of God (ver. »paxa that is in ^*D abc (Tisch. but an interjection like Hem. Theophy. 64.&f clirg Tii dScXi^ui auTou. 0$ n (ethical) with dat.Kpicrti. iLH) is of qualification of the course a gloss interdict against anger may be required. . which have brought back the spirit of legalism. man who commits this trivial offence (as it seems) must go before. (W. His aim was to impress the main idea. ^ok'cucnr]. Origen. 45). Joseph. He says. Ant. roif apxaiois mif^bt mean in ancient times. 21.H. Lk. xiv. ignore these strifes and go steadily on 'HKovo-ar*. is — Ov ^v<. and R. to the ancients. Acts " € vo)(os eoTai TT) Kptati 22. He deserves 40 go before the seven.% . (the classical meaning) or in faith. Every one &8«X^: not in blood of angr}' pa. The aorist expresses what they were accustomed to hear.H. There is no reason d priori why the criticism should be restricted to the interpretation Christ's of the law by the scribes. and the best modern in many late editions. Mk. rendered by Jerome " inanis aut vacuus absque cerebro ".).. gives as an equivalent vv spoken by a Greek And the to a man whom he despised. text t^bBE (W. iv. 66. ii^'w. First illustration 0/ Christ's *thical attitude. . etc. V. jj. usage. xvi. But just here lay its defect as a summary of human duty. As a law for the life of a nation. must be prepared to find Him doing so. here only.). . contempt. tw dS€X<4>(Ii auTou «ikt] - Kpiffci os o • Pet. but of the law itself.. It restrained the end not the beginning of transgression (Eulhy. Kp(<rct. the interpreter is embarrassed by the long-continued strifes of the theological schools. with dative ot the tribunal here. He would be simply introducing an extension of legalism. Ver. xit. position as fuifiiler entitled Him to point out the defects of the law itself. and of good the past. and there is reason to believe that in the sequel He actually does (so Wendt. 'HKOUffaTC oTi ' eppt'Or] ^ toIs " ' dp^aiois. and perhaps is intended to do so. meaning he is as great an offender as the homicide who is actua'Iy tried by them. anger a deadly sin. C). Augustine says a Jew told him it was not properly a word at all.). called Shema. 21.va-t\. xxvi.

and R. KaKct Mk.^ CT€ ^irapttSw 6 8. seem profane to do so. 'Eiiv ovv irpo(r<{)epYjs. Kal 6 KpiTT^s ctcs in t Lk. koi viraye form of contempt than Raca. if a Greek word. though it may offence against the law of humanity. EYArrEAlON M(t)pi.. ^ |ier avTov before ev r. Kara o-ori. .TW amoiKO) -*> 5' Euroui' fjLTJiTOTe .) regards ternally (by the references to courts ol through with thy worship as fast as possible and go directly after and make peace with the offended ? No. ^). PTTi^ Deut. stupid More expresses contempt for V. {<^BDL. CTOu. . Raca ex. outoG. 24. Holtzmann (H. here only. irpii(r(j>cpc no contempt evoxos . 26. as Paulus. . the most worthless of characters. First The reckless use of such opproorious go : remove thyself from the temple. It means contempt for a fellow-man. Mcopc. But. ! <r.a5. T rtva rtw here and Ch. but it is first announcement of a great principle not so improbable when we remember often repeated. KpiTjj.g'. This in. C. They are of the reason for regarding this passage as an utmost value as a revelation of character. (irpuTov stands after the his heart and character = you scoundrel. 18. if thou art in the very act of presenting thine offering (present tense) at the altar. Significant utterance. But the passage is at least in thorough harmony with what goes before. In either without handing it to the priest to be case the word expresses a more serious offered by him in thy stead. 33. may. the offence is deadly in Christ's eyes. . a<|)€s Ikci. TrpwTOk' ' 8ia\Xd^ V ' _ »\fl> 'X Kai totc cXWwi' TrpoCT9epe to toupof ctou. C. 5). interrupt the religious action and go on that errand first. prompting to words and acts often bitterly regretted when the hot temper cools down. did Jesus offer Kuinoel thinks the meaning is He sacrifice ? and answers. i Peter v. xxvii. iviii. : . XX. XII. not to the seven or the seventy. here only N. burning alive nor drowning was actually Jilial affection and duty before sacrifice practised. 24. as an addition by the evangelist. xxi. oSto.— — 31.aoeAcpco ctou. What then ? Get — — (Num. forms of inhumanity roused feelings of Vv. hardly. Kal UTTaye. T. . > (mio? nfa). hell. otou o »> "ttci tv tt) oow J jjlct part. in a violent passion.. epithets Jesus regarded as the supreme breal{ off thy worship. : : : . death by stoning Trivial appearance. 24. p. 'irvp<Js. T. of Hinnom : is dignus est qui in valle reconciliation before sacrifice: morality Hinnomi vivus comburatur. verb also in chaps. be a Hebrew word. XV. otov awhile. In any deserves to be burned alive in the valley case He respected the practice. systematically neglected what Christ said about the offender of by the religion of the time.p«x'"'"k. It is connected only exVv. — . In these words of Jesus so always in Christ's teaching (Matt.) asks. suggests. ci'oxos ecrrot cis ttjj' ye'eci/ai' 23. It for 7^ T = T good for nothing. . . etc.irpwTov. 18). morally worthless. and after him Nosgen. 3. €ws dmSiKOS Tu 25. against anger and contempt there is an 13. 58 xviii. C/.before religion. not to the following verb as in A. iTp6(r^epf present set about aspect of exaggeration. 25. KaKct (ivrjo-S-jj? . as well as the two following. ix. 34. '5 \j. and it suddenly flashes through thy mind there that thou hast done something to a brother man fitted to provoke angry feeling in him. a4)es ckci to Acts SupOf YT]Oi r >' A _fl CTOU lfi1TpOCT0€»' _'• Tw ictWl •'. more inhuman than anger penalties. XX. r iffSi with aou '•" rayy. Holtzmann (H. vii. T. . 2. Against this Field {Otium Normcensc) remarks that it would be the only instance of a pure the spur of the moment before the altar Hebrew word in the N. u cm. 107 tou irupiS. 23. q here only in N. V. tou 6uCTiaCTTT]piOU. There is much more passionate abhorrence. interpolation. a rebel against God or against parents. Lay it down on — I — . as well as with the whole discourse. b dc eiTTj). mercy before sacrifice. EAi* our Trpoa<|>e'pT)s to Soipof CTOU aou """^ cttI to Ouaiacm^piof. but to for religious service expressed or implied. xviii.-25.xi. terpretation finds little approval. SiaXXdyiidi He deserves to go. Lk. the equivalent fool. Placability the little ones (Matt. They are the offering plenty of time now for the strong utterance of one in whom all sacred action. Neither before sacrifice. his sin altogether damnable. these verses. Kal T0T6 .>T)<T0^9 oTi 6 d8e\<j>os 'Ix^'' KaTo. The -Trpwrov is to be joined to presses contempt for a man's head = you vTraYe. vi. 6).

Vjpc^ovvTi T^ Xoyicrfiy.. and it was the tendency of the scribes to give exclusive prominence to this. The : . Chrysostom. (Tisch. ' ' wanting avTT)s. 18. is ^B. says 6 javTy T-ijv iiri9vfkiav a~uW{yttv. Ch. but desire was expelled by the mighty power of a pure love to which every woman was as a daughter.-« iras pXciruK -io\' OTi omitted in in ippl&r) toIs dp^Qiois. I3DL probably the true reading. xxv. are on the way to the court where they must appear together (Ueut. and the debtor is Luke's exhorted. iyttv Rabbis also condemned xvii. 58. Uleck. half the value of a ko8. 26. unmarried. legislator condemned lust after another — — .H. i he unchaste looks. 6 ^^y\6*1'6% dvayKdCovTOf r6 9T)piov iirtiaHom. Vv. H.) the accusative after cannot but iwifl. . and the teaching on the hill does not seem to olTer such an occasion. — : — We : . in brief lapidary style guarding the married relation and the Of course the Hebrew sanctity of home. 7. the exposition in Luke. is rare and late.— I<j^ tvvomy. vpi< ri look is supposed to be not casual but persistent. be in a conciliatory mood. ^* brackets). Sit ipyo^Lav throws the willmgness on working as a public law the statute laid main stress on the outward act. Luke has Vrrrir. xxii. but in how coarse a style compared with Jesus let this quotation given by I'ritzschc show " Intuens vel in minimum digitum feminae est ac si intueretur in locum pudendum ". think of the personal relations to woman of One who understood so well the subtle sources of sexual sin. than a farthing. Lake's text may have suggested the addition. ready to come to terms with your opponent in It is a case a legal process |&irr(8iKos).oi)(cua6is * 28 iyi) ' This second at TOis apxaiois tvi6v^t. Meyer pleads that the logion might be repeated. Shall we say that He was tempted in all points as we are.) aJ. It occurs in a different man's wife the tenth . law) with what goes before.-. doubtful by W. but only on suitable occasions. Matthew's expression implies willi). ingness to come to terms amicably on the creditor's part. a sister. Hut connection in Luke xii. or at least implies that the debtor will need to make an effort to bring -wa^at^. thereby suengthening the statement that the imprisoned debtor will not escape till he has paid all he owes. defines the offence thus " Qui hoc fine et hoc animo quod attenderit ut eam concupiscat jam non est titillari delectatione carnis sed plene consentire libidini" (De ser. 28. scoufge of the vicfs of Antioch.— io8 •'["JS. — — : KATA MATGAION If apaSw ^ Tw uTrrjpe'rr). zviiu 25. Weiss and others regard the words as Referring to foreign to the connection. 6 ^Xiiruv the looker is supposed to be a husband who by bis look wrongs his own wife. . to repent.' - Ou * yot-atica irpos »!/»»-3 to e'n'i0u^T](rai ouths p. xxi. and the two. Holtzmann. rude handling. and it is out of keeping with the general drift of the teaching on the hill. the front what both scribes left in the backinward desire of which — : yvvaiKa: the cihcr side. oimjv except is LMA.. Therefore Christ brings to Moses and the ground. which points to rough. creditor and debtor. but cherished with longing.. ical eis ^uXaKTjf i** pXTi$i]<rn. 27- Huouaaxc on "F^''* o« Aey*^ . WrjpJtTT]. it is expressly prohibited in in practical commandment. It might. the merciless Domini). 27-30. MSS. or a betrothed a sacred object of tender respect ? iiuirricd or — iwi6vpTJ(rat. Augustine. dragging an unwilling debtor along whither he would rather not go. without pronoun. a severe judge in such matters. : . ROfU* liii. taken A from the seventh commandment. (W. I offer here only a few verbal notes mainly on points in which Matthew differs from Luke.ri<Tai is -ir«p. the desire not involuntary or momentary. Second illustration. there as a solemn warning to the Jewish people. Mk. the adultery is the fruit \'er. Ml have wiih avnjv. the officer of the court whose busmess it was to collect the debt and generally to carry out the decision of the judge in Luke KoSpovnjv = quadrans.to meet him half way. dfi^ X/yu 00 ^T) ^leXdrjs ^kci6c^. ews * diroSis tok co-xarot' " KoSpdrrrjk'. on its way to judgment. Kuinoel. a much the creditor to terms. 42. In better taste are these sayings quoted by Wunsche (Beitragc) " The eye and the heart are the two " Passions lodge only brokers of sin " avTt)v (bracketed as in him who sees". less irpiiicTwp. of debt. grand moral law. milder word than Luke's KaTa<rvpu. aoi. 21. xU.




KapSto. auTou.^

i}8r) e(xoiX€oerei' ouTf)i'


8c 6 6<}>6aXfJios y Ch.
diro <roG



aoo 6 Se^io;


OKat'SoXi^ei ce,


auToe Kal
^lekSiv aou,





ctoi i»'a

diroXTjTai ev










pXrjOrj cis y^eKfOi'.
iKKOil/Of auTTji' Kal

30. Kal

Se^id <tou x^lp aKOK(ruftcljGpEi

xvii. 27(to




diro (rou

y'^P ^°''


di76XT)Tai Ir

TUK fieXuK aou, kuI


oXok to aup.d aou

offence). z Ch. xvUi.

3X'r|6^ els

31. "'Epp^fix] 8e, OTi"^ 8t Ak diroXucTT) t^p yucaiKa

a Ch. xviii. 6 with tKa. Ch.xix. 10 auTou, 86x0) with inf.



has <avTov.

For the reading in text ^B have cis ycevvav been conformed to the reading in ver. 29. Had

The T. R. has doubtless stood here in the copies used by

the scribes they


would not have substituted the reading omit otu


Counsel to the tempted, Vv. 29, 30. expressing keen perception of the danger and strong recoil from a sin to be shunned at all hazards, even by excision, as it were, of offending members two named, eye and hand, eye first as mentioned the right eye 6 6^. 4 Segto; before. dwemed the more precious (i Sam. xi. 2, Zech. xi. 17). Similarly ver. 30 the right hand, the most indispensable *^r work. Even these right members oStJH body must go. But as the remaining kft eye





Weiss (Marc-

Evang., 326) thinks it is taken here from the Apostolic document, i.e., Matthew's book of Logia, and there from
43-47. Third illustration, sub31-32. ordinate to the previous one, connected





with the same general topic, sex relations, therefore introduced less formally with a simple ippidif Si. This instance is certainly directed against the scribes rather than Moses. The law (Deut.
xxiv. i)

and hand can

still offend, that these counsels are not

it is


obvious to be

taken literally, but symbolically, as exto master pressing strenuous effort Mutila;exual passion {vide Grotius). tion will not serve the purpose ; it may prevent the outward act, but it will not extinguish desire. o-KavSaXC^ci, cause 10 stumble; not found in Greek authors but in Sept. Sirach, and in N, T. in a

moral sense. The noun aKcLvSaXov is also of frequent occurrence, a late form for aKav8dXT)9pov, a trap-stick with bait on it which being touched the Hesychius gives as its trap springs. equivalent liiiroSiaixds. It is used in a literal sense in Lev. xix. 14 (Sept.). crv\L^epti . iva diroX. iVa with subtropical

to mitigate an existing as evil, in woman's interest. The scribes busied themselves solely about getting the bill of separation into due legal form. They did nothing to restrain the unjust caprice of husbands ; they rather opened a wider door to licence. The law contemplated as the ground of separation a strong loathing, probably of sexual origin. The Rabbis (the school of Shammai excepted)

was meant

usage, regarded

junctive instead of infinitive (vide on ch. iv. 3). Meyer insists on Xva having here as always its telle sense and praises Fritzsche as alone interpreting the passage correctly. But, as Weiss obdestruction of the serves, the mere member is not the purpose of its excision. Note the impressive solemn repetition in ver. 30 of the thought in ver. 29, in identical terms save that for ^XtiOfi is substituted, in the true reading,



occurs again in

recognised whimsical dislikes, even a fancy for another fairer woman, as sufficient reasons. But they were zealous to have the bill in due form that the woman might be able to show she was free to marry again, and they probably flattered themselves they were defending the rights of women. Brave men Jesus raised the previous question, and asserted a more radical right of woman not to be put away, except when she put herself away by unfaithfulness. He raised anew the prophetic cry (Mai. ii. 16), / hate putting away. It was an act of humanity of immense significance for civilisation, and of rare courage for He was fighting single-handed against widely prevalent, long - established opinion and custom. airoXv<r|):.

b here and auTTJ




32. cyw Se \iy<j


og Av dTroXuorn



vufaiKa aoToO, "irapeKTos Xovoo


Acts xxri. 29. aCor. KOI OS

.,,,,.., car

ir-oofcias, iroici auTfif



aTroX€\u|ji«r»ji' YafiTJcrrj,





d here only

OTi ipp{Br\ Tois dpxaiois,


* ciriopiciio-eis, dTToSwacis 8e

tw Kupiw

twice in Sept.


Tous opKous (TOO- 34. ^yu) Se









pif) * dfjioaai




^ 0€OO
/ •











, 'C ' J e"^o''ro°^*>'' *°"'^ '"'^^ iroowi'




fiT|Te eis






^*"'i TOO ^eycIXou ^aoiXEui; 36. pixe ^f ttj tce4>aXT) aoo djxocrgs, ort (wit^ csTa),ver. fLk-xx. 43. Heb. i. 13 g this title for J. here and in Pt. zlviL 3 33 (with .If).

iros o


in t>^P'I,A al.











runs o

clau«:e koi os «av fioix'^''''^ 's aTro\tXvji.«vT]v ya^.Tjo-as.
. .




and bracketed



word in Greek corresponding the &iroo~riiru>9 authors is iTroir«p."ir«iv. = Pi^Xiov &iro<rTao-u>v in Dcut. xxiv. The husband is to give lier her di-missal, with a bill stating that she is no longer his wife. The singular form in lov is to be noted. The tendency in later Greek was to substitute lov for lo, the plural Vide Lobeck, Phryn., p. 517. ending.

recognise adultery as a ground of absolute divorce, or only, as Catholics teach, of separation a toro et mcnsa ? Is it possible to be quite sure as to this point ? One thing is certain. Christ did not come to

be a



making laws


He came

ethical ideal,

to set up a high leave that to work on

-vap. X. vopv«ia« a most important exception which has given rise to much controversy that will probably last till The first question is the worlds end. Did Christ really say this, or is it not rather an explanatory gloss due to the the tradition he evangelist, or to Dc Wettc, Weiss, lloltzfollowed? mann (H. C.) Uke the latter view. It would certainly be in accordance with teaching, using of Christ's manner


The tendency of His teaching is to create deep aversion to rupture of married relations. That aversion might even go the length of shrinking from severance of the tie even in the case of one who had forfeited all claims. The last clause is bracketed by W. H. as of doubtful genuineness. It
men's minJs.
states unqualifiedly that to marry a dismissed wife is adultery. Meyer thinks that the qualification "unjustly dismissed," i.e., not for adultery, is understood. Weiss (Mcvcr) denies this.

strong, brief, unqualified assertions to drive home unfamiliar or unwelcome truths, if the word as He spoke it took Lk. xvi. 18: "Every the form given

Vv. 33-37.

Fourth illustration: con-


one putting away his wife and marrying This another committeth adultery ". was the fitting word to be sf>oken by one


hated putting



a time


was common and sanctioned by the



does wopvtia


second question is: What Schanr. a master, ?

as becomes a Catholic, in this class of questions, enumerates five senses, but decides that it means adultery committed by a married woman. Some, including Dollinger {Christmtkum und Kirche : The Pint Age of Christiantty and the Church, vol. ji., app. iii.), think it means fornicaThe tion committed before marriage. predominant opinion, both ancient and A modern, is that adopted by Schanz. third question is: Does Christ, assuminj;



have been spoken by Him,

cerning oaths. A new theme, therefore formally introduced as in ver. 21. woXiv points to a new ieriet of illustrations (Weiss, Mt.-Evan., p. 165). The first series is based on the Decalogue, Thou shall not swear fal.sely (Lev. xix. 12), and thou shalt perform unto the Lord )eiit. wiii. zz) thy vows .Num. xxx. •A )]ai is wrong in these dicta ? Nothing save what is left unsaid. The scribes misplaced the emphasis. They had a great deal to say, in sophistical style, of the oaths that were binding and not binding, nothing about the fundamental requirement of truth in the inward parts. Again, therefore, Jesus goes back on the previous question Should there be any need for oaths ? Ver. 34. SXms; emphatic = iravrfXMS don't swear at ''II. .\gain an unqualified statement, to be taken not in the letter as a new law,





oo Sufaaai
- *' o Xoyos


eorro) ^


Tpi)(a XeuKJii*

p.^aivav' iroiTjeroi.*


8c h

« Cor.







to 0' e



£k too



irovrfpou itrnv.

38. 'HKooaaTC oti eppedr],

'O^iGaXfiof drrl 6<|>0aXso.


Lev. xxiv. Deut. xiz. 8i.

* place 7roiT]o-at before r\ pcXavvav. scribes to give a smoother reading.



T. R. represents an efTort by the
in the



For €<rTw (J>5DL al.) BJ. have £o-rai, which expresses the injunction way and is to be preferred (W.H. on margin).

but in the spirit as inculcating such a love of truth that so far as we are concerned there shall be no need of oaths. In civil life the most truthful man has to take an oath because of the untruth and consequent distrust prevailing in the world, and in doing so he does not sin against Christ's teaching. Christ Himself took an oath before the High Priest What follows (w. 34(Mt. xxvi. 63). 6) is directed against the casuistry which laid stress on the words t^ Kvpiu, and evaded obligation by taking oaths in was not which the divine name mentioned by heaven, earth, Jerusalem, or by one's own head. Jesus points out that all such oaths involved a reference to God. This is sufficiently obvious in the case of the first three, not so clear in Xcvktjv i\ |i,cXai,vay: case of the fourth. white is the colour of old age, black of youth. We cannot alter the colour of our hair so as to make our head look

This brings the version of Christ's saying in Mt. into closer correspondence with Jas. v. 12 tJTu) to Nai val, Beza, with \\ horn Achelis Kal TO Ov oii. (Bc/gpredigt) agrees, renders, "Let your affirmative discourse be a simple yea, and your negative, nay". to Se irepKT(Tov, the surplus, what goes beyond these simple words. Ik tov irovT)pov, hardly " from the evil one," though many ancient and modern interpreters, including Meyer, have so understood it. Meyer says the neuter " of evil " gives a very insipid meaning. I think, however, that Christ expresses Himself mildly out of respect for the necessity of oaths in a world full of falsehood. I know. He means to say, that in certain circumstances something beyond yea and nay will be required of you. But it comes of evil, the evil of untruthfulness. See that the evil be not in you. Chrysostom (Hom. xvii.) asks: How evil, if it be.


or old.



we cannot

bring on our head any curse by perjury, of which hair suddenly whitened might be the symbol. Providence alone can blast our life. The oath by the head is a direct appeal to God. All these oaths are binding, therefore, says Jesus but what I most wish to impress on you is do not swear at all. Observe the use of '|At]Tf (not |iT)8^ to connect these different evasive oaths as forming a homogeneous group. Winer, sect. Iv. 6, endorses the view of Herrmann in Viger that ovtc and \t.r\T* are adjunctival, ovSe and \i.r\Zi disjunctival, and says that the latter add negation to negation, while the former divide a single negation into parts. Jesus first thinks of these evasive oaths as a bad class, then specifies them one after the other. Away with them one

God's law ? and answers Because the law was good in its season. God acted like a nurse who gives the breast to an infant and afterwards laughs at it when it wants it after weaning. Vv. 38-42. Fifth illustration, from the law of compensation. Ver. 38 contains the theme, the following w. Christ's comment. '0<|>OaXp,ov dSovTos. An exact quotation from Ex. xxi. 24, Christ's criticism here concerns a precept from the oldest code of Hebrew law. Fritzsche








your word be val va(,

That is, if you want to give ou ov. assurance, let it not be by an oath, but by simple repetition of your yes and no. Grotius interprets: let your yea or nay in word be a yea or nay in deed, be as good -as your word even unsupported by an

explains the accusatives, i4>^o^Xp.ov, oSovTa, by supposing civot to be understood " Ye have heard that Moses wrote that an eye shall be for an eye ". The simplest explanation is that the two nouns in the original passage are under the government of Swo-ci,, Ex. xxi. 23. (So Weiss and Meyer after Grotius.) Tersely expressed, a sound principle 01 civil law for the guidance of the judge, acted on by almost ail peoples: Christ

does not condemn

it if parties come before the judge, let him by all means give fair compensation for injuries received. He simply leaves it on one side.


Ch. xx\i. fioo, Kai




iSorra dvTi 6Wktos
dXX* ooTis ac


^w Sc Xcyw ufxiv








Sc^idf <rou ^ aiayoi'Q,*

k Lk. vi. ig. oTp^i|/o»'

Tok" xiTw*''* '^ou




\n->i Xapci**, a9€s



40. Kai Tw OeXovTi aoi KpiGrjiai

»» aoTw

\vt< Kai to ifiaTiok

^ 41. Kai ooris ffc



For pavwrci


^I'l have

p«wijfi (pres.)


of the T. R. conform*;

to the parall. in Luke.



have <riaYova caw.

Tisch. (with






" Though the judge mast give redress when demanded, you are not bound to

cheek has been struck,



an aggrava-

you talce My advice you In taking up this position Jesus was in harmony with the law itscll, which contains dissuasives against vindictivcness, e.g.. Lev. xix. 18: "Thou shall not avenge nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people". The fault of the scnljcs did not lie in gainsaying this and inUoducing the jus giving talionii into private life, but greater prominence to the legal than to the ethical element in the O. T. teaching,



will not."

Tholuck, Bleek, tion to strike the left ? and Meyer sugge.st that the right cheek is only named tirsi according to common custom, not supposed to be struck first. Achelis conceives the right cheek to be struck first with the back of the hand,
then the left with a return stroke with the palm, harder than the first, and expressing in a higher measure intention to

— ^v({t* in class.


= to




in occupying themselves mainly with discussing the casuistry of compensation, (.g., the items to be compensated for in the pain, the cure, a case of wounding the loss of time, the shame, etc., and the money value of the whole. Jesus turned

the minds of His disciples away from these trivialities to the great neglected


resist not, )iii i.vT\.a-rr\vQx either by endeavouring to prevent injury ri irotnrjpy, or by seeking redress for it.

Ver. 39.

with rods later, and in N. T., to smite with the palm of the hand vide Lobeck, Phryn., p. 175. -\er. 40, Kpi9r\va.i = Kpivao^ai in i Cor. vi. i, to sue at law as Orotius takes it as meaning in A. V. extra-judicial strife, uhile admitting that the word is used in the judicial sense in the Sej't., r.g., Job ix. 3, Ecclet. vi. Bc/a had previously taken the same 10. view. x^"^^^^! If^^Tiov. The contention is supposed to be about the under garment or the tunic, and the advice is. rather than go to law, let him have not only it but also, ital, the more costly The poor upper robe, mantle, toga.

not the devil, as Chrys. and Theophy. either the evil doer or the evil thoui^ht doing or done. Opinion is much divided The between the last two meanings. The sense is the same in either case. A. V. takes iroinrjpy as neuter, the The former is on R. V. as masculine. Instances the whole to be preferred. of injury in various forms arc next speciprecept. fied to illusuate the gener.il These injuries have been variously distinguished to body, and property, and freedom, Tholuck exemflum citatur injurnu,privatm.forfnsts,curiaUs, Bengel injuries connected with honour, material good, waste of time, Achelis, who points out that the relation of the three, Ex. in vv. 39-41, is that of an anti-climax, injuries to honour being felt most, and Sotis those involving waste of time least. In the following instances oXXTir. injury proceeds from there is a climax It is natural to expect bad to worse. the same in this one. But when the right

man might have

several tunics or shirts

change, but only one upper garment, used for clothing by day, for bedcover by night, therefore humanely forbiddrn to be retained over night as a pledge, Fx.
xxii. 26.

go one mile






6.yyaptva*i: compel thee to Hatch A. V. and R. V. (Essays tn Biblical Greek, p. 37) thinks it means compel thee to carry his baggage, a very probable rendering in view of the \ history of the word as he gives it. Persian word, originally, introduced into the Greek, Latin, and Rabbinic languages, it denoted fiist to requisition men, beasts, or coincyances for the courier sy^icii) described in Herod, viii. gti, Xen. Cyr. next in post-classical use viii. 6, 17 under the successors of the Persians in the Fast, and under the Roman Empire, it was applied to the forced tran.sport of milit.iry baggage by the inhabitants of a country through \shich troops Hatch remarks " The were passing.

Ver. 41.




39—44'dyyapeuaci "

fiiXioc If, " uirayc |teT* cUStou 800.


•oiTOun-il Ch. xxviL
xv. ai.



Kal rhv dikovra diro aou Safcio-aadai '

a^j d-iro<rrpa4>Ti$.


HKouaarc on

Tof cx^P*^^ o'ou

cu\oy€iT€ T0U9


ippiQt], Ayairqcreis tok " irXTjatOf aou, Kai p.iOT]aei9 n followed by ;jicTa 44. cyu) Sc X^yu up.ii', dyairdrc Toiks i\Qpoiis 6pMv, and gen. here and » « . ^ X , carapup.ei'ous ufxas, KaAu; iroi€iTe tous (tio'ouin'as m Lk. xii.
TLya added), Lk. x. 27.

ufids,^ ical npoa€U)(^eaQ€ uxrep tQ>v iirt\p€a'l,6vT<av u(id$, ical * %iuK6vTijiv
o with ace. of person asked here, Ch.

vi. 8.

Lk. tL 5a
(vi. 30).

p Ch.

xix. 19.

80s in


8180U (T. R.) conforms to


« *


giveSavionoreai after


of the more important various readings occurs here.


cvXoycirc to

vjias is omitted in ^B, some ancient versions (including Syr. Sin.), and some cursives. The omitted part may be regarded as an importation in a harmonistic spirit from Lk. vi. 27. It is left out by most modern editors.

Twv eTrqpcs^ovTuv

v|ias Kai also



^B, and

also imported from Lk.

(vi. 28).

extent to which this system prevailed


seen in the elaborate provisions of the later Roman law angariae came to be one of those modes of taxing property which, under the vicious system of the empire, ruined both individuals and communities ". An instance in N. T. of the use of the word in this later sense occurs

sturdy beggar who helps himself to what he does not get for the asking. Were there idle, lawless tramps in Palestine in our Lord's time, and would He counsel ^uch treatment of them ? If so, it is the extreme instance of not resisting evil. |i^ dirocrTpa<|>^S with rhv OAovra in

Mk.xv. 21, in reference to Simon compelled to carry Christ's cross. We may conceive the compulsion in the present case to proceed from a military man. |aCXiov, a Roman mile, about 1600
in Mt.xxvii. 32,

One would expect the geniwith the middle, the active taking an

accusative vtixh genitive,
transitive sense


4, TT|v aKOT|v airi Tfjs aXtjOciaf.
is intelligible.

Tim. iv. But the

yards, a late word. 8vo, in point of time, two, there and the additional mile proportional fatigue, a back, with But it is decided climax of hardship. not merely a question of time, as Achelis thinks. The sense of oppression is involved, subjection to arbitrary military power. Christ's counsel is do not submit to the inevitable in a slavish, sullen Do spirit, harbouring thoughts of revolt. the service cheerfully, and more than you are asked. The counsel is far-reaching, covering the case of the Jewish people subject to the Roman yoke, and of slaves The three cases serving hard masters. of non-resistance are not meant to foster They point out the an abject spirit. higher way to victory. He that magnanimously bears overcomes. This counsel does not seem Ver. 42. to belong to the same category as the preceding three. One does not think of begging or borrowing as an injury, but Some have at most as a nuisance. doubted the genuineness of the logion as a part of the Sermon. But it occurs in Luke's redaction (vi. 30), transformed indeed so as to make it a case of the

ing myself

away from

In turnanother, I turn


him away from me. Tim. i. 15.

Vide Heb.

25, 2


of Love. To an law Jesus opposes a new universal one. Ver. 43. VJKovo-aTc 5ti lppc0T| said where, by whom, and about whom ? The sentiment Jesus supposes His hearers to have heard is not found in so many words in the O. T. The first part, '• Thou shalt love thy neighbour," occurs in Lev. xix. 18. The contrary of the* second part is found in Ex. xxiii. 4, where humanity towards the straying or overburdened beast of an enemy is enjoined. It is to be hoped that even the scribes did not in cold blood sin against the spirit of this precept by teaching men to love their private friends and hate their private enemies. Does irXriaiov then mean an Israelite, and hf^p6v a Gentile, and was the fault of the traditional law of love that it confined obligation within national limits ? The context in Lev. xix. 18 gives irX. that sense " Thou shalt not bear any grudge against the children of thy people ". On the other hand, the tendency of Israel's.

Vv. 43-48. Sixth tration : from the old partial form of the







q (ransitive-

; :


45. oirws y^kt)(tOc uiol Tou trarpos dfiwK TOu iy oupafois, ori

onlyinN.TOk' TJXtOK oOtou

dkarAXct ivi

idiv y^'P



Ktti '



SiKaious KOI dSiKou;.

dyaTrqaTiTC tous dyaTTija^os


vii. j8,

ufuls, Tiro fuaOor cxctc

oo^l KOi 01 tcXukoi to out^



J at. T. 17.

ovrws to to avro. W.H., while retaining TO avTo, which has the support of J^BL, put ovtws (DZ) in the margin.


editors, following




and of certain texts {vide Ex. xxiii., Deut. vii.), was to foster aversion to the outside nations, and from Ezra onwards the spirit of Judaism was ogc of increasing hostility towards the goyim The saying quoted by vide Esther. Jesus, if not an exact report of Rabbinicsil teaching, did no injustice to its general And the average Jew in this attitude. respect followed the guidance of his teachers, loving his own countrjTnen, religious racial and regarding with Ver. aversion those beyond the pale. taken in all senses ix^po^ '"^y 44. Jesus absonational, private, religious. hatred as inhuman? lutely negatives But the sequel shows that He has in view the enemies whom it is most diffithose who hx.mK6vrmv cult to love The persecute on account of religion. clauses imported into the T. R. from Luke have a more general reference to enmities arising from any cause, although they also receive a very emphatic meaning when the cause of alienation is











also in


some Greek authors (Pindar. The Isth. vi., no, *.^.) to cause to rise. use of Kauiv (ver. is) and AvaTAXciv in
an active sense

is a revival of an old poetic use in later Greek (exx. of the former in Eisner). ^pixn= pluit[V\i\g.), said of God, as in the expression vorros

TOV AiO« (Kypke, Observ. Sac.). use of this word also in this sense
revival of old poetic usage.



— irovT)povs,



aSiKovs, not mere There is a difference between AyaO^t and SiKaiof similar to that ironipovs between generous and just. may be rendered niggardly vidt on vi. 23. The sentiment thus becomes " God makes His sun rise on niggardly and generous alike, and His rain fall on just A similar thought in and unjust".











hatreds so bitter and ruthless as those How hard to love originating therein. the persecutor who thinks he does God
service by heaping

upon you



But the man who can of indignities. rejoice in persecution (ver. 12) can love The and pray for the persecutor. cleavage between Christians and unbelievers took the place of that between the chosen race and the Gentiles, and tempted to the same sin. Vv. 45-47. Characteristically lofty inducements to obey the new law ; likemoral distinction ness to God (ver. 45)

" Si deos iv. 26 in^atis beneficia, nam et Bcelcratis sol oritur, et piratis patent maria". The power of the fact stated motive is wholly to influence as a destroyed by a pantheistic conception of God as indifterent to moral distinctions, or a deistic idea of Him as transcendent, too far above the world, in heaven, as it were, to be able to take note of such Seneca,









divine impartiality


due to magnanimity, not to indifference Another important reor ignorance.
flection is that in this word of Jesus we find distinct recognition of the fact that





a large sphere

tov waTpbs v}tMV in order tha* ye may be nobUzst oblige ; indeed sons of God " God's sons must be Godlike. *' Father







and rain, bow much these cover !) in which men are treated by Providence by no means irrespectively of character


The new name for God occurs again. sixteen times in the Sermon on the Mount to familiarise by repetition, and define
by discriminating use. 5ti, not = 8«, but meaning " because " for so your Father acts, and not otherwise can ye be His


— Av.




a matter of course in a Jewish teacher, the tendency being to insist on exact correspondence between lot and character under a purely retributive conception of God's relation to man. Ver. 46. fiicrdov: here, and three times in next chapter one of several words used in this connection of thought «€ pwraov (ver. 47), T«X(toc (ver. having a legal sound, and capable 48) The scribes of being misunderstood. and Rabbis had much to say about merit


47. Kal iay



toOs d8eX<^o0s* ofiWK fi^Kor, Ti ouxi Kai 01 tcXui'oi ootw* iroiooaii'; 48. caeaOe
oiJi' u|Jieis

irepio-aoi' • Ch. x.


^ tcXeioi, ucnrep ' 6 -jrarrjp


6 ^f tois oupavol^ ^



cting the promises).
iii. a.




v. 14.

^ '


copies have ^^Xovs, but aStX^ovs


the reading of

See below.


have idviKOi instead of rcXwai and to avro
«*(nrcp possibly a literary

for ovrc*.



refinement of the scribes.


o ovpavios instead of o <v r. ovpavois in

ye love those thing do ye ?

and reward vide Weber, Die Leliren des Talmud, c. xix. ( 59, on the idea of Totally opposed to Sechuth (merit). Rabbinism, Jesus did not lose His balance, or allow Himself to be driven
into extremes, after the usual manner of controversialists (Protestants and He speaks of jAurdos Catholics, e.g.). without scruple (cf. on Lk. vi. 32).


love you

what new

TcXwvat (riXos, tax, wy^o|iat),



tion of a class often referred to in the Gospels, unpopular beyond their deserts ; therefore, like women unjustly treated by

befriended by Jesus ; the husbands, humble agents of the great farmers of taxes, disliked as representing a foreign yoke, and on account of too frequent acts of injustice, yet human and kindly within their own class, loving those that loved them. Jesus took advantage of
this characteristic to win their love by ao-irao-T]o-9c, friendly acts. Ver. 47. " Salute," a very slight display of love

even fornicators do IdvtKol, here as elsewhere in tho this." Gospels associated with TcXwvat (Mt. xviii. 17). A good many of the publicans would be Gentiles. For a Jew it was a virtue to despise and shun both classes. Surely disciples will not be content to be on a moral level with them Note that Jesus sees some good even in despised classes, social outcasts. Ver. 48. Concluding exhortation, owv, from an ancient form of the participle of the verb elvoi (Klotz, Devar.) — " things being so " either a collective inference from all that goes before (w. 21-47) or as a reflection on the immediately preceding argument. Both come to the same thing. Godlike love is commended in w. 44-47, but the gist of all the six illustrations of Christ's way of thinking is Love the fulfilling of the law




from our Western point of view, a mere civility more significant in the East symbolic here of friendly relations, hence Tholuck, Bleek and others interpret, " to act in a friendly manner," which, as

obvious!yr^jS:rfpt'lirilie~ea8fc~TJf^datHs, where it is truth that is enjoined. But truth has its source in love ; Eph. iv. 15 aXi]^€vovT€s~^tV~aY air^T^'Tr iithingTr"! n love". €o-c«rOe, future, "ye shall be" = BE. i|i€is, jt', emptiatic, in contrast with

Meyer remarks,

is, if

not the significatio,

ircpio-o-bf, at least the adsignificatio. used adverbially, literally " that which is over and above " A. V., '• more " ; here, tropically distinguished, unusually good






moral commonplace and


content with conventional

in general,

men who

have reached the end, touched the


"quid magnum, eximium, insigne "


Rom. iii. i. In Plutarch, of one who excelled in casting horoscopes. Christ would awaken in disciples the ambition to excel. He does not wish them to be moral mediocrities, men of average morality, but to be morally superior, uncommon. This seems to come perilously near to the spirit of Pharisaism (cf. Gal. i. 14, wpoe'ico'irTov), but only seems. Christ commends being superior, not thinking oneself superior, the Pharisaic characteristic. Justin, Apol. i. 15, mixes vv. 46 and 47, and for irepicrabv puts Kaiv^v, and for TcXwvai, or ^OvikoI, -iropvot " If
(Pricaeus), so in


that at least their purpose, not satisfied with anything short of it. The WXcioi are not men with a conceit of perfection, but aspirants men who seek to attain, like

SiwKM (I Kal KaToXa^u, Phil. iii. 12, and like him, single-minded, their motto: Iv 8^. Single-mindedness is a marked characteristic of all genuine citizens of the kingdom (Mt. vi. 33), and what the Bible means by perfection. All men who attain have one great ruling aim. That aim for the disciple,

as here set forth,
. .



Godlikeness «s 6 €<mv. God is what

His sons aspire below the ideal


He never sinks to be impartial, benignant,


gracious love, even to the unworthy






dLt'Cpciirwi', '^



i\iy]fioauyr]v" op.wt'






TTDoaQev Twk

httt,by ^LTinort with

|^ ^ OOK CX*"""^ "iropd TW TTOTpi UflWk'

irpos to '"ficaOrik'ai aoToi?






U.t|Y^i fAi<^o»'

^ Ollpak'OlS.

2. OTttk OU»'

b Ch.

34. xxiii.




KpiTai iroiouaii'



* aoXiri<r]js



efiirpoffO^K aou,

wcnrep ol inropu^ais,





phraie in

So^aaOicnk' oit6 twk

iyBpiLirmv d





• Lk.

Tobit iv. 7. Acts s. *; xzir. 17. Sir. vii. 10. Act! iz. ti ; lii. 10. ziT. SI.

Cor. zr. }3 and levertl timei in Rerel.

* 8< after wpoo-«x«Ti in i^LZ, inserted by Tisch. and bv W.H. within brackets. BD have no St It might have fallen out by similar ending (t«) on the other hand, it would stand here appropriately as a connecting particle of transition.

^ have Su(aio<rwT)v doubtless the true reading, as a general caution against counterfeit righteousness was to be looked for first ; then particular examples: alms, prayer, fasting.




on the authority of fc^D


33, omits toi?.

what were

conceivable attributes, is view. m«, not in degree, that a discouraging demand, but in The kind very necessary to be kind. emphasised in view of current ideas and practice, in which holiness was disThe law " Be holy sociated from love. for I am holy " (Lev. xi. 44) was taken negatively and worked out in separation from the reputedly sinful. Jesus gave it positive contents, and worked it out in
that, not
is in

sense, in the other places in the special sense of alms. ?fiirpo<r0(v t. dvOpwirvi'. In chap. V. 16 Christ commands disciples to let their light shine before men. Here He seems to enjoin the The contradiction is only contrary. The two places may be comapparent.



a general





tempted to hide, hide when tempted to shov. The Pharisees were exposed, and yielded, to the latter


gracious love. Chapter VI.



The Sbrmon Con-

From Scribe law, the main theme of w. 21-48, the Teacher passes to
Ver. i of Pharisaic practice. character of general the describes Then follow Phjuisaic righteousness. three special examples: alms, w. 2-4; prayer, rv. 5-6 faiting, w. 16-18. The transition from the one theme to the other was almost inevitable, and we may be sure that what follows formed part of the instruction on the hill. Ver. I. »po<r«x€Tf (rhv rovv underhere, with fit) stood), to attend to following, take heed, be on your guard SiKototrvrnr, not k\vt\^otruvy\v against. (T. R.), is the reading demanded in a general introductory statement. Alms formed a very prominent part of Pharisaic righteousness, and was in Rabbinical dialect
; ;

-rp^t T& dfaOTJvai, to Their virtue was theatrical,

did their righteousbe seen. and that

called righteousness,
p. 273),

HpTi (*"<^ Weber,



was not

a name

for the

as Lightfoot (Hor. Hebr.) suggests, use the word tsedakah loth in the first and in the following three verses ; in the first in the genexal

wanted in ver. Aramaic He might,

the whole, and it whole category that is If Jesus spoke in i.

doing only things which in matter and mode were commonly admired or believed by the doers to be. This spirit of ostentation Christ here and elsewhere represents as the leading feature of Pharisaism. «l Si (^^Y<i « combination of four particles frequently occurring in the Gospels, meaning: if at least y* do not attend to this rule, then, yt is a very expressive particle, deetc. rived by Klotr, Devar. ii. 27a, from TEfl, I.e., EAQ, or from ay*, and explained as meant to render the hearer attentive. Baumlein, dissenting from Klotz's derivation, agrees substantially with his view of its meaning as isolating a thought from all else and placing it alone in the light (Unttrsuchungen uber Griechische Parttkeln, p. 54) = " Mark my words, for if you do not as I advise then," etc. (Xio^bv ovK (X*'''* ^^ ^lor^bv, vide v. 46.


The meaning





does not count in the Kingdom of God. Right motive is essential there. There may be a reward, there must be, else theatrical religion would not be so common but it is not vapa r^ varpL






dpiarepci aou Ti iroict


Sc|i(i aou,

4. oirus






" f





6 iron^p aou 6 pXewuK ^k tw Kpuirrw, auros




^ Tisch. has y\ editors as in text.






v. cXc


Most modern


^BL omit

ovTO$, which




the applause of his public. Ver. 3. |*tj in proverbial form a counsel to Let not even thy give with simplicity. left hand, if possible even thyself, know, still less other men give without selfconsciousness or self-complacency, the root of ostentation. iv ry Kp^wTy known to the recipient, of course, but to no other, so far as you are concerned, hardly even to yourself. " Pii lucent, et


in general,



but specifically alms, as a common mode of showing mercy. Compare our word charity. «roXTriat|s to be understood metaphorically, as there is no evidence of the literal practice. Furrer gives this from Consul Wetstein to illustrate the word. When a man (in Damascus) wants to do a good act which may bring a blessing by way of divine recompense on his own family, e.g., healing to a sick child, he goes to a water-carrier with a good voice, gives him a piece of money, and says " Sebil," i.e., give the thirsty a fresh drink of water. The water-carrier fills his skin, takes his stand in the market, and sings in varied tones : " O thirsty, come to the drink-offering," the giver standing by, to whom the carrier says, as the thirsty drink, " God forgive thy sins, O giver of the drink " {Zscht.





latent," Beng. o pXc-iruv i. t. k., " Acquainted seeth in the dark. with all my ways." Ps. cxxxix., a comfort to the sincerely good, not to the counterfeits. diroSuaci aot a certainty, and not mertl}' ol" ilie future. The reward is present ; not in the form of self-complacency, but in the form of spiritual health, like natural buoyancy, when all physical functions work well.








happy without

fur M. und R., 1890. Vide also his Wanderungen d. d. H. L., p. 437). iiroKpirol, stage-players in classics, used in N. T. in a moral and sinister sense, and for the Christian mind heavily burdened with evil connotation— A^/om<« / What a deepening of the moral sense is implied in the new meaning The abhorrence of acting for effect in religion is due to Christ's teaching. It has not yet quite banished the thing. There are religious actors still, and they draw good houses.

reflecting why it is the joy of living in summer sunshine and bracing mountain air. The kv ry 4>avcpy here and in



6 and 18, a gloss by some superficial copyist, ignores the inward present reward, and appeals in a new form to the spirit of ostentation. Vv. 5-6. Prayer, ws ol viroKpirai, as the actors. shrink from the harshness of the term " hypocrite ". Jesus is in the act of creating the new meaning by the use of an old word in


collected, and apparently also distributed. pv|jiats, streets, in eastern cities narrow

— wvQ.ytnya.vi

where alms were

a new connection.— <j>iXovai stands in place of an adverb. They love to, are wont, do it with pleasure. This construction is common in classics, even in reference to inanimate objects, but here only and in Mt. xxiii. 6-7 in N. T.— farwTcs, ordinary attitude in prayer. aTTJvai and KadrjaOai. seem to be used sometimes without emphasis to denote simply presence in a place (so Pricaeus). ovvaYWYaif, Yuviais t. irXar. : usual places of prayer, especially for the " actors," where men do congregate, in the synagogue for worship, at the corners of the broad streets for talk 01

lanes, a late meaning; in earlier Greek impetus— onsti. Vide Rutherford's Phryn., 488. Cf. irXareiwy, ver. 5. irXareia, supp. oSds a broad street.

= New









conceived as recipient of the glory here the almsgiver, giving for that purpose. ap.tiv introducing a solemn statement, and a very serious one for the parties concerned. aircxovat, they have in full; they will get no more, nothing from God : so in Lk. vi. 24,



Phil. iv. 18 {vide

on Mk.

xiv. 41).


hypocrite partly does not believe this, partly does not care, so long as he gets

plenty of observers in both Prayer had been reduced to system among the Jews. Methodising, with stated hours and forms, began after









Kai otok




Ch. xxiii. woTTcp ' 01 uTTOKfjiToi, oTv ^ ^iXoucTH' iv TQis cruraywYais Kai ^i' Tais Lk. zx. / ywviais T«f TrXaTciwk iorwrts irpocreuxeo't'ai, ottws 6^ * ^ak-ucri Tois 46.










&irt\ouari rbv fiiarQov aiiTuv.




OTOK Trpoaeuxi),


t6 'TafiieiOK* aoo,


Sir. xxix,

Oupaf aou, TrpoCTtujai Tw Trarpi aou tw
A pX^irwK iv

tw xpuirrw

nai o


iran^p aou

tw Kpuirrw dTroSwcci aoi ly tw ^accpw.^

' i^BD omit This time Doubtless a gloss, vide below.


goes with the

MSS. which have
ovtc «<r«rfli,

this reading.


For irpoo-cuxT
mt in l^BDZ.
av omitted
OTV omitted


*^ ^^

have vpoa-tv\r\a-dt

adopted by

W.H. and

other editors.


^BDL. in ^BDZ.


Ta}Mu>» in







^D). followed by most modern


Erra, and grew in the Judaistic period; traces of it even in the later books of O. T., e.g., Dan. vi. 10, 11 (rirf^ Schultz, The hour of prayer might Alt. TheoL). " overtake a man an^'^^•here. The " actors might, as De Wctte suggests, be glad to be overtaken, or even arrange for it, Sir«K in some well-frequented place. ^avtaKTif t. a. in order that they may appear to men, and have it remarked Ver. 6 true prayer in how devout contr<fct to the theatrical type.- «rv 8i, thou, my disciple, in opposition to the " actors ".- 8to», when the spirit moves, not when the customary hour comes, freedom from rule in prayer, as in taken ix. is for (Mt. fasting 14), t4 rajifioy, late form for granted.

a reality only in proportion as it proceeds from a gathering of men accustomed to private prayer.

Further instruction in (Mt.-Evan.) regards this passage as an interpolation, having no proper place in an anti-Piiarisaic discourse. Both the opinion and its ground







Tafiuior (Loheck, Pkryn., 493), first a store-chanUer, then any place of privacy, Note the <rov a closet (Mt. xx'w. 2fi|.
after Top,,

and Ovpar and iroTp(,



phasising isolation, thy closet, thy door, thy Father.— KX«(<ra«, carefully shutting thy door, the door of thine own retreat, to exclude all but thy Father, with as much secrecy as if you were about a What delicacy of feeling, guilty act. as well as sincerity, is implied in all this ; greatly to be respected, often sinned against. t^ iv t^ KpvirTy, He who is in the secret place perhaps with allusion to God's presence in the He is dark holy of holies (Achelis). there in the place from which all fellowmen are excluded. Is social prayer No, but negatived by this directory ? it is implied that social prayer will be

As regards the latter, it is are doubtful. true that it is Gentile practice in prayer that is formally criticised, but it does not follow that the Pharisees were not open to the same censure. They might make long prayers, not in ignorance, but in ostentation (Lutteroth), as a disBut play of devotional talent or zeal. apart from the question of reference to the Pharisees, it is likely that prayer under various aspects formed one of the subjects of instruction in the course of teaching on the hill whereof these chapters are a digest. Ver. 7. PaTTaXoY»j<rT|Ti a awat Xry. in N. T., rarely used anywhere, and of doubtful derivation. Some (Erasmus,

have thought it was formed from the stammerer mentioned by Herod, (iv. 155), or from a feeble poet of the name who made long hymns full of repetitions (Suidas, Lexicon), but most now incline to the view that it isonomatopoetic. Hesychius (Lex.) takes this view of the kindred word PaTTap(t«ir (ifiol \kiv SoKcI KaTa fii)iT)<riv tt)« ^atviis




points to the repetition

without end of the same forms


as a stammerer involuntarily repeats the same syllable, like the Baal worsbippeiK







^i^yiKol'^i Ch.



SoKOuai vclp oTi iv TV iroXuXovia avrStv " EiaaKOua&naoKrai.

zviii. i7,





y^P o

iraTTjp ' u^w^"

wk " xpciaf excT€,

k Lk.



wpo Tou

up,ds aiTijaai


ouruts ouy itpofrevyiaQi



Cb. viL




ziii. 24.

m Ch.

iCor. xiv. Heb.



zxi. 3.




which Tisch. and



L as in text. D

has pXarroX.

* *

B and

Syr. Cur. have vrroKpirai.


Sah. version have o 6ios before o vanip

(W.H. within


This repetition is characteristic of Pagan prayer, and when it recurs in the Church, as in saying many Avcs and Paternosters, it is Paganism redivivus. IOvikoC, the second oif three
references to Pagans (v. 47, vi. 32) in the Sermon on the Mount, not to be wondered

shouting from Baal, hear us Acts xix. 34, Ephesians ").

' Great


noon, "


" (i Kings



Diana of the

indeed, a model of simplicity. Besides the question as to the original form, there is another as to the originality of the matter. Wetstein says, " tota haec oratio ex formulis Hebraeorum concinnata est ". De Wette, after quoting these words, asserts that, after all the

Rabbinical scholars have done their ut-

parallels from Jewish Lord's Prayer is by no The Pagan world was near at hand means shown to be a Cento, and that it at. for a Jew belonging to Galilee with its contains echoes only of well-known O. T. mixed population. Pagan customs would and Messianic ideas and expressions, be familar to Galileans, and it was and this only in the first two petitions. natural that Jesus should use them as well This may be the actual fact, but there is as the theory and practice of scribes and no need for any zeal in defence of the Pharisees, to define by contrast true piety. position. I should be very sorry to think TroXuXoyit^, epexegetical of PaTraXo-y. that the model prayer was absolutely The Pagans thought that by endless original. It would be a melancholy repetitions and many words they would account of the chosen people if, after inform their gods as to their needs and thousands of years of special training, weary them ( " fatigare deos " ) into they did not yet know what to pray for. Ver. 8, oviv, Jesus made a new departure by inaugugranting their requests. infers that disci-pies must not imitate the rating (i) freedom in prayer (2) trustfulpractice described, because it is Pagan, ness of spirit (3) simplicity in manner, and because it is absurd. Repetition The mere making of a new prayer, if only by apt conjunction of a few is, moreover, wholly uncalled for. "^he olSev Y^'P God whom Jesus choice phrases gathered from Scripture proclaims " your Fatner " knows be- or from Jewish forms, was an assertion Why, then, pray of liberty. And, of course, the liberty forehand your needs. Because we cannot receive un- obtains in reference to the new form as at all ? may use the well as to the old. less we desire, and if we desire, we will pray also because things worth getting Paternoster, but we are not bound to use Only pray always as it. It is not in turn to become a fetish. are worth asking. Reformers do not arise to break old to a Being well informed and willing, in few words and in faith. With such fetters only in order to forge new ones. thoughts in mind, Jesus proceeds to give Ver. 9. ovTO)S, thus, not after the present, ethnic manner. irpocrcvx**''^^ a sample of suitable prayer. Vv. 9-13. The Lord's Prayer. Again, pray so habitually. vp.eXs as opposed vide notes there. in Lk. xi. 1-4 Here to the Pagans, as men (i.e.) who believe in an intelligent, willing God, your Father. I remark only that Luke's form, true reading, is shorter than Matthew's. The prayer which follows consists of six On this ground Kamphausen {Das Gebet petitions which have often been elabordes Herrn) argues for its originality. ately explained, with learned discussions But surely Matthew's form is short and on disputed points, leaving the reader elementary enough to satisfy all reason- with the feeling that the new form is anyable requirements The question as to thing but simple, and wondering how it Gospel the original form cannot be settled on ever came into universal use. such grounds. The prayer, as here given, has been turned into law, spirit into

most to adduce












ndrep i^imy 6

iv TOis ofipaKOis, ° dyiaadi^Tw t^ okOfxd




zzix. 33.)

^aaiXcia aou* *y€yr]Qr]rti to




o Ch. zxvi.

iv ofipaKW, '

Acts zzi. 14


p Acti tu. }i (im c«t).

had better poetry into prose. prayer alone if we cannot catch floTtp. In Luke's form its lyric tone. this name stands impressively alone, but the words associated with it in Matthew's version of the address are every way suitable. Name and epithet together— Father, in heaven express
let this


Luke's form in which this petition is wanting, regards it as a mere pendant to the second, unfolding its meaning. And it is true in a sense that any one of the
three first petitions implies the rest. Yet the third has its distinct place. The kingdom, as Jesus preached it, was a kin^'dom of grace. The second petition, therefore, is a prayer that God's gracious will may be done. The third, on the other hand, is a prayer that God's commanding will may be done that the right as against the wrong may everywhere prevail.- in Iv ovp. ical iiri y^SThis addendum, not without application to all three petitions, is specially applicable to this one. Translated into modern dialect, it means that the divine

'AytCMrdi^Tw t. o. o-ov reverential trust. petition —sanctified, hallowed be first Thy name. Fritzschc holds that o-ov in this and the next two petitions is empha:

<rov not <rov enclitic. The suggestion gives a gof)d direction for the expositor = may God the Father-God of Jesus betic,


the one object of worship all the A very natural turn of world over. thought in view of the previous reference Pagan prayer correto the Pagans. sponded to the nature of Pagan deities




unloving much speaking, iteration, dunning was needed to gain their ear. How blessed if the whole pantheon could be swept away or fall into contempt, and the one worshipful Divinity be, m fact, worshipped, ws iv ovpavy Kal t-wX ytjs for

this clause

third petition may be conceived as common to all the The One Name in heaven first three. the One Name on earth, and reverenced

appended to the

on earth as








cannot imagine Jesus as meaning merely

God of Israel may be duly honoured within the bounds of His
that the national


people. Vcr. 10.



PouriXf Ca <rov


second petition. The prayer of all Jews. Even the Rabbis said, that is no prayer in which no mention of the kingdom is made. All depends on how the kingdom is conceived, on what we want to come. It is the The kingdom is as the King. kingdom of the universal, benignant Father who knows the wants of His children and cares for their interests, lower and higher, that Jesus desires to come. It will come with the spread of the worship of the One Uue Divine Name the

be perfectly, ideally done on as in heaven, so also, etc. The reference is probably to the angels, described in Ps. ciii., as doing God's commandments. In the O. T. the angels are the agents of God's will in nature as well as in Providence. The defining clause might, therefore, be taken as meaning may God's will be done in the moral sphere as in the natural exactly, always, every\\hcre. The foregoing petitions are regarded by Groiius, and after him Achelis, sls pia dfsiderta, <vxat, rather than petitions proper- al-njjiaTa, like the following three. The distinction is not gratuitous, but it is an exegetical refinement which may be disregarded. More important is it to note that the first group refers to the great public interests of God and His kingdom, placed first here as in vi. 33, the second to personal needs. There is a corresponding difference in the mode of expression, the verbs being in the third person in Group I., objective, impersonal in the second in Group II.,


this earth





subjective, personal.

Vcr. II. Fourth petition, rhv aprov '^IMv whatever the adjective qualifying

aprov may mean, it may be taken for granted that it is ordinary bread, food
for the body, that intended. All is spiritualising mystical meaning of itriovtriov are to be discarded. This is
It the one puzzling word in the prayer. is a aira{ Xry., not only in O. and N. T., but in Greek literature, as known not only to us, but even to Ori;jen, who (De Oratione, cap. xzvii.) states that it



ruling in grace over believ-

ing, grateful

Thus viewed, God's men. kingdom comes, is not always here, as

reign of natural law or in the moral order of the world. -yeviiOiiTa) t. 6. K.^mphauscn, bent a.: third petition. on maintaining the superior originality ot

•XOl €Tri TTJS

8oS llUlf Q hwe «"•







12. Kai



us Kai

in Lk. 3 (not


found i in



Rom. iv. 4.


S^BZA and some

cursives omit


So most modern


not found in any of the Greeks, or used by private individuals, and that it seems to be a coinage (foiKe ireirXaaOai) It is certainly not of the evangelists. likely to have proceeded from our Lord. This one word suffices to prove that, if not always, at least in uttering this prayer, Jesus spoke in Aramaean. He would not in such a connection use an obscure word, unfamiliar, and of doubtful meaning. The problem is to account for the incoining of such a word into the Greek version of His doubtless simple, artless, and well - understood saying.

learned are divided as to the derivaof the word, having of course nothing but conjecture to go on. Some derive it from iirl and ovtria, or the participle of clvai others from ciri^vat., or iq 4iriovo-a = the approaching day (•nite'pa understood). In the one case we get a qualitative sense bread for subsistence, bread needed and sufficient (to. Seovra Prov. xxx. 8, Sept.) Kai atiTapKT|. in the other, a temporal bread of the coming day, panem quotidianum (Vulg., Lk., xi. 3), " daily bread ". Either party argues against the other on grammatical grounds, e.g., that derived from ovtrla the word should be iirovaio^, and that derived from c-irioOaa it should be eiriovo-aiosIn either case the disputants are ready with their answer. Another source of argument is suitableness of the sense. Opponents of the temporal sense say that to pray for to-morrow's bread sins against the counsel, " Take no thought for the morrow," and that to pray, " Give us to-day our bread of to-morrow," is absurd {ineptius, Suicer, Thesaurus, s.v. ciriovorios). On the other side it is said Granting that the sense "sufficient" can be got from kirX, ova-La., and granting its appropriateness, how comes it that a simpler, better-known word was not chosen to represent so plain a meaning ? Early tradition should have an important bearing on the question. Lightfoot, in the appendix on the words ^iriovo-ios and ircpiovaios, in his work " On a fresh Revision of the N. T.," summarises the evidence to this effect: Most of the Greeks follow Origen, who favoured derivation from oixria. But Aramaic




Christians put for ^iriouo-io; Mahar = crastinum. (Jerome comm. in Mt.) The Curetonian Syriac has words meaning, " our bread continual of the day give us". The Egyptian versions have similar readings. The old Latin version has quotidianum, retained by Jerome in revision of L. V. in Lk. xi. 2, while supersubstantialem is given in Mt. vi. II. The testimony of these early versions is important in reference to the primitive sense attached to the word. Still the question remains: How account for the coinage of such a word in Greekspeaking circles, and for the tautology give us to-day (<nj|icpov, Mt.) or daily (t6 KO0' T||ji,Epav, Luke), the bread of to-morrow ? In his valuable study on " The Lord's Prayer in the early Church " {Texts and Studies, 1891), Principal Chase has made an important contribution to the solution of this difficulty by the suggestion that the coinage was due to liturgical exigencies in connection with the use of the prayer in the evening. Assuming that the original petition was to the effect "to us give, of the day, our bread," and that the Greek equivalent for the day was y] ktriovtra, the adjective eTiovortos was coined to make the prayer suitable all hours. at In the morning it would mean the bread of the day now begun, in the evening the bread of But devotional conservato-morrow. tism, while adopting the new word as convenient, would cling to the original "of the day"; hence o-i]|xcpov in Matt, and TO Ka8" r\[L4pav in Luke, along with cTTiovo-ios. On the whole the temporal meaning seems to have the weight ot the argument on its side. For a full statement of the case on that side vide Lightfoot as above, and on the other the article on ciriovorios in Cremer's Bib. Theol., W. B., 7te Aufl., 1893. Ver. 12. Fifth petition. 64>eiX.i]|xaTa, in classics literal debts, here moral debts, sins (a|iapTia9 in Lk. xi. 4). The more men desire God's will to be done the more conscious they are of shortcoming. The more conscious of personal shortcoming, the more indulgent towards the faults of others even when committed against themselves. Hence the added





^''(^'^^j d^jitfiek * Tois
xiii. 4







ciaci'fyKTjs i^fias tis^


dXXd puaai



too -iron^pou.

oTi croo



G»l. V 3

^acriXcia ical

Su^afiis ical


tou? aiuKa;.



'Edf ydp d^T)T€ TOis dKOpoiirois rd ° Trapa-nTwfiaTa aoxwi', d^ii^cet


li. 4.



6 TTOTTip ufiMf 6 oupdfio;

15. ^d** 8e


d<^T]T€ Tois





rd irapairrwfiaTa

auxwk',' ou8e 6 Trarfip ofii*' d^i^aei

rd irapa01


iT. 14-


'Oraf Be



yiVeaSe wCTirep

V Lk. xxiv.


' d^avi^ouai




w w.

19, 40.




d^T]K \4y<ii iulv, Jti'







adopted by modern editors,


(T. R.) has probably

come in from Luke (xi. 4). ^ The Doxologj- orv <rov modern critics as an ancient








by most

liturpical insertion.

It is



' TO.


avrwv wanting


omitted by Tisch., bracketed by W.H.,

though found

has c«vr«v.

««sin t^BDA.
For avTMV


T. R. has OTi with






It is w« xal t). ^^r^Ka^tv, etc. natural and comforting to the sincere w« soul to put the two things together. The must be taken very generally.

accordance with original

meaning of dXXa, derived from &XXo or aXXa, and signifying that what is going
to be said relation to

another thing, aliud,


prayer proceeds from child-like hearts, not from men trained in the distinctions The comment appended of theology. in w. 14, 15 introduces an element of reflection difficult to reconcile with the It is prospontaneity of the prayer. bably imported from another connection,



what has been said, Klotz, = Lead us not into p.

Mt. xviii. 35 (so Weis»-Meyer). Ver. 13. Sixth petition: consists of two members, one qualifying or limiting the wdpao-^v, expose us other.— (IT) not to moral trial. All trial is Of doubtfill imue, and may therefore naturally and innocently be shmnk from, even by those who know that the resalt may be good, confirmation in faith and virtue. The prayer is certainly in a different key There from the Bcititude in V. 10. Jesus sets before the disciple a heroic temper as the ideal. But here He docs not assume the disciple to have attained. The Lord's Prayer is not merely for heroes, but for" the timid, the inexThe teacher is considerate, perienced. and allows time for reaching the heights of heroism on which St. James stood
. .

when he wrote





a8cX4>oi f&ov, Srav ircipao-^iols aXXa, not purely irtpi,iriay\ri iroiKkXois. adversative, cancelling previous clause, but confirming it and going further

temptation, or so lead us that we may be safe from evil ma> the issue ever be beneficent. ^vo-ai airi, not 4k the latter would imply actual implication in, the former implies danger merely. Both occur in N. T. (on the difference cf. K.imphausen, Das G. des H.). tov «-ori]pov, either masculine or neuter, which ? Here again there is an elaborate debate on a comparatively unimportant question. The probability is in favour The of the masculine, the evil one. Eastern naturally thought of evil in the concrete. But we as naturally think of it in the abstract therefore the change from A. V. in R. V. is unfortunate. It mars the reality of the Lord's Prayer on Western lips to say, deliver us from the evil one. Observe it is moral evil, not physical, that is deprecated. 8ti o-ov IrrKv a liturgical ending, . A^ifv no part of the original prayer, and tending to turn a religious reality into a devotional form. On w. 14-15 vide under ver. 12. Vv. 16-18. Fasting. Ver. 16. Irav transition to a new related topic. cTKvdpwoi, of sad visage, overdone of Fasting, like course by the "actors".








13— aa.


* a\ci\|fai ctou T^i* x

rbv fiKrQoy auTuv.
1 7.

au 8e rrjorcuuv
f ii{/ai


vi. 13.

Lk. vii.38,

Kal TO rrpoawTTOi' aou

1 8.




46. James T. 14.






Kol 6

iraTi^p (TOO 6 ^Xiirav iv

tw Kpuirru

' dTroSoScrei

aoi iv tw ^a^epu.'

19. " Mr) ' 0T)CTaupi^€Tc

ufiiK 6T](7aupou9 eiri tt]? yTJSj ottou cttjs

koI y


xii. 21.

2 at.




Kal ottou kX^tttoi

Siopuaaouai koI kX^tttouo-i

Cor. xvL

20. dTjaaupi^cTC 8e

0T)<Taupous ck oupacw, ottou outc otjs oure

z Ch. zxir.




Kal ottou kX^tttoi ou Siopuaaouaic ou8e
6 Otjaaupos

21. oirou ydp


ckci corai Kal*


22. 'O Xux»'OS Tou awfiaros eoriK 6 64>6aXfios'' ^dy ouf 4



places vtjo-Ttvwv before tois avdpMiroic


Kpv4>aiu in ^)BD.


^BDL omit «v tw ^avcpw* ^B have <rov, which makes the reflection
omits Kai. adds a-ov.

more pointed.


prayer, was reduced to a system twice a week in ordinary Pharisaic practice Thursday and Monday (ascent and descent of Moses on Sinai), artificial gloom inevitable in such circumstances.

In occasional fasting, in circumstances of genuine affliction, the gloom will be
real (Lk. xxiv. 17).

— d(^ayi£ovo-iv


^avwcriv, a

play upon words, may be endered in English " they disfigure that they may figure ". In German

Unsichtbar machen, sichtbar werden (Schanz and Weiss). Ver. 17. SXci^ai, vtt|rai not necessarily as if preparing for a feast (Meyer and Weiss), but performing the usual daily ablutions for comfort and cleanliness, so avoiding parade of fasting by neglect of them


(Bleek, Achelis). The foregoing inculcations of sincerity and reality in religion contribute indirectly to the illustration of the divine name Father, which is here again defined by discriminating use. God as Father desires these qualities in worshippers. All close relations (father, son husband, wife) demand real affection as distinct from parade. Vv. 19-34. Counsels against covetousness and care (reproduced in Lk. xii. 2234, with exception of w. 22-23, which

the kingdom, which needs to be defined in contrast to worldliness not less than to spurious types of piety. Against 19-21. hoarding. Vv. litX 0T](ravpovs treasures TTJ9 •YTJs, earth, and therefore upon earthly, material, perishable, of whatever kind. <n\%, moth, destructive of costly garments, one prominent sort of treasure in the East.— Ppwo-is, not merely "rust," but a generic term embracing the whole class of agents which eat or consume valuables (so Beza, Fritzsche, Bleek, Meyer, etc.). Erosionem seu corrosionem quamlibet denotat, quum vel vestes a tineis vel vetustate et putredine eroduntur, vel lignum a cossibus et carie, frumentum a curculionibus, quales Tpwy^s Graeci vocant, vel metalli ab aerugine, ferrugine, eroduntur et corroduntur (Kypke, Obs. Sac). Siopvo-trovair, dig through (clay walls), easier to get in so than through carefully barred doors (again in Matt.



The thief would not find 43). in such a house. Ver. 20. 9t]a. iv

reappear in Lk. xi. 34-36). An interpolation, according to Weiss. Doubtless, if the Sermon on the Mount was exclusively




But this homily might very well have formed one of the lessons on the hill, in connection with the general theme of

not = heavenly treasures, says Fritzsche, as that would require rovt before iv. Grammatically this is correct, yet practically heavenly treasure is meant. Ver. 21. oirov flTic . kKtl KapSia. The reflection goes back on the negative counsel in ver. 19. Do not accumulate earthly treasures, for then your heart will be there, whereas it ought to be in heaven with God and the Kingdom of God. Vv. 22-24. Parable of the eye. A difficult passage ; connection obscure,





a Lk.
xi. 34.

6^9aXfi6; aoo




oKov to <rwfid aov


^UTtivhv taxai


Lk. xL



Se 6 6(^9aXfx6s aoo 7rota]p6s

oXok to




xi. 34,


ouf t^ ^w; t& ^k aol ckotos irri, to aKOTOS

dLk.zvi.13. 34.
V. 14.

OuSels SukaTai

Kupioi; SouXeucif

y^P tok

€»'a fiiai^act,

Kal t6k eTtpoK dyairiio-ei



di-Be^tTOi, Kai too ixtpoo


e Ch. zviii.



ecu SooXcucif


35. 8id


zvi. 13.




Lie zvi.



before o o({>6aXp.ot crov airXovf in

within deeper than that which \Vc mistake the the blind man. relative value of things, choose the worse, neglect the better, or flatter ourness


p,afiwva in



the evangelic report apparently imperfect. The parallel passage in The Luke (xi. 33-36) gives little help. figure and its ethical meaning seem to be mixed up, moral attributes ascribed to the physical eye, \shich with these This constill gives light to the body. fusion may be due to the fact th.it the eye, besides being the organ of vision, is the seat of expression, revealing inward Physically the qualities dispositions. on which vision depends are health and disease. The healthy eye ^ives light for all bodily functions, walkmg, working, etc. ; the diseased eye more or less fails If the moral is to be in this service. found only in last clause of ver. 23, all going before being parable, then ivXcvf must mean sound and irovT)pot diseased, meanings which, if not inadmissible, one yet does not expect to find expressed by They seem to be chosen these words. because of their applicability to the moral sphere, in which they might suit" ably to the connection mean " liberal and " niggardly ". awXiTTft occurs in

we can have both. Ver. 24. ParabU of the two masters. OvSfls In the natural sphere it is impossible for a slave to serve two masters, tor each claims him as his property, and the slave must respond to one or other of the claims with entire devotion, cither from love or from interest. f| yop may take this fii(rq7f I &Y<^'*'^*''*^ clause as referring to the case of honest preference. A slave has his likes and And he will not dislikes like other men. do things by halves. His preference will take the form of love, and his aversion
selves that










of hate.






sense in Horn. xii. 8, and Hatch (Essays in B. G., p. 80) has shown that vomrtp^s occurs several times in Sept. (Sirach) m the sense vl ni>^gardly, grucl^;He accordingly renders: " The ing. lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore thine eye be liberal thy whole body shall but if thine eye be be full of light grudging, thy whole body shall be full of darkness." Of course this leaves the difficulty of the mixing of natural and moral untouched. The passage is elliptical, and might be paraphrased thus The eye is the lamp of the body: when it is healthy we see to do our daily work, when diseased we are in darkness. So with the eye of the soul,

be taken as referring to The slave may not the case of interest. in his heart care for either of the rival masters. But he must seem to care, and the relative power or temper of one as compared to the other, may be the And having ground of his decision. decided, he attaches himself, ay6/£«Toi, to the one, and ostentatiously disregards the other. In ordinary circumstances there would be no room for such a comBut a case might petition of masters. occur in time of war when the conquered were sold into slavery. ov 8vva(r6«, etc. Applic.ition of the parable to God and earthly possessions. tLafi(iiv<^, wealth personified 3= Plutus, a Chaidee, Syriac, and Punic word ("lucrum punice mammon dicitur," Aug. de S. D.) derived from
this clause





conceal or




the heart, seat of desire



it is


from covetousness, not anxious to hoard, all goes well with our spiritual functions we choose and act wisely. When

Talm., p. 1217). not, " ye cannot serve riches," but "ye cannot be faithful to God and make an idol of wealth ". " Non dixit, qui habet divitias, sed qui servit divitiis," Jerome. Vv. 25-34. Counsels against care.


The meaning God and have


sordid passions possess






suitable to the circumstances of the

TOUTO \iy(a 6}uv,




Ti ^dyr]Te Kal

(xepifivoTe rfj



Ti g Ch.

x. 19.


Tw aupraTi

Tt ' efSuonrjaOe.






eoTi TTJs Tpoi^i]s, KOI TO <Twfia ToO evSujiaTOS ; 26. ' ep,p\e\j/aTe €ts (various tA ' -ireTciKd tou oupacoC, on ou * oircipouo-n', ou8e * Oepi^ouo-iK, ouSe h Ch. xxii.
ouv'dYOUcriK eis diro&i]Kos, Kal 6 iraTT]p ufiui' 6 oupdcio; Tpe'4>€i





ufieis fxfiXXoK


Sia^^pcTC auTUY


27. tis 8e i% ufiwc ftcpip.fwi' Soi-aj

a (last three exx. metaphorical).



11 (with «is).





ziii. 4.


Eph.vi.n. I Thess. V. viii. 5. Acts


3b, 37.






xii. J2.



24 (with fioAAoi').

^ 1)

Ti iriTjTt in B.

This clause




^, omitted by Tisch., and bracketed



disciples than those against amassing '* speak of treasures to treasures. us who are not even sure of the necesIt is for bread and clothsaries of life ? ing we are in torment" (Lutteroth).


