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Ka Band Satellite Communications: High-impact Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Ka Band Satellite Communications: High-impact Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
The Ka band (Pronounced: ""Kay-A Band"") covers the frequencies of 26.5-40 GHz. The Ka band is part of the K band of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum. This symbol refers to ""K-above"" - in other words, the band directly above the K-band. The so-called 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellites, uplink in either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands, and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes. Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement. Kepler Mission uses this frequency range to downlink the scientific data collected by the space telescope.The designation ""Ka-band"" is from Kurz-above, which stems from the German word ""kurz"" meaning short.This book is your ultimate resource for Ka Band Satellite Communications. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Ka Band Satellite Communications right away, covering: Ka band, Instructional Television Fixed Service, K band, Ku band, L band, Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service, Q band, S band, U-NII, V band, W band, X band, Radio spectrum, Extremely low frequency, Super low frequency, Ultra low frequency, Very low frequency, Low frequency, Medium frequency, High frequency, Very high frequency, Ultra high frequency, Super high frequency, Extremely high frequency, A band (radio), B band, C band, D band, E band, F band, G band, H band, I band, J band, M band, Microwave, Electromagnetic spectrum, Communications satellite, Telecommunications link, Radar, Kepler (spacecraft), Radio Society of Great Britain This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Ka Band Satellite Communications. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Ka Band Satellite Communications with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
The Ka band (Pronounced: ""Kay-A Band"") covers the frequencies of 26.5-40 GHz. The Ka band is part of the K band of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum. This symbol refers to ""K-above"" - in other words, the band directly above the K-band. The so-called 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellites, uplink in either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands, and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes. Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement. Kepler Mission uses this frequency range to downlink the scientific data collected by the space telescope.The designation ""Ka-band"" is from Kurz-above, which stems from the German word ""kurz"" meaning short.This book is your ultimate resource for Ka Band Satellite Communications. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Ka Band Satellite Communications right away, covering: Ka band, Instructional Television Fixed Service, K band, Ku band, L band, Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service, Q band, S band, U-NII, V band, W band, X band, Radio spectrum, Extremely low frequency, Super low frequency, Ultra low frequency, Very low frequency, Low frequency, Medium frequency, High frequency, Very high frequency, Ultra high frequency, Super high frequency, Extremely high frequency, A band (radio), B band, C band, D band, E band, F band, G band, H band, I band, J band, M band, Microwave, Electromagnetic spectrum, Communications satellite, Telecommunications link, Radar, Kepler (spacecraft), Radio Society of Great Britain This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Ka Band Satellite Communications. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Ka Band Satellite Communications with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Nov 02, 2012
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9781743045961

Sections

  • Instructional Television Fixed Service
  • K band
  • L band
  • Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
  • Q band
  • S band
  • U-NII
  • V band
  • W band
  • X band
  • Radio spectrum
  • Extremely low frequency
  • Super low frequency
  • Ultra low frequency
  • Very low frequency
  • Low frequency
  • Medium frequency
  • High frequency
  • Very high frequency
  • Ultra high frequency
  • Super high frequency
  • Extremely high frequency
  • A band (radio)
  • B band
  • C band
  • D band
  • E band
  • F band
  • G band
  • H band
  • I band
  • J band
  • M band
  • Microwave
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Communications satellite
  • Telecommunications link
  • Radar
  • Kepler (spacecraft)
  • Radio Society of Great Britain
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

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Contents
Articles
K
a
band 1
Instructional Television Fixed Service 2
K band 5
K
u
band 7
L band 11
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service 14
Q band 17
S band 19
U-NII 20
V band 26
W band 28
X band 30
Radio spectrum 33
Extremely low frequency 40
Super low frequency 45
Ultra low frequency 46
Very low frequency 48
Low frequency 53
Medium frequency 57
High frequency 60
Very high frequency 63
Ultra high frequency 68
Super high frequency 80
Extremely high frequency 81
A band (radio) 85
B band 86
C band 87
D band 91
E band 92
F band 94
G band 95
H band 96
I band 97
J band 98
M band 99
Microwave 100
Electromagnetic spectrum 107
Communications satellite 115
Telecommunications link 122
Radar 123
Kepler (spacecraft) 141
Radio Society of Great Britain 156
References
Article Sources and Contributors 159
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 163
Article Licenses
License 165
K
a
band
1
K
a
band
Ka band
Frequency range 26.5 – 40 GHz
Related bands K band · K
u
band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The K
a
band (Pronounced: "Kay-A Band") covers the frequencies of 26.5–40 GHz.
[1]
The K
a
band is part of the K
band of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum. This symbol refers to "K-above" — in other words,
the band directly above the K-band. The so-called 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellites, uplink in
either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands,
[2]
and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes.
Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement.
[3]
Kepler Mission uses
this frequency range to downlink the scientific data collected by the space telescope.
The designation "K
a
-band" is from Kurz-above, which stems from the German word "kurz" meaning short.
[4]
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
K
a
band
2
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] R. Ludwig, P. Bretchko, RF Circuit Design, Theory and Applications, Prentice Hall NJ, 2000.
[2] http:/ / www. tech-faq.com/ ka-band.shtml
[3] http:// hypertextbook.com/ facts/ 2000/ MaxLipkin. shtml
[4] http:/ / www. itwissen. info/ definition/lexikon/ K-Band-K-band.html (german)
[5] http:/ / www. radioing.com/ eengineer/ bands. html
[6] http:/ / www. microwaves101. com/ encyclopedia/ letterbands.cfm
[7] http:/ / www. jneuhaus. com/ fccindex/letter.html
Instructional Television Fixed Service
The Educational Broadband Service (EBS) was formerly known as the Instructional Television Fixed Service
(ITFS). ITFS was a band of twenty (20) microwave channels available to be licensed by the U.S. Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) to local credit granting educational institutions. It was designed to serve as a
means for educational institutions to deliver live or pre-recorded video instruction to multiple sites within school
districts and to higher education branch campuses. In recognition of the variety and quantity of materials required to
support instruction at numerous grade levels and in a range of subjects, licensees were typically granted a group of
four channels. Its low capital and operating costs as compared to broadcast television, technical quality that
compared favorably with broadcast television, and its multi-channel per licensees feature made ITFS an extremely
cost effective vehicle for the delivery of educational materials.
The FCC changed the name of this service to the Educational Broadband Service and changed the allocation so each
licensee would not have four 6 MHz wide channels but instead would have one 6 MHz channel and one 15 MHz
wide "channel" (three contiguous 5 MHz channels). There are currently several hundred EBS systems in operation
delivering schedules of live and pre-recorded instruction.
History
Initial FCC authorization
The FCC initially authorized ITFS, in 1963, to operate using a one-way, analog, line-of-sight technology. Typical
installations included up to four transmitters multiplexed through a single broadcast antenna with directional receive
antennas at each receive site. Receive site installations included equipment to down convert the microwave channels
for viewing on standard television receivers. In typical installations, the down converted ITFS signals were
distributed to classrooms over multi-channel closed-circuit television systems.
Instructional Television Fixed Service
3
FCC allows leasing
In the late 1980s the FCC recognized that many ITFS licensees lacked the technical expertise and/or the financial
means to make effective use of ITFS. Subsequently, the FCC authorized ITFS licensees to lease a portion of their
spectrum, designated as “Excess Capacity," for commercial use. ITFS licensees were required to retain forty hours
per week per channel for instruction with the excess available for commercial use in exchange for technical and
financial support for their instructional service. Using ITFS excess capacity and up to thirteen channels in the
companion commercial service, the Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), a number of
telecommunications companies built wireless cable systems. The number of available channels, however, proved to
be insufficient to compete effectively with the expanding channel capacity of cable TV.
ITFS and MMDS licensees then sought FCC authorization to employ digital compression technology, which would
substantively increase the number of program streams that could be carried on the channels of the combined ITFS
and MMDS spectrum.
Two-way operation added
In 1998, the FCC approved the use of digital compression in ITFS. At the time digital compression technology was
expected to expand the number of program steams by a ratio of 4 to 1 or more. The FCC also authorized both
cellular and two-way operations in the ITFS/MMDS services and the potential for ITFS to be used for the
distribution of data, as well as video. In the same rule, the FCC reduced the capacity that educational licensees were
required to retain for instruction from forty hours per week per channel to 5% of channel capacity. In permitting
two-way operations the FCC created the first potential for a substantial use of instructional materials that rely on
interaction between the instructional program and learners.
The expanded programming capacity provided by digital compression encouraged a number of commercial entities
to create wireless entertainment video systems. These systems found, however, that the additional programming
capability was not sufficient to overcome the line-of-sight handicap and the associated higher cost for customer
installations. It was clear that while video distribution was a viable educational service for ITFS, commercial video
services could not be widely successful in the ITFS/MMDS spectrum.