Ver. 25, 8ia tovto:
unfaithful to


because ye can be through care as well as

feed themselves at the farmer's expense, an additional source of anxiety to him. And the cynic unbeliever in Providence yes, in summer ; but how many perish in winter through want and cold Jesus, greatest of all optimists, though no shallow or ignorant one, quietly adds:
: I











from |icpi9, p,cp(2|w, because care divides and distracts the mind. The verb is used in N. T. in various constructions and senses sometimes in a good " The unsense, as in i Cor. vii. 32 married care for the things of the Lord,"

not ye


considerably from them ? fare, on the whole, well, God's



Why should you fear,

men, God's children

xii. 25 in reference to the members of the body having the same care for each other. But the evil sense predominates. What is here deprecated is not work for bread and raiment, but worry, " Labor exercendus est, solicitude tollenda," Jerome. ovx^ ^ 'I'^XT • • • ^vS^(laros the life not the soul ; the natural life is more than meat, and the body more than the clothing which protects it, yet these greater things are given to you already. Can you not trust Him who gave the greater to give the less ? But a saying like this, life is more than meat, in the mouth of Jesus is very pregnant. It tends to lift our thoughts above materialism to a lofty conception of man's chief end. It is more than an argument against care, it is a far-reaching principle to be associated with that other logion a man is better than a sheep (Matt. xii. Ver. 26. l|Jip\c(|>aT( els, fix your 12). eyes on, so as to take a good look at (Mk. X. 2i,xiv. 67). Ttt ircTciva T.ov.,the birds whose element is the air look, not to



Ver. 27. Tie 8^, etc. The question means: care is as bootless as it is needless. But there is much difference of opinion as to the precise point of the question. Does it mean, who by care can add a cubit to his height, or who can add a short space of time, represented by a cubit, to the length of his life? ^XiKia admits of either sense. It means stature in Lk. xix. 3; age in John ix. 21, Heb. xi. 11. Most recent commentators favour the latter interpretation, chiefly influenced by the monstrosity of the supposition as referring to stature. could call adding a cubit, ij feet, to his height a very small matter, the expression of Lk. (iXttxwTTov, xii. 26) ? The application of a measure of length to length of days is justified by Ps. xxxix. 5: "Thou hast made my days as handbreadths ". But Dr. Field strongly protests against the new rendering. Admitting, of course,


that iqXiK^a


ambiguous, and that


classic authors it oftener means age than stature, he insists that irijxvs is decisive. " irijxvs," be remarks (Ot. Nor.), " is not


admire their free, careless movements on the wing, but to note a very relevant fact 5ti, that without toil they get their
food and

only a measure of length, but that by which a man's stature was properly measured." Euthy. on this place


remarks: " Kai

p.T)v oii&i

o-iriOaiii^v (half


«. &. : the usuiil operations of the husbandman in producing the staff of Hf^ In these the birds have no part, yet your Father feedeth them. The careworn might reply to this yes they

a cubit) oviSe SoktviXov (a 24th part) XoiTTOV OVV TTTJXVV eiTTC, SkStI KliplU9
(itTpov T(iiv -^XiKiciv 6 irrix^S soTTi. Thus a short man is Tpiirrjx'"?! ^ ^^1" man TSTpaiTTjxvs." But how are we to get over the monstrosity of the supposition ?


a pause.H. Ver.. plurals (VV. or rate of mul! . The difficulty is to get the careworn to consider these things. r la (of hay). * ^ • " Kpit'tt dYpou. qui agrum colunt.' ouS« ttj 2Q. and are merged the generic grass : mere weeds to be Application. Sti ouSe ZoXoci over ^^y 17 l^ ' -irdcrr] So^t} auTou wepiePdXeTO ws o*^**! •'''^ toutwi'. KaTa)xa9<TC. as if bantering the careworn into faith. and on slate occasions most gorgeously attired. down and used as fuel. crown. God^ adds to every human body more " How impossible for than one cubit. «ii. — \y TovTwv: the lilies are in view. up on the hill away Croin heat. aurou " cfo. 31. fur M. in an interesting way the holiday mood of the hour. "ilKoiriuaiv. Zig. tl ik rhv x^P''^'**'toil . a8. viii. the bluebell After &ypo\i should come or the daisy.) wholly unnecessary. § The verb av{dv« in active voice 58. iris ouidfci -i ' • 00 KOTTid. Then. singulars are a grammatical correction (cptva The lilies are viewed singly.: . The neut. vide Lobeck. Consider these flowers after a few moments' reflection : *i«. Ti ^aYwiiCC. 179). X^yw Si the speaker is conscious He makes a strong statement.). Ch. is transitive in class. : Lutteroth helps us here by finding in the question of Jesus a reference to the growth of the human body from infancy I3y that insensible process. you to do what God has done without your thinking of it And if He fed you during the period of growth. Witness the sentiment. ually as living beings. The former verb seems to point to the Ijlcr writers. KXiPavoc (Attic Kpi^avot. often in classics. ri. ra man — icpfva. not even Solomon the magnificent. 28. xxiv. observe well that ye may learn thoroughly the lesson they teach. according to RosenmuUer and Kuinoel the red anemone. ' 30. and crowds.mf-eror's m The beautiful flowers now lose their individuality. hoc ir. 8. almost as friends. i 10 (of grass) Ch mi 26 Mk. ^aXXop.y6irurroi to prepare bread for men several times in Gospels. most glorious of the kings of Israel. He had an intense delight in nature.ulierum domiscdarum " (Rosenmiiller). 1 . accompli'^hed tlirough the aid of food. with backward glance at the conditions of human growth the latter to the lighter work. Gen. " Solomon in all his glory. hut exvague. (vide critical note) with a neuter nomi- Probably with tacit reference to The lilies are viewed individnative.abtful pressive of admiration whether the growth is admired as to height (Bengel). 3 1 -33.) growing All luxuriantly under thorn bushes. and human misery. q here and Lk. 27. no car for the song of Not so Jesus. Vv. nom.cfOK. tl . whereby clulhing. taid Euthy. firj J«». 28-3a Ltisonfrom the jtoven. can you not trust Him now when you have ceased to grow ? " Such i'i the thoui. Here only in N. long ago. intransitive only in wild flowers. ' i^B have pi. to maturity. Jcsus would have said the same thing of the snowdrop. and probably he No need to discover a flower is right. Phryn. 3). Why refer to growth at all ? question Note the verbs in the plural in ver. 6 etos ouTws dpK^icVk'uai*'. 1 — Vv. but He means it. — : — — observed her (Rcbckah). 30. dough spread on the sides beautiful flowers of yesterday thus used h\\. oof lil. F. Xevw 8« €»' uiiii'. lilium Penicum. ovSi. vTiBovaiv lud virorum est. 31 . zii. «8. the primrose. rapidity.. tt.. Tj oXiyoirioTOi . of rare beauty as the subject of remark.T. is prepared. 00 iroXXw /jidXXoK upds. Also in Sept. narrow at top. Lk. oe Lk 19 III Tof x<'P''"°'' ''"O" dyP""' o"nP-*P°'' ' aopiof €is nXiPak'Of Lk. not interrogative (Fritzsche). 126 m Lk «ii 17 xil KATA MATOAION y. i Cor.. \<Yorr€S. jjiepifirqffTjTC. 26.. not in classics not reproachful but encouraging. a round pot of earthenware. zvi. heated by a fire within. f Ch. The natural sentiment of love for flowers is sacrificed for the ethical sentiment of love for man. and spoken of with afTection (Winer. 29. accordmg to Furrer (Zscht. 21 : The whereby bread is earned. learning her disposition from her actions. aiming at convincing him of God's care. Ver.'ht of Jcsus. e. They have no eye cut — 1 tiplication. Renewed exhortation for birds." applied to a wild flower These golden words are valuable as revealing His They reflect also genial poetic nature. the . und R.^^ VL -irfjxw*' irpoaQdyai Ti itrl tti»' iqXiKiai' . and one of them is singled out to vie with Solomon.g. the new subject of remark. nai TOO irepi i. ^t'SujittTos fi€pi(Xi'dT< KaTafid0€TC tA vriQii. flowers represented by the lily. ziv. i» a8 (of grain).

p. which omits tov ©cov tT)T«iT€ irpwroi'. first and second.. not drawn fi'om apostolic doctrine. 31) Toi cOvTj. Sir. B*L have with Jfi^. etc. . Care not about food and raiment.' / vMk. ^T)TeiT6 Se irpuTOf ^aaiXcLaf tou 6cou xal irpooTcoiiacrat ufiip fiepi|XKT]<r6i fl' tt]c u Lk. and if the kingdom be indeed first To guard their aged sires from vtTong. not even a in which sin is confessed and pardon begged. . wealth. nate. But such faith is possible only to those who comply with the following injunction. raiment. Final exhortation against The — care. believed in even by the Indian Aryans. vol. This may have been the original blessmgs they eagerly ask (eirij-qroiratv) material only or chiefly bread. w Ch. Ver. irpotrreflijo-erai. good harvests. . Sanskrit Texts. 35. /9. apKcrok Tj] rijiepa tj KUKia aun)s. irpwrov tology" in prayer. green pastures. 25. • W. the prayer book and song righteousness as the summum bonum. Such faith kills care. X. quest. all beyond being interpretation. jit) a (gen. yap explains the difference between pagans and disciples. Ver. ovv. But it very fitly winds up the discourse. dpKcrov a — : — : . supreme and subordiAnd joyful mak'st their joyless lives Thou givest sons. here to the kind of also being omitted: Seek ye His kingdom. vii. 32. in Sept Ecd. ' ^B TO omit Tov 0COV. v. «8—34Ti EYArrEAION f^ • 127 ednr) t mup-CK. Thy friend is never slain his might Is never worsted in the fight._.H. repeating the counsel. of iii. form of the logion. on ver. especially those to subordinate seeking after earthly goods.. . exception of a few hymns to Varuna. in a rude way. and Tisch.v • 33. considerable variation in the text of this counsel. j x here only in N. true though unnecessary. with accus. Indra. T. Heb. 6. 137. contain prayers only for material all that to be left in God's hands. With the and the irpwrov is implied in such a book of the Indian Aryans. 33. To restrict care to to-day is to master it absolutely. nom. It is the future that breeds anxiety and leads to hoarding. xix. -. Another grammatical correction (neut. 15 . horses. «ls TTjv avpiov {r\^ipa. — Ver. our cows. . avTov. Heaven-Father. horses. 6. it will keep all else in its against care. xai raura irdrra • c- RomCor. omitting rov 0cov. IOvt)).) like other verbs of care . 34. It comes to the same thing. W. xi. 31. 8. Yet practically it comes to be a question of To wifeless men thou givest wives. under the name of Dyaus-Pitar. All kinds of wealth are gifts of thine. —Dr. jewels. and B transposes the nouns and has ttjv 8ik. xii. with force of an imperative = let it. : Disciples must above the pagan level. and who is so regarded by all who truly believe in Him.»a](n)rc eis rfjK aupioi/ iq yap aupiOK . irepi eavTtjs in EI avn]s). but a Father in heaven. is There therefore regarded by Weiss as a reflection appended by the evangelist. His children's needs. strong.H. goes back 25. (A ra retain the order as in T.£da . Not in Luke's parallel section. pi. simply avrqs. shall be added. I Pet. the Teacher now says finally. re- — and Siicai. iLTrdvrav - oiicaioo-unfjK* auTou. like the prayer against temptation. (icpiiivrjo-ci future. i. iv.the kingdom only is mentioned. herds of kine. : . £iri^irjT€t * 01O6 yap o iraTrjp uiiwc o oupdktos tt)i' on xPTJI^tc toutuk Heb. xii. ouK fiepip. ra 4auTfjs. most hymns.. implying that the main object of quest will certainly be secured. xat rr\v ^aa. irpwrov. in ver. Lk. irciiaa ydp raura t& Lk. R.xii. goods That is indeed the ideal heroic attitude. though it again a reference to may be against this that in Luke (xii.-\-. Seek ye His (the Father's) inforced by intervening argument. Achelis) think there is no second. and never forgets. . The disciple has a Father who knows. I. proper place. indicates consideration for weakness in the sincere. Muir. Perhaps the nearest to the original is ihc reading of B. sole concern the kingdom. and inverts the order of ^aa. iv. Sevin.a4.v understood). 32. Some (Meyer. Knee of trouble. with genitive (avirrjs. » . JtvL • 34. Amos ^ iii. xiu 19. Instead of saying. righteousness and kingdom. heathen practice in vi. Care not with reference to to-morrow. Ti ircpi|3aXwp. . ^ xi. 7 to their " bat. Ver. courageous. I never realised how true the statement of Jesus is till I read the Seeking the kingdom means seeking Vedic Hymns.31. Lands.^o. ^B have eiriJrjTovo-i. especially as they worship not Indra. — olSfv rise yap 6 warrjp ti.

it is your duty. reveals itself. Section 1-5 certainly deals with a Pharisaic vice. Putting a full stop after (Mpiuvi^o-ti. Heb.Br](X€aQe '' Kal *" ^t' w fierpw fi€TpeiTe. Against judging. 37). if not the highest motive not merely a reference to the final judgment. especially in religious circles of the Pharisaic type. Pharisees. . It points to the habit of judging. not the moral evil but the physical. iv ui -y^p. neuter adjective. 38). ii. : : — — Vv. or rather The faults may of *' Ihou much more ". said Christ. Jesus may have learned some of these moral adages at school in Nazareth. Every day " suas afflichas some such troubles tiones. vi. oXAa TT)v ToXaiircopiav.atissimum hoc . Erasmus. Judge. defines the meaning of Kpfvfiv. i St. The contents of this chapter are less closely connected and more miscellaneous than in the two preceding.for each successive . a monstrous symbol of a great fault. — . but to take the weighty moral sentences of the chapter as they stand. in which much of the evil in human . ignorance what vanity and egotism in most of the judgments pronounced in the world (Lutteroth). 1 — .R. says Lightfoot (Hor. came in originally from Lk. seems best not to be too It anxioui about discovering connections. . prejudice. based on experience. (T. wood. Pharisees are blamed for neglecting "judgment". Sadducces. 32S. Proverb of the matt and beam. It IS the lex talionii in a new form character /or character. citing in proof Matt. How far apart the two types iva jitf Rpi0T)Tt an important. or in whatever connection. In the words of Chrys. as we have all when boys learned many good things out of our lesson books with their collections of extracts. i/cTC. sal riv it6vov. xaKla. 2).Tpuil Judatos adagium. The Sermon Continued AND Closed. and retaining the rk of T.. Kal ras crvfi^^pat. Jesus would have I'l : : — pietists of last century through a literary spokesman. the article di-^tributive. malevolence. " What levity. so that Kpivfir is practically equivalent to KaracpCvtii' or KaraSiicaCfir (Lk. judge not. publicans.. Judge not. and I. 6-1 1 Weiss regards as an interpolation foreign to the connection. vis. so as to ensure for it permanent lodgment in the minds of His disciples and in their records of His teaching. 31). ii- w yap Kpifxart Kpi^ '7. xxiii. The point to notice is what the mind of Jesus assimilated the best and the in the wisdom of His people emphasis with which He inculcated the best. Also current among Jews and Arabs {vid£ Tholuckj.) is in minusc. on the hill or elsewhere. the evil thereof. In Rom. i. In w. \'ulf. sufficiency. quas nihil est necesse metu conduplicare". xi. etc. said the Dutch nature Vv. R. before iovTTJs. censoriousness leading inevitably to sinister judging. Geschichte des Pietismus. Doubtless most probable reading. Vide Ritschl. Chapter VII. Kap4K>«. an absolute pro- hibition of a common habit. the camel and the needle eye. \'v. 3-5. A beam in the eye is a natural impossibility c/. as embodying thoughts of Christ at whatever time uttered. J. H. This is a case of tu quoque (Rom.— 128 " Rom'ii^'^' ''-3' " : KATA MATOAION ^^^. that of exalting ourselves by disparaging others.' " VII. from S^x^f'*') or joist. icpivtTt. " 3" ^^ ^^ pXeTTcis TO Kdp(|)OS TO Iv Tu> 64)0aX|ji(I) Tou d8€X<))oo aoo. MH "KpifCTe. . uT) 1-5.€'p<^. * Most uncials have the it simple ft«TpT]0T)<r(Tai. a wooden beam (let in. a minute dry particle of chaff. \cr. a very cheap way of attaining moral superiority. KaKiav ^rjcri. xxii. Kpi. bflf 4-2. dtn-i^icTpT^SriCTeTai ofilf. ov ttjv irovr\plav. but stating a law of the moral order of the world: the judger shall be judged to which answers the other who judges himself shall not be judged {i Cor. i. one would expect such maxims. iVa (ifj Kpi0T)Te • 2. he brings out this sense The things of itself are a sufficiency for each day. Of course. Ver. where lilt.). Para/iA. The Eastern imagination was prone to exaggeration. The compound (vi. p. 33.. but not by the method of detraction. haste. Fritzsche proposes a peculiar arrangement of the words in the second and third clauses. ii. day. being there the used as a noun a t^ T|p. to be current among all peoples (vide Grotius for examples). 1-12 the polemic against Pharisaism seems to be continued and concluded. the misery or affliction of life (not classical in this sense). Sok^. etc. (IT) Y^*'oiTo. Paul tacitly refers to the Jew as The reference there and here 6 Kplrmv. and the spirit as evinced by the habit. His disciples rise above Pagans.

CKPaXe -n'p«i>TO»' Actsxivii. Fritzsche takes the future as an imperative and renders: se componere ad aliquid. viii. ''A<j)es tKGaXw to 6<|)0aXn. 1^ <rou. thou will see clearly. Moral criticism is inevitable. Shyness. f fiV^iroTC . but he does not let his mind rest on them. but between seeing and not choosing to ignoring. 8oK<Ss. 42. All depends on what we judge and why. xviL 4 xviii." yet you must know people. 25. tenderest sentiments. ?) ir«s cpcis • tw c Lk. discrimination. Lk! xxi. — : section 255. vi. p. vide Burton. i. such as. 41. is necessary. 322). toiis p-apYapiTa? what is the holy thing. tcva-iv. see The censorious man is not necessarily ignorant of his oviTi faults. vide Mk. I to suggest a connecting link. 6. T. (itjSc j3dXT)T€ 6. etc. used with the and third subjunctive in first the persons (vide Vincent and Dickson. refinement. 5.a4. unusual combination. "What hast thou to do to declare my statutes ? " Ps. aov before njv Sokov. and we are left to our own conjectures. U. is who despised him (Lk. Rct. ovi : xviii. The "holy" and the "pearls" must define themselves for each individual in his own experience. TTj»' EYArrEAION Tw aw 0(|>daX|ji<o * 129 . So here. and which natural feeling teaches us to be careful not to waste or expose to desecration. else you will make great — : We . vi. Greek. ri. 41.. Modern Greek. For a<^cs modern Greek a contraction. to the first comer. A modest woman shrinks from a man whom her instinct discerns to be impure a child from all hard-natured people. a collection of ethical pearls strung Yet it is not difficult loosely together. 19. 45. 9. where three compounds of the verb occur. M^ Swtc I to ayioi' tois Kuai Tods fiapyapiTas ujiuc cfxirpoaOcK twi' ypipiav. religious experiences. with ava. or as Vide Goodwin. It is more pleasant to think of other people's faults. must not treat all people alike. and iv. which is preferred by most formity to the CK in cK^aXw. "Judge not. supplies place of imperative which is wanting in first person takes such words as aye. has as.. 8ok6i' ck tou o4>6aXjyi.— SiapXct|/€ts. Weiss suspects con- * fc^BC place ck tov o<j>9. Tv. 13.e. 80KOS €1' Tw aou . Ver. § igg. here a<f>€?. ' ^i^BZ have «k. Tim. pijiwai. but not impossible. : . hortatory conjunctive. On the use of the future after (ii^iroTe and other final particles. ii. in last clause . They are the things which are sacred and precious for a man or woman. goes along with sincerity. In all shyness there is implicit judgment of the legitimate kind. 7.— I—€. in behalf of the weak and despised. necting particles is noticeable throughout It is the chapter: w.' koI t6t6 * 8ia^X^\|/ci9 cK^aXciK to Kdp(|>o9 • CK tou o^OaXfiou TOU d8EXij>ou aou. 8c iv Sokoc 00 ' Karafocis 4. . A complementary counsel. reserve. curare . i. The Pharisaic motive was egotism . the right motive is defence of the downtrodden or.xi1. 8id. 25. regarded by Jews as shameless and due emphasis. 16 . Ver. Ch. i^-ZZ-defence. Who blames woman or child ? It is but the instinct of self-preservation. Ver. 1. so giving to the censor's oven eye mistakes. viroKpiTa because he acts as no one should but he who has first reformed himself. etc. Ik^oLXw. uiroKpird. He judged the proud. dSeX^iw 180U. No connecting word introduces this Indeed the absence of consentence. guided by the law of love. For this purpose knowledge of the world. but in the interest of humanity. 5. xoipuv. 6. before it — — . 24. : Pharisee 14). The people to be feared and shunned are those represented by dogs and swine.ou aou. consciously overlooking. 4. Tranjaovat: future well attested. thus have said. depth. 2) or of a different sort moral laxity in the publican. Jesus Himself practised it. pride and inhumanity in the : — . xiii. first person. pretentious. 16. Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in N. modern edd. and show our valuables. Kara*. and what are the pearls ? In a moral aphorism special indications are not to be expected. 21. Kap<^«. vide critical note. be of the same kind theft. g- —pXeirctS) KaTavocis the contrast not between seeing and failing to see. TO ayiov. with subjunctive. in certain cases. 15. and cruel. best thoughts. set thyself then to the task of. a petty commercial dishonesty on a large scale " thou that judgest doest the same things " (Rom. Lk. <^^pe.w K(ip(t>os diro^ Tou 6(J)9aXfioo aou Kald tth' Lk. He judged the Pharisees.

Kpovcrt. answering to This view. C). * ^ For tav ^BCLA have oi-njo-ti. oiTTjoT) for this reading. 5) means. II . WTiat is to be feared ? treading under •aTi^<rov<riv. (pi^loxriv) impossible. ttjTfiTe. promise of answer is stated in corresponding terms. or that it should be a fault to propose And what sense in the to take it out But translate idea of a beam in the eye ? ! If not the same they one. teell. has been revived by Holtzmtnn (H. Act* zt. rending (ttirovs). in margin. xi. then twice in figtuative language : seek as for an object lost. . to all who have a treasure to guard. living on offal rend. 30. appropriate after the parable of the The neighbour in bed (Lk. with. ^'f^imtrxv foot (iv T. Aitcitc. . 10. 222). 5-8). p. t) Tisch. i ix. There are such people. 3. Syr. >] Kpouerc. Kuinoel. and ai-n)o-«t.H. both. throw a beam into his own well (Zeitsch. 8. Strange. tempting to doubt as to its utility. and all is A trampling and rending between dogs and Do both do both. A lesson more natural at a later stage. 30. — : . i TIS COTIK €§ ' up. and consequent discontinuance of the practice. Kai l^Quv aiTqtrj]. The dogs street dogs. that a man should need to be told by a neighbour that he has a mote in his eye. fur M. Michaelis. outou. and thereafter discredited.* Lk. 916. Gal. {2) That A4>0aXyy6% (w. boys. profane intrusion. • pi^^uan' . ili. (i) That aytoy represents an Aramaic word meaning ear-ornaments. 17. he village well. narachance. zi. threefold . not the eye. Before passing from these verses (1-6^ two curious opinions may be noted. one in this. says. ind. knock as at a barred door. perhaps to propitiate them. iifids. aurw . / - icat \. Lk. a holy of holies to protect from perlest fi^iror*. or the swine the trampling and the dogs the rending ? The latter is the view of Thcophylact. fi^ Xi6of ^TTtSwaci ij. instrummtal. ujiik iv. again there is trouble for the commentators as to the distribution of the . neighbour clear and natural. 7.. unhappily. > xzhr. 7. the kingdom. Sodi^acrai . KATA MATeAION icaTOiraTi^(Tw<ru' ^ VIL airdv. de among. adopt this.«-<' o ^T''w*' ° €upi<7Kei. I aiTWK • » ital « Kpouom i(Lv d»'oiYTioTrai. 20. Vcr. with the subj. once favoured by pearls. Bofrqa-irai. and it has been followed by some moderns. out into joy). exhortation with a view to impressiveness first literally. is not to their liking trample under foot what looked like peas or acorns. or only unclean animals. even .H. 1-13. without master. tui iras Y**? . Vv. Admonition to praytr : presupposes deferred answer to prayer. zxvu. Weiss decides omit €OTiv. Kai dKoiyriacTai Q o. He ascribes the reading tion of the fut. and among modern editors Treg. \oj Xafipdt'ei. Vide below. The whole subject in Luke xi. Ctu.. V iv xois trxxriv Ral • <rrpa(^^kT€S ^tjtcitc. — Vex. the first verb referring to the second subject and the second verb to the first subject. Weiss against roost critics thinks this combinaKaTairaTT)aov(rvv in BCLXZ. 37 bre»lc €opi^acT€ . und R. and the shrewd know them and for no good can come fight shy of them Discussions of comradeship with them. 4s. ov to a confusion of ov with m. when the disciples had a more developed religious experience. more adequately handled — — . ° .130 I Ch. being of uncertain temper at the the swine best. For Kat *av aiTT)<n) t^BC have xai which modern critics generally adopt. — the Aramaic word used by Jesus. because what you have thrown to them. are pedantic. AlTflrt. Vide also Wanderungen. ^ • . — — . 7-1 1. Weiss) your pearls Wette Here yourselves. W. as to whether the dogs and the swine represent two classes of men. - ttvoiY«Tai in ' BL B Cop. Bolten. W. :o. Kai . and W. 42. Sproi'. but turns out to be uneatable. the judgment of in charity.xii. (vpi^afxf. iteration in form avoiYTlcrcTai. but a So Furrer. that are at least similar they arc to be avoided. given to fault-finding sees a small impurity in a villager's well and tauntingly Meantime his own offers to remove it. On this view the structure of the sentence presents an example of iiravo8o« or voT^ptio-vt. including Achelis. vxai Ok' ufiiv. etc.H. (to ix. ».*!)** ttKOpUTTOS. 36. or the swine swine. in his absence. And it is gratuitous to limit the scope of the gnome to the apcstles and their work in preaching It applies to all citizens of the gospel. td*"' aiTTlCTT] O UIOS aOTOU jiij Re».

p. a fortiori argument. " Extend your goodness from children to all. SupT)p. p-Tj X. an 61). Wetstein..os Mk. have the sense to give . The sentence is a worthy close to the discourse begin" Respondent ultima ning at v. meant not a literal serpent. ^ Not usual in classics). and the modern science of comparative religion enables us to multiply them. 17..aTa ojxwi' dvaOd SiS^fai ^ Tois Witvois ufuav. and might very well be expounded in that connection. 40. primis. The evil specially in view. generous. .. with the infinitive as in Phil. the point being that hardly the worst will treat their children There is no intention to as described. human 12. avToif. whose own nature is rather to keep what you have than to bestow it on others. ii. 12) serpent-like. R. and of course thrown away of our waters. a. gives copious instances of something similar in Greek and Roman writers and Rabbinical sources. 9. xxi. or.H.H. a like the dogfish thought is certainly in sympathy with the teaching of Matt. — that a father may refuse his child's request but certainly will not mock him. i\ answers to a «tate of mind which doubts whether God gives in answer to prayer at all. vi. is better rhetoric. Lk. for every one. Here as there " law and prophets". xi. . ovv here probably because in the source. \c Kai 01 ai'dpuiroi. he will not give him a stone. L 49 al. irovTjpol -ir^cru oTSarc iraTJip j Lk. Well indicated in The W. w. if avT^. dyaOd. Wetstein . of person in cases cited.. EYArrEAION auTw. TOis oiTOuaii' adr6v 6eXtjTe Iva * • 12. 56. (Jas. 13. Resemblance is implied. but a scaleless fish. 9. Not quite. irovTipol. ^tva with subjunctive after 6cXi]Tf instead of infinitive. The construction broken. i. — — — i. therefore prohibited to be eaten (Lev. and Wendt. and W. Eph. The connection must be a matter of conjecture with ver. The golden rule. 42. 31 places it after the (H. often ." Beng. Ver. But recent commentators (including Holtz. I Tim. ris ii up. H. uaXXoc 6 . the worst fathers being taken to represent the class." Fritzsche. But the meaning is not dependent on connection. II. as required by the connection.wv argument from analogy. 6 - ^j* TOis oupaj'ois BcSaei dyaOck. 6-11 being an interpolation. Ver. J. 5. is : what we desire. ao. irdo-u . Kosenm. etc. cf. of a general proposition ira9 Yap. 12. Ver. stone fish. 17. 40. iii.. T.» auTois iroiwaic 6|xi»' 01 outos y^P . XC60V ciriSwcrci But the broken sentence. xxt. follows that clue. 38-48. This text is classic for Christ's doctrine of the Fatherhood of God. The caught in tlie nets. ouv I oo-a &c * iroieiTc Ch. : worse grammar. teach a doctrine of depravity. or at — least gives dv. xi.). XX. v. a strong word. found in the Sea of Galilee. with vii. the sentence changes into a statement of what he will not do. -otSarc SiS^vai soletis dare. 33. . etc. Weiss and Holtz. etc. 1-5. 6.) but even in measure. to calumniate human nature (ov Sia^dXXuv tt|v dv6pwir(vT)v ^vcriv). Trdvra oviv — . Lk. three feet long. S(Su. Kal in quotation in Heb. outu koi . Phil. Perhaps we should take the phrase as an elegant expression for the simple 8(8otc. — grudging spirit : " If ye then. in these instances.) have remarked that. v.« dficis k Lk. 6v alTjfcrci o vtos a-iiTov dpTov. aYaOd. The law of nature. [vide below aIso Mt. Gr. 81). panem ostentat alFurrer suggests that by o<j)iv is tera ". four times in N.g. wqth ver. — (. Maldon. the rule is stated in negative terms. will he ? Bread. as Chrysostom says. e. . 6 iraT-fjp.idWov.'xxvii. " Imitate the divine goodness. 19.a Sou. 45.C. -irpo9T]Tai. (with dat. and the idea is . after t£s and jiTj before \i6ov. Rdrra 2 Pet. So. in Tobit. €i ouv d|Mi$. giving the children more than they ask.. says Rosenmiiller. xii. * «<t>ii' liriScdo-ei ii. indeed. in his reconstruction of the logia (L. ' — 12. iroictTC . 17- iv. Grotius quotes from Plautus: "Altera manu fert lapidem. Instead of going on to say what the man of the parable will do.C. by anacolouthon could be avoided omitting the i<m of T. b. the Father whose benignant nature has already been declared. which has been adopted by Tisch. when the sentence would stand tis «$ vjawv dv. v. T. from the — to the divine. serpent. 35. Essays in B. t. II.. insignia dona. So Palairet. morally evil. good things emphatically. For av ^C have tav. is selfishness. gifts good not only in quality (bread not stone.45." Bengel. Sdpara. etc. and only good echo of this utterance)." (Hatch.'s text by a after aprov.— 7 — 131 orrcs. £<"•••' c/ o 'op..8. ciriSwo-ci. rather. for the attic Sbipov. precept contained in Matt v. i. all I xviii. 11.

the other of the is — have their analogue in lilc. 9. to teach the Chinese Classia.). J. no doubt.). dress. * Some copies have for oti and omit tj irvXi). Vv. 191 f. and the monThe astic life and pietism with its severe rules the best guide to the right way. way (and in is gate.- n Lk. but to fulfil ". placed here tory will help us. possibly no part spiritual discernment. defended when The to be in misrepresented. the way narrow passes through a narrow doorway ? Possibly Christ's precept was " simply. way of the many. 2. Tisch. the large enrest being gloss. its brevity.^v-i). right ver. xix. and omitted by W. The golden rule was Law and Propliets only in an ideal sense. Kal oXiyot €ialf oi tiipidKovTis aj. The "way" in the figure is a common road. ^ " .H. — 5ti. It has to Luke suggests the idea be sought for. "^ 6opo)(aipos t<c^<2' dirayooaa obos Tj • ttjs " orcrfjs iruXT]s • eis on •TrXaTcio ''\ TT)k' airuAciaf. encouraged in struggles. than we can claim to be helped in need. but the text as it stands i» approved by W. tcverai times in Sept. etc. have us do all that in a magnanimous. so narrow or so untrodden that it may easily be missed. because the epithet orTfvfi<.C. Weiss thinks it very suspicious. H.— tw^iv. but the term readily suggests a manner of life. mtroduced with. The practiEpilogue of thi. " enter throufrh the narrow gate or "door" (9vpa. Narrow ? Was not of the teaching on the hill. fucius: "Do not to others what you would not wish done to yourself. fAe'tT] ^ o^os in dirdyouaa cis n]v 't. on <nevr\ r^ ttuXt]. Warning against pstudofew. because that teaching was regarded as Pharisaism a narrow way. n iv. Luke's word). true pregnant in men realise the — . P*. Note the iXiyoi . the positive takes us into the region of generosity or grace. EtaeXOtTC 8ia r\ and geo. ol The way way practically it Sermon on the Mount. 13. by 15. without connecting Is the gate at the beginning prophets. seriously meant therefore. 14.. and in the same I'idt sense only was Christ a fulfiller. road is characterised as -a-XaTtia and (vpvx**P<*^< broad and roomy. The allegory also is obscure from Again. Orig. brackets tj wXti. and befriended when Christ would our back is at the wall.). tory enlargement to unfold and enforce the precept. is retained 13) ver. Does this important question here is section belong to Christ's teaching at all. . though omitted T«6XipL)i.H. and as leading to destruction (airiiXtiav). and bracketed by Tisch. to be not merely 8iKau>« v<i^os Kal -wpo^ffrai: perbut AyaSdf.. described which end of their being the The one is the antithesis of i'rwXda. Wcndt. T. (vpio-KovTct.strmon.. we have what commentators call the word " finding". 341.' Kai 'xcSXip.— 132 m (\vith St> — KATA MAT0AIO1N VII. ^ "^vXt).) q here ' T] itvXt) is wanting in ^^ and many Fathers (Clem. a common door From this pomt onwards xiii. as leading word. o here only io N. Ktti t. 17. either described by its qualities and end. T. all the wtJXtjs.cal application of this counsel requires No verbal direcout connecting particle. " I came not to destroy. particle and possibly not a part of the or end of the way. and so embraces both law wish much more and prophets. only in the tense of contracted. life. The negative confines us to the region of fustice . 23-25). a worth living. Sept. . trance to an edifice or city." Legge. benignant way. iroXXo( iXtrvf ol «l(r«p. ciiL (!. p here only in N. The two ways (Lk. : explana- whole law while he stood on So also in the saying of Conone leg. 15-20. i. as distinct perhaps from 9vp«. : in keeping with etc. The Christian religion is frequently called "the way" We — The wrong in Acts (ix. . (iTiSevl woitioT)*. and to life. quoted Hillel in reply to one who asked him chosen by Lk. of difficulty in squeezing in through the Both points of view very narrow door. passage itself contains no clue to the for separation from the " world " in amusement. few. may help us to understand the statement in v. L. haps to a certain extent a current phrase = all that is necessary. 14. 14. 13. \ 48is two ways are contrasted. etc. but. of way)..' ^ itoKKoL W' John eicTiv 01 ciCT€pxo|X€voi 81' aurfis xiii. as «rT«v^ Kal narrow and contracted. 24.ityf\v. or are gate and one. . ? right way except that it is the way of the 'Vv. But the more : because . 24.. S iiMTf ic. . ii. Km • i^ ' iruXT]. or has it been introduced by the Evangelist that false teachers of after days appearing in the Church might be condemned under the authority of the Master ? What occasion had (Holtx.

1 8.Evangel-merchants. as if it were tended. comes from Lk. 19. grapes from thorns or figs sympathy with prevalent enthusiasms. (with ix). - diro rpipoXwi' <70Ka. — . Jesus would have somesphere these resemblances never dething to say about them. 17. ' CTuXXeyouaii' diro aKai'Ou*' CTTa(})uXii»'." and all but 19.33. Each tree brings forth the plausible manner of the wearer fruit answering to its condition. 12). npoo-€X€Te diro. heaven suffering violence (Matt. ou Sdi'aTai SeVSpof dyaOoi' aairpoi' v. They were men of tradi. p. 17- 11. Epb. npOCTe'xeTc uiAttS Se ^ diro Tutv ' >J. The manner they do not hesitate to cut down and more than the dress is doubtless in. There were thorns with grapeadvantage in gain or influence. margin).H. ambitious once ascertained. ouSe p.a-'ci^'n opo^ inference.. Ti suggesting doubt where there is Such times call forth true prophets and none = men never do collect. ov Svvarai.burn a degenerate tree. ccruOcv Si manner and nature possible it might bring forth good fruit utterly different within. men saw at a glance how the contemporary religious phenomena. ist place). Ver. ' 133 otrij'es • Ch. According to Phryn. men in evidence in our Lord's day. * For iroiciv ^ has €V€7K€iv (Tisch.. Christ to speak of false prophets ? The have always been prophets of this type. EYArrEAION 15. healthy same kind. 15. xi. 11). men of like fruit. Ver. Ivi.* iroiei. that greedy. reference can hardly be to the Pharisees " each one to his gain " (Is. Ver. Grotius. and the fashion on the principle of testing by Ver.t) iroiovv.C. etc.H. time of religious excitement. iv. and foreign Didache speaks of a type of prophet to the connection. traders in religious revival. gentle. — — — — . eaoiQev ~>-<>rn t] • ciai \uKOi f-iITi '*'' Lk.T) SeVSpov' Kapirous KaXoiis v Ch. them. but discernible from their fruit. 16. Weiss thinks this to be first often for gain. : .. X-ukoi apira-ycs next year. / 16. I mean. Ver.* Kapirous TTOi'Yjpous TTO^r^pous troiiiv. xiii. (H. if it do not. and thistles with heads like If such men. The verse is imported from iii.). through age or bad Rosenm. kv EvSufxacri irpoPaTcov. There posite particle.H. such dyadov. but not without reference to alo^pdv. or think also spurious ones. (vi. W. as.24 a/. significant saying about the kingdom of fruit. H. popularly used instead of aXiTxp6<i in a Heb. apart from By the nature of the case difficult to in the false sense.) take this as soil. 17 IpxokTai TTDos ce apirayes.— 13—19. Ye shall know them liriyvwtreaOe. * • auTi^i'. 44). . Nothing else is 18.. xiii. Another illusVer.Ver. But in the natural likely. again with similar eftcct — — . The sing. oixives. — . . diro t.29 trop. either in the true or But. 46 with in-onfoj). sometimes for power. <ieceptive and meant to deceive (Zechar. existed. do they perhaps.xii. a Christ-merchant. and Holtz. 6 al. a very lively and forcible com«(chap. . 39. 10. 37) as the usual badge of a moral sense (o-aTrpdv ot iroXXoi dvTi tov prophet. so far in religious of collecting. the deep fountains of the way of life. there might be another class of detect. not prophetic.soin StVSpoi' •capiTous iroieif. dTTO tQ}v Kapirojc ainCtv * e^lY^'wo€CT0e aureus ^\~ iv efBuuaai TrpoPdrwi'. 16-20. wCh.). xi. as is the Judas type. 8e' x. xii.€u8oirpo(|>Y]Toii'. 16. rrav hivZpov ttoiouc KapTroc KaXoi' eKKOTrrcTai Kai xiiL 48. money. tion.but from thistles. Men look on this as so certain that deceiving " the very elect ". o-airpov. Kapirwv.'qTi. innocent as sheep possible or looked for in nature. both places. p. 20. Vv. p. sound. 4) speaking with " unction. 377). And yet the idea is not bent on utilising them for their own absurd. the force of carefully the outcome of their whole custom broken. dpayc: final whom it pithily names a xp\. * * ^BC B has have iroiei o-To4)vXa'5. as about all ceived . xx. . 1 i^B omitS* (so W. aairpds was referring to the dress worn («v |iT]XuTai9. or the Rabbis. figs (Holtz. . degenerate. matter stood. ^ -8 ' \ fl> ouTW irav S' 5 otkopoi' OYaaoi' Kapirous KaAous iroiei " to S^ 0€ ^ ^ w aairpov 'ActSXX. An enlargement in parabolic soul bursting forth witness the crowds who followed John and Jesus. take heed tration from good and bad trees of the to and beware of. who It was a through and through (tirt) if ye study might be so characterised. KaXovs (W.C).

righteousness. souls saved. spiritual if not physical What other or better miracles done. force as singling out for special " at least from their fruits. 20. say. and to make the warning refer to false prophets of the Apostolic protestation 6|ioXoYi^(r<i> avTois. 8ti. contains the kernel version Luke's authority in support of antitendencies. 16 is not for mere poetical effect. las. p.-n Saifi^Kia elePdXoficK. good moral the test ? Is the false prophet necessarily a false teacher or necessarily But he is Not an immoral man ? though not unfrequently. and show. the Judge will make a countert6t%. for himself: devils cast out. rh 9i\y\^Q. From Vv.).. the false prophet is hard. Evang. 31 al. T. Ver. *' I will confess " (" profess. — 219). Saying " Lord " includes taking Jesus for Master.. I will Bengal's comment is to them. Magna potestas hujus dicti. Kal totc oixoXoyi^aa) auTOis. always a self-seeking man. the principle holds good without exception that not saying " Lord " but doing God's will is the condition of approval and admittance into the kingdom. jSao'iXeiai' Tcdi' oupavuK dXX* 6 'iroiwi' t6 6^T]|xa tou irarp^s fioi z a Mk. 20. This repetition of the thought in ver. (tiI/I Tl iQft^pa» Kupic. as if to say I ought ta know men who can say so much for — own : age using Christ's themselves..xii. if attention It implies that to other means ". 2 X. prophet is The true . 6 iroiuv Of all.). who had spoken such weighty truths. False diseipleship. auTous. ver. the precept to love enemies acid the admonition against care. G. xxiv. 22. such as antinomianism (avoftCav. honouring Thee. .^ Kal * tw vw ov6^o. i. as Weiss suggests (Matt. aaficK. In connection with such lofty thoughts as the Beatitudes. exorcisms. Christ-like.oTi thrice repeated.— 134 z Cb. whose will He and all who follow Him must obey . cares supremely for truth. aperte. not at all for himself. following Jebb [Sacred Literature. tov irarpos |*ov. the applied to Christ sense it bore when by the Apostolic Church. Kupie. 12. his life. undergone expansion and title modification. Christ's sense of His position as Master or Lord was free from egotism. ix. 46). "Ou iras 6 \iyfav (ioi. everything short of carrying out His teaching in life." originally full = "^^j Teacher. i. V. its full . He was simply the Son and Servant of the Father. 6 XcYuv. But there is a certain apologetic tone in the expression. What more likely than that the Master. Kal tu au 6f<S)iaTi Sucdftcis -iroXXas eiroii]- Acts 14). iv Ikc^v^) Tn ^|ii^p<l^> the great dread judgment day of Jehovah expected by all Jews. Kopie. " fruit " would you have ? What in short life ? is know Doctrine. with more or less solemn awe . He has so much to 22 explains why.V. my Father here for the first time. When they make this protestation. ou tu au * dvcifiiaTi irpo6<^T]Teuaa)i6i'. Ver 23. Kupic. ciacXei^acrai cis t^k Jaoo- Thess. 22. false teachers the discourse naturally of this Something of passage (Luke vi. a very grave reference. passes to spurious disciples.e. the kind was to be expected in the teaching on the hill. 21. 26. Ver. 195). his humanity None but pocket.) adopted by moderi> editois. and R. miracles are recited . iroXXol epouai iv '^ckcict] t^ John Heb. — : KATA MATGAION els "Tup ^(iXXcTai. xxiv. 21. apaye ^iro rStv KapiruK a^rStv e-iriYvcSaeade J Ch. R. p. 10. 38. 13 oTt. 36. Lk. and listening to His teaching with appreciation and admiration . which T. his position. there ie a great temptation to substitute sentimental or aesthetic admiration for heroic conduct. the main ground of hope. 23). whether disciples or teachers. unless ye do the things which I say " ? As it stands here the logion has probably.. 23.V. such can effectively preach Christ. but the chief point insisted on is all was done in Thy name. i. as Carr (Camb. as the Christian name and — : — — : : source of wisdom and power. seems to think. 21-23. Tou ei*^ oupafois. Ver. xi." A. 10 al. Past achievements. so as to give to the " Lord. ry o-^ 6vd|*. VII. xxi. prophesyings. ^ ^BCLZ have the augment beginning (ivpo^. following at the many MSS. by no in Matt. but I do not. The ye should have xvii. on ouS^ttote hfvav ufxas ' ^ t^BC have tois before ovpavois. omits. should say to His hearers : " In vain ye call me Master. so. recita- .

17.H. or for the moment. like Matt. 10. i^. Kal irfis 6 dKouuK juiou roils xxvT af 4! X($YOus TOUTOos Kal iroiui' aurous. and beauty. ver. Vv. sublime utterance could only be the grand finale of a considerable discourse. ' fiwpw. but in deep sadness. x. vi. d. 22-25.) effect. but likely to happen every year certain to happen now and then. Tc6cp. 24. Epilogue (Lk. 24). Trpoo-^irto-ov. fell. 26. *"' here only xxv. 16. Therefore the prudence displayed is not exceptional. dignity.. rias SoPTks.l. of religion. 41. an echo of Ps. never: at no point in that remarkable career when so many wonderful things were done in my name. ttjv Ttirpa-v the article used to denote not an individual rock. oviv. — — — : — — : . or series of discourses. ". is thoroughly appropriate.— 20 * —— t^k * ivoftiav. ix. |iup^. dfjioiuau aoTOf^ dcSpl '^pofifJLU. 8. iroici : hearing and doing. 2. 9. rain on root. succession an eloquent polysyndeton. 24-27..^ Kal iroici auTo6s. Such a 21-23 (Tholuck and Achelis). 2. And what happened? Kal ovk c-nco-cv.eX£wTo yop for a good reason. fii\ 26.H. so giving the pronoun due emphasis house. xxiii. It tive. be assimilated by his : action (Weiss). either shall — ofioiuOi)- ovS^iroTc. but He speaks not in passion or contempt. down rushed the rivers. means specifically and what it depends on the nature of the saying. aKovci. xxv. may be taken as referring to the whole discourse. both must go together vide James i. EYArrEAION Air* ifioG 01 * ipya. own = may have fallen out through similar ending of three successive words. 24. rendering is " thoughtful man meant — — : — . wind on walls. Ttjy oiKiav in So W. hii avTov before ^BCZl.<^: perhaps the best est (Achelis). for rhetorical (Meyer. or the future passive to be taken as a Gerund comparandus ^povL\i. f ^/ 19 . 47-49. Jesus seems here to offend against His own teaching. Y^tp eirl t^v triTpay. for a commentary on this logion. FIS? oSv b Lk. 22. Ver. though omitted in B. 25. they fell upon that house . but just ordinary common Kal: observe the five Kal in sense. not merely to w. it was founded on the rock. vi. the exact words directly reported. '* Blessed are the poor in doing in that case means being spirit " To evangelic ears the poor in spirit. and with humane intent to prevent such folly. terrible. of legalism and Pharisaism. ical KaWPif] ' Ppox^ Kal tjXOoi' 7roTa|jiol Kal • 41. justified by events which he had anticipated and provided for not abstract possibilities. but for a A well-selected emblem lasting home. note also the rhythm of the sentence in which the war of the elements is described down came the rain. Vv. which see for comparative exegesis). but it did not fall. as grammarians call it. 1 B fallen out ' ' omits TowTows. river on foundation. airoxupciTc. v.oiwOT|(rcTai for o|ioi(i><rw avrov. this would be a case either of attraction iras for iravra to agree with 8<ms (Fritzsche). but a category a rocky foundation. Kal ook lTreo-6 e Ch. It is a fit ending of a body of teaching of unparalleled weight. H. g Ch.6\i€V0i diroxwpciTC j» ooTis dicouci fiou Tous Xoyous toJtous. Ver. — 135 24. What follows shows his wisdom. 26-27. The elements fell on it. is bracketed by W. points generally to reality. Its omission weakens the oratorical power of the passage. or of a broken construction nominative. § Ixiii. vide Winer. ir^Tpot'* offTis wKo86|yiT]a€ tj t'?|k oiKiaf auToJ' ot cm rriv 25. ofioiudi^aeTai dcSpl in sense of beat against. and sentence of doom. The type of considers well what he is about. which by homoeot. judgment day (Meyer). therefore bracketed in W. The builder had seen to that. and may have ^BZ have op. —a6. Kol Tc6c|jiE\i(i)T0 irpoa^ircaoi' ttj oiKia cKEiri]. It occurs in ver. The undertaking on hand is building a house a serious business a house not being meant for show. word has a legal sound. etc. and carefully adopts measures suited to his purpose. or have been omitted intentionally to make the statement following applicable to the whole of Christ's teaching. i John lirceuaai' 01 d^efioi. o-cTai: not at the but. blew the winds— sudden. without a verb corresponding. It seems needed. but the doing Christ had in view meant the opposite . " Doing " : — . The tovTovs after XiSyovs (ver. Were the reading 6|jioi«i4rci> adopted.

8i8(i<TK<«)K (all in ref. : . 27. These two chapters consist mainly of miracle narratives. Kal KarePrj Kai i^poaifiC-y^-'H' xi. It is judgment. with direct intuition of truth. not. what defects of character in the sphere of religion are pointed at in this impressive parabolic logion ? What kind of religion is it that deserves to be so The foolish type is a characterised? religion of imitation and without foreChildren play at building thought. not realising what religion is for. Wherein Not in lay the second builder's folly ? deliberately selecting a bad foundation. but inconsiderateness. Some - Some copies have irpoo-eppi^^ar. not an artistic or aesthetical contrast that The scribes spake by is intended. after €x«v. houses on the sea sand below high-tide mark. av'cjj. margin). KO\J/ak'. 34. Both evangelists make the point of difference consist in "authority". Mlc. but that was what they obscurely felt. They — : saw. Cf.|AaT£is 01 <{)apto-aioi ^BAI have avruv (W. It is an ethical. and renders. Ver. . 27. rji' yap Mk. "scite et perite. to Christ's doctrine). is to be avoided. doing as others do. vi. Jesus spake with authority. Allegorising interp^JEtation of the rain. i.oi. but following fashion. i KATA MATOAION ii.. houses. utterly improbable cases have to be supposed in parables to illustrate human av£|Aot: Ver. not one stone or brick left on another. He taught as one having a right to teach. and think not of the trial to-morrow may bring. 22. i. There are men who have religion for to-day. but that the The fool's house ruin was complete. auTous e|ouo-iaK €\<av. 3 eleirXi^craoi'TO 01 oj(Xoi b>s ' em Tjj SiSaxfj aoTOU 29.136 b Lk. 28. because He could do it well. copies add KaL (W. : — It was not with immediate fatal effect. and said that Christ's way of speaking was new. i). Kal •^v r\ tttwo-us eventuality. Rom. Kal oux ws 01 YP«H-H'<*Teis. After 7pap. 29.Ttj xi. and to be seen of Children build (Matt. VII. 18. In the natural sphere no man in his But senses commits such a mistake. to describe the oncome of the storm. tov SiSaaKtiv.* 1 avTov before Tr)v oiKiav in ^BZZ as in ver. . as is commonly supposed. A Concluding statement as to Ver. a question of two foundations. The people could not quite explain the difference. not like that of the scribes to which they had been accustomed. The Healing Ministry of Jesus. similar statement occurs in Mk. and. exactly the same phrases as in ver. and neglecting to look to. like the collapse of a great castle. therefore. out of His own soul." a master of the art. iv. but it is pertinent to ask. 25. so unique a teacher as Jesus made a profound impression the very first time He spoke in public. and of the foundations. i. zxii. but in taking no thought of foundation in beginning to build at haphazard and anywhere on loose sand (ajipws) near the bed of a mountain His fault was not an error in torrent. The builder had not thought of such an ejre<rev. s * €TeX«<r€V in i^BCZI. PpoXT Kal i^XGof 01 iroTafiol Kal eTTfCuorai' 01 eKcit/T). and other editors). whence it may have been transferred It may be assumed that by Matthew. Ch. and that the people would express their feelings of surprise The words and admiration at once.— a different word for the irpo<r£'Koi|/av assault on the house struck upon it . Lk.H. went down like a house of cards. Kal folly in religion. resting all they said on traditions of what had been said before. not thinking of the tide which will in a few hours roll in and sweep away others their houselet. the impression made by the discourse. oiKia Kal eireac* Kal rjcp ^tttuctis aoTT)s 6 'irjaoils tous \6you<i • 22 . ' Kal iyivero ore o-ufereXeo'ei' ^ toutoos. the foundation. rivers and winds.H. play at religion. . to the answering soul of His hearers. Chapters VIII.22. <u9 e|o\itriav 'iy^iav Fritzsche supplies. The thought lies deeper. ooTis wKoSdfXTjo-e ttjk oiKiac auToo^ r\ em Tr\v afifjiof • 27. 32 28. built to stand such rough handling. 24. or that the disaster was of large dimensions. II. but of looking to. {vide comments there). because they have seen their There are people who seniors doing it. not necessarily implying atiTTJs firyaXtj that it was a large building. 27 — 29. authority. IX. 33. Mark puts into the mouth of the audience in the synagogue of Capernaum are to the life — .

so placed. Leprosy is not a disease of the nerves. These histories are an integral part of the self-revelation of they are deJesus by word and deed monstrations not merely of His power. Therein lies their chief permanent interest. is one of the best attested. It is a very remarkable one. auToo 6 c with 'irjcrous. which is entirely independent of all disputes as . which would express something that might happen at a future time (vide Winer. of 'iis spirit. 40). irpoo-eKvvci. § xlii. (Xeirpos). p. matical " improvement ". to the strictly miraculous character of the events. t>^BCZ omit o which T. his concern being rather to report the main fact and what Christ said. V. than to give pictorial details. also (Kat Kax. It]o-ous. 12-16). b). — connection . 23-25. of course the man means to cleanse by healing.). and that of the palsied man with Christ's return therefrom (ii. covering the body with unsightly sores. ' Xeirpos cXGwi' ^ irpocreKut'et auxw. 1—3. and frequently in the Gospels (Ch. chap. and that to the pure nothing is unclean (Chrys. 1 For Kara^avTi. not to show that He was not under the law." 3. the sign mark of the Apostolic Document according to Weiss its lively formula for introducing a narrative. 1-4. Possibly he gives it as he found it in the Apostolic Document both in form and in position. amenable to emotional treatment. 23-24 containing only a general notice. but about the will. and. Xeipo. jac *" Lk. in touching. touched him. That teaching needed happened time. but of the skin and the flesh. Horn. xit. KaOapiaai." Kal Lk 27 xvU. 17 [cf. riji' x^'-P''- often in Sept. i). The stretching out of the hand does not mean that. He might be as far off as : — — : — — t . OeXris. 6. Kal * eKxeii'as TTjf 12. to illustrate Christ's respectful attitude towards the law as stated in v. etc. TToXXoi 2. not aorist. nine in all. but to evince His willingness and sympathy. Kal 180U. 40-45 Lk. Mark seems no external credentials it spoke for itself then as now. Jesus descended from the hill towards Capernaum (ver. No theory of moral therapeutics will avail here to eliminate the miraculous element. S' 8. or at any one place or to connect the cure of the leper with the preaching tour in Galilee (i. conceivably.). men more easily believe in miraculous power than in miraculous love. 2. Xeywc. Sufaaai TJ\{/aTO 17. Z has the gen. i8ov. iv. i. iv.'s narrative. VIII. I. EYArrEAION KATABANTI • 137 auTw a Ch. Ka0apiCT6T]Ti. The wpos has probably fallen out • through homoeot. iv. for he probably knows what marvellous things have been happening of late in and around Capernaum. iv. not merely to pronounce clean. being the second part of the programme sketched in chap. often introduces. ^ ^ by Tisch.) ^ is BC have The dative a gram- For eXOcov (in CKL. large crowds gather about and follow Him. adopted xaTa3<ii'Tos S« avTov. iav 06Xt)S. Tjij/aTo. and also to one Chapter who had a great favour to ask. 8e auTw ^ diro too opous. 4 and vide Weiss. VIII. T|KoXou6T|aav x. is Jesus had ascended the hill to escape the pressure of human need.this Gospel. xxv. iS)(Xoi *' I. in the abject manner of salutation suitable from an inferior to — . The story occurs in all three Synoptics. Kara^avTos airrov (for the reading vide above). Ver. This has an important bearing on the meaning of the vv^ord in next ver. 49. This is the first individual act of healing reported in . xxvi. VIII. xi. one deemed much superior. as evidential signs appended to the teaching on the hill to invest it with authority.— . prostrated himself to the ground. 5.) ^BAX have irpo<rcX9wv. present subjunctive. " SeXw. xi. Evan. 227). av. viii. lav 0eXT)s the leper's doubt is not about the power. . 5). Besides. but above all..^ Xe'ywi'. This collection is not arranged in chronological order. in Matt. to encounter it again— 'qKoXovOT]o-av. The topical. 14.. after the manner of the older apologists. These wonderful works are not to be regarded. Matt. but we must beware of supposing that the immediately following events all there. not temporal. Kopt€. as belonging to the triple tradition. R. KaOapicai.). 13. a doubt natural in one suffering from a loathsome disease. the greater number being reports of healing acts performed by Jesus.. etc. Se avrw (the reading of al. immediately after Sermon on Mount. Matthew's version is the shortest and simplest here as often. Kvpie not implying in the leper a higher idea than that of Master or Rabbi. The leper (Mk. He descends.

inthis settles the matter. pointing to a completed action. The direction shows Christ's rendering: "And. see to it I Look you imperative in mood and tone {vide Mark's graphic account). i-io). 5-13. €ts eis |JiapTupioK aoxois. 10. had the son only been present. 10). — aXX* vtraYC. This is generally taken as an offer on Christ's part to go to the house.— 138 in parall. ical X^(i)i>. " KiJpie. be clean." irpocrfjXOei' xxiv.. probably an officer in the army of Herod Antipas. Tw tepci. xiv. naturally in the sense of the man's request. BLXI have the less correct. vii. as in ver. 6 : — — fectly well. The declaring that he was not clean. like Paulus and Keim. pointing to a chronic condition bed-ridden in the house. The man was and looked per- well-being in every sense {vide on Mk. but none the BC have irpoo-evryKov. here also a correction.. — : 'I. 7. by the latter immediately after." saith Jesus to him." prompt.cvo$. rrais may mean either son or servant. therefore emotional treatment might be thought of. 14. auTOu ' tj . but go at once and show thyself (Sct^ov). though not I — socially restored.) thus ical. The narrative of Matthew barely leaves room for this hj^jothesis. 1^ • iKaroKTapxos 'PcPXTjTai 6. Opa |XT]8cf I ^ ci-irT|s dXX UTrayC) acauT&K ' • SeifoK tu Kal viii. 53. V. the accompanying word. therefore naturalistic interpreters. ix. — . Spa. aiiT^). to the priest who has charge of such matters. 21 all things to be done according to the law no laxity encouraged. " shall I go and heal him ? " » is that . What was the purpose of Many good commentators. The centurion's son or servant (Lk. and Wetstein. Kvpic again. 5. 4. say it was to prevent the priests hearing of the cure before the man came (lingering on the road to tell his tale). this order ? including Grot.. not an ordinary feature of paralysis. the final order. R. But he could not even be brought on a stretcher as in another case (Matt. cluding Bleek and Weiss (Meyer). and. " * . arranging the words (T. are forced to — confidence in the reality of the cure. Kal X^ei auTw ' 6 'Itiaous^ tepei. Xiytx. KATA MATGAION ^ VIIL d here and 6ud^Q)s ^Ka0apicr9r] • Ch. The whole story is a picture of character. €15 jxapTvpiov. and from the harmonistic point of view But many. therefore not with the centurion.). But that would imply a real miracle. h Lk. 6. OeAM. Beng. cKaOcpiorOi). ''' aurta g ver. immense energy and vitality . etc. It was action suited to the word. he would not go at all. i<^ as in T. perf. truth is. The other evangelists so express themiKaOapfcrdT] selves as to exclude it. " I will. Christ feared the man would be content with being well without being officially pronounced clean physically healed. He had entered Capernaum when the following event happened. as a certificate to the public (oirois) from the constituted authority that the leper : — — : . the mere opinion of a shrewd observer. fearlessness. 4. by all the evangelists. Fritzsche finds in it a question. Jesus desired the benefit to be complete. irpoa^i'eYKe 5* to Supof o irpcxrcTale Mucrfjs. Matt.' Eio"€X0om Sc Tu 'Itjo-oC iropaicaXoji' aoToe. 'Eyw IXOuv Ocpaircvcrw avT<$v . forthwith the leprosy disappeared as if by magic. though the official religion was little worthy of respect {of. Ver. — Hence |<.. socially. as well as physically. but Scivws pacravi^(Sp. cKaTtSvTapxos a Gentile (ver. rh Sitpov: vide Lev. Vv.T)8evl ciirTfis. 30. 1 * ' zt. Ver. i) because not only irapaX. R. and was clean. " I willj' pronounced in firm. 6 irais futU' " iv rg oUia ^~ irapa^ ipaXuTiR<isj ''Setfus ^aaaKi^^fjieKos. ^BCZ have the gen.: — . The touch reveals sympathy . Observe the genitive absolute again with a dative of the same subject. which depended on If the the priest. Kairepi'aouii. possible to avoid defilement and infection (Weiss-MeyerJ. speak of it to nobody. pEpXijTai. * X^irpa. Placed by both Matthew and Luke after Sermon on Mount. solicitude for the sufferer's future take the word in the sense of pronouncing clean. in spite. Ver. vii. laconic. cordial. not necessarily expressing any advanced idea of Christ's person. insist that irai9 here means son. aorist participle with another finite verb. The dative is less likely. 19). carefully recorded Ka0api<rdi|Ti. reverence for humane existing institutions. xviii. i. a. following irpoo-^XOcv. Luke has SovXos. 5. Ver. irapaXvriKds a disease of the nerves. man did not go at once. cl(rEX9(ivTos. cordial tone.

(xiii. A bare word just where they stand. Christ's readiness to go to the house would stand in remarkable contrast to His conduct in the case of the SyroPhcenician woman. 8. but the construction different in the two places. here with tva I am not fit in order that.^ 7. vers. vii. not irap* ovScvl: this is more — He virh l|ov(riav. ingenious. is.* itat ia6')]- vE • • aerai 6 irais e\<av uir' * 9. 9. "'Ap." Weiss in Meyer. palsy. " omit o Itjo-ov. 13 we are told that Jesus did not disappoint the centurion's expectation. and W.* Mi ^ i'ii'n.. Such a sentiment at so early a period is noteworthy as showing how far Jesus was firom cherishing extravagant hopes of setting up a theocratic kingdom of righteousness and significant godliness in Israel. Fritzsche rightly suggests that avOpcDiros j|ov<r(av does not express a single idea = "a man under authority". still have a command over a body of men who do implicitly as I bid them. which culminated in its superseding the infinitive altogether in modern Greek. and T. ^B al. But irap' ovSevl means not even in a single instance. dXXd f^Sfoc Xoyoi'. certainly a remarkable instance of a noteworthy characteristic of Jesus : His delight in signal manifestations 0/ faith. spoken in modesty. This logion is given by 28-29) '" ^ different connec- and it may not be in its historical . 'Axouo-as Sc 6 'iTjaous iBaufiatrt. Luke tion. Ver. His great watchword.. or was it a purely personal trait ? If he was not only a Gentile but a Pagan. Sin. ? The following verse contains the centurion's reply. adopted by both Tisch.H. as Paul's. §§ 191-222. — 'A|iT|v : He — without emotion. • ^BC have Xoyu. T. — speaks solemnly. means: I also.." 10. to say the least. But vide Lk. Kai yap cyw: he argues firom his own experience not with an air of selfimportance. his slaves do (Carr. ^ * airoKpiOeis Se in ^B 33. xal iroici.— 4 — 139 dcpaireiio'b) €i|ii * — lo. 9. 11-12. but the result of insight into its nobleness and spiritual virtue. it This value set on faith was St. Faith. Ver. and it will go.^f X^yu ufuy. Lk. or His sadness when He reflected that such faith as this Gentile had shown was a rare thing in Israel. Kal* Xeyei auTw 6 Kol d-iroKpideis ' o "'Eyo* ^Xflwc €<J>tj. EYArrEAION *lT)<rous. Kai ^ 6iirc Tois dKoXouOouaiK. Kai ydp cy*^ aK0pwir6s • eifti ^uiro c^oooriai'. eliri A6y(ji. he thinks." i 8. IfiauToi^ orpaTicSras Kai X^yu toutu). 5.H. aoT<5i». though in a modest way. (including Syr. TouTO.. that he had this feeling of unworthiness. and to be preferred. This is an instance illustrating the extension of the use of Tva in later Greek. though a very humble person in the army. Sin. M. Ver. koI elirt : Christ did not conceal His admiration . A comma wo than the reading of T. tKav^s: the Baptist's word. chap. speak (and heal) with a word. and also perhaps a heathen in religion. on the contrary making light of his position as a commander what you wish then This after centurion thinks Jesus can order about disease as he orders his soldiers say to fever. under the authority of more important officers. adopted within brackets by W. His soldiers go. The ovik implies that Israel was the home of faith. use of tva. II.ou. Syr. so giving B and many i«^B. G. leprosy. iKar6vTapxos • " Kupie. ouk cittc iKafos Iva with iva in l. vii. " Manifestly out of might with advantage be placed etp. was not — a mere idiosyncrasy. xal Ipxcrai koX tu SouXw p.). The — : go.. Was it because he was a Gentile by birth. nopcu0T)Ti. and Cur. He represents himself as a man with authority. R.k fioo fiiri tJjk <rTiyr]v eiaiKQri^ fjiou. ouSe ec tu 'lo-paf]X Kai. and implies that faith in notable degree is at a discount among the elect people. iii.i. add Ta(ro-o|*evos. T. vide Burton.) omit the an expressive asyndeton. C. But the interest of the cure is eclipsed for the evangelist by the interest of the Healer's admiration. and conveys the meaning not even there. assimilated to Lk. there with infinitive. On the N. "Epxou. will suffice. Vv. 10. In ver. ital " iropeuerai r\oir\(TOV xal dXXu>.

Mark at this point becomes Matthew's guide. oi Se uiol ttjs • 'laxu^ iy ^aai-Xcia rmv oupafuk' ' Ch. place here. Cur. ciple It is the essential fact. 15.). airo TT)S lopas ckcivt)s in CAZ in 33. and demands In this of him observance ot the law. This happened much earlier. forming as comple- ments of each other a commentary on the statement. PtPXTipevTjv Kai irvpitra-ova'av.^ (same 14. p." plimentary things about his nation or his Church. 29-31 Luke iv. implying that all are familiar The imagery ideas) are stock phrases. Kal eXOcjc 6 'li^aoos eis ttjv oiKiac flcrpou. John 52. fevered. XXV. though he does not follow implicitly. Cure of a fever : Peter's mother-in-law (Mark i. is Jewish. but on the other hand. dvaKXiOr^o-ovrai Jesus expresses Himself here and throughout this logion in the language of His time The feast with the and people. But its import is thorough being a heathen. Egypt. Gesch. cure as thorough as thy faith. 9. respect the second serves as a com( panion piece. giving occasion for a harmony with the preceding reflection on One who the spiritual state of Israel. parall. the second miracle-history in Mark and Luke. is the addition of prosaic scribes." m Ch. 42. 39). R. The former has probably come in from Lk. Acts xxviii. word as to the position of heathens. els t. 30 phrase). Ver.. \iyQt 8e ufiiyf on ttoXXoi diro dyo- Lk. T« CKaTOfTapxu. characteristic features. Jesus has to do with a Jew.eVi]!' Kal irupeaaouaaK. 13.os itai 6 ppuyfios twi' oSoitwi'. 50) remarks on the these two felicitous juxtaposition of narratives relatively to one another and " In the first to the Sermon on Mount. R. The two combined are happily appended to a discourse in which Jesus states His attitude to the law. universalistic. the weeping and the gnashing of teeth (observe the article before o-Kdrog. heavy burdens of the prophet that he cannot be a mere patriot. id6r\ 6 irais Kal^ ws cirtCTTeuaas 50. Had she taken ill since they left to attend worship. 6Dpov. the subject of healing in Mark). Kal ctircK 6 *lT]aous yciajOiqTa) oroi. Peter's mother-in-law that is ill. or say comthe other. 13. auToG auTTJs. 29) with fellowworshippers not here named. pejSXTip. which is found in al. . but the thought is anti-Jewish. verss. irevdEpav. o. iv. * ^CLA2 ^B i<5B omit Ktti. — Ver. irvpcVo-. Too-auTT]v irto-rtv ev T<i> I. at the beginning of the Galilean ministry. of perennial truth and : Vv. and is cut spoken under utterance. (Tisch.— 140 k Ch. with the suddenness of feverish attacks in a tropical climate ? ^ePXtjpeVtiv is against this. ii she had been ill for some time. auTOu' iv wpa eK€i»'T|. Vide below. 29 (parall. ttj 13. 8 * omit avTov. emotion Go. PacriXeias €icpXT)Or]aofTai C15 to aKOTOS to c^uTcpoc ckci etrrai XXV. to this text). Ppvypbs. xxii. does not necessarily 30). found in B.. cvpov (T. Each evangelist has 38. passioned vjtayt. 19. etc.). xiii. . 30 (same phrase). also superfluous. ™6 Kal KXaudp. Peter has a house and is and already he receives his dis- Wcizsacker Untersuchungen uber die Evang. as it naturally suggests an illness of some duration . The Ktti before ws in T. Kal Sitikovci Kal ^ij/aTO tt)S 1 Authorities are much divided between the reading ovSt «v tw I.. said the one thing was prepared to say At whatever time said it It is one of the would give oi?"ence. "^'YTraye. vii. KXavOpos. T]|ouCTi. lying in bed. value. 14-15.H. The story here loses its flesh and blood. being the original. as thou hast believed be it to thee . patriarchs. old Latin verss. rfj II. coming from the synagogue on a Sabbath day (Mark i. xiii. eiSe ttjk ircfdcp&i' D parall. Men speaking under emotion discard expletives. the story of the second IX0UV.). I ToXuf Kal 'laaoiK Kal Suo-jjicoK Kal "^ dfaKXiOr^aon-ai fiera 'A^padjui Kai X2. : compressed im- down to : = rierpov married. KATAiMATGAION Too-auTtif TTioTiK ^ VIII. name (Simon — . and -rrap ovScvi. cupoc. and several cursives (W. Syr. . . why should they need to tell Jesus after coming back firom the synagogue? (Mark i. 8. the outer darkness. Kal d4>T]KEf auTTiK 6 "irupcTos* X^'P^S Kal ^yipQt]. — 14. xiv..

EYArrEAION 16. .. (Mark iv. freq. : Vv. The scribe incident may belong to the excursion to the north We phetic text in reference to Christ's heal. the main point for Mt. xxvii. felicitous .. 23. 16-17. text (Is. might have been dispensed with but it is in the source (Mark) in the same context. had created a great sensation. disciple interviews. 15. toG Trpo(})i^TOU. Mk. The evangelist makes a desire to escape from the crowd the motive of the journey. phr. Luke viii. hand here to cure. Xe'yoi'Tos. Luke gives the meeting with the scribe. iKekeuaiv 19. not merely that Jesus actually did remove diseases. " Ordinarily a long time is required for recovery. 23-27. 16. al. * avTw in i>^BC2 . 21-28). V. before XXX. is that gathered on the shore to hear the parable-discourse from a boat on the lake. and the result is a crowd gathered at the door of Peter's house at sunset. xxviii. oirws * irXT|pa.ivr\s • 141 auTu Saifxon^osame phrase. Tovs fJia9T]Tds is understood.). This desire is still more apparent in Mark. the introduction of . which. . but the weakness it causes left her. or after sunset ? Saipiov. . especially with Prophetic citademoniacs. The 4) refer to sin. after iv. great miracle or interesting for anything but it happened at an early said Peter time and in the disciple circle the informant. 23 f. but vide Luke iv. ? For explanation we must in The preaching of Jesus the synagogue that Sabbath day. Kal irdfTas tous idspdireuaev • Ch. 40. evening (Mark i. but inNot only the fever appropriate here). and it showed Christ's sympathy (ver. 15. in Mark to raise her she rose up at up. Autos Tds ^ daGeveias if]fJiwi' V. ^\|/aTo. . shore with its Excursion incidents to the eastern . : . and why especially demoniacs brought : (xv. *l8«v . Horn. 35 v. but then all things happened Not a at once " (Chryst. which once introduced was enlarged into iroXXovs oxXovs (^'^CLAZ not a usual expression Mt. As our evangelist is giving a collection 20 . andinMk. Possibly neither is right. eXajBe. I Tim. 32-34 Luke iv. Beza renders i7idixit profectionetn = He ordered departure. 18. Kal Trpoo-eXOoJi' els YpapLfiaTeus etiref ia Mt. Kal Tas I'Offous cpdo-Tacrei'. irepl avT6v.— II — . ziv.. viii. or took and bore away . Cb. needs an explanation. from the making the . must not assume a close connection between § 18-22 and the excursion to the eastern shore. a different setting. a nature miracle. There were two evenings. Events of that Sabbath Vv. The readiest is that he found these associated with the Gadara incident. : Hebrew liii. the Sept. 9. direXffeit' ' eis to * -nepav. 23 KOKws 'Haaiou 17. avrots (in LA) has come in from parall. — : : . 17. Mark is more exact. 22. ' B has oxXov ^ al. and even of w. iv. It is useless to discuss the precise meaning of eXa^ev and ipdo'Tao'cv took and bore. Ver. iroXXoTJs why a crowd just then.). the whole group in the Apostolic Document (so Weiss). his main concern. an early and a late (Ex. refers to sicknesses and pains. but especially a Sabbath day. These narratives — of healing incidents. '0\|/ias yevo}itvy\9 vague indication of time on any day. Lk. Ver. make a large leap forward in the history. and John. imply a serious attack. 8). 21). Which of them was it . when the Sabbath ended. giving prominence not to the thaumaturgic but The multitude from which Jesus escapes. — ig. 17). He touched her 38. 35 al. A general statement. in Mark's narrative. w. auTois. plural in Mark. eic^X£v<r£v direXOciv. riyipBi].6fj to pr]Qky Sid xxvii. in (ver.' 'iTjffoCs Acts 18. xiv. ing work. oxXovs. 28. 2.). 15. and the cure of a demoniac (Mark i. '\Zu)v 8e 6 TToXXous ©xXous^ nepi auTOf. in his source or sources. not mendifferent. 8iT]Kov6i. to be healed go to Mark. 22-39). with their sick. but the crowd and the time are — tion. and it gives our evangelist a welcome opportunity of quoting a pro- — to the sympathetic aspect Hebrew original. Ver. 18-34. 57. 18-22. ° . once and continued to serve at the meal all present but Jesus only referred to here (avirip. Ver. but that Hewaswzwrferf to do so : such was His bent. Grotius thinks this elliptical for cKcXevac irdvTa etoi)id<rai els to dir. and Mk. apposite. etc. setting Christ's healing ministry in a true light .^ fjiecous ivpoCTi^i'eYKav TToXXous ex^^'TctS Kal ^^^paXe rd irj'60|xaTa Xoyw. "'0»(/ios 8e yevoit. subjective or objective ? The evangelist would note. 41).

" X^vei 20. one of the outstanding logia of Jesus. The whole speech is studiously enigmatical. Xe'vei axiro) 6 I. even and still more men. Christ's feeling was not an unreasoning or invincible prejudice. Kal ix. but a strong suspicion and aversion justified by insight and experience. IS.)». oLkoXov0ij<rw already more or less of a disciple perhaps he had been present during the teaching on the hill or at the encounter between Jesus and the scribes in re washing (xv. has chosen it deliberately. p. Vv." " €iT-iTp€<). : a notable saying. 21-22. The first was enthusiastic this one is hesitating. it is in a hidden enigmatical way. not only numerically (aXXos). but in type. Jesus had no place where He could lay His head in the religion of His time (vide my With Open Face. I. who might be better than the average. aoTw.6»' ital * Odvbai tok 3 (absol. Jesus might suffer him to become a disciple. : — . had become. but highly coloured to repel an undesirable follower. vi. and birds resting places. who says that €ts never in N. xix. a Ch. Another disciple. "'AkoXou^ci uoi.aTcvs. — . But not likely. Here it seems to mean the man Vide Winer. falling back on Suicer. The inference may be avoided by rendering with Bleek "another. one of the disciples ".. found in BCLA al. as He did Judas. have their abodes.{j. Was Jesus speaking in parables here. in spite of the repellent word of Jesus. IX. either who or "a. If it be Messianic. " Ai ' dXcSireKcs • 'iuXeous evooo-i. — trusted the class. 59. ^"^ more recently Bleek It means much for the Speaker. 'Excpos 8e ruv fiaOYjTUf auTOu uoi irpuTOk' dTreXBcii' * Cor. 58 VIII. 8. " because they alone time. xvi. meant. A striking tribute to the magnetic influence of Jesus. al &XwircKcs. ' Lk. T. ^ fc<^B omit avTov. Foxes have holes.. KaTaaKTifwo-cis K\i»i7j. etTTCf tlcb. still he was a scribe. oirou ihv dir^pxtj. simpliciter (son of man man in Syriac)." 6 8c ui6s tou dt'dpoS-irou ouk ^ 32 (with Kc^aXrjK 21. in style and spirit characteristic not querulous. . etc. t Lk. however humble. 7. a scribe (Weiss and very decidedly Meyer. a regular disciple. 58. els. i f. and hinting at something beyond the literal privations of His life as a wanderer with no fixed home ? The scribe had his spiritual home in Rabbinical traditions. which are used only for breeding). who defends the use of els for tIs as a feature of later Greek. 'O 8c 'itjaoOs cIttcj'' Ch. moral earnestness and courage and this is the result. TTETciKa TOO oupai'ou ex*''' '''°*' ooTw . whom doubtless He instinctively saw through firom the beginning. zvi. but rather an exception in the way of being worse off. more reliable man. If the scribe insisted. = tIs). 7pa(t. and would not be at ease in the company of One who had broken with them. among the prophets. where it is not required. but a remarkable 6 8i vtos Tov avdpwirov designation occurring here for the first — enthusiasm.).— 142 rLk. • KATA MAT0AION j8. and been filled with admiration for His wisdom.). chap. 1037. "AiSdaKoXe. a scribe even one of that most unimpressionable class. 9. 19. outw. dKoXouOi^aw aoi. § xviii. 6 '^*' *It)o-oos." indefinite reference. Xryei in fc^BC 33- tioned could be "one. Hebrew or — not ordinary human experience in the way of being better off. though contrasting with his neighbour unfavourably. Quite honestly meant. in connection with private reflections. 'Erepos. iroWpa 22. : — : That is possible. twv pia0i)T«i>v the expression seems to imply that the scribe was.). Ver. as if lamenting His lot. so Fritzsche. and the man. roosts (not nests. for the that all living creatures. the authority of Tisch. ' » On J<^. auTw. which here as often elsewhere occurs in T. and calculated to chill the scribe's rule is. He has actually become warmed up to something like enthusiasm. " Kupie. ' /v Kal rh. » Lk. 20. Jesus dis- and others. beasts. and needs to be urged a better. at whose nature we can only guess by study of the many occasions on which the name is used. fiou. ! — . —Ver. Therefore He purposely paints the prospect in sombre colours to prevent a connection which could come to no good. certain scribe. xjv.. the unprivileged Man: only no exception ^to the rule of = : . ix.. ix. omits o Itjo-ovs R. or. but. another. in spirit and tendency utterly opA Saul posed to the ways of Jesus. 33.iz.

soothed by the gliding motion. Mark auros SJ cKaOevSev dramatic and Luke) contrast = but He was sleeping (imthe storm notwithstanding. distribution of There would not proinheritance.. 13). whom He was . 26. XcyotTcs. 8. 22-25). §§ 593. he wished. o<^€S Toiks V€Kpoii<i — — EYArrEAION Qd^ai toOs laoTUJ' ccKpoiis. Richard Baxter describes Cromwell as "of such vivacity. by Sttm. dicative. Lk.^ leCrtTcw). 24. The disciple-logia are original." 23. but nonsense. the waves rising high above the boat. 221.^.. to attend to an urgent domestic duty. heartless saying. 1 X. ita ut . for clearness.. From these two examples we see that Jesus had a startling way of speaking to disciples. unless." which. 20-22). while they sailed He went off to sleep). it seems a hard. doubtless. the waters stirred to their depths by the winds referred to in vv. p. 23-27. "Drunken. involving constant strain on body and mind. ^KoXouOrjcraK auTw 01 fiaOTjTai outoG. Ver. irXe6vTci)V avTuv d<j>v'n'V(o(rcv which humanity and filial piety were sacrificed on the altar of religion (Matt. difficult to reconcile with Christ's denunciation of the Corban casuistry. and also give rise to remark. 23. hard saying. Devar. an unforgettable. sift and confirm. creurp. TO omitted in J^^bBC 33. It was the sleep of one worn by an intense life. irXoiOK 'aeiaiios fieyas ^i' ttj OaXdacrj). hilarity. we include under 6at|/at all that goes along with death and burial. Jf^B ." with a great epochmaking enthusiasm. literally an earthquake of the sea. in fact to bury his father. xai irporreXSorres uaoTjToi ootou ' outoc. Storm on the lake (Mk. the avry after this verb is This short sentence is superfluous. 594). 'AkoXovOci fioi: the circle. 27 hurricane. mission would have involved very little delay of the voyage. the men of the dead. Schulgrammatik. and alacrity as another man hath when he hath drunken a cup too much" {Reliquiae Baxt. here with infinitive. €Y^>'€T0 • Cb. ii. the saying the paradox: "let the dead bury each other the best way they can. Vv. Xai\at|/ in Mark and Luke = . is not a paradox. But. 60). Take it as we will. p. used also with In the finite moods {e. — : when He could. before setting out from home to enter on the career of discipleship. I80V indicates sudden oncome. wore to 25. 26.g.ao —25. rh irXoiov {rh omitted in Lk.a6T]Tal). Like a general in time of war Jesus — . A tempest. 22. perfect). slept viii. {. He had fallen asleep before the storm came on. 18). The dead must be taken in two senses = let the spiritually dead. The storm did not wake the sleeper. the ship in readiness in accordance with . one case ficrre indicates aim or tendency. KaXuTTTCCTOat OTTO TWK KUfjiaTui' 01 auTOS 8c CK(i0cu8e. viii. but not needed. the corpse-bearers who carried out the bodies of the poor at night. Gal. ^y^''P<'^*' quake). and woe to the man who does so. in the other it asserts actual result {vide Goodwin. probably shortly after they had started (Lk.). — Iv T. previous instructions (ver. mystic. 24. — . ii. Klotz. 3 Cor. '• word the same in Luke (ix. The saying can be understood and justified but it can also very easily be misunderstood and abused. Ch. 540/.fitted to impress. hidden. and the reason apparently hard and unfeeling a^K wotd for v6Kpov9 Tovs vcKpovs eviTp£\\i6v |xoi 35-41. the sublime .). Words like these are not spoken in cold blood. — Ver. ' 01 (xaOiiTai avTov wanting in : added iv. was covered. severe. bably be much trouble of that sort in the case of one belonging to the JesusVer. with inxaXiJirTeo-dai. bury the naturally Fritzsche objects. Another eccentric idea of some commentators is that the first vcKpous refers to the vespillones. with Chrysostom. Jesus knew to speaking. gives as the equivalent of uoTc. 772. 23. overcharged with pronouns (avTov after p. arranging family affairs. . zxiy. not yet alive to the claims of the kingdom. which would create reflection. etc. . IpPdvTi avT^ might be called a dative absolute if taken as dative after i^koXov8T)o-av. In that chmate burial had to Pertake place on the day of death. reply is a stern refusal. also Baiimlein. but not with wine. KOI 180U. as Weiss says. 3-6). 143 Kal where only «al •iikPiivTi auTu * CIS t6^ irXoioi'. The mental tension is apparent in the words spoken to the two disciples (w. with infinitive. . and finds in dead. breaking on it. or without waste of nervous power. in Hebrew phrase. XV. and gradually filling it with water {cf. itaque or quare). 3 (hide from knowledge).