Telecommunications interest in ITFS spectrum
In 1999, telecommunication interests associated with the cell phone industry sought to obtain FCC approval for the
transfer of portions of the ITFS spectrum from educational use to support a proposed 3G (Third Generation) cell
phone technology. In 2001, the FCC ruled to preserve the ITFS spectrum for education and further modified the
rules to authorize the use of the spectrum in mobile operations and voice communications.
These changes in rule and the rising demand for broadband communications led to several commercial tests of
combined ITFS/MMDS digital systems designed for two-way data distribution. It was believed that these wireless
systems could provide a high-speed data connection that would compete effectively with DSL and cable modem
services in providing access to the Internet. Such systems would also have the capacity to distribute video and voice
in the form of data. These tests were, subsequently, halted as it became apparent that the existing technology and
cost structures could not sustain commercial operations.
During the same period a new technology, Non-line-of-sight (NLOS), was in development and testing by a number
of technology companies. NLOS showed promise of overcoming the obstacles of line-of-sight and high customer
installation costs that had handicapped ITFS/MMDS operations. That improvement, however, was not judged to be
sufficient to ensure that a combined ITFS/MMDS digital service could satisfy the needs of education, as well as
providing technology sufficiently robust to be commercially viable.
Instructional Television Fixed Service
4
FCC approves wireless networking uses
In 2003 the National ITFS Association, the Catholic Television Network, and the Wireless Communications
Association filed a joint proposal with the FCC to reformat the ITFS/MMDS spectrum and to provide rules, which
would support widespread development of a wireless broadband service in the ITFS/MMDS spectrum.
WISPs using ITFS
Cellular phone pioneer Craig McCaw's Clearwire Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) leased ITFS from the
nonprofit license holder in many US cities.
[1]
References
[1] Biemiller, Lawrence (2008-10-03). "Leasing Unused Portion of Radio Spectrum Earns Millions for Cal State-Stanislaus" (http:// chronicle.
com/wiredcampus/ index. php?id=3365). The Wired Campus. Chronicle of Higher Education. . Retrieved 2008-10-03.
External links
• National Educational Broadband Services (EBS) Organization (http:// nebsa. org/) (formerly the National ITFS
Association)
K band
5
K band
K band
Frequency range NATO: 20 –
40 GHz
IEEE: 18 – 27 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
K band designates certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in either the microwave domain or in the
infrared domain. The microwave K bands are used primarily for radar and satellite communications whilst the
infrared K band is used for astronomical observations.
NATO K band
The NATO K band is defined as a frequency band between 20 and 40 GHz (0.75 - 1.5 cm wavelength).
IEEE K band
The IEEE K band is a portion of the radio spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging between 18 and
27 GHz. K band between 18 and 26.5 GHz is absorbed easily by water vapor (H
2
O resonance peak at 22.24 GHz,
1.35 cm).
Amateur radio
• The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the
frequency range from 24.500 to 24.250 GHz.
Subdivisions
The IEEE K band is conventionally divided into three sub-bands:
• K
a
band: K-above band, 26.5–40 GHz, mainly used for radar and experimental communications.
• K-band 18-27 GHz
• K
u
band: K-under band, 12–18 GHz, mainly used for satellite communications, terrestrial microwave
communications, and radar, especially police traffic-speed detectors.
K band
6
Infrared astronomy
In infrared astronomy, the K band refers to a different frequency range atmospheric transmission window centered
on 2.2 microns (in the near-infrared 136 THz range).
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see[5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
K
u
band
7
K
u
band
K
u
band
Frequency range 10.95-14.5 GHz
Related bands K-band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The K
u
band (English pronunciation: /ˌkeɪˈjuː/) is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of
frequencies. This symbol refers to "K-under" (originally German: Kurz-unten)—in other words, the band directly
below the K-band. In radar applications, it ranges from 10.95-14.5 GHz according to the formal definition of radar
frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002.
[1]

[2]
K
u
band is primarily used for satellite communications, most notably for fixed and broadcast services, and for
specific applications such as NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite used for both space shuttle and ISS
communications. K
u
band satellites are also used for backhauls and particularly for satellite from remote locations
back to a television network's studio for editing and broadcasting. The band is split into multiple segments that vary
by geographical region by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). NBC was the first television network
to uplink a majority of its affiliate feeds via K
u
band in 1983.
Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement, especially in Europe.
[3]
Segments and regions
The Americas
Segments in most of The Americas are represented by ITU Region 2 from 11.7 to 12.2 GHz (Local Oscillator
Frequency (LOF) 10.750 GHz), allocated to the FSS (fixed service satellite), uplink from 14.0 to 14.5 GHz. There
are more than 22 FSS K
u
band satellites orbiting over North America, each carrying 12 to 48 transponders, 20 to 120
watts per transponder, and requiring a 0.8-m to 1.5-m antenna for clear reception.
The 12.2 to 12.7 GHz (LOF 11.250 GHz) segment is allocated to the BSS (broadcasting satellite service). BSS (DBS
direct broadcast satellites) normally carry 16 to 32 transponders of 27 MHz bandwidth running at 100 to 240 watts of
power, allowing the use of receiver antennas as small as 18 inches (450 mm).
K
u
band
8
Europe and Africa
Segments in those regions are represented by ITU Region 1 and they are, the 11.45 to 11.7 and 12.5 to 12.75 GHz
bands are allocated to the FSS (fixed satellite service, uplink 14.0 to 14.5 GHz). In Europe K
u
band is used from 10.7
to 12.75 GHz (LOF Low 9.750 GHz, LOF High 10.600 GHz) for direct broadcast satellite services such as those
carried by the Astra satellites. The 11.7 to 12.5 GHz segment is allocated to the BSS (broadcasting satellite service).
Australia
Australia is part of ITU Region 3 and the Australian regulatory environment provides a class license that covers
downlinking from 12.25 GHz to 12.75 GHz and uplinking from 14.0 GHz to 14.5 GHz.
Indonesia
The ITU has categorized Indonesia as Region P, countries with very high rain precipitation. This statement has made
many people unsure about using K
u
-band (11 – 18 GHz) in Indonesia. If frequencies higher than 10 GHz are used in
a heavy rain area, a decrease in communication availability results. This problem can be solved by using an
appropriate link budget when designing the wireless communication link. Higher power can overcome the loss to
rain fade.
Measurements of rain attenuation in Indonesia have been done for satellite communication links in Padang,
Cibinong, Surabaya and Bandung. The DAH Model for rain attenuation prediction is valid for Indonesia, in addition
to the ITU model. The DAH model has become an ITU recommendation since 2001 (Recommendation No. ITU-R
P.618-7). This model can create a 99.7% available link so that K
u
-band can be applied in Indonesia.
The use of the K
u
-band for satellite communications in tropical regions like Indonesia is becoming more frequent.
Several satellites above Indonesia have K
u
-band transponders, and even K
a
band transponders. Newskies (NSS 6),
launched in December 2002 and positioned at 95° East, contains only K
u
-band transponders with a footprint on
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Moluccas). The iPSTAR satellite, launched in
2004 also uses K
u
band footprints. MEASAT has named the K
u
-band footprint directed towards Indonesia K
u
-band
for Indonesi. MEASAT-3 plans to cover the whole of Indonesia from West to East. This satellite was launched by
Malaysia in December 2006.
Others
Other ITU allocations have been made within the K
u
band to the fixed service (microwave towers), radio astronomy
service, space research service, mobile service, mobile satellite service, radiolocation service (radar), amateur radio
service, and radionavigation. However, not all of these services are actually operating in this band and others are
only minor users.
Advantages
Compared with C-band, K
u
band is not similarly restricted in power to avoid interference with terrestrial microwave
systems, and the power of its uplinks and downlinks can be increased. This higher power also translates into smaller
receiving dishes and points out a generalization between a satellite’s transmission and a dish’s size. As the power
increases, the dish’s size can decrease.
[4]
This is because the purpose of the dish element of the antenna is to collect
the incident waves over an area and focus them all onto the antenna's actual receiving element, mounted in front of
the dish (and pointed back towards its face); if the waves are more intense, less of them need to be collected to
achieve the same intensity at the receiving element.
The K
u
band also offers a user more flexibility. A smaller dish size and a K
u
band system’s freedom from terrestrial
operations simplifies finding a suitable dish site. For the End users K
u
band is generally cheaper and enables smaller
antennas (both because of the higher frequency and a more focused beam).
[5]
K
u
band is also less vulnerable to rain
K
u
band
9
fade than the K
a
band frequency spectrum.
The satellite operator's Earth Station antenna do require more accurate position control when operating at K
u
band
than compared to C band. Position feedback accuracies are higher and the antenna may require a closed loop control
system to maintain position under wind loading of the dish surface.