39. : KATA MATGAION iv. genuinely terrified. 01 ^^^• 24.— 144 y Mk. what manner of person ? portenti — .. »a/ C oXiYdTricTTOt \>/ a\' Kai €Yc»'cto ''Ya\T|i'irj //>)» rioTaTrbs . . But the speech was impassioned and poetic. The more classic form is iroSoiros = from what land ? where born ? possibly from irov iroTairiSs. " Tore the wind and sea av6puTroi e0aufiao-ac.9). an unreal man. This narrative raises puzzling questions of sorts. of the Gadarenes. near the eastern shore of the lake. though experienced sailors accustomed to rough weather. more expressive without. (Jt^Y"^^' antithetic to —yoXrivij |xcy<^^^—Ver. 36. Cowards. there has been a growing consensus of opinion in favour of Gerasa (not to be confounded wdth Gerasa in Gilead. i. and adopted by W. twenty miles east ot the Jordan) as the true name of the scene of the story.V here and parall. then the winds. . Horn. equally airo.os 27. Jesus slept. = of what sort ? This story vide Lobeck. quotquot hujus a geographical or topological one. He chides them first. men of little faith harsh in tone but kindly meant expressive really of personal fearlessness. Kol Xcyci auTOis. i Gergescnes. 26. He rebuked the winds and waves. There was a storm. Naturally one would av8po)Troi : who ? say the disciples with Jesus in the boat.). o-ei. both arranged for beforehand. is The Fathers viewed t — and nuntium acceperant. . and Gadara on the Hieromax among them . Who cirio-Tara is equally descriptive. Phryn. deinde mare composuit (Bengel). "Tw TOis " ^ Ko'pic. But many think others are referred to.H. the chiding meant in nature. . and in later use. It would have been enough to rebuke the winds which caused : with a euphonic 8 (Passow). fl/N r\ edXacraa uiraKOuouaic auTu i / ~ "S . irpo<r£X6<5vTcs theatrical affair one of our evangelist's favourite words. Fritzsche : *' homines. to gain ascendency over panic-stricken t<St« ryepeeis He had spirits {cf. another addition for clearness. CV. Vv. vm. irorair<5s ovTos. 374) of a place called Gersa or Kersa. Ver. OoXdo-o-n He rebuked both. 25. uttered the previous words as He lay. A place near the sea seems to be demanded by the circumstances. 56." Weiss). vii. eycpGeis ^ cireTijiTjac /\ SciXoi z here and parall.(rp. ii. to let the disciples know their weakness and to accustom them to trials (Theophyl. The storm sudden in its rise. v. XeyoKTCS. V «* x/ c fs cotik (icyaAii. Meyer) or jointly (De Wette. C. — sudden in its lull. 26. : — to calm ! fear.. 8. 40. wanting in ^B . Bleek). ttvcjiois. 26-39). t)|Jias. John Hi. verbs unconnected. v.tOa laconic Kvpic. . avefioi Kai Lk.^ diroXXoficea. since the discovery by Thomson {Land and Book. A docetic Christ. men unacquainted with Jesus nondum innotuerat Christus " : " quibus (Calvin) either with the disciples in the boat. * ^B transpose virax. utterance Luke's lirwrTaTa.) says they might be the men in the other ships mentioned in Mk. and referred to alone (Jerome. a lullaby to a great spirit.). not scientific. and. p. AXiycJirio-Toi. of fear-stricken men. a Ver. in B. Leben jfesu) is to deny the causal sequence between Christ's word and the ensuing calm and suggest coincidence. 1 Tj^as. the disciples awoke Him in terror.H. diroXXvp. to give time for cowardice to show itself (Chrys. the sleep and the storm theologically. of uj-efAois \«/«\/ Kai TT) eaXacraY]. xxviii. 28-34. The demoniacs of Gadara (Mk. 01 Oc ^ = <» outos. SciXoi. — :. oti icai 01 (Ps.. of the triple tradition is a genuine reminiscence of disciple life. auxTov core. Holtzmann (H. iv. as to the scene of the The variations in the readoccurrence. •fj-yeipav they would not have waked Him They were if they could have helped it." . all — the commotion in the water.. xiii. Luke). Euthy. called men to suit the tragic situation. or who afterwards heard the story (Hilary. : . ag. i. 1-20. i. but in reality the expression may simply point to the contrast between the disciples as men and the divine power displayed. ings in the three synoptical gospels reflect the perplexities of the scribes. then with a sudden impulse He rose and spoke imperial words to the elements: animos discipulorum prius. * ^«c^ 27. the Gerasenes. viii. trwo-ov speech. W. and the The reading in Mk. The place in these readings bears three It is called the territory distinct names. avT« (so Tisch. and they forthwith subsided.^is r«pa<n]vwv. could tell exactly what they said ? All three evangelists report differently.). b Mk. Lk. The only escape of naturalism from a miracle of power or Providence (Weiss.

almost incred239). 34. the two includes the case the legion of devils (Mk. His words are : Vipyea-a. but He would not have been scared though He had known of their presence. Modern editors omit. their congenial home. in the Capernaum The harmonists disposed of the synagogue case . was the more violent of the two (so something in the whole aspect and manAugustine and Calvin). Ver. p. to illustrate the confusion in the gospel in connection with names.ciuv: ner of Jesus which was fitted to produce the precipitous hills on the eastern shore almost instantaneously a deep. XC|j. Identiomitted by Matthew. doubtless. iv. 23-27. There was. though only one is spoken of in nearer the kingdom of God than worldlythe other accounts. tL 'qf-tv Kal <roi an approprihills come down to the shore. vi. but that the presence of the madmen tended to make it a place to be shunned as dangerous. a iii. Ik t«v |jivt]|i. but the village These demoniacs were what one would call dangerous madmen that. -Evan. 8vo.dvwv to make an assault. 0. his guide. ^ Dat. Bethabara or Bethany.vt]v. impression to which child-like. found al. Smith. in connection with the place named in chap. Comes from Mk. 31-37. one favourite words. in was too £ar distant. Geography. a). whom KaTa^cpXTJcrOai (in Ev. say by "moral therapeutics".. i. But he means arrived in the neighbourhood. loan. Ver. Lk.^ uie too "here and Tim. he is that the two is an inference from shrinks from the new comer with an the plurality of demons spoken of instinctive feeling that He is a foe. . p. There the demoniacs made men. again by way of grammatical correction and adopted by Tisch. thirty-six miles taken as a fact. which he mysterious. Yet " insanity is much be two. Weiss' hypothesis fying himself with the demons.H. 28. two. The true reading Matthew (ver. Holtz. irdXis djpxaia irepl ttjv vvv reference to Ka\ovp. d<j)' ^s ot repYeo-aioi. difficulty by the remark that there might ible divination.. Weiss. C). place on the east coast where the steep They felt His power in the very look of His eye.. But not the cry of men about : ircpl t]V xg Xifivxi. xviii. The madmen. e. Origen. fitted to shock weak nerves. xiv.. simple. whatever more no light matter to cure them. a<{>' ov SeiKvvTai Tovs x*"'P'*^9 '^''*'^ tmv 8aip. e Mk.^ c Ch. v. icai 180U. in Mark and Luke ate speech even in the mouth of one one. were subdued Prof.. sinful. TaSaptivuv in BC*MAI adopted by Tisch. lo-Xvciv : again uo-re with infinitive (with (trj for negative). i. ISovi cKpa^av sudden. as the scene of that Jesus was not afraid of them any the incident. of our — The name the latter. Memph. all feared and shunned. partly explained by the fact identifies with Gergesa. like those who met at Matthew's feast. 28. abs. Historical 24). * X^^^'n'Oi Xioi'. etc. evangelist's X(av. in ^ lv|o-ov is wanting ^BCL. for he speaks in the name of mann (H. "®Ti koI trot. yet honest-hearted men x*Xcwoi Xiov. To be Gerasa in Decapolis. stating that it is the only more than He had been of the storm. 28) nevertheless is faSapTjvwv. in vers.. Kal '^ els to iripay els ttji/ x<i^pci^ uTrf]vrti<Tay Saifionj^ofiCfoi eK rSty ' fLvr\\i€i(tiv i^€p\6iieyoi • 27. in ^^BC * So in ^'^C^L al. According to some. Gergesa was a suggestion of Origen's made incidentally in his Commentary on John. Vide below. Christ came near their lair by accident. perhaps because he mindedness. A. Treg. strange. i (Isa.H. Nobody cared to go near them. startling. W. c.. wore * fiT| loxueiK tij'cI -irapcXdeiK Sict ttjs 68ou cKeii'Tjs i^jiii' iostil 29. 'iTjcrou. xxviiL 28. G. — EYArrEAION ^6om ooTw^ auTu SiJo H5 twi' r€py€<nt]mv.. cKpalav. however strange and away. T. The point is not that nobody passed that way.— 86 2Q. pronounces by the aspect of the stranger who had Gerasa " impossible ". W. i. note.. 9) by which reported in Mk.demoniac. 34.. he prefers to define the locality by a general obscure fierce exceedingly. which were doubtless used for burying ingenuous souls like the Galilean fisherthe dead. Tov Otov 6 £7109 T. Lk. for the gen. X^yon-es.EVT]v Tipepiaoa Kpi^piVos irapaKciftcvo. 29. unearthly cry.g. : : — I( . iv. he conceives himself possessed. wo-re |it| . spiritual are a limestone formation full of caves. He accepts Khersa.. He probably follows Mark as Gerasa being and Gadara well known.— vU in his source (vide Matt. 459.

in at a distance. ^ao-avio-ai. and Acts xix. Eisner refers to Lk. 24). 2^ (Acts vii. ' For the reading by modern editors. Only apparent. (viii. dy^TiJ' tS)v ypipuv. (c'jrtTpctl/ov aTcXOeiv) taken from Luke expresses. cf.g. Men shattered reason also felt the spell. e. Cor. irpb Kaipov before the appointed 187). dTreXdcij'^ €15 ttjk " Ei eKpdWeis dTrfjXOov i^ r{fi. yet within view that neighbourhood. h Mk.— 146 f : : : KATA MATGAION phr. the relativity of p." cleXdtSrrcs &p}ir\<T€ 32..) ol 8e xoip°^s. which gives rise to an apparent discrepancy. Ver. Assuming the full responsibility of Jesus for the catastrophe. because both expressions are relative and elastic there. you are to cast us : to hell.*^he entrance of the demons into the swine could not. 28. 30. The lowest depth of bathos in this line was touched by Wetstein when he suggested that.. 20 'Eti 82 aiirov (laKpav . who abounded in Peraea. 15. XV. ciScv iKei he remarks : et vicinia fuisse. ciriTpEt|rov tijuv The avcXOciv in T. 45. 20 p. . 31. under the bias of passion or prejudice. Christ's share of responsibility in a transaction of supposed doubtful charac- readily surrendered with themselves. 32). inC Tiva). Weiss against Meyer denies bit".H. as if ovi had stood in the Greek before jiaK.€'vij : far f\v. R. in the hill pastures. attested reading Poo-ko)icv<i>v brings out a herd of swine the meaning better it removed — to be joined with as from the not Poo-Kop. unusual designation. and Weiss-Meyer. swine. but •uiraYeTe into the swine. Xeyokres. VIII. gives four reasons for the transaction. Matt. T. of course. ut. but not quite at hand. 15. R. R. introducing a sudden.aKpav. Christ's laconic reply. avriv 6 iraTiip ". *Hf Se fiaKpdi^ 5 (Sir. -irapEKdXoul' auTcSf. viii. who holds that Jesus had no intention of expressing acquiescence in the demoniac's request. xxiv. " Hin". and not rather the The ill existence of the herd there. J>«5BCAZ omit twv xoipwv. ISov. send us not — scruple if : on that score. 32. So Weiss. weg miteuch — here. but only of inference from what followed.aKpav. The article wanting here before k. Ver.a<s. W. x***'P***' ^B . €is * dy^rjK Twr ^ 2 • ical irava dyeXn) twk \oip(i>v ^ k ard i parall. salting the meat or making smoke-dried hams (fumosas pemas). tame I 6coC dir' . vifhile the wise and the strongminded too often used their intellect. startling event upp. Evan. Luc. KpTificou j TTif OdXacaoK. . we may account for the prompt recognition of Jesus by the Gadarene demoniac. many contend. John zxi. " 30. described as a place of torment which were feeding The — : : : — — ter. g Acre and parall. iv Kaip^. belonged to Gentiles. On " docet in ea regione nee distantiam descri- feeding were the main point. in a milder form. be a matter of observation. V. xvi.' iv tois ^aorii'. But there are no variants in : not necessarily meaning more than "begone ". but : — Lk. (jiaKpdv the Vulgate renders non longe. : — — — iire'xovTOS. usually taken to mean go into the swine. All that is tiecessarj' to explain it is the Messianic hope prevalent in Gadara as elsewhere. irapcKaXovv the request was made by the possessed in the name of the demons. as in other phrases in N. expositors have busied themselves in inventing apologies. Lk." XOipuK ToG ^ Ol Be 180U. vcr. The Miraculous Element in the Gospels p. to In this way resist the force of truth. airooTciXov the reading of the T. 23. to torment with pain in Hades. and if : . by cutting up the drowned swine." while visible. time of j'"jdgment. Rosenmiiller suggests that two men are worth more than ever so many swine.. 14.). Kal d-ireOai'o. 57. and the sight of Jesus acting on an impressionable spirit" (Bruce. commonly oaip. Mark and Luke have IkcX. doubtless.(Svia. Euthy. (Matt. ^XOcs u8c 'irpo 'Kaipou paaacia-ai ' i^fids . xv. the fourth being that only thereby could it be conclusively shown that the devils had left the demoniacs. conforms to Lk. ol SaCuovcs 31.T]o-cv -iracra t) ay^T] the mad downrush of the herd over the precipice into the lake. have oiroerreiXov T. and takes it as meaning " a long way off. ol 8c Saifioi^cs €iriTpc\j/oi' r\fuy XXX. adopted ' ' For CIS TTjv aytX^iv twv t^^C have tovs x^ipo^s (Tisch. 3a . and selling them to Gen. els Kal ttjk etircK auTois. parall. airSty dyeXt] \oip<av itoWCiv "^ Po(rKO|i^nf|. " et tamen in conspectu. iv. XV. Ver. 17- "YitdyeTe. The demoniac would have no His request was out.

of this narrative. for he throws out the suggestion for the benefit of men whom he describes as neither Jews.% pany. who could do such wonderful things and. the owners would escape loss. from which it appears that some . >_•« g. exhibiting — : The — A . T': • The two nouns used in Greek authors. 33-34. XI.. 1. irdaa \»^/ if iroXis pK auToc. occurs again in Matt. from their neighbourhood. I. xv. But. W. ag (with «K«t9ci/). But that also is matter of conjecture. in view of If the demoniacs. in which different versions were sure to arise. EYArrEAION ttji' iroXii' 147 din]YYciXaK i^ 33. irapcKaXeaav same word as in ver. 6 diravrrjo-iv is xii. which they were regarded would add the panic. they reported what had happened to their masters and to everybody they met in the town. be caused by the man. the causal connection could not be a matter of observation but only of inference. wherein fact and explanation of fact would get mixed up together. But the learned commentator might be jesting. The very variations in the synoptical accounts witness to its substantial historicity. The change from one to the other in Matt. They did not order or drive Him out. and must be supplemented by the statements in Mark and Luke. They besought in terms respectful and even subdued. as distinct from that of the harmonist. The noun to a meeting with Jesus. the final paroxysm before return to sanity. 34 took place. some visible connection between the behaviour of the madmen and the They told the destruction of the herd. 28. This would be an oft-told tale. The essential outline of the story is this. have viravTirio-iv (Tisch. cf.). els vnrdvTT)<riv . in such a disaster. they could xal Ttt T. xxv. No wonder. " to see what had happened. The statement that the whole city went out to meet Jesus implies a report laying the blame of the occurrence But Matthew's account is on Him. Asked his name. iravTO. that the action reported in ver. i. which is difficult. Vide below. he calls himself Legion. alias a madman. 6 implies a slight difference in meaning (iirdvTTjo-is = accidental chance. had anything to do with bringing the superstitious terror with it about. 8ainovi5o(ji€v»v not know the whole truth about the The reference must be to demoniacs. Kal i8ou. Ver. in behaviour and conversation a double consciousness. a preferable ^ For Tw (B) oirois ^C have tov. the change that had come over the demoniac. connecting the cure with the catastrophe. comes from the tombs in the limestone caves to meet Jesus. Shortly after a herd of swine feeding on the hills rushed down the steep into the sea and were drowned. ' aui'ttfTTjo-ii' ^ oirws a H-CTapT) aTro o'-jv^e' nov opioiK ^B i**^'!-^ It)(tou Tu "^ • icai iooi'tcs 34. i. xxv. ^ For B tiles who did not object to eat suffocated animals. adopted by Tisch." and that in the course of their inquiries they met Jesus and learned what they had not known before. nor Christians. very summary... or diravrrio-is ~ an open stealthy meeting designed meeting. story from their own point of view. 31 in reference to the demoniacs. Jesus orders the demons to leave their victim. 01 8e ^6(TK0VT€S eefjuyoK. with all due respect. what had befallen the swine. The . Kttl dTre\6on-es eis •nd\n'a. . ver. Ver..H. 33. and John in Matt. accounts in Mark and Luke. The stealthy character of the meeting implied in viro is well illustrated in -inri^vTmo-ov. has uva. The sequel. 1 For <ruvavTT]criv (CLAI) word. TrapeKaXecrai' k Ch.— 30—34* . It was on their giving in their report to their fellow-townsmen. I auTuc. chasing them. Tradition connected the rush of the swine with the demons leaving their former victim and entering into them. apologist's task is easy here. xxv. in his final paroxysm. They were afraid of this strange man. e4>-uYov: the swineherds fled. for are little ]l^^np7.C. i>"x eSTjXoeK CIS A> a V Kai rd T(av SaijjLOfi^ofiefwv. Sept. Gentiles. and put in margin by W. 34. aggeration of course. els dirav. occurs in : : — dinJYYeiXav to to inquire into the matter. as Weiss suggests. The rush might. they would rather He would withdraw came from the town — : . xii. Vv. not after interviewing Jesus and His coman exirao-o y\ 1:6X1. In the name of the " Legion " he begs that the demons may enter the swine. 13 used instead of it. as already remarked. demoniac. 34.

in the other mental depression. He was virtually " announcing a general law. I. 34. els t. a<j>ievTai (Tisch. eirl kXii^tis xvi. ififih^ CIS tA* irXoioi' "Sieir^pacre kui ^XOcc els tt)v vi. On the nature of demoniacal possession." Ps. Vv. Was it rest only or a new sphere of work' He was seeking there ? Vide notes on Mark. child He deals first with the disease of the soul. 3. oX djxapTiai c MSS. again ver. The palsied man (Mark ii. pp. and start anew. while omitting much. associated probably with sad memories of misconduct. a^Uvrai: Jesus declares the forgiveness of his sins. Lutteroth. In view of it he is carefiil. 49. TeKvov: with swift sure diagnosis Jesus sees in the man not faith but deep depression. irpoae^cpoK auTu irapaXuTiKoi' ctire Lk a(5. KAI Mk. He mentions an occurrence of the kind at Erfurt. recent when he wrote. 1-12 . Jesus complied with the request i|iPas of the men of Gerasa. A* Who . who had intimated so plainly that they did not want any more of His company. extremely interesting. 3eine Partie.g. — — — . Vide notes on Mark. Mk. 1-8. an important incident. 1 Cb. note). Kal ISou. the faith of the men who had brought the sick man to Him. it was frustrated by an event which in some respects was an unexpected disaster. xiv. i.. the evangelist does not give. implying a process. Jesus believed. begin to run wildly about. 17-26). In combining pardon with healing of bodily disease in this case. irUrriv avTwv. and so be rid of his fixed idea (vide his Essai D'Interp. ddpo-£i. suggests "vertigo. 2. the imperfect. p. . (v. d^^wiToi z. is firom Lk. To the same cause also it is due that a second case of paralysis cured finds a place in this collection. though the two in the one cases have different features physical torments. Chapter IX. 30). such as a physician might address to a patient cheer up." ' various XuTiKU. Ver. (<)B have cov ai D has oroi ai ap. His eye is fixed on the one outstanding novel feature. not with the authority of an exceptional person. though not the same in both. e. the value set by Jesus on the faith evinced. (in PePXTjfA^fOf • Kal ISwc 6 *lT|crous T?|i» iritmv outuk ' ffoi t« irapaaou. ciii. the word of Jesus in ver. Rosenmiiller suggests that at a hot season of the year one in a herd of swine might undergo a morbid seizure. liri kXivi). By comparison with Mark and Luke the narrative is meagre. Luke's indication of time is the vaguest possible " on one of the days ". ^t^\i\\Livov. and defective even for the purpose of bringing out the features to which the evangelist attaches importance. and uttering first a kindly hope-inspiring word. b? Ihlay ir6\iy. 172-190 . lying on a couch. 27. that the demoniac might have in their behaviour a sensible sign of deliverance. a<t>€<i)VTai o-ot ai a|t.H. Y.. Kal l8ov : usual formula for forgive ourselves. in either case the first mentioned. riKVQV. R. Matthew and Mark give it in different sequence. iSiav w. to mention that the invalid in this instance was brought to Jesus. both in the physical and in the moral sphere. The Healing Ministry Continued.). no rationalist." permitted by Jesus to befall the swine. to distinguish it firom Gerasa. xhr. 33. II 53- KATA MAT0AION IX. vide also notes on Mark. as the interpreter of God's will and the law of the universe. That law is that past error need not be a doom that we may take pardon for granted : — 1 their that narratives have this in common. to the is). " * BdpiTa. 148 « Ch. The law holds. vide my Miraculous Element in the Gospels.. they make the incident occur on arrival in Capernaum after an excursion . TO omitted by ^BLX. in ^ The reading a|tap. » t^B have the form W. the details of which. When precisely the following incident happened cannot be ascertained. but with syinpathy and insight. 6.. forgiveth all thine iniquities.). The common assumption that the sick man is included in the atiriv : — : is based on dogmatic grounds. Whatever His purpose in crossing over to the eastern shore may have been. Jesus returned with His disciples to His own city. but : real caase of the catastrophe introducing irpo(r^4>cpov. 37 (plar. so named here only. IX. the city that shut its gates against Him .. Ver. vov T. who healeth all thy diseases. is a mystery. entering the boat which had been moored to the shore. and be followed sequaciously by the whole flock. Luke v.

and by the Son of Man.. in B and D with xai . eyEipE. quality of Christ's influence. Jesus stops short in His speech to the scribes and turns to the sick man. Ver. tw r " irapaXoTiKw. This is dealt with first. Saying here stands for doing. and . " Forgiveness takes place in heaven. Tisch. H. Ver. xxviL xiii. Ver. i»^BCDL2. s. saying other.p.i]o'cis Jesus intuitively read their thoughts as He read the mental state of the sick man. dij-TJXOcK eis toc 24.. a. TikCS rSiv ypafifiar^uf ^Ittov iv lauTOis. 17). has ciSus in text but bracketed. 4. and Goodwin's Syn. evidence of walking. exercised even on earth. and power of every man to promote faith in pardon by hearty proclamation of the law of the moral world.v. ^ For iSuv (t^CD. Iiri TTJs yrjs these two phrases point at supposed disabilities for forgiving. <lvdvfi. The reading ryEipai in T. iva ri elliptical for Xva ri yevTjrai understood = in order that what may happen. the point raised by the scribes when they looked a charge of blasphemy. His answer covers the whole case. {Vide Suidas.Tt€iy. tva 8e e18i)tc transition tc the other aspect. easily portable. &. euKoiruTcpov (from ev and k^ttos.p6v d<j>i^i'ai dfiapTias. — : grammarians. and inf. is a correction of style. ypap.T. Tivis T. that of i^ova-ic. is which is easier first disposed of they are both alike easy to cItteiv say . a light piece of furniture. Svva^iis. Christ means that the one is ordinary. in ver. and Buttmann." (totc X^yet K\ivi\v. used up. — : — : To heal was to forgive.R. and is the exclusive prerogative of God.) 'Eyep0eis " oiKOK aoo tt|i' Kal uiraye eis Tocg Mk^ iL 9. restored — . the other extraordinary. Gram. duty. 7 <}>Tjjjiei. irreverent blasphemer from conventional point of view. It is implied that it is easier to forgive than to make a palsied man strong. 6. "Eyeipai Kal TrEpi-n'(iTci Be 6i8tJt£. Ver. conclusive power. 6. * * " i^BCDL.) tt|v kXivtiv. And to do the one thing was to do the -the . . 3." 4. (Gospels) only the evKo-n-os comparative neuter is found. Ominous its signififact duly introduced by l8ow cance still more distinctly recognised by Luke. the vital matter is saying with effect.aTe«i>v : some scribes present on this occasion. fc^'^B. 6. xix. Acpeurrai ° 6. ulos Tou dcdpcuTTOu €irl T^s yYjs S. Therefore " Son of Man " must be a title not of dignity but of humiliation. tote X^yEi.) BM to use the same word as omit vftcis. (vide Baumlein.* aou. Gramm. oIkov auToC. have eiSw. the use of the active intransitively being condemned by .<i auruc . Here = one whom ye think lightly of even He can forgive. the prophet always is a scandalous. § 331). yap o eoTii' cuKoiruTEpoi'. ver. eyeipe ryeipE the more forcible word. oti i^oufriav exei Ch. ^ ciircic.. ti • absolutely. do you. Kal eyepOcl. : — : — . ii'a at a|xapTiai Yf Heb. there is pretension in saying "arise and walk ".. as here). — virayE lifting. Ver. Hence this various reading always occurs. privilege. tSvr in margin. — — : . the one is within the power of any man. p. and in selfdefence Jesus must meet them on their own ground.~p\ao-<(>T)(t€i: of course . 17 (with ace. § 696." is the counter thesis of Christ. xvi. 56.. * ^Xacetirei'." 7.— EYArrEAlON 3 . the other belongs only to the exceptional man there is no assumption in declaring pardon. 149 " Outos u/xoii' Kal iSou. The tendency of the scribes would be W. also in ver. 6 vlos tov dv.). f iv.) itt'." was " It may be the thesis of the scribes. d Ch. etc. Kal iSuK ^ 6 'iTjaoOs tAs Tronfjpci * ivBu\i-q<Tei.. whence in N. : all three actions. The question as to ability.. etc.Eis ^ 'li'aTi eKdup-eicrOE iv rais KapSiais ctoi * 5.H. Sure sign of the extent. who gives it prominent mention at the beginning of his narrative (ver.. depth. arising. Lk. There is more than prerogative in the matter there is the right. 5. intransitive. (within^) Mt. 7. (W. The scribes regarded forgiveness purely under the aspect of prerogative. Schul. xxri. . - i^BCD aov in ^ a4>ieyTai.

7. Said. xir. ^ dcaKeificVou ^ xxii. and. The publican feast (Mk. omitted in ^D. Ktti e7«'v«To. nay. done a convincing ar- gumentum ad hominem. But now a new fear takes the dvacTas r\Ko\ov9y\<rev place of the old. : but the recent encounter with the scribes would not be without influence on this new departure the call of a publican. dispute the right would to forgive to one who Who along from the scene of the last incident. Christ and he have met before. Mk. Mar- could do that. 'AkoXov6ci 1*01 Jesus acted on His omoi plans. but not necessarily as the prime the beginnings of the conflict between mover possibly. toi" e^ouo'iai' TOiauTtjv tois avBp(o-noi. Kai cYtfexo auTou x'a/ >~ Lk. V. Jesus arrives at the custom-house of Capernaum Oatov Xey* : (teXwviov). Euthy. of those who pass for saints and wise anxious to conciliate the prejudices of men is a formidable thing. at the invitation. The solemn frown prejudice. there He saw a man named Matthew. 20. vide Mark. 13-17 . same remark applies to the next section. ' 'IkictoGs cKeiOei' tihev afOpuiroK KaGi^fJiei'o*' eirl i away).<i. 28. cf. though not a miracle-history. had no scruples about the forgiving. prompt complicowards. 20). probably with some astonishment touch of superstition. 10 xrvi. (Hebrew idiom ^ . W. The point of tive of this incident in all three Synii. but the feast which followed. doubtless. they feared may point to a change of about pardon but about those wha An impolitic step the mind on the part of some who at first needed pardon. 8. 15). — : — . v. €<|)opTiOti<rav in idea 2 ^ more t>^BD (Tisch. „ fioi. \i. 18. suppose independent information) that it finds a place here because it follows is a feast (8ox'»lv). Kal X^yei auru. "'Ako\o»j6€i 9>« auTu. — «I8ev . he is the last in Mark. Lk. ttoXXoI TcXwi'ai koi dftapruXol . story. . The narraVv.. and why so many (iroXXol) ? ple. rfj oiKia.) Capernaum being near the boundary and on the caravan road be- tween Egypt and Damascus. but if they.H. : — — . incident of the palsied man forms the according to Luke. and the situation interest for the evangelist in this narranot clear. (On the identity of Matthew with Levi in Mark and Luke. were influenced by the disapproving worldly-wise would say. and the l8ov here by action what He formerly proclaimed implies that something important took Luke infers (for we need not by word: a sinful past no doom.) gives a commonplace TjicoXoweei in t^D (Tisch. . * icai. 10. iSoKTes 8e ol ©xXoi eOoufiaaac. xxii. 86rra 31 (= TO 9. probably. doubtless. in avaKcifxcvov avrov ^ C. KATA MATGAION 8. But given by whom ? Levi. or persist in the charge of blasphemy against Him ? At least those who do will get little sympathy from the ISdvres mass of spectators. petty jealousies and pedantic theories of the professional class broad facts settle They probably the matter for them.).* Kol c8(S|a(raK tok 6€ok." Mark remarks. irapdyuv ckciOcv: passing assumption that the call of Matthew in. but. piovTTJs a<^avo{is. making many the present do nothing for the future. had the miracle would put an end the manifest authority and to them power a witness of the non-apparent — . It was a kind of defiance to the party (iroietTai tt|v <|>av6pav [l^ovtriav] reKp-i]who cherished hard thoughts not only eij>oPijOt]0'av. (CLA al. k Ch. ^.^//l Kai dfooTas T|KoXouDT]a€»''' ei' MaTdaiof XeyoM'^voK. g. 27. xxii. IX. a " There were many. Our thoughts Jesus and the religious leaders. etc. The people are free from the ol oxXoi.) c6av|xa(rav to the taste of the scribes. . 10. The place. as in text in most MSS. Ver.). . Num. 9-13. What house is meant («v t^ tive is not the call of the publican discioIk. perhaps not without a ance. 27-32). Ver. 7. It may have been first of a group serving one aim to show so. ' Kai ^irapdytov 6 TcXwi'ioi'. here and in paraU. Matthew would be a busy man. optists is condensed. as the The agent of his new Master. have been too much biassed by the Ver. Lk. feast of publicans and " sinners " at which Jesus was present proclaiming emphatically (ii. 27 ««fl«i').). in whose Gospel the right. Kai * iSou. sure to create But those who are too mood of the scribes.— I50 krer.

KaXccrai here has the Ver. etc. if Mat. accusasorts were held. is that the call was a preliminary to the — : — : — — — — — : — — ! . and Wetstein.of Christ's noble apology for associating thew's. 13. lesson that God prefers mercy to sacriwhere. meetings of various fice is of no account. 33-39). but why a|i. gsod chance for the critics. house or Simon's (in which Jesus pro. protests. so to speak. rcXwvat Kal bodied in the prophetic oracle a mission afiapTwXol: publicans naturally. p. The fast-question (Mk. cor.). the you contemptuously designate publicans place of meeting being. gest the Pharisees as the class meant. through him. Vide on Lk. 18-22. cXeos (eXeov in T. 408.apT<>>\(i>K co-Oict 6 SiSdaxaXos vfiMV . 32 for its effect on the sense. and worse. o Zi a. ver. very real sinwhether there be any "whole" or ners. Jesus aims at a mission among be cited from classic authors. contending that it is Jesus was the inviter. so named in anticipation of the ising in connection with parabolic utterPharisaic description of the party ? If ances. ch.H. simply the reXiSvai as viewed from the Weiss. the physician goes where he is needed. ^BDA2. vide inthe reprobated classes. of a large number of these therefore. are the a^iap.H. private house.^xii. i>5BCD omit ^BCD have avTOis (Tisch.— 8 — 13. vide Mark) was expression among the Rabbis. Eisner. W. T. thew was the host. (=means). ? He 12.). scandalous affair tois p. not a and sinners. Ver. -iropevO^vTcs (xddeTc a common bably had His home. clension are often neuter 3rd in N. possibly hundreds.).of mercy. aftapruXovs and it is to the For further sinftil.. the gathering might be there." 1 2 'O 8c . and His first step stances in Grotius. tois fiaOTjTais auroC. whether Christ's or Mat. suggests. TJXdov: Jesus speaks as one having meeting with such people in the Syna. 13. The words loT^vovres.aOT)Tai$ outoC. 12. W.ap. Ou xp^''^^*' exouaii' 01 wtxuoktcs Lk. tive neuter. Masculine nouns of 2nd depresent. remarks vide on Mark. and a conventicle meeting. a gram. In any case it was a R. ISovTcs ol ^ap." b.. Hose* vi. possibly lacking courage to attack Him face to face. iropeuO^rres 8e fJidOcre Ti ^iariv. Zig. too large for a room in a house.a6TjTais. a Sept. this. the first step in the working out of a plan. great affair scores. possibly. always nervously afraid of allegoroutside. itai i\B6vT€^ o-vvaviKeivro tw *lT|aou ^ tois p. naturally sugwas a respectable man . something similar can feast. The first instalment. eXco«. eiiroy in D oiL « » * t^BD omit Itjo-ovs (Tisch.. be no allusion. The originality lies in the application = is the call of Matthew to discipleship. according to Faber. but a public hall. EYArrEAION ical 151 ii. they might be a indifferent to the sense of the parable distinct class. as Euthy. Our ispoke to the disciples. for His aim was a mission among righteous. They ii. dXX* dfiapTwXous els ficrdKoiaf. ' cXeyov fc^BCL (Tisch. a farewell feast of Matthew's in which Jesus passively partook. II.viii. But the point is blunted if there the social Pariahs. V. 14-17. ver. a clear case of harmonising assimila- tion. y.a mission.. I am here among the people classes to a social entertainment.Ver. is W. The truth. T«Jt*. really a Vv. It is cXeov in is * MS fieravoiav wanting v. but they large enough to have a quadrangular never sent men to learn the particular court. probably. larpou.H. Lk. in pursuance of the principle emgogue not being possible.9. and the feast an accompanying incident. iTjaoos'^ dKouaas eiirci' auxois. 13. " Atari ficrol rStv iS<Skt€s 01 ^apiaatoi cTitok TcXufwv Kai d|j. dXX* 01 kokus il\o\m^. and SiKaCovs. evangelist makes a temporal connection this section is the main thing. and His second the gathering together. to alienate them from the Master. a correction by the scribes). Kol ou Ouo-iof* 06 ydp tiXdoc KoX^aoi SiKaious. '""EXcov* 6Au. possibly. does not imply that sacrider Hebrder. Archdologie fice. clircv: to whom? Were the fault-finders present to hear ? ov \pilav. If Matthew's with the reprobates a great word. Kai ov. Here was a sense of calling to a feast.

disciples took their tone from the Master. 17. Mark probably gives as before (ol Zl). old and new in religion. struse. not be determined. 71. practice must conform to mood the spirit must determine the form. iraXaiw sense. 9. KOjx^ios . KATA MATGAION 14. These sayings.ci9 Kai 01 ^. ol fAaO. Vide also Tobit vi. and also to prevent John's way and the respect in which he was justly name for the disciples explains all. the true state of the case. ii. \iyovTes. another of the group of incidents showing Jesus in conflict with current opinion Where it happened canand practice. " aipei y°^P to irXripup. including in ^"^CDLAI. IX. . . — .. Ver. inIt cluding the disciples of the Baptist. sidence. 13 CTOU ou I'tjcrreoouai 15cu|ji<|>a)»'os Kal " ciircf auTOis c<}> 6 'iTjaous. same pbr. Iwdvvov. 16. feast they the principal actors. out of what in Mark is merely topical. in Luke. but it is brought in appositely after the feast of the publicans. 15.oi nr](rreuo|uic»' TToXXd. ii. the first a happy apology for His disciples. Cf. ouSels 'cTrtPdWci eiripXijixo Rev. Vv. 152 B in parall. " Mtj phrase). so that the ultimate fact was the quality of the personal piety of Jesus. It was not irreligion. <^api(rai. same MIc xL 31. Paranymphs. Jesus did not concern Himself about Pharisaic practice.-« T0T6 irpoaepxoKTai Tjfi. No mind.H. thing for us is the fact.(f>uvos. hope for the worst. . as in the case of the careless. ''AiaTi . cXci^o-ovrai '^p. the penalty of breaking with custom. omit. with a Father- wedding — The in Mark. irpo(rcpxovTai . and the Jesus-circle were observed not to be fasting. q here and in parall. o 2 Pet. at some time or other. and bring the How can they be sad (hy| bride to him. Some persons unknown. who act for him and in his interest. 1 iroXXa is in a large number of uncials. — came and remarked on the dis- great difference then (rdre) they will grieve. The point to note is SvvavTttt irevfleiv) ? The life that the figure was apposite. It defends the old as well as the new. i. . Kal clircv: The question drew from Jesus three pregnant parabolic sayings: bright. and spiritual spontaneity. felicitous impromptus. and therefore fast a hidden allusion to the tragic end foreseen by Jesus of this happy free life. apparently simple. Tisch. the fasting of John's disciples as well as the non-fasting of Christ's. auTu « 01 fia6T]Tal . 16. and Ch. it . wricova' 01 Se ixaoTjrai '\udyvov. the other two the statement of a general principle. Lfiarib) orav a> ^ airaptfrj aTr 8e • fl-5>»~« auTUf o * / John ii. The double application of the principle was therefore present to His TraXaiu. Kal * t6t€ »'TjoT€o<rou(rn'. it was a different type of religion. jcviii. is the first instance of an extensive breach with existing religious usage. The substitution of vtjerTevovtrw for irevOeiv. Sui'orrai 61 ulol ToG • . Siari the interrogants wanted But the important to know the reason. are somewhat abThey must have been over the head of the average Christian of the apostolic age. : : . . t r here. Therein lay the reason of the difference commented on. the fault-finders are the same God. The interrogants here are John's disciples. Ver.. genial. paKoos *dYfd(j)ou ewl Mk. who treats this incident as a continuation of the last. serving with it to illustrate the free unconventional life of the Jesus-circle. in parall. . but He was concerned to defend His own disciples without disparagement of John. implicitly suggested a principle which now explicitly stated in parabolic : form the great law oicongruity . c\cuo'OVTai sx/ c*«' 06 Tjfiepai 16. * o<tov jjict' auTwi' eorii' 6 fUfKpios. in 21. of Jesus and His disciples was like a held from creating a prejudice against Himself.epai. them will make a is 15. ov vrjo-Ttvovo-i the broad patent fact if they did any fasting it was not apparent. and W. a kingdom of grace open to all. and Luke's version shows that they were diversely interpreted. While the Bridegroom is with them life will be a wedding feast when He is taken from — . This cuts two ways. unknown persons about John's disciples with the Pharisees . in u without object here and in Mk.a here and in parall. 01 viol Tov wp. 7. The mere suggestion of this — Common to both is the idea that it is bootless to mix heterogeneous things. p in parall. companions of the bridegroom. friends of the bridechamber. TrevBelv. that Jesus and His disciples did not conform to the common custom of religious people. Yet it looks like a gloss and is wanting ^*B 27. when other religious people were fasting. ovi8ci« — . in the close of ver.

compared with those of Mark and Luke. xTi.). 4*^^ \c A \3A c'l '^3\//i o Iy)o-ous T]Ko\ou(Jr]aEi'* auTu) Kai 01 p. vide Trench's Synonyms. The daughter of yairus. not merely because the Speaker is full of matter. Holtzmann in H. 1 For the future.v here. in Given by Matthew ov8e PaXXovtriv into old skins . Xouaif olvov viov els dcTKOus iraXaious dcTKOi. koI . 38 >»9/ Kai ^ i. The word puzzled the scribes. with interlude (Mk. old statement of Matthew.— ^4 — 19' auTou aTTo ToG cfiariou. the point of comparison is the distinction between part and whole.^\> i\Qu)v x Mk. viii. applied to wine. xiT. aurois. . time does not necessarily it may even imdeteriorate with age is new in of synagogue. taking a part of the old garment along with it. as.. 9. aipei airo. The truth as above indicated lies between. but by Mark. from all others. and gave rise to many variants {vide crit. 2. . probably variants arose (tis for ets «is om. i) skins burst. all the true reading out of which CIS £X6<i>v. xyL Acts Kat cyepdeis AX -^°' ix. gg).)« * B has after apxcuv.C. .a6T)Tai auTou. iSou. apri eTsXevxTjo-ev this or cloth.. etc. in the second form and contents are opposed to each other. 41. Ix. p. Kai el 8e }>-'f\y^. 17 (same Acts const. skins have lost their toughness and stretchableness. The new parable of the Ver. the suppliant always in quality deteriorates with age. What is to be done with the unfulled cloth is not indicated.).. teal dp. W. ouSe ' PViX. according to Mark. All uncials have afL^orepot. . Schanz remarks that. of it. assumed wine ferments. . i. —— EYArrEAION Kol )(tlpov ayi(T]ia yiverai. like skins is That which new being there described as one of the rulers of the synagogue. X^y*'^exactly the same formula as in viii.H. and Luke following him. disciples differed . note). raw piece of cloth (paKos from p-rfyvvpii) on an old garment. Grotius. the patch which fills. wine and wine-skins is introduced. two disastrous £1 8e [i-r^yc (vide ad vi. 01 ^ • John xiiL 6 otf OS CKxeiTai. Kaivcis in quality. one putteth a patch of an unfulled. to be New stated. c\6a>v for irpoo-. which make the father say his daughter was dying. wine consequences ensue : : — : spilt. pr\yyuvTai. J^B have aTroXXvfTat (Tisch. Let it remain by itself. be fulled. the twofold application of the principle. veos the eastern shore. Rom. "They have become hard leather and give no more " (Koetsveld. Holtzmann as giving reasons why Christ's . apxcdv. . .e. John . where it is intelligible..a avrov. B as in text. "'Oti OuydTTjp fiou apri cTeXeuTijaei' TT)f x^i'pd o'oo ctt dXXd . and then turned into a good new garment. and so a worse rent takes This looks in the direction of an place. the filling. immediate connection with the discourse on fasting. peculiar here. "y Vwtff auTrji'.). Ver. 17. • — 153 1 7. . is new in time. in connection with the return from 40-56). De Gelijkenissen. y Mk. an important person. Xe'ywc. X»'A eTriGcs *> aoTw. Weiss takes both parables as explaining the practice of John's disciples.-r]irerai. i^CD have the imp. ms irpoo-eXeoiv. So after him. ISoii . but let them not assimilate their practice to ours better remain as they are imitation would only spoil a good type of piety. With reference to the two parables. That is the one side keep the old to the old. The reason not known. taketh from = tears itself away by contraction when wetted. 19. a ruler That which prove. ix. Xouorii' olvov vdov €is do-KOus Kaivous. : the — other — the new . ^ 3 The reading is in confusion here. II. 18. 21-43 Lk. YiveToi. after the story of the demoniac.({>6TEpa ^ ^ aut'Trjpoui'Tat... not of the unfulled cloth (Euthy. — aXXa PaXXovirt is apology for John and his disciples (so Weiss) = they and we are in sympathy in the main. in most MSS. . cXd<ov.. but taken from — els: Mark . and both are preserved as suiting one another. but because it enables Him aptly to show both sides of the question. 18-26. v. in the first. De W. <rwvn]povvTot this to the new new wine in fresh skins. v. Tauxa aurou XaXourros tj X eXOuf^ • w Lk. Kal 01 dcTKol diroXoOiTai dXXd PdX-rrpoo-CKUi/ei liquids). . Vv. apx<<>»' 12 (^Tri 18. to irXijpup. but it goes without saying. . : nobody puts new wine v^os Katv<$8 to skins (do-Kovs Kaivovs). the old garment.

. said." Lk!^ 'O Se 'It]o-ous €irioTpa<|)€ls Kal tSwi' auTTjc eiirc.r[a-(. pxceficce were employed. probably a transcript from Apostolic Document. 22. — . Odpcrci. Ver.). . whose duty it was to sing ncBtiia in praise of the dead. Yj^fiaTO Tou 'KpaoTT^ou TOO t|i. come to life again (Fritzsche). 21. Theophy. Matthew's 82 I.prafica. . relative with finite verb = the crowd which was making a din. tibicines. Heb. like everything else. . yvvT) eTT). and of course making a conOopvPovpevov. Ipdriov. narrative here is simple as compared with that of Mark and Luke. 20-22. forms a — a case of faith-cure. 'EciK (iofOK dtl/u/iai ^ tou IfJiaTiou aoTou. an inaccuracy of the evangelist's due to abbreviation. or out of regard to the law concerning uncleanness (Lev. ix. awOt^ffOfjiai. couplet. where.. money. would hired mourning women (Jerem. circumstantial IX6ol>v participles leading up to what Jesus tovs oviXi]Tas. 10. cXcye Lcv. Vv. Wet- — . Kal cXOuK 6 «rrpo<|. save even in articulo mortis. cerned the turning round of Jesus might be an accident. Kal " iSou. perfect. brought together by various motives. fasting. cXrye yap Iv iovrg such was Ver. Hor. not remain living.xv. say Strauss and Keim. mark the rhythm : y\ irio-Tis <rot» o'co-ttK^v o-e. is stated that by the twelve Tables the number of tibicines was limited to ten. 19. but place. implying close sequence feasting. The patristic view (Chrys. or a natural exaggeration. T irioTis ^ coo aeVuK^ ae. strictly — clpijvTjv. ut ederetit et biberent).. els vii. W. concerned mainly about the words of So far as our evangelist is conJesus. had its Kpd<nrcSa like other people's. 341. i<TwQr\ -q "©dpaei. the part. this point The story is by an interlude. do anything short of raising from the dead. Mourning. the girl was only just dead. a terse. But . superstition and cunning combined. such is life . sympathy. revive. . cordial symthere child to a man. Hebrew ri2J''2J (Num. pathetic address here daughter to a mature woman. two flutes and one mourning woman at the incumbent on the burial of a wife poorest man (Lightfoot. Kal ISuv. side . where it der Alterthiimer. to remind of the commandments. XV. it with wopcvov our evangelist gives him credit for more that Jesus can bring back from the faith dead. The narrative returns to the case of Jairus' daughter.rai. Euthy. i'j). dying. 23. had been reduced to system.). oiri(r6cv: realistic feature. The girl was dead when that was all he cared Jesus arrived The ruler thought Jesus could about. In dress Jesus was not His mantle. 1 i^BDZ (Tisch. no notice taken of the superstition or the cunning. yap 2 2. on the way to Jairus' house. fluteinclude some players. Hor. A true story in the main.).'ss." Irjaous Kal yoKT) diro rrjs upas cKeinrjs. irpoaEXdoucra 21. 23. o her little private scheme. . not future. XV. oTTiaQci'. cycpdels apparently refers back to ver. has Probably it is been adopted by many. that the statement was an inference from the condition in which he left her. Ver. o-eo-coKcv.).— 154 s here onljr — KATA MATGAION 20. the main fact. The crowd.— Kpacnr^Sov. for twelve years — of chronic ill-health. •irio-Tis. nonconformist. at least when death has just taken t. again as in ix. stein. or due to consciousness of a nervous jerk instinctively understood to mean something. xxiii. : Vv. vol. Heb. o-rpa^cis Kal ISwv. Eisner. at least. suspended — 20.awoman who had suffered from some kind of bloody flux.. the xfi/aTo. xal i8u»' toOs.aTiou auToG.. etc. and so are a saved woman. vii. she was from that hour. iv eauT^. desire to share in the meat and drink going at such a time (so Lightfoot. and that before the Punic war. 23-26. . besides the ovXtjTai. .H. indeed. = a fused din. The practice in Greece and Rome was similar proofs in Grotius. 38). again in Lk. 56. Vide also Marquardt. yet already a crowd had gathered about the house. — — : IXo. Kal at ^Ver. Ouyarcp* (Num!xv. only of the good has created work for the harmonists. 36. without notice faith. fringes at the four corners of the outer garment. from womanly shame or the morbid shrinking . l8ov:a new applicant for help appears on the scene. Handbuch Rom. to convey a feeling of confidence = you Kal Io-uOti. y"^ ' atftoppoouaa SoSScKa In). 50. dvyarcp.eis ciS Tvjf oikiok tou apxorros. Ver. touched one of the tassels least possible degree of contact enough to ensure a cure. p. 2. .

i. but that is dispelled by speaking to them. and Jesus at last takes notice of them. 26. Acts zvu. whither He retired after the last incident. Tore '^»)/aTo twk d4>6aX)Xbif auTUK. etc. L. and shaking His head at them. who feared the awakening of false expectations. sternly enjoined {vide Mk. 10. cKpdTir]ae tt)s x^''P°5 1^ auTTJs. 10 (= cl'fjXOei' •<|>i]piTj auTT) CIS oXtjc ttjk yTJv eKcinf]^. eiaeXOwj' d 5. giving a plausible basis for the hypothesis of an apparent death or swoon (Schleier. non vi et manibus. lies not so much in the cures as in the words — : — i tu4)XoI: blindness 27. as they are wont to spoken. "^'E\iii]<Tov TT)>' uie ^ AapiS. Xe'yei "'AvaKal b Rev. iv. Tu<|>Xoi. a less usual form avoided by scribes. ev£Ppip. XupciTe- 6.ea. A welcome word to naturalistic commentators. xxviiL 15. Kal e f to be dead). against the wish of Jesus. His previous conduct might throw doubt on His willingness. vai a prompt glad " yes " is their answer.a(r9ai is ever used in a metaphorical sense in the N. Yet Carr (C. Marcus-Evang. Therefore He took no notice of them on the way to His house.. Kpd^OKTCs Kal Xeyovnres. J." 29. Ver. paratively colourless and uninteresting. 27. i. 26. Ver. viis A. Kal to KopdaiOK. XX. i\Q6vTi els T. I|cPXi]6t) not to be pressed as implying physical force. i.T]6i] ^B. the house therefore soon cleared of the noisy crowd. Kal ave(a\Bi](Tav auTois 6 'lnjcrous. T. For Xcyei avrots t^BD have cXcycv* For vie B has vios. mourners ov yop aWdave: no of dismissing them. dvax«peiT€. (vide remarks —Ver. Kal Xe'yei . " nwrreueTc on 8ufa|xai tooto irotTJaai " A^youaic auTu. Messianic appellation.T]aaT0 * Xe'ywj'. 28. I V. The paraphrase of Euthy. ' 01 d4>9aXp. xxi. "looked severely. 3^ KanyiKoiv auToG. 14. dXXd *Ka0eu8ei. Kal irapdyom cKeiOcf tw fiKoXoudr^aaf i^/ids. 30. 31. "'Opdre auTOf iv 1 "^ yivmaKird).i. for the maid (Kopdoriov. 30. common from — . Vv. sed voce jussuque (Fritzsche)) a tone and manner not to be resisted.. aurw 8uo Mk." h Ch. The derisive laughter of the crowd (KaTeyeXwv) is good evidence to the contrary. not to be taken prosaically as meant to deny death. Weiss thinks the exTTjv Y»{v €KcivT]v pression implies that the evangelist is a stranger to Palestine (Weiss. who did not desire raising the dead to be regarded as a part of His ordinary work. y. 43. limestone dust in the air and changing temperature. but = puella in late Greek) is not dead.T]9T]. for K^prj. irpo(r>]X6oy they follow. —Ver. 6k. first time addressed to Jesus. 45- oXtj tj] yrj cKcing." 31.) thinks it open to question whether it ought not to be taken literally. Ver. need of you yet. in ' T)veci>x. zT. dim. and doubtful whether Koip. asking if they have faith in His power. Two blind men. ' 25. BD. This miracle-narrative and the next : — accompanied with dumbness. Zig. irpoorTJXOov aoTw 01 tu({>Xoi. G. 28. 27-31. 26J. ufjiuc y€vy\Qr]r<i} ' "Kara auTuc tth' iriaTic • tiiiZv. or elsewhere. v.Meyer).— «o ^ — : — 31. Kupie. The interest in both cases. Thess. a point of interest for the evangelist not welcome to Jesus. retire ! Hired distasteful to Jesus. 30. Ot Se e^eX06in-es 8i6<j)i](it<j-ai' j Ch. however. o. oiKiac. in * ev£P(>i|i. XX. 'EXBovti. . Ch.). Mk. contracting His eyebrows. a Hebraism. Keim. Ore 8e 'clePX-qSTj i]ydpQr\ ©xXos.^ * auXrjrds dopu^ouftcvoi'. 'Itjctou. blindness and possession Ver. EYArrEAION Kal tok oxXok ou yelp * 155 aurois. on to make sure that secrets Iv oXtj t. 31. 12. They bring under notice two new types of disease. 43). g Lk. ver. itjvea»x9'no-av. zviiL 22. I|t)X6£v i\ «j).). gives a vivid idea of the meaning. 8e €is aoTois 6 'Itjcoos.. — : — — — do who wish will be kept ". The Jews thought of blind eyes as shut. " Nai.. 24.oi fiT]8eis Kal e»'€(3pip.TtiQave t6 Kopdcrioi'. XeywK. " she Perhaps that was why He said sleepeth" (Weiss. i Mk. T. and of seeing eyes as open. who gladly avails Himself of this opportunity 24." 6 c Mk.

35-38. not for lack of reapers. at last. KOI €KpXT]0^rros ol a xiv. but it was How differently men view plausible. tAs iriSXeis irdaas Kal ras Kwfjias. only a pitiful plight of the people. "'Oti^ nse of vide also Sir. ix. wondered. hearing one speak whom they had so long known to be dumb. v. the interest centring in the conflicting comments of spectators which probably secured for it a place in the Logia of Matthew. speech eSavp. 32. ev ry He casts out demons in apxovTi T. but a blameworthy neglect of duty on the : . AAtuk 8c li^py^o^ivfavy iSou. here with 8t8clo'K<of iv accus. 31. hostility.£o)Ji£vov It was known that the inferred cause.). XeyoK-res. neque contactu tantum. found vent in these words. 34 . 1 Kal Ocpaircuuf irao-oi' - I'oo-OK koI irao-aj' jiaXaKiaK iv ^B omit avOpuirov. at the forms the introduction. 34. Ver. xiit.. and. •apo(rr\ve. ISwv 8J tovs ©xXous: in the — course of His wanderings Jesus had opportunities of observing the condition of the people. It was very sombre. KAI " TrcpiTJycK 6 'iTjaoG. same time. isolate it. 35) obviously looks back to iv. is strongest. i^6. fitly ends the closely the — — : — : symptom.— 15^ kCh. as an object of general admiration . ovSeiroTe thus they expressed their E<{idvT). melancholy. Ver. ii. Speech seemed to be prevented by some foreign spiritual power the mental disease.vi\ ' outus ' tw 'lapai^X. xii. X. 1 Acts zvii. The word literally means blunt. AdXTjacK 6 ou8e7roT6 cXcyoi'. and a harvest going to waste Both imply. here the faculty of speech (ver.ao'av the crowd present followed.Ei'oi'. »»nd it is idle to discuss the precise meaning of ovTws. meagre in comparison with the story of the Gerasene demoniac. purpose to inquire why this seemingly minor miracle should make so great an Perhaps we should not impression. btit the Pharisees said. criticism.tam admirabilia. Xvio-Oi]. possibly. winding up the preceding narrative of words and deeds from chap. iv. 32-34. and at length arrived at a clear. Ver. one for the cures of demoniacs. Avitwv j^cpxofJi^vMV while the two blind men are going out they bring another sufferer to the great Healer. story to which the earlier summary description of the ministry in Galilee It is. Tais (JUKaywYais aoTWK. Ku4>(is * Kal iv cQaujiaaai' oxXoi. D. vi. In N. the dumbness was not due to any physical defect. tam ccleriter. 14). eXa\T)<r£v). These verses look both Vv. it is used with reference to the senses and faculties. 22 f. an incessant stream of applicants for aid flowing towards His dumbness the apparent door. Probably they did not believe it. in the second He is to appear as an object of doubt." 34.ovi.: ^ KATA MATeAION 32. Ol 8c 4>apiaaioi "^ 4. — : — : . omit ver.v Saijxoi'i^op. 1 . backwards and forwards. 390) is applied to a weapon. 23. 24. in Gospels only). The multitude admired.zii. et in omni .. xi. and in Homer (//.oi'iou. 35 In the first act Jesus has appeared 12). the same phenomenon {vide on Matt. ^ Kox^&K .32. a. ^BCD W. k. 36. but there in trans. also Rosenmuller (" tot signa. but take it along with the other marvels that followed in quick succession The as joint causes of admiration. have formed the commencement of chap. Yet this general statement about Christ's teaching and healing ministry (ver. definite view as to the moral and religious situation. 33. very The dumb demoniac (Lk. 35.yKa.H. K(o4>&v : morborum genere"). — 33. therefore. Vv. auTw TOU ai'OpwTroj' Saip.. Ver. So in effect Euthy. the reference being to the change in the man the manner of expression is colloquial. eXcyov. the like was never seen in surprise Israel. sed et verbo. onwards. Kal KTjpuoraui' to cuayy^ioK TY]s jBaCTiXeias. 23. etc. and what nominative is to It is more to the be supplied to ^<J>dvij. with advantage. ^ bracket. Cor. people were worked up into a high measure of astonishment which. eXdXrjo-ev: that cured. A slight narrative. T. IX. 21 (same ev. omit otu. Sin. such as to move His compassion (eo-TrXaypost classical. 8 the power of the prince of demons. The state of things suggested two a neglected flock pictures to His mind of sheep. ol 8e ap. They are watching words and acts of Jesus and They have got forming their theories." Ch. 33. Syr. in the grand drama (chap. in xi. 8aip. and introducing a new aspect of Christ's work and experiThe connection with what follows ence. 5. e4>dvii is impersonal. 'Ev tw apxom twi' SatfioKiui' cKpdXXet ra 8ai(jL6i'ia. in " 13). that of hearing. and the verses might. the prelude to a second act xiv. XXX.

38. 29. 01 8c o n jAOu. Lk. 2. that of the harvest. 8£tj6i]Tc the first step in all reform deep.). though variously understood as to their precise clear {vide L. 4 1 ev TO) Xao) brought in probably from is iv. Their question on that occasion meant much. Men must be raised up who can help the time. 30. maintains. Hilary). with 14. 23.— .aOT)Tais auxoO. able Gospel. is ^BCDAl al. L. was characteristic of Jesus {vide my Kingdom of God. 9 »' »'A *»«»» BCDAZ viii. D. So also Schanz J. ag John x. or "hunted "and tired out (Weiss-Meyer). Holtz. o Ch. as to general import. Pharisaic comments on the Capernaum mission festival (ix. mood The Capernaum feast was the first stage the mission of the twelve the second. 11) were sufficient to justify the adverse judgment. and He has faith in prayer for better men and times. legal.evoi. really points to the ushering in of a new era of grace and humanity Christian as opposed to Pharisaic. — — — I — — . — : 32—38. on " its side. omit (Tisch. hope.H. X. if any. but powerless to win the people because with- — here one. foot-sore and The other points to the fleece-torn ". R. the spiritual husbandmen without an eye for the whitening fields The and skill to handle the sickle. . only make bad worse (sub legis on" Few" ere aegrotam plebem. there another. etc.. TOTe Xe'yei Tois p. 8. a strong word {cf. C). Mk.) a very v/eakly-supported reading. 2). xiii. ttTToo-TeXXei). The word " harvest " implies spiritual susceptibility. In the old time men thought it enough to care for themselves even in religion in the new time. it is pertinent to ask what suggested the figure of a harvest if not possibilities of gain to the kingdom of God. TToifJi^i'a. (T.). 2'ai. dcpicr|jios : Vv. Christ had thorough faith in a benignant Providence. The variation here simply a matter of spelling ep.). have ea-KvX|jievoi. against Euthy. W. EYArrEAION eKAeAujXEi'oi 157 ircpl \ Tw OTi • Xafi. R.) TA. a new long in the case of Jesus before the one passed into the other. ii. IV. implying Divine sympathy with the urgent need.-' • i]<Tay 8c 36. The one figure suits the mood of passive sympathy . Sci^Otjtc ouv toG Kupiou toG Qepiao j\ €Kpa\T) cpyaTOs CIS Toi* oepiap. But. about (piiTTw). 6pp. ^pyarai oXtyoi pro: — : meaning. chap. 37. and credible acceptTheir attempts. as against Weiss. but not necessairily so close together in Christ's mind.. the other. part of their religious guides the shepherds by profession without the shepherd heart. The former may mean " flayed " (from o-kvXov. A flock can get into such a condition only when it has no shepherd to care for it and guide it to the pastures. given sympathetic workers ? This hopeful judgment as to the people of the land. iig). eKPaXi). »Re^ i82)f TOiis " ioTrKaYjiyicrBr] uctci -^ eppififiEcoi " Trpopara fa fiVj cxo"^" x auToli'.6s Mk. '\\'9 Kai^> ©xXous. ^(rKvX|i.oi' auTou. p Lk. pep. scattered fessional labourers. just figure coming in abruptly in the narrative. (Tisch. 30. expressed in terms of the parabolic figure. on the hill side. aimless wandering. H. He must set on foot a mission of help. contrasted with Pharisaic despair and contempt. Ver. men busying themselves with inculcation of moral and religious observances. even allowing for the weakened force in later Greek. Rabbinical. Mk.. : — the true reading. - eKXeXvfxtvoi (T. He could not be a mere pitying spectator.H. the impulse and fashion would be to care for others. and would not be forgotten by Jesus. where they found themselves unable to go a step further. having only one im- portant uncial. devout desire out of a profound sense of need. TToXus. but He is training others. —as yet only one expert... X. v. n here only withffepi. • "'O jacj' " 0epio-fi. Luke gives this logion in connection with the mission of the seventy (x. in ^BCL W. The time sick and out of joint God mend it oira>s cK^aXx). iv. suits the mood of It would not be active purpose to help. 38. 37. epifX|*^voi.' ein. oTTcus '^ cpydrai oXiyoi 38. abundant. Weiss protests against this inference as allegorising interpretation of a parabolic saying which simply jioints to the want of suitable labourers out sympathy. natural sequel lying down. that not susceptibility but need is pointed to. — graphic words. The prayer. the practical sense is " exhausted by long.

mission. vide ver. of modesty and self-abasement. 26. and relative instructions (Mk.. Kai Bap0oXop. Kai Mardaios 6 TeXcin(]s laKuPo. Lk.y. Twv 8e 8<oS. ' 4>iXi7nros. 9). 18). each pair connected with a Kai (so in Luke. agent in bringing together the gathering of publicans and sinners. one of four in the list with epithets Peter the first. Position and epithet agree. a^Tois i^ovtriav irKcuixdruc dKaOdpruf. the evangelist finds here a convenient place for giving the names of the Twelve. Oufids. extent it must have had a place in the mission. Tol Tdv he SoiBcKa ref. The article implies that a body of intimate disciples. This element is certainly Yet to some least prominent in Mark. ix. with reference at once to the immediate minor mission (from airoo-reXXeiv. irpo(rKaXc(ra|j. one of the doubtful names. 4. 11). Zi)i««v o Kavavaios Luke gives tov KaX. 83. twelve in number. —irvcvfjidTuv xvii. utterly obscure.aios. iratrav vdo-ov.. They are arranged in pairs. Kai -irpoo'KaXeo'dixEi'os * toDs SuScKa fia0T]T&. 21. indicative. ix. 1-6). i Cor.a\aKiav. 5) and to the later great one.cvos this does not refer to the call to become disciples. Matthew stands second in his pair here. surely not without reason. as we might have expected. genitive objective. Vv. here repeated probably because the evangelist had his eye on Mark's list (iii. . commonly identified with Nathanael (John i. the Twelve. already existed. Oepa-n-cucic iraaac voarov Kai itaaay \i. Matthew the publican . first not only numerically (Meyer) but in importance. Mk. irpwros at the head of the list stands Peter. al. Simon the zealot. I. ix. etc.— 158 • ch. diroo-TiJXwv etc. 2. 3. 6 \f. a sure matter of fact. often Kai 'l(advvr\s 6 dSeX<|>6s auTOu 3. b once only in Mt. iii. c|ovcriav. a. to *" dirooT6X«»» demons.). Euthy.xii. in their time and sphere faithful witnesses. though priestly pretensions based on it are to be disregarded. Judas the traitor. not in Mark). but to heal. He is now about to employ all the intimate disciples He has collected about Him and through them to spread the movement They will be a poor all over Galilee. afirou. and ricTpos. substitute for Himself. ware with infinitive indicating tendency of the power. eori Taora • irpuTos Zip-btk 6 Xcyof^CfOS 'IcIku^os ^ 'AcSp^as 6 dScXc^os auToG • • 6 toC Zc^eSaiou. 14 in view. 33. 5). as if following the hint of Mark that they were sent out by two and two. 3.. The beginnings of the mission to the neglected " lost " sheep of Israel may be found in the Capernaum feast (ix. 18-22. 14-19. The Galilean Mission. echo of iv. — KATA MAT0AION X. He may also reflect in his language the feeling of the apostolic age to which the Twelve were familiar and famous. — : — : . IStiKcr Mk. I.43. The evangelist probably had Mk. MarOaios 6 tcXwvtjs.. 46). 16) or possibly to distinguish this Simon from another in the list (No.aios • in Lk. Kai ^ ^B have xai before Chapter X. i. 9 (Meyer). The prominence given to healing in this mission may surprise and disappoint. The people in Galilee had all keard of Jesus and His work. 'laKoj^o. Their calls are specially reported to illustrate how the body of twelve grew. He is first in all the lists. As time went on Jesus felt increasingly the pressure of the problem and the need Matthew's call was for extended effort. Ver. for they have heard His teaching on the hill and imbibed somewhat of His spirit of love. vi. 7-13. yet. 36 iv. Lk. the 6th. n^rpos: a fact already stated (iv. The Twelve: their names. (vi. and even tempt to entertain the suspicion that the exalted ideas concerning the Twelve of after years have been read into the narrative. tows SwSeKa. uorc cK^dXXcif. movement. as in . Kai 2. connected with the first stage of the no use sending the Twelve unless they could carry with them something of His power. iii. ZtjXcottif = the zealot. (in iii. but to a call to men already disciples to enter on a special mission. Ver. BapOo\op. 6 tou 'AX<)>aiou. authority. One half of them are for us mere names. icai 6v6]iard. not to preach. Hitherto we have made the acquaintance of five of the number (iv. possibly a piece of in» : — : — . II. and it was : Ver. aird. yet not wholly useless like the scribes. 10). and of one or two even the names are doubtful. . doubtless. ix. and that disciple was Christ's 23. 30). called here for the first and last time d'ir<Jo-ToXoi. before Thomas in Mark and Luke. 1-15. suggests. Ver. dependent also cK on c'lowo-Lav (cf. So-tc Kai OEpaiTEveiv. except as echoing ix. John Rom.

25. It was a house mission (not in synagogue) on which they were sent (ver. 24. : the theme . Instructions to the missioners. parallel to ir<iXtv 2a|Aapci. The ending.. derBei'ourras OepaircileTC. ItjxwK 6 Koi'aKiTTjs. i). v. just as Mt. in that case the one non- Galilean disciple. The epithet is generally taken as denoting the place to which he belonged : the man of Issachar (Grotius) . Ver. centre of population. The towns and villages are thought of as the natural Gospels. * * BCDL have Kavavatos. . as above is simply a conflate reading combining the two by a connecting phrase. and two in another." an expression consecrated by prophetic use (Jer. in Mark the Hebrew ending. was used by Jesus not in blame but in pity.T«ov in next clause. two in one. 1. liiaous. Ver.. ist's (ver. o €iriK\v)6cis. 17 implies consciousness that fulfilling. els •t. metropolis) or to the towns as distinct from the rural parts through which at least they might pass It means any considerable (Grotius). salvable much needing salvation. under the injunctions following (irapaYY^^Xas). but there is no reason to doubt its authenticity except indeed that The very proit went without saying. Jerome took it to mean "of Cana. The apprentice apostles could as yet make no intelligent theoretic statement concerning the Kingdom. and implies that the mission had moral and religious improveif ment mainly in view. "Orie Ch. EYArrEAION ^ttikXtjAcis * M9 c again in Ae^^aios 6 ©aSSaios^ 4. 68ov 'E0VUV. 'lovSas 6 'lo-KapiciTT|s last in all the lists. the genitive being a genitive of motion (Fritzsche.a4. but doubtless it lay in the grounds of policy formation the based on reliable source. paaiXeia twk oupacuK. The reading in T. -«0. "the lost sheep. is given. the kingdom longed for by all. 41) . Vv. 7. 5-15.apeiTwi' jirj Judas. Xe'yoi'Te?. * D has AcPPaios («os) alone. 6. |iiT| aireXflt)T€. often occurring in — Ghana Galilaeae ". Joshua xv. rot ^irpo^aTa ra ^ diroXo)d c'h. Ver. Jesus sent forth. The term is ethical in import. not mere physical — benefit through healing agency. Annot. for a time. as Peter is first. but much more. § 414. xxvii. was said. 5.xv. The form Kavavaios seems to be based on the idea that the word referred to a place. J^B have OaSSaios alone. The message is It has come nigh to you and is here. Tainov^T. TouToos Tous SoiSeica direoretXej' 6 Xeyuf. " Lost " in His vocabulary meant " neglected " (ix. or a way within or of. Xora 'oiKOu T]YYtK£»' 1^ 'iffpai^X. o before l<rKap. Sap. is Greek . in the speaker's sense. or his interpretation of Hebrew word "'it^ip. diroXttX^Ta. iropcuoixecoi 8e KTjpiiaacTe. 12). Very general. 8. viL4a. 6.' xal 'louSas' IcKapiuTT). as ye go. TToXiv does not refer to the chief city (Erasmus. Zap. R. teaching rather than miraculous acts. would involve annulling. Preaching first in the — Master's thoughts. iropeuea8c Se fxaXXoK irpos 7. iropevcipEvot Kt]pvcr(rcTc. and also in the crude religious state of the disciples. xv. iropaYYCtXas auTois. —TJYyiKCV if not in the evangelr\ ^acriXcia t. constantly on the lips of Jesus. but not finally and hopelessly given over to perdition.: 1—8. keep preaching. but they could tell not a little about the King.' ical eis iroXiK 15 xxvii! -€ia£X0T]T€ • 6. SciS: These. the way towards (Meyer). 4). els dS6v c'O." "de vico which led Christ to confine His own work to Israel. 36). Kiihner. participle and finite verb. 11). 6 Kai irapaSous auTot'.. the Twelve. " Eis oSoK iQvStv firj dircXOTjTe. not even in Samaria should they carry on their The prohibition is total. but most render : the man of Kerioth (in Judah. 5.: — — of course. xlviii. the chief object of interest doubtless for all receptive souls. it may be taken for granted. the Master who sent them. This prohibition occurs in Matthew only. mission. o. Jer. in danger also of course.. and their preaching would take the form of familiar conversation on what they had seen and is. both present. probably the true form. 6). hibition implies a consciousness that one day the Gospel would go the way of the Gentiles. Swete's ed. They were to live as guests in selected dwellings. The reason of the double prohibition is not given. -wrtjg. an independent sphere of work (ver. the epithet here first introduced. in ^BDA.

here against carrying a spare one for a change.v)8e 9.a|ios y^P o vcKpovs cyeipcTc wanting in L. "jriipav. and that they were sometimes made of rushes or the bark of palms. is prohibits. for it was likely to be and acceptance of gifts would be That.C. v€Kpous tyeipcTe. in ^BCDZ. so often associated with ^B in good readheard Jesus do and say.). Meyer takes the former view..<i. There : : roads. p. for that was practically impossible. Possibly we ought not to take these instructions : : but in their spirit. eU tos t. not even a copper. the things In other words. 9. true to His habit morally prejudicial. however. Xpv«rov. etc. it will be an named. in your girdles. : position They would by the hour. This clause Ver. '8o»pcoli» g Lk. It is. Weiss. Acts i. So also Holtz. it must be in reality to Sheir conduct during the mission. (i.ai. and upper part of leather. " It was usual for travellers to carry purses tiae). But the prohibition is directed not merely against possessing. or in purses suspended from the girdle. We 10. return (Luke x. ^BCDI. durioris atque utilioris sandalia". Christ as empowering the do the works He is reported to have done Himself in chaps.. JIT] KTi]<rrjo-ee Vulgate nolite possidere. The question is as to the scope of the prohibition. or during the mission. a wallet for holding provisions. after 8aip.t)8c lO. There was need to say: do not take gold or silver from those offered. 8. Ver. what Jesus of insisting on the supreme value of motive. but well attested by varies in MSS. The seventy on their 8vo x'^wvos not even two under-garments. (H. x^Xkok CIS Tols ^Gjcas ufiuf.. 24. or also to the mission ? In one case it will mean do not anxiously procure extensive provision for your journey (Meyer) . not gold. is pdp8oK. Jesus would give power to the disciples to do. as an ordinary part of their mission. viroSi^does not mean that they were to go barefooted. In Mark the prohibition seems to be against wearing two at the same time (vi. but either without a spare pair. more comprehensively do not procure for the way. one or two in a village. suspended from their girdles. is wanting in several Codd. Lightfoot [Hor. in PA. 1 X'''"'*^''"'?' l"]^^ uiro8it]fiaTO. the two joined by nails. That purpose demands the inclusion of raising the dead as the crowning miracle of the group (raising of daughter of Yet it is hard to believe that Jairus)..' xviii. too well attested to be omitted. KATA MATGAION iii. or without more substantial covering for the feet (shoes) than the light sandals they usually wore mere soles to keep the feet off the hard road. reference seems to be chiefly to the starting point. x*Xkov an anticlimax. the phrase in a spiritual sense. what He Himself did only on The one or two exceptional occasions. not silver. before Xcir. the other clauses all pointing to physical miracles. Heb. eXdPcTC.). literally. including L. a8. irijpav twv Ppcofiarov).iM>va.^ Saifioj'ta €Kp(£\\£T€. thinks the prohibition suits better the conduct of the Christ-merchants in the Didache than the circumstances of the disciples. 8) .. but against acquiring (K€KTTjp. : too — p.) distinguishes between the two thus " usus delicatoris fuerunt calcei. He states that there were sandals.. viii.aTa this — : . alternatives seem to be either an early gloss introduced into the text. therefore. Weiss cannot take apparently the latter. which they carried the pence " (Euthy. Supedf Sore. 10. Xtirpou? KaOapiJere. ap-ytipov. p. vcKpotis iydpere.Tj iri^pa*' eis 686v. slung over the shoulder (Judith xiii. while concurring in this interpretation. perfect = possess). shirts one would say very necessary for comfort and cleanliness in a hot climate. piTjSc 8uo ^PY''''"!^ ''^^ ao. So Jerome (condemnatio avariChrys. The evangelist's aim seems to be to ings. and for travellers along dusty . in the other it will mean. or it must have crept in as a gloss at a very early period.— : Mark and Luke. The KaOap. whom you benefit. xxii. 17) make no mention of raising the dead. cK^aW. injunction to begin and carry on the Though the mission without reward.— i6o fRom. ix. healing acts would be very occasional. 19. used for this purpose as well as for gathering up the loose mantle. talk was no need to say do not obtain gold before starting. or an inaccuracy on the part of the evangelist. It must either have found a place in the autograph. Mt| ' kt»](7T)«t0€ xpuo^o'') fiilSe apyupoi'. Does it refer merely to the way. Hilary. This clause is not in the accounts of represent disciples to : — (<|>ao-KO)\ta) in —Ver. whose soles were of wood.

not as a matter of formal courtesy. or in the town or village generally." or " etc. 25. abide with him. beginning one way. these precepts will not labour in vain. and suitable to emo" these tional speech cf." says Euthy. EYArrEAION auTou eoTiv. . contented life " (Pios ao-Kcuos Kai oXia|ios . as self-seeking men. the former being regarded as unclean — £KTivd|aT€ spirit : I I . the latter is a little more hyperbolical than the Without even a staff. xH. take not even a staff. Jerome). fieivare having once secured a host.— 9—14. however the wish may be received. your character. TflO(|>TJs '' — : . . — If not a necessity. : The meaning . the staff. which may be feeble and helpless. saying " peace be with you. 11-15. ii. eirwr- — . A host to be carefully sought out in each place not to stay with the first who offers.. e|€Ta(raT€ (ck cTa^(o.T) Se^TjTai Christ contemplates an unfavourable result of the mission in the host's house. A labourer of the type described is not only worthy but sure of his meat need have no conThis is one of the few cern about that. shift not about seeking better quarters and fare. : the word of peace will not be spoken in vain it will bless the speaker if not those addressed." thinking the while of what peace the kingdom can bring. a mistake may be made therefore the worthiness of the house is spoken of as uncertain (V). dtnrdcrao-6e. maxim universally recognised.eii'aTe. eserao-aTe tls e" aurtj a^ios eort a fj. the house selected after due inquiry. Such a crisis severely tests the — : causes. thinks of two different turns given to the : ! Aramaic either original if ritD^ one it is D^ staff "'3 it = is " you take if. ^BD it add e|«. tous Xoyous ttJs Acts oiKias ' r\ TToXews eKTH'd|aTe tok « Koi'iopTOf * Twi' iro8wk' » xxii. but with a serious mind. so (xtj VJ. Ver. in next — : — . ^ 14. 23! * ^BCL omit €<rTiv. 6 things ye see days will come in which not one stone will be left upon another" (vide Winer. Mark allows it was no luxury. ^ 12. — : .).ei'oi y\kv T) 1^ cv' oe eis V tt]i/ oiKiai/.^ » ibi i^ II. ii. that no prejudice be created against the mission (ne praedicationis dignitas suscipientis infamia deturpetur. T. eicrepxop. TT)v oiKiav. rhetorical in effect. in an emphatic position. acnraffacrtfe i^ »' a '' auTT]!'. ix. salute it.jat) 8c|i(]Tai up. have on margin.'»i8e €Trio-Tpa<|>rJTW. — pdpSov hardly the That can not even a staff Even from the be meant. 44.ds. eXQeru elpi^i/if] eiprii'Tj ' vp-dv ctt' eaf 8e fit) i| Ch.. 12. Really the discrepancy is not worth all Practically the two verthis trouble. oiKta d|ia. BD : ov in ^BDL. Ebrard. There is a tacit warning against being provoked by churlish treatment. R. of promoters of good tov Kovioprov a symbolic act practised by the Pharisees on passing from heathen to Jewish soil. d^ia. It is always good to wish peace and good for others. 14. Els r\v • 8 &v KUKet ' ' iroXti' K(i)\ir\v eiaeXOifiTe. . auTT]i' • 13. and damaging : would not be complete without a each in their hand. not wealth (worth so enough. i S xxi. plus ultra of austere simplicity and selfMen who carry out the spirit of denial. 14).ei/oi "^ . sions come to the same thing take only a staff. the deciding consideration to be goodness. staff besides the one in hand quoted by Fritzsche in scorn. iKBero) y\ ElpijvT) is : . Kai eai' >»\ John 12. ending another . . Grotius suggests Glassius. h Ch. with approval of Godet.. lav (jiev V) q o. ujjiwi'. from €T€os. Their life will preach the kingdom better than their words.). Ver. ^C add CK (Tisch. is the 7ie former. The construction of the sentence is anacolouthistic. xxi. suggests a staff shod with iron (scipio) for defence. true to inquire as to the truth of a matter). "creates admiration so much as a simple. W. Tpa<}>iiT(i).H. there is nothing for it but to go away. attitude has once been decidedly taken up. creating trouble for the harno second monists. i^ ufxwi' irpos up. hurting the feelings of the host. d^ia after all pains have been taken. : — E^Epxorxevoi temper and when an unreceptive . x. OS edv pi. a|ios points to personal moral worth. " Nothing. at least. Lk. sayings of our Lord referred to by St. : clause). omit (with T. a Tpo<j>TJs YapKTJs). xal 09 edf t|€pxo|J. on such constructions). whose conduct as an apostle well illustrates the spirit of the instructions to the Twelve. Ver. TTJs dKoticro CKeit'irjs. The host to be a man generally respected.as p. Vv. ea»s &v €|e\0TjTe. Paul (i Cor. romantic or picturesque point of view ! procession of pilgrim missioners staff much). 13. § 63. too much ".