Disadvantages
There are, however, some disadvantages of K
u
band system. Especially at frequencies higher than 10 GHz in heavy
rain fall areas, a noticeable degradation occurs, due to the problems caused by and proportional to the amount of
rainfall (commonly known as "rain fade").
[6]
This problem can be mitigated, however, by deploying an appropriate
link budget strategy when designing the satellite network, and allocating a higher power consumption to compensate
rain fade loss. The K
u
band is not only used for television transmission, which some sources imply, but also very
much for digital data transmission via satellites, and for voice/audio transmissions.
The higher frequency spectrum of the K
u
band is particularly susceptible to signal degradation, considerably more so
than C-band satellite frequency spectrum. A similar phenomenon, called "snow fade" (where snow or ice
accumulation significantly alters the focal point of a dish) can also occur during winter precipitation. Also, the
K
u
band satellites typically require considerably more power to transmit than the C-band satellites. Under both "rain
fade" and "snow fade" conditions, K
a
and K
u
band losses can be marginally reduced using super-hydrophobic Lotus
effect coatings.
Other Microwave Bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 10.95-14.5 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for K
u
Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
K
u
band
10
References
[1] IEEE Std 521 - 2002 (http:// ieeexplore. ieee. org/xpl/ freeabs_all.jsp?tp=& isnumber=26011&arnumber=1160089&punumber=8332)
URL only available to IEEE members
[2] Note that in the band 11.2–12 GHz the working definitions of K
u
band and X band overlap; satellite communications engineers would
generally regard frequencies above 11.2 GHz as being part of the K
u
band)
[3] Radar Detectors Glossary (http:// www.crutchfield.com/ S-IRLWckuTGNf/learn/learningcenter/car/radar_glossary.html)
[4] Mirabito, M.,& Morgenstern, B. (2004). Satellites: Operations and Applications. The New Communication Technologies (fifth edition).
Burlington: Focal Press.
[5] Satellite Communications: Advantage and Disadvantages (http:// en.allexperts.com/ q/ Satellite-Communications-2436/
Advantage-Disadvantages-1. htm)
[6] What is Ku band? (http:// www.tech-faq.com/ ku-band.shtml)
External links
• Frequency allocation information, mostly for U.S. (http:// www.unwantedemissions. com)
• Spectrum allocation chart (http:// www. ntia.doc.gov/ osmhome/ allochrt.pdf)
L band
11
L band
L band
Frequency range IEEE: ~1 – 2 GHz
NATO: 40 – 60 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
L band refers to four different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum: 40 to 60 GHz (NATO), 1 to 2 GHz (IEEE),
1565 nm to 1625 nm (optical), and around 3.5 micrometres (infrared astronomy).
NATO L band
The NATO L band is defined as the frequency band between 40 and 60 GHz (5–7.5 mm).
IEEE L band
The IEEE L band (20-cm radar long-band) is a portion of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum
ranging roughly from 1 to 2 GHz.
[1]

[2]
It is used by some communications satellites, and for some terrestrial Eureka
147 digital audio broadcasting (DAB). The amateur radio service also has an allocation between 1240 and
1300 MHz (23-centimeter band). The L band refers to the frequency range of 950 MHz to 1450 MHz. Satellite
modems and television receivers work in this range, and the signal is translated to and from the band the satellite
uses by either dedicated upconverters/downconverters or a solid-state Low-noise block converter and Block
upconverter.
Military use
In the United States and overseas territories, the L band is held by the military for telemetry, thereby forcing digital
radio to in-band on-channel (IBOC) solutions. DAB is typically done in the 1452–1492-MHz range as in most of the
world, but other countries also use VHF and UHF bands.
GNSS
The Global Positioning System carriers are in the L band, centered at 1176.45 MHz (L5), 1227.60 MHz (L2),
1381.05 MHz (L3), and 1575.42 MHz (L1) frequencies.
• The Galileo Navigation System uses the L-band similarly to GPS.
• The GLONASS System uses the L-band similarly to GPS.
L band
12
Telecommunications use
GSM mobile phones operate at 800–900 and 1800–1900 MHz. Iridium Satellite LLC phones use frequencies
between 1616 and 1626.5 MHz
[3]
to communicate with the satellites. Inmarsat terminals use frequencies between
1525 and 1646.5 MHz to communicate with the satellites.
Digital Audio Broadcasting (Earth Orbital)
WorldSpace satellite radio broadcasts in the 1467–1492 MHz L sub-band.
Amateur radio
• The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the
frequency range from 1240 to 1300 MHz.
DAB L band usage
The following blocks are used for T-DAB (terrestrial) broadcasts:
Block Center Frequency
LA 1452.960 MHz
LB 1454.672 MHz
LC 1456.384 MHz
LD 1458.096 MHz
LE 1459.808 MHz
LF 1461.520 MHz
LG 1463.232 MHz
LH 1464.944 MHz
LI 1466.656 MHz
LJ 1468.368 MHz
LK 1470.080 MHz
LL 1471.792 MHz
LM 1473.504 MHz
LN 1475.216 MHz
LO 1476.928 MHz
LP 1478.640 MHz
The following blocks are used for S-DAB (satellite) broadcasts:
L band
13
Block Center Frequency
LQ 1480.352 MHz
LR 1482.064 MHz
LS 1483.776 MHz
LT 1485.488 MHz
LU 1487.200 MHz
LV 1488.912 MHz
LW 1490.624 MHz
Note: Canada uses slightly different central frequencies for L-band DAB while in many European countries DAB is
limited part of Band III due to television and mobile two way radio using the rest.
Physics issues relating to band use
The band also contains the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen (the hydrogen line, 1420 MHz), which is of great
astronomical interest as a means of imaging the normally invisible neutral atomic hydrogen in interstellar space.
Consequently parts of the L-band are protected radio astronomy allocations worldwide.
Optical communications L band
L band is also used in optical communications to refer to the wavelength range 1565 nm to 1625 nm.
Infrared astronomy
Atmospheric windows in the infrared. The L band
is the transmission window centred on 3.5
micrometres
In infrared astronomy, the L band refers to an atmospheric
transmission window centred on 3.5 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).
Other microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy
ranging from approximately 1 GHz to 100 GHz in frequency, but older
usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are
within the 1 to 40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined
by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in the table
below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
L band
14
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] "The Electromagnetic Spectrum and the Color Light Spectrum" (http:// emandpplabs.nscee. edu/ cool/ temporary/doors/ electrospectrum/
spectrum. htm). .
[2] McBride, Donald (2006-03-01). "Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum" (http:// web.archive.org/ web/ 20050825063745/ http:/ / www.
geocities.com/ dtmcbride/tech/ em-spectrum. html). Archived from the original (http:// www.geocities. com/ dtmcbride/tech/ em-spectrum.
html) on 2005-08-25. .
[3] http:/ / www. fcc.gov/ Bureaus/ International/Orders/1995/ da950131. txt
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
MMDS is also an acronym for Mortality Medical Data System.
MMDS microwave dish
Business Radio Service (BRS) formerly known as Multichannel
Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), also known as Wireless
Cable, is a wireless telecommunications technology, used for
general-purpose broadband networking or, more commonly, as an
alternative method of cable television programming reception. MMDS
is used in The United States, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic,
Iceland, Ireland, Russia, Slovenia, Brazil, Barbados, Australia, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Panama, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uruguay, India, Belarus,
Lebanon, Cambodia and Kazakhstan. It is most commonly used in
sparsely populated rural areas, where laying cables is not economically
viable, although some companies may also offer MMDS services in urban areas.
Technology
The BRS band uses microwave frequencies at 2.1 GHz and from 2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz. Reception of BRS-delivered
television and data signals is done with a rooftop microwave antenna. The antenna is attached to a down-converter or
transceiver to receive and transmit the microwave signal and convert them to frequencies compatible with standard
TV tuners (much like on satellite dishes where the signals are converted down to frequencies more compatible with
standard TV coaxial cabling), some antennas use an integrated down-converter or transceiver. Digital TV channels
can then be decoded with a standard cable set-top box or directly for TVs with integrated digital tuners. Internet data
can be received with a standard DOCSIS Cable Modem connected to the same antenna and transceiver.
The MMDS band was separated into 33 6 MHz "channels" which were auctioned off like other bands. The idea was
that entities could own several channels and multiplex several television, radio, and later Internet data onto each
channel using digital technology. Just as for Digital Cable channels, each channel is capable of 30.34 Mbps with
64QAM modulation, and 42.88 Mbps with 256QAM modulation. Because of forward error correction and other
overhead, actual throughput is around 27 Mbps for 64QAM and 38 Mbps for 256QAM.
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
15
The newer BRS Band Plan makes changes to channel size and licensing to accommodate new WIMAX TDD fixed
and mobile equipment.
MMDS and DOCSIS+
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) and BRS have adapted the DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service
Interface Specification) from the cable modem world. The version of DOCSIS modified for wireless broadband is
known as DOCSIS+.
Data-transport security is accomplished under BRS by encrypting traffic flows between the broadband wireless
modem and the WMTS (Wireless Modem Termination System) located in the base station of the providers network
using Triple DES.
DOCSIS+ reduces theft-of-service vulnerabilities under BRS by requiring that the WMTS enforce encryption, and
by employing an authenticated client/server key-management protocol in which the WMTS controls distribution of
keying material to broadband wireless modems.
LMDS and BRS wireless modems utilize the DOCSIS+ key-management protocol to obtain authorization and traffic
encryption material from a WMTS, and to support periodic reauthorization and key refresh. The key-management
protocol uses X.509 digital certificates, RSA public key encryption, and Triple DES encryption to secure key
exchanges between the wireless modem and the WMTS.
MMDS provided significantly greater range than LMDS.
MMDS may be obsoleted by the newer 802.16 WiMAX standard approved since 2004.
MMDS was sometimes expanded to Multipoint Microwave Distribution System or Multi-channel Multi-point
Distribution System. All three phrases refer to the same technology.
Current status
In the United States WATCH TV (based in Lima, OH), Eagle Vision (based in Kirksville, MO), and several other
companies offer MMDS based wireless cable television, internet access, and IP based telephone services.
With T-Mobile USA acquiring the 2.1 GHz AWS band (old MDS band) in most areas of the country, which is used
for the modem upstream in MMDS DOCSIS, the future of this kind of service in the USA is in doubt. However, new
CPE equipment allows operators to use part of the main 2.5 - 2.7 GHz MMDS Spectrum for modem upstream,
ensuring future operation in the United States. With newer WiMAX equipment available, some companies are
looking to deploy mobile services instead of fixed services for future expansion.
In certain areas, BRS is being deployed for use as wireless high-speed internet access, mostly in rural areas where
other types of high-speed internet are either unavailable (such as cable or DSL) or prohibitively expensive (such as
satellite internet). CommSPEED is a major vendor in the US market for BRS-based internet.[1]
Sky-View Technologies operates several MMDS-based DOCSIS High-Speed Internet, VoIP, and Digital TV Sites in
Southern Utah, USA, and has recently started rolling out DOCSIS 3.0 data services.
In Ireland, UPC Ireland (previously Chorus and NTL Ireland) offer MMDS TV services almost nationwide. The
frequency band initially allocated was 2500 - 2690 MHz (the “2.6 GHz band”) consisting of 22-23 8 MHz analogue
channels, digital TV was restricted to 2524 - 2668 MHz consisting of 18 8 MHz digital channels. Two digital TV
standards are used DVB-T/MPEG-2 in the old Chorus franchise area (some areas still broadcast an 11-channel
analogue MMDS TV service), and DVB-C/MPEG-2 in the old NTL franchise area. The existing licences expire in
2012 (ntl) and 2014 (Chorus) with an option extend to 2017/2019 following a review which commenced in May
2010.
[2]
In Iceland, since Nov 2006 Vodafone Iceland runs Digital Ísland (Digital Iceland) - the broadcasting system for 365
(media corporation), (previously operated by 365 Broadcast Media). Digital Ísland offers digital MMDS television
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
16
services using DVB-T technology alongside a few analogue channels. The MMDS frequency range extends from
2500-2684 MHz for a total of 23 8 MHz channels, Of these, 21 are considered usable for broadcasting in Iceland.
Analogue MMDS broadcasting began in 1993 moving to digital in 2004.
In Dominican Republic, Wind Telecom started operations using MMDS technology in 2008,at that time and ever
since it became a pioneer taking advantage of such implementations.The company uses the DVB standard for its
digital television transmissions.
References
[1] http:/ / www. commspeed. net/
[2] ComReg Ireland (http:// www. comreg. ie/ publications/
information_notice_-_call_for_input_on_potential_uses_and_licensing_options_of_the_2_6_ghz_spectrum_band.597.103624. p. html)
Information Notice - Call for input on potential uses and licensing options of the 2.6 GHz spectrum band
External links
• FCC BRS Homepage (http:/ / wireless. fcc.gov/ services/ index. htm?job=service_home& id=ebs_brs)
• What is MMDS? (http:// www. tech-faq.com/ mmds-multichannel-multipoint-distribution-service.shtml)
• Vodafone Digital Ísland MMDS (http:/ / www.vodafone.is/ sjonvarp/ stodvar/ orbylgja)
• Íslenska Fjarskiptahandbókin Digital Ísland info (http:// www.fjarskiptahandbokin. is/ index.
php?option=com_content& task=view& id=75&Itemid=125)
Q band
17
Q band
Q band
Frequency range 33 to 50 GHz
Related bands K
a
band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The Q band of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges from 33 to 50 GHz. It sits above, and
partly overlaps with, the U.S. IEEE designated K
a
band (26.5 to 40 GHz). It sits below the U.S. IEEE designated V
band (50–75 GHz) in frequency.
The Q band is mainly used for satellite communications, terrestrial microwave communications and for radio
astronomy studies such as the QUIET telescope. It is also used in automotive radar, and radar investigating the
properties of the Earth's surface
[1]
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 33 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
Q band
18
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] Atanassov, VB and Balan, MG and Haimov, SJ and Kulemin, GP and Michalev, MA and Mladenov, L.H. and Pedenko, Y.A. and
Razskazovsky, VB and Savchenko, AK and Vasilev, VL (1990). "Experimental study of nonstationary X-and Q-band radar backscattering
from the sea surface". Radar and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings F 137 (2): 118–124. doi:10.1049/ip-f-2.1990.0017.
S band
19
S band
S band
Frequency range 2 – 4 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The S band is defined by an IEEE standard for radio waves with frequencies that range from 2 to 4 GHz, crossing
the conventional boundary between UHF and SHF at 3.0 GHz. It is part of the microwave band of the
electromagnetic spectrum. The S band is used by weather radar, surface ship radar, and some communications
satellites, especially those used by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space
Station. The 10-cm radar short-band ranges roughly from 1.55 to 5.2 GHz.
In the U.S., the FCC approved Digital Audio Radio Satellite (DARS) broadcasts in the S band from 2.31 to
2.36 GHz, currently used by Sirius XM Radio. More recently, it has approved for portions of the S band between 2.0
and 2.2 GHz the creation of Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) networks in connection with Ancillary Terrestrial
Components (ATC). There are presently a number of companies attempting to deploy such networks, including ICO
Satellite Management and TerreStar.
The 2.6 GHz range is used for China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting, a satellite radio and mobile TV standard
which, as with proprietary systems in the U.S., is incompatible with the open standards used in the rest of the world.
In May 2009, Inmarsat and Solaris mobile (a joint venture between Eutelsat and Astra) were awarded each a
2×15 MHz portion of the S band by the European Commission.
[1]
The two companies are allowed two years to start
providing pan-European MSS services for 18 years. Allocated frequencies are 1.98 to 2.01 GHz for Earth to space
communications, and from 2.17 to 2.2 GHz for space to Earth communications.
[2]
In some countries, S band is used for Direct-to-Home satellite television (unlike similar services in most countries,
which use K
u
band). The frequency typically allocated for this service is 2.5 to 2.7 GHz (LOF 1.570 GHz).
Wireless network equipment compatible with IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g standards use the 2.4 GHz section of the S
band. Digital cordless telephones operate in this band too. Microwave ovens operate at 2495 or 2450 MHz. IEEE
802.16a and 802.16e standards utilize a part of the frequency range of S band, under WiMAX standards most
vendors are now manufacturing equipment in the range of 3.5 GHz. The exact frequency range allocated for this type
of use varies between countries.
In North America, 2.4 - 2.483 GHz is an ISM band used for unlicensed spectrum devices such as cordless phones,
wireless headphones, and video senders, among other consumer electronics uses, including Bluetooth which operates
between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz.
Amateur radio operators use 2300-2310 MHz, 2390-2450 MHz, and 3300-3500 MHz.
S band
20
Optical communications S band
S band is also used in optical communications to refer to the wavelength range 1460 nm to 1530 nm.