34. Evang. The serpent. especially in later Greek writers. 15. &K^paioi (a. too apt to be the outcome of irritation. Reading into the early event the thoughts and experiences of a later time was inevitable. p.. " the result of a love of conciseness " (Winer. but against the heathen cunning as the serpent " (Wunsche. vii.e.l62 k Ch. 1 Ps. . feeling that you have done your duty. KATA MATGAION ufiiav. xvi." avovs. but as it stands unqualified.vQp(i)Triav Tois ffUKaywyaLs x»x. with me the Israelites are simple says as the dove. Heb. 16. 16-39.**'• '"•• Aodom and Gomorrah. The act. 14. if performed. sharp-sighted (Grotius) 5) dove of simplicity (Hos. t. but of trouble to the Twelve. Mk. which. ouv <|>pof ip. xviiL «>^ 53. and a dangerous thing to say to raw disciples and apprentice missionaries. "silly dove. €ya) diroareXXa) fifias ws irp63aTa fi^aw Xukwk* m Rom. 34. Kcpdvwfii). yiveo-fie . Vv. but to get a true picture of the life of Jesus and His disciples. ydp 6p. with a verb of motion to indicate a subsequent chronic state. * dceKTOTcpoi' loTOi ?) y^ e** loSifici)*' Kttl 12. g). eyw. 16. yfi ^. Q vide at Ch.. a). purely good. are Christ meant the act to in- symbolise the responsibility of the really the instructions to the Twelve But it is in their most original form. Prophetic picture of future apostolic tribulations. yivi<TV€ ii. vii. 4. Ver. John Heb. The ideal resulting from the combinadifScult to tion is a prudent simplicity realise. something important is going to be said. it seems to bear a colouring : preach. ev fiiato not to wolves (irpos Xvkovs. this view. Ver. the high value Jesus set on the good tidings He commissioned the Twelve to : — — expressed so pessimistic a view of the Galilean villagers to whom He was sending the Twelve. we must keep the two as There may be a diilinct as possible. Hor. dp. Sept. 15. xu. the wary. § 50. not in anger but in sadness. 17 as the beginning of an interpolation. said something of the kind with an understood reference to the hostility of Pharisaic religionists. An interpolation of our evangelist after his manner of The grouping login of kindred import. regarding ver. hard to believe that Jesus took and habitants for the result = leave the place." though He evidently did include occasional unreceptivity among the possible experiences He may indeed have of the mission. 17. ' ttj irtSXci cKting.as piaaTiyuaouaiJ' / els * ujJias c^. i. ISov. 1 5. but on an errand of which that would be an incident. the utterance of passion rather than of sober judgment. XX. : ' ' — : of as on the whole hostile to the truth = . X. dveKTorepov: yet the punishment of these wicked cities. "sheep among wolves. beginning of the instructions to the Seventy in Luke (x. (Light. more endurable than that of city or village which rejects the This may message of the kingdom. Iviii.) : not easy to perform in a right spirit . yn. '•'*'•' KOt • aKcpaioi us ai irepiorcpou 15. 11. — . €v is used here as often. and especially No feeling of delicacy should in Luke. 2). . r&v dvOpwiruv Beitrdge). oCh. Grotius and Bleek understand it as meaning "we have nothing more to do with you ". It stands at the doubt as to ver. takes twv generically = the whole race of men conceived — — : — . disappointment. uapaSuaouai. I abandon them to their fate. Ver. according to Weiss (Matth. 34. prevent even the preacher from taking destroys all sense of the natural reality of the Galilean mission to suppose that this passage formed part of Christ's instructions to the Twelve in connection therewith.f)K 'f\\t-4pO' \4yii) 6]uv. greater part of the material is given in other connections in Mark. 17. o. the accepted irepicTTCpaL emblem of wisdom (Gen. as is implied in the phrase. emphatic: Jesus is conscious that connection with Him will be a source not only of power. xi. 19. But the principle involved is plain the greater the privilege rejected the greater The utterance reveals the criminality. iii. which would be a mission to destruction. Kai tv Lk. «2. unmixed with evil. auj'ebpio. — . and wounded vanity = they did not appreciate me.). \xiii. Mark and Luke). tragic though it was. Easy to perform. or the punishment still in store. "*l8ou. land for people. Weiss. 16. would be a last word of warning (els (xopTvpiov oirois. The proverb seems to have " God been current among the Jews.. a byword for great iniquity and awful doom (Is. 263).oi ws ot 09EIS. Chrys.6pptay cv ' Kpiacws. Nxiii. They were not sent for that purpose.). ro}i. as it imported from a later period. ">mo aoTwi' 6. " irpoo-^x*^^ ^^ ^'"° . seem an exaggeration.

. Eisner. so much ours. '^Y*f^°' xxvi.: not you but the divine Spirit the speaker. koi before ^iri iq7cp. including the Propraetors. 19. : word or thought (irSs rj ri). Lk. Weiss. But it helps to know. this time not as to food and raiment. — experience. orav oc irapaoiouo-iK ' ftopTupioK auTois Kai Tois edceo'iK. 32. so much. — thought. God's to make a wise apology (to p. Among these was scourging (inaa-Tiywa-ovfTiv. xiL la. with Kai so far as similar. = : more. ow. eis p Ch. view of the evangelist. etc. when such inhumanities and barbarities are going on. 16. TO <ro4>(«s airoXoYcurdai ©eoil). 19-22. bination Kai 8^ in first clause of this verse.— s5— aa» 18. It is. ind. three degrees From the point of and Procurators. and a sense of the greatness of the issue involved. make human speech at such times touch the sublime. dXXa (Deut. Some of the greatest. Beza. they -will have an opportunity of witnessing for the Master (cvckcv Observe the comIjiov) and the Cause. xxvii.vi](n)Te. vi.). vide Acts xxii. iSfiii'. distinguishes the human and the divine in such utterances thus ours to confess. Note the Spirit is called the Spirit tov iraTpos vpwv. all God's.p. xi. who conceives the whole discourse as connected with the Galilean mission confined to Jews. W. however. the reference can only be to Roman Koa-ftos in xvii. Theophy. R. With equal emphasis trouble not yourselves either as to manner or matter. Eisner. (T. Kai iraTTip t^k^ov Kai • Kai 22 * . 14). echo of vi. * ^^BC have = what ye ought is The fiit. non tam quam. 34). Vv.(Svas. was restricted to the day (Matt. Beware of the class of men I have in view. a second counsel against anxiety (Matt. most inspired utterances have been speeches made by men on trial for religious convictions. and yet immanent all ours. 1 xziv. 12. Ch. dWa. €K€iyr\ . But in Christ's governors in Palestine. ^rvvcSpia. A good conscience. 24). EYArrEAION Tiycfiokas Be 163 Kai ^aaiXeis &xdi]<r€<T6t ivtKev taou. ' riapaSwcrei 8c • Micahvii. and not merely at the beginning (Theophy. No easy thing to do. ziii. 2 Cor. followed by Pricaeus. selected . Gentile world.ep(. and n . els Te'Xos. to denote the serious nature of the The synagogue danger. vi. s dSeXc^os dScX^oj' <roi'Tai OdfaTOc. Kai eiri . not so much you as as if it were an affair of division of labour. vos. .^'xxiv. etc. Tji cjpa Tt Aa\i^<r€Te * ilceufjia 20. It hour. when they stand on their defence. but as to speech at a critical : not of a transcendent power coming in to help our infirmity. The compensation for the incriminated will be that. els (jiaprvpiov. zz. word. |ti(ro)i|i€i'oi 6ir6 irdin-ui' 8id ri ofOfid |xou • . eking out our imperfect speech. t 59. Si after It introduces a further particular it. crvvaywYO'^sis referred to here. under a double point of view. ig Ver. 13. etc.13.ev o^jloXoyciv ^jicTcpov. a^. an error of similar ending. mind they doubtless had a larger scope. not merely as a place of worship. Proconsuls. God's.as. § 675. TCKf a eirl yoi'cis. to be preferred. 6Trop. 3 Cor. zviiL John t<^B have irapaSwo-iv (Tisch. (iTj ^ up. and pointed to judicial tribulations in the larger. but as a juridical assembly exercising discipline and inflicting penalties (Grotius). 21-22) to the end. all natural and family affections outraged. 13. with 8s so far as different (Baumlein. Full. to the end (of the tribulations) described (w. ' itravacnrf- Ch 3. 22. z. tranquillity of spirit. 6 &€ a Cb. TO TOO TroTpos ujauv to XaXoCi' ck ' eis 21.H. etc. the higher tribunals. 188. XaXrjoTjTe ye to speak. 25). SoOt^a-cToi to XaXTjai]T€.6if as Rom. A more formidable Partikeln. tone. as is here upon us : — a . ..). will speak.. provincial governors. 18. 19 seems more natural to find in it a reference to the Xvkoi of ver. ou ydp oficis core 01 AaXourrcs.. Fritzsche. (iTj p. 9).) = The former DL what omit the whole clause from the fourth Gospel (xv. 2 Cor.— ovYopvueis. Ver. to XaXovv «v v\ilv. absolute inspiration promised for —SoOtjo-crai — — thesuprememoment. interprets Grotfus. OafaTucrouaiK aureus. Fritzsche. — . It is a case of action. Fritzsche. So Eras.. also Gr.:o represent courts of justice of all grades. Schulgram.. gesture everything that tends to impress all will be given at the critical hour (iv JKCiKg t^ In the former instance anxiety 5p<f). i. • Kai caeai " eis 5. fJiiCpi|AKT](n)T6 TTus ^ • Ti XaXr]CTTjT€ ' SoOi^oreTOi yAp flpK ei' phrase). XXVI.

tarry at one place as if you were under obligation to convert the whole population to the kingdom ? The thing cannot be done. ovtos emphatic. shall be saved. 12. tAos Beza remarks momentaneam neque per: petuam banc conditionem he. that there will be an end. yet the connection of thought seems to — wrong ideas to it. Here £ws IXfl^l * vi*' T. and a perplexing Why — : . but Master in tribulation. he and no other. much needed the grim to reconcile disciples to With courage and loyalty prospect. i. 16). The meaning of ver.R.os... very un- — bravest apparently. again is the peculiar title Son of Man : impersonal. &. but to a city presumably diff^erent in spirit (vide vi. The two views may be combined thus: ye shall not have gone through the towns of Israel evangelising them in even a superficial way. till a universal Gospel for humanity has begun to be preached (Lutteroth). not to be despised. have no interpreters. 25 point to another source of consolation companionship with the hard lot. where you may hope to treatment. Even success will mean failure. ye will certainly not have Tsk4<n\T€. much less in a thorough-going manner.) in their evangelising done the work of evangelising thoroughly ? (ad fidei ct evangelicae virHilary). The former tutis perfectionem And is the more natural interpretation. — finished tour. ^BX omit m. . especially an old campaigner. What does it mean indirectly intimated. . receive flight. mine as well as yours . or In what sense ? " gone over " (A. 3 BD omit the article. 23. aXXTjv in margin). 24 anywhere and everywhere must be very imperfect. secute here Therefore. you would not expect to be better off than the Master will attach it We — A . especially in view of what follows. flee when they iv -rg there. *\a-par\\. On <ls declarat neque <r«o9i)<reTai. are only feeling our way as to the meaning of some of Christ's sayings. fore. in the day of final award (James i. thinking of as a national kingdom and of me as the " Son of David ". on so obscure a subject. this standing for one.e. ' Iws oirep * cXOti " 6 ulis toC ouSe Greek and dc6p<iJirou. No thorough work can be done till the Son of Man has come.9. OuK loTi (Jia0ifjTJ|S TOK SiSdaKaTAc. shall be saved from moral shipwreck. OTOK Zk ZifiKtaviv ujiSs iv fiXXtiK. ! : — effort for self-preservation is compatible. It has been suggested that the title Son of Man is here used by Christ in opposition to the title Son of David. ou (ifj Similar » TeXcirnTe ' phrases in tAs iriXeis Toi 24. This is a fresh suggestion. the idea being: flee not merely to another city numerically distinct. but used presumably as a synonym for " I ". there will always be some place to flee This is beneath the dignity of the to. i. situation. "shall receive the crown of lite ") also. ij>ev7«T€. pointing to it. Weiss takes the word reX. guillotineers get weary of their savage Why work. for as soon as they have received the tidings of the kingdom they and xi. 24. Vv. as referring not to mission work but to flight = ye shall not have used all the cities as places of refuge. will avail himself of cover when he can. demand a mental reference to the quality of the work done. all that we can be sure of is that Christ points to some event not far off that will put a period to the apostolic mission. flee. quite perir^Xst in this connection ? And what is the coming TavTij. 23. one fear for lest. is raised to the dignity of a policy of prudence in the interest of throw away life here the cause. CTcpav in 2 ^B (W.e. Meantime. ov ^i\.H. How many characters go miserably down through cowardice and lack of moral fibre in the day of trial Ver. better Thus the from being a mere measure of self-preservation. Latin authors. that religious animosities will Even persecutors and not last for ever.— 64 ' ^«r« o°*y — — RATA MATGAION tA.. outos tootji. 23 on that view is this do not think it necessary to tarry Your work at all hazards in one place. in this city. heroic els tV cTcpav: the reading of K^ is referred to ? The latter question can be best answered at a later stage. but the soldier. : to be preferred to oXXtjv of the T. oTov 81 the thought takes a new comforting turn.V.^ ' ' rjj iroXei sense of ^€vyeT€ «is T^i' djifiK yAp Xcyw fii* ujiif. orai9i^o'6TOi. among a hostile people when you may do good work elsewhere ? Ap-ijv yop reason an imlor the advice solemnly given portant declaration. for the word is pregnant.

but a predicate qualifying the clause tva y«v. after 6 SiStxo-KaXos auTOu. 3. 44. 25 b as an explanatory gloss of the evangelist. p. or did they merely reproach Him with connection with Beelzebub ? Weiss. etc. impostores.. • J / • oooef yap cori K6KaXu|Jiyv<it<iQr]<Terai. and the words of Tacitus: convictos in odio hutnani generis.e»'OK. II." and again •• fear not " in ver. § 66. Ver.a9Y|Tfj EYArrEAION 25. There was alternative. 26. where tva occurs . o ^ Mtj GUI' ^opr]9i\Te i rt A'- auTou. 26. Lob. .. The dative requires the verb lircKaXco-av to be taken in the sense Assuming that of to cast up to one. » » \ Similar phrases in Ch. Vv. — KeKaXv[x[icvov. Acts xi. whence also the more common oIkcIos bearing a similar meaning). It is involved in the apostolic calling that those who exercise it should attract public attention. 24. p. adopts the latter view. — Grotius. 29.. that of a head of a house to a family. De Wette and Meyer the former. tribulation to be looked for. enough publicity to ensure ample criticism and hostility. xii. knowing well what temptation there would be to oviv connects with w. citing in proof the epithets ydtjTas. eiirare iv T<f '(^wri* Kal o *€ts TOyCh. 28. |jiT| ovv ^opT]dT]Tc " fear not. come As movements develop they more under the public eye. xai 6 SouXo. The futures airoicaX. . xx. their calling. favours the other : of aOeot as a synonym for Christians. opKcrov. 92. yvuo*. z Lk. put this reading in the margin.os instead of tw Soi/Xw dependent like T<5 |*a6iiT^ on apKcrov. taking ver. Weiss (Meyer) remarks that the name of the Prince of the demons is not yet sufficiently explained. o oi Lk. B.. 3.). not as in 34 a neuter adjective used as a noun. * B B has oiKoSeo-TroTTj (dat. o X^yu dfiXv iy r^ *aKOTia. A question of interest is did the enemies of Jesus call Him Beelzebul (or Beelzebub). ouK dTroKaXo<j>0iio-eTOi Kal KpoTJTOi'. . airoKaXv(^: pairs Kpwrov. Therefore. ui$ ' . W. alKias SecriroTTjs. applied to the apos- and Christians by Celsus and Ulpian. and suggesting an added motive for patient endurance of the common lot. i. and yet again. 24. pun upon the name. Con- Meyer ad loc.. iv. oiKO^etnriniv (-t{j. ^ has the middle voice.aXXov implies that 22.H. Phryn. Fear suits not an apostle any more than a soldier or a sailor. take it calmly. says Jesus. z 27. 36). yap supplies a reason for fearlessness arising out of tlieir vocation.) points to a more intimate relation between Jesus and the Twelve. a Lk. Mk. adopted by most editors. i. v. His ministry was obscure compared to that of the apostles in afteryears to which the address looks forward. The reading of Codex B. as noun to verb Ictti understood. DicHs res^ondet eventusttemaiks of the case to cile themselves. the evangelist reports words of Jesus instead of giving a comment of his own. yvoxrOi^orcTat the two of words embody a contrast berelative tween Master and disciples as to publicity. relatively. among epithets applied to Jesus by His enemies. 6i]<reTai. 373. oUiaKovs (again in ver.^ ir^aw fxaXXoK tous oiKiaKous' •» aoTou . they may quite well contain the informathe contemptuous tion that. olKoSear'iroTi^t Earlier writers said is a late form. implying vi. darkness of the initial stage That is the law which apostles must recon- — o-KOiicj. as you are. — 165 p. »t\ ct toi' x iva oiKoSecnroTTji' • <» BeeX^e^ouX cKdXcaoK. 25. —wdtry p. Therefore. and Lord. fear not what cannot be avoided if you would be of any use. hidden is hidden worse names will be applied to the Twelve. 27.£(ray in ' ^'^BCAI a^. by attraction of the nearer word y^vrjrai (vide Winsi. an opprobrious epithet 36«XS£povi\ exact form of the word and meaning of the nanie have given more trouble to — — : commentators than sult it is all worth. who both take coolly the risks of : . "dpKrroi' <&$ tw 'Iva y^i'YjTai w vide Ch. with the relative virtually express intention cf.5). based on ix. 27. those belonging to a household or family (from olKia. ^ \ 6 Kupios auToC. also. has the dative here Ver. olKoSeenroTr]. 31. Christ's teaching and conduct were not wholly covered and hidden. the in order to be revealed. 25 fear. fear not the inevitable for all connected with me. xii. master of the house. ' circKaX. and the general use tles greater honour for the latter. was this spiteful still It may have been a name. xvii. Iva YsvrjTOi instead of the infinitive i SovX. the the begin* . But. more not less.— 33—27SouXos oirep rbv K^piov auTou.

— KATA MATGAION —— : X. cU t6 ovs a phrase current among Greeks for confidential communications. and Fritzsche have pointed out that lirl does not suit that reading. .dT«»v. XoXtjA^v may . 34). but the y?a<-roofed houses of the East are in view. gold pieces. i^BC against D. Vide Kennedy. 8ia<|)£pcTC once more. Ver. lar. «rTpov6ia. but found also in Greek writers. tov 8vvd|t€Vov ical \|r. 28. i.. <^«t(. Ver. Ver. wide audience. can be lost without detriment to life or health.). ivX TT)v YTjv. not only cannot injure the soul.H. irarp^s v. 8w|*a in classics means house. T.. paraphrases «ls iroY^Sa (Hom. T. adopted by W. off. ira<rai. ^BCLA al. and great theme. which properly means the same thing. but had become weakened by usage" (Winer. 30.)- nings of great epoch-making movements always obscure.H a/. oux^ *<rrpouOia dvaapiou tJ|k yt]>' TT]S «**'««' iroiXeiToi. TJpiO|iT))i^vai. Sources of N. New antidote to fear Vv. in every case the writer aims at greater emphasis than would be conveyed by ovScis. the light of publicity. " cannot be called either a Graecism or a Hebraism . and the — 29 — We : diri like the Hebrew ^ in J^'^''. dim. sparrows in particudo-o-apiov. KTjpv^aTc. Who is that? God. Note the . p. Chrys. say most commentators. rp(. ov looks like a Hebraism. but the tempter. 2 * ^ WCDAZ have the Alexandrian (^o^cio-Oc here in «|)oP€icree in a'n-oKT€vvovT«i)v. <r. but But Wetstein used word falling out. Christ expresses a more absolute faith in Providence "the meanest creature passes not out of existence unobserved of your Father ". 7. 31. but the man who wants to buy you They have been counted once for all. ^o^ii\6i\r€^ SuKafi^i'wi' 'J'ux^'' xiii. and falls dead to the earth {c. Men count only valuable things. but that which leads to it temptation to forsake the cause of Greeks — Celsum. Origen remarks: "nothing use- ful among men comes into existence without God " (d6cc(). t. Would Christ present God under this aspect in such close connection with the Father who cares even for the sparrows ? What is to be greatly feared is not the final condemnation. for (rrpovtdi. and N. when causes begin to make a noise in the wide world. t^BDL (Tisch. kqI |i^ ' oSs dKouere. emphatic position your hairs. I believe. every one without exception. as in vi. The idea is that not a single sparrow dies from any cause on wing or perch. fear not the persecutor. loud voice. Kt)pJ^aT€ diro ' eirl TStv^^iafidrav.^t!'o!" e| aoTwi' 00 ireaeiTOi toi* ' 1 TTOTp^s fip'Wi' 30 ufiwK 8c Kai ol Tpixcs Kc^aXifs irao-ai ^Rev. — The smallness of the price makes it probable that sparrows are meant (Fritzsche). counted. For such communications to disciples the Rabbis used the term — : t2?n / to whisper. 29. t^k 8^ 'i'UxV 1*^ SucdftcKOf SiIo eiri xvii. Latin as. a comparison between men and birds asto value ye of more worth than many : : — .9!''npi®|JLi1l^^>'ai eto^i- 31- t*^ o"*' 4>o3il0^T€*. . are apt to wonder that sparrows had a price at all. proclaim with Greek.^. drawn from a greater fear. TO (ru|ta: that is all the persecuHe tor as such can injure or destroy. be ye hear spoken into the ear. small birds in general. God out of regard to self-interest or selfShortly the counsel is: preservation. form have 4>op€io-0€ (Tisch. zxiT. twk diroKT€ii'6vTW»' ^ • to awp-a. — devil whose agent he is. 8b>p. etc. Kai <r.—— i66 bCh. tv . 28-31. also one of several ways which the —avev 9) connected this verb with its object. in Sept. the first syllable of a little ^ of a SpaxH. "^ diroKTCiKOU o-&»|xo ^o^r\Br\T€ * 8e jjloXXok tok Kal *'*^ Lk. ^o^ijOtjtc understood — = what . Not so. : — — — sheep. . W. 31. suitable to your commanding position. xi^! diroX^o-oi icoi • ef ck yeeVKT). «.iroXXwi' orpouOiuy 810- 1 So in DSI. whence Bengel conjectured that the primitive reading was not y^v but irdynv.]^ = about |d. a brass coin. flat roof of a house terrace. but the more he assails the physical side the safer the spiritual. on the roofs not a likely platform from our western point of view. 26. § 26). perfect participle. the in modern Greek.xt%: of little value all together. vfAwy. not the man who kills you lor your fidelity. and their number noted one hair cannot go amissing unobserved. 15. and from the paternal providence of God. all. 121.

There is really no comparison between them. ooK ^XOoK ^oXeif fidxaipac.iii. 35. implies that dread experiences are in store for the apostles of the faith.ou a^ios * Kal 6 ^iXwk uIok Ouyarepa uTrep ^ Tois before ovpavois in Tois before ovp. as in ver. one hair of your head as much worth to God as one sparrow. 85. a daaghtei>4n-Iaw. 'O ^'iXuk Trarepa t] |XT)Tepa ouk im p. XX. p. To the inexperienced the question might naturally suggest itself. H.o-p. " Kdyw Iv a-iiTW " opioXoYctv • to hi KaKov tov apvovp.oXoYTJaci cf cfLol c)tirpo<r6ef g also fiou tv Tuf dcOpuiruK. Matt. Ver. containing injunction to truth. do not imagine. uirep ep. we deny destitute of grace. in ' BX ' ecaYw avrov BCZ. ver. 33. Solemn reference to the Vv. Kal vup. .i<n]TC eipi^KT]*'. 33. why ? Can the new religion not propagate itself quietly and peaceably ? Jesus meets the question of the surprised disciple with a deir\Eov£'KTir]p. verifies the truth of Grotius' comment as to the " sword ". Ver. Cambridge Gr. It is used specially with reference to p. Ver. Description of the discord. The aorist points to a sudden single action. Jas.T. 32. 16. Ver. link may be that the : Tov cv a-iiT^ op. ziv. the members of one's family (otKiaKol.). Has ouk ootis 8* ' 6p.." ft TO €V aUTUJ •) Vv.72. 9.— vvp. 37. Kal Buyaripa Kara fiTjTpos auTT)s.dxaipav Luke The connecting : substitutes 8iapiEpi. both in in i ^BDAZ. infinitive to express aim is common in Matt. —iras make cided negative.^T|v. 12). For ^aXcIv Luke has Sovvai. Kal iyQpoi f) TOU dfOpuirou 01 oiKiaKol auToG. as you are very likely to do r\Mov ^a\Elv the use of the {cf.. here as opposed to ircv6Epas. which are not carefully distinguished in Scripture." verse " confess in him. a young wife. «v avru observe these phrases after the verb in ver. Sixdaai avOptaitov Kara tou irarpos auTou. Origen (Cremer.a divides in two (Heb. (Spa 82. av6pb)irov koto tov iraTpos avTov. to separate in feeling and interest. 34-39. : . iv. Evang. and dat. Chrysostom's comment is we confess by the grace of Christ.6v. tions of thought the change begins from the young " (Carr. ovv points back to final yudgment. zii. p.H. " It is a litotes to say that there is a great difference between many sparrows and a human being " (Holtz. compared with the use of the accusative p. dpin^aoftai auTOf K&yit if ^ oupaKoisytJK* ty-irpoarQiy ' toG irarp^s 34.axaipav. Such a state of matters imposes the necessity of making a very painful choice between relatives and truth.C. avirbv in the following " confess in me. 34. zii. ooTi. cxOpoL the predicate standing first for emphasis enemies.^. 32. Grotius says that by the word there should be understood " non bellum sed dissidium ".— «S-37. Catenae. Stxacrai.). by its announcements and consolations. p.). 35.oXcyotJVTos. T. but not in an : — nominative absolute at the head of the sentence.€. ^ipere : — — 167 in Lk. i. &k ^ ^ dp»ni](n]Tai fie cftirpoorOcK |tou tuc h toC i Ch. Ik tov p. to divide in two (8£xa). 32.EVOv. 25). ^K TOV). possibly with a feeling that the former word does not suit clpi]vi]v.^riv xard ti]S irefOcpas auTTJs * 36.). 19." " deny him ". 80) interprets the varying consuuction as indicating that the profit of the faithful disciple lies in fellowship with Christ and the loss of the unfaithful in the lack of such fellowship. <j>iXuv this verb denotes natural affection as distinct from ayairaw. TjXdoK ttjs Rev. open proclamation of the So-Tis : 27. and in 3). — — : . 6)ioXoYt]0'w Kdyw ck outw eiJurpoaOeK toO irarp^s ToS ec^ oupafois. 36. cl |i. dcdpuiruc. Lk.T) €rvvii<|)6ai t^j apvu^o-ct to "iv luol. It was by such simple comparisons that Jesus insinuated His doctrine of the absolute worth of man.i| vop(ai|Tc. »J8t| ovtws «v xP''*'"'''^ SrjXoiiTai. iv ^(ioi. Christ came to bring peace on earth. v.8(with EYArrEAlON ufi. xxrL 70." " deny me. 17).tls. sparrows . 37. on ^XOok dXXd jSaXciK cipi]nr)c ciri ttjk John 3. (W.Mt] fop. which sword — — : .tj to : immediate magical way peace at last through war (Weiss. The passage reproduces freely Micah vii. 6. The whole foregoing discourse. not firiends as one would expect. adopt the art. but Christ has here in view result rather than purpose. here only in N. In this and the following clauses it is the young that are set " In all great revoluagainst the old.

and the next best thing is sincere respect for it. 16) at the close of the instructions to the seventy. • • • — . . showing that the miracles without the morals arc nought " (Horn. {lurdov 8. " dying to live ". cates. ayaTraiit. : — . " how He cares for their. Ver. Kal 6 Sexo|Ji6»'os edi' ^ SiKaioK CIS oKOfia SiKaiou jxiaOof SiKaiou ^iroTioT] Xiq<{>cTai ' 42. So here He says in effect let the 32). tV j 'l"'Xn*' o^uTOu diroXeaei aoTrji' Kal 6 diroXeaag Sexofx. Jesus ^akes care to make the last cheering. Kal OS \i6vov 6is €Ka tS>v fiiKpu^ toutwc iroT/jpiof dfJLTjK »|/uxpou ofofjia )ia6ir)TOu. fixion. cfic Se'xcTai jac. 'O '''°*' ufia. ou )jlt] diroXeoY] TOf cold water).oG cupi]aei aurqv. Evpuv eipi^o-ei: crucifixion. distinction corresponds to that between amare and diligere. as this whole discourse indi^Ver. deep. the principle is laid down that to receive the messenger is to receive the Master who sent him (Matt. a|ios diriab) 38. having regard to the fact that he is a prophet or righteous man. 09 av in BD 33 The Doints to love of an ethical kind. 6 8€x<5fi€vos SiKaiov . e\Le Se'xcTai: to them. necessary allusion to the death of Jesus Himself by crucifixion. fi. Then in two distinct forms the law is stated that to befriend the representative of Christ and God ensures the reward belonging to that representative. good man.. terest supreme. 24. naturally. Kal 6 ' e|jiE Sexo/Aev'os Sex^''''"^ ^ dirocrreiXarrd 41. xviii. The reference is to the custom of the condemned person Death by crucicarrying his own cross. 6 ScxoXij»|»€Tai • 37. But Christ knows (vii. and are accordingly regarded by Weiss as the conclusion of the instructions then given. paradox is one of Christ's great. though one possessing such insight into the course of events. The prophet is the principal object of thought. i68 efii. the worst possible probable if not certain.ci'os Trpo<^ir}TT)»' €is ofOfxa 7rpo4>T)TOu fiiaQoy npo<^Y]rou xiii. stern sayings. 40-42. — . bold statement first — — . To the latter Christ promises the reward of the former. death ignominious. <:/. diroX^oras. — — all claims of earthly relations. not less than for the miracles. There is here no o-ravpov. diroXco-ci. matter is character. XTJrjfCTai a strong. flicrooj' ^ auTOU. absolutely demands preference of His cause to who '• receive the missionaries. Ch. €is ovofjia. 20 i^ (here fj.. s. Vv. . He promises great rewards to those - the moral heroes of the world in the not the utterhearts of ordinary people ance of a didactic theologian scientifiYet there is cally measuring his words. and Cremer. Lk. man who has goodness enough to reverence the ideal of goodness approximately or perfectly realised in another. 20. : made to promote friendly feeling towards Luke gives their gist (x. . The following sentences might have been spoken in connection with the early Galilean mission. The Master is peremptory jjiov o|ios. wise man understands and acts on the maxim. but horrible as a criminal horrible This though it be it means salvation. commenting on ver. Paul's The doctrine of justification by faith. 25)." Chrysos. morals. Vide Trench. containing figurative allusions to the cross. 8.42. v.ei'os rrji' vj/uxT)*' auToC * €veK€V cp. a great principle underlying." says Chrysi. sense of the term ^x^ ^^ denoting now Every the lower now the higher life. as to receive the Master is to receive God. Vide Grotius for Greek and Roman phrases. Xeybt u|Aik. 40. 41. 15. 40). 39. 40. This sentence and the next will occur again in this Gospel (Matt. would be familiar to them through Roman custom. After uttering many awful. 15) that there are false prophets as well as true therefore firom vocation He falls back on personal Here as everywhere we see character. thereby — opening the houses of the whole world Ver. .ou. prophet be of no account unless he be The fundamental a just. 3S. 6 eupuK auTou Kal dKoXouOei ouk Ioti d|ios. though not practised among the Jews. must have uttered known the quite well when He words what awaited Himself. . how jealously He made the ethical in" See. in connection with a mission to preach truth. xxv. Ver. KATA MATGAION ouK loTi fiou X. essentially the same as that involved in St. 38 —42. xvi. yet It turns on a double ever true words. • Kal os ou XafijSacei |jiou rbv oraupoc 39. Synonyms.

'i<tidvvii]s 'O AE dKOucas ^ iv Tw ^ Seo-ficuTTipiu t& epya too aurw. epyai tov XpKTTov: this the subject in which the Baptist is chiefly interested. sirst. XXV. the place where the mission was given to the Twelve. religion. the moral order of the world. by hia .. continue. a good man. 1 irefjn|/as ouo toji' jULaOTjTui' auTOu. long enough to develop a prison mood. 21. 12. Fritzsche remarks on the 118). Lutteroth). to de. to. b Acts J(piOTO0. no one would have cared to go near them. 18-23). Matt. xH. with Him present and healing. and led to a message of inquiry 8ia t. 3- eiirey Zu ^BCDAZ have 8ia. aims. 2-6. be counted as Ver. whether simply as news. 2). indicating the quality valued by the thirsty literally a :up of the cool. though heard by them. 20 (with iKtCeev). xxv. Whosoever shall do the smallest service. ore €T6Xe<r«v 8iaToir<r<i>v.e. the reaction had tively isolated. By this time he has been a prisoner a good while. depth. I. ircp\|/as the news set John on musing." Chrysos. — Ver. v. but oithe Christ. zv. and the narrative shows how extensive it was. not indicated. embracing within its sphere of influence the best in the land represented by the Baptist. suggesting by contrast the heat of the sun and the fierce thirst No small boon of the weary traveller. vii. persevere. vide ' ' Wanderungen durch das Heilige Land. ~ *lT|arou9 Siarciaauf tois ScSScKa ei'aCh.i' auTwf. and so to become the subject of general remark. 40) ill the name of a disciple. Ver. . 8«o-p. Message from the Baptist (Lk. Vv. Setrp-os. the commercial class represented by three cities named the professional class the " wise and understanding " and the zealots in . The reverse is implied in the vague introductory statement. While He sent out the Twelve to preach.wTT|pia» (from Sco-pidb). i. firom that place. for. you say thank you for a drink of fresh water with very different feelings than we do at home " (Furrer.Antiq. the works which were supposed to point Him out as the Christ. cf. ! cease as often with verbs signifying to begin. where one can wander for hours without coming on a brook or an accessible cistern. cKcidev.5.orwith jealousy. paucity of particles in w. etc. honest doubt. It was a matter of course that a man of such originality.. 9. 34-42 as indicating the emotional condition of the speaker. a bond). Where that vras we do not know probably in some place of retirement (dans la retraite. pa0T]Twy atirov. ' ' — .— XL 1—3. EYArrEAION Kai eye'vcTO ot€ ercXeaei' 6 auToG. " In this hot that cup in Palestine and dry land. > . shall. of the man who was believed to be the Christ..> 169 XI. .i8. unconventionality. with sympathy. Hom. in Zvo is a harmonistic assimilation to Lk. in though not himself. What is Jesus doing ? But the evangelist does not say the works of yesus.." ex\|ruxpov — By the time the events here related occurred. The participle here with a verb signifying to : pressive word for water. 36.. In what spirit reported. spirit. are not to suppose any close connection in time between the events related in this chapter and the Galilean mission. — : — — : — .a0rjTais) as Fritzsche thinks.afactalready alluded to in iv. Matt. in prison in the fortress of Machasrus by the Dead Sea(Joseph. I declare solemnly even he shall without fail have his appropriate reward. cLkov•ras: not so close a prisoner but that friends and followers can get access to him (cf. . 43). The last word. I. § 879. The important thing is to realise that all that is related here must have taken place after there had been time for the methods. " giving room to them and time to do their work. only avoiding the places they visited. cided reprobation. and the most beautiful spoken with about the deep pathos as an aside disciples rather than to them. ir<JXco-iv avT<iJv the pronoun does not refei to the disciples (p. 42. p. 36. i\ Tro\e<n. fjia6T)Tais 'jacTcPTi iKelQev tou StSdo-Keii/ koI Ki]pu<T(T€iv Tais 2. that when Jesus had completed His instructions to the Twelve He went away on a teaching and preaching tour among the tovvois. energy and fearless independence would sooner or latter provoke criticism of all shades from mild. 2. He continued preaching Himself. but to the people of Galilee. — Chapter XL Jesus Judged by and We Judging His Contemporaries. were it but to give a drink to one of these little ones (Ivo Twv fjiiKpoiv TovTtov. However popular at He must become at last compara- Goodwin. and way of life of Jesus to manliest themselves. fully set in.

Ver. Zig. 3. a dx. disciples. mild wisdom in this Christ for his taste. Lk. Tu4>Xoi • di'aPX^Troucri. also the coming Prophet. ix. it that turn (vii. ^ f\ Irepoj' * TrpocrZoK<au. or doubt. said to Jesus. (i) has everyThe effect of conthing in its favour. tolerance. by them. hei'e taken to mean deaf... geniality. Kw^oi. 1. 24. though — : in ix. it had now become evident.). Evan. 19. not aXXov. dvapXcirovatv used also in classics to express recovery of sight. The one new element is that the facts are stated in terms fitted to recall prophetic oracles (Isaiah XXXV. while. 33. — XI. The poor in that case (aXuvTiKTJs) ? " = .) decorum and implicit reliance on the or spiritual poor. is in the The speaker's thoughts. or must we expect another to fill that role ? " ij trtpov. 13. Holtz. ical 2 Pet. Kul pXe'ireTC • 5. sympathy. might mean literal poor (De W. No. They were not recital of recent miracles (Matt. 36. 5. 8. Ixi. whom I know to be the Christ. but : to tell their master anything new. best defined by such a text as ix. and so taken by Euthy.). 170 cjohnvi 14. or present subjunctive deliberative = ought we to look ? (Meyer. possibly the same men who There would be constant coming and going between Galilee and Machaerus. Vv. but just what they had told him before.. Isaiah xxxv. which would have been more appropriate on Lutteroth's view = a numerically distinct person. 34. 41 {= • The texts show some unimportant In the best following clauses. interprets the question thus " Art Thou. 4. brought the news. — . diravYciXarc I. bred of envy or jealousy. "beginnende Disposition zum the prophecy. 10-13. Jesus. — general tenor of this chapter which obviously aims at exhibiting the moral isolation of Jesus. in hope he would discover that after all love was the chief Messianic charism. Answer of jfesus. gentleness. basing on the hypothesis that for popular Jewish opinion the Christ and the coming One (a prophet like Moses) were different persons. The construction is Hebraistic = sent by the hand of. (also as an alternative by Theophy. ittwxo^ view of the fathers is based on a sense of word. (3). iii. viii. not so much at the moment. Let him study the two together and draw his own conclusion. KATA MATGAION et J 6 ^ ' Heb. clircv aiiTw. Jesus. 11Where were the axe and fan and 15). 6- X. What was H.). universal with faith ? the fathers (except Tertullian. and Holtz. in the minds of his disciples. de baptis. Ver. MSS. 5. epx<5|i€>'0S. one and emphatically expressed art Thou 6 Ipxop'Cvos ? Art Thou He whom I spoke of as the One coming after me when I was baptising in the Jordan (iii. or not doubt on Baptist's part. Ir^aoGs flirev aoTOis. Ver. 10) : : : — siderated (vide remarks on chap. showing that H. vide <U (i) common prcBScrip. a historic viii. vuXol irepnraTOuori Acts X. 14 (all e Cb. and such facts as that reported in ix. " riopcoo^rrcs dTravveiXoTc ical* d Lk. but the sense is obvious. the latter preferable. for " what can be poorer than fishing. the animus or psychological genesis of Doubt in John's own the question ? mind. Lutteroth. i). ^i- ccKpoi cvciporrai. 4. in part. it means dumb. & dKOucTC • ai vii.C. among modern commentators (3) favoured by Keim. . : Probably the precise words of Jesus are not exactly reproduced. vpo<rSoKwftev may be present indicative (for future) as Beza and Fritzsche take it. finement on John's prophetic temper. national misery (Weiss.Weiss.). It was a virtual invitation to John to revise his Messianic idea. . : go back and report ta jfohn for his satisfaction. 4-6. is based on too sceptical a view as to the historic value of even the Synoptical accounts of John's early relations with Jesus.C. with accus. was a very different sort of Messiah from what the Baptist had predicted and de- the question a grave of course. but rather incipient Alternative (2). all make for it.). AO.. vague Glauben an Jesu Messianitat ". suggests a different kind of person. Matt. to the Kai in this and thethere is a xai before vcKpoi. 32. 21).ev - . Weizsacker. to recover tight).. sz. iii. what you are hearing and seeing. Kai diroKoiOcls 'ibidvvr). 11) ? It is a question whether Jesus be indeed the Christ. the . XETrpol Kadapi^ocrai. Kal pX^TTCTe. Iti cl Thou. Kal ku<|>oi dKououci Mk. though — — Luke gives habitually. 5. the holy wind and fire of judgment ? Too much patience. It.37. above all the wide difference between the two men. or the whole people in — '• exact historical value of the statements in fourth Gospel No. the budding faith hypothesis. zviii. Tell John your story over again and remind him of those prophetic texts. z. cvaYY^Xt^ovrai : might be middle = the its poor preach. variations in ref.

weak man. — EYArrEAION * — . Fritzsche. KdXajxot' dfe'ijiou craXeuofJ. oikois t. are evangelised (passive. effeminacy. iv.aTiois ' rjp. parsJl. 2). or the construction He had put on it as implying doubt regarding Himself. 185. . ev ifkol. xv. . ? Iv {jloXclkois. « 7. 24-30). 6s I Kara„ 27? Jas. ai'6p*)Troi' ^ cf fxaXaxois ei* ip. - (passive It|70us Tois irepl 'ludvvou. while letting it be seen that He is aware of John's limits and defects. = began at once. v. Many tors (Grot. ! I — —Ver. as in Heb. 29. to make a statement which He deemed necessary to prevent injurious inferences from the message of the Baptist. linen the fine garments suggestive of refinement. frequentative. Wanderungen. Rom. ouTos Y^P ' ^'"^'^ Y^YP**'"^''^'' ''1800. " What a Plenty of reeds to be seen. as appearing inconsistent with my Messianic ! opinion of John lively and impressive to such an audience. 3). Charac- magnanimous. woollen. was characteristic of dom. ^ao'iX^oji' eiaii' * ofitc. a \ fl\iaoTj Xeycti' • • "• ©xXois €!» tfiot. possessed of rare felicity. ^ao-. The word implies that those who. So Tisch. epr\\ioy 57. vii! iv).7. ti €|tjX9«t€ dcdo-aadai it might be taken for granted that most of them had been there.' eyu dirooTeXXw toi' aYY^Xof fjiou irpo irpoawTrou o-oo. They had g:one to see as well as hear and be baptised . (Is.ct'oc dXXd Tt Lie. Jesus was always in a crowd. d\Xd assumes the negative answer 8. Manifestly the individualised reed is a figure of an inconliterally on taking koX. and W. CTOTcpoi' irpo^i^TOU 10. tois 8xXois the interrogation had taken place in presence of many. ({>opovvT£s ISov points to a well-known truth.^ieo'fiEi'oi' with 20 rd fiaXaKa ^opoOrrc. Even John not among them On o-Kav8aX(^(i> vide ad. which has been introduced to clear the sense which rather ' it obscures. .. on some ground or other. irpo^'f\-n\y * • vai. av in BIJ (W. os S» be ' 'aKOKSa-f 4 »i Heb. eCilX0€T€ ISou. |i. in anything relating to my public ministry. '" ii. Ver. to see a reed. did you. .— Ver. (vii 25). sist commenta- De W. . 4. concern- ing the Baptist (Lk. »lso). superfine ways well how diff"erent from those of the "— : . 49. ' ^BDZ omit yap. fjp^aTo o eis . in palaces which courtiers frequent. iv.— -lO.. . though not to justify it.. tovtwv 8^ iropwhile John's messengers were cvofii^vuv : did ye go. Jesus : . Wet.5. then. The spectators had watched with interest what Jesus would say about the famous Therefore. (taKaptos (vide v. • ^B omit eicriv.. Still gently blows the wind among the sighing reeds. The catechetical method of stating His in the act of going. KdXa|iov. silk. xxvi dcdaaaOai. 171 cA*'^ utj t iTTwxo'i '€oaYY*^i5o*^<*i 6.H. the movement. '"'^p''' Xeyw °" xal ircpi(r- Lk!\ii!24. a careful opinion expressed. teristically yudgment of yesus vii. — .). IftaTiois not necessary in precious garments of any material. luxury. 9 dXXd Ti e|i^X06Te iSeiK. neuter..) in- vocation. ^BDZ omit ifxartois. which would mean bearing without reference to habit. "ol ' uaKdpios itrnv. as distinct from (j>cpovTes. * ^BZ have '»rpo<J>TjTi]v iSciv forming 'a 2nd question. 7-15. 29. -r TouTOJi' iropeooiiefwi'. which is that the poor. too. ol iScif .H. 3. except when He took special steps to escape. did not stumble over Jesus were very few.. or the reeds on the Jordan banks shaken by the wind ? This is flat and prosaic. : stant. <|)op. utto "Ti ' eli^XOcre t^v 8. etc.. curiosity plays a great part in popular religious movements. : . the socially insignificant and neglected. more must be said man. which has come m from Lk. just enough in John's present attitude to suggest such a thought. tois oikois twc ."— Furrer. 6. 3. 1 XIII. etc. though not the character istic intended. serving the same purpose as 8ij here those accustomed to wear. Jesus knows their flexible. loot) ol t. the Twelve sent out to preach the kingThat. jjohnxix. to the previous question and elegantly connects with it the following = " No well. Cor. without any delay. Vv. vast space of time lies between the days of the Baptist and us How have the times changed Yet the stream flows in the old bed.

By applying the oracle to John. is Vv. p. man occupies the position nay. went ye out ? •n-po4)r]TTjv ISeTv . The latter rests on the prophetic citation. there — — — hath not arisen passive with middle sense. — ovk . '» ixei^bic auTou eani" here and in Lk. — XL 1 1. 48. John vu. Theophy. Ver. II.. . d|XT)v Xe'yw vfiiv. lyi^yeprai. the further justifidesiderated. always think the dead greater than the living. " surrexit divinitus. Chrysostom took this as referring to Jesus. but the arising non sine numine. xiii. 47). after all. 28 . abrupt. 16. as \iyu vjiXv shows. is that any one in the kingdom. and. and practically means : John the greatest of all the prophets. merit. uncompromising Baptist Ver. and John happens to be that one matter of good fortune rather than of I — form the part. (TKCueio-ei vii. 9. in authorship. What follows refers to John's intrinsic worth. The irtpi«r<rrfTepov verified and explained b)' a prophetic citation. a prophet. not only among the ancients (Hilar. aS- m Ch. e. as compared with But. with p. altered so as to make the Messianic reference apparent (low changed into arov. so to Some prophet must be the forespeak. ovp. and it expresses a true idea. Mk. The meaning." Eisner. The point of view is capacity to render effective service to the Kingdom of God. In the abstract it is a possible interpretation. fearless zeal for truth and righteousness .. vii. Even the least is for though p. Lk.. 6}uv. 52. but also among moderns (Eras. with all that one expects vigorous moral conviction. YeypaTTTai. For Christ. if Messiah is to come at all. cf. Something more is needed to and make it a proper subject for eulogy.. The affirmative holds even in case of the — : — justify the irepio-o-orepov. none but the right man can successfully perII -1 2. . an accident. But He is in earnest in His high estimate. Lk. 18. 32. 31. only it is not to be understood as asserting John's superiority in all respects. Jesus identifies him with the messenger whom God was to send to prepare Messiah's way. brought out the sense He who is the less in age and fame is greater than John in the Kingdom of Heaven. utterly free from the feebleness and time-serving of those who bend like reeds to every breath of wind. . had it not been adopted by so many. The imis that John was not in the kingdom as a historical movement (a plication . therefore. The oracle is taken from Malachi iii. First Christ expresses His personal conviction in solemn terms.£i£aiv.i. but not one Jesus was likely to utter then. expresses Christ's own opinion. runner.g. shorter. vii. however. Luth. The comparison moves within the sphere of Hebrew prophecy. o5k • * eyriyepTat iv y€CiTr|TOis yoi'aiKUK jxci^wi' 'ludi'^ou • too PairTtaToO . the last in the series who foretell His coming. Christ expresses Himself strongly because He means to say something that might appear disparaging. Mt. irepwro-oTepov. But Christ's main concern was not to get the people to think highly of Himself.. The clause introduced by vai. This cation of the ircpitror.). is greater than John. CK _£ o \ Tj paaiAcia twk oupavur ' ~ . t. external distinction.Kp(STepo9. Christ's aim now is to say that the Baptist's character is equal to his position : that he is Jit to be the forerunner. not the people's (Weiss). 10.— a 172 k Ch. strength of will. indeed. yea 1 right at last ..' X^yw . in a prophet integrity. What He says.. even with the article. vii. The opinion might be disregarded as an exegetical curiosity.. fore greatness. g. t o 06 ^ ^ ^ fiiKpoTcpos . iii. but to have high thoughts of the kingdom. xxiv. That is forthcoming in the sequel. this is an other prophets.: one more question. II.— to see a Prophet ? vai. Ambr. vide also Judges ii. highest degree of inferiority. *Afif|K RATA MATGAION ttji' 68(Ji» ' ffoo c|XTrpoa0^K vov. Ver. xxlv. is not that John is the greatest man that ever lived. being the forerunner is no matter God will see that the right of luck. d 8* p-iKporepos. quomodo existunt veri Prophetae. not to his historic position as the forerunner. connecting ev t. Iv YcvvT)ToIs yvvaiKStv = among mankind. rudely clad and rudely mannered. Fritzsche). and might seem to call for comparison between questioner and questioned. aX\a ri i^. a solemn way of expressing the idea. This is his distinction. who — A — . ir. though of comparatively little account. 16. or bow obsequiously beKal irepurtrorepov v. does not necessarily mean p-iKporaros (so Bengel). Euthy. bold judgment not easily accepted by the populace. oStos . needing to be supplemented by another (Weiss-Meyer) why then. something above the typical prophet (vide on v. iv. No doubt John's inquiry had raised the question of Christ's standing. seriously. a prophet and more. it amounts to that.

and in some form. That success proved fitness. T. xal o 6 {apnay 1 ^BCDZ have the augment at the beginning (cirpo^. as there always are. adequate endowment with moral force. 16. revelation. But what then ? To what end make this observation ? To explain the impatience of the stormers: their determination to have at last by all means. He had actually made the kingdom come. Jesus knew them well. as of those who deemed themselves the rightful citizens of the kingdom. The thought here is hinted rather than fully expressed. No . Conclusion of speech about John. ii. i-iS). one of the Twelve called in x. the other implied. taking a broad. as. find in it two thoughts one expressed. i. benignant estimate of the movement going on. ^lairral. and placed him below any one who in the least degree understood Christ's gracious spirit. diro 8e t5)v iqp. from the point of view. latent in a-aro 82 twv f\\L. generous view. without that it had been an empty title. and due to fitness for the work he has the This thought is Hesychius) by the ^laaral. It is the ultimate justification of the irepto-o'OTepov (ver. not an unfavourable. Ver. ii. but having made it Jesus reverts with pleasure to a tone of eulogy. xvi. e. is forcefully taken (^laiws KparelTai. which in his view was not an accident but Godgiven. harmonising with the general aim. him doubt Jesus. what had so long been foretold ? (Weiss). The kingdom was being seized. and the point of comparison is the dominant spirit. glaring. J. kept him aloof from the kingdom.. taking the words to point to a yremature attempt to bring in the kingdom by a false way as a political creation (Weiss-Meyer).II — 14. " Publicans and sinners " (ix. called in question by Judaists. obvious. The apostle Paul adduced as one argument for his apostleship. essential to the connection.. Vv. 42 " these little ones ". The verb might be middle voice. 13-15. " 1I] 173 jSaaiXeian here and i6imiddle c/.' pid^erai. to point to the movement as a whole as convincing proof of John's moral force and high prophetic endowment. But even as they stand the words can be made to yield a fitting sense. in the movement. Ver. captured by a storming party. signalise the vigour of the move- ment. 25). among others. It has been suggested that the sense would J (2 Cor. 14. T. 12. but rather." true to fact. That was the true basis of his title to the honourable appellation.. There is probably a tacit reference to the kind of people who were storming the kingdom. " EYArrEiVION PawTcaToG tus apri. but the passive is demanded The kingdom by the noun following. and even the law in its predictive aspects (by symbolic rites and foreshadowing institutions) pointed forward to a Kingdom of God.. The movement dates from John credit of starting it. 75) on this and other grounds arranges the verses 13. Of course there They clearer if w. "preparer of the way". where the two thoughts are given in the inverse order. there is no room for doubt as to the animus of the words Pia^cTai. (2) The movement derived its initial impetus The latter thought is from John. So though based on any number of prophecies. The statement just commented on had to be made in the interests of truth and the Kingdom of God. 12. ^latr. (i) There has been a powerful movement since John's time towards the Kingdom of God. the ignorant (xi.os eus 'ludffou irpoe^/jTEuaaf 14. in effect proves John's Christ here fitness for the position of forerunner by the success of his ministry.). : were many defects. 13. but He was not in the mood just then to remark on them. luav. 9-12). The moral sternness of John was his greatIt made ness and also his weakness. This inversion might be justified by reference to Lk. " sese vi quasi obtrudit. g). Kal jSiacrral dpirdjooaii' auTijv. The surface idea is that the whole O.sMcc«i. 12 and 13 were to change places (Maldonatus). . What a rabble thought Scribes and Pharisees. prophets of course. The kingdom coming the burden of O.g. not so much of Jesus. contain a favourable. and power to impress and move men. A has no augment. Weiss thinks. I which it would take long to recount.Epuf 'ludccou tou Twc oupacu. irdrres ^ * ydp ot -n'po4>T]Tai Kal 6 fop.. and is so taken by Beng. simple matter of fact). Cause of profound satisfaction to Jesus (ver. 13. This being seen to be Christ's meaning. This verse has created much diversity of opinion. 14. 25). Pfail. 12. iii. but to define by contrast John's become made — . Wendt (L. The two words Pia^. the eulogy of John.

^ 15. Neither are they the whole generation of Jews then living. them with sympathy and pity (ix. one more repeating the message : the kingdom will come. tt|v The occasion on which Ycveav TavTtjv. but it might also mean a particular class of men marked out by certain definite characteristics. worthy to represent him in spirit. vii. bringing about a great movement of repentance. the words following were spoken would make it clear who were referred to. . (Tisch. 41. and Lk. where the addition of iraiSiois in all uncials. one in spirit in the Baptist. and because the contents are of a critical nature. It is advisable not to assume as 31-35). It was not Christ's habit to make severe animadversions on the " people of the land. plains. 39. come in from Mk. position. Ver. His function is peculiar and What is it ? Ver. ijTo dKoueii'. exegesis of the letter. : Vv.." but " the kingdom is here " says it. Sclaordai has no expressed object the object is the stateLutteroth supplies ment following. usherer in of the kingdom. —Ver. 45 The class or " race " there spoken of 4.^ Kai ' ouK up)(T]aaa6e * cOpvjCT^aaiJief Kai ouk cKotj/aaOe. He is the Elijah of Malachi. which may have been added to assimilate with first clause. have cTcpois. with tois before aYopai. from which we may infer that it stood so in the common source. x. as prosaic statement of fact. in ^^BZ.). because containing a reference to John. * Ka6T]ft. In the OActc Weiss finds a tacit allusion to the impenitence of the people Ye are not willing because ye know that Elijah's coming means a summons to repentance. ufxl^. essential truth. Jesus had been speaking.— 174 ei — XI. the tivi 6|xoiw(rb> parable is introduced by a question. 14 exexceptional. whom . 37. But even there the connection may have been topical rather than temporal placed beside what goes before. and in the other the Pharisees and Sadducees. always. 6).^ HoXrjaafJici' v}uv. another literally at Servile the second coming of Christ. not as a Here. The subjects of remark are not the Ptatrrai of ver. 15. here for the first time in The truth demanding attentive Matt. BCDLAZ al. Tii't Se ofjioiua-u tt)I' TaoTtji'.H. 17. contemporaries of Jesus. 6 "^eyed-v e^uK dKouETW. 7cv£a might mean the whole body of men then living. The discourse certainly appears continuous. 6D omit word this - aKovciv. seizes the Christ idealises. aurtSs •orii' 'HXias 6 ficKXcof IpxcaOat. including Jesus and John or even the bulk of the Jewish (Eisner) people. W. The suggestion is that he is not a mere continuator of the prophetic line. which has to the phrase is usual. 12. It is a class who spoke of . " him " = the Baptist. is in one case the Scribes and Pharisees. 16. ofioia cori iraiSapiois ^ iv (j>a>cou(n dyopais KaOtjfick'ois. and intelligent ears (ears worth having . 42." who formed the large majority of He always spoke of the population. .— el OeXexe Sc^aordai: the identification of John with Elijah to be taken cum grano. taking in the words and their import) is that John is Elijah.. but with the verb (and even law) till John prophesied. From internal evidence the reference here also is mainly to the Pharisees. It is so used in xii.cvois * before ev in ^BCDL. xvi. . Our guide must be the words themselves. * v|iiv. 16-19. etc. and that the kingdom is moral not . and for eraipoi. the man who says not merely " the kingdom will come. as if the thought had just struck Him. and makes good the saying. His religious yudgment of yesus on : A political. Kai Xiyoucriv. tinguished two advents of Elijah. proverbial form of speech often used by Jesus after important utterances. nor the oxXoi to . : contemporaries (Lk. and Luke gives this utterance in the same connection as our evangelist. John was all the Elijah that would ever come. KATA MATGAION 6eX6T6 Se^aadai. It implies much that the kingdom is here and the king. goes not with Prophets the subject.' xal irpoo-- Tois eraipois aurwc. ^BDZ ^BDZ have a omit irpoo-<|>ci>vovvTa Xryovo-iv. and performing the function assigned to Elijah redivivus in Some of the Fathers disprophecy. 16. a matter of course that these words were spoken at the same time as those going before. herald of the Great Day. Observe ews I. .

. the two parts of diet not eating nor drinking = remarkably abstemious. ^ Kat \iyov(Tiv. not in a good but in a bad sense: not child-like but childish. mad. . as in 23. easily offended.— ^o-Ofotv ical Tivwv: the "Son of Man " is one who eats and drinks.€v : expressed grief by singing funeral dirges. 30). but that was acting. . and so ready to judge. 19.e. and like them in conduct. Ver. though they did not imitate him. defining itself as we go along by varied use. it is now a name of honour the sinner's lover. jii^tc iriv. Pharisaic aYopats Jesus likens the ycvca to children in the market-place playing at marriages and funerals. like the mourning women hired for the purpose {vide ad ix. pointing Jesus out as an exceptional person. — xai . Kai eSiKaiuOn) o'otf'ia diro tuv T€KV(av J^B have cpvwv. . tois erepots : animadversions by pronounced instances of the type. as seen in different — : suggested it. with the madness of a gloomy austerity. the musicians and the rest who are expected to dance or mourn according to the tune. while avoiding all conventional terms to define the exceptional element. Who can Jesus as reported in ver. grim reality for him and they disliked it and shrank from it as something weird. 34. 34. the moods not agreeing in : best attested reading. Phr)m. 18. non-ascetic and social. ^/. vjl. and array of MSS...H. tcXuvwi' p Lk. has ended in a quarrel. outrageous calumnies. iraiSiois . : — There are two parties. Surely this genial. vii. as He had doubtless often seen them in Nazareth. <{>aYos. but their with nothing formalism. 6 uios tou 6. — • . worse than either. — to express we have inclined.yQpuTtou eaQiuty xal iriyav. they have been but the men who asked Why does He eat with publicans and sinners (ix. ^ Kat dfiapTuXuc. lo scandalised sancti. Aaijx^Kioi' ex**" ^9* 'nXOei' 'iSou. an eater with emphasis = a glutton (a word of late Greek. fastidious. : eating and drinking. £9pr]vv]«rap. Ordinary people would respect the ascetic of the wilderness. may Irepois. Luke evidently understood the Pharisees and lawyers (vo(«. XeYotJo-iv. ascetic. i. to express not merely the fact. friendly type of manhood will please ISoi. The play. the point to this flute —ijiXilffapev the in this case used for merriment. Again the now familiar title. yet not in earnest. Though supported by a great may be suspected of assimilation to the granted that Christ's reading in Lk. a wine-bibber . These are recognisable features of the Pharisees. that his religious habit pijre not ovt€. and. guided pression as to the import of the passage (vide Lk. The Baptist was in earnest with his morose. not. olvoir<ST7)s> <^iXos. 19. given to peevish fault-finding.. The Pharisee could wear gloomy airs in fasting (vi. EYArrEAION '[iiidvvy]^ 175 Xeyoud. A malicious nick-name at first. with all their seeming earnestness in reality triflers.^Te eo-ft. Ver. as is apt to happen. v. They play at religion . The ytvii animadverted on are like children. Kal Xiyovtri.ikoI) to be the class referred probably by his own imto. in the same sanctimonious circle. The commentary on the parable showing that it was the reception given to John and Himself that elicited were — — . irpoo-4>. for i|>(Xos is used in a sinister sense and implies that Jesus was the comrade of the worst characters. fraternal. This is the parable to which Jesus adds a commentary.. Without the aid of the latter the general import is plain. Play for them. 6 vlis t. 16). one of the marks interpretative of the title = human. -^iXo. and they say what ? One is curious to know. They were great zealots and precisians.— 35—1918. 8aipoviov ?x** is possessed. and they are at cross purposes. obviously Jesus here refers to Himself in third person where we might have expected the first. adopt. The Son of : ways in to please John and Jesus. Lob. They are also fickle. Vide notes on chap. grief. (including CDL) tckvmv W. severely abstinent life. They are always so sure.^ : discrepancy temper = a set differently ix. 23). 434). but the opinion about John. They were hard equally dissatisfied with John : and with Jesus. ^ avQpuiro<s ^dyos 1^ KOt • oIkottottjs. which Tisch. *HX9€ y^P f^^TC iaQiuv fi>i^Te Ttivav. and it may be taken for satisfied own artificial . CKi$x|/acr9e and ye have not beat your breasts in responsive sorrow. None but Pharisees would dare to say such a thing about a man like John. — : — : 1 — 1 moniousness points its finger at Him and utters gross. They were the only men in Israel of whom these things could be said with emphasis. a. rather haters of earnestness. 11)? These vile calumnies are what have come out of that feast.

Syntax. this aorist vide Goodwin. 1 ^BCDL BD ovpavov vtj/wOttjo-t). implies a negative answer. 20. Lk. Uona ^ 1^^ ^^Q oupacou B Ch. 2 Cor. e. p. 21. Xooofiois ?• xxvi. xii. eycKorro*' at ou^afieis >' ^«^' ec»s \ki\ uv|/(«»0eicra. TP''< ' 23.). and the aorist of ISik. xvi.). denies that there are any instances of (On such use of the aorist in the N. oii p. and gives as the true a s * have KaraP^ioT) (W.-auTou.) airi. on airo in — ?p7ti»v: the reading of i>^B.. § 523. is always. the following words in instructions to the Seventy. ixj/tiOrjs. These two towns may be named along with Capernaum because all three were in view where Christ stood when He . takes these calumnies as a thing of course and goes on His gracious way. visited v6y\(ra. the latter seldom (vide Mk. Kai ' <70. yet scenes of important 22 evangelic incidents. 420). on ^^ ' ofeiSi^cif rots iriSXeis. which would have sufficed as a picture of the religious Jews. 22. where it is called the aorist of experience. and Baumlein. of a ministry crowded with events. T<5Te T]p|oTO ft. 23).T. the state- majority preoccupied with material interVer. vi. expressive of what is usual in the moral sphere. 53. which recent editors adopt. The real historical occasion is It may be a reminiscence from the preaching tour in the synagogues of Galilee (Mt. 45. the latter the sadness of the Baptist-circle {vide my Parabolic TeachKal ISiitaiciOT). and to identify them with Yet the piping and wailing children.g. as reading tj Iws oip. p. This sentence wears a gnomic or etc. to jFruit (vii. It is not necessary to reflect these characteristics of Jesus and John back into the parable. 232. X. rort. 13-13). ««»' Ooai o-dKKO) <roi.H. / i->* eyi-eivay* ac 3t 64 (frequetit in Lk. 14 (with accus. 20-24. . The Kal at the beginning of the clause is not=" but". results. • Lk. Christ appearing among them a nine days' wonder.). the former symbolising the joy of the Jesus-circle. o/GaZt/<ftf (Lk. in view of {vide Man ment is in reality a prophecy. be the true one just because It is an the reading in Luke. J^BCD have €. Luke gives then. justified in the long run by her works or by her children. then forgotten by the this the general fact — Buttmann's Gram. xviii. . oucafieis « ' .v many towns and wrought many wonderful works (Swajxeis). takes ISik. but wait a while." t £»/ ai oukaficis OTToSw 1 ai y^^'oP'^*'**'^ on Topw '«'"t^\a>ty uP'i*'? Kal ZtSwi't eyct'orro > TrdAai ai' ei* itai |i€T6i'<5Y)0'at'. 20). The reflections were made after Jesus had unknown. cannot be pressed. as elsewhere the aorist is employed to express the usual course in the natural sphere. (long ago). eyevTietio-av (Tisch.176 r KATA MAT0AION XL tv Mk.H. 11. ing of Christ. the parable is so constructed as to exhibit them very clearly in their distinctive peeuliarities by representing the children not merely employed in play and quarrelling over their games. and likely »o T€Kvo)v is appeal to future. iv. 39. 23). but as playing at marriages and funerals.^ ews aSou KaTaPiPao-Or^crr) ai ycj'Ofjiev'at on ei ev ev aoi. ouai coi. x.*€ivev in W. ° ttXtji' Xeyo) ufiit'. Rosenmiiller). ^t]6(ra'i%dv. " der Erfahrungswahrheit ". Resch. T. ei Iv . Sj^. ots rylforro ou fieT€Vor\<Tav. repot' eorai iv iqfAepa KpiaecdS. 20.H.€Te- no deep.. viii. fc^BC 33 (W. Cur. 142). x! 13 Xopa^ic.. as — the (erroneous) translation of the Hebrew prophetic future used in the Aramaic original = now we are condemned. Xopa^tv. proverbial aspect ("verba proverbium redolere videntur. read (ttj Weiss thinks it has no sense. ?i T«5pw Kttl ZiSu^i aveKr6KairepKaoup. indeed {Agrapha. 21. : — . ix. to the Historical in form. N. ^. Reflections by j^estis on the reception given to Him by the towjis Ver. — . 13 111. permanent change of mind and heart. former not again mentioned in Gospels. in. similarly. 10). in Weiss-Meyer strongly James i. of course." Kuinoel. BT)d<raiSdv: the ests. probably connected with the synagogue ministry in Galilee The Gospels are brief records (iv. Vv.). condemnation of the unwise. this time. «-c*.. condemned by the foolish. p. Lk. may be taken as an instance of the gnomic a law aorist..). It states a fact as much a matter of course as is the Wisdom. p. of exai irAeiorai ' ouTr]s.

.). EYArrEAION trXv]!/ 177 ZoSiSuwf dfcKT^. in the other a reference to a feeling prevailing in Capernaum in regard to the facts. z. £|op.zv. say on the top of the hill above Capernaum Bethsaida on the eastern shore 01 Jordan.). phrase). praise. 26 (Pagan). diversity in the reading p.). and most unsympathetic. Mt. but Luke sets it in still closer connection («v aitv^ t% wpo. iraTcp. 25. though not so : : and language.». si. often the subject of prophetic animadversion. but is simply a composition of Luke's. ^ ^^BD have the simple cKpv«|/as. d-iroKpiOEis.! raura cofuf iroi. 90.v Ch. and supposes that it as — 7 riTin T this Ps. a tradition oral or written to go on. answering. but to the judgment day of Israel in which Capernaum would be involved. and self-communing in a devout spirit. Capernaum illustrated the common characteristic most signally. 91) Wendt (L. 21 (Jewish). usual to call this golden utterance a prayer. yet not so blameworthy in their impenitence as the cities which had seen Christ's works. p. for the rest. 13. 24. 8).— tv . but simply invincible indifference. xxiv. 11 . Just above where it falls into the lake Chorazin on the western side on the road to Tyre from Capernaum (Furrer.T) or q ?«s. The prophetic eye of Jesus sees Capernaum in ruins as it afterwards saw the beautiful temple demolished (chap. 9. The reference to Tyre and Sidon. most privileged spiritually. The occasion is unknown. mercatu. EMS ovpavov. i. piscatu. gives book it — of followed a report of the return of the disciples (the Twelve) from their mission. and the probability is that it was taken both by him and by Matthew from a comjfesus X. 370). "' # E$ofjio\oYOU[iai aoi. irX^v contracted from irX^ov = moreover. Matthew gives it in close connection with the complaint against the cities (ev kKeivif T^ Kaipu). J. x. zziii. as some think (Grotius. etc. though Ver. Most OTosperous. xvii. 21. The fact implied in either case is distinction on some ground. Kupic dTro ' Kai V 38. zxviii. or sitting in ashes like Job (ii. it had no occasion at all in the life of our Lord. xiv. does not affect the sense. not necessarily to anything said.. but it is at once prayer. not adversative here. 22).ai oroi ( — an extract from the Logia. But there may. 6 compound means to make con- I 2 . the population Worldliness being taken as a whole.) with the return of the Seventy. (m sense of begir. zr. etc. and with ashes on the head.. 2 ~. #^ >c%**^Ef CKCim tw xaipu -. ^^n* xii. lii]aoCs diroKpideis o Tou oupafou Kai :iing to speak). 23. They may also have been prosperous business centres selected to represent the commercial side of Hence the referJewish national life.-«. The sometimes so used. p. ^ In full iii. 2. " Florebat C. According to some modern critics. Wanderungen. And it is not unimportant to keep this aspect in mind. uttered the reproachful words. " f'-^XP^ ''^S OTJuepotr. 445).. Ixxv. y Lk. 34 (Christian).. 4WS aSow proverbial offensive in temper — : expressions for the greatest exaltation and deepest degradation. as unreceptive as counterfeit piety represented by Pharisaism. Urchristenthtcm.. eiircK. trade centres. et quae alia esse solent commoda ad mare sitarnm urbium" (Grot. Cor. and borrowed from him by the author of Matthew: a hymn in which the Pajline mission to the heathen as the victory of Christ over Satan's dominion in the world is celebrated. De Wette. 22. In the one case the words addressed to Capernaum contain a statement of fact by Jesus . ence to Tyre and Sidon. Vv. No calumny. Ver. Ev a-dKK<p Kai «nroSu in black sackcloth. 25. Ver. 2)- — : — worshippiiig (Lk. as throughout. on vn repot' * earai €v ^^^pa. x Lk. and given in connection with the imaginary mission of the Seventy {vide Pfleiderer.oXoYovp. 4 a/. But Luke s preface justifies the belief that he had here. etc. ^j ~x- rvjs y^%. It is mon document. The reference in the latter phrase is not to the future world. Kpiacus. 25-27. to put the matter shortly. OTt a7rEKpu\|/as Rom. Xcvu 1) uiiii'. probably because Capernaum more than all other places was favoured by Christ's presence and activity. Rosen. makes this not an idle suggestion. be a reference to trade prosperity. as Capernaum with the other two cities then become representatives of the trading spirit. and show us by sample how that spirit received the Gospel of the kingdom. but to some environment provocative of such thoughts. — 25. pp.