References
[1] European Commission paves the way for European mobile satellite services (http:// europa. eu/ rapid/pressReleasesAction. do?reference=IP/
09/ 770)
[2] Decision No 626/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 2008 on the selection and authorisation of systems
providing mobile satellite services (MSS) (http:// www.erodocdb. dk/ docs/ doc98/ Official/Pdf/ 6262008EC. pdf)
• TerreStar Networks (http:// www. terrestar.com/ ) (Nasdaq: TSTR)
External links
• zarya.info - S-band satellite telemetry and housekeeping frequencies (http:// www.zarya.info/Frequencies/
FrequenciesSband. php)
• utexas.edu - Pioneer 10 & 11 Abstract (http:// www.tsgc. utexas. edu/ archive/ characterizations/pioneer10.
html)
U-NII
The Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII)
[1]

[2]
radio band is part of the radio frequency
spectrum used by IEEE-802.11a devices and by many wireless ISPs. It operates over three ranges:
• U-NII Low (U-NII-1
[3]
): 5.15-5.25 GHz. Regulations require use of an integrated antenna. Power limited to
50mW
[4]
• U-NII Mid (U-NII-2
[3]
): 5.25-5.35 GHz. Regulations allow for a user-installable antenna, subject to Dynamic
Frequency Selection (DFS, or radar avoidance)
[5]
. Power limited to 250mW
[4]
• U-NII Worldwide: 5.47-5.725 GHz. Both outdoor and indoor use, subject to Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS,
or radar avoidance)
[5]
. Power limited to 250mW
[4]
. This spectrum was added by the FCC in 2003 to "align the
frequency bands used by U-NII devices in the United States with bands in other parts of the world"
[5]
. The FCC
currently has an interim limitation on operations on channels which overlap the 5600 - 5650 MHz band
[6]
.
• U-NII Upper (U-NII-3
[3]
): 5.725 to 5.825 GHz. Sometimes referred to as U-NII / ISM due to overlap with the
ISM band. Regulations allow for a user-installable antenna. Power limited to 1W
[4]
Wireless ISPs generally use 5.725-5.825 GHz.
U-NII is an FCC regulatory domain for 5- GHz wireless devices. U-NII power limits are defined by the United
States CFR Title 47 (Telecommunication), Part 15 - Radio Frequency Devices, Subpart E - Unlicensed National
Information Infrastructure Devices, Paragraph 15.407 - General technical requirements. Regulatory use in individual
countries may differ.
The European HiperLAN standard operates in same frequency band as the U-NII.
U-NII
21
2.4 GHz (802.11b/g/n)
Graphical representation of Wi-Fi channels in 2.4 GHz band
There are 14 channels designated in the 2.4 GHz range spaced 5 MHz apart (with the exception of a 12 MHz spacing
before Channel 14). As the protocol requires 25 MHz of channel separation, adjacent channels overlap and will
interfere with each other. Consequently, using only channels 1, 6, 11, and 14 is recommended to avoid
interference.
[7]
Potential Wireless LAN uses of this range are documented by IEEE 802.11 clauses 18 (802.11b), 19 (802.11g) and
20 (802.11n). IEEE 802.11 clauses 14 and 15 also specify potential uses of this range, but did not see widespread
implementation.
Countries apply their own regulations to both the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels
within these frequency ranges. Consult your local authorities as these regulations may be out of date as they are
subject to change at any time. Most of the world will allow the first thirteen channels in the spectrum.
channel frequency
(MHz)
North
America
[8]
Japan
[8]
Most of world
A
[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]
1 2412 Yes Yes Yes
2 2417 Yes Yes Yes
3 2422 Yes Yes Yes
4 2427 Yes Yes Yes
5 2432 Yes Yes Yes
6 2437 Yes Yes Yes
7 2442 Yes Yes Yes
8 2447 Yes Yes Yes
9 2452 Yes Yes Yes
10 2457 Yes Yes Yes
11 2462 Yes Yes Yes
12 2467
No
B
Yes Yes
13 2472
No
B
Yes Yes
14 2484
No
11b only
C
No
A Earlier, in Spain the only allowable channels were 10–11, and in France 10–13. These restrictions have been
removed since, and these countries are currently following the common European policy (channels 1–13).
U-NII
22
B In the USA, 802.11 operation in the channels 12 and 13 is actually allowed under low powered conditions. The 2.4
GHz Part 15 band in the US allows spread-spectrum operation as long as the 50-dB bandwidth of the signal is within
the range of 2400–2483.5 MHz
[13]
which wholly encompasses both channels 12 and 13. A Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) document clarifies that only channel 14 is forbidden and furthermore low-power transmitters
with low-gain antennas may legally operate in channels 12 and 13.
[14]
However, channels 12 and 13 are not normally
used in order to avoid any potential interference in the adjacent restricted frequency band, 2483.5–2500 MHz
[15]
,
which is subject to strict emission limits set out in 47 CFR §15.205
[16]
.
In Canada, 12 channels are available for use, 11 of which at full power and channel 12's transmit power limited.
However, few devices have a method to enable a lower powered channel 12.
C Channel 14 is valid only for DSSS and CCK modes (Clause 18 a.k.a. 802.11b) in Japan. OFDM (i.e. 802.11g)
may not be used. (IEEE 802.11-2007 §19.4.2)
3.6 GHz (802.11y)
Except where noted, all information taken from Annex J of IEEE 802.11y-2008
This range is documented as only being allowed as a licensed band in the United States. Please see IEEE 802.11y for
details.
Countries apply their own regulations to both the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels
within these frequency ranges. Consult your local authorities as these regulations may be out of date as they are
subject to change at any time.
channel frequency
(MHz)
United States
5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
131 3657.5 Yes No No
132 3662.5 Yes No No
132 3660.0 No Yes No
133 3667.5 Yes No No
133 3665.0 No No Yes
134 3672.5 Yes No No
134 3670.0 No Yes No
135 3677.5 Yes No No
136 3682.5 Yes No No
136 3680.0 No Yes No
137 3687.5 Yes No No
137 3685.0 No No Yes
138 3689.5 Yes No No
138 3690.0 No Yes No
U-NII
23
5 GHz (802.11a/h/j/n)
Except where noted, all information taken from Annex J of IEEE 802.11-2007 modified by amendments k, y and n.
Countries apply their own regulations to both the allowable channels, allowed users and maximum power levels
within these frequency ranges. Consult your local authorities as these regulations may be out of date as they are
subject to change at any time.
In 2007 the FCC (United States) began requiring that devices in operating in channels 52, 56, 60 and 64 must have
dynamic frequency selection (DFS) capabilities. This is to avoid communicating in the same frequency range as
some RADAR.
channel frequency
(MHz)
United States Europe Japan Singapore China Israel Korea Turkey
40/20 MHz
[17]
40/20 MHz
40/20 MHz
[18]
10 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz
20 MHz
[11]
20 MHz
[19]
20 MHz
183 4915 No No No Yes No No No No No
184 4920 No No Yes Yes No No No No No
185 4925 No No No Yes No No No No No
187 4935 No No No Yes No No No No No
188 4940 No No Yes Yes No No No No No
189 4945 No No No Yes No No No No No
192 4960 No No Yes No No No No No No
196 4980 No No Yes No No No No No No
7 5035 No No No Yes No No No No No
8 5040 No No No Yes No No No No No
9 5045 No No No Yes No No No No No
11 5055 No No No Yes No No No No No
12 5060 No No No No No No No No No
16 5080 No No No No No No No No No
34 5170 No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
36 5180 Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
38 5190 No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
40 5200 Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
42 5210 No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
44 5220 Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
46 5230 No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes
48 5240 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
52 5260 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
56 5280 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
60 5300 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
64 5320 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
100 5500
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
104 5520
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
U-NII
24
108 5540
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
112 5560
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
116 5580
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
120 5600
No
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
124 5620
No
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
128 5640
No
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
132 5660
No
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No No No
136 5680
Yes
[20]
Yes Yes No No No No No No
140 5700
Yes
[20]
No Yes No No No No No No
149 5745 Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
153 5765 Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
157 5785 Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
161 5805 Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
165 5825 Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
References
[1] "15.07.2005, Heise: 5 GHz WLAN to be available all over Europe" www.heise.de (http:// www.heise. de/ english/ newsticker/ news/ 61748)
[2] "Cisco: Glossary" www.cisco.com (http:/ / www.cisco. com/ univercd/ cc/ td/ doc/ product/wireless/ cb21ag/ icg02/ winglskh. htm)
[3] "Dynamic Frequency Selection for 5 GHz WLAN in the US and Canada" www.cisco.com (http:/ / www.cisco. com/ en/ US/ prod/collateral/
wireless/ ps5679/ ps5861/ prod_white_paper0900aecd801c4a88_ps5279_Products_White_Paper.html)
[4] FCC 15.407 as of September 13, 2006 - hallikainen.com (http:// www.hallikainen.com/ FccRules/ 2006/ 15/ 407/ )
[5] FCC-03-287A1.doc (http:// www.atcb. com/ publicdocs/ fcc-03-287a1-UNII-Changes.pdf)
[6] "15E, Dynamic Frequency Selection, DFS, DFS Approval" fcc.gov (http:/ / fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ oetcf/ kdb/ forms/FTSSearchResultPage.
cfm?id=41732& switch=P)
[7] "Change the WiFi Channel Number to Avoid Interference" (http:// compnetworking.about.com/ od/ wifihomenetworking/qt/ wifichannel.
htm). .
[8] IEEE 802.11-2007 — Table 18-9
[9] France: "WLAN regulatory update" (http:/ / www. arcep. fr/index.php?id=8571& L=1&tx_gsactualite_pi1[uid]=232&
tx_gsactualite_pi1[annee]=2003& tx_gsactualite_pi1[theme]=0&tx_gsactualite_pi1[motscle]=& tx_gsactualite_pi1[backID]=2122&
cHash=a558568045). 2003-02-03. .
[10] Spain: http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20080206082504/ http:/ / www. mityc.es/ Telecomunicaciones/ Secciones/ Espectro/cnaf/
[11] Israel: "צו הטלגרף האלחוטי (אי תחולת הפקודה) (מס' 2), התשס"ו – 2005" (http:/ / www.moc.gov.il/ sip_storage/ FILES/3/ 293. pdf) (in
hebrew). .
[12] Australia: "Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) Class Licence 2000" (http:/ / www.comlaw.gov. au/ comlaw/
legislation/legislativeinstrumentcompilation1. nsf/ previewlodgmentattachments/ 2CCEA68430FE6A29CA2573C9002150EC/ $file/
RadcomLIPDClassLic2000.htm#param6). comlaw.gov.au. . Retrieved 2008-02-22.
[13] 47 CFR §15.247 (http:// edocket. access. gpo. gov/ cfr_2005/octqtr/pdf/47cfr15.247. pdf)
[14] "TCB workshop on unlicensed devices" (http:/ / www.fcc.gov/ oet/ ea/ presentations/ files/ oct05/ Unlicensed_Devices_JD. pdf). October
2005. p. 58. .
[15] NTIA comments to the FCC ET Docket 03-108, footnote 88 (http:/ / www. ntia.doc. gov/ ntiahome/ fccfilings/2005/ cogradio/
ETDocket03-108_02152005.htm#_ftn88)
[16] http:// edocket.access. gpo. gov/ cfr_2004/octqtr/pdf/ 47cfr15.205.pdf
[17] FCC 15.407 as of August 8, 2008 – hallikainen.com (http:/ / sujan. hallikainen.org/FCC/ FccRules/ 2008/ 15/ 407/ )
[18] 802.11-2007 Japan MIC Released the new 5 GHz band (W56) (http:/ / www. adt.com. tw/ english/ news_files/ 81. pdf). Bureau Veritas —
ADT. . Retrieved 2008-02-23.
[19] Korea Frequency Distribution Table (http:// www.rra.go. kr/join/ databoard/law/ view.jsp?lw_type=3& lw_seq=187) 2008.12.31 (in
Korean)
U-NII
25
[20] "Publication Number: 443999 Rule Parts: 15E" (http:/ / fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ oetcf/kdb/ forms/ FTSSearchResultPage.cfm?switch=P&
id=41732). FCC. October 5, 2009. . "Devices must be professionally installed when operating in the 5470 – 5725 MHz band"
External links
• In the USA, CFR Title 47 Part 15 (http:// frwebgate.access. gpo.gov/ cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?TITLE=47&
PART=15& SECTION=407&TYPE=TEXT&YEAR=2005) (revised in 2005) describes the regulation of the
U-NII bands.
V band
26
V band
V band
Frequency range 50 to 75 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The V band (vee-band) of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 50 to 75 GHz. The V band is not heavily used,
except for millimeter wave radar research and other kinds of scientific research. It should not be confused with the
600–1000 MHz range of Band-V (band-five) of the UHF frequency range.
The V band is also used for high capacity terrestrial millimeter wave communications systems. In the United States,
the Federal Communications Commission has allocated the frequency band from 57 to 64 GHz for unlicensed
wireless systems.
[1]
These systems are primarily used for high capacity, short distance (less than 1 mile)
communications. In addition, frequencies at 70, 80, and 90 GHz have been allocated as "lightly licensed" bands for
multi-gigabit wireless communications. All communications links in the V band require unobstructed line of sight
between the transmit and receive point, and rain fade must be taken into account when performing link budget
analysis.
Notable Uses
On Dec. 15, 1995 the V band at 60 GHz was used by the world's first crosslink communication between satellites in
a constellation. This communication was between the U.S. Milstar 1 and Milstar 2 military satellites.
[2]
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
V band
27
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] FCC Rules, Part 15.255
[2] "Milstar II at Boeing Integrated Defense Systems" (http:/ /www. boeing. com/defense-space/ space/ bss/ factsheets/ government/milstar_ii/
milstar_ii. html). .
W band
28
W band
W band
Frequency range 75 to 110 GHz
Related bands V band · M band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The W band of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 75 to 110 GHz. It sits above the
U.S. IEEE designated V band (50–75 GHz) in frequency, yet overlaps the NATO designated M band (60–100 GHz).
The W band is used for satellite communications, millimeter wave radar research, military radar targeting and
tracking applications, and some non-military applications.
A number of passive millimeter-wave cameras for concealed weapons detection operate at 94 GHz. A frequency
around 77 GHz is used for automotive cruise control radar. The atmospheric radio window at 94 GHz is used for
imaging millimeter-wave radar applications in astronomy, defense, and security applications.
Less-than-lethal weaponry exists that uses millimeter waves to heat a thin layer of human skin to an intolerable
temperature so as to make the targeted person move away. A two-second burst of the 95 GHz focused beam heats the
skin to a temperature of 130 °F (54 °C) at a depth of 1/64th of an inch (0.4 mm). The United States Air Force and
Marines are currently using this type of Active Denial System.
[1]
In terms of communications capability, W-band offers high data rate throughput when used at high altitudes and in
space. (The 71 - 76 GHz / 81 - 86 GHz segment of the W-band is allocated by the International Telecommunication
Union to satellite services.) Because of increasing spectrum and orbit congestion at lower frequencies, W-band
satellite allocations are of increasing interest to commercial satellite operators, although no commercial project has
yet been implemented in these bands.
W band
29
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see[5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] Raytheon's Silent Guardian millimeter wave weapon (http:// www. raytheon.com/ newsroom/ feature/ads_03-08/ )
• 5th Framework Programme Information Societies Technologies (IST) - Multifunctional Automotive Radar
Network (RadarNet) (http:// www. radarnet.org/publications/ zip/ its_paper. pdf)
• The design of a real-time 94 GHz passive millimetre-wave imager for helicopter operations, R. Appleby, R.
Anderton, N. Thomson, J. Jack, Proc. SPIE, 5619, pp. 38 (2004). doi:10.1117/12.581336
External links
• A cloud radar at 94 GHz (http:// www. ecdl. tkk. fi/research/ projects/ 94cpr.php?lang=en)
X band
30
X band
X band
Frequency range 8.0 – 12.0
GHz
(IEEE radar)
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The X band is a segment of the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in
communication engineering, the frequency range of X band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0 to
11.2 gigahertz (GHz). In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE at 8.0 to 12.0 GHz.
The term "X-band" is also used informally and inaccurately to refer to the extended AM broadcast band, where the
"X" stands for "extended".
Satellite communications
For military communications satellites, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has assigned the X band
uplink frequency band (for sending modulated signals) as from 7.9 to 8.4 GHz. The ITU-assigned downlink
frequency band (for receiving signals) is from 7.25 to 7.75 GHz. The US military uses all frequencies in this
spectrum; however, they use select signals on the frequencies throughout this spectrum. The typical local oscillator
frequency of an X band low-noise block converter (LNB) is 6300 MHz. Both of these frequency bands are 500 MHz
wide.
In engineering, this pair of frequency bands may be referred to as the 8 / 7 GHz X band satellite communications
system.
Radar
X band is used in radar applications including continuous-wave, pulsed, single-polarization, dual-polarization,
synthetic aperture radar, and phased arrays. X band radar frequency sub-bands are used in civil, military, and
government institutions for weather monitoring, air traffic control, maritime vessel traffic control, defense tracking,
and vehicle speed detection for law enforcement.
[1]
X band is often used in modern radars. The shorter wavelengths of the X band allow for higher resolution imagery
from high-resolution imaging radars for target identification and discrimination.
X band
31
Terrestrial communications and networking
In Ireland, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Canada, the X band 10.15 to 10.7 segment is used for terrestrial broadband.
Alvarion, Cambridge, and Ogier make systems for this, though these are all incompatible. The Ogier system is a full
duplex Transverter used for DOCSIS over microwave. The home / Business CPE has a single coaxial cable with a
power adapter connecting to an ordinary cable modem. The local oscillator is usually 9750 MHz, the same as for K
u
band satellite TV LNB. Two way applications such as broadband typically use a 350 MHz TX offset.