Son here has a Godward reference. iravra. H. No distinction indeed is expressed. airoKaXuvbak. It is ignorance of the Father that creates misconception of the Son.. vol 6 wan^fi. but it goes without saying. as the actual facts stand. uTTo X. He is utterly alone in the world. 10. vt) and firos. 6 applied to Israel. PhiL iL 13. 9. V. 6 vih% a reflection naturally suggested by the foregoing statement. Cor. signs Himself to God's will.*truy€T(av. Tou iraxpos (loo * Kal ouSeIs ** eiriYL^oSaKci ei |it] ulok. a Hellenistic word. non-speaking) means those who were as ignorant of scribe-lore as babes Their (cf. Devar. c Epb. — iroT^jp : nominative for vocative. 19). 18 eSoOt) again to express the same thought. 49 and Heb. occasion of pleasure hence a state of matters embodying Will.. dering "wise and prudent" in A. Hence the additional reflection. ziii. Jesus : : : . and the revelation of the kingdom they contained. but the statement holds with reference to Christ's whole teaching and healing ministry. Ver. Ver. i. emphatic (" sic Fritzsche). i. an a purpose. ver. 13). Cf. 334). He was always and only a revealer. on Cor. 26. thoroughly knows. • 27. tranquillity is into the law to make Here it (of sin). was no function of Christ's. The reference probably is to the eternal purpose of God : on the use of the aorist in N.). No one else does. vide note on this pas- movements vYj-jTiot : We religious subjects. the Divine is also the where the Christ re- But His not even John. aorist. Conventional. 27. I — — — — — — — XL KATA MATeAION Kal ' * dTretcd\oij»as aura ** fijiriois. Jesus gives thanks with all His heart for the receptivity of the babes. ovtms. viz. naturally arising out of the situation. frank acknowledgment of a situation in a spirit partly of resignation." a . God are those supposed to know most. I ii. is. Heb. reaffirms with solemn emphasis what might appear doubtful. is better. i. xxviii. whole thought is similar). g. The fact stated is referred to the causality of God. The iravTtt need not be restricted to the hiding and revealing functions (Weiss. iiriyivdtrKii. ig. pleasure. not in the same sense or to the same extent for the nonreceptive attitude of the wise (with De Wette and Bleek against Meyer and Weiss). the accepted custodians of the wisdom of Israel. ira-n^p. —on. . i Cor. indeed. He lifts up His heart to heaven and says God my Father knows me.. ovhi tov irarepa . — find support among the rather than among the tro^oi. 21. making €v8oKia more emphatic. because. T. irapeS69i\. 333. fldiTa ^01 irapsSiSif} t6>' Phil. Christ's comfort amid the widespread unbelief and misunderstanding in reference to Himself is that His Father . vT|iriois (fr. moral and religious ideals lead to misjudgment of one who by all He says and does is revealing God as He truly is and The men who know least about wills. all things necessary for the realisation of the kingdom (Holtz. tov vlov . i. i. knows Him perfectly. cvSoKCa. the "wise and understanding". is " misleading " wise and understanding fession = due likewise to insight by which new Divine — . Hiding. the but it happens religious point of view according to laws which can be ascerravra : the exact reference untained. G. v. Parabolic Teaching.. The Son of Man is called an evil liver. — : . V. d i Cor. known. 21..2i. introducing the reason for this contentment.C. The thought in the first clause is connected with this one thus the future is mine. . partly of thanksgiving. 26. were given. 140). ao^wv Kal arvvcTwv the reference here doubtless is to the Rabbis and scribes. Kai w ea» Rom. iii. Nosgen). iv. as verb evSoKEoi (cf. T. 5.. pp. — maxime non aliter. which made the scribes inaccessible to Christ's influence (vide my sage in Camb. and who have been most ready to judge Him. Cf. might have expected the future. His Son.— 178 zLic. In Mt. and for the present my comfort is in the Father's knowledge of me. but the future is His Christianity the coming religion. ' cvSoKia rycvrro in ^B 33.20. as thereby they escaped the mental preoccupation with preconceived ideas on moral and in R.x. «fKpvi|ras. xal 1^ kav fovXijTai 6 «. John vii. irart^p ouoe rof irarepa tis eiriyiKwo'Kci. o3t(i>s iyiv€TO coSoKia ^ IfiirpoaGeV aoo. and vaC the next clause implies it. It may be another instance of the aorist used for the Hebrew prophetic fiiture (vide ad ver. For the present Jesus has only a few babes. that Jesus was content with the state of matters (vide Klotz. 13. o uios. o-o(|ios Kal cTrumi])ib>v in The renDeut. ignorance was their salvation. ei fitj b Lk.

Kal IXaX-Qcra. Full of O.. the noun). 29 . and found for myself much rest. citing Isaiah xiv.C. They come straight from a saddened yet tenderly affectionate. in which that earlier Jesus. here and inCb.. absolutely KoiriMi'Tcs Kal -irct^opTio-jieVoi. It is not even inconceivable that a reader of our Gospel at an early period noted on the margin phrases culled from Sirach as descriptive of the attitude of the one true a-o^6% towards men to show how willing he was to communicate the knowledge of the Father-God. and been used with royal freedom quite compatibly with perfect originality of thought and phrase. tov Tpax^Xov -uiAwv inrodeTe tiiro Jvyov. She is hard at hand to find. s. 179 01 e o v(dt 38. xiii." . 19 makes the supposition not gratuitous that Jesus may even have had the passage in Sirach consciously present to His mind. and let your soul receive instruction. 19 6eX<dv appears to express the wish.<rde eavTOis avew apyvpiov. latter the will active Hence ^ovX. Trieb). De Wette had long before 23-27. the (Affect. iv. pathetic. li. 24. The emphasis seems to reveal to lie on the inclination. i zf. half as a quotation. presents the direction of the will. The use of PowKrjrai is noticeable not to whomsoever He reveals Him. ** 'Aeut£ irpos |M T<£i^cs dcaTrauau Sir. . Say wherefore are ye lacking in these things. xvi. ov KOTnao-ovai. Kal cxipov i]i. in 29. The gracious invitation. There without me. can always stand for OcX. and lodge in the house of instruction. and Pfleiderer has recently {Urck. p.ai. xxviii. vi. prefaced with an " as it is written ". 27. i. Through me alone can they attain that knowledge of God which they profess to desire above all things. aparc John iv. half as a personal manifesto. simple. whomsoever He is pleased Him. vide Cremer. The words do not smell of the lamp. 25." This was there and then the simple historic fact. that Why — * Of the above the R. should not Jesus of Nazareth close His prayer with a similar address in the name of wisdom to those who are most likely to become her children those whose ear sorrow hath opened ? This view might meet Martineau's objection to regarding this logion as authentic. a6— 29^ouXTjTai *& uios ' EYArrEAION dTTOKaXuijfai. 19. He may have known Sirach from boyhood. the sense of weariness.* r\ v|rvx'n ^[''^v €o-Tiv exipeiv avTi^v • The reference to wisdom inver. c/. sincere. whether On the distinction between ^ovXofjiai and Bi\fii. 16. 32. and your souls are very thirsty? Get her I opened my mouth and spake. 19. KTri<ra. 12. Kal at \)ruxal xipiuv 8i\j. saying in effect wise despise me. remarks Holtz. H. here asserts His importance as the re" The vealer of God.wo-i cc^oSpa TJvoila TO (rT<i(Jia uov. . but to and if Sirach had been a recognised Hebrew prophet one could have imagined Matthew giving the gist of this rhetorical passage. The passage is the end of a prayer of jfesus. Jer. but they cannot do : are unquestionably kindred thoughts and corresponding phrases.. VVorterbuch. ' : ' for yourselves without money. T. f ftie Ch. Kdyw uftas. h it. and £iri8E^a<r0a) £YY"S TraiSeiav tSerc iv 6^0aX(jiois xifxuv OTi oXiyov EKOiriacra.V. Kal avXio-6T)Tc Iv oiku TraiScias. But why doubt the genuineness of this logion ? It seems the natural conclusion of Christ's soliloquy expressing His intense yearning for receptive scholars at a time when He was painfully conscious of the prevalent unreceptivity. referred to the last-mentioned passage. Behold with your eyes how tha: 1 laboured but a little. 20 (Sir. and that his notes found their way into the text.. 31. 36 xxviii. Philem. Jesus was the one person in Israel who truly conceived God. The passage in Sirach is as follows cYYtcroTt irpo. but not vice versa. unembittered heart . and the deliberate purpose. personating wisdom. addresses his fellowmen. zl. and especially Sirach vi. xxxi.8rj rather *^at it depends on rfiey are to know God his inclination or not. Iv. tson-iaira). g here •nd Rev. 3 . Vv. and that He used it. the Son of Sirach. li. Kal : ' echoes may have unconsciously suggested themselves. 25. Put your neck under the yoke. xxiv. 18. inviting them to share the benefits which ao^la has conferred on himself. 28.« diraCSevToi.avTu itoXXtjv avairaviriv. li.. povAccording to him the former reXof>. 3 (with Cor. Is. reminiscences. Mk. 1-3. whereas in Mt. SioTi vnrTepeiTe iv tovtois.. 28-30. v. Jesus meets the haughty contempt of the "wise" with a dignified assertion €i3ovXr. 6. 2. 513) made it the basis of the assertion that this beautiful logion is a composition out of Sirach by the evangelist. gives the followDraw near imto me. as even Kypke points out (" Syracides magna similitudine dicit "). ye ing translation unlearned.

He meek as they have become by sorrowful experience. ig) irreligious. but the whole truth But about God and righteousness. I. and/. Acts XV. 2. Jesus uses their phrases while drawing men : — — : : — Chapter XH. p. 5ti irp£6s ^ -• KATA MATGAION 10. but not like that of the Rabbis.— i8o i : . 1 xPT"*^' "^^ """^ ^opTiOK fiou eXa({>p6i' eorii'. if there between this This ledge of God ? ih spirit : and know- a proud 6). singular. vi. doctrine fits and satisfies our whole spiritual nature reason. i. They have now formed a thoroughly bad opinion of Jesus and His company. ix. The smallest.<4M<Aon7y.i. iret^opTicrp. proud afar off (Ps. heart. 1-5). ^oprLov. etc. 39. from hearsay to certainty. Christ's commandment is difficult. He can do nothing right. off. yap ^uy^S ii.H. 324: on. 8ia rStv o-Tropipuv might mean through fields adapted for i^rowing grain. the fatigued and burdened. capable even of blasphemy (assuming the divine prerogative of forgiving sin. All the time (Iv iKilvif back to the situation incidents recorded reveal the captious mood of Israel's "saints and sages". Scholars of the Rabbis." Rom. but. — — Vv. and appropriate her attributes ? Ver. (Vide With Open Face. ejAOv : away from their influence. : . they know God afar the God knoweth cxxxviii. ii. from traditions of the past to the koiyoj. This is to be taken metaphorically. for the summummonum. "the sweet reasonableness of Christ ". This is the first of several encounters reported by the evangelist. The note of r^ xaipy. Taireii^os tyj Kapoia fiou ' icai cuprjaerc ' dmirauo'ii' rais J "e «|/uxai$ ufiUK.) it is not compatible with the humility of Jesus that He should so speak of HimWhy self (6>a< 0/ . 6 vi. get your learning from me take me as your Master in religion. as from (rdp|3aT-os. 1-8. 4. —iiddcre a-jr' an offence. irpavs in fc^BCD (Tisch. Toc ' ^vyoi' f*ou €<!>* . the burden of obligation. 30. . knew it well. 2. where the same expression is used). the knowledge of God.cvoi. grievous. Kal \ t (JwlOcTe > i dir' I J Cb. dom iv. There is no burden so heavy as that of truth sought and not found. But just on that account it is light. p. — not merely learn from my example (Buttmann. 28.. oTi irpa^s What connection but for I am. Christ's xP^<'^^<> kindly to wear. which Mark leaves va^ue. 30. Plucking ears of com on the Sabbath (Mk. 23-28 Lk. accusative. but in vain. desire. earnestly. — — XI. vulgar ideals are oppressive. Conflicts with the Pharisees. the mood of Master and scholar must correspond. : — . Lofty. j\a<|>pdv in one respect Christ's burden is the heaviest of all because His moral ideal is the highest. This chapter delineates the growing alienation between Jesus and the Pharisees and scribes. . an ally of Satan even in His beneficence (xii. They regard Him as immoral in life (xi. from the case of). other cases (genitive. ver. V. noble ideals inspire and attract . fields actually sown eireivao-av for the form vide iv. Vv. dative. avdiravo-iv rest. In coming thence to Christ's school they would find rest by passing from letter to spirit.. clp.30.). : Source. 29. singular and plural. but the context requires fields of corn. Gal. phatic. o-dp^ao-iv dative plural. man the cannot know God. 43. spoke of the " yoke of the law ". or through satisfaction of Ver. ivy6v current phrase to express the relation of The Rabbis a disciple to a master. 3) . from form to reality. with side glance at the reputed " wise " who do not give rest (with Meyer against Weiss). such as comes through finding the true God. that is. Ver. 25-30 was uttered {vide ver. 25. Hence TQ KapSif not that. most innocent action is . 6}MS. and God giveth : grace of intimate knowledge of Himself to the lowly. plural) are formed from cro-PParov [tiide ver. 2). 24). humility. The thing to be learned is not merely a moral lesson. AcvTC vide ad iv. again itoiri«VT€S Kai authoritative but kindly. This word supplies the motive for the action. empresent voice of God. Sabbath observance was one of the leading causes of conflict between Jesus and the guardians of religion and morality. II xii. i) points in which the prayer xi. The kind of people Jesus expects to become " disciples indeed " are men who have sought long. 7). conscience. W. of the hunger of the soul. like Saul of Tarsus. i\iou. According to Weiss he follows Mark. more comprehensively. Gram. but with sayings taken directly from the Apostolic . 583). should He not do as another Jesus had done before Him speak in the name of wisdom. k Lk. . 19. itol (Wis.

XII. ad loc). iroioGaiJ'. they ate. Aa^iS. . xxviii. irws cicrfjXOei' e Heb. o-aPPdT(j». entered. ad loc. But the principle involved was the same = ceremonial rules may be overruled by higher considerations. {b) does not form an element in the defence. R. 8id Twv ^ ''riXXen' o-iropifiui' ol §€ fi. ix. o ouk ^ llecrri iroicij' 'O 8e ctiref auTots. Luke adds xj/tixovres. as tended to have companions.. BD. f €ts TOk oTkok too 6£oG. This was probably also the foot. omitted in t^BCDA at. again presenting a problem in comparative exegesis {vide Weiss-Meyer). but directions on which such a construction could be put. 4. €l |tT). ^ e<|>aYov in * ^B— probably the true reading. (b) 6-8). 25) it is Kal •di'aiTiot €i<n. "Ouk )X€t d &v4yv(aTe ti ewoiTjae . Ver. We examples (w. The two verbs point to two offences against the law entering a holy place. and to the attendants of David. {j ovk aveyvuTe.42. Ch. r. 'ordxuas Kol iaBUiv. eating. is probable. It is twofold. iv. have ye not read ? not of course the statement following. 6 (often in Sept. Microscopic offence to be threshing. ou8e rots fier' cofib). because plucking But according to the scribes what was lawful on other days was unlawful on ears was reaping. *H ouk di'eyvwTC iv tw io o-dpPaTOf * oti tois <rd^^aaiv Upcis iy TW Upw PePrjXouai. auToG. whatever the fact was {vide Schanz.). xxiv. 6. Mark has i^a-ytv. absolutely unlawful. 2.28. 3-5) .ot'ois . " Metens Sabbato vel tantillum. the history one might gather that David was really alone." 3. when hungry. here lies on the last word.^ TJc Acts xxiv. 16. So Carr. 4. but doubtless the true reading . and only preBut if. as in the present instzncc. Jesus would be justified in proceeding on that assumption. The (a) was apposite because it case of David it was a case of Sabbath. followers . 3. ol |xa0T]Tai o-aPPdro)." etc. (c^ayev ovs) that is from Mk. 9.. with the hand was humanely allowed in the Deuteronomic law (Deut. offence in either case. The o in aiiTos (LI) comes from Mk. 0T6 eircii'aaei' auT^s ^ Kal ol auToG parall. (c) it probably happened on concerned not only David but. concerning the burnt offering of two lambs. Vv. 'Itjo-oos adppaai a bcre and in parall. but it helps to account for In the reference to David's conduct. xxi. Camb. He took the rubbing with the hands. 25)." but it may be rendered " which kind of bread. Upcuai 01 1 5. even to Pharisees. 15 ai. Pharisees on the outlook for offences. except in case of priests. to both the faultfrnders would defer (w.T) tois g here and in ver. ver. that view Jesus must have regarded the act of David as a Sabbatic incident. i^ayov^ he ^Ver. (ii.a8T]Tai aoTOu eirsivaaay. T. Kal To6s apTOus *TT]S irpoOe'aews e^iayeK. 1—5- EYArrEAIOlN *EN CKCivw Tw Kaipu eiropeuGt] 6 • 8i tois XII. (i) He shields disciples by examples: David and the priests . eating holy bread. zxi. They had applies From — : — — — — . aou <t>apio-aroi iSorrcs etiTOV c here. begun to pluck ears than fault was found.—Ver. c. it was usually assumed that he was accompanied. Christ's defence. xix. This reference to the priests naturally leads on to the second instance taken from their systematic breach of the technical Sabbath law in the discharge of sacerdotal duty. 5. honest objection is not inconceivable to one who remembers the interdict placed by old Scottish piety on the use of the must be just razor on Sabbath. 7. 4. and Mk. To help oneeelf. "'iSou. 3-8. therefore ol |i. ei* auTw. 2. 2. o ovik I|ov r\v. G. auT^ ^ayci*'. it ferred from — was forbidden as involving waste. (2) He indicates the principles involved in the Sabbath. tjplavTO laid perhaps emphasis should be No sooner had they on this word. as in Numb. ei p. ovs in Mark and Luke agreeing with apTovs. 08s 2 OUK e^or p. The same remark current opinion. ol 8c Kal T]p|arro b here and in parall. Weiss explains the harsh change of subject by combination of apostolic source with Mark. R. and here also in T. S ought to mean "which thing it was not lawful to do. xxiii. reus est" (Lightfoot rendering a passage from the Talmud). clo"^X66v. except. The sin of the disciples was against a holy time. : The reading of T. proving pritnd But facie malice in the fault-finders.ct' avTov. carefully added. 8 ovk The emphasis t|eo-Tiv IT. only to use the sickle was may not unnaturally be inVide LightI Sam.

p tVri Kal tou aa^^drou 6 ui^s too Jas. read often enongh. as not understanding what they read (|*'?| ciriYivwcTKOvo'iv there in was something urgent gain 5. whereby & ivo'yivwaKovo'i). themselves used this word as a technical Pt)\ovo-i.' 37. making no obtrusive exceptional claims. it suggests a reason for the lordship in sympathy with the ethical principle embodied in the prophetic oracle. that of the kingdom of God. Jesus could base on it an argument a fortiori. Zig. Ver. requirements. Euthy. ' This is another grammatical correction {vide «Xeos in i<^BCD33. ^ . in H. and curing them of vice then going on. 6. so that they were fain to eat unprepared food (aKaTcpyao-Tov aiTov. in ver. Kupios ya. ei 8e iyyu- vide Lie. ' icai omitted ^BCD. 5 : — X^Y" ^^ ^H-''' • solemn affirmation. on ver. with a past indicative with av in apodosis. As a name of humility. 13). ancient and Sabbath. The Pharisees did not know § 248). ix. 6-7. The principles involved. weighty legion is best understood when taken along with that in Mark ii. etc.ci(ov in ^6D al.cit. The Pharisees were men of rules. phetic oracle . a past indicative in protasis. hence on a previous occasion Jesus bade them go and learn (ix. . or does it T. avaiTCovs: doubly guiltless: as David was through imperious hunger. according to the almost unani(jiei^ov. The title does not indeed mean mankind. 37). The Sabbath must give way to the temple and its higher interests. or rather made them reckon the least the greatest command. ^Ver. 27 = the Sabbath for man. higher claims.' ' ouk 6lf ^KareSiKcUraTe Lk. So Schanz after Schdttgen. Jesus reproaches them for their vain labour. on Christ's connection with ministry. For the Jews of a later. KATA MAT0AION = 6. Of course this idolatry went on from bad to worse. Tous dt'aiTioos.— I82 h ccTTtv . Vv. not man for the The reasons have been already hinted the cases : in the statement of ore itreivaatv.cCS«iv of merely state a fact. like Son of David or Messiah. as the priests were when subordinating Sabbath. human needs. i KciTc Tt '' coTii'. in terms of a favourite pro(ix. But Jesus might be thinking rather of the kingdom than of the king a greater interest is involved here. He and —Ver. profane. Lcpu. . N. It may be asked How did the interest come in ? The disciples were following Jesus. applicable even to permissible Sabbath labour. \4y<>) Se ujxii'.C.av (LA) is a misjudged attempt at correction. — mous opinion of interpreters. The question is modern whence doubtless the p. vi. Therefore. 13). the temple . implies that the supposition is contrary to fact (Burton. Moods and Tenses. it simply asserts the authority of Him who bears it to determine how the Sabbath is to be observed in the Kingdom of God. Fritzsche takes (ici^ov as = teaching men. 3 . quoting Weber). Zig. tov Upov Though they might not have thought of the matter before. cuK av KaTcSiKacraTe the form of expression. It comes in from the parall. ver. '*E\eov deXu Kal ou Qucriav. V. on 8. 7. as Grotius and Kuinoe) . tou UpoG " fiei^wi' ^ eorli' fiSc. These are referred to in inverse order in w.. minutiae testing obedience. in fi. . What was that something ? Himself. 7). 8. not accustomed to go back on principles. As Euthy. therefore to something higher Christ still. the law was greater than the temple (Holtz. — XII. homo quivis. 6-8. This to temple. If their pedantry blinded them to distinctions of higher and lower in institutions. as an absolute proPerhaps the Pharisees hibition of work. but What created what was He about ? the urgency ? Whence came it that the disciples needed to pluck ears of standing : : Does it also con- corn ? of the We do not know. but had not understood. But it mav the evangelic be assumed that tain the rationale of the fact ? That depends on the sense we give to the title Son of Man. ^. remarks. — cl 8^ : cyvuKciTc term. ver. templeless time. the claim of the temple to overrule the Sabbath law would be admitted by the Pharisees. it still more deadened their hearts to the claims ol mercy and humanity. The passion for minutiae killed reflection. 13). with a certain tone in the voice. or any man.6 (the pass. in That is one many lacuna history. on the Pharisaic view of the Sabbath law. As a technical name = Messiah.. ^ p. The principle of human need stated . —pe- His companions were overtaken with extreme hunger. R. avopwirou. T. iv rif hunger. The facts stated raise questions as to the reasons. what the oracle meant .

. has no interest in its abolition. The Ver. 12. II. xxxix. use- it less. Kal eav ^ i^BC omit Mk. as in viii. Kal p-cra^as aiiTcov seems to imply that our evangelist takes the order as one of close temporal sequence (Mark says simply " into In that case the a synagogue. could stand over therefore a good test case as between rival conceptions of Sabbath law. avTMV would refer to the fault-finding : Luke states. standing for the human interest. Vv. 6-11) happening immediately after. 3. The case supposed might quite well happen hence in the protasis lav with subjunctive. especially if it was the right hand. as if eager to provoke Jesus and put Him to the proof. according to classic usage. maintaining solidarity with humanity. . by two home-thrusting questions and an irresistible conclusion. a beneficent God's holiday to weary men. has been influenced by that in 2 ' So in BC is coTai (W. OS elci irpopaToi' ev. whose royal law is love. But the cure was not urgent for a day. according to Hebrew Gospel. A Sabbath cure (Mk. 10. . R. omitted in CLXZ. (iii. here. iii.. T. ix. Matthew and Luke follow Mark's order. 6). vi. Oepairwcrai in J^DL (Tisch. — terpretation and restoration to rest is true use.v. It points to Jesus. i). the real divine interest being identical with the human. Kal |Ji€TaPds cKCiOct'. whence perhaps Luke's y\ Sc^ia (vi. . cfjnre'oT) touto tois CTaPpaCTik Tjv T»)v. acOpwiros aoTOJ'. to put emphasis on avOpcuiros who of you not dead to the feelings of a man ? Such questions as this and that in Lk. a direct question without cL The el is in its place in Mark (ver. TlXSck cis TTjf aufayuY^f ootwk. § 57. piqued by Christ's defence and bent on Weiss-Meyer). is interesting to find a glimpse of the true sense of this logion in Chrysostom *0 8^ MapKOs Kal TTcpl cavTot) Xcyov. Jerome ad loc). as in T.jCh. — ris : . xi. irept €lpT)Kcvai <|>v<r€<tfs avTov toOto Horn. 2). vide Meyer tion. Kal iSou. xiii. puts the ques- Vv. ISov. What would the Pharisee do ? It is easy to see what he would be tempted to do if the one sheep were his own. waiting for Him to take the initiative. The Pharisees asked a question suggested by the case. N. After Xeyovres we expect. The former alternative suits the hypothesis of immediate temporal sequence. but to Him not think. xxii. as an exceptional man (" der einzigartige.).H. lift cv : . 9-14. and bracketed in W. 3 Lk. av0pc»wos. The text of Mt. . —irptipaTov in the Pharisaic in Hebrew pathology (De Wette) . as out at once. 49). 2." iii. i). T.i. Ver. But el in direct questions is not unusual in N. further mischief {vide The narrative comes in happily here as illustrating the scope of the principle of humanity laid down in connection with Kal the previous incident. 9. g. — — . Mark says they observed Him. § 250). and In Mark's account Christ. " Tis eorai ^ e^ viuay afOpwTTOS. not the Pharisees. Winer. and that is what its owner would do if he were an ordinary average human being. as in vii. and in the apodosis the future (Burton. as the Pharisees stood for the supposed divine. eav ep. dry hand. — II. Lk.H. " ivo Karr)- yopiio'waii' auTou. ci e^eoTTiv. institu- The weekly tion. cirtipcoTTjo-av. previous narrative. 9. 4 go to the root of the matter. EYArrEAION ' 183 lo. tempted here. and the Kingdom of Heaven. which is another instance topical. Chrisfs reply." Weiss). viz. therefore a serious enough affliction for a working man (a mason. Humanity is One was what was lacking character. introducing %y\pa. avruv. not historical of collision as to Sabbath observance. 'O §€ cIttci' aurois. xix. 11. 23. Kvpios. not to the effect of abrogation but of in- TTJs KOivTJs <^i]<riv. it is found in ^BA al. (Mt.— 6 — : — . and John V. Moods and Tenses. 2. possibly a familiar expression Pharisees of the — one sheep answering to the one working hand. Xcyorres. etc. ad loc.). not necessarily 1-5.irc'(rn. 2. Ei l|e<rTi tois adp^ao-t depa-ireucic ^ . But would he have allowed such action as a general rule ? One would . . xv. " tjk tJjk^ X^^P°^ eX'^'' ^C''1P«^'' "tat cirTjpoSnrjo-at' k parall. A solitary sheep might fall into a ditch on a Sabbath. and the influence of his text may be suspected (Weiss) as explaining the incorrectness in Matthew. a in a lively majiner the story. but as the representative man. The radical antithesis between Jesus and the Pharisees It lay in their respective ideas of God.

12. and inspiring awe in spectators. In that case the theory and practice of contemporary Pharisees must have been milder than in the Talmudic period. &<Fre." '^/ ^ ^ i»» Ektch'ok tt)i/ x^'^P''^ o-ou. R. i. Oi <»c » oe ito restore apio-aioi " <7up. vii.. XV. 65€Tei>'c. pointing to the ensuing miracle. Syn. ' 5^BL have airtiK. C. xaXus itottiy. depths of His religious consciousness. i Cor. etc. I2." Grotius takes the second verb Eisner). airov social state). against Him. to indicate the completelife — — Some critics think that Matthew combines the two incidents. Hitherto they had been content with finding fault . ^odut'OK. . therefore as permissible and incumbent on Sabbath as Spoken out of the on other days. Jud. By how much does a human being differ That is the question from a sheep ? which Christian civilisation has not even yet adequately answered. in same xvii. Heb. rj ad^^aat. n Ch. reported in xiv. God {vide Holtz. /\# »>a/ ToTc \iy€t. We addition rather from : = together = o-viA^ovXcvsorOai. ^ 1j<515CDI place €|eX6ovT«s at the beginning of the sentence (Z with km before £|«X. iroau ouv . ouxl KpaTT)a£i auTo Kal cyepei. the Pharisaic witnesses of the miracle soon recovered themselves. They consulted not how to compass the end. xBrief authoritative word. . assuming that not till restored could the hand be stretched The healing and the outstretching out. when the rule was: if there be no danger. that it concerned — — — the life of the obnoxious one. . v-yitjs US i\ oXXt) : the evangelist adds this to aircKar. though in Acts x.. cured..60VTl£S).. Sia(|)epei inhere and akOpw'jros in pArall. may be conceived of as contemporaneous. Jesus sweeps away legal pedantries and casuistries. animal in the ditch till the {vide Buxtorf. This illustration from common life is not in Mark and Luke. in the present case to heal. conveying to the withered member. oiro>«. Kal I|^t. ' o-nw. the phrase seems to mean to do the morally right. possessing both word: — This is another of those simple yet far-reaching utterances by which Christ suggested rather than formulated His doctrine of the infinite worth of man. 19 (to friends). zxii TrpofSdrou uorc e|c(rrt /*« • sense. 1-6. as well as its benevolence. xvi.e.— <rvp. Beneficent action never unseasonable. Mark and the Logia. > \ KOI m airoKaTearadt] €~a»\\ 'flj«v «s ' oytTjs aXXTj. and Pharisaic 13. 14. : this clause indicates generally the object of their plotting. Ch.— — 184 iCh. drawing from his two sources. as a participle rendering: he stretched out his restored hand.* Koi tois 14. c. X^ct. 6cpairevtLv. 15 . Tw ayVptaTTCf. but simply agreed together that it was an end to be steadily kept in view.—"'Ektsiv^v o-ov t. to do good = cv irouiv.povXiov cXa^ov. of the essence of the Kingdom of God .|3ouXioi' " cXaPoi' Kar' auToG c|€X0o»'T6s ziii. \ a KATA MATeAION CIS ' XII. Ver. szviii. Grotius suggests that later Jewish law was made stricter out of hatred to Ver. and after him Fritzsche. and so introducing here rather an independent sentence than a dependent clause expressive of result. 91). By this brief prophetic utterance. Christians. consulted ness. 37. 33. Kar* otiToii. xzviL i. Eisner. Such is the evil fruit of Sabbath contro* versies. ir^«r<jt ovv 8ia<|>cpei.). - )(<^BLA1 D has airoK. 1 3. 14. take it as preeclare agere. therefore. in orov before tijv x^'^P<>" al. and went out of the synagogue with hostile intent. The 14. The murderous will has come to birth. viz. now it is come to plotting against His life tribute to His power. The double xal signifies the quick result (" celeritatem miraculi. and a direct corollary from His benignant : — should have expected this Luke. who ever aims at inaking prominent the greatness of the miracle. hand on such questions ex eoncesso. quod ne specietn quidem violati Sabbati habere poterat (Grotius). Kal aircKar. He heals by a morrow sine contcutu sola voce. Ver. 13.. leave the Vv. as in T. issue : H. 7 . etc. II. t«5t£ the ill-will deepened. physical and moral power. the way will follow in due course. koXws irouiv in effect. in which sense Meyer and Weiss take it here also. lleXO^vTcs overawed for the moment. and goes straight to the heart of the matter. infer so from the fact that Jesus argued conception of p. 13. Luke has something similar in the Sabbath cure.

and he means the reader to look back over the whole for verification. 15-21. or he means ver. Lk. The quotation is a very free reproduction from the Hebrew. ouk "^epio-ei.g. It is not necessary to suppose that the historical basis of the picture is to be found exclusively in w.g. 18 may point back to the baptism (iii.. omitting some valuable material. the reference to judgment. when in heard not pressed. Iva). 20 to the healing ministry among the sick. but anxious to avoid tragic consequences for the present. The one fact outstanding and noteworthy is the withdrawal of Jesus. 35.(i )aou e-ir' ' auToi'. 20. from the baptism onwards. the voice of Jesus was the street but on the mountain top. 23. Him: : . dKouaei tis * ci' rats irXaTeiois ttjj' auToG. Luke gives his picture of Jesus at the beginning (iv. 20 (W. (with tf a as here). 'O Se EYArrEAION 'Itjo-ous 185 eKciOcf* •&Ttoiki<r(aaiV. 16. Mk. e. xii. Admirable historic materials to illustrate that prophetic trait are ready to our hand in Christ's encounters with the Pharisees (ix. yfous a.8. as • Tois eOccffii' dTraYyeXei" 19. oirws ^ 18. Q vcr. second clause. ir\if]p(i)dT) ii'a (trj *^av€pbv auTOf " iroiViawini' Mk. 15. " He shall not fail nor be discouraged. xiv. It has been suggested that the evangelist drew neither from the Hebrew nor from the Sept. which contains an account of an extensive healing ministry. "* TO p-t\9kv 8ia 'Haaioo toC irpo^i^TOu. ' ov rjpcTiaa* ^'">' to ftou.. poor suffering creatures in whom the ilame of life burnt low . but He shall not be Himself a bruised reed. Either Matthew has followed a Targum.. . 20 to bear a double reference. Verses 15 and 16 are abridged from Mk. prophetic portraiture of His character. in prophetic language. Heb. ^6 omit oxXoi. viii. ^T) 'MSod. xvi.-vii. when the voice from heaven called Jesus God's beloved Son ver. John iva. 52.H. with occasional side glances at the Sept. 30 (with Kal * iTteri\i-i\(T€v auTois. els w^ p here and MIc.. 12. H. xlii. Jesus retires. ziii. ' is ^BCD have found in Most uncials omit ev. a miscreant deserving to die. conscious of having given deep offence. Some features. EuSoKTjaec ^jfux^ f***" irfeu)j. Kal eV* tw Ofofiart auTou t «6fi] cXiriouai. a most important additional feature in the picture = Messiah shall not only not break the bruised reed. 21. e.). xxii. It is certainly curious that he should have omitted Is. 12 17. 7-12.• •J2 — 21. <})wrJ)i' ou8e Kpauydaci 20. which • ^B have simply ov. and read He shall neither break nor be a bruised reed. physically bruised reeds. . 6. 1-17.). ouSe r here (W. X. * ^Ko\ou9Y)aai' auTM o)(\oi ^ iroXXoi. which D it. or been misled by the similarity of Is.). iii. KdVafJiof • X. 4. Acts 43. V. evervictorious hero. 16-30) as a frontispiece. Kal iOepditeutrev auToiis irdirras 16. nor allow to be quenched either in others or in Himself the feeble fiame a strong. Ch. all the more that the statement they contain is but i meagre reproduction of Mk. It is to that fact mainly that the evangelist attaches his fair picture of Jesus. xlii. ver. 19 to the teaching on the hill . Kal Kpiaiv q with accus. Broad interpretation here seems best. 39. 3 and 4. The sequel of the Sabbatic encounter is very vague. o-u •TerpififJiei'oi' ou KaT6d|ei.vex<iipil<r€v Kal o Ch. 'ill' "eKPdXi[j els fiKOS Kpioxf. but shall bravely stand for truth and right till they at length triumph. ^ is inconsistent with iravras. answering to the prophetic outline in the evangelist's mind may be taken from the whole story of Christ's public life as hitherto told. 6 irais 1^ fiou. iii.3. 5-13). 4. here only. 7-12. buoyant. 13-17). Matthew places his at the end of a considerable section of the story. koI Xii'ok To«|>6fieroK ou afiiaei •rfjK Iws s John xi. at a critical turning point in the history. are not to be (v. It is happily brought in here. brave. iii. 4 ix. ver. 6 dyaiririTiSs Xc'yoinros. 1-13)." etc. iii. 21 to such significant incidents as that of the centurion of Capernaum (viii. ver. vg. the demoniac cry: "Thou art the The historic features Son of God". helper of the weak. MIt. Vv. where it gains by the contrast between the real Jesus and Jesus as conceived by the Pharisees. but from a Chaldee Targum in use in his time (Lutteroth). 1^. Thus for the evangelist ver. remote from the crowd below .

often Hesychius under in Sept. as prince. as a miracle. Ovtos ovk Ik^oXXci. 'fl 0£ O ElOUS 5*«'iItJCTOUS ° TaS €f{. followed of Jesus.them as matters of course.on account of the following genitive. and XaXetv before pXe'ireiv. — : . — ceptionally remarkable . Not much capacity for faith in the On the words ovSe Kp. (11^x1 imPhry. oo 0Tath]<reTai. in the cure a standing phrase (in Mark at least) for the impression made on the people. el jiT] conflict between Jesus and the Pharisees. only in N. in league with Pharisaic calumny repelled (Mk. But the article may be omitted «3oTe with infinitive. also the Kai before XaXciv. Ver. ii. T.aTi.— t86 — — XIL KATA MATGAION Kal iQipdirevaev aurov. f-'Cv 24.H. hardly believe what the fact seems to nichus. future contingency. The healing of a blind and theory the marvellous healer was John 32-34). 56. c 13. I. 18). aKovo-erai. but simply as the introduction to another the healing ministry was a great fact. They of Ver. with liri. PXc'iren'. (jptTuro to weakness. Messiah. here only in N. might hence in last clause mean. K(i)<j>ov only.. 12. not to lay hold ews. dative after cXiriovo-iv This construction here evangelist. suggest = can this possibly be. 19). Tore iTpo(Tr\vcyQr]^ auTw Sai|xoft^ofiEV09 tu^Xos koi kom^^^ Kal ^ ku<|)6i' Kac XaXcT»' Kai V Mk.uflir)0-Cl5 auTWf auToIsj " fldaa PaaiXcia * fiepiaQeiaa Ka6' caurrjs ^ epTjfAouTai» »f 25. — — : '• : — — : — — : . Most MSS. have irpooniveYKav with 8ai|jiovt^op. 1 — — 1 : : : . p. 4. an Ionic form in use in Hellenistic Greek. 22.plies a negative answer they can o-ei (ver. theory enunciated for second time. T. blind undeniable as well as dumb. Pricaeus remarks " Sentio clamorem intelligi qui nota est average Israelite. He compared with the Pharisee. so as to take {)p€Tura|XTjv gives as equivalents i^y*'""'!*'"** lTriQv\iii\(ra. adopt the reading of B. with ov. R. 21. What xlii. ? use of Kpaw7oo-p.cvov toc^Xov Kai kw^ov. Cop. Ktti ^e^ioraiTO itdvres ol ©xXoi Kal eXcyov. Kpavya.. as in classics. putting it stronger than the positive. In Mark these were men come down acts or states have middle forms in the future {vide RntherfoTd. New Phrynichtis. Verbs expressing organic course have a very different opinion. 14-23 cf. Rev.. Weiss. The demoniac in ix.r\ptia'9i]V. So Meyer.. "8_^ tw BccX^c^ouX apxoKTi ' 5" Kai iraaa iroAis r] oiKia fiepicroeiaa Kao eaoTiis. Demoniac healed and according to Mark. to watch. apxovTi. OaifAOKld)*'. " Mi^rt Acts ouT<5s itrriv 6 utos "•7. — . ^ B Cur. ix. iii. himself Herod had yet another Mt. All this implies that for its own sake. as illiterate. dumb demoniac has its place here not redivivus. wcrre to>' tu4>\oi' 22.vii. ver. Aa|3i8 the popular title for the Messiah. R. diversity of opinion Christ's friends. Lk.r{6i\i](ra. etc. in the margin.6s instead of KCKpa^fuSs. w ""OuTos ouK cKpdXXei tA TWW « SaifJiocia. cites examples from Seneca. 337. The transition from the fair picture of The Pharisees had to add ci (it|. 23. Is. by subjunctive. 34 be an anticipation by the in Sept. unless ix. or no* implying anything ex.xvii! eiTTCJ' 16. Syr. cast out devils at all ". therefore able to comthe main feature municate such power.1 Aa^iS. 01 Se <t>apia-atoi. " mad. xi. Plutarch. as in T. or a spurious reading. thought Him '• beside Vv. in direct jurisdiction of the Sanhedrim a clause introduced by tws referring to a then (vide on Mark). etc. 23.ai. tu ivop. putting T. condemns. Galilee not being under the pp. They never got to be familiar with Christ's wonderful works. the negative way of OVK . 24. * ^BD omit o Itio-ovs. without article. W. 23. It is a story of wicked calumny repelled. 138. Oi Sc ^apKraioi aKOuo-afTcs 6i |x^ ciirof. etc. 376-412). Tv^Xos Kal Ku<^<Ss.34. 20. They the true Jesus to this hideous Pharisaic would gladly have« said " He does not caricature is highly dramatic in its effect. from Jerusalem. and endowed with the powers of the other world. ver. Beelzebub 22-30 . iv I Cor. after BccX^c^ovX as after ^ao-iXcvs. * fc^BD and some versions omit tv«^Xov kui. late form for Kpa£a>.. eKOvo-ei is late for Xenophon. l^ia-TavTO self a stranger (ver. But the fact was therefore they had to inVv. = alpco)i. But dumbness here also is cance. yet honest-hearted 6 wiie animi commoti et effervescentis ". expressing here not et al. merely tendency but result. 22-37. 32 vent a theory to neutralise its signifidumb only.

Men war against each other to their common undoing. kingdoms and passive with an intransitive sense. regardless of fatal consequences. cities. with an inevitable inference as to the worker and His work. — plausible. the spirit of regarded from the charismatic point of view. they must condemn both forms of dispossession or explain why they made a difference. What they would have said we do not know. One Satan might cast out another. introduces a simple particular supposition Without reference to its truth. 25-30. oi viol {i|xuv.cpia-OT| the aorist has the force of a perfect. De Wette and Fritzsche. Ver. irao-a ^acriXcia. like-minded. It men from his (Satan's) power. ouv araQnaerai ri ^atriKeia auToG . the malicious feelings which prompted their words. rivi.^ 28. as the source of miraculous gifts. i^BD have Kpirai co-ovrai ' IViost uncials have cyw after ev rivevfiari Oeou. but he is not a fool. i. as in all other things. But there is reason to believe that by the time our Gospel was written the Pauline conception of the God were Holy Spirit's influence as chiefly ethical and immanent. 26 applies the axiom to Satan. clSwf ras Iv9vJesus not only heard their fttfo-eis. Yet Jesus did reason for the benefit of disciples. t. Iv irvcv|iaTi 6€ov. had gained currency {vide my St. self-division results. 8id tooto 2 Cor. but men belonging to the same school or religious type. auTol ujiwK e<roi^oi Kptxat. Ver. Satan casting out Satan means selfstultification . and harmless. €<|)' ujifis PaviXcia tou 660u. with which it would appear the Pharisees found no fault. as distinct firom that of the primitive apostolic church. el 8e iyHi i^ iv llfcufJiaTi. Jesus was original. Kpirat. Whether the Pharisees believed this theory was enough that it may be was doubted. Such home-thrusts were very inconvenient. for the Pharisaic prejudice against Him would extend to them. take Zarava. So Schanz. 14. 01. The practice was sanctioned by custom. iK^aXXci as = one Satan casting out another. To the previous convincing argument Jesus adds an argutnentum ad hominem.: — 187 * 22— 2& EYArrEAION c<j>' 26. Ex hypothesi He had a right to put it so. l|j[.g. Kal 61 eyw ev BeeX^e^ouX y Rom. But in casting out devils.ii. vide Winer. t^so/acto. for the theory was that Satan directly empowered and enabled Him to deliver ist future — o-TaOi^o-CTai — — and His method was too effectual. 0€oG ^ iThess. Ver. eouro*' cfjiepiaOT) irws ix. and churches. 23-27). based on the exorcism then practised among the Jews.6ria. to reach). The theory shown to be absurd. but it is not difficult to The Jewish exorcists suggest reasons. Ver 27. was His offence. apa ^ e^Qavev vjxcjv. operated in conventional fashion by use of herbs and magical formulas. who would be wiser in their own affairs. He says in effect. His : Why power^ manifest to all. Jesus now makes the fellowreligionists of the Pharisees their judges. He so puts the case as to make the absurdity evident. By referring to their performances Jesus Either put the Pharisees in a dilemma. on which the emphasis ought to lie.. Vv. Some. But that is not Christ's meaning. not of course Christ's disciples (so most of the Fathers). words. e. statement of an axiom widely exemplified in — — — : human in affairs : division fatal to stability cities. in which it was charismatic and transcendent. The former seems more in keeping with the connection of thought as defending the ethical character of Christ's work assailed by — the Pharisees. €K^dXXcd ^ Tct Saiixofia. The alternative : if not by Satan then by the Spirit of God. Kal €1 6 laTawas Thy larovav eKpdXXei. 28. ot utoi up-uf iv €K|3dXXou<ri . And that is the case put by Jesus. 25. Phil. To reason with such men is vain. Against the argument it might be objected Kingdoms and cities do become divided against themselves. the two expressions would be synonymous. cl. Z. and strove so to present the case as to convict them of bad faith and dishonesty. On a future occasion He will make John the Baptist their judge (xxi. § 38. Satan may be wicked. If. and the results were probably insignificant. exjSdXXu rd 8ai{i. Luke has Iv SaKTvXy 9. x. but knew their thoughts. etc. but no Satan will cast out himself. 2J. why not also Satan? should not that happen to Satan's kingdom which has happened even to the Christian Church ? Jesus seems to have credited Satan with more astuteness than is possessed by states. indeed. Then it has to be considered that communities commit follies which individuals avoid. Paul's .

T. the adage contains a fourth concluding argument against the notion of a league between Jesus and Satan. ego me re ipsa adversarium Satanae esse ostenderim. and the product is not unintelligible utterance.). in actually curing him show myself Satan's master. o-Kopiri£cu late for the earlier aK6Sdvw|ii. our evangelist groups sayings of kindred character instead of exactly reproducing Christ's words as spoken to the Pharisees. vide Lob. ters. x. and render : he who. p. Sac. points to the thoroughness of the cures wrought on demoniacs. apiroo-ai. One begins at this point to have the feeling that here. (W.. : He surely would have expressed Himself differently. is igitur pro adversaria censeri solet. 20: '* It is not ye that speak. Most that interpreters refer the 6 p. seize (Judges xxi. more general sense. have Siapiratrt). viii. like that of the speaker with tongues (i Cor. to decide Jesus throws out yet another parabolic line of thought. understands the sajang as referring to the undecided among the people. when one apparent. says : " Prima persona posita est a servatore pro quacunque alia. koi TOT6 ^ TT|i' oiKiaK auToC SiapiTtio'ci.. proverbialiter. The influence is within.^ 30. t^iaartv. Schanz. and the interpretations therefore conflicting. to the Pharisees. As to the metaphor of gathering and natural basis is not scattering. The only serious objection to this view is that it makes the saying irrelevant to the situation. bound hand and foot.^ Trpwroc TOf Loxupoi' . ri\y olKiav tou toxupou xai rd St^ot) auToG Siapirdo-ai. Others. nulla specie socius ejus potero vocari. but if Jesus had meant to say kingdom come or God's kingdom come ? make up your It must be one or other minds which. 2 have the simple apTroo-au or to the next clause.).— i88 29. being utterly helpThe use of this compound verb less. however.) Siapiracrai (^DLA al. The connection is obscure. that they were done by the very finger of God (Exod. The Fathers (Hilary. spoiler. pi.. as in the case of the demoniac of Gadara: quiet. ^ 7K6UT] iTbis RATA MAT0AION SuKarai tis eiaeXdeii' €i$ €at' (irj XII. x. man scatters what another gathers their aims and interests are utterly diverse. So understood. But why sincere apology for the faith. To help them Cum — . Satan is the arch-waster. if all that have said does not convince you consider this. Ohserv. 24. A trace of the new Pauline view may be found in Mt.). from argument to solemn warning. chap. ^. including Grotius. is not with Satan is against him. Bleek. 15). is in seeking to cure him I show myself Satan's enemy . 30. the owner. xiii. as it is the usual sense in The point at issue was: do the N. xlix.. Fritzsche takes this word strictly as signifying not merely: the kingdom of God has come nigh you has come (TiYyiKev. On first view one would say that the adage seems — more appropriate warm ingly in reference to lukedisciples or undecided hearers than to the Pharisees. however. v. 31. who made no pretence of being on Christ's side. Some accord{e." This certainly brings the saying into line with the previous train of thought. as in Conception of Christianity. De Wette. Ver. Jerome. Chrys. after Elwert and UUmann) have so understood it. like myself. Christ the collector. xiv. and like all I — parabolic utterances appeals to common The theme is. yesus changes His tone modern — : — : xxxi. clothed. have Siapirao-ct. is — — 37) that .) conforms either to T. seems most suitable. spoiling the sense. kot* cfioC BCXZ t^DI Mk. Lk. 21).g. but The nigh sooner than you expected. household furniture (Gen. 9). but the Spirit of your Father speaking in you ". 6 (IT) uv fier' E^iou. as elsewhere.H. ig). Phryn. Urxvpov or individualising after the manner of Proverbs and parables parabolic speech.. xii. . Saviour. then did Luke not adopt this Pauline phrase ? Because one of his main aims was to bring out the miraculousness of Christ's healing works. make a in the Ver. all clean sweep of house. hoc sensu : qui socius cujusdam bella cum alio gerentis non est.) took the iyu to be Jesus and the 6 |i. The parable seems based on Christ's Is. 32. Wetstein. Kypke. Siapirdcrci. its But in all cases. BCL al.R.. (Tisch. 218. take the l^w of the adage to be Satan. tov I the article is either generic. the demoniac is a captive of Satan . 25. Vv. and the argument that the enterprise implies hostile purpose and success The application in it superior power. assume acquaintance with their charac(TKevTj. 29. but wise. Ver. w.T) wv to be Satan. the events in question mean Satan's : sane (Mk.

men might dishonestly holy. wise. 19. * OS cav in most uncials.iii. imperfect man. but the source of the blasphemy.to other sins. On moral ideal. Ayiou. emphatic Evidently the Spirit here is fore honestly misunderstand Him. r\ Si t. D has os av. xxvi. the sinner is to Himself. statement needs to be carefully guarded malice. Ch. etc. but with the whole the Son of Man as the higher limit of Mark more im. then the sin is tinguishes between a word against the not against the man but against the Son of Man and a word against the Holy cause. X^yw Trots irois ^ nfitra dfiapria koI ' pXo<T^T||xta d<^€0ri<r6Tat rots di/0pw- xvi. FI. 33 (against God). A grave mistake. in source be ignorance.— 29—32. presumably. and represent blasphemy against 8i. and the best for a while to follows more impressive. Saul of Tarsus). the absolutely good and Holy Ghost (e. 22. 63. v. cure €k tootw tu oiwki outc €v tu p. t. as in T. ciirirj d^c&Ao-CTai >. because of the adadds an explanatory declaration. . place in the margin. offences. Heb.both worlds. siv. Aid touto z Lk. Jesus dis. I foregoing argument.good seek to establish.H. Nor did He mean to suggest inferences. Ver. of men. Blasphemy against the Spirit so the other hand. Mk.) explains able than such offences against other the double negation by reference to the men.E\\om. based on the double negation. If the source be to the good. The reference in the former is him. s. pointed. He represents the be in no danger of the sin against the taken ethically. and exception. If the in such a case will mean speaking of the holy One as if He were unholy.t a / vii. or. Pharisees to understand that the grava. 32. OVK &4>c9i)o-cTai. conceived as affecting spoken evil of Him. John x. is not the man that makes the difference. and especially of of His character and conduct. ^ omit Tois avOpttxois. be treated as the worst. Xdvo'' <OLra toG uiou too dt'Opwiroo. " aKopm^ci. 23. Jesus was as liable to pressively introduces the blasphemy. conceived. illthe abstract. calling good evil. which W. xi.v« 7 . i « Se ToC Rj'euaaTOS BXaaAtiaia ouk 32.position. though Mark at the corresponding place has " the sons perilously near the unpardonable point. that offences of the kind against Him to possible pardon after death. indeed. blasphemy against misunderstanding but through antipathy the Son of Man will be equally pardonSo serious a able with other sins. 31.iv. and making what and decried. the prophets or the Baptist. av. men. Jesus had no ex. > «c-> Eph. Jesus knew this. All new things are liable to be misunderstood sins of the tongue. in contrast Many interpreters. misconception.a Ch. — — ." and no special mention of a Jesus wished the Pharisees to understand Christ gives the that. A broad preliminary declaration of the pardonableness of any. in His judgment. and It Lord's deliberate judgment. Men might therepXcur. R. honest misunderstanding as other good logion with a solemn 4p. injurious speech (from ^XairTO) and 4>i]pT)). into its parts for sake of Dogmatic ceptional sensitiveness as to personal emphasis (vide on V. selfish against misapprehension therefore Jesus preference of wrong. and though the agent be but a humble.^ai'/ 8s S Kord tou «»« ni'cufiaTOS tou »>». Mk. ii. 32. because of the exceptional originality human sin of all sorts. profaning the name of God : — — . and allowed for it.g. ^B * For ovK a<{>£0T)o-6Tai found in most uncials B has ov |it{ a^tSi]. think other.a8. XiSyov vantage it brings. ovTC. eon.a TovTO connects not merely with preceding verse. be very near the unpardonable sin. that was their particular son of man. in the previous clause. avOpuirov. (1^ vuvdytay fier €|iou. not by informed prejudice. Lightfoot (Hor. xv. are prewere more serious or less easily pardon. rooted dislike of the good. Kal OS Ak ofiTui • • ' eiiTT) ftf d<|)€0iiacTai tois di'Opu. say.— pXoo-<^T|pio.T|v X^yw vp. ovtc analyse the negamen of their offence is not that they have tion of pardon. • — EYArrEAION 189 31.the forgiveable. unpardonable that is our calumniate any ordinary good man. Jewish legal doctrine that. to the right which the Kara t.. 64. and the Divine Spirit who inspires Ghost.humbly think. worthy and characteristic of Jesus.carious. which seem to be simply an echo of t. Kol 4 6fjiii'. ooK d<^6di]0'CTai^ ouTw. in some respects more liable than irao-a apaprta. 34-36). iv 31 (evil speaking generally).

John and Jesus agree in thinking negatively. Both conceive them as morally hopeless. This verse con- — : : — — : : : As the Pharisees if with what follows. Ver. The poison of their nature must come out in their words. b Lk. irontjpol oi'tcs. STjaaupou ttjs KapSias^ 'eKPaXXci to. irav p. ineffectual (a. Judgment by words taught in Mt. 45). as in their present form xvi. 35. to — = . Xeyw 8e 35 (in same TTos sense). however. (Euthy. being what they are.H.— 190 33. which. who spoke wickedly tains — . adage has been of the reference much discussed to the Pharisees or to to Christ if Kypke replies Christ ? you connect with what goes before. eiiraTe iroiiiio-aTe ^Ver. 37. no word is insignificant.a\T|o-a)ati' " 01 a>'Dp«OTroi. s. says Jesus. like that of the thoughtless. they cannot but speak evil. 33. here as a treasure whose stores of thought and feeling the mouth freely distributes. SuraaGc dyaOa XaXeii'. epyov). Their essential import is that the nature ligionists. ' d^*/ d-irobwo'ouffi ufilv. ck yap toO Trepioro-eujjiaTos 2 Cor. Kttl CK Twi' Xoywi' aou KaTaSiKaaflyiffT]. an adage the saying admits of either The Fathers favoured the application. TT^s KapSias TO oTOjia \a\ei. Ver. gracious. Ver 36. not even that which is dpyov. But cf. insipid. in conscious antithesis. or heart of a man determines his speech Given the tree. vide iii. \ 40. The Baptist wonders that they should comt to a baptism of repentance. There was no lack of emphasis in Pharisaic comments on They hissed out their malevolent Jesus. . 2. „ d Lk. With the word concerning blasphemy the selfdefence of Jesus calumny reached its Pharisaic against culmination and probably (as in Mark's report) its close. 35 is found in Luke's version of the Sermon (vi. cid loc). here against false re- Ver. Ver. 33-37. reference to Christ. ^ For o eav XaXriorwo-iv J^BC have o XaXrjo-ovo-iv. could be expiated only by death. pronounce. omit Ta. 34. 31- rei'in^fjiaTa *" t^''^*'^''' vi. here nor there : neque per mortem ". 45. Xoywv trov. " idle ". found in (vi. xxv. unBlasphemy pardonable in this life. whom Meyer follows. whether spoken at this time or not. Kapirof auTOu koKov. being not heartless bu. They might have been remarks made to the disciples about the Pharisees. But the point He makes here is that. " BD al. against the Holy Ghost. James iii. ck yop T.a apyor. xvi. the extreme moral opposite of the malignant viper-nature.epa Kptaews- 37* ^^ yap Twi' Aoywi' aou »»' ^ oX' '^^' SiKaicdOqaT). ^CLAZ D and retained by W. there directed against prophets. or evil must both be of one kind. It is ^ Most comes from Lk. Zig. Vv. . Jesus thinks them far on the way to final impenitence.v. passion. iPet. » » *'^^\' o eai/ 8''»fl A.). the Pharisees a viper-brood. pardonable neither " neque ante mortem. On the teaching of this passage cf. an important warning. It is an index of thoughtlessness if not of malice. follows. 6 dyaSos ai'OpuTros ck too dyaOoG • c Ch. 35. They substantially re- produce sayings found in Sermon on Mount false 16-20). in iact and The in thought (vide Kypke. fevviifxoTa ex^Svwv." uncials omit ttjs KapSias. 31-46 here judgment by the presence or absence of kind deeds. 45). for words are viewed as the index of a good or bad heart: bad positively. t '^ oTt iraK pT]p. 34). who speak senselessly.* dyadd ^ Kal 6 irovTjpos aedpu36. though in direct address is implied {vide ver. Kal toi' r\ TTotiiaaTe to S^k'Spoi' <Tairp6v. Acts Xix. xiii. dpybv speech being the outcome of the heart. call they both tree and fruit good. of which speech is the overflow. 6. cK^aXXei suggests speech characterised by energy. Kal tok icapiroi' auTou o-airpoi' etc yap ''^'^-5 ToG KapiToC to SeVSpcK yivwaKCTat. good in the sense of benignant. XaXov(ri. 6 ayaO^s d. the firuit and action. • KaXoc. (vii. on the margin. Kindred Logia. *H iroiiicraTe : KATA MATGAION to Sci'Spoi/ XI I. 34 the heart is conceived as a fountain. words at Him. €K Tou iroKYjpoC Orjaaupou CKJSdXXei ironfjpd. "Tepi y t r " A\ ' 3 auTOu "Aoyoi' €K 'np. judge. The sentences following seem to be accretions rather than an organic part of the discourse. bad-hearted. texts referred to on margin. kindly. No contradiction. like that of the bad Pharisees. — 7. 9y\(ravpov in ver.

unfaithful to God as a wife to a husband. 41. : : more in what is now going on around you to shut you up to repentance than in anything Jonah said to the men of Nineveh (so Grotius). filthy auTois. which given would be of no service to them. etc. eiri^TjTei. Ver. Ver. If it : — 1 — is : . 38-45. as in vi. to single him out was fitting.epas 40. saying in effect: : you of . diTOKpiflels " Bikofiev diro aoO ar\fi€lov iSeic. with relative A •demand for a sign. knowing it to be vain. ytvea.eio» * Ch. as in xi. If they were. 40 gives an entirely different turn to the reference. 6 sonally as compared with Jonah. insulting. but Eisner cites instances from sense. " quae in omni malitia et improbitate vivit. if]fji. Jesus points to that historic instance and says Beware Jonah was not the only prophetic preacher of repentance . " AtSdo-itaXe. In the latter case the meaning is there will put — — . ports convey the impression that the Vv. sign asked and refused. Therefore: ov So6ij<r€Tai it will not be given either by Jesus or by any one else. For opposite views on this interpretation of the sign of Jonah.epas Kal xpeis I'UKTas"ri^s 41." Suicer.€to»' lufd j8. No sign will convince them why give one ? cl («. 39. If it be genuine. <rT|f«. The apparent respect and earnestness of the request are feigned: "teacher. wo-Trep yotp Ttj KOiXia tou Kr^TOUSf vtfieat Ch TpCLs Kal rpeis 'UKras. 16. vide Meyer ad loc. apt description of men professing godliness but ungodly in heart. ! 33--4I- EYArrEAION T6t€ &. What is referred to ? But for Demosthenes and cilvc£ . or to His ministry as compared with Jonah's. and at last you — — .t). more than Jonah. {jioixO'Xis. 32 characteristic men that have no light within crave external evidence. Ver. 39. 30 seems to take it. ycvea. were synchronous. From what quarter was the sign now asked to come from ? Perhaps those who made the demand had no idea neither knew nor cared. xvi. we desire fromyoM (emphatic position) to see a sign ". He declines. and Holtzmann in H. hypocritical. 4.'s and Luke's re29-36).£iov sign ? They thought the cure of demoniacs a sign firom hell. i). v. 42. ToG irpO(|>riToo. refers either to Jesus percf. discourse (Lk. is far — .C. 27-31). s.. it must have become an accepted part of the text before the date of our earliest copies. a sign for your confusion if not for your conversion. xi. Apphcation of the reference in ver. It reminds one of the mock homage of the soldiers at the Passion (xxvii. • Niceuirai dt'aon^crorroi iy v^ Kpicei fierd KaTaKpivoufTiv aiiTr\v ^ yeveds xal Kal on fAerei'oifjo-ai' eis To Ki^puyfia 'iwm i^BCDLl insert avru before tiv«s.— . 'O 84 (niu. hankers after. all I will continue to disbelieve in spite can say or do. but. ver. xi. similar use of historic parallels in xi. which was no sign in their what follows we should have said: the preaching of repentance by Jonah to the Ninevites. Think of the men who could so speak of Christ's healing ministry wanting a sign that would satisfy them as to His Messianic claims what kind of a Ver. Elsewhere we read of their asking a sign from heaven (xvi.Tr€KpiOx\crdv ^ 191 Kal ^apiaaidiK. — ^aciXio-ora v^tov is next pressed into the service of putting unbelievers to : shame. ootws cotoi 6 uios tou dcdpuirou iy T^ KapSia TTJs Y^S Tpcis • 'pii. i6. 38. So Lk. Ver. "AcSpes TaoTif)S. me to death. rices Titv ypafiiiaTidiv Xiyovres. as Nineveh is held up as a reproach to the persons addressed. Jonah preached repentance to the men of Nineveh as the only way of escape from Judgment. The form PaariXia-(ra was condemned by Phryn. ''Xeiov 'luva. Cf. " Tevea iroimpd xal •uoivaXlg eiril^TjTet • xal (r)]|XEioi' ou 8o0i]or€Tai aurp. 20-24. Jas. and the enunciation of the Satanic theory as to Christ's cures of demoniacs. ei ^i' *l«>'as ci* jit) to <nr)(i. then Jesus points to His resurrection as the appropriate sign for an unbelieving generation. Their question really meant these signs won't do if you want us to believe in you you must do something else than cast out devils. a moral class. Both Matt. an interpolation. But I will rise again. 39. The verse cannot be challenged on critical grounds. except the sign of Jonah the prophet. The men of Nineveh are cited in condemnation of the Jewish contemporaries of Jesus.^ 38. the demand was impudent.

good writers. cro^iav loXop-wKTos Kai. Euthy. The change from participle to finite verb is expressive. first. Rev. Weiss. etc. leisure). j^irjToGr dvairaoatj'. Kal eXQot' cupiaKCi «r)(oXdi^orra. The epithets simply describe in lively pictorial manner the risk of repossession. koI k. 22). tion Heaven (xi. rare Xcyei. Hor. On the apparent egotism of these comparisons. deserts and graveyards. 43. R..o'O'' cirei BapvXwvos. 'PaaiXtaaa y6rou eyepQrjcrfTat. This feature is introduced to make the picture answer to the moral condition of the Pharisees as conceived condemned by Phryn. » 43.. — — — XII. 81' avvSpuv r6tet»v the haunts of demons. The parable was naturally suggested by the cure of the demoniac (ver. Chrys. i6-ig).) . Ivra crcpa irvev(lara. Ornamented how ? With grace. Grotius. xiii. trveijjia i^iXBt] Heb. an instance fromAthenaeus. J. 367 and remember that Jesus claimed superiority. 25 zv. Godet). 18. Ik Philol. the evil race of Pharisaic religionists to children playing in the market-place (xi. has been. irXeioi' 'Iwko wSe.. the devil's. and gives a glimpse into the superstitions of the time. Alberti also (Observ. Ver. The house is decorated reputedly for God's occupancy. zi. The question naturally suggests itself: what is the historical range of the application ? : It has been answered variously. 11). etc. etc. as on it depended the resolve to return to the former abode. were places uninhabited by men. 'Oxaf Sc to dKadapTOf 81' » 5 iLk. The general truth implied is moral and religious reform may be. cis rof oIkok p. that the effects of the arts of exorcists were temporary and. again a claim of superiority for the present over the great persons and things of the past. Vv. On this vide Lightfoot. • 44. etc. succeeded by deeper degeneracy. But naturally commentators seek spiritual equivalents for them. 35 a land desolated by fire is to become tenanted by demons. 31. Ver. and 2 Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon. vide my Apologetics. 17. 24. Tuc ' ircpdrwi' Ttjs yT\S dKOucai. Jer. The demon in Tobit viii. ovk evpio-Kct: : : . tSoo. as popularly conceived.. second. the popular theory to explain the facts the demon returned because he could not find a comfortable home anywhere else. say some (Hilary. gather from it. Formerly Jesus had likened xi. not merely for Himself and His work. 3 flies to the uppermost parts of Egypt and in Baruch iv. oQev e|T^X6oi' 5 (to have k Lk. Siep)(€Tai di'uSpojf t^ttoji'. 45. 43-45. Jer.). ix. irXeiov J. Christ gives no hint ot . The ornamentamust be to the taste of the tenant. irXcIot' ZoXofiut^os wSe. zi. 4y ttj • 27. but for sin counterfeiting grace a form of godliness without the power sanctity which is but a mask foi iniquity. but even for the least in the Kingdom of — fact. ^ao'iXi. p.^ <i Cor. invit ing by its clean. Sicpxcrai l-qrovv the spirit keeps moving on in quest of a resting place like a human being he feels ill at ease in the monotonous waste of sand. 8. with sin. . others (Orig. ii. A comparison. ornamented condition. — . The reading in T. Eiri(rrp^i)/o» ^ 2 Pet. 24-26. etc. We " when you hear one say irapciKrov bid him say irapa•ciJptjo-ov ". . from the exile till now (Chrys. From the lawgiving till the present time (HiL. (xi. at<rapu>fuvov . diTO Tou d^dpuirou. .. = un tenanted and ready for a tenant. 24). irxoXa^ovTa a. KATA MA'reAlOlN 'IjjP* 1800. . The parable here passes ou: of the region of popular imagination and natural probability into a region of deeper psychological insight. Jude Kal oux eopio-Kei. similitude moves in the region of popular opinion. Why should the demon want associates in occupancy of the house ? Why not rather have it all to himself as before ? ovTws c<rT«ii. vii. Ethical application. The failure to find a resting place was an in important luv irepdruv Eisner quotes in Ttjs YtJ9« illustration the ejdiortation of Isocrates not to grudge to go a long way to hear those who profess to teach anything useful. is assimilated to Lk.— 192 * '^''- —— : . o-apovv is Now He uses expelled demons The to depict their spiritual condition. 595 The reference is to the story in i Kings Chron. 44. Cf. Lk.) .).. really foi . . from the Baptist till now (Weiss. ^ aeaapuuct'Of Kal ^ ^BDZ read cis tov oikov f&ov riricrrpctlxtf. concerning the X. Ver.ou. icpiaci fiera Tfjs y^^'^^S TauTijSj xi.) cites : Luke eipia-Kov. 42. lib.. KOi KaraKpicei o«TT]f ttji' oxt r]Xd€»' ex b Lk. And what is that ? Neither for sin nor for grace.. by Jesus. Heb.

49. ouTws corai Kal rfj yeyea TaoTT| r\ rfj ironf|pa. ' EYArrEAION 45. crov ctirc 47. The relatives of Jesus Vv. Kal yikerai ra Icrxara too d»'Op<ihroo ckcii'ou y^eipova twj' ^ m Ch. Cb. = to endeavour).ou d8cX(|)os Kal d8cX(^T} Kal ^i^TTjp iaTiv. a more subtle and idolatry of the letter. 46. to have spoken only of His brethren. t<Jt€ TTopcucTai Kttl "^ 193 fic0' KCKoo'iuiTip.ou . on the outskirts of the crowd. brothers sense. 31-35 Matthew and Mark place this incident the natural Joseph ? Presumably. out of delicacy. John V. unless one in the epithet ftoix<^^s which recalls prophetic charges of unfaithfulness to her Divine Husband against Israel. vanity a desire to make a parade of their influence over their famous relative on the part of mother and brethren (Chrys. viii.— clo-TiiKeio-av. I. x«: cKTcivas enthusiasm. V.). etc. — making the words following. tSou. O Ch. Ver. The position assigned it by Matthew and Mark is at least fitting. irpaTuv. " p-'f\Ti\p Kal 01 dScXeftol auToC Lk.^i'oi'. sons of Mary by — — pernicious in fc^BL) states what is implied in ver. auTo. Lk. (lou xoG Jc oupa^ois. superfluous. xi. There 13 . " in fc^BL and an explanatory gloss. in connection with the discourse occaLuke sioned by Pharisaic calumny. — ISow. an eloquent gesture. 39). (Tisch. 18 ianv p-'T\Tt]p xal TikCS eirl clcli' 01 d8cX(t>oi p. They wished to rescue Him from Himself and from men whose ill-will He had." r\ ^ 48. Ver. 18. xxi. Theophy.aav e^w. " Tis Lk. XaXTJaai. iii. gives it in a quite different connection. here and in 26. 49. 21 that friends thought Jesus beside Himself. It reveals a highly strung spirit easily to be mistaken 48 for a morbid T. leaving the bearing of the question on His mother to be inferred. Ver. present. With Ezra But from that ended material idolatry. but with sense of imperfect (Fritzsche). puts XryovTi in i^BDZ.H. (Mk. ^tjtoOitcs eliriSrrt ' xii. p. is omitted by W. t£s co-Tiv i\ Iv^Tifp jtoti.. but an unwelcome hypothesis to many on theological grounds. d8eX(t>ol.). ^ou Kal 01 d8€X({>oi |iou. imprudently. "Eti 8c n compar. Tisch. within brackets). the more deadly that it wore the fair aspect of zeal for God and righteousness. ^tjtoGktcs auxw XaX^crai. and points to the exile as the crisis at which she seriously repented of that sin. 47 is wanting It is within brackets. It is not at all likely that Christ's view was limited to the ministry. provoked. 29 (of tombs). 19)." 1 ^ it t^B omit 8( (Tisch... This incident should : (t(^ X^YovTi). W. period dating from John's Moral laws need large spaces of time for adequate exemplification. 'O 8e diroKpi0els jiiou . Kal ^KTCifas fii^TTjp TT]>' x^^po^ auToG* toos 5*-^* ^aOirjTois ootoG etircK. €l<TTr\Ktt. tw auTw. €|ci». that some one reported to Jesus the presence of His relatives. 46. CTOi -q p-'f\Tt\p (TOM Kal 01 d8EX(t>oi con^Kao-i. xvii. but solicitude on His account and a desire to extricate Him from trouble. "'l8oo. ooTis Y^P ^'' iroii]aT) TO 6eXir))ia ToG -irarpo. in His thoughts. xxiii. auTOu XaXourros toIs ©xXois. 48. ment — from Ezra till Christ's time. TTapaXafiPit'ei eauTOu 1 iirra Irepa TTfeufAOTa "iroi'TjpoTcpa laoTOu. for those etc. 35.H. The whole of ver. period dates the reign of legalism. 12. pluperfect. But the mention of her gave increased emphasis to the truth proclaimed.— 42—50. * t^DI omit ovTov EC retain it (W. iii. l|a) etire 8^ xts aoTw. iii. or outside the house into which Jesus entered (Mk. .). The question repels a well-meant but ignorant interference of natural affection with the sovereign claims of duty. they probably thought. The most instructive exemplification of the degeneracy described is supplied by the period be viewed in connection with the statein Mk. xi. 19-21). They had been standing by while Jesus was speaking. Kai €io-cX0<5»'to KaroiKci €ic€i • Lk. One might have expected Jesus. and through Not it one can understand the motive.H. Ver. Mk. 46-50. what period was we find (ver. 47 (wanting in 46. which issued in Rabbinism. "'I80U.*i^ (with inf.

2. I. sitting in a boat. and even growing yet He has formed a very sober estimate of its value. as the parable following shows. clear air of Christ's parabolic wisdom would be as welcome to the evangelist as it is to us. affection But on the He sacrificed altar — : — : . Cf. present supposition expressed by the subjunctive with av followed by present indicative. bad seed sown among good. Matthew's way of massing matter of the same kind most effectually impresses us with the significance of this feature in That Jesus Christ's teaching ministry. but not as following in immediate temporal sequence. : — — — . great Mt. Just how many of the parables reported by the evangelists were spoken then it is impossible to determine. nise the importance of this type of teaching by their formal manner of introducing the first of the group of seven parables contained in Matthew's collection. iv. the parables being employed to point the moral much seed. : are idealists. utterance He was likely to mention His Father. —Ver. The highest brotherhood based on spiritual oo-tis 7ap av 'Ko\. 3. -irarpos p. The Parable of 1-9 . spoke all the seven parables grouped together in this chapter at one time is not certain or even likely. compelling the Teacher to withdraw from the shore into the sea. Iv irapa|3oXais this method of teaching was not peculiar to Jesus it was common among Easterns but His use of it was unique in felicity and in the . wasted. finally Definition of spiritual kinsmanship. cKadriTO as at the teaching on the hill (v. Lk. in the 1-9. - ^Z have «k (Tisch. Parables. Luke "those who hear and do the word of God " obviously secondaffections. Luke has the Sower only. The transition from the sombre atmosphere of chap. indeed. Much interest. Jesus an effort. The Teacher : — — : . Iv oupavois this probably comes nearest to In such a solemn Christ's actual words. oxXoi numbers of people in all the accounts. XIII. fish The of all sorts caught in the net. for He possessed a warm heart and unblighted natural and . 3 . had its origin in part truths disappointing experiences in misapprehended. viii. oiKias iK(£0r)TO -irapot ttjj' QdXacrcay els • 2. cf\}vr(y(^y\(jav irpos auTOf • (wi'thtrpbsOxXoi iroXXoi. viii. No stress should be laid on Matthew's phrase "on that We day ". the Tares. of God". — ary. which seems to have been a review of the past ministry of Jesus. suggestive of lengthened discourse. Much besides parables would be spoken. iroXXoi. though Matthew makes no mention of it (vide Mk. B has neither ck nor awo (W. natural of duty.r\<r(\ a general affinity. as very closely connected in structure and import. 4-8).H. which the ancient revisers seem to have inserted regularly as a in transitional particle. xiii. Yet even here we do not altogether escape the shadow of unbelief or spiritual insusread of much good seed ceptibility. i). (Mk. 19). and. t|€X6u)v ttjs oiKias the house in which Jesus is supposed to have been when His firiends sought for Him. Chapter sultry. iv. whose supreme claims His filial Mark has " the will heart ever owned. xxvii. In the corresponding section Mark gives only two of the seven {Sower and Mustard Seed). sacrificed His life. actions misunderstood.— 194 a Ch. t. i. diro ^ rrjs i. sat. Ver. Jesus Teaching in Vv. xii. a ^BCLZZ religiotis omit to. the Sower Lk. into Luke). wore aoxoc to' ttXoioi' i^^&vxa KaOfjaGai Kal 1 ^Bl omit 8«. The same connection in Mark Ver. iv. Perhaps we should rather say had a place in the discourse from the boat. omit airo and have ck margin). the hearers stood. and yet a beginning made destined to grow the situation to be viewed with patience and hope. expressing chiefly disappointment with the result. vi. €v T'p inP^P*f eKtiv^). 50. 4. The Sower. popularity of the Teacher still great. XIII.. to address the people standing on the margin. iii. as He Ver. devotees whom it would not an adcost no effort to speak thus It did cost mirable class of people. compelling the Teacher to fall back on natural analogies for explanation and All the synoptists recogself-defence. and the Drag net may have formed a single discourse. adoption of the parabolic method of teaching. parable stands (not in the calm. promoters of pet schemes. 'EN 8e ^ Ttj ^fic'pa ckci»'T) c^eXOuf 6 koX *^ 'lT]a'Ou. KATA MATGAION XIII.). TO 6eXT]|xa t. Mk. little fruit. 2 .

Kal av4^y](Tav al aKai/Oai. : — : — . ^'j^^ 39. which is the true one. dXXa 8c e-neanv * tA? Johnii.v6r\. not the irapa t'tjv oSov Ver. ili^KOi'Ta. Kal ^8i8ou Kapir^c. And when ? Immediately 10) ? after the parable was spoken. c^i^KovTa. and growing more vigorously gained the upper hand. 10-17. S acf CKaroi/. 9. • 5. u. in the mouth of Jesus. finds this idea in ave^i]crav. ^'^s 17. An invitation to think of the hidden OIK. J as. iv. put in the text." Kal irpoCTcXS^kTcs 01 fxaOrjTal ctiroi' aoru). *• 195 TToXXd. 100 best (Gen. can be expressed avcpTjcrav the thorns also by cm. but on ground full of thorn But the latter idea.). or. 9. iv "irapaPoXats. 6 Vv. for which h« gives as — : promptly forming a clear idea of this interlude. them to find out. xxvi. or rather a hint that there was such a meaning. 8. which comes from parall.— -xa EYArrEAION " *l8ou. : — : — : — kirX Ttt upon shallow ground. Mark and Luke to the meaning of the parables spoken. BCZI in margin). 3. 6 txutv wra dx. deep. ^D have €irvi|av (Tisch. after the teaching of the day was over ? The one certain point is that an explanation was asked and given. or the Sower o-ircCpoiv of my story. dKdi/6a9. row o-ireipciv: the infinitive of purpose with the genitive of article. €lx«v YTjv iroWiiv). or they and others with them. 10 17) iroiciv is used. tA ireTcivd. which in the margin. 4. 7. Kai a-niitvi'^av auxd. Euthy. 6. 7. <tal eirl cxcir (3d0os^ uiTi Y^5 * ^' ^ ^Xiou 8c iinp6. 8. Ver. eirvi^av. X^yui'. 6 i^tav xvi. Who asked ? The Twelve only. Tiofltj. In other texts (iii. 8. genuinely good land free from all the faults of the other three: soft. wra dKOucif * dKOucTu. Ktti has eXOovra ra irereiva KaTC(t>aYcv. : — otherwise) to embody unfamiliar truths of the spiritual world. have axcirvifav (W. Kal * KaT€<J>aY6i' aurd. . The two questions were closely connected. Siari «v irapa^oXais Matthew makes the question refer to the method of teaching.— Vn. al. 10. 6. 5.'" "TTCTpCjSrj. clean. Ktti CI' Tw onrcipcti' air6v. 12). CKariiv. where the rock was near the surface (ovk ir£TpciST|. 4|t)X6cc 6 (nr€ipuK toO <m€ip€iv. KaXf|v. synonym — — . Zig. killed. The Parable. had made it spring The There disciples ask is an ex- some difficulty in quickened.H. 30 good. vircpiorxvo-av. 5. cKatiiia- Vv. but the footpath. Thence we gather that to speak in parables means to use the familiar in nature or in human life (in the form of a narrative or . planation. Ver. 8. meaning.6. and the fate of the seed in each case was in accordance with common experience. Rev. Ver. ras aKovOos. seeds or roots. either 6 generic. di'ttTciXai'TOS 9. B B T. iv. vii. ISCSov. aXXa 8c ' cireaci' toI*=^|.20. TTjs before W. d \k€v tireae irapd T^f 6%6v • Kal ^X9e ciri ^ Jtxvii. But why paint the picture ? What is the moral of the story ? That Jesus left importance of the lessons conveyed. 8c cTTccrcf em rr\v Ync ttik KaXnv. Abstract a priori definitions of the word serve little purpose we learn best what a parable is. as was more likely. as Mark states (iv. o Sc TpidKOin"a. The description of the land in which the sower carried on his operations would present no difficulties to the hearers the beaten paths. yielded. Johnxv. by studying the parables He spoke. the thorny patches were all familiar features of the fields in Palestine. 9. tr. Fritzsche prefers the reading lis because the seed fell not on thorns already sprung up. 81A TO cKaup-aTiaOrj. it —Ver. sprang up as well as the corn. 3-9. the rocky spots. 81A t6 cYcti' pitac. highway. 60 better. OTTOU jjiTj OOK ctxC yTJj' TToXXl^l' Kal Cu6e(dS C^aCCTClXc. very frequent in N. with €irvi|av * fc^BL omit aKovciv. rpiaKOVTa all satisfactory. was scorched 8).?i"*°'''* ??'*. dXXa f Mk. " Aiari iv irapaPoXais 19. Mk.H. and in late Greek. earliest which (by the sun) {cf. 4. 1 i. of which there were few. Rev. of which there were many through or between the fields. and many min. soon litX Ver. xvi. Ver. placing tjXOov 2 ' has yn^. o 8e 10. T.

17. might suggest the idea of a mysterious esoteric doctrine concerning the Kingdom of God to be taught only to But the term a privileged inner circle. 26. vficitv in emphatic position. impute a mistake to them than an in- the saying is repeated. Acts tJKouorac. irpo<^T]Tai xal SiKaioi. which may have been added by the grammarians to make the uncials. which seems to say that He adopted the parabolic method in order to hide the truths of the kingdom Nothing is from unspiritual minds. ^ir*^ 27. in X^ and both doubtless in the minds of the A more serious difficulty disciples. If. p. iii. etc. C. 13. may be due to him. 14.p. T. . 3. 7rpo4>T)T6ia 'Hctoioo. 14. vi. 6({>6aXp. in Mt. • i^ X^y^"^''^' *'Akotj dKouaere. 9. In Mk. suggesting contrast between disciples and the mi^titude. in the N. reading intention in the It is much better to light of result. T. maintain that the evangelists have mistaken His meaning. 27. more certain than that Jesus neither did nor could adopt any such policy. clearer. His aim was to enlighten.v(rav jjiT]iroTC iSuai tois 19. 1 ou ' fi^ o-urTjTe Kal pX^irorres i^ pXc'tj/ere. which ought naturally to mean they are dull of apprehension.ous auTWf ^ iKdp. Kol dKOUocTCS OUK dKOUOUO-if. This use of the passive in a neuter sense belongs to late Greek.. xxviii. where — senting himself as sent to stop ears and blind eyes. Kal ^ di'a7rXr]pouT(u 30.' BeSoTai YKWKOi ou S^oTai. 13) Jesus reproaches the disciples for their ignorance . (iv. ouTois f\ Acts xmii. = Kal rg 16. II. like Holtzmann (H. Mk. however.aKdpioi.p.) and Jiilicher {Die G leic/missreden vide also his yesu. as barbarous. they see. xzii. . Toi (tvcmipia the word. here He congratulates them on their faculty of seeing and hearing (spiritually). Mark and Luke have tva. Einleitung in das N. 12. that Jesus might use — .g. ooTis yelp ^xei. Kal reform). koI idcrufiai^ outous. given as such by Matthew only. best to enlighten them. 01 1 J«^BC omit in eirt. and in his bitterness repre- human purpose to Christ. 131.e. Col. Phil. ^ 15.R. iii. 14. i. d|iT|v introducing an important yap X^yw statement. ceivable. though It is conput into the mouth of Jesus. Jesus says: I speak in parables because seeing they do not see. a. 'O 8c diroKpiOcls etirei' a&Tois> "*Oti ualy fiuon^pia ttis PawiXctas rStv oupavStv.. not to mystify. same- — — — — — : . Vv. j • Sons 8e ouk ^xh. dir' auToC. on ^X^irorres ou jSXeirouai. therefore I do my Vv. This moral apothegm is here given only in Matt. So. the latter ascribing a purpose. 15. most Reading of T. xiir. It contains a great truth. ^ ioo-ofAai. not for what. rh. the right word being KarafAiJCiv. The verb Kap. e. The prophetic citation.v(d (ver. 32. ouSc au^iouai. iActsxzviii. eiraxufOT) ydp KapSia tou Xaou toutou. and if the evangelists ascribed it to Him. as some allege. 27 (absol. iv. the former assigning a reason. vide v-crat: again ircpio-o-evOn]at x. vide on chap. 15. eiriaTp^i|»w<n. 29. Such utterances are not to be taken as deliberate dogmatic teaching.. la. as here used. Ver. The quotation exactly follows the Sept. KapSia auviaai. uaKapioi. Jesus desired to make the truths of the kingdom of God known to all by parables if they could not be understood otherwise. 228). ii. 27. then we should have no alternative but to agree with those who. 13. the evangelists so took them. — struction. xxv. in Eph. pp. 8ia tovto on. 11. koI o ex^''> &pQ'fl<T€Tai. because. i. 16. iKcLvoLS 8e 12. koI tois wal • ^apetas Lk.. whether spoken For the conor not on this occasion. const. 149. made generally known. arises in connection with Christ's answer to their question. on PX. ' Kal Tois uorlc dKouaucri. and in their own nature perfectly intelligible.' 'Yfiuv 8e p.ois. Bid TouTO iv irapa^oXais auTots XaXw. : Ver. means truths once hidden now revealed. 8o0i]aeTai auTw Kal -irepia-aeudt^- aerai b Gal. In Matt.— : 190 KATA MATBAION XaXci5 auTots. Kal toOs 64>0aX(j. v. Kal k Acts xxviii. Kal ou (xtj iStjtc. expressing the bitter feeling of one conscious that his best efforts to teach his countrymen would often end in failure. cKap-fivaav) is condemned by Phryn. — Isaiah's words in Isaiah's spirit.. Ver. they failed to understand the mind of the Master. ironically.

neither by themselves yield enjoyment. irpdo-xaipos. Kal ouk r\Kouaay.). 'O 8e cm rd ireTpuSTj cnrapEis. 18. iravTos aKovovros. it. o-irttpovTos pi. iv. 'Yfjicis out' ttji' irapa^oX^K tou paaiXeias Kal corirapfji^i'oi' cnretpoi'TOS.). of the parables in this connection. said of the man. — — • oLKovo-aTc T. x<*P<^t X. The word in the case supposed is in the mind. Properly. 21. 14-20." ix.^ 1 7. i(my 6 -irapd tvh' oSoc <nrapcis. terpretation. G. Ver. narrSs dKouon-os Toc XoYOk troinfjpos. etc. 24-27." etc. now This passage is given by Lk. 22. aorist. So throughout the in- — : — 1 — : : — . p. say those delivered in the preaching tour through Galilee. "Two Builders.^ 'n-po(|>TJTai on ydp Xeyu )3XcircT6. lACTo. if not in it in it as words. ovrds Icxiv. etc. 2 Cor. 20. But heart is used in Scripture in a wide sense.^ fii] 19. dfific 6(|>daXfioi. The perceiving senses and the things to be perceived imply each other. represented by the innocent birds of the parable.33* x." "City on a Hill. T. on iroXXol * Kal SiKaioi circOuixYjaaK iSeif & Kal ouK etSoc dKOua'aT€ Kal aKoSaai d dKouere. the evil one.. u}i. Deep earnest natures also have joy in truth found. It may be a case of interrupted construction.). 17. ovk ex". 14. Vv. ouT«Js loTtf 6 TOf Xoyoi' ^ dKOuuf. worldliness. unlike the other viXcias parables in this chapter. singleness of mind. hear it over again. The felicity consists in the things seen and heard. Sign and thing signified identified. (nrcipavTos. " for the classical idv tw aKovo-jj " (Camb. emphatic. Ipxerai 6 • Kal dpird^ci to iy ttj KapSia auTOu ootos m Acts viii.— II 20. aKovwv. Here it creates an exaggerated impression as to the extent of the new departure. * ' aKovovo-i in ^BCDXZ. sowed in the story just — — — . 16. (x. man who not..instead of the participle lx«v under the influence of Mk. combination as in 41. liS. Ver." a phrase which happily combines the physical fact of the parable with the figurative sense. 24) in a more suitable connection (report on their mission by the Seventy). ovv referring to the happiness on which they have been congratulated. cf. of the told. the seed sown. Ver. ttJs crvvUifTos. but receiving both intellectually and emotionally implied everything necessary present except purity of heart.H. aKapiros may refer either to the man = — — . temporary. Ver. 19 . Kal cuOus ficrd x<*P^S Xai^pdi/wt/ B omits v(i«v (bracketed in W. in 19. : — Ver. "Whole " New need not a Physician. 20. 26 Iv TQ Kap8(q: we should hardly say of truth not understood that it had been sown in the heart.'stext (Weiss). " this is my body ". — and receiving with joy characteristic of quick emotional shallow natures. e. 18-23. the Treasure and the Pearl. Lk. Ver. Lust for money and care go together and between them spoil many an earnest religious nature. as exemplified in the Sower and other parables here collected. as the seed is in the ground on it. the case of any one who hears. oTi ^X^irouo-i Kal ra ura ujiuf. 13. hearing alone predicated of the third type. 3. represents the case of such a man. may be gems preserved from some otherwise forgotten synagogue discourses. 18. etc. He had always been speaking more or less in parables (" Fishers of Men. (i^pijivaT.airdTT| t. Garment and New Wine. what it IT.T) (twuvtos taking it in. viii. but not of them only.. Some in Christ's discourses that almost went " not without saying. cf." v. contains no But hint that it concerns the kingdom.. nom.g. but with a difference. not of the seed. Interpretation of the Sower (Mk. was not an absolutely new feature. " Salt of the Earth. if not as truth. ificls. — EYArrEAION * : 197 dKOuei. this is he sowm. irovTjpds." vii. but. 11-15). conforms to ver. ix. wra). The parabolic teaching of Jesus. 12 . What a different use of the emblem from that in vi. Satan.. 23. this is the new feature in the second type added to the hearing of the first hearing ." iv. the sentence beginning with the intention to make the genitive dependent on an Ik t^s KapSias before tov Xoyov Ttjs paapirdtei (so Weiss). the Sower. 18. : together 13).lv. : means. a. Hearing is to be taken here in a pregnant sense as distinct from the hearing that is no bearing (ver. iv. wcipavTos ^BX. ye privileged ones. as the seat of intellect as well as of feeling. in ukovci a grammatical correction (neut.

. yccop^m].' 22. iv. it has been objected (Weiss. R. XIIL auT<5>' • ai. and only a few times altogether in the N. tainly results. OJK cYci Be r\ pi. T. who. Self-knowledge and observation of character were needed for this. 18. 1 '^ J^BD omit TovTov.. As to the interpretation given. (3) It does not follow that should the none of them can be. Kal 1^ • {Ji^pifiva too aiwi'os tootoo ^ Kal " dirdTTj too ttXoutow p Mk. but the fourth in addition receives into a clean. 13 TpidKOKTa. ttjk KaX^k' . p. St) here Given such conditions. I dWd iamv rj " a Cor. iv. Christ's audience might at least carry away the general impression that He was dissatisfied with the result of His ministry. ii- » . that : — — man. oStos 6 tok Xoyof aKOuu^. . either 6 |tiv. Pet. which eiri ttjk is an explanatory addition of the scribes. ii. Col. 6 8J (T. 16 (with wov\. phrase The third type understands (Mt. Heb. fruitfulness cer- = bringeth KapTTotliopEi. 0% natural in the given circumstances. like every parable. but always with marked expres- (Meyer) . Jesus had all along been using similitudes explaining His meaning rather than needing explanation. 34. sense the same. 'O Se cis Tois dK(i>'6as <nrap«ts. There is fruit in this case the crop does not wither in the blade it reaches the green ear. Jiihcher. OS 2 ii. Then parabolic speech was common even in Rabbinical circles. dKOuuK Kal aoKHUK^- 10. (2) Christ's parables are for the most part not allegories. in the latter. 13. that we cannot see the wood for the trees. Kal aKapiros yi^cTai. 6 Se c^/]K0KTa.). i.) that it is allegorical in method. iivyft-ou Stot to*' X^yoi'. 23. Partikeln. 'O 8c iirl ttji* yifv^ ii. 98). 8. in many cases in which His teaching seemed to Him like seed cast on unproductive places. o-o|iirk'iYei tok X^yoK. * which echoes ver. : — : — : According to Passow and Baumlein [Grammatik. C). by his happy cv KapSCt^ KaX-g Kal dya6^. before or to the word (Xdyov just Bengal. As to this it may be remarked (i) There is a tangible difference between allegory and parable.. In the former case the meaning is : this man brings forth 100 fold. understand the parable well enough ? True. 2 Cor. Allegory and interpretation answer to each other part by part parable and interpretation answer to each other as wholes.R. no hint that it related to the kingdom was given.— 198 n Mk. Why .t. and refers to the fruit. use of allegory be interdicttd to Him ? . a source at once of entertainment and of light to hearers. t zv. i Cor. § 669. stated is clear. t is accusative neuter after irout. 17. This interpretation of the Sower raises two questions Was it needed ? Does it really explain the parable? which is in Does it proceed from effect to ask: As to the former could not Jesus ? even the general hearer. 6 82 (W.av iv ^auTw. hk QXi^^eo)^ viii. In Mt. it fails to give the one main lesson which it. ri.e. in H. and Untersuchungen uber G. i (?). 36. use6 in last clause may be pointed ful..) and receives into the heart (Mk. cLkovuv Kal o-uvic(«. is designed to teach in short. Heb. . It might require further reflection. but.'s report the disciples do not even ask an explanation. more than the majority were capable of. but it never ripens. as already remarked. while going into details as to the various persons and things mentioned in the parable and their import. . not to speak of : : the Twelve. that might go without saying. so that that g^ven comes on us as a surprise (Holtz. forth fruit such as is desired ripe. i Sc iii. eudus CTKafSaXiJcTai.). H. * ^BD. xii. 19. oot6s cotik 6 tok X<5yoK 23. connected with 8t)Xos in origin and meaning. specially important. irpoaKaipos r r ion' Heb. and signifying that the thing siveness. but only in Lk. cnrapcis. The specific feature of the fourth and alone satisfactory type is not brought out either in Mt.) or 8 |i€v. Ver. (?)• q here and in Lk- 15- Acts zui. aa 3 Cor. ^BCLAi have (Tvvicis in Ka\i\v yijv instead of the reading in T. and that. Ss 8t| Stj occurs here for the first time in Mt. ii. o Lk. to comprehend the reasons of failure. : RATA MATGAION Iv. ' St) Kapirot^opci. Kal ttoici 6* |xck iKaT6y. etc. etc. a "good and honest. Opinion very much divided." heart. . Vide below. or of course. observe. 8. Weiss) sense the same. or in Mk.

aorist used proleptically the future cf. Jesus did not give an abstract definition of the Fatherhood of God. without mixture of other seeds. irap^OT)Kcv. (Vide Holtz.. iv. failure due to the spiritual condition of hearers ? That is how we Westerns. (nrcipoi'Ti ^ " / CK / iq r 199 again ver. Kal diTTjXOcv. — The is superficial. in has some elements common This parable with that Mk. 39). the lesson May q..H. natural in a popular style. when all the invited are represented as refusing to come to the feast (Lk. The Orientals conveyed the general through concrete particulars. 17. 'fifiOicjOt] tuv oupavwi' • dt'Opuiro) KaXoc a-n'^pp. 1888. again in ver. his enemy. But the question may be asked in every case What was the genesis of the parable ? How did it V. on that view. usually of food. and of various classes of hearers to different kinds of soil ? In that case the " allegorical " interpretation is simply an analysis of the parable into its genetic elements. "AXXtjc |3a(riXcia * EYArrEAION -irapajSoXf)!' irapi9i\K€v outois. TJXOek' auToo 6 * Mk. iv ra KaOcvSeiv = during the night. A few scattered stalks might spring up in a natural way. 24. in my opinion. for the experience of a man who. deliberately sowed over the wheat seed as thickly as if no other seed were there.-Evang. Think of a Judas among the Twelve. and (2) there were beginnings of the evil described even in Christ's lifetime. several cursives have the compound circtnrcipcv (Tisch. whence the notion of many one of the two has been formed from the other. letting him remain among the disciples till the last crisis. vii.. " to likened to a man. 24-30. as it is. H. 31. a. I think intrinsically likely. I should say. but whence so many ? cir^cnrcipcv.21—25. C. Kttl ^i^dfia ded (ji^aoc tou airoo. W. That Jesus talked to His disciples about the various sorts of hearers. put into the mouth of Jesus ? because (i) it is too original and wise. but introduced to correspond with the interpretation (ver. in The Tares." Jesus did not mean to suggest that He was a physician but only to hint the special claims of a class on His attention. and the great abundance of bad men in a holy society. . iv. here of parable as a mental entertainment. good.g. 1 Cor. avOputrw. Theologie. their spiritual state. i. xiv. 347) thinks this feature no part of the original parable. which. especially by Weiss. — . As to which is critics that the original. not built up of likenesses spontaneously suggesting themselves now and then of Himself to a sower. whom Jesus treated on the principle laid down in the parable." which might grow then as now from seed lying dormant in the ground. the Sower not be an exception ? That it is has been ably argued by Peine in yahrbuckerfur Prot. The appearance of the "tares" might be made a preternatural phenomenon out of regard to the perfect purity of the seed. Ver. Deut. 6 IxBpo. Sower describes The past experiences the Tares is prophetic But may of a future state of things.^ iv tw s dypw auTou exOpos f 1 25. aorist because the seed had been sovm when the event of the parable took place. Ver. 16-24). genuine.g. 25. no enemy being needed to account for the appearance of the " tares. exclusion of so-called (4) allegorising interpretation may be carried to a pedantic extreme in connection with all the parables. opinion is much divided. used with reference to laws in Ex. iv 8e co-iretpc * tw KaOeu'Scif tous dvOpcjirous. inexactly. : The resemblance entirely different." etc. xxi.. It is another question wheAer His interpretation has been exactly reproduced by any of the . but . : : Was It may have been his presence among the Twelve that suggested the parable.) Both. He defined it by the connections in which He used the title Father. 26-29. probability. . apostolic times it not be a creation No. put it. in our abstract generalising way. 28. ^BMXAni it. vii. 24.. vii. Thus we are told that in the saying " the whole need not a physician. ? in Christ's it mind ? The Sower. Vv.).oib>0T]. Weiss (Matt. 44. through the details the preaching of the kingdom not always successful. and what they resembled. KaXov.— o-ireCpavri. — b>p.. sometimes they have to depart from them to make the parable answer to the spiritual fact e. indeed. have <nreipavTU ' BJ>^b vg. \4y<itv. have more than the merely descriptive value assigned to them by Weiss. Eastern fashion. Christ's parables usually comply with the requirements of natural : — for — — — Synoptists. (5) As to missing the main lesson amid details is it not rather given. ^ grow t.

Tjoriv * * out« (Tisch. with appeal to Kiihner on verbs with double accusatives. apparently part of a 10). 13. with o-vvayaycTc — ^i^avia = bastard wheat. the ear branching out with grains on each twig (Koetsveld.— — 200 t KATA MATGAION 26. .: the surprise of the workpeople arises from the extent of the wild growth. perhaps a Semitic word. CIS 1 TTJV* dTToOl^KT]!' flOU. 29. * CIS ^ omitted in LXA and bracketed in W. is not necessary before a noun of same meaning with the verb.xv.). . The tares were all over the field. or.H.4. for now the wheat is ripe. ^i^ai'ia. in ^BC." in which he includes " den ov. the risk is that wheat and iroTe "tares" may be uprooted together. — T^Tc not distinguishable in the blade. BD T« have cus. 31-35. lolium Umulentum. 30. ig. ^D have Xry. 18.' 6^£is ovv direXOorres o-uXXElufxef auTdi.) and BC have avT«* Xeyowaiv for ciirov avTM (T. etc. » ^. synagogue discourse. '*eKpi^w(rr)Tc afjia auTois TOf (rlrov. 27. emphatic Ver. and ii. luXXelaTC irp&iTOK tA ^i^dfia. Wanderungen. On this word vide Bos. iv. au dypi^. and Furrer. V. xiii. 18-21 (both) Mk. ifi\i<rrnaev 6 \6fnos. and Klotz." for good reason. which could not be explained by bad seed (with so careful a master) or natural growth out of an unclean soil. Wanderungen. Devar. This parable embodies the great principle of bad men being tolerated for the sake of the good. darnel.H. XU. : two already considered. Sinai and Palestine. . Lex. xal Kapirdc iirolr\ae. order of procedure immaterial. adopt.% . |jliilaconic " no. including the Baptist. with dative (ovtoIs) but not a pre. Fritzsche thinks the expression without preposition more elegant.. putting oxpt and (icxpi in margin. 'ExOpos avQpia- TouTO 01 8e SouXoi elitav aoTw. OTC Se ^ XIII.'i. to in T. Vv. and is done still {vide Stanley. '* men. women and children were 293 in many fields engaged in pulling up the weeds. It relegates to the Sco-fias. iv. : omitted in some MSS.R. B has (Tvvayere (W.' ^<J)t]. V. 27» -irpoaeXOoi/Tcs Sc 01 SoCXoi tou oiKoSeairoTou et-iroi' auTu. Meyer also omits.. (J^LX) is wanting in J^bBCD al. dp. the els. 17..ou • Kal ^i* tu ^ Kaipw tou dEpio-fioG epw y here and in ver. p. Ver. 'O 8c €<|)T] auTOis. Another name for the plant in Greek is olpa (Suidas. common in Palestine (Furrer. boih wheat and tares might be pulled up together. having a firm hold of the soil. The Mustard Seed and the Leaven (Lk. which (in W. p. p. 28. 3a Tois ^6epioTais. t^tc ccjxIkt) ix. Ellip. the full phrase is a|jia vvv " at the same time with. 293). — end the judgment which the contemporaries of Jesus. Mk.). omits SovXot (W. Ver. ttntd^o. 463." The * B art. ajxa. Graec. then easily so by the form. M. 97. ouxi KaXoK oir^pfia eo-iretpas iv tu ex^i Tol^ ^i^df la eiroiTjacK.R. i^CL) is omitted in most uncials. predicting great extensive and intensive development of the Kingdom of God from Luke's narrative (xiii. It is intrinsically probable that Jesus in all His addresses . 30. in margin).. 9i\tx. 6. A couplet of . deliberative subjunctive in ist person with OcXcis. Si^aaTc els — — . owx^ k. 'O Se Ou • )ii]TroT€ auXX^yorrcs tA n Ch. Kupie. The servants propose to do what was ordinarily done. 2nd person no iva used in such case (Burton. 27. The roots being intertwined.(t>6Tepa fi^XP^ * TOU 9epiap.H. § 171). not till it reached the ear. Lolch "). IwXXe'lare irpwTov before or after cutting down the crop ? Not said : — : which. lude 12. *2. <n»XX«|wn«v. brief parables of brighter tone than the — ." as in i Thess. 426. De Gelijk. £4>avri : — position. and T. expected at the beginning of the Messianic kingdom (Weiss-Meyer). Kai Tct ^i^dfia. 30-32 (Mustard Seed)).). Kal SiiaoTe auTd w here and els ® * Seo-fias irpos to KaTaKaucrai auTa • tok 8c citoi' auf aydycTe ^ in Exod. TTiJOci' oiji' "iros 28. 25). p. Ver.H. iv. Jas. Ver. a4>6TE aui'ttu^dt'eaOai Lk. xvii. Heb. 10. 26. ex^P*' *»'•= *" inference from the state of the field fact not otherwise or previously known.

r ' Tols xXaSois auToG. not less perhaps than all the seeds in the world. 9. pinQkv 8id ToG Trpo<|>T]Too. hid by the process of kneading. KaTaaKTjvovv (cf. Kttl X'^P^^ irapaPoXTis ook^ eXdXei auTOis * 35.) 12). KOTa<rKT]voiv in BD. : The mustard plant is after from o-^vairi. XVI." KaraaKtik'oGK ^ ck word). 33. 32. eKeKpu«j»6»' €is dXcupoo adra „ . ^aalXela twi' oupavuv ' • kokkw oriKCiTrews. SeVSpoF. ottcjs irXTjpuSfj to Lk. late for vdirv in Attic. 34. Ver. iv. 34). to make nests (Erasmus). — wo-TC here indicates at once tendency and to result. 26 Tpia. |jici(ov twv Xaxdvuv. to which some have thought the parable SivSpov. al. Both these parables show how thoroughly Jesus was aware that great things grow from minute beginnings.^ 31. fieiJoK Tuv ' XaxaKwv ^- ^^^Cor. 20). "AXXi^i' irapapoXyji' cXdXTjCTCC auTois.. greater than (all) the herbs. ep6u|0jJiai KCKpujiflCKa diro KaTapo\T]S KOOTJXOU. XIV.H. Weiss suggests that the in the synagogue and to the people used more or less the parabolic method.ov. V. kuI yiVerai <nrcpfi(£TUi' oTa>' Be au|irj0^. called Salvadora Persica. — He spoken it in America. ^ c i Cor. IV. TaoTtt iruKTa eXaXTjo-ev 6 'ItivoGs iv irapa^oXais rots ©xXois. W. and gives a very modest idea of the growth of the kingdom. a little leaven ! Vv. v. which Phryn. 6. tard tree. o (iiKporepoK eoTi trdrrcDC rSiv tori. p.H. Syr. frill grown Instead of that a mustard seed. omission in B is an oversight. " "• o^Scv in ^BCA ovk in Mk. Karao-Kijvuo-eis. Tcpov. 34. 32). But it serves admirably to express the thought of a grov^^th beyond expectation. and Cur. The comparison implies that it too is There would be no point in an herb. viii. (proverbially). v. ''AKoifw iv {JLOU irapa^oXais to orofjia Cor. 50).. from the current one of a glorious. brought in here apparently because the evangelist has — — : ! . neuter. not in nature but in reiers. Xe'yorros. ^ "• i^H^Rom. of «nr€pp. 31. Sin.c56ti (jv. 6|toia . Mark refers only to the possibility (iv. Gal. How different His idea of the coming of the kingdom. An American correspondent sent me a sample of the seeds of the cotton tree. 5w|ti]. recommends to be used instead (Lobeck. community. The birds haunted the plant make Iv^KpviJKv. . mighty empire coming suddenly. 32. like in respect of pervasive influence. notnidulari. masculine. hence here in T.dTci)v. b same use of word in ver. by attraction instead of 8v in agree|itKp<Sment with KtiKKc^. which he thinks Christ would have made the basis of His parable had 288). 33. So Tisch. y Mk. ' "^ ' ^ Ch. large enough that possible. avTois. as in A.1 26—35' 3I. fiore eXOeti' rd TrcTeiKa tou oupaj-oG. B (and ^b) omits Koa-\i. To this extent it may be literally true that " without a parable spake He not unto a tree or shrub.^^-15i 6.34» 35 contain a reflection more suitable lor the close of the collection of parables in this chapter. bracket.2"'0|Jioia Tcic oupai'oir ' ^ufiT). —Ver. etos ou ~ ' " c1Cuu. 221). referring to an actual past occurrence. p. - D. Jesus had the courage to use it as an emblem of the best thing in the world. on the greatly increased growth attained by a plant springing from a single seed with plenty of room all round it (De — of humble size. Tjc ecrrli/ r\ PaaiXcia ^Xa^oGaa yoi^ oXov. ews ov ISv|Aw9t) lus with the indicative.."AX\tjk TTopaPoXTiK }\ EYArrEAION irap^dtjKei' aurois. 20 " 'Oi^oia efftii' « X^y*"'» ^'^JJ. w fieV ical ' Xafiuiv afOpwiros ^^^ ?^*^^\-j coTTCipcj' iv Tw dypw auToG • 32. W. v." like — them " (ver. Who would expect so tiny a seed to produce such a large herb. ll'. size an excusable exaggeration in a Koetsveld remarks popular discourse.R. the Kingdom of God coming into the heart of the individual and the all — . — Gelijk. Acts ij. 6. the statement that a plant of the nature of a tree grew to be greater than all This excludes the musgarden herbs. In Rabbinical theology leaven was used as an emblem of evil desire (Weber. but to " lodge. civdircws o. omit cX. a monster in the garden ? Ver. . 2. and it actually happened.

for free 3?"'Iin Jn Ps. 2. etc. <n)fjia(vci. epexegetical. this one was sure to be the subject of conversaIt is more abstruse than the Sower. and so separate. 20. <rvvTc\eiti •7rovT)pov. the fact it points to more mysterious. coarse meaning used in softened sense in Hellenistic Greek. 31. 26. xviii.6s Kai 6 * t^BD omit o I. Ver. practice. 42. 6 <rir<ipcDV identified here with the Son of man (not so in interpretation of Sower). if this remark apply to Christ's popular preaching generally. talk between Jesus and the Twelve as to the meaning of His parables. Interpretation of the Tares. tion. Chief value of this citation a sign that the parabolic 2). vii. xiv. The interpretation given may of course be very freely re^pdo-ov (BioMTproduced. pointing to a regular cXdXci. Not in Apostolic Document style that of evangelist . viii. iz. 3. 35. where for iroi. xxiv.a. tA 'ffKdv'8aXa Kal tous iroioGcTas auToi^S CIS Ttjt' dKop. Ver. the devil)." f 4 1. dirooreXci 6 U169 toC dcOpuirou Ch. 33-34)Ver. aoTOis. woTTcp oCv rrj CTuXXeycTai Ta ^i^dcia. b^BD omit which h^BD omit tovtov. 49. was sufficiently outstanding to call for recognition in this way. Has dvo|t(av here the technical sense of religious libertinism. 8ta(rd<|>. TOUs dyyAous auTOu. 38.ai in Sept. xxiv. but quite possibly as a This and poetic suggestion. X^y€i. iroiovvrasT. 37. x'^P^^ irapaPoX-qs. TiSrc d^tels tous o)(Xous. held to be inappropriate: — = — — . 15 observe the unceremonious style of the request.^ d 37. o-7repp. o^XX^^o^'O'iv. ouroi cictiv' " iiaiv 01 • phrase in olol Tf]s PacriXeias Ch. i. 15 ^ Kdnivow toG TTupos CKci corai 6 KXau6p. 23. etc. Ver. . Hesychius gives as equivalents for a. are only a small selection from a large number. iz. Kal PaXouat»' g Rev. Ver. — clause. — — : : . translation cpcv|o)i.. 13. then the parables reported. bearing strong. imperfect. xxiv. misses the point of the teaching . xix.. — KATA MATGAION 36. 31. cf. e ver. in a similar reflection is attached to the parable of the mustard seed (iv.cvoi.<|>Tj«rov : <|>pd^ci. ' ^B have Siao-a<|>Tj<rov. . or the general sense of moral transgression ? Assuming the former alternative. the end of the world Gospel. tA 8e ^i^di'id 01 ulol tou Trovi^poG ' 39. — stronger expression. 15. ' » ^BD omit avTois. not the word this time. 2. etc. 40. second from Hebrew. 5 make clear. 41. indicative of intimate familiar relations. a — Sept. 23 7. i. X^y*''''''*?) ^K^** Trapa^oXTjf twi' ^i^afiut' tou dypoC. like His healing ministry. chap. xxviii. from Mt.iai'. rov.-Evang. suggested by irapa^oXaig in : : ^B) again in xv.— Ver. 39. not introducing a distinct class. Kal o-uXXe^ouo'U' ck ttjs PaatXcias auToG irAyrra ttji' • Rom.(av cf.. dvop. p. Ver. Ixxviii. * ffui'Tc'Xcia TOU * aiuf^s coTic • 01 8e flepioral dyYcXoi ciaif irupl 40. but the children of the kingdom. But if there was any private 351). — — : — : . parable —so Weiss (Matt. the following verses enlarge on the final diroo-TtXei separation. * ^pacrov probably comes from xv. 42. ra o-KavSaXa abstract for concrete those who create stumbling blocks for others. some critics find here the sign-mark of a later apostolic time. Kal KaTaKaiCTai outws corai ec ffuiTcXcia TOU aiwKOS toutou. Vv. and certainly not Perhaps not as a dogmatic original. 34. Ji^dvia. 'O Se aTroKpiOels ciTref • " 'O cnreipuv to KaXoc • OTT^pfjia corlc 6 uios toG di'Spwiroo same 12. interpretation. — — . etc. Ver. 2. phrase aLoivo«. eKet fo-Tai. (not in Ixxviii. its lesson deeper. this Ocpiorai peculiar to Weiss thinks this borrowed ayycXot. in Deut. not merely to a single occasion. Prophetic citation from Ps. SciKvvci. like the healing narratives. 38. . under his eye Mark's narrative. the wide world universalism. stands cpya((Sp. irpotrfjXOoc TJXOev' — — XIIK * 202 els T^y oiKiaK 6 'lijaoOs^ "'t>p<iCTOi'^ koI ''"^*' auTw 01 fxafirjTal auToG. Cb. a poetic word in Ionic form. a fragrant posy culled from the flower garden of Christ's parabolic wisdom. Kal. 36-43. collect. Heb. xvi. 6 KooTfAos. but explaining how the class already referred to cause others to stumble. the sons of the wicked one (toO Ver. 6 8c dypos eoTic 6 Koajios • to 8e KaXoK cnr^pfia. : of Jesus.. 36. 6 8c ex6po9 6 OTTCipas auTd effTtf 6 8idPoXos 6 8€ Ocptajios .

iv Tji EYArrEAION 43. 7 (compar. rj EKXap. teal itdvTa oaa e^ci irwXei. Ip. The treasure in the field was a sure gain for the finder.). — — and pure such rare. irwXei before "iravra in Ji^D. which seems to be in view an expressive word suggestive of the sun . e|Ji7r6pb).. and that the man who understands this will with pleasure part with all. Ver. 46. In the former of . in sympathy with the finder. Ver.' Kal dyopd^ci TOf dypoi' iKelvov. — — ircirpaKc points to — a momentous step. T<StC 01 SlKCUOl auTOJi'. 45. 44- ndXii' ^ ^f ofxoia iarXv o** ^aaiXeia twc oupaKwc . 33). mixture of good and evil men in this world hides the characters of both. in • BD omit iraXir. xxvi.v|/OU(Tll' 6 T)XlO$ ^aaiXcia tou irarpos *' 'O t)^(t>v utra dicoucii' ^ dKou^Tca. as many take the genitive. but met with now and then. ^pUyfiOS TWI/ 6Z6vT(i)y. eKpv\j/c. well -shaped. xii. not by fire (Holtz. 43. xii. § 88). Ver. four vira-yei. natural in a poor peasant . iv t« ayptf : the article may be generic. vi. — he hid orxce more what some one had previously hidden the occurrence . A pearl merchant who went to the pearl fisheries to purchase from the divers. like all the others. the Treasure. 44-53. ft.). t^BDL verss. 36 would seem to imply that the evangelist took these as spoken only iroLvTa 07a: all required for the purpose. dnjaaupu ttjs KeKpup. has not as much with him as will purchase it on the spot. which. and with lively historic presents effect. ' B gives iruXci the same position but omits vavra. ^apyapiTas John 1 46. ircirpaKc. So W. 3. 2. Three other parables: Vv. y\y6pa<r€v. a perfect with an aorist.H. The Treasure and the Pearl would have their fitting place in a discourse on the kingdom of God as the highest good (Mt. i. Kal T)Yopaae>' Pet. A great venture. Ver. etc. Net is closely connected in meaning with the Tares. '' " ndXic ofioia icrrly tj fSacriXeia • Twk oupacuf drQpwTrw ^ ci/a ' * h Rev. taken once for all and having lasting effects. (Tisch. After the sale of his stock the purchase of the one pearl was a matter of course. jTjToufTi KaXou. i rvii. sees it is worth his whole stock. agrees to buy and .H.. treasure being a pure gain. evpwv S< in W. k. in his joy rather than through joy over it. cKXa|xt|/ov(ri.H. .: vide Dan.) one after the other. as distinct from other places where treasures were deposited. common. ^ ^B omit aicovciv. — d-n-EXOwv: he is taken by surprise. Ver. H. — 203 (JJS 35—46. not less so the cunning procedure it inspired ethically questionable. It helps to show the reasonableness of the sacrifice for the kingdom Jesus : — demanded. yet the all might not amount to much the field minus the treasure Worth while. 7 {fiapvT.. but it remained to be seen what the pearl merchant would get for his one pearl. C/.ir^p(p I. Ch. os cupui' iroXd- Tip-oc (jtapYapiTi]!'. a connoisseur in valuables.— . a risky speculation. W. iroXvTiftov: precious because exceptionally large.) appropriate in viii. (4 tiroes). dTrcXOwi' Tre'iTpaKe irdi'Ta auTOi'. here. The point of the parable is that the kingdom of heaven outweighs in value all else. indicating the field as the locality. 12. x<^P<^< avTov. 44. Not to be disposed of by saying that the former is an " aoristic " perfect (Burton. but parables are not responsible for the morality of their irwXel. where the doom is rejection into the outer darkness. the Pearl. of course selecting the best. would gain greatly if seen in their original setting. promises to return with the price. But as the to disciples in the house. the Net. it is more probable that these parables also are extracts from popular discourses of Jesus. with iravTa * * margin t^B omit. relegate to margin. oo-a €i\i. The joy though both are admissible. characters. because the gnashing of teeth is caused by cold.[JieVb) Tw ^Ypw> cupw*' acOpwTros €Kpu«|>c Kai diro XapSs auTOo uirdYCi. the of no great value. The emerging from behind a cloud. the occasions various. 45. C.

KaQl(Tavr€<i. have ttj ^ ^BCZ b^BD omit Xryci. spiritual class he represents are seekers after God and wisdom. except perhaps by or Christian tradition. 21. however.a6T)Tcv6cis c. Ku'pie. In Wendt's words " One remains in possession of the old. Conclusion of the parabolic Ver.R. Kadiaavrcs sorts of people. No pearl merchant was also a finder. the sure way to find. 34 1 cm rbv aiyiaXof. produces only the old and stale. can here see how he handles his source substantial reproduction of the contents. teaches that that knowledge may be usefully unfted with discipleship in the lore of the kingdom. The reading in T."^ irds 52. 49. " ndXic CIS 6p.aTeus eoTii' *" fiafir]- below and atCh. xal Ik Trarr&s y^»'ous orui-aYOYOUOT] k here only. 19. 204 i KATA MATGAION 47. and connected by him with the parabolic teaching of Jesus. cf.— . 349). " Aid touto tui' Ypap. The mere scribe. ayyeXoi.)." 51. 53-58. No attempt should be made to connect with the foregoing passage. tain the interpretation in much the same terms as in 41. no slavish copying of style. <rvvcXc|av equally a matter of course a thing to be done deliberately.^ "2u>'i]KaTe TaoTtt Trd>'Ta. iv. vide on iv. T. ou o. i^k. crayy\}rQ. OOTIS CKpdXXei CK 0T)(TaupOU aUTOU KClfd Kai -raXaid. finders of the Kingdom of God. Acts xiv. In this connection Katva kui iraXaid of course points to the use of the old familiar facts of nature to illustrate newly revealed But we should truths of the kingdom. of a good beyond their Such seekers. the idea expressed by Yp^l^paTcvs It naturally points does not get justice. a matter of course. 16-30). 48. 21. toOs irorr]pous ex rfji' jxccrou • twk SiKaiui^. 47-50. PowriXeieu ^ these two parables the Kingdom of connection. are on hope. The disciple of the kingdom. yet knows how to value all old spiritual treasures of : Wendt has — — Holy Writ Vv. the — next deducting what had previously been reported in Mt. 4). viii. I. 0T€ e-n'XT]pw9i]. 51.^ X. recognised as of permanent value. ii. EKpdXXei points to firee distribution of treasures by the householder. is a grammatical correction. a pretty sure sign that our evangelist has Mk. . vide on vii. as . the time for sorting is at the end of the fishing. pia9T|Tcvckv is here used transitively as in xxviii. Vv. keeping in mind Matthew's Heaven appears as the object of a glad habit of grouping all the more that. ical tA 8e aairpd • e|c* here only (. yet is not restricted to it.p. not bind ourselves too strictly to this though — '. Rabbinical in spirit. vide I. (chaps. accidental finding of a sure possession in the latter as the object of systematic quest and venturesome faith. Kai ^aXouaiK aurous cts KXauOjxos K^fiicoc tou irupos ckci Iotcu 6 note Kai 6 ^puyfios twc oSorrui'. Acyei auTois 6 Ntictoos. 17. t. 57. 1-6. We — . vuyikeiaf ra xaXd els 'dyyeio. 50 conaaTTpa. ouTus lorai ^k Tg o-urrcXeia tou aiuKOS Kai dtftopioGo'i e^cXcuo-orrai Ch. Lk.ayyeloy. portant logion of Jesus preserved by Matthew only. under his eye. "Nai.. to acquaintance with the O. editorial discretion in reporting certain details. xzviL TCoOels paaiXciac' oupacuf TOU ofioi<Ss dcdpcSirca OlKoScOTrOTJJ. one would set out on a journey to seek The one unique pearl (Koetsveld). p. There is a time for everything. The Net. 52 contains an imcollection. like the Master. The difference between seekers and The finders must not be exaggerated.oia c<rriK ff ^aaiXeia ruv ofipacwi' aayi^n] P\t]06io-t) TTji' Qd\a<T<Tay.. XIII. He gives out new or old according to the nature of the article. ^ dt'a^i^do-arres Vide Lk. and ix. 42." tn viiU Aeyoucru' auToi. 52. vi. is always fresh-minded. and combined with p. here odIt in N. Vv. epaXok 01 • 49.T. not intended but inevitable . XXV. ^ ayyt) in ^BC. 'O Se €is ciircK TTjk auTois. of which the sitting attitude is an emblem. critical 50. also Kvpie after vai. Vv. CK "jravTos ytvovs frvv. . Visit to Nasareth (Mk. In Mk. but along with it possesses a precious new element ". — : pointed out (Die Lehre Jesit. 48. this is section after the parables. large movements influence all Ver.

Hellenistic. This section might with advantage have been given as a short chapter by itself.-vii. iSiSaaKei/ D fi€Ti)p€»' iKtlQev 54. Lie. -q i>. 58. in (xix. 56. aoToIs. 'O 8c tyj 'ItjctoGs eiirei' " OoK l<m irpo<}>ir]Tifis " aTifws. . Ztrre. In this section (1-12) 16). Kal eo-KaKSaXij^ovTO CK auTw. TTjK dTrKTriaf 1 eKirX-qo-or. In the foregoing part of this Gospel the parallelism between it and Mark has been disturbed by the desire of the evangelist to draw largely on his other source. And this other man just come back is simply another of the family whose name happens to be Why should He be so different ? an absurdity. which Tisch. Ver. . 4. xii. iv. chaps. ix. to show how well they works the . Kal iyivero ore ereXeae*' 6 'lijaous ras irapapoXas "iraTpiSa auTou. schools. singular. Chapter : Baptist infinitive : tendency and actual : result.4. laKoj^os. One syn. and a new start made with the feeding of the thousands which forms the first of a series of narratives together giving the story of the later Galilean ministry (xiv. oik. 13 XX. which our evangelist avoids the son of the carpenter. 14-29. family. avrov. one only in the town. John 24. Kal at d8eX<)>al auTou ouxl iracrai irpos toutw ^ TaOxa trdvTa. Matthew changes this into a statement that He did few miracles there because of their unbelief. T€KTOvos vl«Js Mk. . XI. (rvvaY«*Y^.r]rt]p 55. EYArrEAION 205 rauTos. 01 d8eX<j)ol auTou X^y"'*^ Mapidji. Iip. 1-12. 56 and native town. not plural.. 7-13) already related in Mt.— 47—58- — . €i (itj ci* irarpiSi aurou o Mk. wisdom and marvellous . 18- extraordinary in Jesus. the story of the fate of the Baptist being there the next after the section in Vv. and BD omit avrov. and introduce teaching materials bearing on all the topics suggested in his introductory sketch of Christ's early Galilean ministry: Didache. not Jewish merely. — Death of the XIV. Iw<rr]s is probably from Mk. Mapiap. margin. social environment. ^Z W. i). 44. . as in Vulgate. 53." auTwv. — . 54. Proverb. with = — including one from Pindar about fame fading at the family hearth (Olymp. 14. intransitive to remove one: = self . apostolic mission (iv. . aoToo 'liKW^os Kal 'iwaTJs^ Kal iQfias Kal 'louSas iroOev GUI' . Ode. Matthew follows Mark's order. the Logia. . 33. 3). (x. know the whole family. L omits Kai «v t. Kai "floGec toutu ao^ia aun] koI at ouyji. TTJ (Tuvayuyr^ t] aurOiv. wore cKirXT^TTcadai * auT0U9 Succijicis . Kal ouk €iroiT|{r€»' CK€t Sui'cifieis iroXXds. Lk. has 6 TEKTwv. etc.oux oiiTos eoTiK 6 Tou Wktoj'os 016s. Mark states that Jesus was not able to work miracles in Nazareth. 58. ^ ^ in BC2. well known to all. I Cor. iv.ui' cio-i . They were astonished and said Tr<$Ocv Svvdficis. an offence. vi. : — Death of the Baptist (Mk. Ver. 1. and that He marvelled at their unbelief. — . Ver. but common property of mankind examples from Greek and Roman authors in Pricaeus and Wetstein. 43. 7-9). and passes over the marvelling in silence. Whence ? that is the question not from parentage. . Kal CK 8id TT] oiKt'a auTou. vi. in have 1810 before irarptSi. iv. index of size of town (Grotius). Nazareans is satisfactory evidence of the Jesus. Commencement of a New Division of the Evangelic History. v. reference to mother and brethren. 55. Kal ekOiiv els tth' here and ia Mlcvi. 57. Here also editorial Ver. 16. Ver. 1-12) may be relegated. of former they had had a sample. of the latter they had heard. Kal Heb. place the general category of prevalent unreceptivity to which also the following narrative (xiv. 57. vi. auTou9 iv X^yeii'. classics fatherHere and in parallels evidently land. Indeed from this point onwards 5-15). or mere surroundings and circumstances of any kind. not to be The irritation of the commonplace. home. discretion is at work.H. 6 T. Vide ver. . in l<i><ni<j> most uncials. 10 xii. one of Matthew's words iraTptSa. |Ji£TT)p€v in classics to transfer something from one place to another. iv. It is excepting the mission of the Twelve (Mk. Lk. 53. names given of mother and brothers. Matthew still has his eye on Mark.

i.). Herod Antipas. Kal Sid. not The king the menials in the palace..d. 7-9). and BZ chap. the courtiers. 5. and imprisoned John through his agents. 359). vast and vague in the king's imagination. ° BaTTTiaTT]? I auTOS ^ TJyc'pOr] twv 'O t'CKpuc. . cv cKciv(|> t^ Katpu. though is BD spell as in it T. etc. 1. with force of a pluperfect. king of Arabia. though doubtless Christians would naturally read with interest the fate of the forerunner of The king has the Baptist on the Jesus. i^o^y\ii\ r.. fact referred to already in iv. and it may be the evangelist is thinking generally of a time of prevailing in'HpuSY). chap. 19.). No injustice is done Herod here by ascribing to him a wish to get rid of John. yvvatKa vide on Mk. So Tisch. 1 TCTpaapxris in t^CZA. ii.R. stitious idea of a man who has murder on his conscience. Ver. o)^\oi'. • Kal el-n-e toI? T7aicrif auTOo.xi diTOKTeii'ai. oLkoyjv. last even into the royal palace. 21). Mt. i. : that for one . X.xx1. 'en €Kei»'w Tw Katpw r\Kouaev 'HpuSrjs o T6Tptip)(tJS t^k ttKOTjf 'lT|aoG. great men in their way. susceptibility (Weiss-Meyer). connects with return of Twelve from their mission (vi. * KATA MAXeAION XIV. I ' eSTioref aoTOk^ Kal l6eT0 cc tou d8eX4)ou o-oi 4>oXaKT]. may have jf^B read ev (|>v\aKT) aTreOcTo. xi. 12. cXcyc yap & I. ^ 46. chap. the religious world recall him at once to mind. xi. — : — : : — : . which been imported. ordinarily. odd enough. 2. and as marriage within prohibited degrees (Lev. . touto at toi' ^.. oti us ° Trpo<j>i^TT)i' 29.a TovTo the living John did no miracles. apparently with immediately preceding section. Sia 'HpcoSidSa a woman here. whence adopt. iii. 16.H.: . as so often. ^ ^ * an undisputed reading in Mk. G«icA. 2. 4. disturb the order by grouping incidents illustrating the healing ministry. the powers of the invisible world. xxii. — — : .»» eU<TTl t6»' ^eveij' ^auTiiK. viii. Ver. Kal QeKuv aCiTov ouTot' ei)(oi'. e4>oPY]0T] . : : — : irdaiov).. § 29). iraio-iv avTov not his sons. tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea for many years (4-39 a.— 206 bCh xx^ H^"^"'Mk°^vi '-'*•• — . vi. 3. 29. but better than Pharisaic one begotten of malevolence both witnessing to the extraordinary in Christ's career. married to the daughter of Aretas. not in solemn conclave. I. and place ovt« after W. chap. Ver. '|cj(i^i. and love of splendour in building and otherwise. i^D omit art. 2. which in itself has no special connection with the evangelic history. . before I. It is this theory we have to thank for the narrative following.26. ambition. xviii. like his father Herod the Great in cunning. not he does the mighty works. « 4. popular preaching (iv. Mk. Ver. Chaps.«5 4 "OuK ^ eCh. Oc'Xwv of. 23). It is John 1 he (avrhi) is risen theory begotten of remorse. whereof the new city of Tiberias was a monument (SchUrer. seized. Mark gives a fuller statement as to Herod's feelings towards John. iii. Compare the relations of Alcibiades to Socrates as described by Plato (Ivp.^- Sut'dfxeis 'ludfi'T)!' "^ CKcpyoOaii' ^r auTw. ovk cIco-tiv doubly unlawful . bound. but the powers (Swvafiets) work in him. and W. 18. Mk. etc." 5. would propound his odd theory in familiar talk. xii. 8(. ix. The progressive imperfect. — : — — . — — XIV. and how that came about must be told to show the psychological It is the supergenesis of the theory. vide iv. cXcye ydp auTw 6 vii. 25. Ver. But the phrase recalls xi. oStos IcTTiv. Moods and Tenses.. previous death. as adultery. xii. yap implies that the following story is introduced to make the king's " Risen " implies theory intelligible. and remarkable occurrences in brain 22). xiii.. 14). I. which Tisch. Baptist (chap. i. but his servants. Pharisees (chap. the cause of the tragedy. 2 here Of course Herod the reason given. where very different matters occupied the attention. XX.H. 6. There are always mixed feelings in such cases. but no saying what a dead one redivivus can do ? Ivtpyovaiv.e. i<^B omit awTov. John had been saying just before he was apprehended (Burton. The fame of Jesus penetrated at 24.3 Sid 'HpuSidSa TTjf yov'aiKa <J>tXiinrou auToO. * I. " Oijtos i<TTiv'l(M>ayyr\s diro 3. Kparijaas." yap 'HptiSrjs Kpan^o-as ^ Ch.

7. obligation to keep a promise previously not found in Attic usage. 46.. YtveOXia being the word for a though grieved he granted the request the grief quite compatible with the birthday feast. more t. Mk. Kal cS(S0t] tw Kopaaiu Kal T]»'€YK£ TTJ fiTjTpl a'jTTjs. for has been substituted as more * ^B have avrov. )3ao-06i(ra ^ oiro rfj? " Aos p. a'irEKc4>dXio'£ Ver. zi.).01. : : . Baptist was at hand.o\oyT)(r€v. wpx'lo'OTo • duyd-nip rfjs f C/.% one expects the genitive absolute as in T. 'HpuS. Horn. eXoTry)0if] ' 6 h Lk. Chrys. therefore that the e. but " brought to this point " urged on. — — . pected. 8e ' to6s opKOus Kal tous aufacaKCijicVous cKcXeoae ' SoOTifai • 10. Loesner. or apparently . 103. on the spot. xl 30. the reading in ov in BD. vi. Ver. also feared God and his conthing It is well science a little. Phil.(Tvv- in ^^^^ ^'"'''^ W.s This implies that the as referring to Herod's birthday. a prophet. 16. The point is that John for the people passed for a prophet.R. ^ao-iXcvs opKovs. 5.1 — 12. vide Lobeck. II. 'yct'co-iwi' — EYArrEAION §€ dyofjieVwf Tco |XE<r(o. ad N. implies a festive utterance once for all of a solemn oath. Ver. 22. V. Cf.vo^ivo\. ^a<7i. Mk. (vi. Ver." as in A. ' ' : — — : — — — — . both words in the sense of a birthday gular in ver.evtj. In classic Greek it means a palace as well as a fortress.). it might never texts. belonged to a class commanding religious respect (so Vide xxi. Lk.R. Ver.. H. seems throughout secondary. ycvco-iois a grammatical correction. confessed by oath word. 221. Y£vco-(oi. avro in Mk. 9. jtivaKi TTjf K6<j>aXT)i' 'iudcKou TOO BaiTTKTTOu. Kypke). think of the anniversary of the accession to the throne = birthday feast was at Machaerus." 4>'no^i>'> " 33 (. where we have yevoitcvTis was an essential part of the request. 207 i^ '6. If not vide Weiss. Phryn. 'HpwSidSos £f wfjioXoyrjo-ei' Kal rjpcae Tw 'HpoSSi) o 7. as if she had been asking a favourite dish (is irepi tivos «8€«r|ioTos StoXeYop. and time must be left for repentance. ^ : . — — . t«^BCDLI several delicate. The account in Matt. e^avTrjs in Mk. vi. as fully described in Mk. plural." 8icl 9.). Gen. which o-«i>|xa is an attempt by i^BZ omit Tov. 2 ' have the dat. -assembly. 27. Alex. p. e. sincites instances from Philo of the use of only by courtesy. truculent wish in ver. It should require a good deal of educating " to bring a young girl to make such a grim request. Kal r\ 7r€p.g Acts xix.9 yf. KOI TTpocTeXOoiTes oi p. wpoPiPoo-Stio-a not " before instructed. 39. be done at all. Meyer. Most commentators take Y«v€<rioi. though w)t. etc. all too clear in meaning. XvirrjOeis BD have and omit 8e.Xcu9. No and yeveo-iois occurring together..-Evang. Iv tw pteo-o). Kypke cites two instances of the rare use of the word wSe here and in the sense of instruction. . ix. aiTi^ffTjTai. . . H Kal 8e 'irpoPi.. resolution of the construction to * * make The reading of the T. participle used concessively.. regarded him as. Observ. on the done at once under the influence of wine and the momentary gratification given literary connection between the two by the voluptuous dance. irii'aKi. Fritzsche. where there was of his mg-n. 29). a feast in honour of the dead on their XvirTjOels birthday. Grotius. T. too 'HpwSou. which just on that account is to be susThe dative of time.a0T]Tal ^ • auTou tjpaf TO 1 aufjia. 8. now. Kal r\vi\Br] KE<j>aXT] auTou em 12. 8. That Mk. : Salome by like profane swearing than deliberate feast. . Ti OvyaT'HP name. cursives have irToi|*a. where the fact is more fully stated. expressive 10. clxov they took John to be. But she had learnt her lesson well.R.g. and asked the Baptist's head. xlviii. 7 spoken in passion. not enough. and Ycvo|*evots for ayoiAEVuv. • i Mk. 9- vi.t|>as dircKe^xxXio-e toc* 'iwdt'rr]!' ck rg (}>uXaKi}. Some. 6... 21.^ Kal I0av|»ai' aoTO Kal €X06»n'es diniYYeiXai' ^BDLZ is T. when lawless men in power fear anyort thing. o9ev jieO' opKou riftipa oiutt] SoCkoi fJiTjTpos eaK^ aoxt)?. «iXOv does not by itself mean to hold in high esteem {in pretio habere. the meaning clear. But cf. given.

" there and then. : = . — Mk. ""Eprjfios 301 Acts xxvii. auTw ^ ire^TJ " oLtto 14. and assigns as motive rest for the missionaries. 18. Ver. — — — iv •r-Xoiu : naturally suggests a place near the sea as starting-point. irTufia carcase. cpi)|t. These phrases have cer- no towns near. But it may be rather intended to indicate in what direction they were going to the eastern side of the lake. i^CZ add which W. c^cXOuv. (vi.). : — tainly more point in Mk. 13. ix. 30-44 . no previous mention 01 8xXoi of the crowds. . Kal eleXOuk' 6 Mrjaous ' ciSe iroXof oxXot'. 33. place margin. If a dTreXdorres €is upa irapTJXOcf dTr6Xu(T0f ^ tous oxXous. daytime (Meyer) is past. now apparently more than ever. there were sick among them who could not. The contrast is between going by sea and going by land. the meaning not clear. II. as referring to already the hour is advanced. iroXccdf. Acts xx. 13. * ' avTois in most uncials avTovs only minusc. itai iiniXayy^^lcrQr] k Mk. Eisner. Kopaaiff. popularity at its height. 14.cvT]s : might mean sunset as in viii. xvi. but not implying that all literally walked. ^p(u|i. from Herod's dangerous neighbourhood might be a joint motive for retirement. in ex*""''''' dTrcXOeif • Sore 1 aicovoros 8« ^BDLZ. Vv." but all points to immediate production of the head on a platter in the banqueting hall before the c8<S0i]. cOcpdircvore Mark gives prominence to the element of instruction . ' » irttoi » .. Ver. To escape from the people always difficult. Weiss. 5. though according to Fourth Gospel about to undergo a speedy decline. ital 9 (same sense). Ver. 13. vi. els *• t. The feeding. Lobeck. deponent passive. xi.a vcKpov. 34) going out of the crowd having arrived on the spot before Him. — — — : KATA MATeAION 'Iy)70u.^nrjs. Mk. from Mk. healing alone mentioned here. I Cor. according to Salmasius cited by Kypke..). Kypke. &\|>ias Ycvop. etc. But against this is the speedy return (ver. . has fjSi] £pas -rroXXTis comparatively uninhabited. Phryn. say. and the report they gave. 34). healing and teaching time (Fritzsche). : — —ivrrXayxvia-ir]. of twenty (Holtz. 'O Be 'Iy]o-ous elirci' auTOis. much used at all a plebeian word. 375.aTa. Vv. Ver. Kal ttKoucras^ 6 'itjaoOs ave)(jupr\<r€V ckciOei' iv irXoiw CIS 6pTJ(AOK T^TTOC j KaT twk ISiaK. —dvex<^p^co'lKci9cv: withdrew from where He was when the report reached Him locality not indicated. takes &pa. 16. and escape . a multitude from which they wished to escape. 15-21. ^esus retires . Lk. dKovcas. I her mother's nature in her the dancing and the cool acceptance of the horrible gift well matched. 10-17). ovv. vi. and no hint that Jesus wished to get away from them looks like a digest of a fuller narrative.* Kal cOepdireuac tous ^dppoSorous auTwj'. gives instances from late authors. and based on the Hebrew idea of the bowels as the seat of compassion used by Symmachus in Hellenistic. Evidently a time of special excitement. The dancing of a mere girl would have been no entertainment to the sensual revellers. Itt auTous. The two events might synchronise. the treat. f\ wpa ^Stj iraptjXOev. . 15. coTiK 6 Toiros. who — : what a nerve the girl must have had . irtE-ji (or -irtSoi).H. Ou xpeiaK fc^JLZ. 'Oij»ias 8e yet'o^. naturally means going forth from His re- — : . C). 12. Earlier writers would say irT«p." rds K(t>|Jias ** dYopdauaik eauTois 16. g. having heard of the fate of John from John's disciples (ver. i^BD omit o I. tjvcyk^ guests gruesome sight ! . Cf. on foot. •cot' ISiav. KOI dKOuaafTCS 01 o)(Xoi iQKoXooGrjaa*' vi. Classical instances in philological commentaries (Wetstein. The treat lay in the indecency. the first of the " two evenings ". feeding of thousands (Mk. 13.— 2o8 Tw Mk. such as that in Mk. — — in ship. not to be a young unmarried taken strictly woman. 12). XIV. ^v€'x6t|. 15. Mark connects the retirement with the return of the Twelve from their mission. but from the nature of the case must mean afternoon from 3 to 6. in this place. translation of Deut xiii. not expressly said Ver. irpo(n]X8ov r\ auTw t]8tj 01 fi. Various suggestions have been made eating time (Grot. with most probability. used absolutely in this sense only in late writers. in t^BZ omit avTov.os. pitied . H. — . 13-21.a6T)Tal ' auTou • ' X^yoKTcs.

ir^rre aprou? Kol 8uo ixWos" -nivre 18. the loaves and fishes. avTovs ^BZ. also. or a religious allegory. that was known to be in that vast He blessed (apTovs) understood. 45-56). Ver. cSukc tois 20. Ver. W. : XP*^*''*' dircXOciv. Ol 8c \iyoua-iv auTw. irX. Ixofi." on which and its bearing on this place vide Schottgen (Hor. X. Exod. not a baseless legend. to have been a care-free company. auTOis o^eis Cl /U/f) EYArrEAlON <j>OYei>'. 8. av^wv Kal ir\'»i0'ova>v avTOiJS) Origen. the character of Jesus appears here in a commanding light. to opos . Each of the Twelve had one." Ver. ox^os. need to go. Five loaves and two fishes.* 19. Of course there was no physical compulsion. but B and several cursives BXZ (i. tive — answering to the Rabbinical i^dp> a — basket of considerable size (" ein grosses Behaltniss.: — "OuK ctirc." Wiinsche). Doubtless this was an excep tionally great gathering. KOI exop''''''^^^ •''**' * n Ch. yet the inference — seems legitimate that oxXos meant gathering. wanting in D the sing. 16. not counting women and children. H.) and Eisner. how we cannot tell. I Cor. xxvi. oxXoi. (laGi^Tals TOUS cipTous. recounting an amazing event. " Bring forth thine hand " (xii. 500Q men. and unwillingness on the part of disciples. irevTaKio^CXiot. ^va^jKoatv a strong word needing an explanation not here given. 33. Kol (i>8e diroXucras in toos * ©xXous. II. k. Tal. xzi. etc. Vv. so frequently occurring in the Gospels. no crisis unmanageable. The return voyage (Mk. 14- Kol •"irpodyciK aoTov els to 23. This helps us to attach some definite meaning to the elastic words. 46 ai. place in margin. — doroXvo-ov though late for the purpose. " Learn the philosophy of the Twelve. Ver. not too late dismiss them forthov cxovciv with. — — : Xapwv. Kol KcXeuo-as Tous oxXoos di'aKXtdTJi'ai cirl too? Kol' XaPuK tou9 aprous koI toos 800 IxOoas. 31 . xiv. Being twelve they had only so much. who in turn gave to the tm \6y<f Kal tjj cvXoyii^ multitude. the rapid. letting to-morrow look after itself. 15.). simply. 32. The story is a fact supported by the testimony of all four evangelists. kot' 1810K Mk. but accus. Ch.y^^r\ ^ ep. 22-36. o Acts xxvi. And they were. ig. all xlix. 1 ou diroXoarj to6s ©xXous. Kal KXdira. lx« very modest supply even for the disciple circle. *r\vdyKaaev 6 'Iyjctous* tous fJia0T)Tds irepoi'. avapX^«|/as. 'O 8c "e'pcTC ouTous diSe. and iroXvs oxXos thousands. irck'TaKitrxiXioi. ets t6^ 3. 15). zxvi. as some think. The word recalls the well-known line of Juvenal (Sat. auTou lois a. participles without copula all leading up to cvXiSyTjaev. what moral even if. 20. ko«^ivovs. briefly. ii.. • Most uncials omit. ii. — Ver. t*5BC have * ciri. Fritzsche objects to special — : 14 . irirrt aprovf k. food. tov xortov ' * BLA2 omit Kau o \. under the influence of Jesus. 21. them hither to me.H. • dfaPX^<{/a$ els tok oiipav6v. condensed central chief action hundreds. retain avrov. narrative. and they readily gave up these " (Chrysos. Gal. eiXoyrio-ev with accusa- — 16. Christ's imperial way in critical situa" Stretch tions often arrests attention. " euXoyijo-c koi ' xXdaa. A Ver. 124) omit to. : = time for sending them away to get . t^epcTc. quorum cophinus foenumque suppellex. X. is in appos. xxvi. yuyaiKSty 22. They seem. 17. 22. happened was that under the influence of Jesus the people present generously made the provisions they had brought with them available for the company at large. etc. Give ye them to eat." 17. 3a. vi."^ X^prous. eis p Ch. 13). x<^p'-^ 21. then dividing them gave them to the disciples. No situation appears to Him No desperate. 14) " Judaeis. Kal ectiayoi' IB 26. 01 8e jxaOrjTal tois oxXoisirdi'Tes. Kol cuO^us TrXoiov. and how they despised food. 18. resources will be forthcoming (cf. cSttKcv. Acts '^"^ ripav to -Trepiao'cuoi' twi' KXao-jiaTwc. 8u8cKa ico4>i»'ous irXiqpeis. KcXcvo-as. ^BCDAI. 26.ci' — wSc fjioi — 209 : 13—23. SwScKa ko<^. with TO irepicraevov t.jSTJi'ai. ot 8c caOionres rjaav acSpcs 6o-el koi iraiSiui'. iii. Ver. supplied in John vi. but there must have been urgency on Christ's part. They took the surplus of the broken pieces to the extent of twelve baskets.

which the undisputed reading in ' ' Mk.m a little touch of sailor superstition natural in the circumstances . 'O 8c ctire^ "'EXe^. John vi. presupposes the impression that they saw something walking on the sea.d cori. in the early 25. tA 8< oiro twi' ' ^h f Ujcmen. signifies not merely in the middle strictly. For p. coO^ws jiyj 8c cXfiXtjao' auTois & 28. even to be rid of the Twelve for a season.. and the night. It need not be again referred to. avi^i\ cU rh Spos. ' '"'^o'-®*' ^^T f\v fico-OK T^s ' jSaaaci^iSfiCKOK Kufidrw OaXdoroTis. etc. morning. But the reading of B.* yip ^Kain-ios * 6 aKC|ios. The evangelist means to represent Jesus as really walking on the sea. 15. 27. emphasis. Ver. not on the land above the sea level (Paulus.H. Ttjs KUKTos diTTiXOe irphs ouTois 6 'lt|<rous. rn? 0aXacra-Y)s in 01 8« jiaO. regarding it as a legend. xvi. ^oPcicrOc. Ver. Vv. p^o-ov. and the destination ? Holtz. and vide Burton. iSov-res a. here. some TT|5 yT)s a-n-eixev. bracketed in after B. citing Furrer in support of the second alternative. the readings in this and the next verse vary between genitive and accusative. 26. » T)X9ev in ^BI Omit o ^ I. 28-33. The sense is much the same. ^BA several cursives have the accus. affording quiet. vide in Mk. Pricaeus gives examples of such use. C. 24.a6T)Tal' OdXao-o-ac ' ^^^. Peter-episode. glad to be alone ic«t' lS(av. itrl t.. In is €vOvs in t^BD here as always in Mk. at the north end. 'AiroKpifie "eapcreiTC ctirc " eifjii. W. xviii. and the solitude (p<5v6)o-is).' Kal dwo Tou ^(S^ou cKpa^ac. here used where optative would be used in classic Greek. eyc5 "'Oti '^ ^dvra<T\t.6yo^ ^f 6o\<£(r<rrjs tjc * 24. ) suggests that the voyage was cither from Bethsaida Julias at the mouth of the upper Jordan to the north-western shore." 29. ^icei." et. ov diroXvo-n. and calm" (Euthy.=3 to 6. . <rc.^ X^yui'. Schenkel).. 27. TcrdpTTj 8c ^uXaK^ eirl the ship). omitted in fc^BD. an adjective agreeing with irXoiov (Winer. and goes without saying when there are winds there will be waves.' ircpiiraTui' ciri ttik ^ Tfjs ^ 26. ^BCDAZ many cursives Art. tjv B. freedom from distraction {rh dircpConrooTov)." Kol KOTapds eX0ei»' ^^ irpo? diro TOU irXoioo 6 ^^ flcTpos irepicirdTTio-ci' ^ cm rd uSara. ci au KAeua-of irp^s <Te IXedi'lO ^irl Td JSara. texts in which God walks on the sea. AdXtio-cv Jesus spoke. 'Otirias ^'' — — xiv.o 2 1 — RATA irpoireiJ^aaOai. implies that the boat was many stadii (25 or 30. to a later hour than in ver. Ver. § 54. 6«|/(as ycv. have here o-raSiovs iroXXovs airo adopt. whence it may have come. refers to O.. Kal iS^rres auroy ol p. The order of words varies here. X^yorres. the words given (OapaciTC. § 324.H. ^avTaay. (H. but any appreciable distance from shore. 30. refers. is which verss. Zig. 6). M AT0AION 8c ycfo^cKTis. have airoK.£o-ov . Mk. TcrdprD 4vX. 8c o n. putting in margin the reading of T. ut navem conscenderent ". viro t«v — — : — — — Kvparuv not in Mk. Holtz. ciircv a. ^'-49 TTCpiiraToOin-o 14 iTapdx6i\aav. C). T. Cf. 6cls 8c aurfi 6 n^rpos " Kupie. irpotrev^aatai " Good for prayer the mountain. Ver.H. y. 8 * ^** before avrois in B. . and minuss. subjunctive. of course. (H. omitted in ^D. 25. 19 = 3 to 4 miles) from the eastern shore. have cX0civ vpos " " "auctor fiiit k«i ijX»ev in BD.). Ver. irp««t. — : enough. 'iTjaous. o I. or from the south end of the plain ElBatiha towards Bethsaida Julias. probably to be preferred. 9. this « ' ^BCD. IvavrCos 4 avcpos what wind ? From what quarter blowing ? : the starting-point. ?ciis and renders: discipulis. W. in BD. peculiar to Mt. W. The story is true to the character . but the mere sound of His voice would be What was — — : : — : .R. a standing variation. i«^BCD.). verss. After dismissing the crowd Jesus retired into the mountainous country back from the shore. 23.

dXT)0«i)s 6. — : . the sense is that rich plain of Gennesaret. vii. : — : : «4—36Tov 'li|(rouK. four miles long certain persons came to Jesus from Jeruand two broad. vi. have €iri instead of ci« and omit TT|y of Peter. fi\iit(av 211 * he rbv a¥€fMy dpIajiCKOs KaTairorritcaOoi eKpa|c. the preposition €v tc>-.'s achieving great things. 30. often that was the uniform means. The men of the came from it.'i. more growing popular enthusiasm deepening Pharisaic hostility. • Wanting in fc^BI. xal 32.iti(mCKav els -irepixupov cKeinfji'. Stroi TJ\|/avTO. vuo-^k ical (te. Us usual concomitants. Mk. iv.' 34. 'Eudeo). . Syrophcenician Woman. Kai TrpooTiKeYKaK * auTu iraiTas tous icaKus ii'a 24. ol dvOpuiroi in viii. eU Fewtja-apeT. Safe arnwa/. "'AXtjOus ©eou ul&s et. Ver. — — .—Siairepi. bravery 6T|<rav they are not disappointed the and cowardice a man of generous im. the general fact important Probably the one scene led to the other after the storm. eirl ttjv y^v they healing by mere touch of His garment.^ 30. position). ixvii. * ^BD al.. vii. so probably all through. mixture of strength and weakness. auTwf €is TO " ^K<5iro<r€K 6 a^cuos 33. 35. to doubt (cf. * avaPavrwv in ^BD 33yi\[if." (iroX\aKis rh. 51. : . 1. That becomes cf. got to land . ^ E^ArrEAION 30. James i. j|X6<5iTes* irpocr€Kui'T]<rov outw \iyo}rT€<i. powers think it enough to touch (u. 'I. leaves that open. 80-01 &v tj. place.. double. having covered the distance between the place where Jesus joined with unbounded faith in Jesus seeking them and the shore. nowhere else in N. Washing of hands (Mk. 01 Se Iv irXoiw uMk. 01 coming more and more strained and the Iv Toi 7r\oi(p crisis cannot be far off. now he begins to sink so at the final crisis.ir. little things. The scene changes with dramatic again in xxviii. 3. irapcKaXovv. The expression. " KJpie. not a town. sent round the word They bring It is one thing to see a storm from the Jesus has come deck of a stout ship. €X<»^<*S 36. Ver. 17. Kal oXt|I' v Lk. The relations between first sea-anecdote by Mk. to minds. Se 6 'irjaous eKTticos Xcyei auTw. they have now unmidst of the waves. vpov^pxovTat (ot) definite indication of locality. cKoirao-cv used in narrative of and orthopraxy. 27 presumably the disciples alone referred clear to Jesus now.. " Ch. yet not very definite a district. 33. 39 = exJesus and the religious virtuosi are behausted itself (from kottos). landed firom the boat. 32." • Ch. hence to be of two eastern shore. 31.) Ver. €1.6vov A strange oL^MVTat) the hem of His mantle. xxviii.. and in Gennesaret. etc.. and at fault in expression. ttik X^^P'* ^ireXdPeTO auTou. Ver. 34-36. a great advance on Vv. iv Tois IXdrroo'i iX«YX*Tai. tiJitou Ikcikou &. Second FeedChrys. * eStoraoros . effect from phenomenal popularity on the from Sis. xviiL 31. ominous conflict with the Ver. KOTOirovTi5€0"6ai bounded confidence in Christ's curative he walked at first. Son of God. 36. H. 8). €iriY»'oiTes aoTOK 01 a^Spes toC Trj** 35. Vv. Omitted in ^B 33. the effects of it. if it was not before to. dva^avTctfv qvtwv Jesus and jealous guardians of Jewish orthodoxy Peter. firyaXa Chapter XV. that is. — : — — : — — . Kal irapeKaXouK * auTOf. V. etc. pX^iruv tov avcftov. Kal kwvyvov. The question it imVer. when they recognised who had seeing the wind. r6r€ connects naturally plies now settled 1-23). els ti irXoioi'. another to see it in their sick to Him to be healed. the d. Sieo-wii. If it be retained. embittered. (xvi. so at Antioch (Gal. If oi be omitted. iroTairds (viii. T. 21). ivxup^ ^ i^ofi^Bi] \iyay.39. •' Peter walked on the water but feared implies that all who were cured touched the wmd: such is human nature. Kol Stoircpdio-ajTes tjXOok els TrjK y^*** Tect'Tjo-op^T. 27). ^ Sieo-uSujo-ai'.touch brings a complete cure (Sid in compulses rather than of constant firm will.salem. 8i\)/vxos. : — — : : — : . Kal i^i^&vriav^ rfi t " 'OXiYoiriore. ^6vov ail/oiinrai too xpaoiT^Sou ToG lp. Washing of Hands Karopdovo-a. I.^ : — 1 — — : .with immediately preceding narrative concerning the people of Gennesaret o-avTe9.aTiou auTou ^ Kal ocroi TJi|/ai^o. 1-20. the sense is again popular excitement with certain persons belonging to Jerasalem rt%. xxviii. Ver. cSio-raaas ing. 11).