Space communications
Portions of the X band are assigned by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) exclusively for deep
space telecommunications. The primary user of this allocation is the American NASA Deep Space Network (DSN).
DSN facilities are located in Goldstone, California (in the Mojave Desert), near Canberra, Australia, and near
Madrid, Spain.
These three stations, located approximately 120 degrees apart in longitude, provide continual communications from
the Earth to almost any point in the Solar System independent of Earth rotation. DSN stations are capable of using
the older and lower S band deep-space radio communications allocations, and some higher frequencies on a
more-or-less experimental basis, such as in the K band.
Notable deep space probe programs that have employed X band communications include the Viking Mars landers;
the Voyager missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and beyond; the Galileo Jupiter orbiter; and the Cassini-Huygens Saturn
orbiter.
An important use of the X band communications came with the two Viking program landers. When the planet Mars
was passing near or behind the Sun, as seen from the Earth, a Viking lander would transmit two simultaneous
continuous-wave carriers, one in the S band and one in the X band in the direction of the Earth, where they were
picked up by DSN ground stations. By making simultaneous measurements at the two different frequencies, the
resulting data enabled theoretical physicists to verify the mathematical predictions of Albert Einstein's General
Theory of Relativity. These results are some of the best confirmations of the General Theory of Relativity.
Amateur radio
The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the
frequency range from 10.000 to 10.500 GHz.
[2]
Motion detection
Motion detectors often use 10.525 GHz.
[3]
10.4 GHz is proposed for traffic light crossing detectors.
Other microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
X band
32
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for K
u
Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521.
[4]

[5]
For other definitions see Letter Designations
of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] Radar Bands (http:/ / www. everythingweather.com/ weather-radar/bands. shtml)
[2] VHF Handbook of IARU Region 1 (2006), pg. 50 (http:/ / www.iaru-r1.org/VHF_Handbook_V5_11.pdf)
[3] 10GHz Wideband Transceiver (http:// www.g3pho. free-online.co.uk/ microwaves/ wideband. htm)
[4] http:// www. radioing.com/ eengineer/ bands. html
[5] http:/ / www. microwaves101. com/ encyclopedia/ letterbands.cfm
External links
• http:/ / www. ntia. doc. gov/ osmhome/ allochrt.pdf
• http:/ / www. g3pho. free-online.co. uk/ microwaves/ wideband. htm
Radio spectrum
33
Radio spectrum
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Radio spectrum refers to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies – that is,
frequencies lower than around 300 GHz (or, equivalently, wavelengths longer than about 1 mm).
Different parts of the radio spectrum are used for different radio transmission technologies and applications. Radio
spectrum is typically government regulated in developed countries, and in some cases is sold or licensed to operators
of private radio transmission systems (for example, cellular telephone operators or broadcast television stations).
Ranges of allocated frequencies are often referred to by their provisioned use (for example, cellular spectrum or
television spectrum).
[1]
By frequency
A band is a small section of the spectrum of radio communication frequencies, in which channels are usually used or
set aside for the same purpose.
Above 300 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that the atmosphere is
effectively opaque, until it becomes transparent again in the infrared and optical window frequency ranges.
To prevent interference and allow for efficient use of the radio spectrum, similar services are allocated in bands. For
example, broadcasting, mobile radio, or navigation devices, will be allocated in non-overlapping ranges of
frequencies.
Each of these bands has a basic bandplan which dictates how it is to be used and shared, to avoid interference and to
set protocol for the compatibility of transmitters and receivers.
As a matter of convention, bands are divided at wavelengths of 10
n
 metres, or frequencies of 3×10
n
 hertz. For
example, 30 MHz or 10 m divides shortwave (lower and longer) from VHF (shorter and higher). These are the parts
of the radio spectrum, and not its frequency allocation.
Radio spectrum
34
Band name Abbr ITU
band
Frequency
and
wavelength in
air
Example uses
sub-hertz subHz 0 < 3 Hz
> 100,000 km
Natural and man-made electromagnetic waves (millihertz, microhertz, nanohertz) from
earth, ionosphere, sun, planets, etc.
Extremely low
frequency
ELF 1 3–30 Hz
100,000 km –
10,000 km
Communication with submarines
Super low frequency SLF 2 30–300 Hz
10,000 km –
1000 km
Communication with submarines, Main power (50/60Hz)
Ultra low frequency ULF 3 300–3000 Hz
1000 km –
100 km
Communication within mines
Very low frequency VLF 4 3–30 kHz
100 km –
10 km
Submarine communication, wireless heart rate monitors, geophysics
Low frequency LF 5 30–300 kHz
10 km – 1 km
Navigation, time signals, AM longwave broadcasting, RFID, amateur radio
Medium frequency MF 6 300–3000 kHz
1 km – 100 m
AM (medium-wave) broadcasts, amateur radio, avalanche beacons
High frequency HF 7 3–30 MHz
100 m – 10 m
Shortwave broadcasts, citizens' band radio, amateur radio and over-the-horizon aviation
communications, RFID, Over-the-horizon radar, Automatic link establishment (ALE) /
Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) radio communications, Marine and mobile
radio telephony
Very high frequency VHF 8 30–300 MHz
10 m – 1 m
FM, television broadcasts and line-of-sight ground-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-aircraft
communications. Land Mobile and Maritime Mobile communications, amateur radio,
weather radio
Ultra high frequency UHF 9 300–3000
MHz
1 m – 100 mm
Television broadcasts, microwave ovens, mobile phones, wireless LAN, Bluetooth,
ZigBee, GPS and two-way radios such as Land Mobile, FRS and GMRS radios, amateur
radio
Super high
frequency
SHF 10 3–30 GHz
100 mm –
10 mm
Microwave devices, wireless LAN, most modern radars, communications satellites,
amateur radio
Extremely high
frequency
EHF 11 30–300 GHz
10 mm –
1 mm
Radio astronomy, high-frequency microwave radio relay, microwave remote sensing,
amateur radio
Terahertz or
Tremendously high
frequency
THz or
THF
12 300–3,000
GHz
1 mm – 100
μm
Terahertz imaging – a potential replacement for X-rays in some medical applications,
ultrafast molecular dynamics, condensed-matter physics, terahertz time-domain
spectroscopy, terahertz computing/communications, sub-mm remote sensing, amateur
radio
Radio spectrum
35
IEEE US
Band Frequency range
Origin of name
[2]
HF band 3 to 30 MHz High Frequency
VHF band 30 to 300 MHz Very High Frequency
UHF band 300 to 1000 MHz Ultra High Frequency
L band 1 to 2 GHz Long wave
S band 2 to 4 GHz Short wave
C band 4 to 8 GHz Compromise between S and X
X band 8 to 12 GHz Used in WW II for fire control, X for cross (as in crosshair)
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz Kurz-under
K band 18 to 27 GHz German Kurz (short)
K
a
band 27 to 40 GHz Kurz-above
V band 40 to 75 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz W follows V in the alphabet
mm band 110 to 300 GHz
ITU
The ITU radio bands are designations defined in the ITU Radio Regulations. Provision No. 2.1 states that "the radio
spectrum shall be subdivided into nine frequency bands, which shall be designated by progressive whole numbers in
accordance with the following table.
[3]
The table originated with a recommendation of the IVth CCIR meeting, held in Bucharest in 1937, and was approved
by the International Radio Conference held at Atlantic City in 1947. The idea to give each band a number, in which
the number is the logarithm of the approximate geometric mean of the upper and lower band limits in Hz, originated
with B.C. Fleming-Williams, who suggested it in a letter to the editor of Wireless Engineer in 1942. (For example,
the approximate geometric mean of Band 7 is 10 MHz, or 10
7
Hz.)