The neglect charged was not that of ordinary cleanliness. : ttjv irapdSoo-iv cleanness. « For evereiXoTO Xry»v BD have simply citpcv. t^BCD omit Kai. 4. Lightfoot. was unwritten (aypa^ot SiSao-KuXCa. 18. vCirTea6at. as in T. as if the former were of equal importance with the latter. custom originated with authority by the ancients.wy not rules made by the parties addressed (WeissMeyer). Christ's reply . These were innumerable and ridiculously minute. The question being the validity of the tradition and its value. vii. changed into aieh by attraction of the verb. — have their evil eye on Jesus and co-operate with the provincial rigorists. o edv e| efiou * A^eXirjOfjs. and Jesus was incapable of timeserving insincerity thus conflict was inevitable. putting breach of Rabbinical rules on a level with breaking the greatest moral laws. dogma. Siari oi p. referring to certain Rabbinical tracts. says *' lege. apTov e(r6iiiio-i. but believed irapdSoo-i« a Herculean. * ^BA Orig. the The guardians of tradition scribes only. Col. etc. c aoTots. i. The assailants regard the act imputed as an unheard-of monstrous impiety. Kal yp. with more probability. uficis irapaPatveTC ttjk iyToKi]y tou eeou ' SiA. yii. but the tradition which ye Ver. orov. consists of a counter charge and a prophetic citation (w. its evil tendency . seeking for grounds of fault-finding {cf. aov irapa^. was deliberately maintained by the — it did not necessarily mean deliberate disregard of the tradition. granting the fact .* orav apTOf eo-0iw(7ii'. -irapaSoaic vfiStv 4. Vv. cap. diroviirTco-Oai. Heb. The " elders " here are not the living rulers of the people.. Ver. ix. The Pharisees eagerly put the worst construction on the act. 3. must have been making inquiries or in the Capital — playing the spy into the private habits of the disciple circle. 9 al. no instance of offence specified in this The zealots case. IT. ujneis ''O * KaxoXoywi' iraWpa 26 . It might have been illustrated directly in connection . "Aioti 01 fiaOr^Tai aoo iropdSoan' twk irpeo'^UT^pwi' . if Mk. citing Athenaeus. cv yap v(irTovTak. Aupoe. the best defence possible of neglect charged = " we transgress the tradition because we want to keep the commands of God choice lies between these you make the wrong choice ". Ver. icat ypap. iraTpl xiii. placitum. 6 yap 0CO9 counter charge substantiated. 7-9) in the inverse order to that of Kal ifiels the retort. dangerous task.— 8ia t. — . ou y^'P ^^Tf^oyrcu ' irapaPaiKOuai ttik Tois )(€ipas aoTWK.).^ \^Y°*^'5. Hebrew idiom for taking food. but the past bearers of religious authority.aO. Os ^v eiirj) Tw jjitj 36. Se Xeyexe." 3. 9.. XV. 2. irapa^aivovo-i: strong word (Mk. Baseless assertherefore to attack the tion. usually named in Our evangelist inverse order. no compromise Grave issue raised possible here. : — : : might be illustrated at will in connection with any moral interest. vii. idolise. That they were. of the elders (Grotius).. so giving the latter as serious an aspect as possible. It might be an occasional carelessness on the part of some of the disciples (rivas. ttjk Mk. makes the whole party come from Jerusalem. — : : . si vacat. which affects the construction Jn^BCD omit vide below. 2) which even the offenders would not care to defend. the more remote The "tradition" the more venerable. potes ". \iy<av. ^T]Wpa Oavdrot tcXcutcItw <j 5. the "law upon the lip" reaching back. justifiable.* fiTjWpa • • ' Tifia rov ?j Act's xiz. T. traT^pa <too. * omit avrwv. before after.'s milder). like the written law (so it was pretended) to Moses. . 4>ap.. Mk.^ koi Kai. koI' ou ^BD omit ou ' 4^ap. 2. the proper word meat. et si per taedium et nauseam : not merely the opinion. your precious paradosis. vii. t?j»' 'O yap 660s eKereiXoTO.R. as in ix. Mk. lib. vp. in ^BD. A time-server might easily have evaded discussion by putting the matter on this ground. Eisner. 3-6. it. ^^* *• """^^"'^^ Trpoa^pxoKTai t« *lT]ao8 oP &no 'kpoaoXofiwK ^'- *?• 14. 2). KOI ^apiaaioi. Hesych. ^ • Trj f&T|Tpi. but of the technical rules for securing ceremonial — scribes [vide Lightfoot). . " AiaTi Kal . but opinion expressed ex cathedra.— 212 '(^^th' b Mk. ^ — : KATA MAXeAION *? 3. ii.v. That is why they make a general charge before specifying the particular form under which the offence is committed. Mk. 'O 8e diroKpiOcis eiircK ypaj^jjjjTj^j '' Thess. zxvii. 10 and xii.

Ver. in these circumstances of course he will not. to the temple. in ^BCDL.R. Mt." etc. etc. 9. if not in words. av by Kai is Ti\Ly\<rr\ answers to in ci-itt]. and as theirs alone. Lightfoot (Hor. . Heb.. must be taken as a comment of Christ's. M. Or it may be a gnomic aorist so ye are wont to. T. xxix.) . ." " Awpov" be a gift or offering devoted to God." he shall not honour = he is exempt from obligation to: such the rule in effect. " Actors. Tiiia: p. The future here has the force of the imperative as often in the Sept. ye invalidated. God having no part in it. The scribes rivals to the Almighty in legislation. = = Corban (Mk. as in A. tJKvpwo-aTe. 7. practice specified even at its best honest pleading of previous obligation to God as a ground for neglecting duty to parents. 7 (from Is. let it to.) understands the law as meaning that the word : If the imperative mean§ 67). fifth —t(|m> . \iy<oy.: . g here and in Mk. to religious purposes. ^BCDAZ have Tkp. 5 shows how that great law is compromised. Isaiah might not be thinking of the Pharisees. a is what it comes — . Lutteroth favour this view. 4.R. : — : . belongs to the protasis. 8.T|o-et.39. dir* rots x^'^^^''''^ 1*^ rifta* oc KapSia auTuc iroppu Airiyti ^fioC. but there is nothing in the text to justify Christ's charge is based on the it.T) — ov patrem tenebatur inviola- riftijaei. 12). Le. Ye say. ^ vii. " Ye say " : the words following give not the ipsissima verba of scribe-teaching or what they would acknowledge to be the drift of their teaching. 'YiroKpiTOi. . in quoting . or guiltless. actual selection characteristic of Jesus as humane. : the emphatic antithesis of vjicis to Oc&s a pointed rebuke of their presumption. As the passage stands in T.. v|Ji6is Si Xry. yet God not in all their thoughts. but tihat drift " This as Jesus Himself understood it commandment — heartlessly spoken. to the purpose. The T. though Eisner calls the phrase " bene Graeca ". the clause Kai ov (ttj Tip. parents second. 6 KoXws Trpoc<}>i^T€oa€ ' ircpi ufiStv TU) 'Hcaias. etc. letting sons o^ for a percentage on what they would have to give their parents ? Origen. though the Rabbis taught that it was given orally by God to Moses. {vide Burton. ing be denied. follows Mk..r\Tipa ttji' auToG • xal 'riKupwaaTe eMk. W. xxi. ' p-dnrfv he cri^ovrai fie. 17). V. marg." in their zeal for God. TcXcvraru (Ex. 1—9. ^BDL x<t'X«o-i moral purity versus ceremonial. . vii. and the apodosis remains unexpressed = he shall be free. bound not to help parents. Ver.. Ver.c Tisch. xx. Corban. as involving an artificial divorce between religion and morality easily sliding into disingenuous pretexts of vows to evade filial responsibilities .TjoTj. Theophy. but certainly the quotation is very felicitous in reference to them.H. jxot 1^ f Mk. vii. 6. 13). exactly describing their religious character. etc. 11) magic word re- leasing from obligation to show honour to parents in the practical way of contriOf evil omen buting to their support.H. " whosoever. appositely. Sia vpwv an account of your tradition. W. TTjr ' itrro\r]v^ toG ©eoG 81A irapaSoo-ii/ ufiuf. Augment at beg. and being made dependent •on OS ^ ^ * part of the protasis. and felicitous as exvnth even though profanely and The ceptionalfly clear. 3 Cor.). — . Tijyii](rjj ^ EYArrEAlON t6v irar^pa aurou ?j 213 6. by making such a rule. ''Eyyijei itai 6 Lk. then ov jitj t. Tov Xoyov in BD (W. 7. . cirpo(^. tJik \i. ironicaUy 9. as illustrated in the case previously cited. tov vojiov ^C (Tisch. Were the faultfinders in this case chargeable with receiving a commission for trafficking in iniquitous legislation. \aos ouTOs OTOfiaTi auTUK. reaching the lowest .viLis. The verb aKvp^u belongs to later Greek. have o Xao« ovtos toi« (ovtos o Xaos and ayaTrt) for rifta in margin). ad non — juvandum biliter..H. viroKpiTaf no thought of conciliation open war at all hazards. gives the quotation in full. with its penal sanction (Ex. xx. — : — . Jerome. but did not bind really to give " Ad the property to sacred uses. the aorist pointing to the time when the rule was -made. God first. again to mark it as their idol. depth of immorality when lawmakers and unfilial sons were in league for common pecuniary profit from the nefarious transaction. of the scribes in the case. even when the " gift " was bond fide.. xi. and p. dicanda sua in sacros usus per haec verba nullatenus tenebatur.. leaX^s.

The drift of the saying there. "'AKOuere koi avvUrt. 16. ver. ' ' Tu<)>Xos 1 Sc TU^XoC iiiV 6St]Y^.R. 10. — expense of filial piety. oupdcios. which might easily be misunderfore is ceremonial uncleanness. and food in itself dent. BD. root and branch. and so used both by Jesus and Greeks II. Parables is an important text for Christ's doctrine are used to illustrate the ethical by the of the Fatherhood as taught by disnatural.). etc. refers to the Rabbinical Kai avvltrt abrupt. . eKpiJo»0ii]or6Tai. 36. 50. revolutionary in character. Simple direct appeal to the moral (vide Schottgen and Kypke). : . Tu4>X(i>K 14. T.— 214 *" —— — " XV. xxix. Vv. scribes. the multitude being in the back.xii. no reform possible on the was compelled to emphasise the supreme road to ruin. still more the hypocritical pretence of it. »' \*yovirt. o8t|-yoi . Ver. ov TO eltrep. toi' ai'flpojirot' • i Mk^vH Col. 3). ii. 6 Si diroKpi0cl«. II. cleanness the one thing to be dreaded. resolute tone audible. 12-14. Ver. di-epc^wK.marks: "pertinet hue parabola ircpl tov pating words which sweep away the cob. that the tradition in question parable in ver. 8."* lo.wild flower but a cultivated plant ground and overhearing all. : — — : . Ver. a<|>cTe the case and suitable to an occasion when He hopeless. : — . 'AiroKpidels 8c 6 FI^Tpos etireK auru. Appeal to the people : a disciples were afraid. Kypke resense of mankind one of those emanci. '^ 8i KapS^a. . A sentiment worthy of Jesus crucifixion. " Ilao-a <|>uT€ia. 'O Sc »» diTOKpiOcis ctirc. (2) uttering such a word. but it is not a parable was a thing with which God as Jesus in the strict sense here whatever it may conceived Him had nothing to do.o-vcipovTos ". the thing wholly evil.a. and took up high ground. e^uTcuo-ei' 6 iruTi^p jiou 6 TU(|>Xoi i. 12.v in T. Tot' '^KriXjiOTa Kol irpoaKaXeatijiccos ^^" **" ©xXok. G. laconic address a tradition natural figure for doctrine. ever caused. 7 ^° flcrepyofievov els to orcSfia koicoi ek toG orojxaTOs. destruction. a<t>CTC auTOus ^oSTjyoi ciai here only xiii. Acts 1 Xivoi' ' iaKayhoKiaQnaav ' " ^r ouk !?. how. 15.licpi{u0i^arcTat. 13. This is what will be. etircK afirois. and virtually abrogates the no compromise. . neither follows closely the Sept. '''pdaor r J^BD and ' several cursives omit avrov. and what Jesus wishes and works for: This goes beyond the tradition of the uprooting. This saying is itself ethical to criminating use of the term iraTtjp. elders. dXXd aiTo 1 CKiropcuofiiei'Of .). aKovcTc (Camb. — : . a small matter. 5. It is called a main point. Disciples report impression made on Pharisees by the word spoken to the people. The CKiropcviSiicvov JK Tov a"ro|taT09 refers idea of God implied in the Corban tradito words as expressing thoughts and de. {vide notes there)." ^ profane i 2 ToTC ^ 7rpoo'EX6(SKTe$ oi fiadiQTal toj' ^ auTou cIiroK ^ I auTw. In Christ's refers to food of all sorts clean ijod taken idea of God the two interests are coinciwith unclean hands. els to <rTo|ia: nistic to that of humanity. This be in Mk. Ver. xxiii. etc. . k Ch. They were far from the true God in their thoughts who imagined that He could be pleased with gifts made at the — God : tov Oeov. Christ's God abhorred such homage.). rv^XoC cUriv 68i]YOi the importance of the ethical in the law reading in B is very laconic = blind men : JaKav8aXicr9T|o'av double offence (i) appealing to the people at all .stood as teaching an opposite view. Levitical distinctions between clean and The response of the traditionalists was unclean. " OiSas oti : here only in qI ^apiaaioi dKouaarrcs N. Ver. 14. but Jesus was inmortal offence to the Pharisees and dignant. tooto KOifoi toc acdpuiroK. dfll^^TCpoi €1$ ^oOuvoK ireaouKTOi. J°gPj°^jPP- "SiSaaKoXios. This text should be set beside unclean. the : — : — . fearless. " not a of attack. 19). KATA MATGAION SiSdajcoKTCs ^"'^'J^f. a plant. ha» Instead of nx^Xuv BDLZ have rv^Xoi <uri oStjyoi (W. (Is.T. ^ the ethical emphatically the law of (Tr|v jvtoXt|v the same inverted. moral un. «i«rt tv<^.tion was that His interest was antagosires {ver. at this 13). Not in Mark. 08. Vv.H. point the citation is particularly apposite. 6 iroTi]p |i. but made inevitable by publicity ^vTcCa for ^vT€Vft.ov the statewebs of artificial systems better than ment in the relative clause is really the elaborate argument.

morally defiling. spokesman ver. the conclusion must be that the narrative leaves the point uncertain. still. EYArrEAION irapa^oXf)K luiiTrji'. a|i. . t4 Se cKiropeu^ucva iK tou OT^SuaTOS ^k ttjs xapSias 19. Kai 1. The Twelve had been a little scandalised by the saying as well as the Pharisees. The saying. Easy 17. aKpT)v. breaches of Sixth. Eighth. seat of thought and passion. II. Mt. ii. Were the Twelve any the wiser? Probably the very rudeness of the speech led them to think.^^Tcpoi. ori X^'P'^' ''*'^^ irai' t6 eio-iropcuiS- TO <rr<Sfia €is t^v KOiXiaf ^^^ d^cSpwKa iK^dXKOpSias Lk. 68. oSijy'q. 13. lasted for a considerable time. p These are ^)r€uSofiapTupiai.) = KaT' aK|iT|v %fi6vov. u Xcrai. Ver. TauTd cori rd KOiKoun'a rbv toi' ai'Opwirov. can mean only a dark saying. CKoreivis X^yos (Theophy. such defilement as there is. 'O 8c 'lT)(rous ctircK. flerpos. Vv. li. I. 4k zxiv. '(ioixeiai. On the whole. Chrys. — : — — Jesus would gladly have avoided. ficpT) T. sense. Vide notes there. Doubtless Jesus said this. whatever may be the case in Mk. PoXi]v. aoruvcToC carrc. Ver. blind blind lead with iav as usual in a present general Rabbis supposition. Kai eleXOuK cKeiScc 6 'Itio-ous dfcxtipTjacK els rd fi^pt) Tupou in Gal. iropmai. Emphatic final reassertion of the doctrine. a vulgar word and a vulgar subject which and from the odium theologicum of Pharisees. difficult when. with nature. be taken as = boundaries instead of territories. 18. hence w. towards or into ? Opinion is much divided." Jerome). etc. or rather in advance for men of their religious attainments are the leaders.. subjunctive. despaired of the teachers. usual (& ffcppi^S xaX iravTax°^ as irapairpocjtddvwv. Woman of Canaan (Mk.. : — : — : — Vv. Ver. 15. xii. — — —Ver. The idea is from food no moral defilement comes to the soul. etc.— JO — 21. y^p ttjs ?p- J»s- e|^p)(0(aai 'SiaXoyio'ftoi-irotnripoi. and Ninth Commandments in succession. late Greek. •o»in BDZ33. ^^^-. Imropcv^fttr* words representing thoughts and desires.). ig both . and was not confined to Jewish territory. Horn. but was it ever quite clear to the In such matters all depends disciples ? on possessing the reqnisite spiritual like to p. The point is the inevitableness of ruin. avcxb>pT)<rcv. 21-28. iii. 15-20. but He forces Himself to speak of it for the sake of His disciples. 15. One could wish that fuller details had been given as to its duration. we know what happens the suggestion being: in that case. and with God. tv^X^s 8i t. purely physical. both Christ or scribes and their disciples. xvi. ef. a^tcSpuva: here only. 20. ^<^oi'oi. dt'iirrois X'P'''^^ 20. Seventh. vii. ^Xaa^T]fiiai. but He tried to rescue the people. I Cor. accusative of axpiT). 19. and condemned by Phryn. was above the understanding of the disciples. On psychological larity : . K&Kiiva Koivoi tok ai'OpwiroK. Ver. 18. Christ chides the Twelve for making a mystery of a plain matter (" quare parabolice dictum putet quod perspicue locutus est." words common di^ponroK • to Sc ^OYerK ou koikoi to this list 21. 215 ^ •flfiXv TTji' 16. often deem thoughts though easy to understand. ""'Aicfi^i' ™Rom"°''^ 3{. 22. Very simple and axiomatic to the Master. to see when you have eyes. etc. here at least. xXoirai. 21. What follows expresses what has been if already hinted. in Mk.'s- Kol u^cis "dauKCTOi iart fiCKOK 6is 17. 11. Chrys. : . extent. contrary to the usage of the evangelist. they are hard to receive." ^ . From Mk. 10. De Wette cites in favour of the latter. 22) by the remark that it has force only if SpM. and to be alone for a while with the Twelve. doubtful there * ^BZ omit ru. at this point of time. Interpretation 0/ saying in Ver.).). we infer that it had a wide sweep. though they did not This excursion to the north 24-30). ouirw^ Koeire..— cU to. passing through the bowels into the place of discharge. iiip\€Tai. or rather revealing defilement already existing in the heart. and disposes of the argument against it based on avb twv opCwv iKtivmv (ver. p. is the result of a passionate longing to escape at once from the fever of popu- say so (k«1 avroi TJp'P'*'' Oopi'PovVer. v. 11.cvoi. ^^voi. the point (of a weapon. otherwise no one would have put it into His mouth.. 123 (avrl tov fri). "oratio obscura" (Suicer). ver.vry\r and li|vovs (D also omits L). probiU)ly a Macedonian word => privy . 38. 16.

Gen. o 8c o{iK air. view with sanctimonious Pharisees who thought the whole world outside Judea unclean. uu * Aa^iS • 1] OwydTTjp [ioo kokws Sai/JiOFi^cTat. to be a shepherd exclusively to the lost sheep of Israel (to. marg. Phoenicians were descended from a — : colony of Canaanites. Xe'yooaa. ovK co-Tt KaXov is so weightily supported (all the great uncials with exception of D) that one can hardly refuse to accept it as the true reading. to come over and help them. tSou. ^IcXOouo'a cKpauYao-ef Y"*^ Xafai'aia diro tuv opiotv iKtiyutv aoTu. the verb means to inquire. Kttl ^ — XV. though doubtless Ver. — : .— 2l6 Kal ZiSufOS. Arch. cf. 'H 8c eXOoCaa irpoacKucei auTu. TcKi'ui'. vlk A. between the borderers. it would be a refreshment to Christ's spirit to cross over the line and feel that He was still in God's world. and His explanation is bond fide. grounds the presumption is in favour of the irlew that Jesus crossed the border After that interinto heathen territory. Yet the reading of D. ^''Ti " Kopic. "'EXe'ijcoi' fic. on the part of Jesus. 26 (with here).H. natures are often misjudged. He would breathe a freer. r\p(aT(iiv auToc. iv. . on Kpa^ct they were moved not so much by pity as by dread of a sensation. . 28. 23. besought in classics the In N. 24. 15 {vide Vide Benzinger. eKpa|tr in fc^Z and W. 26. and H. Xcyorrcs. as if contracted from IpwTcw). . a new style of behaviour . KaXoi'' XaPcii' tok apTOf twi' Kal ^aXeic tois Kucapiois. the report of a wonderful healer who passed among the Jews for a descendant of David? The latter every way likely. St^tlf. a. There was probably a mixture of feelings in Christ's mind at this time an aversion to recommence just then a healing ministry at all a a craving for rest and retirement disinclination to be drav^m into a ministry among a heathen people. a feeling that her request was really not isolated but representative = the Gentile world in her inviting Him. 36). also prejudices and enmities.' X^youaa. an omen of the transference of the kingdom from Jewish to Pagan soil." 23. The role of indifference would cost Him an effort. Ver. " 'AiroXuffOK elirev." jxtj 24. There would be some intercourse 24. surprised The at disciples their were probably unusual Master's behaviour.' 25. TJpwTwv {ovv W.a6T)Tal auToO auTtjc. * T|pwTOvv in {^BCDX. 'O 8c d7roKpi6ei. Mt. a fugitive from His own land. ix. just on account of the severity it implies and because the other reading is that of Mk.). T. less stifling atmoXavavai* the sphere there..). 'O 8e diroKpideis "Ouk dircaTdXir)»' €t els rd Trpopaxa Acts'Ta diroXwXoTO oikou Cor. life. notes on Mk. the larger-hearted appearing by comparison the narrowa'!v«5Xv«rov. etircj'. ' Poi^Oei p. Or had the proselyte? (De Wette. — KATA MATGAION 22. and to be taken in earnest ag meaning that He considered it His duty to restrict His ministry to Israel. has strong claims. ." "Ouk 18. pity me. 'O Be ouk * dircKpidT] aoTrj Xoyoi'. 22. on Kpd^ci ^oTTurQev •qfiUv. Heb. OVK c|c<m.ev in BDZ is (W. and shallow men praised at their expense. IX. Kal irpoacXOot'Tcs 01 p. The * aor. Kupic. a reason for it would not They change places occur to them. all showing the glory of their Maker. the original inhabitants of Palestine.. |ic. which would mar the unity of His career as a prophet of God to Israel (the drama of His life to serve its purpose must respect the limits of time and place) a secret inclination to do this woman a kindness if it could in any way be made exceptional and last but not least. OVK aireo-TaXijv Jesus is compelled to explain Himself. the mother's heart speaks. with blue sky overhead and the sea on this hand and mountains on that. 63). 2 ii. as He was wont to call them with affectionate pity.) fame of Jesus spread thus far. with the Master here. — — : . get rid of her by hearted. 1 *Kpat. Ver. There was far more sympathy (though hidden) in Deep Christ's heart than in theirs.H. 24. The « • imperfect truer to i^BCZI omit avTw. cf. x. two senses are combined after analogy of — — : . 'itrpai^X. granting her request.oi. p. The title and the request imply some knowledge Whence got? Was she a of Jesus." (Tisch. vios in BD. irpd^ara t.

Ver. Return to the Sea of Galilee (Mk. Kvpic* kui yap. Kypke cites an instance from Xenophon of the combination vai Kai yop in the same sense. 21. Immediate compliance with her request with intense delight in her in conceiving : which may have recalled to mind that of another Gentile (Mt. The order of T. approached by a circuitous journey through Sidon and Decapolis. 29-31. * The order in which these four words (x^Xows. • i). R. upas cKcu'Tjs. exo"^^? ^auTOK x'^^o"?* lppi\{/aK * Xous> K(«)4)oos> ° KuXXous. another diminutive answering to Kvvdpia = the little pet dogs. faith. not dissent. Vv. etc. a bit. • ^ omits this clause. faith First. which got their portion though not the chilVer." ^ x'^^ows irepiiraTouiTos. Entreaty renewed at close r\ ik with success. crumb. Third. the eastern.. Tj "'Q IdBt] (ieydXtj aoo t xvi. * B has aKovovras. but an argument inviting further discussion. Tore diroKpiOels 6 'lijaoCs etireK auTjj. eat of the minute morsels. which W.) are given varies.. Kal aureus irapd Tous iroSas toG 'Itjotou ' Kal cdcpdircuacc aurous kokjjous 31. His account is a meagre colourless reproduction of Mk. xvi. — : — . with a «tc. vaC. w yvvai : exclamation in a tone enriched not a simple monosyllabic negative. and thence drew encouragement. as in V. in ^BDL.. Curiously felicitous combination of ready wit in seizing wit.„." y*^*'''^^' tj Mk. and apparently for the same purpose CKaOriTO €. vii. and back to Galilee to feed the multitude a second time." Kol fluydxTip aortjs same phr in Lk. humility and faith on the playful Kvvdpia and improving on it by adding \|fixia. faX. Kal tu^Xous fiXiiroyras Kal H. 26. etc. ! What — : : Vv.'s. auTw o)(Xot iroXXoi. The truth seems to be that he leaves it vague.^ Kal cTcpous iroXXous. but only in the incidents at the two termini. i. indeed. * tov ©xXov in ^CDA. «vvaptois. xvUL 43. which therefore fallen out per J B W avTOv for tow I.R. B has «vXXovs before tw<J)\ovs. 28. 29. a parable to be taken cum grano. etc. T. Next. leaving no room for parley. bantering in tone. humility in being content with the smallest crumbs. it is playful. but not so hard as it seems. humorous. 28. viii. 21 4iro TT)s . 28. As Weiss suggests it may have inmriam. conflict and irresolution in Christ's face. a refreshment to Christ's heart to pass from that dreary pestilential traditionalism to this utterance of a simple unsophisticated moral nature on Pagan soil The transition from the one scene to the other unconsciously serves the purposes of consummate dramatic art. ^Ver. Probably the mother read ikOova-a. Ver. but to the houseV hold dogs belonging to the family.. seemingly a hard word. 31-37). it is by the harmonies of manifold emotions. (here and Mk. Kal fiETa^ds '. vii. bracket. in the street. irapa T. dimin. vide below. 27. He takes Jesus north to the borders of Tyre to meet the woman of Canaan. 0. "rfjc 29. It seems needed. 21 T. 10). etc.. omits yap. * 217 d-iro "Nai. eager assent. 25.KslQey 6 Mtiotous tJXSc irapd OdXaoro-at' ttjs faXtXaias irpoafiX9oi' " nal dca^ds eis to opos. cKddrjTO M'^®' cKei. dren's. Ver. adopt. Kvvapia does not compare Gentiles to the dogs without. irloTis • y€vy\dr\TU) aoi u>s OAeis. its harshest word. Kal tu4>u Ch. found only in N.— 22—31. Weiss contends that Mt.iXio>v.. to the neighbourhood of the Sea of Galilee .^eis to opos.). qjiarters — .dorai. vii.H. 27. for even. pXc'iroiTas XaXourras. Ver. xvi. 'H Se * ij/i^^ioic — . means the western shore. T. wore To6s oxXous * 0aup. EYArrEAION eiTre. from \|>(|. He takes no interest in the route. gleam in the eye on perceiving the advantage given by the comparison = Yes. on which side ? According to Mk. sat down there to teach. — of the healing asked as only such a crumb for Jesus to give.^ kuXXous ' uyieis. ovK OTTiv KaXov. contains a loophole. is supported only by late MSS. Lk. This ascent of the hill bordering the lake is not in Mk. Kupic Tri-nTovruiy Kal y^P tt|s ' ^ '''^ xufdpia ^oOiei tuk s Twv' diro Tpaire^Tjs r&v Kupiuf aoTWK. 25-28. 30. Lord. Yet vide Mk.

oMTTf with infinitive may be — used to express a consequence involved in the essence or quality of an object or action. on tJSt} ?V Acts •w ''r Tf^^P**? xpcis ' irpoo-fjici'ouo-i icol ouk €)^ou(ti. viii. X Mk. The expression suggests a non-Israelite crowd and seems to hint that after all for our evangelist — 31. Kal ISwKe^ toIs fxa0ii]Tais auTou. Hesychius^^ . and infers that among Christ's works of healing were restorations of lost limbs. Vv. But in "bent. 2. 2. 2. y Mk. 37 xxi. aproi TOCTOUTOt. (T||Aepas T.^ " n66€v »|-.Epai xi.). 'lo-paiiX. states that some were far from home (viii. iroo-ovs : Jesus is on the east side and in heathen But it may point back to ver. Among those brought were certain classed as KvXXovs. Secotid feeding (Mk. But even On this view (lyicis. or in haste. Eu thy. (absol. itrilm similar to vijirios from vi). 'O 8c 'lijcoos n-poo-ttoXeadjiet'os ^'"'i jq^^ ' fioflrjTols ^ " ZirXaYX*'ilof''<i'' fioi. etc. The motive of the miracle is not the distance from supplies but the exhausted condition of the people after staying three days with Jesus with quite inadequate provision of food. eirra o-irvp(8a«: baskets different 37. here and in parallel text in Mk. and when the first. rots ©x. vtfo-Teis.). 14. XaXovvTOS this and the following participles are used substantively as objects of the verb ^X^TTovTos. Eirro.). 34. citing instances from Demosthenes. g) by the way through long fasting. -9) . omit avTov. obviously a grammatical correction.). vi.vaK\Ci'Otto. rloo-ous " aprous ex^Tc. the action denoted by the participles being that which was seen. integros. Ver. —Ver. may — ciros). a late Greek word (" does not occur before Polybius in the sense of gratia s agere'' Camb." as with rheumatism. to>' oxXot*. which is usually interpreted : The reading which of adopted by Fritzsche. werre aoTOi? o mo-ous. Kal oXiva ^ ixfluSia. * t^BD insert koi before cvxapi<rTT|aas. because of the greatness of the number. wo-ts XopTa<r«i. only.<ial. eSiSov in fc^BD. 36. 32.23.€pai Tp€ls: that this is the true reading is guaranteed by the unusual construction.— T|p. ^8o|a<rav r. Kai Xa{3o)»'* toOs cirrA aprous Kai tous Ix^uos. aprovs the disciples have larger supplies this time than the three days. Ti 4>aY<>>a^i- k<*i V.i). after supplies of the multitude are exhausted: seven loaves and several small fishes. ' rim. similar words . ^ fi^oTeis ou OAu. V. condemned by — in number and in name. For Kat XaP»v i^BD have cXa^c. Mk." Oi oe 34." iv CpT||Jlia Mk. rviii.i^BD have irapayYciXas tjo oxXw. aa.R.—Ver. T](<. o-irXoyxvitoiiai. «vxapi<n-(j<ras. « For €Ke\. ^ and Origcn have the accus. Kol X^yOUCTll' auTW 01 ftaOTJTal OUTOU. 33. the people wanted x<'Xovs. (ii^iroTC €KXu6cjaii' iv TJp.— : — XV. Kal Xey€i ciiroc. 3. Ver. though not to be accepted as the true reading. takes kvXXoI = 01 Sx<i-P<«> *^^ Grotius argues for this sense. Eisner dissents from the judgp. 36. will mean those whose homes were near might faint (cKXv0wo-i. 8 it seems to mean "mutilated". too-ovtoi. healing. fasting (vi|. Ver. 5. % 62. ' 35. Phryn. dTToXoo-ai auTous -13. 3).lK t^ 68w. 7 viii. here by their hunger. ment of the ancient grammarians. fl. (^Trliijy. 31. with irepi in ix. though we do not read of such anywhere else. and so brought their sick and suffering to Jesus. ^ in most uncials.. dpriovs. ' ' ^BD 30. Mk.— epthey threw them at His feet pi\|/av either in care-free confidence. D : be viewed as a solution of the problem presented by the true reading vide Winer. etc. Koi IkAeuo-c T015 oxXois * dj'aireo-eli^ em TT)!' y^i*' 36. * * ^B omit avTov. 24 and mean the God who conferred such favours on Israel as distinct from the heathen (Weiss-Meyer). 32. not teaching. the accusative being what one expects. viii. feeding Christ's comviii. I viii. { = a. x^P'''''^*'''*'"^ oxXok Toaoorot'. implying that most were not. $ 584. 32-38.^ cuxaptcmicras John eKXacrc. ver. Ver. territory. therefore after tocovtos and vide Ktihner. 7. 18). 30 al. with lirl — as in xiv.. T. 2l8 ' ?^''\^'**l8<J5ao-av Toi' true re«d- RATA MATGAION Bebv auToG 'lapai^X. In the first passion is moved by the sickness among the multitude.' 01 8e Lk. ctirc. who enjoins x^^P''*' ciScvai instead (Lobeck. N. inserts tlcri koX after rpeis.

which is common to manleaven. or of an approaching tragic crisis. sign the same. 39. to bridle the moon. in social H.) suggests to stop the course sign. in Lev. Now a sign from cally impressive juxtaposition of events. p. etc. with whom Westcott (vide Grotius on Mt. First an ominous encounter with illaffected men professedly in quest of a (Hom. «Ch. Ver. bination. 1-12.only might legitimately be inferred the the average power of observation based presence of representatives of that on experience..XVI. storm to-day . Kol Tjpai' ^ TO irepiaaEuof rStv KXao-fidrwi'. Now they are joined by with their spiritual obtuseness. * c-injpuTetv in J*^ (Tisch. Kal irpoacXdorrcs ol ^apicaioi Kal ZaSSouKatoi -neipdiK toO oupavou eiriSci^ai auTOis.desire. xii. that the sign ** Sadducees " were to be found (Well= a ruddy sky in the evening (irv^p^^civ hausen. 38). rope-net probably larger than ¥i6^\vo%. These suggesVv. MaySaXu is a known substituted for an unknown. calls " Sadducees. the true MayaSav in t^BD.'s oft-recurring descriptive what they wanted. but Somewhat similar is Lk. I. — : : — : : — : — : — — — I : — — .expressive = triste caelum.H.^ XVI. Lightfoot credits the Jews with . 38) only a sign. ^i&% genitive of governing classes among whom the 21cvc). MayaSdv: the worshippers were likely to be found. one who could help worldly-minded contends for Gentile recipients of the Israelites to be proud of their country second blessing. 6). These Mt. indeed. together. with infinitive. wide apart. and defines (nrvp(s ri rwv irupwv ayyos = wheat-basket. marg. xc^f-*^^' ^ Mk.* iravres. Ver. trasted the shrewd observation of His Already scribes by themselves had asked contemporaries in the natural sphere a sign (xii. What might that be? Chrys. (ni]|ietov Ik tov ovpavov before (xii. and doubtless reading. No special versation with the disciples." kind. imagine. though not in B and bracketed by W. Chapter XVI.aTwv in BD. Or does Great was a hero. Kai ZaSS. Tjpav after KXaa-p.io icai «o. I oircCpu. adopted in Tisch. or to change the air. vrvyya-Xfitv. Kal tJXOei' els Ta opta MoySaXd. It was among Sadducees that such hero(Characteristics of Gospel Miracles. by common dislike some occasion Jesus must have conto the movement identified with Jesus. here like the simple verb lirtipuTTjcrav true reading. 13) agrees. X'l'P^^^ yoKOiKwf Acte 39. 01 Se cadiorres iraioiiav. * : probably the better-known name. perhaps connected with practically identical with the Herod The " Herodians " were.H. Kol €<|>aYO»' 219 Kal iyppTdaBrftrav • ^aOrjTai tu oj^Xm. 3. completing the object of Seekers liriSct|ai. 24). 2-4.). 2 and of the community not accustomed to act 3..embarrass or nonplus Christ.— 3a—39. but he makes Jesus refer to the sky in the morning. irvppa(ci "yap i. 54-56. liii. Ver 2. Again a dramati. ig. suggesting a basket made of leaven. fine weather (ev. 23) = requested. Reply of yesus. tions will do as well as any. xvi. xvi. whence probably the variants. <l>ap. then in a place of retreat a first of the sun. TcrpaKiaxiXioi acSpcs. 11-21). a ruddy 11). On made allies pro tern. '' JoKTCs im\p(irr\(Tav * auT^K ' <rt\ii€iov Tois ©xXois in t^BL al. (xv. xiii. Gentiles? Hilary in. 38. Die Pharisder unddie Sadducder). CTrrd 'tnrupiSas tJotoi' irXripeis. Vv. with sinister purpose. mentions only the Pharisees (ver. place wholly unknown. Sign Caesarea Philippi. and W. position and religious tendency. something of that sort. a new com. Probably viii. I. the interrogators had no definite idea irpo<r€>\0(5vT6s one of Mt. a kind of Messiah.. Demand for a sign (Mk. whence meteorological skill indicated thereby. heaven. of classes Vv. Kal diroXuaas toi^s oxXous iv4^ii\ 6is to irXoiOf. the different kind of basket point to all the Messiah they cared for or believed different nationality. may be regarded as part of the text. people for whom Herod the for longer journeys (Grotius). beyond desiring to words. a party representing the priestly and cvSIa. W. i. to proannouncement in startlingly plain terms duce thunder. Ver. late but leaven of Herod in the subsequent con. EYArrEAION 37..

16 Kal eXOoj'Tes XojSeii'. lr)[upov ^x^'-l^^*'' '^»PP^l^*' bActsxxvii. 2! apTOUs 6. 3. and spreadmg Pharisees nor Sadducees had any idea that the end of the Jewish state was so near. i.. KATA MAT0AION 15. A 81 iiroKpiOels etTref auTOis. however. The one important thing . insinuat33). etc. irapayycXias.g. Cur. 7) or in Jesus. boat or after arrival at the opposite side Jesus uttered a memorable word.iruppdtci yelp 6 oupai/os. The two classes. koI irpwt.eiOK 'Iwko toC jrpo<{>r]Tou. "'Or^las^ y€voii. plaint was that they showed no such skill in the ethical sphere. working. It Is a spirit.iyr\s \^yeTe. after the same manner as the leaven in the parable (xiii. With or without in which direction? They forget to take their Master ? On setting out or after ? bread. Ver. Astraea Redux. sense)™* «o (winter) c y^P ' 'rruyvdtfiov yt. vide Carlyle's French Revolution. leavens separately named in Mk. Oiig. X.Y^*'*"^ Tro»n(jpA Kal ftoixaXls SoOi^CTcrai auTf^. character as secular or " worldly ". 39. t^BCD omit avrov. Sadducaism very seldom appears on the stage. as Grotius remarks. urgent admonition to look out for. more and more in society. 4. oiroKptTai. Neither chiefly to their own time).. Lk. in order to take heed of. : the command to ^ir(Ta<Tiv l|x^aCvov(ra J^vpnjSj Euthy. KaTaXiiruc aoxoos.. is — The leaven of Pharisaism made thoroughly known to us in the Gospels in this section is the reflection of Jesus The on what had just taken place. ^ is bracketed as doubtful by modern editors.S) — ing itself everywhere. el firj (nfiftcioi' ^irijTiTei Kal <njneiov 06 ^ to <n]fi. historical parallel.iii. special interest in such observations. the verb cpxe(r0ai in the Gospels sometimes means ire not venire (vide. opaTc Kul irpoo'^x*'''* 6. and from which He wished to guard His one disciples. 2. leaven. 2a. Ver. — XVI. iv quarter. they could not discern the signs of the times (t«v Kaipwv the reference being. m. 01 fiaOirjTal auToC * €is to itipav * eircXdOorro irpoffexcTe xiii.). book ii." Kai d Mk. no friendship to be looked for in either Ver. Two hence no article before 2aS." Ol 8e SieXoyt- From ovlrtas to Bwao-fie. * * DLA omit. a phenomenon of very sinister import in Scottish idiom "see and beware of".kv iTp6<T<t>Trov toG oupocou oioKpu'eu'. Phil. ra oe (n)p. ' ^BDL omit tov irpo<j)7]Tov. Both moods revealed utter lack of appreciation. and Syr. but even there juxtaposition in the warning : implies affinity. xv. 220 Sir. a duality still in Mk. but. pX^ir£T€. the sign seekers after giving them their The disciples cross the lake answer.. antagonistic at many points of belief and practice. t«v <l>ap. by detailed characterisation. a Zeitgeist. AtttiXOc. both to be dreaded. giving emphasis (avaSCirXwo'i. 6 Se 'irjtrous eltttv auTois. 7. Vide chap. isdiro (accus. viii. TTjs ^ufiilS Tu»' apio'aiwj' kui ZaSSouKaiuv. Sin. inf.v(ii(TKeT€ 6 oupai^s. chap.cia twi' Kaipuk ou ooi^aatfe. 5. 14 (with Heb. of course. " 'OpaTt Kal 7.. and few words of Jesus concerning yet enough to indicate it are recorded . as when they propounded the riddle about the woman married to seven brothers. either each man in his own cavTois — : . Vv.). Jesus left historical setting is not clear. The passage is wanting in ^BVXr. 4. and each might come with its own characteristic mood: the Pharisee with bitter animosity. Syr. would be of single-hearted in dislike at one devotion to truth and righteousness. ^^ abrupt. •E88ia« 3. here conceived as an evil influence. end of ver. ver. ir. naturally suggests the latter. whether in the Baptist (iii.. e. 5. This common action in reference to either might not be a matter of its — • ... and Christ was willing to give them full His comcredit for skill in that sphere. the Sadducee with good-natured scepticism and in quest of amusement. SufiBce it to say that either in the 20). Kal ZaS. When IXOovres els arrival at the other side ? T. which Jesus instinctively shrank from in horror. of two parties viewed as one.). They said ciSCo when they should They mistook the have said x^^H'*^*'time of day thought it was the eve of a good time coming when it was the For a morning of the judgment day. xii..^ • Mk. TTJS leaven. More impressive oparc.^ ri \$. 5-12. : arrangement.

t^M-'HS Tut' apio-aiui' Kai XaSSouKaicjc iw|Ji''')S 12. aproos ouk cXdiPofAew. Ver. as the meaning would now be self-evident. The crossing of the lake (ver. ii. ~ ' ufiij' . Vv. * ^BCL. 13. s. ii. . And with so little excuse in view of quite recent experiences. e. have missed him from xiv. 'EX9^v here again this verb it Be this as may. Note that at this point Lk. ouiru Koelxe. only parts of one great journey. Kal iroaas (nrupiSas^ c\apETe j\/Q_ . Thereby we might have had in a sentence a photograph of Sadducaism.H. But if Jesus had explained Himself He : . ! : . mind (Weiss). and originating in a kindred mood and motive. able when we remember the abruptness of the warning and the wide gulf between Master and disciples He a prophet ^^nth prescient eye. cruvTiKav. The this visit to that eventful one. 13-28. bread. I Lk. and that they had asked their Master to explain more precisely the nature of the evil influences for their and our benefit. : may be recitative or this = " because ". Tore Heb. coming out of heathen territory. Rev! 10. X^yok'TCs. One could wish that they had understood that jfrom the first. 9. ii. gen )• i^BDLAI For al. EYArrEAlON 8. omit avTois. 12. Ver. yet pardonthe same. 21 like it following close on an encounter with ill-affected persons. apart from the Master (Meyer).^ "Ti SiaXoyi^caOe iv eauTois.— otu dogmas and opinions of the two parties in question were not the worst of them. at least to the extent of seeing that it was a question not of loaves but of something spiritual." Weiss. nivre aprous rutv TreKTaKierxiXioH'. warning repeated without further explanation.vTo\. irpoae'xeTe. Practically the ministry in Galilee is ended.g. twi' TCTpaKtcrxtXiuc. Kal irocroug ko<j>ikou9 cXdperc ' u. -r " ' " " on \ » 00 ircpt aprou * enroK f *» (with accus. etc. irpocre- Qal.: always thinking about bread. Leben fesu.'^V /^j'th"'' OTi OUK ciTre Trpoae'xetJ' diro Tt]s Tou apTOu. they now understood. 256. ix. ' t«v apruv BL. Place and time invite to reflection and forecast. 9. in truth. For those who regard the two feedings as duplicate accounts of the same event these two excursions are of course one. would have had more to say. similar to that mentioned in XV. 5) proved to be the prelude to a second long excursion northwards. on which Jesus. that was in a SiSax^iSi " doctrine " general way the import of the £vp. Ver. ooSe Toiis ^irra apTou. and afford leisure for a calm survey of the whole situation. Ver. Vv.).). in the neighbourhood of Caesarea Philippi.' dXX' diro TT]5 SiSaxTJS twi/ 1 apiaaiwi' koc IZaSSouKaioii'.OKeu'eTe OTi apTous ouK cXdpere^. Stupid mistake. 8. r II. — — — : — — . ""Oti. 6\\. Xeic^ diro Tijs aui'TJKav'. region was an We : We : . ' a — 12. or among themselves.. 10. fvous 221 ^orro iv lauTOis. 18-27). At Caesarea Philippi (Mk. of which the vivid details are given as if to heighten the reproach. mean : — . ooSe toos c i Thess. viii. 23 onwards (vide notes on Lk.T). Vide Lightfoot ad loc. oXiyottiotou * fi»nr)p.). instead of the kingdom and its fortunes. The two journeys are. Note the solitariness of Christ. irus ou I'oeire. etc. first touches again the soil of the holy land. fifth act in the tragic drama the shadow of the cross now falls across the path. 10. " The idea of two journeys on which Jesus oversteps the boundaries of Gahlee is only the result of the assumption of a twofold feeding. but the spirit of their life their dislike of real godliness. They take the Master to do not buy bread from persons belonging to the obnoxious sects or rather perhaps do not take your directions as to the leaven to be used in baking from that quarter. =* t^BD have aprwv in exere (W. and Jesus is here to collect His thoughts and to devote Himself to the disciplining of His disciples. with which alone the Master was occupied. 27 ix. again joins his fellow-evangelists in his narrative." 06 6 'Itjctous elircc aurois.y&K\. in irpoo-cxei'V ^BCL have arpoorxcTe Sc. seeing the forces of evil at work and what they were leading to they very commonplace persons lacking insight and foresight. He sense pves warning because. • (r<{>vpt8as in * BD. marking a crisis or turning-point in the career of are at the beginning of the Jesus. 11.

and they took exceedingly beautiful. etc. 'lepefi. The question shows that Jesus had been thinking of His past ministry and its results.eager advantage of His healing ministry. but setting or on the way: unterwegs. wrote. Schanz. that /. 414. . a new name (Paneas before. that He was practically without reliable — : : — — : . etc. in a limestone follows in this memorable scene. That consideration does not settle what Mt.222 13. and furnished with but hostility was to be looked for there.). changed With the common people on the other into Caesarea of Philip to distinguish hand He had to the last been popular. non cum : Fritzsche dissents and renders postquam venerat. with this grand natural Ver. Mk. question is variously reported by the 'HXiav. the starting-point Wanderungen. Jesus asked His ligious definiteness and depth. Nothing passion for building. picturesque sur.. He would combine the two forms of the if to distinguish them not merely numeri: . What a Him. and ask "whom. 5). etc. and did not need to learn from the Twelve how He He had come to the conclusion stood. cum proficisceretur. 1-12) Jeremiah is who He was. etc. . X^ywi'. as well as a kindly feeling towards rush of many waters what a wealth Him an idea well-rooted. and He expected and in Professor G.of a new religious movement ? He did scription in Stanley's Sinai and Palestine. roundings. leave out the |ic. . a notable romantically situated at the foot of following outside the disciple circle. . All three personages whose rethe Baptist to speak impersonally. say at the spot where the city and its surroundings came into view. synoptists. and leave us free to locate the ensuing scene at any point on the road to Caesarea Philippi. 14.c which has probably come be deleted. . but it is satisfactory that the best MSS. which (2 Maccab. had served rather to keep the question the ark. conservatism natural to the common solemn moment Jesus might prefer to mind. KaiorapeCas t. The promise of future outcome. and beautified by him with the Herodian were affected was apparent. and it may be taken for granted that He had formed His own estimate. as indeed it was.). or a do. redivivi that unable to rise to the utmost possible between the forms. A. as It is intrinsically unlikely that words. hasev -tq 68o» to indicate where the conversation began. the Pharisees. 'ludv. and over by the Tetrarch Philip. in suspense till men had classed with learned to attach new senses to old prophets (tj Iva t. Reply of disciples : the Xe'-yowaiv. title. ^ ^B and most versions omit of p. with which few spots in the But had they got a definite faith about holy land can be compared. On the whole both expressions are elastic. near the main that conviction is the key to all that sources of the Jordan. R.. in the province of Gaulonitis. It would seem simpler and more natural to ask. " 14. ctcai. riva answer of the Twelve. Historic characters. Toi' oiof Toi' " Tiko ^ Xeyooaii' ol av-Opuiroi Tou dcOpwirou • . and it is not easy to decide recent or more ancient. But. "Ol fiei' 'Iwoki'tji' f\ BairTKm^K aXXoi 8c 'hiXiaf |i€. the other well-known be defined. am ? " as in the T. at a tory . enlarged the priests and political men = Sadducees.. — . opinions of the scene possibly or even probably (why general effect being people. and the supporters of that hypothesis are called crcpoi. Smith's Historical to have that impression confirmed by the Geography of the Holy Land.. without reelse name it ?) in view. how His vocation was to he had hid in a cave. 'EXfloji' KATA MATGAION 8e i 'It)ctoCs XVI.. Mk. How cave.. it. Vide also the de. and ask: "whom turn might be expected that the Son of Man is ? " (Mt. Elijah to prepare the way and day of the hitherto employed by Him. erepoi 8e 'icpcfJiiaK. epoch-making. as It Lord (Mai. That continue his work cut short by Herod. from Caesarea on the sea). . Oi 8e • etiroi'. not believe they had. that J am ? " (jic elvoi. favourable but crude. €va twk parallels. " A place of They liked His preaching. question. Kaiaapeias |Jie eis rd (leptj Trjs iXiinroo ^p<>)Ta ToOs fj. : So Grotius venisset. and the Lebanon range. the Son of Man. with no disciples a significant question meant to lead on to important disclosures.a6T)Tds auTou.). not arriving at. " whom the idea of a wholly new departure. : in from the The omission requires the after eivoi to may mean out for. likely to be and variety of vegetation 1 " Furrer. and greater than any character in past hisLk. Jeremiah to bring back would not prejudge the question. iv. ruled the influential classes. lasting. on the other hand. ii. city.

and answer. on ''aap^ xal 'aifxa ouk ^ d7reK(i\u<|r^ in all). What more natural than that Jesus. Even the reference to the " Church " is not unseasonable. whether spoken by Peter. or epexegesis. It must suffice to say that psychological reasons are in favour of something of the kind having been said by Jesus. 2) and Psalms (xxii. have been fruitless. 25. Jesus really only introductory to this.ci>r FI^Tpos now as always spokesman for the Twelve. 16. 17-19. or of a will steadily controlled by a firm grasp of great principles not a rock in the sense <rw el in which St. but of a noble-minded Master eulogising in impassioned terms a loyal disciple. at which in a state of : — . as it were. 17. should fix His hopes on that circle. 4KK\T)ir£a. L 16. gives the original form of the reply. rather than with the strength of thought. Paul was one. found in Deut.. —Ver. Eph." "MaKoipios JO. or added by the evanfavourably latter said in effect : : . Vv. . " Vfieis 8« riva ctiTe. g (an attrf ct. conscious that His labours. in His mouth is not an anachronism. as if Peter had delivered himself of a mere high tension. otherwise without reliable following. and with a sense of the gravity of the declaration. vide on ver. so far as permanent result is concerned. Gal. Gal. either {Die Lehre an addendum by — : the evangelist or introduced at a later date by a reviser. simply •' Thou art the Christ. Solemn address of Resits to Jesus invites the Twelve to give Him The first question was their own view. . no comment on the part of Jesus. tL Heb. iL 14 (the same phrase h Ch." in Lk. Tov CwvTot " Thou art the Christ. If spoken by Peter it serves to show that he spoke with emotion. and look on it as the nucleus of a new regenerate Israel. This question cannot be fully discussed here. There may be deeper natures among them (John ?). having for its raison d'etre that it accepts Him as the Christ ? And the name for the new Israel. The precise theological value of the added clause cannot have stood alone. ix. p. The terms in which Jesus speaks of Peter are characteristic warm. 16. Kol diroKpidcls^ 6 Mijaous auTu. New vftcls question 8i. One feels that there is a hiatus in the narratives of Mk. as passionate character is. itpo<^r\TS>v. and Lk. certainly answers best to the reply of In any case the Jesus. The at most a forerunner of Messiah. i. Cor. but the Messiah Himself. desires to make sure that He. emphasis lies on that which is common to the three reports the affirmation of the Christhood of Jesus. 223 fi€ A^ei auTois. 16. (xviii.: 13—17. xxiii. though emotional rather than intellectual. and yet in view of Peter's Peter. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel. that Mk. is simply expansion whom the old prophetic charism had been revived. The Twelve through Peter said not merely a prophet or a forerunner of the Messiah. peculiar to Mt." in Mk. 15. a lower cally (aXXoi) but generically who did not connect Jesus with Messiah in any way. The firm tone of conviction in Peter's reply would give Him a thrill of satisfaction demanding expression. has in His disciples at least the nucleus of a community with a definite religious conviction as to the meaning of His ministry and mission. including Wendt Ifesu. Z(|<. That was what differentiated the disciples from the : disposed multitude. The remainder of the reply in Mt. trite commonplace. xxri. and of doubtful authenticity in the view of many modern critics. Ver. perhaps did be determined. but he is the most enerwithal getic and outspoken. 16. 6 OtOS TOU elirci' la. 26). \4ytr€ eXvai . It was a great critical moment in His spirit was doubtless His career. even as forerunner. " the One's first thought is Christ of God ". I God). both books well known to : We — vehement temperament one cannot be perfectly sure of that. Vv. QeoG TOU *Jwrros. ^ airoKpiOcis Sc in t^BD. XT. the Son of the living God. to Son in ver.. 17. may be sure the fact was not so. 15. and you ? might originally. strong. 13). xi. cursives. The form in Mt. unstinted. 181). ZiiAUf Bap 'luKa. ill.. 16." EYArrEAION 15. probably not even that. The style is not that of an ecclesiastical editor laying the foundation for Church power and prelatic pretensions. only a prophet worthy to be named alongside of the well-known prophets of Israel. generous. is. i. " i Cb. outside the disciple circle. 'ATTOKpi0€is 8c Zif&uK n^Tpos " Xu £1 6 XpiOTOS. but simply thought of Him as one in : type 0/ Man gelist (to correspond.

" Flesh and blood " covers all that can contribute to the formation of religious opinion of little intrinsic value tradition. Kal TTuXai aSoo ou KaTKrxoaooo-ic aoTT]S. suiting the emotional state of the speaker and the solemn character of the utterance. TTjS iii. something very important about to be said to Peter and about him. but on having an essentially right conception of what the title meant. 18. 24). lyin. xviii. I find in it three ideas (i) The cKKXTjo-ia is to consist of men confessing Jesus to be the Christ." Beng. 23. Christ under a misapprehence the prohibition in ver.). Hor. * weighty fdaK^pios rare and high condition. ix. Jesus was not easily satisHe wanted no man to fied as to that. if Christ really spoke the word. name. the more we play into the hands of those who maintain that the passage is an interpolation. if not always. 1 xviii.H. » KXciSas in J^BL (W. 18. This is the import of cirl Peter. It is as personal as the most zealous advocates of Papal supremacy could desire. xi. Yet it is as remote as the poles from what they mean.H.. word chosen to express a Peter's faith. and finds in the words the idea : if you had looked to my flesh you would have called me Christ. ireTpiji. and He counted on the two finding entrance into the mind together.). ir.— aap| Kal synonym in current Jewish speech oIp. here and in aoi. 19. And that sense. Heb.ov this is to be taken not in a merely ontological sense. education. takes the reference to be to Christ's flesh and blood. Vide ver. It implies satisfaction with the quality of Jesus. 52. There is a tacit contrast between Peter's faith and the opinions of the people just Flesh and blood recited. so as to account for Elsewhere in the Gospels FleTpos is a proper name. T. 7. regard to outward appearance.. which W. — : — : . is the foundation. There were thus two revelations in one of God as Father.ci'OK a_^ ck tois Kai o eav * ot|o-t]s eiri oupai'ots »^ ^*>^lil\' kui o eaf" Xuotjs eirt xz. and the fact is a clue to the meaning of the The contrast between the two phrase. by Jesus. if possible worse. He congratulated Peter not merely on believing Him to be the Messiah. 18 B omits Tois. in its room. call Him . ^erpos. or of the Aramaic dialect used then. formulam loquendi adhibent Scriptores Judaici.224 i — KATA MATGAION dXX 6 Ct XVL l8. the Son of David. as to source.).). cKKXTjaiaf. o iraxtip p. olKo8op. What follows is in form a promise to Peter as reward of his faith. and of Christ Peter had become a by the Father. sed etiam rata simul conditio significatur. Hilary.s Tr]s paai\eia$ twk Y^5> ^trroi ©e ocoep. Kal " SoSorw oupa^'oii' * • • k Lk. : a av in BD. fashion. a happy play of words. —Ver. o av in D. T. * Gospels.H. bracket.a " Infiniti frequentia banc for " man ". Bapiuva: full designation." the two being represented by ' — ' ' the same word in Aramaean (b^D^'j). : sources of inspiration is not the very general abstract one between creaturely weakness and Divine power (Wendt. 17. : Ver. elementary.')]ir« \kov T. I 1 . hension the quality of Peter's faith. authority. believing that truth. TOUTT) »/ T^ > TTeTpa OlKOOO|XT)ab> Kdvw >»> %i aoi XiyUy \ (iOO TTJO (W. No one could truly conceive the Christ who had not learned to think of God as the Father and as His Father. CTOt Rev. The true conception of Christhood was inseparable from the true conception of God. 1. must be simple. Personal in form.H. but ethically. Die Begriffe Fleisch und Geist. 1. Both are appellatives to be translated thou art a rock and on this rock. the sense of this famous logion csln be expressed in abstract terms without reference to Peter's personality. was the source of these opinions. and ircrpa only is used in the sense of rock (vii. . The more ecclesiastical we make it. eaque homines Deo opponunt. p. echo of an Aramaic source. but higher guidance has taught you to call me Son of God. Tas k\€1. custom. 20. I Ch. suitable to the initial stage withal religious and ethical rather than ecclesiastical. \>\/ KOI Ciri ^ / CI' Tois ^ oupafois. Christ did not fight to death against one form of spiritual despotism to put another. K^Y** emphatic. and after him Lutteroth. virtue." Lightfoot. Ik. It is a case of extremes meeting. 60). OTl ffO »»» ^ ar iraTT]p fiou o ricTpOS. Jesus had been steadily working for the transformation of both ideas. or experience (" hoc vocabulo non solum beata. and patronymic.. « « fc^BD omit Kttu (W. Christian.

circTip. (2) The new society is to be = the kingdom realised on earth. is of minor moment . or merely that the gates. i(mv 'Irjaous* 6 21. A society of men so believing = the kingdom revised. This the import of ver.'* kuI troXXa Kal iraOcii' dTro Twc Kal Lk. 19.. avrds. The one temptation thereto lay in the generous beneficence of Jesus. Mk. Trjs EYArrEAION 20. has * * * iircTijiTjo-ev in W.iT. Announcement of the- — . V. 20. shall not be stronger than it. They are the keys of the gate wdthout. l8— 21. (3) In the new society the righteousness of the kingdom and the building — will find is approximate embodiment. it. 20. Cop. The meaning is: Peter-like faith in Jesus as the Christ admits into the Kingdom of Heaven. €<rroi XeXufi^kOf iv tois oupofois- Tois |j. ordinarily understood. pains to prevent the faith in His Messiahship from spreading prematurely in a. not of the doors Peter is the gate-keeper.T)(rcv in BD. though possibly not with equal emphasis of conviction. Binding and loosing.a6T]Tais auToG. nor keys. Tore SicffTciXaro* 225 Y^5. 19. in Itjo-ovs. R. The lKKXT)a-(a will be strong. Observe the emphatic position of |xov. xvi. Only on that condition is the statement about the irvXat o^Sov. Jesus wanted no man to call Him Christ till he knew what he was saying : no hearsay or echoed confession of any value in His eyes. What precisely ver. -npeo-^uTcpuc Kal apxiepeuf Kal 1 ypO'H'f^ci'r^ui'. Observe it is not the keys of the church but of the kingdom. the same concerning whom current opinions have just been reported (ver. Tols p. where the best texts want fc^BLXrA omit For o CIS I. auToO ' ii'o fiT)S€vi ciirwcii'. supreme regard to quality. That is what Jesus meant to say. on adrtS. where a stronger sense seems required. For cir£T({i. only so long as the faith in the Father and in Christ the Son. Note the perfect participles ScScfJi^vov. save by the Holy Ghost. Heb. clause i. XcXv|x^vov = shall be a thing bound or The truth of all loosed once for all. The judgment of the Rabbis was mostly wrong: the reverse of the righteousness of the kingdom. not within. : — 15 . diroKTai'6T]»'ai.o0r]Tais: all the disciples are_ supposed to say amen to Peter's confession.H.17. which so often stands T. xii. as Ver. lT|(rov9 ^B. nor ecclesiastical dignities will be of much help to her.T|<re in here aiwi in Mk. the corresponding place. 31-28. fc^BCD omit avTov. Vide below. OTi Zel auTOf direXdeiK 6is 'lepoaoXufia. second clause. Euthy. Few would call such an one as ycsus Christ. and the spirit of the Father and the Son. It was hardly necessary to take 14). This is the import of ver.) not necessarily with any special emphasis graviter interdicere. D li)<rovs without the art.adT]Tais XpiCTTOS. SieareCXttTo (T. without thought of a conflict (Weiss). meant forbidding and permitting to be done. no desire to multiply hastily 6 Xpi<rT<Js recruits for the new community. Vv. ivo . valid. gives kuttiat^aXioxiTo to make sure by injunction. 16. crude form. The cKKXijo-Ca is Christ's confessing Him as Christ in Peter's sense and spirit = being Christian. three statements is conditional on the Christ spirit continuing to rule in the new society. 1nCh. the verbal meaning of the statement is whether that the gates of Hades shall not prevail in conflict against it. "'Airo TOTC '(]p|aTO 6 '\r\(Tous* SciKKueif tois fj. have Itjo-ovs Xpurrov . thinking of God and of Jesus = = BD — = as he thought.). Cf. in Rabbinical dialect. The keys are the symbol of this identity. " charged " (A. and neither creeds nor governments. clause 2. place it in text with SiecTTciXaTo in margin. The judgment of the new society as to conduct would be in accordance with the truth of things. therefore valid in heaven. the point is that it is not an absolute promise. the olKoviifvos with a bunch of keys that open all doors in his hands (against Weiss) kXciSovxov Ipvov rb cladyciv. R. enduring. .— . Euthy. ' before awiXOeiv in ^BD cursives. etc. but monuit (Loesner and Fritzsche). reign in it. is to be of a piece with the foundation. 18. When the Christ spirit is weak the Church will be weak.

crushing reply of the Master.) take it = absit! Vehement utterance of a God avert it ! precisely are the two interests ? They must be so conceived as not entirely to cancel the eulogium on Peter's faith. as suiting the solemnity of the occasion and greatly enhancing the impressiveness of the announcement. — fact. to be on God's side. concerned about having for Messiah a mere earthly hero and prince must (so Weiss also) is too wide. . Kal irpoaXaP^fici'os aoT^K 6 flerpos croi.. Meyer's comment on d. but to Peter vir. — XVI. He did not get far. which was declared to be not of man confounded and horrified. Jesus could the crisis with composure. future of perfect assurance it will not. But these refinements only weaken the effect of a word which shows that Jesus recognises here His old enemy in a new and even more dangerous form. priests. 22-27)." to do wrong a virtual apology for using the strong word Zarava. — — . not leader. ov p."• 5 . xvii. = studere rebus. 1. Lk. 'O 8e oTpa«^cls eiire |ioo el ^ • tw ricTpw." 23.«p? «Y^pW)>'ai. 6irior(o p. a minute ago speaking under inspiration firom heaven. ci €f*ov in t^B (Tisch..Ti|i. the Christ. really the world. viii. Peter here appears in a new Ver.*"'"' TOUTO. viroyc 6. now under. but of God. "'Yirayc oiriVw ° vm. — — : : . Ver. * marg. etc. inspiration from the opposite quarter. to be crucified I But one would have expected the article before Xp.p. . 23. «"• iQ- 1 For i\ft." but "a temptation to me to offend.T) k'a-rai. woXXd iroOeiv. Jesus. As soon as his meaning to me. 5- on ou ^ ^povel<i rd too 0eou. etc. final xnd fatal crisis. fjplaro.).^ "•'iXccis Kupie • ou fiTj lorai aoi |iou. etc. ethically. the . abrupt. ix. but suggesting the question: Did Peter after all call Jesus Christ in The answer must be the true sense ? He understood what Yes. i^. be killed. it could not longer delayed.H. Passion with relative conversation (Mk. one hard — righteous man Messiah must be. the 7pop. 33. W. these were the alternatives he thought man rd T. deep down in the soul a very real struggle. dXXo rd p Mk. B has \6Y«i a. The important question is: What cws «Tot Eisner renders sis bono placidoque animo. etc. general fact. I viii. : other fact not altogether intolerable. showing how much He felt the temptation calm on the surface.aT€<Dv. 17) marks the form of suitable. «'irt. tremendous be. Some of the Fathers (Origen. Jerome) strive to soften the severity of the utterance by taking Satanas as an appellative = dvTiKei|xcvoS) adversarius. restrict the phrase to the instinct of ijlfpreservation = save your life at all hazards. — — We . Tip^aTO eiriTifiat' auTw Xiyatv..).wv (W. scribes. — t«}t£ TiplaTO pointedly a new departure in explicit intimation of an approaching airo {vide iv. Perfectly honest and in one sense thoroughly creditable. Grotius. 226 n KATA MATGAION viit. kind of man was fit to be a Christ. or to study the Divine interest instead of the . Phil. benignant. Kypke. But he did not yet understand what kind of treatment such a man might expect firom A noble.. 21. Mk.— : .ov = take thy place behind me and be follower. having been satisfied by Peter's confession that His labour was not going to be in vain. which conforms to Mk. Acts TTJ TpiTTi ir])i. ov <t>pov£is rd. ix. = became apparent he encountered prompt. indicates the point oi temptation non stas a Dei partibus (Wolf). : peremptory contradiction.H. (Kypke). 31 — . Xcywv. Fritzsche. €iriTi|tav a. cannot Ver. began to chide or admonish. From Christ's point of view that was the import of Peter's suggestion preference of natural life to duty = God's Peter himself did not see that interest. but most (Erasmus. |x. or ij>pov€iv. — tX- human. special this added to make the cYEpOijvai.^ia!'' XaTOKO. o-KavSaXov not " offensive . and pointing out that in the Temptation in the wilderness Jesus says to Satan simply viraye = depart. who care more for our comfort than for our character. contrarius. diri three constituent parts of the Sanhedrim diroKraveTJvai elders. He then began to show. Disciples could Xpio-T&s after lt]<rovs in trinsically ^B is an in- probable reading. . Rom. For none are more formidable instruments of temptation than well-meaning firiends. for this was only the first of several communications of the same kind. etc. 22. — : character . said but why a man of sorrow he Peter had yet to learn. Time be much now face now bear it. 22. aKdi'SoXoj' viii.

xix. — ov Pid^oftai. Christ's first contribution towards unfolding the significance of His suffering. a lesson arising out of the situation. 25. the two opposite interests compatible. in a body. and both attainable. dvTaXXayfia something given in exchange. Chrys. Vv. Ti ydp u<^cXeiTai^ ttji' T. Job xxviii. the counterpart experience to the passion stated objectively in reference to the Son of Man. and trusting to the attraction of the life airi] tov irpdy.. ec ttj S6§j| toG irarpos zvii. cpxcirdai iv t. 32). 27 fi AXci ydp Twi' 6 uios ToG dcOpuirou epxeadai. self-collected. it is easy to be a hero and face any experience. 42. 24-28. Vide on however. Dion. 18. zxiiL Acts 51. • diTapnfi<T<£aflw iaurov. w John viii. This is one of the chief texts containing Christ's doctrine of the absolute worth of man as a moral subject. viii.rapyT)O'do-0(i> timates = account when he is in It distress. In Mk. no compulsion who remarks on the wisdom of Jesus in leaving every man free. Kal fioi. setting it forth as the result of a fidelity after — : .. Suaci ayQpuiros dkrdXXaYP^ci t^s Mk. and it might be used by Jesus as the symbol of extreme torment and disgrace. xiv. eavrbv here only. Cf. o-ravpov looks like a after Christ's passion. acOpwiros. but Kypke and Eisner cite instances from Herod. This belongs to a third group of texts to be taken into account in an attempt — Punishment by crucifixion was known to the Jews through the Romans. i Kings xxi." V Lk. a price to buy back the life lower or higher both impossible. 8. 8e '("'X^^ 4'*'X^$ auTou auToS I^T]p. Grotius says that the verb in classics has only the dative it = mulctare morte.' auToG ftexd TT}!' dyy^w*' outoG 28. — incommensurable with any outgreat. General instruction on the Ver. €«s 25 {iavToi'). : }xaTOS r\ ^vo-is iKavTj : ctlxXKutraadai. 24. fjiT) • Kal Tore diroSuaei iKdorw Kara Rom. cicti Tifes &»* Twr wSeuMk.). I'his and the following verses suggest aids to practice of the philosophy of " dying to live ". 2. 26. Rom. — Ver. It profits not to gain the whole world if you lose your life. or self-subordination. i8«ai toi' ^ ' €<mrjK<5TWK. illustrates the meaning by considering not to what it is to deny another -assist him. 'irpaliK auToG. 27. — . subject of the two interests. Heb. * diroXcCTT] «|ruxT)»' aoToG €V€K€V cat* T] cupV^cei * ouTTi^i' • 26. 2i). — to righteousness incumbent on all.). xxiii. bewail him or suffer on his d'.. ' 13. X Lk. but the phrase dparoi t. Vide x. of its use with accusative.eXXci points to something near and certain note the emphatic position. Ver. . aoTou awcrai. the passion spoken of in the second pei son (ver. 38. diroX^aei aun^r cfiou. etc. • dpdTU fYp Mk. 5a. Hal. didactic tone Jesus proceeds to give the disciples. . 24. this . EYArrEAION T<iT€ 6 'lijaous elire Tu)v iyOpii-noiv. the spiritual . 27. (T|p.icii0x).. p. 15 (Sept." ^* rots f/io6TjToi$ auToG. 'AfiTjK Xeyu upif.— Ver.' oiTik'cs ou ' ycuawrrai QavaTou.R. self-denial. Ver. viii. For the man who grasps it.. The statein this verse is self-evident in the sphere of the lower life. 33. Caesarea crisis was the most appropriate occasion for the first promulgation of It was great ethical principle. ' »<(>cXri0Tia-eTai in ^BL cursives. for you cannot enjoy your possession a life lost cannot be recovered at any price. even though He did not then know certainly that He Himself should meet death in that particular form. viii. The Mt. 1 Plf ?* • El Tis 6eXei 67»»(i) fiou eX9ei»'. 39. ci tis dc'Xei: wishes.. Jesus wishes His disciples to understand that the same law obtains in the higher life: that the soul. To Jesus Christ it was a life. : in calm. '^ uloK ToC dkOpuirou * cpxo)X6Kov cf T^ PaaiXeia outoG. Kal dKoXoudciTW 'n]y <J»oxT)>' 25* °5 Y^P os 8' di* * ^*' ^ ^^U ttjk rh°"''' viii. ment clirc ToXs f/iaO. It became a common expression. '^ tok Ti KotrfLOv oXok KcpSi^oi]. and if forfeited the loss is irrevocable.. car in ^BC. X. not suffer injury to.. ' IL 9. eo-TWTwv in ^BCDLI. inthat discipleship will call for Chrys.— £2 . 13. 27. TOk 'oraopoK auTOu. trait ror introduced need not be. . would sound harsh and startling when first used. but forfeit. <r.. is ward possession however self-evident truth. vin. Themis. both are objectively put but the disciples took the reference as personal (Mk. —d 227 **^- — 28.i(t)6^ .

21. A crux interpretum. KOT iSiaK. the heroic life is not in The absolute worth itself an attraction. ix. L XVI KATA MAXeAION XVII. by others again to the origins of the Church (Calvin. there will be ample compensation for trial soon . KAI fi€0' T^fi^pas '\<iiivyr\y e| iropaXajiPdvci 6 'lT)aous to*' H^Tpoj' ' di'a<|>cpci 51 (T. Kol cXafi^e to vpaataTtov auTou title ws o Tj\ioSi Ta oc ifidria auTou to fix the import of the —those which Ycvo-wvTai refer to apocalyptic glory in terms drawn from Daniel vii. els iiL i8. |ieTC}iop(|>w6ifj ejiirpoffdcc airStv. 1-13. just as some of His utterances and His general spirit postulate a wide range in space for the Gospel (universalism) though He conceived of His own mission as limited to If the logion concerning the Israel. vide Eisner in Mk. etc. In those days Jesus sought to explain firom the O. Iws o. fidelity. Kal 2. but on the principle that in preternatural experience* the subjective and the objective correspond. The general meaning can be etc. Chrys. supposed by some to refer to the Transfiguration (Hilar)'. we may learn the psychological antecedents of the Transfiguration firom the Transfiguration itself.) by others to the destruction of Jerusalem (Wetstein. inferred with certainty from the purpose to furnish an additional incentive to It is: Be of good courage. postulate a wider range of time than some of His words indicate. much of His teaching about the kingdom easily fits into the latter. This sense excludes the Transfiguration. for some of you even before you die. 16 the six days of Mt. t^t€ airoSwirci comes to make final the Son of Man a Hebrew idiom. ix. Theophy. Jesus must have conceived a Christian era to be at least a possibility. the Set of xvi. T. 2-13.^pas t|. 13. ii.) within a generation. xxiv. It is an aid to spirits not equal to this part in virtue of its intrinsic nobleness yet not much of an aid to awards. Church (ver. av as usual in classics and N. and Mk. The uncertainty comes in in connection with the form in which the general truth is stated. in a clause referring to a fiiture contingency depending on a verb referring to future time. C. The comes in subjunctive after Schottgen and Wetstein. Grotius. and the eight days of Lk. for after such solemn communications as those at Caesarea Philippi it was not to be expected that matters would go on in the Jesus-circle as if nothing had happened. As to that. 2528. The Trausfiguration (Mk. of the true life is Christ's first and chief line of argument . vide : reference to judgment to brace up disciples to a heroic part. and Psalms (Lk. — .. and deep moral pathos. in all Such differences His promises naturally contemplate the former. The thoughts and talk of the company of Jesus were the prelude of the vision. leadeth up in this sense not usual. Three impressive tableaux connected by proximity in Chapter XVII. a common Lk. 28.)' Kal 'idKbt^ov KOI u«|njX6t' tok d8eX(}>oK auTou. whatever His own forecast That might as to the future might be. various expressions of the thought that between the confession of the one disciple and the experience of the three a sacred week intervened.. 28-36).. Of these days we have no particulars. ix.) .— Ver. He had to promise the advent of the Son of Man in His Kingdom or of the Kingdom of God in power (Mk. and they ignored by the teacher. This precise note of time incident.. for why trouble about founding a Church if the wind-up was The words of to come in a few years ? Jesus about the future provide for two possible alternatives: for a near advent and for an indefinitely postponed advent.) finds even in this a mythical element. ful to disciples summoned to bear the cross as any of the thoughts in xvi. of sacrifice in Jas. jitfl' -q|x. cannot be . preternatural aspect. this is merely subsidiary.R. but not 0. exclusively so. time.). laK. which came too soon to be compensatory. 18) be genuine. Prophets. «.— 228 aMIc.v tSwo-i. —Ver.— ava^iepei. n^T. Christ's speech was controlled not merely by His own thoughts but by the hopes of the future entertained by His disciples. 21 and in exist disciple-circles. . Vv. Kol '' auTOus Rom^'xii. — : . Iwdv.. etc.. showing firom Moses. those to whom tion The TransfiguraEpileptic Boy The Temple Tribute. For Rabbinical use. — : So in Gethsemane. i. looks like exact recollection of a strictly historical Yet Holtzmann : (H. The .T. opos I. . For examples of the figure of tasting applied to experiences. i. based on Exodus xxiv. A thing in itself intrinsically likely. Euthy. 44) the large place occupied by the experience of the suffering in This would be quite as helprighteous. Jesus takes witli Him the three disciples found most capable to understand and sympathise.

Peter imagined that Moses and Elias had come to stay. the verb coming before the two nom. i. Recent opinion favours Hermon. it goes without saying (Lk. Tl^ av ovv opuv TrapeXOoi KoTaYsoYtov toiovtov. All — depends on whether the six days were spent near Caesarea Philippi or in continuous journeying. etc. a. Ik iS ' -ri}? kci^^tjs. Pseud. in its dramatis persona and their talk. does say it). but wakened up before its close. Chrys. a tradioriginating in tion fourth century with Cyril of Jerusalem and Jerome. in quo com. but not greatly to his KaX^v iarnv. 24. xiii. T. vide vi. reflecting the state of mind of the Ver. either it is credit. iroii^(r(i>|jiei' ' SSe Tpeis aoi (iioK. " The Mount of Transfiguration does not concern geography" Holtz. there appeared to scene the three disciples. but not necessarily on that account the truer to the thought of the speaker. cites Anacreon riapa TT)v (TKiTiv BddvXXc Kd6io-ov • KaXov r6 ScvSpov. e. how was Euthy.. in old Hebrew books Another sugges- This sense amoenus est. * is legitimate. suggests that Peter here indirectly renews the policy of resistance to going up to Jerusalem (Horn. seems to imply that the three disciples were asleep at the beginning of the scene. Recognition of Moses and Elias was of course involved in the vision. ix. I 6 i Ch. ^)BC. . Six days would take them far. — —Kal eXap. Kol Mwo-fj jxioi'. ° OAcis. deliberative substantive with Oe'Xeis preceding and without tva. 15. — — pleasant— so we vision.CTcp.). 4. and he will —Ode — 22. EYArrEAlON <^o)S. "Eti auToG XoXourros. 5-8. branches of trees. xiv. ctire (16t' 3.. says recognition possible ? the disciples had read descriptions of famous men. that Peter did not know what he was saying. 6. traditional mountain.. shrubs.: — : — : I — 6. xxvi. 1 ftMC^I is T. (L^Qxisray^ auTOis MwffT]S 4.the place is are here —we usually or it is well that the disciples to serve . 3. Kal filay Lk. Sufficient objectivity is guaranteed by the vision being enjoyed by all the three. ^^i^^*'' (dat. in illustration of the former. i/cAAti ^<i}vr\ ^(>)T€ivt] EirecKiaao' ('^po? «^xviji.vTj. Kol 1800. good for ns to be here =." 5. voir\a-u in attovere avrow in ^BD33. €|XT7poo-6£v you and your visitants Weiss and Holtzmann (H. — Why Vv. Ivi. AiroxpiSels 8e i R^jpos el T« 'lii(Tou. 15. a grammatical correction of ancient revisers. locus. Vit4 22. The whole scheme a stupidity. " Outos iariv auTou dKOuere. Pricaeus. so as to be visible Luke's narrative to them. 'HXia. rii. 229 ' ^I'^tfrJ "^^^j]^ iyivero XcuKot 6s rh Kai 'HXios. p. 10). Peter to the front again. 2. Zig. seers. including Moses and Elias. which would have been improbable if purely subjective.. on the theme uppermost in all minds. '^ I. For a realistic view of the occurrence the question arises. — — . 1800.— avTwv. omitted in Mt.{/c . Vulgate iransfiguratus became appearance. V. Ver. auTOus ui<Ss • Kal tSod. etc. which. The ^B place (i€T' avTov after o-vXXaXovvTcs. Ver. a luminous . X^youaa. Tabor the Spot vit{/i]X^v 27. in view of the remark of Lk. three? One better for persons in converse. rci^cXn] ^wTei.. ing with Jesus. tion is that Moses appeared with the law in his hand. ^ ko\6v i<mv iJfAas w8e elvaiorKT)Kds. converschariot. «^s : these words describe the aspect of the transformed person . p. All purposes would be served by an appearance in vision.* "Kopie. the cross . Rom. not necessarily an absolutely real. carry it out himself. cited by Eisner).g.). C). est. vii. face sun-bright. the main topic of recent conversations. the — — — . C»). Heb. leading and remarkable feature in the &^9r\ avrois. iroiiio-o).. uou 6 dvainiTiSs. 8 . Vide below. and Elias in his fiery oPuXXaXovvrts ft. altered in Such transformation in exalted states of mind is predicated of others. rpcis <rKTivds material at hand. Cod. moremur. aoTOu auXXoXoOrres. of lamblichus (Eunapius in I. the singular shall I make ? suits the forwardness of the man it is his idea. (H.. and. and of Adam when naming the beasts (Fabricius. . iv cu8<SKiio'a* Kal Cor. R. airoKpiOEls 6 fl. * » i^BD. raiment pure Kal iSou introduces a white.op4>wOT|. objective presence of — : Moses and Elias.. Fritzsche is certainly the more poetical.

per/ectissimo — : obsequio. but it is their . Philo in atr^m. The reason of the injunction lies in the nature of the experience. Kai c>. Hunc audite.H. Ver. thinking a shadow incompatible with the light. etc.). but impossible to be Kal ISov. 28) one of future contingency at a past time. Fritzsche.H. fine remarks on the analogy between the experiences of Jesus at His baptism and on the Mount. Herder has some Bleek and Weiss. kqi aKovdivine voices terrify poor oravTEs. 1. 6. \ ••«\ " vl* O lT)aOUS.as » ->4\» fl_* aoTou. The second the more probable. human and kindly. raising their eyes they see no one but Jesus. » GUI' e i^v» Kai eiTTjpuTTjo-a*' / auTOK 01 • """"^ »\e " YP^'^M'M'''^'''^''^ \ / 01 Acy""*'''^*'' vpoa"t\\6ev o CK in 1. ^BD . Moses and Elias gone. 11). place the former in the text and the latter in * avTOv BCD but wanting in ALZ33. 6 'Itjo-ous Tji|/aTO auTwf. (with iTrb. h Ch. the vision. oiro in Z. 7. xxvii..). owtos at the spoken this time about Jesus Loesner support Whom — : : . AeyCJl'. Weiss).x.^xh KaTapaii/oio'ui' auTwi* airo ^ tou opous. ear to the voice the same as that of the the voice eye to the visitants. still a cloud capable of casting a a faint shadow. and those of other men at the time of moral decisions in youth and in the near presence of death {vide his Vom Erloser der Menschen. s. among others. W. 8. fCh. Olsh.— 230 e Ch. etc. meant with for the ear of the three disciples. <t-i-' lAaUTjTai Ti herein W. 54. and a word. — . etc. Bleek. . The voice the be taken connection announcement of the coming passion. only partially fit witness their terror (ver. 7.cvo« . 'Eirdpavrts Sc tous » . i. (<lJ«^» opafXa. universi apostoli et pastores praesertim.. and Jesus in His familiar aspect . ^ OUOEVa ClOOC. : Conversation while deVv. circites passages from of this meaning. 6. 6). <f)oPcra0c. or to the appearance of Moses and Elias.0US avTiiiV. TO Spap. non Some. Visions are for those who are It boots not to reprepared for them. Kal ciircK. 9. render ^Trco-Kiao-ev tegebat. mortals. here only in Gospels and in Acts (vit. §§ 18.t)8evI cittjte injunction of secrecy. § 324). and the lateness of their coming (Euthy. €«s ov. Kai in . X. . 31. first the visitants. Kal irpocrcXOwt' Kal "fiT) J . p. atj/a[j. — : — . scending the hill. owing to fragmentariness of report . xvii. again introducing a certain. >^. Ver. etc.-'\ Q' 9. justifying the view above given of the experience. xxvl. Eisner.). 10. Ti ovv. late them to those who are not fit to Even tl^ three were receive them.* XcvoKTCs. ElirEV a touch Ver. nempe solum. 5. six days after the announcement at Caesarea Philippi. xvi. aviTovs. 19). VIII.T) TOK ItjaOUK flOfOK. * Km ' e<()oPi)- o'<|>6Spa. And so ends the vision. - "'Ey^pOifjTC ^ . {" cloud. now main feature Relation of the the voice from heaven. const. 9 (Meyer). and Elias ? all the six ? or the All these two celestial visitants alone ? views have been held. Cl p. or to the shortness of — : — . Jesus God's well-beloved as self-sacrificing. a\|/ap. restore strength and composure. ' more comai/opwTrou monly sa/ 3 /^» «»»o 10. by Eisner. from Jesus.. g Ch. 12. Difficult to decide. especially when they echo and reinforce deep moving thoughts within. ? the disciples ? Jesus.. plena fide. XXViii. aKOvETE avTov to be taken in the same connection = hear Him when He speaks to you of the cross." Fritzsche). > i cK KeKpuK ai'aaTf)." V 8. * ^ ^BCD margin. but only that they could then speak of the vision intelligently and intelligibly. — : stay ? (Grotius. 10. " withcK. CUS OU O UIOS TOO MTJOei'l ClITTJTe TO ' -^ 0<pl7aAp. Christ's tone seems to have been that of one making light ox the recent experience (as in Lk. does the oviv refer to the prohibition in ver. It is not implied that Jesus was very desirous that they should then begin to speak.a6T)Tai 6T]o-a»' eTreaov cirl Trpoawiroc auTw*'. held. followed by subjunctive without ov in this case {cf. The optative is used in classics {vide Burton.). still in the minds of the three disciples. Not till the resurrection.cvos avTwv eiircr in ^6. 9-13. 20). in al. the dazzling brightness about face and garments vanished. ^irdpavTES T. though one admodum cumdabat. Herder. — KATA MATGAION XVI L dKOucramres ol p. Ver.. rycpOt) in BD avo<rTij in ^C. Ver. etc.a. ckctciXoto auTois . Moses. baptism to to Him in (Mk..

xl. This word occurs in Sept. The before the Christ. as in ii.). especially those who professionally taught that Elijah must come. ix. as representing the Zeitgeist." 13. is a mistake. but only of the order of coming as between Elias and Christ... Tore auvi\Kav on tou BaimaToO * eiTrei' auroi?. Our Lord expected no literal coming of Elijah. Kal eXOovTwv' auTWf irpos rbv oj^Xoi'. . The contrast between the mechanical literalism of the scribes and late most natural to take ovv in connection with preceding verse. kiya Sk Jesus finds 337-8. Very brief report compared with Mk. ix. . sah. ovik IWyvworav they did not recognise him as Elijah." 1 1 .. so that there in ovv a is some ground for finding reference to that also. Die Lehren des T. How thoroughly He understood His : : — and how free was from illusions ! Ver. why then do the scribes say etc. he is moonstruck the symptoms as described are those of epilepsy. vision.— 7—14HXiav Sci aoTois. literally. The function of Elias. : = here to prepare the way for Thy public entry actual into recognition and Messianic power and glory. 37-43). R. i 17 the reference is to restitution of right moral and complying with his summons to repentance. after they had reThou art cognised in Jesus the Christ the Christ we know. etc. timeless present.—iYfiI—.—dX\* ciroiT]crav €v avr^. 11. — He : who — ... between fathers and children. pp.). which were supposed to become aggravated with the phases of I . was to lead Israel to the Great Repentance. Weiss). the disciples were surprised that Moses and Elias had not come sooner. Euthy. occurrence is not of vital importance. literally. such as the Patristic interpreters (Hilary.). the scribes. Weber. iv. Raphel cites instances of similar use from Polyb. praesens pro future. \iyia 8c ufxif. yovvirerdtv. as conceived by the scribes. airoKaTacTTTiaei iravra. — — : . in which sense it would naturally take the dative (T.a6T)Tai.^ 'hSt) koI ^ diroKaTao-Tii^o-ci irdi'Ta j vide at Ch. 14. irpoaT)X0€»' aurS dffOpw- ' ^BDLZ ^BZ omit lY|<rovs. etc. ficXXci irdoxci*' irepi 'iwdvfou «"' auTWK.— owtws Jesus reads His own fate in the Baptist's. ' BD omit avrois- * * i<^BD omit irpwTov. Ver.. ? To lay the emphasis (with Weiss) on irpwrov. The epileptic boy (Mk. R. as if the free spiritual interpretation of Jesus comes out here. cXdovTAiv the avTwv of T. epxcTat present. all etc. Vide on this. t6t€ <rvvr\Kav the parallel drawn let the three disciples see time. 14-21. in him. 14. • koI ouk cir^yfOMrai' auroi'* dXX' liroiTjo'av cf ocra r]QiKr]aav outoj Kal 6 ulos toC dcOpuirou 01 p. It is a didactic. they murdered him in resentment of the earnestness of his efforts towards a moral diroKardo'Tao'is €v a^Tbi — (Herod. Raphel {Annotationes in S. Theophy. but to the apparently slighting tone If the recent in which Jesus spoke. alluded to by their Master. 15. Far from recognising in him Elijah. on auTw 'HXias rjXde. who cites instances of this enallage temporis from Xenophon. so still relations : further reducing the significance of the the Elijah was. omit avruv. the prophecy as to the advent of Elias fulfilled in John the Baptist. not classical.) supposed Baptist Him was The adventwould appear to them soon enough to satisfy the requirements of the scribes just at the right time. referring to Raphel. What a disenchantment: not the glorified visitant of the night vision. the true Elijah Vv. S. : . but similar construction found in Gen. 12. 4. Ver. The sudden disappearance of the celestials would tend to deepen the disappointment created by the Master's chilling tone.^2. 10. Mai. 13. and elsewhere (Sept. 14-29 Lk. avT^) here used actively with accusative = to beknee him (Schanz. Chrys. and lo ! Elias is the Elijah He looked for. 5. o-cXT)vid^eTai. prefers to find in the present here no note of time. 14.^ '* : — ^ — — 231 EYArrEAION ^XOeii' irpOtrov . might easily be omitted as understood from the connection. So Weiss. Ver 11. for which liri(rTp^\|/ai stands in Lk. to refer to in ver. but the beheaded preacher of the wilderness.). 'O Be 'Irjaoos aTroKpiOels eXitev • 'HXias fxei' Ipxexai irpoiToi'.. which probably has come in firom ver. Wolf {Curat Phil. only not as referring to the prohibition of speech pro tern. falling upon the knees.

Ver. and all diseases with which the notion of demoniacal possession was associated have this feature in common. 2 Cor. Jesus lonely.ii.(jL£VT)) But we must be careful around Him. kot' I8iav the disciples have some private talk with the Master as to what has just happened. Ver. all. Perhaps the complaint was spoken in an undertone. as if of one weary in well-doing. etc. * p. The avT^ after eirert- 14). 8ia Ttjv dXiyoirio-Tilav. Kpidels 8e 6 *It]o-ous clircf. suffers badly. rb Saifidviov : the first intimation in the narrative that it is a case of possession.* XVII. 1 avTov in nearly previous avrw. — . grown tired naturally refers to the demon. bility stupidity. sent parent. Jesus had not really of doing good. It is ness. iii. Eph. kukus irao-xei- and then.) following (ews the utterance of a fine-strung nature. Ver. ad p. aloud : i)>EpcTe fjioi : bring him Raphel (Annot. lK4y](T6v fiou H. " 20. at other times. 19. OUK T|Sui'if]0T)|xei' cK^aXeiK auTo . perhaps. dc^loftai ^eperi ix. ix.— 232 k with here Til's KATA MATGAION (W. more common in classics). with TTup. and just on that account to be preferred to airio-rtav (T.|XEni]. : —Ver. 31). The tone of His voice. Ch. and longing for the question •jTOTe.wj' ^ . 5). 18. good Greek. and adopted by most editors. Kol \4y<av.)and in oTi o-eXtii'tdJeTai Kal Kaxus irdfrxei ' • iroXXdKis yap iriTrrei els to Mk.rjCTei' auTu 6 'ItjctoOs. they had possessed and exercised healing power. ) a word coined to express the fact exactly too little faith for the occasion (cf. p. scribes (Mk. omit lT|<ravs.r]v 'lT]aous * ciircK* auTOis. just audible to those near. Heb. iv. the men of the Galilean mission. T6t€ irpoacXBorres 1^^. xxxii.. tois (tattTjTaXs the nine left behind when Jesus and the three ascended the Mount. text).a0i]Tais orou. : . wherever it ovK Ti8vv>j9"rjo-av the case baffled was." 17. avru a " mechanical repetition" (Weiss) of the it is £X«i in ^BLZ . (Deut. Epilepsy presents to the eye the aspect of the body being in the possession of a foreign will. W. iv. with gen. 16. therefore plural. was far away in spirit from worn out. or lost patience with the bruised reed and smoking taper. said to the crowd generally. Kal ouk Tj8un]9r]o-ai' "''Q. W. in it. " Kopw. ^^BD 33. 19. itotc ° mMk." Lightfoot. eliro*'. here only. xiv. Ver. 1 5. would show that. weary of the dulend. ix.19.T](rcv loc. gently reproachful. "^ all uncials.= H. to me. IPhil. koI irpoo^KCYKa cuiroi' toIs Ttl'O?. as involving a severer reflection. not to read into it peevishness or un- graciousness. R. Hor. Kal iroXXdiKis cis to uSup. introduce it with hesitation. * t^BD 33.. Kal c|f]X6cc cKcinfjs. 18.fi. quibus vel distortum est corpus vel mens turbata et agitata phrenesi. has much to recommend The tendency would be to tone down. iros * yot'oireToii' afirw. Lk. 'Atto- xxvii.619 01 |xa6T)Tal tw Myjcou kot' iSiaf " AiaTi accus. 20. : just then. malis spiritibus attribuere. 'O 8e ufitav. Iws iroTe lao|jiai ' |ie0' up. eos praesertim. &. dir* Col. ufjiwi' . not to speak of the all moral perversity (8i6o-Tpo(i. : — : .oi xi. 16. only conjecture. (all auTou to Saiii^Kiof. as the more usual word to be suspected. 41. and : the guesses the genesis of the theory of possession. "Aid ttjk diriOTiaj' ® is ydp Xeyu v\uv. yckeot airioros I<ds Kal 'Si€(rrpap. etc. Who are referred to we can are Probably more or less all prevarious. spiritual insuscepti- (airio-Tos). Kal iQepaiT€uQr\ 6 irais diro Trjs upas 13 19. 2. have Xryci. though airio-Tiav oXiyoirio-Tiav in and other uncials. 29.) gives examples from Pol3b. as the shows. auTof w8e. and. Siari OVK i^8vvi]dT)|A6v the question implies that the experience was exceptional in other words that on their Galilean mission. " Judaeis usitatissimum erat morbos quosdam graviores. the (cxei moon (cf. CD cursives. auToc OepaircCaai. The fame of Jesus and His disciples as healers had reached the neighbourhood. p. rhv ulov. X.H.c6 \»|i«v s ^ co-o|xai in ^BCDZ33. ^B 24). or averse to such work 17. 17. disciples. and a hint as to — — S> : — yevea exclamation of impatience and disappointment.. 15. Kal eircTifj. This reference to an as yet unmentioned subject Weiss explains by the influence of Mk.

Ver. verss. The temple tax. that He might carry on the instruction of the undisturbed Twelve. have <rv(rTpe4>op. IXvTrr]0t)trav o-<}>(i8pa. — — The 31). Here are the receivers of custom. fxcTcipa (-^1)01 T. TouTO Sc TO yivos ouK eKiropeuerai." a phrase current in the Jewish schools for a Rabbi distinguished by legal lore or personal excellence (Lightfoot. home again after lengthened wandering with the satisfaction home gives even after the most exhilarating holiday excursions. not to insinuate that the disciples have not even the minimum.. It is rather to recent revelations of disFor affection within the disciple-circle. It is '^ This whole verse Hier.). 4av viariv ^ EYArrEAION i&s 233 ex^'''^ K^KKOf aivdveusy epctre tw opci toutu MctcSPtjOi * ° ivreHQev * €K6i. a lav txT''*> '^ Y^ have. purpose is to exalt the power of faith. as usu^. etc. home-coming often means return to care. Grotius. 21. n evflef (W. R. the second Mk. i. states that announcement was though returned to familiar scenes Jesus did not wish to be recognised. ix. but unmistakably a genuine historic reminiscence in the main. the Mount of Transfiguration visible and pointed to. 24. 22. demanding tribute. 23.. verss. <rv<rTp€4>opev<i>v a. (Cur. to lay to That was a part of the truth and the part it became them heart. irpoo-TjXBov ol. •^ ^c irpoacux'Q Kal H. ix. only half developed into legend. if there were three disciples who showed some receptivity to the doctrine of the cross. aerai. at least. iv. vg.— pe'XXei. tvQev (xiii. with dative = to a reminiscence of Mk. Lk. in view of the words els Xctpas dvBpwircdv. * has avao-TTio-eTOi (W. contains a covert allusion to the part He is to play. — — : when made. <a8vvaT>](r6i used in the third person singular only in N. xvi. From the Mount of Transfiguration money demands to which one is too poor to meet. 14). what a descent I The experience has been often : — — — — — : — repeated in the lives of saints. a minimum of faith. ad Mt. els Koir. Syrr. Jesus here in effect calls faith — an "uprooter of mountains. 21. they were all greatly distressed . 115. weighty saying. Hor. they had got back to Galilee Iv T. €lit€V adrois o vide Ch. xhey were moving about. as soon as they hear of the arrival. — — pcTaPi^o-eroi iKil for cvTciiOev Ikcutc. etc. In Mt. T. sons of God. 24.ii'. Sin. but no one this time ventured to remonstrate or even to ask a question (Mk. xxi. VTjerreia. evOcv in is ^BD. The prediction of resurrection seems to have counted for nothing. Vide on Mk. Vide Schmiedel's Winer. while 45). there was one to whom it would be very unwelcome. and who doubtless had felt very uncomfortable since the Caesarea announcement. done. be impossible Ver. 21. r. a poetical form of imperative like dva^a in Rev. new feature not in the first announcement. ix. ra SCSpaxpa a S(8paxpov was a coin equal to two Attic drachmae. Even Holtzmann (H. changed into the more oLvacTTp. 30. 24-27. — ix. Vv. 44. 2g. 23. p. ^ auTui' iv rfj TaXiXaia. Heb. said. Vv. Second announcement of the Passion (Mk. Ver. thinks the reference is to God the Father delivering up the Son. introducing. 32). xai ^. Schanz says they had no miracle faith (" fides miraculorum"). a6 {xncU critical note there).). (T. Kal eyepOiq- 22 for similar nse. margin). T^ opei rovrcp. . p Lk. " MeXXei 6 olos toG 22. C. |ji€Tapo in i«^B . ^B B I it. doubtless a gloss easily understood foisted into the text. x\'iii. only.. Ver. Kal diroKTCfouo'if aurtSf. the great engrossing subject of instruction was the : vapaSCSotrOai a doctrine of the cross. 37 (Gen.) regards it as history. Ver.CTa^i^acTai Kal ouSci' ' dSucari^aei ci p-f) up. a reunited band. kokkov o-ivcLTrcus proverbial for a small quantity a|iT)v. men of genius. ^ CDLAI wanting in ^B 33. di'Opuirou -irapaSiSoa6ai eis x^^P°^^ tt} Tpirr) liip^pa dcOpcSTTUi'. and to the Jewish half shekel — : . 23 (Weiss). R.—— — : : 35—23. 'ANAITPE«I>0MENQN 8c 6 'It]<tous. ii. a present general supposition.H. 22-23. some Latin and many other uncials have it. i. Wiinsche)." 1 ^ Kol i\uTzr\Qj]<Tav <T^6hpa. 31 .). irapaS.€v«>v . ix.) here and in Lk.

and in that view abstained from insisting on personal claims.) BC retain (W. and that discourse in turn reflects light on the prelude. The 7e lends emphasis to the 20. xi. The meeting of the tax collectors with Peter had taken place outside . - eiiroc. before is a e«j)T) instead of a full stop as in T.).. it had been noticed by Jesus. prompt. but left Peter to manage But the the matter as he pleased. "^ 'E\66vruv \ - 8c ouTuf €15 KairepcaoiJfi. for Si8pa)(jxa ^ Xa^^dcoi'Tcs 1 Tc\€t Ta^ x T« ' FI^Tpu. apayc on the force of this particle vide at vii. . the latter a tax on persons = indirect and direct taxation. Ver. The question . and a In other good reason for saying it.. Master is aware of something that took place among His disciples on the way home. <« "'O SiSdaKaXos «. The reply is ajeu d'esprit.* Ill * Krivaov diro utwi' auTu^. ufiuK ou ^ > r c'C "' Oibpaxfta. etc. as Peter understood it. vii. foreigners. and disallow its claims. the latter. : 28. cXOovra in B. r£Ki\ r\ tjohn Acts 6. xni. t. customs or tribute the former taxes or wares. — . . » * with cia-cXOovTa in margin. — — refers specially to the latter. in reference not to the nation. circumstances He would probably have taken no notice. I. P. = about fifteen pence payable annually by every Jew above twenty as a tribute . but to prepare the way for a moral lesson. The For Xeyev grammatical correction. 27. 12. W. which . that we may not create misunderstanding as to our attitude by asking exemption or refusing to pay.H. place in the margin. that the children are — free. Heb. Iifiuc. W. X. W. "Edni t 1 'Airo rCtv dXXoTptwK. He . i). and to be regarded as the key to the meaning of The story of what Jesus this incident. post-exilic time based on Exodus xxx. Frequent in Sept. R. really the prelude to the discourse follow- It was a tribute of the to the temple. 01 'J ^aaiXcIs twk " 1 > ttjs yy\^ i] diro Tivtav^ diro \a]i.) with lively colloquial effect Adar (March). Christ's understood by Him. 01 24. 6. with a singular lack of exegetical insight. *' Aeyci..H. ivo (AY) o-KavSaX.H. irpo^«|)Oaor€v. 5. adopts the former . e\96vra I. TTpoii>Qa(Tey auToi' 6 'iriaoos. and the drift of the interview instinctively what think you ? reXtj vf ktjvo-ov. The time of collection was in the month ing on humility. Peter evidently the principal man of the Jesus-circle for as internally. it . vii. having something special to say.. or a statement of fact implying past pajmient. Bel. confident answer may be either an inference from Christ's general bearing.). which has begun attention to show itself among His disciples. Ver.H. Respect for the Master (SiSao-KaXos) makes them go to the disciples for information. J^BCL have eiirovTos & (Tisch. Tisch. xxi. way. 26. 6. After the destruction of the 13-16. 7). . And the aim of Jesus was to fix Peter's ! on the fact that He was anxious to avoid giving offence thereby. said to Peter about the temple dues is — purpose is not seriously to argue for exemption." r auTu 6 . Mk. aXXorpiuv. Temple the tax continued to be paid to the Capitol (Joseph. 26. twk ' dXXoTpiwK . meant to report. 1 * ^D omit Ta here (Tisch. what your answer to the collectors seemed to deny. v » m '" Nai. here only in N. but Jesus spoke first. " i ' ' aoi SoKci. Rom.^dvov(n. SoKcX phrase often found in Mt. anticiPeter pated him. 17. T. iTpo<rr]\0oi' tA. who have the privilege of exemption. Koi ore Ti " > hoii^ '• r ". rt'o-ot. Over against the spirit of ambition. ov outsiders as well The receivers are feeling their TeXei. A^vei auTw 6 n^rpos. (xviii. thinks the scandal dreaded is an appearance of disagreement between Master and disciple It is rather creating the impression that Jesus and His followers despise the temple. 6. Ver. exemption of the vioi. The adoption of civovtos requires a comma B has Tivos. T. — — : but to the royal family. Kai 25. 25. 9. . It virtually replies to Peter's vaC = then you must admit. ciariXOei'^ els ttik oiKiai'. R. not yet mentioned by the evangelist but about to be (xviii. and possibly the question was simply a roundabout hint that the tax this vaC was overdue. cio-eXSovTa in ^ (-ti D) . Nosgen. X^vuv. tw Fl.— 234 q here only — KATA MATGAION XVII. 34.

. What he is chiefly concerned about is to report the behaviour of Jesus on the occasion. or did their question mean. cannot have been the important point for the evangelist. he infers that the words were not meant seriously as a practical direction.xx. And why pay taken to heart more than the others the gloomy side of the Master's predictions. Beyschlag {Das Leben Jesu.) as sets His own and desire as spirit of self-effacement possible to live far Were Peter the along with Himself? disciples not liable peaceably with all men. James and John there. based on rare proverbial examples of money found in fishes. a>Tt cfiou Kai aoo. . moral weakness disloyalty to the Master (xvii. . OF is Chapter XVIII. ovtI I)iov Kal <rov various questions occur to one here. and placed omit np'. paid by many. p. . Vv.. the announcement of the Passion his more honest-hearted companions let their minds rest on the more pleasing side of the prophetic picture. which searched them through and through. Paulus the sum wanted. 22). xvii. was derived from oral tradition {vide Weiss. not less than Peter ? Was the tax strictly collected. and shows that the two things were intimately associated in the mind of the evangelist. 231-5).andmyAfiracM/oMS Element in the Gospels. vain ambition. though refusal would have had no more serious result than slightly to increase already existing ill-will. suffice the very first fish that irpwTov \y6vv comes up will be enough. so that while remaining true to the Master their hearts became fired with ambitious passions. to oTO{xa auTou. I. 467) thinks Jesus spoke very much as reported. neglected by not a few ? In that case it would be a surprise to many that while so uncompromising on Jesus. party spirit. Ambition rebuked (Mk. in w Cf. : The disloyal disciple seems to have Das Lebenjesu.e. but from the fact that it is not stated that a fish with a coin in its mouth was actually found. 47. and in a greater or less degree. pp. t. for a reason given in the following clause.. Did the collectors expect Jesus only to : pay (for Himself and His whole comeven He. or for lack of to enforce it had it become practically a voluntary contribution. This view sets the generosity and nobility of Christ's spirit in a clearer : — power . and revealed in them all in one form or another. In any case the miracle. by W." i. not a net. Sabbath keeping. 6. iropcuQeis et9 ddXaao-ac. Generally the instruc-n-opcvOels «.H. not being reported as having happened. Ewald (Geschichte Christus.— 24—27. ""Apayc eXcuSepoi ^Xaiv ol uioi. was so accommodating in regard to money questions. sought to eliminate the mar\'ellous by but rendering cvpi]<rci. adopted by Tisch. the near approach of the kingdom in power and glory. He would not conform to custom in fasting. 3-7. other matters. but He would pay the temple tax. washing. but were a spirited utterance. 1-4). in that hour the expression connects what follows very closely with the tax incident. 1 <rKavSa\i{. Moral Training THE Disciples. wp<^. and the words He spoke revealing its motive. ivrl eupi^cEig cKcirov Aaput' 00s auTois Ch. and the necessity thereby imposed on their Master to subject them to a stern moral discipline. ix. does He also. aYKiaTpov.s not "find" " obtain. * Many uncials (^BLA al.w|icv in t^LX. even with those with whom He has no religious affinity. etc. jealousy. go and fish for the money tion given is needfiil to pay the tax. a fish with a stater. 33-50 Lk. ii. p.— . br Ik. : — the words point to something marvellous. because very little would one or two fish at most. by sale. a hook. v here only TOK di'oP«irra irpoiTOf i)(0uv Spor crraTTjpa • koX aKOi^a. in Capernaum. . Weiss is of opinion that a simple direction to go and fish for the means of payment was in the course of oral tradition changed into a form of language implyThis view ing a miraculous element. pay ? pany). ttji' ' • 27. 304) suggests that the use of an ambiguous word created the impression that Jesus directed Peter to catch a fish with a coin in its mouth. assumes that the report in Mt.ev ^ Kttl auTOus. The day of Caesarea had inaugurated a spiritual crisis in the disciple-circle. only for all marg. ix. 1-14. XV. <rTar»jpa : light.— Ver. Iva 8e jjit) WKaj'Sa-n here only Xio-a)p. — EYArrEAION : •^-zs 'ItjctoGs. in its mouth.28. avot^as — Andrew. In this and the next two chapters the centre of interest the spiritual condition of the Twelve. 46-50. . ^dXc " ayKtoTpoj'.

v 6 fiEi^uK iy t§ ^aaiXeia xwi' oupacui'. . n-ai8ia. 14. Po<r. Ver. : : 236 «Ch. etc. — . James. Iviii.) distinguishes three forms of self-humiliation in mind (Phil. of Heaven where the question is a purely personal one who is the greater (among us. In His eyes vanity and ambition in the sphere of religion were graver offences than the His tone at this sins of the worldly. " Tis apa 'fici^ui' ^orli' ^ iv t^ ^acnXeia rwv oipavSiv ea-n]fTev ** b John Acts 39- Kal irpoo'KaXeo'dp. they had been discussing it on the way home. 17-20). even in the case of these men who have left all to follow Jesus How ! to the tax incident as suggesting the question. regenerate persons have need to be converted over again. the now. : idiom which uses i'ltT = irdXw {Ausser- — canonische Paralleltexte su Mt. pass for converted. 5. ov |it| cto-eX9i]T€. and so child-like The really humble man is as 6 p. ^ €v before iraiSiov in T. xiv. etc. II xviii. 4. ooTis ou>' Taireif (ioT) eauTOK us to iraiSiOf toGto. oupacup. in the bud He had to deal with. In Mk. turn round so as to go in an opposite " Conversion " needed and direction. auTo iv \ii<T<a (eirio-T.ovp. TairEivwcTEi eavTov: the most difficult thing in the world for saint as for sinner. "'AfiTik \iy<a iav €is firj OTpa<j)r]T6 Kal is tA iraiSia. and Mk. but not to it alone. Kal os iav cfic ouTos i<m. 2. 3). and shall therefore have the higher place in the kingdom when it comes ? It is not necessary to conceive every one of the Twelve fancying it possible he might be the first man. and presents a more general aspect. SexcTat • ^ t^BL (ev a/. p. xii..H. XVIII. great in the moral world as he is rare. 3. by words. not to speak of being great there. remarks " able to reach even are not we ask not the faults of the Twelve who is the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven. more radically ! Chrys. is TO. Ver. . S. but for the greater impressiveness uses a child who happens to be present as a vehicle of instruction. ix. Tis toiovto in TaiStov toiovto in Tisch. omit o I. xxiu.). A king's child in unpretentiousness. 34. auTSK. ev t. The legendary spirit which dearly loves certainty in detail identified the child with Ignatius. as if that would make the lesson any the more valuable 1 lav (itj o-Tpa()>fjTC : unless ye Ver. parall. R. ix. 46. T. zi. who 15. or by symbolic acts. ? The apa may be taken as pointing back : demanded. and by acts. but though it wears an abstract look it too is personal in reality = which of us now is the greater for you. xxiv. rather to it as the last of a series of circumstances tending to force the question to the address to Peter at Caesarea front Philippi three disciples selected to be with the Master on the Hill of TransFrom Mk. iraiSCov : the task of Jesus is not merely to communicate instruction but to rebuke and exorcise an evil spirit. we learn that figuration.. 5 d Ch. 2. ye shall not enter the kingdom. y^nf)o-0€ Kol €iiT€v. ou • (ifj cio-AdT]T6 ^ ttjk ^ao-iXeiaf T«f c Ch. * Ta-jrcivuo-ci in all uncials.inthe Kingdom this is wanting in Mk. Mk.R. -iraiSioc ufLiv. ii. Resch suggests that o-Tpa4>TiTe here simply represents the idea of becoming again children. in S. as when the Egyptian monks wore hoods.. The remark is not true to the spirit of Christ. giving classical examples of the latter two. — KATA MAXeAION — . John. \iyovTes. though referring to the present.). therefore He does not trust to words alone. — — 1 . each of whom may have had his partisans in the little band. 1. XVIII.T. la. It is easy to humble oneself by self-disparaging words. Lk. *EN CK6IVT) Tj cSpa irpo(r»)\9oi' ol fj.. 40 xi. and W. like the children. but to be humble in spirit. Lk. v. corresponding to the Hebrew many who We . vii.). xxiti. Just what He said to the Pharisees (vide on chap. : . has no more thought of greatness than a beggar's.. 11. Raphel (Annot. SeltjTai iraiSiOK toioutok Ik * * ^irl tw dfofiari |iou. Peter.ei'os 6 'irjaous 3. time is markedly severe. but who is the greater in the Kingdom of Earth the richer the more powerful " (Hom. like children's caps (Eisner). 213). BDLZ ^BLA for the more usual toiovtov in apa (iei^wv who then is greater. The question for the majority may have been one as to the respective claims of the more prominent men. 4.ei£<ov. points to the future. as much so as when He denounced the vices of the It was indeed Pharisaism Pharisees.adT]Tal t« 'itjaoG. in your esteem) ? question.

the discourse passes at this point from being child-like to gracious treatment of a : — represents.arL \i.^ipet. iv tw ireXdYci t. It looks answers well to the solemn tone of our Lord's S^|T)Tai Vv. and therefore as causing. 29.v6.vXos 6vik6s.ov But the clause eirl 48). fv iraiSiov ToiovTo the real child present in the room passes into an ideal child. and it seems better to take the word in the . Weiss. This interpretation is legitimate but not inevitable." Bengel. 25 xal 6 SovXo. found . Ta orKdcSaXa. Tpd^ilXov auTou. Instead of saying <rv|A(^pei a. EYArrEAION Ay (TKavha\i<rQ Ivo o-uficpepei tS)V * fiiKpui' toutcji' auTu. Bengel remarks " apposita locutio in sermone de scandalo. treating harshly and contemptuously. <ru\i. — : : — . but it may also ideal sphere. Weiss. ikaxteiri ^ 1—7. Xva: vide on v. and in which to be drowned was a mark of execration. jt. The idea may have been suggested by the word denoting the offence. if a Kpcfiao-tfTJ fiuAos ofiKos TOf f Ch. Ch! v.e. o-KavSaXio-g. the writer puts both verbs in the subjunctive after tva.: — 237 tuv iricrreuoiTut' c C/. but they did not use the adjective 6viko$. cluding Bengel. 26^). KaTairovTio-dfj. a. A child may be such a disciple. fTKavSaXtcrn the opposite of receiving. tva . . The Greeks called the upper millstone 3vos the ass (6 avuTcpos XfOos. inDe Wette. Ver.. strong in conception and expression. iLs o k. . : aOiivai . So Kypke. Bleek. KaTaTTovTio-S'Q drowning was not a form of capital punishment in use among the Jews. Tu 6v6}i. Ver. the offences deplored. Lightfoot suggests as the place of drowning the Dead Sea. Kpcfia- — world. Hesychius). ^ KaTO-iroin"ia0fj iv tw • ""ireXdyei ttjs daXdcronris. raises the child into the The reception required not mean natural kindness to children (though that also Christ valued). but esteeming them as fellow-disciples in spite of their insignificance.) take Koo-fios in the sense of the ungodly — : ." etc. in the deep part of the sea.) . ag. Oual Tu K^crp-w diro xwi' ttXtjc aKafSdXwv 6. One of them " frequens unius in hoc capite mentio. woe to the world. The pride and — : ambition of those who pass for eminent Christians make many infidels. 7. €va T. ou t6 o'Kdv8aXo»' iw t. ' ^DLI it found in B but not adopted by W. etc. revealing intense abhorrence.H. p. Some (Bleek.). 05 8' CIS efji6. hold that the reference is still to a real child. 6. oual tw dfdpuTrb) cKeifw.. as distinct from smaller -sized ones driven by the . commonly used in Hebrew houses in ancient times.^ Act* xxvii. 24. i. (ix. 6. So in effect the majority of commentators a few. Kat 7. Ver. a large one. Those who are caused stumble are always little ones to " majores enim scandala non recipiunt. so as to tempt to unbelief and apostasy. ovol ly Kocrfjuo." Jerome. xxv. not suffering from. 5.H. Fritzsche finds here an instance of attraction similar to selfish — : . but all of whom a child is the emblem. like CKcivw wanting in an echo of xxvi. t.. in fc^D (Tisch. 5-7. does represent such disciples. The meaning therefore is a millstone driven by an ass.yKi\ ydp iariv 81' ^ eKQelv g here and 30. nam ad lapidem offensio est " = " let the man who puts a stone in the path of a brother have a stone hung about bis neck. p. — child. Both these expressions have been toned down by Luke. one of the large class of little ones not merely child believers surely. T. : — band. yet utterance on this occasion. 9aAa<7-(r>)s h here and The phrase here only For 2 €iri ^BLZ in have ircpu Omitted BL (W. representing all that the spirit of ambition in its struggle for place and power is apt to it : child and what — trample under foot. " Let such a large stone be hung about the neck of the offender to make sure that he sink to the bottom to rise no more " such is the thought of Jesus. an exclamation of pity at thought of the miseries that come upon mankind through ambitious passions. In favour of this view is Luke's version " Whoso receiveth tkis . who gives examples another significantly strong phrase." etc. 5. 9. and it is its representative function that is to be emphasised. This is the one text in which Jesus speaks of Himself as the object of faith {vide The Kingdomof God. in whose waters nothing would sink without a weight attached to it. \i. as in later apostolic usage. that in x. as regards social or ecclesiastical importance.

in chap. xi." . Raphel and Kypke cite instances of this use from classics. OpaTC ufitK. xwXov in avra a grammatical correction. In the later books of O. 9. 3 KvXXov ^^B (Tisch. <TOu KaXtSf (Toi eoTi povii^OaXu. etc. Ver. Ver. — means the eye. Repetition perhaps due to use ot two sources. there are guar- • . • 10 *f™ Xcyw ydp in t| oti 01 dyycXoi aiiTtav iy oupaKois Sid iraKTos 1 avTov ^BDLZ. the woe that overtakes the cause of offences. }tov6^da\fi. 10-14. W. — — — pressed in terms of the current Jewish belief in guardian angels. ^t| with the subj. Christ's words are not to be taken as a dogmatic endorsement of this post-exilian belief exemplified in the story of Tobit (chap. to become frequent in Hellenistic Greek if it be found to correspond to a common Hebrew idiom " (Carr.oi' CIS tt)k |ojT]f jMk. No shallow optimism in Christ's view of irXT)v : adversative here. 136. . for which the more exact term is lTcpd<)>6aX|ios. — Iros.V. — — XVIII. Since the offender is the greater loser in the end. muti- dian angels of nations . giving lof^ia of Jesus in general sympathy with the preceding discourse. even when he does not belong to the world. the truth Jesus solemnly declares is that God. — 64>0a\|jio9. lKKov}for j^onjc aurd ^ Kal ^dXe diro ?j KaXof iarXv elaeKQeiv cis ttji' XwXoi' irup i KuXXot'. . These verses are one of Mt. 53 . in Camb. setting life. lated . This truth is ex40. flTJ KaTa9pO^T)(rT]TC 1 > c\~ TUf els tt]*' yievvay tou ^ fXlKpOJK ^ TOUTW*' ^ . Lk. f\ 8uo 6i|>6aX|xous exorra V ^X1l]6i]cal CI/OS 53. by reason of. His Father. 8. usage vide Matt. — KvXXAv : with reference to hand. 4 Acts xiii. In general abstract language. v. lleXc ' here and in JLf ^ ix ^7 ' auTOf Kal ^dXc diro cl(reX6ci»'. 238 cpxerai. goes pretty much his own way. T. 9. ol ayYcXoi airuY. but simply conducts from the general culpability of the world to the guilt of every one who is a cause of scandal. N. \4yia yap: something solemn to be said. xxiv.'s dualities.^«/-wlO. iii. TTUPOSxf. Weiss contends that not adversative here any more than fn xi. . opdrc p. offender. Heb. a. God's special care for .'^ t\ Soo x^^pas ^ 8uo iroSas exorra pXTjOTjvai els to ical TO aiufioK. ii. points to the ultimate source of the misery. suffer it is from them. referred to as the of expressing contempt. (Daniel). or both hands. Twv o-KavSdXuv the scandals . v. history of mankind. — — Vv. 10. apt to be despised by the From this point onwards ambitious. p. or r\ used in sense — : . 30). on the wide scale of the world they cannot be prevented. xxiv. vide Lobeck. one. . serving the purpose of moral discipline for disciples aspiring to places of distinction. by whomsoever caused. but here = wanting an eye. Phryn. in which the comparative is expressed by the positive. Mt.. T.5. airo t. a fatality as well as a fact. mean "this belief is true. Still the subject is the child as the ideal representative of the insignificant. 5 . KATA MATGAION 8. over against that of those who wanting one . they are inevitable . properly should mean having only one eye by nature.Actsii. XwX($v more general sense of humanity conceived of as grievously afflicted with " scandals " without reference to who is They are a great fact in the to blame. Gal. followed by the preposi" A rare classical usage tends tion min. The same remark applies to the passages in which the law is spoken of as given through angelic mediation (Acts vii.— . xv. KaXdv the positive {| for the comparative. the extension of the privilege to individuals was a further development. etc.H.). . El 8c ij x^ip ctoG <rov • iq 6 irous croo o-KafSaXi^ci «roi ctc. The Xcyw yap does not 19 . takes a special interest in the little ones in all senses of the word. the in a similar condition regarding feet {cf.ov. 9. : oimagis quam. it is worth his while to take precautions against being an menVer. T. but in sympathy with the connection of thought in both places. and a black one. 2). X*^P» "to^* instruments of together tioned as violence. It may be an imitation of Hebrew usage. only deplored. a general avdyKT) yap category. in an object clause after a verb meaning to take heed common N. being found with some variations in the Sermon on the Mount (\'v. again." but " theidea it embodies.).).T) Karat^. el 6 d(})GaXft6s * aou axa^'SaXi^ci ae. : : — : 29 as inciting to lust. Vv. 24. 8. 29-30)..

In both places the parable teaches the precious characteristically Christian doctrine of the worth of the Ver. TTp. spirit — — transition here is easy from warning against giving. dp. Jerus. — The How to deal with an . pressed to the extent of making God like an Eastern despot. brother. iii. is ' t^BD the true ". •c| yeVirjTai Tict aj'Spuirw cKaTOK irpo^aTa.. iraTpos TOO er ooparois. 66XT]|xa. contrary to the of the world. eiri Tois evcecif)Korraci'i'€a TOis "^ ver.. XV. Ti V. solemn. d|XT)v X^yw he finds it. C. Lk. 13. to counsel how to receive.H. ircirXak'Tjp. 17 he regards as an addition by the evangelist or a later hand. IfjiTrpoaOei' m Ch. 19. |iT| TO Tr\ai'o5)X€i'OV ^''^' 13. Ver. which values only the great.a lyo.. offences. but has even here a good setting. searches till — specially — — : Shepherd has its place whence Wendt recognises these verses as an authentic logion probably closely connected with the parable in the common source. oTi X'^^P^'' ooTw 14. Ti dfiiK -ir\ainr]6f] 80KC1. Iv as large a number. 14. ix.wi' ^ outcjs ook cort 6^ir)p. BL (Tisch. in the sense of . only otie wanderer. 31. d. eav ysvYiTai r. ctoo Iti efa Pet. Ver. * xai after opu in BL. especially those closely connected with the offender. coming in there after the group of parables in chaps. v.* ^X6c Y°^P ° "^^s TOO edi' • dt'Opuiroo auo'ai to diroXuXcSs. amounting to a climax = God cares not only for the lowly and the morally little but even for the low erring. : — — . 12. 16. xix.apTii(ri] apart from the doubtful els ai following. irpijpaTO : if a man happen to have Kai ir. margin. 15. ' to. Egyptian verss. i. 25. So far it is a personal affair to begin with.T) dKooo-j).. oxrayc Kal^ ° cXey^ot' p. "^ EYAirEAION TO ^TrpoauTTOc too iraTpos ftou 239 II. the confidential servants who see the The figure is not to be face of the king. eirl Tot opt] * iropcoOels (same const. Yet perhaps we ought not too rigidly to draw a line between the two in an ideal community of love. out of so many. the phrase implies that some one has the right and duty of taking the initiative. 11 an interpolation from Lk. itif. Kai cfi'ecTjKOi'Taei'i'ca. 15. ° cK^pSTjaas o Cor. which every brother in the community has a right to challenge.. 12-14. €. Ver. 26. does he not go and irop£v6eis £tjTei avTiS . 'Edi' Se dfAapTi]<n) eis ae 6 dSeX^xiS o-oo. a. 20. application of the parable less emphatic than in Lk.) regards the whole section (15-17) as a piece of Church order in the form of a logion'oith& Lord. etc. Gal. In Eastern courts it is pXcirovo-i t. bracketed). V. II is wanting in b^BL. k this phrase here only PXe'irouo-i too iv oopaKot.) ® . the Father-God cares specially for that which is apt to be despised. Ep. 80KCI as in xvii.— — . and for o'KavSaXi^civ we have the more general dptapTaveiv. I Tim. has ev tw ovpavw (W. he if it happen that he finds it.. ofi. I. ^ diroXi^Tai els ^ Tui' fiiKpuf tootuk. I 16. It teaches that. Ver. xi.irpoo-0cv t. individual at the worst to God. a will. hear.{x.^ 12. giving offence not suiting the idea of the former. — — — — : — : . koI . 33. in ' a(^T)o-ei.^i'oo. Holtzraann (H. Vv. B . erring text for Christ's doctrine of the Fatherhood. 14 auTui' ooxi d4>eis . : : 8— 16. • jjiov » in B al. The simpler and more classical expression would be p^vos povov. Sin.ci'ois. for an object of will. and xvi. xvii. etc. 2 «tc.. in i«). before the face of = for. 4-7) may seem less appropriate here than in Lk. tii. Ver.. tv 1 Acts XX.H. fiaXXoi'. 13. ficra^v <r. irapdXa^c fxcTa 19-33. not to sin against the Christian name. z. r\ dfiT)*' Xcyu too with cf. This is an important Vv. Kai iav 'yei'TjTat eopeif auTo. k. XV. 10. vi. The terms are changed |xiKpbs becomes a8eX(|>(is. with a view to the application to the moral sphere of what in the natural sphere is self-evident. . I -aoTov |XETa|o aoC Kai aoToC Toi' d8eX<})6i' orou 1 • idv <tou dKooaT). omit Kat. ihv Se p. cis is a grammatical correction. n Lk. 16 and have something 17 answering to them in Lk. Orig. the reference appears to be to private personal offences. 10. t^TjTCi up. Vv. diKovo-g. Parable of straying sheep {Lk. p. it. xix. doubtless imported from Lk. ^B omit CIS arc little. Siyrr. D has a<{>ii)o-iv. cv in ^BDL. as here. W. q. seek the one ? Ver. in which that of the : 15-17. In Lk. 3.ii'. yet.

aTos Suo {jtapTupbtf eiirk ttj f[ pTJH^a. with ecclesiastical authority. a. — = exercising judgment on conduct here specifically = treating sin as pardonable or the reverse a particular exercise of the function of judging.. eoTai XcXufxci^a up-ojc ' (to)x<j>wv^- Actscc 35! V. it was natural for Jesus to speak of a new community of faith at Caesarea. 18. it. iVa oTop. but carefully two minds. with the ethical power of morally disciplined the — men. 20. 9.v 8if]orifjT€ Trjs yt|S. etc. submitting to admonition. it was equally natural that He should return upon the idea in when — . : . irdXiv dp.aTos. were very dom of God. or as a man = saved him from moral ruin ? All three alternatives find support. Try first a miniof social pressure and publicity. ircpl irovT^s irpaYparos anxious to find in it support for their concerning every or any matter.T)v Ver. in ver. and refer to it as an instrument for promoting right feeling and conduct among professed disciples. 15 in a literary rather than in a legal spirit. from my much as possible. Yevijo-eToi divest it of an ecclesiastical aspect as absolute confidence in the laws of the irapa t. offences The committed by brethren included of developed ideas on these topics. about what ? not necessarily only the matters referred to in previous conecclesiastical discipline and Church censures.His disciples.that lies in the sincere consent of even It outweighs the nominal difference or abhorrence. iav Se * irapaKouoT) a^Tui'. irdXic^ Y'HS irepl eirl ttjs Y>is. iii. • oao i&. as in xvi. with added irapaXaPe influence.T| a. XV. speak to the tq IkkXijo-i*. ccttoj Hlv 8e Kal ttjs 3. Vv. it shall be what chief interest of historic exegesis is to course. Promise of the power and presence of God to encourage concord. eirl 18. The older interpreters. and agreement of thousands who have no seeking his good only as one without. a second amen. and if that fail have recourse to the maximum. gained as a friend.^(i>vt](r(i>o-iv There is no reference in this passage to agree. 19. After a first failure try again. 8). but of the moral power lican which does not mean with in. — interpreted. Twelve. etc. 1 ' B omits T« first time and ^B second time. for only so can it suit moral world The Father-God of Jesus is the initial period. avoiding fellowship with him in sin.v ^BDLA (Tisch.). B and many other uncials add ajATjv after -n-aXiv (W. <roi woircp 6 eOfiKos Kal 6 teXcJi^s. real bond of union. This bears a juridical aspect (Schanz). cK^pSrio-a. as we have tried to show. elire " Church " the brotherhood of believers This to be the widest in the Christ limit for the ultimate sphere of moral influence. If. 2.Father.H. (rvp. . and there is nothing for it Christ's expectation of agreement among but to treat him as a heathen or a pub. — — : . p. Ver. Is it necessary to decide peremptorily or possible betv/een them ? Ver. 'A|at)I' ^ ^ \iy(a u^lv. : — Jesus. this time not to Peter iq. 17. 18. introducing a new thought of parallel importance to the former. on coli' 8uo (TUKTiv ' eirl TTJs iroi^os irpdyjAaTos ou edK aiTT]awrrai. ig. XX. the offender puts himself outside the society. not qua apostles. but it does not really pass out of the ethical influence alone moral sphere contemplated consensus in moral judgment carries weight with the conscience. — iva mum eirl oTiJp. 15- Xcyw ufitf. but to all the alone. two not the measure of lav Zvo failing. rpiuK oraOY] iraf EKK\T)0'ia • Suo. as a fellow-member of the Kingdom of God. i6. but anything concerning the Kingtheologico-polemical interest. ccrrai SeSejicVa iy Tu Tw oupafu oupaKu. p here only 1 7. ' o-v|Ji<j>wvt)<rovo-i. : reference to the legal provision in Deut. bability regarded as an utterance of here defined as a lover of peace and — : — — : : — : . for The Twelve for the moment are Jesus = the ecclesia : they were the nucleus of it. q Ch. Io-tw croi. as above. but qua disciples. iav Bk p. this world beyond. lov SJ IT. The binding and loosing generically . Kal oaa ihv Xuotjtc 19. ! — : .— -240 f^ — KATA MATGAION Eirl : xviir. cKKXrjaias iropoKoo<rjj. as ex hypothesi the judgment of this new community will count for more to its members than that of all the Capernaum lesson on humility and kindred virtues. and be with any pro. Renewed promise of power to bind and loose. xix. . . As such it may be accepted. Iva t] 8vo. in in brackets). — . in a text. Ver.

'itiaoSs.a. ix. which could only be carried out by one of placable disposition. Such words touch sensitive consciences. not gathered to con : — ing brother. and he went considerably beyond the Rabbinical measure. this W. 1. I. xxviii. A^yci auTu 6 Oii o-qi Ius eiiTdKis. ydp f eicri 3 8uo rj 1 rpeis aoi'TjY(*^»'Oi 'eis to ejjioi' Ofop. ovTw after etwe in BD In (Tisch. Aug. Peter's question about forgiving. where even Peter's suggestion left it (seven times and no more a hard rule). but because they suit the present condition. EYArrEAION 20. The second of two interpellations in the course of Christ's discourse {vide Mk.. etc. 20. of the main into the conditional clause.— 17 — a • : — 22. verse we have a case of attraction. Syr.(f>b)vfiaovaivirepl avTov. Its force may be brought out by translating no.e auTu 6 H^Tpos Kal Xi^yw ctire. Sin. I tell you. Ikei ctp.- p. with (irap'ois) I am nr' in the midst of them".. xiii. ckci €i\iX iv 16. etc. : bitious. with as many of you. and referring to Gen. not from modesty Ln His anticipations. 49. and the interruptions would be welcomed by Jesus as proof that He had not spoken in vain.H. 8vo i\ rpcis. 22. which was three times (Amos i. ' a<^Y\(T<jj auTW ews *6TrTdicis. . bracketed). Lk. subject Resolved. am my disciples. Ver. fraternal concord." namei. 34. ' whom 2 This verse in Codex Bezae runs "for there are not (ovk ewriv yop). o-vvTjyp. t 22. 5. Jesus deals in Ver. 24 as the probable source of the expression. etc. ou r 241 Ch.1 Iv. each in turn repented of and confessed. ToTC irpoo-eXOo)!' e|i. 38-41 . On either view there is inexactness in the expression. His presence axiomatically certain. iv.€voi €15. 20. but gathered as believers in me.. Seventy times seven requires the termination -kis at both words. dW 2ws Lk. lav <rvp. or the Shechinah. liTTttKis ea>s Peter meant to be generous. Christ's reply lifts the subject out of the legal sphere. has a similar reading. and in jealousy for the moral quality of the new society. acpTjff-o) Trotr. and means: times without number. among whom may be named Grotius and Fritzsche. "TroffiKis tism jnto djJLCpTiqcret cis 6 dSeXi)>6s (iou. xxviii viii. ne ultra quam ter petat. 22. — a|jiapTT]o-eL. Bengel leans to the former. who cite the Syriac version in support. This alone decides between the two renderings of cpSo|XT)KovTaKis lirra seventy-seven times and seventy times seven. mind. 4. of men gathered together by a common a relation to the name of the Christ fess or : instead of Greek. two futures instead of a^aorovrt worship my name.' " Kopie. taking the termination -kis as covering the whole number seventy-seven. therefore expressed as a present fact. even with reference to a future time promise natural from One looking forward Similar in import to to an early death. For similar sayings of the Rabbis concerning the presence of the Divine Majesty. small numbers. in favour of the latter as giving a number (490) practically equal to infinitude. Is there not reason for doubting the sincerity of repentance in riuch a case ? Or is this not at least the extreme limit ? Such is Peter's feeling. e. Vv. Lk. vide Lightfoot and Schottgen. Ver. 21.yeviiicreTai axirols. Similarly some of the Fathers (Orig. ix. : now. not till.'*" yein^acrai auToTs iropA too iraTpos fiou tou ck ofipavoi. la 21. infinite placability. It is a sjnionym for The ecclesia is a body the new society. iroo-aKis. Seventy-seven times requires the -kis at petit remissionem : — : : — : 16 . not to say traitorous. the question naturally arose out of etc. Mt. 3 the case is put of seven offences in a day.a. as are one in faith and brotherly love not with any more even of you far away from the man of amthere I. I Cor." Schottgen.).. But how far is tJiis to go ? In Lk. or as many of them as were really one in heart. Their presupposition is that a fault confessed is to be forgiven. 6) " quicunque — a<|>Ti<rcd : Hebrew idiom : : Christian synagogue as yet consisting of the Twelve.. xvii. into the evangelic.€a(i) »> ~ auToii'. ^ omits avru.. 21. 5. the sentence would run irav 7rpayp. 37. the directions for dealing with an offend- — — : a proximo. o cav aln^aoxriv. — among two or three sitting in judgment or studying the law. . The majority adopt the opposite view. 50).—a\Xa e. ov emphatic " no " to be connected with CMS cirraKis. De Wette and Meyer. xvii. There am I in reference to the future. etc.

ture. what do your remissions amount to compared to what has been remitted to you by God ? a man. J^LA « * «s ovTw in If^B (Tisch. i — : — : — : . €X€i : 1 : — : po6vp. : when he —Ver. 19). W. Ai& touto dtfioic^Or) ff dfdpcjTru ^aaiXei. 22 : unlimited forgiveness of inAfter all. though found in most uncials. continuance in third benefit implied. |jia. Parable of unmerciful servant.). say millions sterling. 26. . But the indolence of an Eastern monarch must be taken into account. which speaks to malversation for years. to Sdvctov a4>i)KEv two benefits conferred set firee from imprisonment. 28-34. it is . that the point . monarch can have opportunity a great such debtors.aK^Ver. a fellow-slzvc though a humble one. : 242 (Gen 24). iTco'b)!' xai rd rcKf a. irpaCTJvai. KiS. loses confidence 25.01. XJJyov (found again in xxv. 28. and associated possibly with rapid reflection as to the best course. in payment of the debt. a thousand talents immense sum. but did not." the end of the second word rather than at end of first either iirra Kal I^So . 11 (Sept. such debts. A monarch. wrath comes in at a is later stage (ver. {^BDL omit avrov. — : — — Thess. kui d'rroSothe proceeds of sale to be applied OTJvai. but according to ancient law. ^KeXeuacp auToi/ 6 Kupios auToO ^ Trpadfjcai. and Only times used in the sense of deferring anger (Prov. xvin. direXvcrev.. one stood out above all the «Is 24. 4 . The policy adopted in hope that it will ensure good behaviour in time to come (Ps.. . 7. ^ Kal Trjf z Lk.). . 23. os i\6i\f](Te ^ trucapai XoyoK ftcra twk tTpo(rr\vi\Qr] ^ V here and inCh 19 SouXuK auToC. " A regular control is p.) » 27. 23. cf. or ^pSo|t . ° B has ex*''' which. — . duiiTjaof irpooTjxflti in eir' ^p. So human distinctions are dwarfed into insignificance by the distance between all men and God. says Jesus. 286) remarks He not in the spirit of the Eastern. forgive — : servants or slaves in relation to the king. a king cLvdpunrtf ^ao-cXet king an afterthought demanded by the — — the order is given that the debtor be sold. cxxx. I Ixxxvi. 6<{>««. Vv. ' fit] Ixoktos 8e auTou here and in Ch. of finance.H. diroSoufai. which he should have remembered. W. SovXuv all alike to hold a reckoning. including his wife and children. Kal diroSoOr) I'ai. exact It may calculations idle or pedantic. XXV. a/. dp^afi^fou Se auroG vuvaipeiy. o-irXaytouched with pity. rest for the magnitude of his debt. 15 . Vv. not merely time given Cor. xai ird^Ta Sera etxe 6 80GX0S irpoacKUfci auTfa).^ ' James v. 34). the king decides on a magnanimous policy. 14).H. 24. That sense is suitable here.). . « ^B BD among preterites. as in T.^ Kal -irdrra croi^ diroSucru.) .. xix. seem to violate natural probability that time was allowed to incur such a debt. and eva t. : trusts utterly when he does trust. suppose juries. o-uvSovXwv a. p. .<<po- GUI' Xcyui'} Kupie. yucaiKa auToG 26. hard lines. with all he has. Ver.H. ra lirrdK!. 8ia toBto suggests that the aim of the parable is to justify the apparently unreasonable demand in ver. iv. The other side of the pic- . Think of their fate in those barbarous times But parables are not scrupulous on the score of morality.. R. his plea and get all than take hasty measures and get only a part. in the view of which wife and children were simply property. : xiii. xni. and the absence of system in the management As Koetsveld (De Gelijk. I Cor. 27. wdvra diroSwo-u better wait easy to promise . Ver. fiuptwK ^ ToKdvruv. XVIII.T]o-ov : a Hellenistic word. debt absolutely cancelled. w auT& 6is^ d4>£iX^'nr)s 25. 4) perfectly credible even in an Eastern office. the corre- sponding adjective in Ps.. : —Ver. is omit this avrov also (Tisch. (same const.). Vcr. therefore. omit. 4. but the prominent idea give me time . just because of its singularity as a present to be preferred to €ix^. oirXay^^^'iaSeis Se » BD (W. v. payment hopeless .— . becomes the subject of the story. fiaviketa twk u here only ° ipSofiT)KOKT(iKi9 oupai'bii' XXV. some- nature of the to case. 23-35.XeTTjs |i. for ever. (Tisch. or an to the extent of.. ye comply with the demand. . trvvapai. t. KATA MATGAION iirrd. '^ DL have eir' c|tc ^ iroi after airoSciXTM in ^BL. : a debtor of. for payment.7. not unXVwrSels mixed perhaps with contempt. who.

ci'OK. asked remission but only time to pay. XV. i8on'€9 Sc ^ ^ 01 aukSouXoi a^ToO Td y€v6ii. 36.. ^fxoi. drowning). 8 CMS in t^BCL. II). Every way a bad man greedy. quod a nulla conditione suspensum sit. V]XcT)(ra. made on the instinct of a base nature.tva i\uTrr\Qr\(Tav a^toSpa* B omits cKkivov here (W. 29. . ou diroSu to o4>EiXop. auTw. how unlikely! the action ot the pardoned debtor is not so improbable as it seems. rejected by editors. V. Not sjonpathy so much as annoyance at the unbecoming conduct of the merciless one who had obtained mercy was the feeling. he choked. and so threw light on the character of the man {cf.).uo'ei' auTOK. to whom therefore they might speak on a matter aflFecting his interest.).H. it He is payment of whatever only a penny. IT.") Weiss comes nearer the insignificant debt. S. — cKaT^v 8t)vdpia an utterly some fifty shillings which. modern * CIS * T. dXXd ^ dircXO^c l^aXci' aur^i' cis (t>uXaKi^c. grasping in acquisition of wealth. e. and also doubtless in accordance with long habits of harsh tyrannical behaviour towards men in his power." petition. . 2q. to illustrate the unnatural behaviour of men in the spiritual sphere. 33. after the brutal manner allowed by ancient custom. The act foretokens mercino remission of debt to less treatment be looked for in this quarter. Ten thousand acts of forgiveness such as the culprit was asked to . the identical words he used himself just a few minutes ago.' Kal irdrra diroScSau 30. xiii. g. to their own master. Ver. . but not such inhumanity and villainy. ovkeSei. Kal Kpart^aas auTov *e-irfiYe> z here and in Mk. 6 Se ouk {jdeXcf.g. 31. Ver. W. etc. 28. and even by Roman law. and moving him to like conduct. ry K. in So ^BCDL and by modern ^B and many uncials. Ver.. Sico-d4>i]o-av: reported the /flc^j {narraverunt. : ovv in fc^BD 33 . t. throttled him.: huge. Ver. prodigal in spending it. in ver. 09 auTu iKaroi' Sir)K<ipia. he should not even hav&' remembered. cavTwv. e. in the parable oi the feast (Lk. lS<SvTcs ol <r. |xaKpo6ijp. far less been in the mood to exact. Is such : — an expression will have due.g^ have dis(" Non sine covered Greek urbanity urbanitate Graeci a conditionis vinculo aptarunt. eu. 3/. 30. and H. At what ? the fate of the poor debtor ? then not pay the debt ? (Kpetsveld). was it not your duty ? an appeal to the sense of decency and gratitude. 6 Kupi09 Tou SouXou EKCiKou ^ — : EYArrEAlON dirA. 32. reminding him surely of his position as a pardoned debtor. dir6So9 ci Ti o(^. uncials have ci ru o ti (T. in brackets) and ckcivo. auroO. at least in words.T)orov. Vulg. Kal ore : — Why — — — — — — There was condescension in putting the two cases together as parallel. ^BCD and other editors. ir. when you entreated me. Ungenerous himself. Mt. «paTTj«ras a. xxiv.) only in minus. R. xiv. were it — : conduct credible be ? Two remarks may In parabolic narrations the improbable has sometimes to be resorted to. and therefore of appreciating such magnificent generosity. ^ 243 ' Kal to SdceiOK dc^TlKCC y here only (Deut. In point of fact he had not. &(f>EiXT)v. Xey'*'!'. : : — 1 truth when he sees in of '* merciless logic". ircauf ouf 6 au^SouXos MaKpoOufiijaoK auToG CIS cir' Toiks ircSSas auToC ^ * irapcKilXei outok. eirviYC seizing. 28. But 16-24) "^' refuse. t. In the et ti some ingenious commentators (Fritzsche. 'EIcXOuk Se 6 SouXos ckcikos a)({>ciX€i' cupeK ei'a tuc o-ucSouXoik 8. 2 ' ^BDL omit |toi. owK TJOtXtv no pity awakened by the words which echoed his own " He would not. IXvirijOvjo-av the other fellow-servants were greatly vexed or grieved. CDL have fir* cfie. 13 (of X^Y''*'> 'AiroSos |Aoi ^ o Ti ^ 64>€iX€i$. Ver. ItteI irapEKaXco-ds fit. who had remitted so much to him.— 33—31. avTov omitted in is ^ iravTa 7 feebly attested and unsuitable to the case. He acts on this. unscrupulous in using what is not his own. coming out from the presence of a king. uncountable. he was incapable of conceiving. irovT)pE: the king could understand and overlook dishonesty in money matters. croi.

if not by The word. act such as he had got the : The fact in the spiritual sphere corresponds to this. : The fact. but to the tormentors. avTMV are wanting not ^BDL! and most editors in omit them. Mk.^ fiTj ^atravurrai^.ironf)p^. Introductory. vii. 214). eircl irapcKclXeads 33. the destination = to the coasts of Judaea beyond the Jordan . (W. with instructions not merely to keep him safe in prison till the debt was paid.. C. etc.: indicates either But his understanding may have been a . i. x. 2. diro cKao-TOs : — . represents a subjective feeling rather than an objective — whether the incidents reported are to be conceived as occurring at the southern end of the journey. 3. as One who above all things abhors mercilessness. . 6 ovp. on the same principle merciless to the merciless. Vv. points to a change of scene worthy of note. motives. Weiss thinks that Mt. for feelings. 28. But the disciplining of the Twelve still holds the central place of interest. Jesus to the south. cirovpavtos in is not found elsewhere in Mt. ou diroSw irdc to 64>ciX6)jici'oi' u{i. flX^Tjaa. ra -rap. 35. This is a journey out of it not necessarily final. The latter alterna- — tive is possible {vide Holtz. along the eastern shore of It is not likely that the writer Jordan.— 244 Kai A6(Sn'cs — : KATA MAT0AION Sica'(i(}>T)0'aK XVIII. thoroughgoing. 6 iraTtip p. T6t€ irpoo'KaXeo'dfiici'OS adroi' 6 Kupios auToG Xcyci auTu. 'I. ovtms Ver. by place of imprisonment. Not so obviously so in Mk. or to Judaea. xiii. i. mothers with their children. Kal dpyicrOcls 6 Kijpios l(i>s ws Kal eyw <r€ auTOu irap^uKcc aurov T019 auTw. chosen instruments of pain. instead of Sia tov in T. because the heart inclines that way. Vide below. mutatis mutandis. (lov: Christ is in full sympathy with the Father in this. Ver. H. opia — : Twv KapSibiv from your hearts. Outu •cat 6 iran^p dS€X(|>(o jxou 6 liroupdi'ios ' iroii^o'ei u\i.'s version arose from misunderstanding of Mk. xiii. yevo^ieva.) beyond Jordan. T. marks the close of the Galilean ministry. irao-ai' T^»' p. though no hint is given of a return not perfectly clear It is to Galilee. or the end and the way = to the Judaea territory by the way ol Peraea. I. Chapter XIX. vpiv to you.H. b here only '' 34. Farewell to Galilee. as to Nazareth.Ii'. T. similar formulae after important groups of logia in vii. therefore the second alternative is to be preferred. diet. and in consequence again and again. rd irapairriSfiaTa outuk.'s narrative the journey of : — : — . but still more to make the life of the wretch as miserable as possible. In Mt. R. cU to. xi. cf.— Ver. Rather He is here again defining the Father by discriminating use of the name. ^aaavMTTais not merely to the gaolers. which Jesus rarely visited. i. 35. vide notes pcTTJpev there . I. a man in quest of the sumn^^m bonum. 32-35. R. but so thought of to all appearance by the evangelist.e.. would describe Southern Peraea as a part of Judaea. ^ s * avT«B omitted in ovpavios in D BD ^BDL. Jesus is not a&aid to bring the Father in in such a connection. AouXe Rom. approved reading. bed. 'Lit. this shows them at school on the way. times without number. 53. Mk. p. as here. my own chosen disciples. Kal^ycvcTO .). not in all details. dpYwrOels roused to just and extreme anger.€ • *S(}>ci\t)I' iK€ivr\v &^T\Kd <roi. Application. with words and acts of Jesus corresponding.'s statement is that Jesus went to the coasts of Judaea and (Kal. also in xiii. so. faXiXaCas.'s (see notes there). So in general. or on the way within Galilee or without. . tw Kupiu auTuK^ TrciKra tol 32. position of body.(av cdf d<}>T)TC cKaoros ^ Tu 1 auTOu dtrd Tuf KapSiuc has avrttv as in T. 53. every man of you. no sham or lip pardon real. X^yo'"^ tovtovs. i. methods rise in the moral scale when we pass to the spiritual sphere. : —dirb T. ouK ISei Kal ae eXcTjo-ai TOi' <Tvvhou\6y <rov. unreserved. reported in ver. : incidents bring under our notice of interesting characters a variety Pharisees with captious questions. perform would have equalled amount one benefit of. 34.. Last chapter showed them at school in the house." cavTuv in J^BC. The visit to — Nazareth was a movement within Galilee. to suit the king's mood.

but in any case all scribes and Pharisees knew by this time what to expect from Him. need.' " Ei I'leorii' . KTio-as in B. a teaching ministry (x. ^BDL omit avrois. H. 24. 6 KTtcras the participle with 27. fr. Himself to a charge of by siding with the school of It was a petty scheme. — : — : — . D it.. : and marry another He would have made more females at the first. kuI laorrai 01 Suo eis adpKa has Gen.) is from the Sept. article used substantively = the Creator.R. Kara iraaav olriav the question . Ver. relative = may. or a remark of the writer. cU o-dpKa fniav — — the reference is primarily to the physical . Christ's purpose being to emphasise the primitive state of things. but cohesion this force creates is the greatest possible. implying a journey on the The suggestion that the eastern side. 124. The marriage question (Mk. aptrcv xal 0t]Xv "one male and one female. 2. 632. * * " J^BL omit The avOpwircD.H. ol Svo these words in the Sept. xiii. licei. for if He had wished that the male should dismiss one : again. Kai T]X6eK eis rd opia 3. XIX. iretpa^ovTes Pharisees Ver. differently formulated in the two is accounts. 3. b Ch.. ckci mences in the south . they reassemble (x. cGepdireoacK auTous Treipd^ovTes d-iroXuaai outoi'. [t.i\Tipa • Kal 7. Kol irpo<njX9o>' auTu 01 ^ ^apicraioi d^'Opuircu Kal XcyoKTes auTw. who knows of a time of hiding I0£pd(ix. -rfic y"****^*^"- Qutoo Karot irdaac airiaK " 4. — : . so that the one should have the one . Eph.). 'Itjo-oGs Toiis fi€Tr\pev diTo tt]$ faXiXaias. cvckcv tovtow connected in Gen. . for Mk. la Mk. iripav Tou 'lopSdcou. 5. ^ * avru omitted (W. 4. with the story of the woman made from the rib of the man. cl f^earriv dTroXOcrai indirect ioiTn. The compound (T. but they are true to the spirit ot the original. The sex principle imperiously demands that all other relations and ties. 33. etc. true one.— XIX. I. 2-9). sah. have nothing answering to them in the Hebrew. . i)..* " Ouk aveyvwrrt on Kal 6 Troii^CTas ^ etirci'.. dir* dpx^s goes along with what characteristic. ing each other. xxiv. 5. in Mk. ^ 01. the question is absolute = may a man put away his wife at . Mk. and means by ire'pav the western side (Delitsch and others). The who interpreted '^'21 J^Y)^ strictly. From the beginning God made man. knew what — : — : — follows.v. x. al. all ? in continuation of Adam's reflections. i. vide instances in Hermann's Viger. ovik dv^yvurc the words quoted are to be found in Gen. t^koXovthe crowds follow as if there 6i](Tav in had been no interruption. ^ ^ I. X.vide on xii. in ^BCLl al.31. simple KoXXi)OY)o-CTai in BD (modern editors). male and female suited to each other. Kal 3. ''Et'CKCi' c TouTou KaTaXei\|/ei dcdpuTros tok irarepa Kal Ti\v Mk. For Kara in the sense of propter. iv.- irpoaKoXXir]0i]aeTai' t^ yuKaixl auTOu. 'O 8e dir' dTTOKpiOels etiref aurois. i). i. Ver. Kal etirev God said. 10. ii. here with the origin of sex. 15. Kal iqKoXou6T)0'a»' auTw o)(Xoi iroXXoi. or exposing laxity Hillel. though the words as they stand in Gen. shall yield to : it. — : Whether the interrogants Jesus had taught on the subject of maurriage and divorce in the Sermon on the Mount is uncertain. Vv. and Kypke. cop.ss. — .'s statement may mean that Peraea was the first reached station (Holtz. omitted in BCLA al. Ver. Tf]s 'louSaias a Ch. 30). however inti: mate and strong. tempting of course could not ask a question at Jesus without sinister direct question in motives. may be a : Mt. in Mt. writer of the first Gospel lived on the eastern side. and the answer differently arranged. a healing ministry comirevo-ev a. for Under the latter form every reason ? the question was an attempt to draw Jesus into an internal controversy of the Jewish schools as to the meaning of Deut. and put Him in the dilemma of either having to choose the unpopular side of the school of Shummai. C). ii. 1—5." Euthy. 3-9. ' — : EYArrEAlON KAI iyivero ore ^TtXcorci' ' 245 X^yous tovJtous.. has met with little favour. 22. dpxTjs apacK Kal 0t]Xu ° e'n'oiT|(rci' aurou.

ou (rup. but a could not difficulty might be raised by an appeal to Moses and his enactment about a bill of Vv. etc. used as a household drudge. 32. but separation. found in unity. "'Oti Mwot]? irpSs diroXuo-ai ras y"*'*''''**' TTjf * (XKXtjpoKapSiai' up-wf ewe* air (Deut.) is only in minus. A wife was and therefore of marriage. wo-n with indicative. Christ's doctrine on marriage not only separated Him toto ccelo from Pharisaic opinions of all shades. and still more of woman's. 3 (Kara ir. It was a new reading of old texts by one who brought to them a new view of man's worth. one spirit. . a. expressing actual result as Christ views — : They are no longer two. xxiv. here"!" xii. 9.oixaTai yucaiKa auTou. ^ * ** 10. and dismissed at pleasure vide Benzinger. (So Grotius. etc. The Jews had very low views of woman. f Tpe«|»ej' 6p. — : — — We — : . e Mk. John and xvi. Probably no one before Him had found as much in what is said on the subject in Gen. X. bought.^ / Kal >> yap. x^pi^eTW. alna: a vague pp.. 8. and that is doubtless what is meant. 10-12. followed by iroiei ovtjjv poixcvOi^vat in B. 1 ^DLZ " ptj for ci ptj in » ^B omit avTov. regarded as property. the greater in number of uncials.. 10. 6. — —o-KXiipoKapSiav : a word found here and in several places in O. v. rather than as one bent on mitigating its Jesus corrects this false evil results. p. 5. the high doctrine as to the cohesion it produces between man and woman. not enjoined. verss. should say: if such be the state of matters as between husband and wife. el '4 °accus!p. as in a negligent way expressing the idea if the reason compelling a man to live with a wife be so stringent (no separation save for adultery) If we interpret airLa in the light of ver. o out' KATA MAT0A1ON 6.— 4WTp€i|/ev. "^ — XIX. 8 otiv: inference from God's will to The creation of sex.iii(rT| a. no blame imputed except to the people who compelled or welcomed such imperfect legislation (tipuv twice in ver 8). impression. Jer. Kal diroXuaai aoTt]!'^. of heart uncircumcisedness literally (Deut. alriav) the word will mean cause of The sense is the same. vide notes on Mt. Moses is repermitted. Aeyouaii' a^c aurw 01 Kal 6 diroXeXupeVifiK f*> paBi^rai auTou.). interdict separation. but was too high even for the Twelve. spectfully spoken of as one who would . "Tiour MajaT]S cKCTetXaTO Soufai pipXioc dirooraaiou. one person. alria would = Fritzsche res. irpis t. divorce (Deut. inf.. t. y. Subsequent conversation with the disciples. be directly gainsaid.^£pci ' BDZ old Lat. Aeyouarii' 6 Geos^ o-ucej^eu^cr. 10." auTu. BD have irapeKTos \oyov iropvcias. the matter. 9." " Et o^'^fiii * *^ ouTus corli' r\ aiTia Tou dcOptS-irou p. gladly have welcomed a better state of things .) regards the phrase i\ alria r. not in profane writers a state of heart which cannot submit to the restraints of a high and holy law. Arch. ouTW. 7-9. Heb.Tj cTTi -iropi'cia.€Tol Ttis yufaiKo. on ^ 6s Ak diroXuffTj aXXtji*. regarded Moses as a patron of the practice of putting away.* i here and 9. iv." X. X^yo) Se u\ilv.). T.ii' upw*' • dpxT]S oe ou yeyofet' rfji' Sir.— 246 iiiaf. omit ovTTiv. purpose. points to (Sept.) xviii. conditio. * The clause Kai o airoX. 16. but one flesh. n : The Pharisees i). word. R. universal. • 2 Cor. 16. 8. the state of things which made the Mosaic rule necessary was a declension from the primitive ideal. The explanatory ci (T. and man's duty.. eternal truth 1 such doctrine ovv. dir* dpxris. omit on. 31. yap'HO'as poixarai. Ver. X. Aeyet auTois. 7apT)(ras poixaxai is omitted in i<^DLZ but found in BCAZ. and the ideal unity of marriage covers the whole nature. wore ouk^ti ai'OpuTros clffl fit) 8uo. to seem have reference to. 4). laid down in Gen. Ver. most uncials.