[4]
Table of ITU Radio Bands
Band
Number Symbols
Frequency
Range
Wavelength
Range
Typical sources
1 ELF 3 to 30 Hz 10,000 to
100,000 km
deeply-submerged submarine communication
2 SLF 30 to 300 Hz 1000 to
10,000 km
submarine communication, ac power grids
3 ULF 300 to
3000 Hz
100 to 1000 km earthquakes, earth mode communication
4 VLF 3 to 30 kHz 10 to 100 km near-surface submarine communication,
5 LF 30 to 300 kHz 1 to 10 km AM broadcasting, aircraft beacons
6 MF 300 to
3000 kHz
100 to 1000 m AM broadcasting, aircraft beacons, amateur two-way radio
7 HF 3 to 30 MHz 10 to 100 m Skywave long range radio communication: shortwave broadcasting, military, maritime,
diplomatic, amateur two-way radio
Radio spectrum
36
8 VHF 30 to
300 MHz
1 to 10 m FM radio broadcast, television broadcast, PMR, DVB-T, MRI
9 UHF 300 to
3000 MHz
10 to 100 cm PMR, television broadcast, microwave oven, GPS, mobile phone communication
(GSM, UMTS, 3G, HSDPA), cordless phones (DECT), WLAN (Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n),
Bluetooth
10 SHF 3 to 30 GHz 1 to 10 cm DBS satellite television broadcasting, WLAN (Wi-Fi 802.11 a/n), microwave relays,
WiMAX, radars
11 EHF 30 to 300 GHz 1 to 10 mm microwave relays, intersatellite links, WiMAX, high resolution radar, directed-energy
weapon (Active Denial System), Security screening (Millimeter wave scanner)
EU, NATO, US ECM frequency designations
Band Frequency range
A band 0 to 0.25 GHz
B band 0.25 to 0.5 GHz
C band 0.5 to 1.0 GHz
D band 1 to 2 GHz
E band 2 to 3 GHz
F band 3 to 4 GHz
G band 4 to 6 GHz
H band 6 to 8 GHz
I band 8 to 10 GHz
J band 10 to 20 GHz
K band 20 to 40 GHz
L band 40 to 60 GHz
M band 60 to 100 GHz
Waveguide frequency bands
Band
Frequency range
[5]
R band 1.70 to 2.60 GHz
D band 2.20 to 3.30 GHz
S band 2.60 to 3.95 GHz
E band 3.30 to 4.90 GHz
G band 3.95 to 5.85 GHz
F band 4.90 to 7.05 GHz
C band 5.85 to 8.20 GHz
H band 7.05 to 10.10 GHz
X band 8.2 to 12.4 GHz
Ku band 12.4 to 18.0 GHz
K band 15.0 to 26.5 GHz
Radio spectrum
37
Ka band 26.5 to 40.0 GHz
Q band 33 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
Y band 325 to 500 GHz
By application
Broadcasting
Broadcast frequencies:
• Longwave AM Radio = 148.5 – 283.5 kHz (LF)
• Mediumwave AM Radio = 530 kHz – 1710 kHz (MF)
• Shortwave AM Radio = 3 MHz – 30 MHz (HF)
Designations for television and FM radio broadcast frequencies vary between countries, see Television channel
frequencies and FM broadcast band. Since VHF and UHF frequencies are desirable for many uses in urban areas, in
North America some parts of the former television broadcasting band have been reassigned to cellular phone and
various land mobile communications systems. Even within the allocation still dedicated to television, TV-band
devices use channels without local broadcasters.
The Apex band in the United States was a pre-WWII allocation for VHF audio broadcasting; it was made obsolete
after the introduction of FM broadcasting.
Air band
Airband refers to VHF frequencies used for navigation and voice communication with aircraft. Trans-oceanic aircraft
also carry HF radio and satellite transceivers.
Marine band
The greatest incentive for development of radio was the need to communicate with ships out of visual range of shore.
From the very early days of radio, large oceangoing vessels carried powerful long-wave and medium-wave
transmitters. High-frequency allocations are still designated for ships, although satellite systems have taken over
some of the safety applications previously served by 500 kHz and other frequencies. 2182 kHz is a medium-wave
frequency still used for marine emergency communication.
Marine VHF radio is used in coastal waters and relatively short-range communication between vessels and to shore
stations. Radios are channelized, with different channels used for different purposes; marine Channel 16 is used for
calling and emergencies.
Radio spectrum
38
Amateur radio frequencies
Amateur radio frequency allocations vary around the world. Several bands are common for amateurs world-wide,
usually in the shortwave part of the spectrum. Other bands are national or regional allocations only due to differing
allocations for other services, especially in the VHF and UHF parts of the radio spectrum.
Citizens' band and personal radio services
Citizens' band radio is allocated in many countries, using channelized radios in the upper HF part of the spectrum
(around 27 MHz). It used for personal, small business and hobby purposes. Other frequency allocations are used for
similar services in different jurisdictions, for example UHF CB is allocated in Australia. A wide range of personal
radio services exist around the world, usually emphasizing short-range communication between individuals or for
small businesses, simplified or no license requirements, and usually FM transceivers using around 1 watt or less.
Industrial, scientific, medical
The ISM bands were initially reserved for non-communications uses of RF energy, such as microwave ovens,
radio-frequency heating, and similar purposes. Many unlicensed devices such as cordless telephones or wireless
computer networks now use ISM frequencies, with no expectation of regulatory protection from primary ISM
devices.
Land mobile bands
Bands of frequencies, especially in the VHF and UHF parts of the spectrum, are allocated for communication
between fixed base stations and land mobile vehicle-mounted or portable transceivers. In the United States these
services are informally known as business band radio. See also Professional mobile radio.
Police radio and other public safety services such as fire departments and ambulances are generally found in the
VHF and UHF parts of the spectrum. Trunking systems are often used to make most efficient use of the limited
number of frequencies available.
The demand for mobile telephone service has led to large blocks of radio spectrum allocated to cellular frequencies.
Radio control
Reliable radio control uses bands dedicated to the purpose. Radio-controlled toys may use portions of unlicensed
spectrum in the 27 MHz or 49 MHz bands, but more costly aircraft, boat, or land vehicle models use dedicated
remote control frequencies near 72 MHz to avoid interference by unlicensed uses. Licensed amateur radio operators
use portions of the 6-meter band in North America. Industrial remote control of cranes or railway locomotives use
assigned frequencies that vary by area.
Radar
Radar applications use relatively high power pulse transmitters and sensitive receivers, so radar is operated on bands
not used for other purposes. Most radar bands are in the microwave part of the spectrum, although certain important
applications for meteorology make use of powerful transmitters in the UHF band.
References
[1] Colin Robinson (2003). Competition and regulation in utility markets (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=iROxMM2MHrIC&
pg=PA175&dq="cellular+spectrum"+ "television+ spectrum"& num=20&ei=MeL0SvW2O5i-lATe3ZzVBQ#v=onepage&q="cellular
spectrum" "television spectrum"& f=false). Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 9781843762300. .
[2] Per IEEE Std 521-2002 Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands. Reaffirmed standard of 1984; originally dates back to
World War II.
[3] ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 1, Article 2; Edition of 2004
Radio spectrum
39
[4] Booth, C.F. (1949). Nomenclature of Frequencies. The Post Office Electrical Engineers' Journal 42 (1): 47-48
[5] www.microwaves101.com "Waveguide frequency bands and interior dimensions" (http:/ / www. microwaves101.com/ encyclopedia/
waveguidedimensions.cfm)
• ITU-R Recommendation V.431: Nomenclature of the frequency and wavelength bands used in
telecommunications (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/R-REC-V.431/ en). International Telecommunication Union,
Geneva.
• IEEE Standard 521-2002: Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands
• AFR 55-44/AR 105-86/OPNAVINST 3430.9A/MCO 3430.1, 27 October 1964 superseded by AFR 55-44/AR
105-86/OPNAVINST 3430.1A/MCO 3430.1A, 6 December 1978: Performing Electronic Countermeasures in the
United States and Canada, Attachment 1,ECM Frequency Authorizations.
External links
• UnwantedEmissions.com (http:/ / www. unwantedemissions. com) A reference to radio spectrum allocations.
• "Radio spectrum: a vital resource in a wireless world" (http:// ec. europa. eu/ information_society/policy/
ecomm/ radio_spectrum/index_en. htm) European Commission policy.
Extremely low frequency
40
Extremely low frequency
Extremely low frequency
Frequency range 3 to 30 Hz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
1982 aerial view of the Clam Lake, Wisconsin ELF facility.
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is a term
used to describe radiation frequencies from
3 to 30 Hz. In atmosphere science, an
alternative definition is usually given, from
3 Hz to 3 kHz.
[1]

[2]
In the related
magnetosphere science, the lower frequency
electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations
occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie
in the ULF range, which is thus also defined
differently from the ITU Radio Bands.
Description
ELF is a subradio frequency.
[3]
Some
medical peer-reviewed journals refer to ELF
in the context of "extremely low frequency
(ELF) magnetic fields (MF)" with
frequencies of 50 Hz
[4]
and 50–80 Hz.
[5]
United States Government agencies, such as NASA, describe ELF as
non-ionizing radiation with frequencies between 0 and 300 Hz.
[3]
The World Health Organization (WHO) have used
ELF to refer to the concept of "extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMF)"
[6]
and have also
referred to "ELF electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to 100,000 Hz (100 kHz)."
[7]
The WHO also
stated that at frequencies between 0 and 300 Hz, "the wavelengths in air are very long (6000 km at 50 Hz and 5000
km at 60 Hz), and, in practical situations, the electric and magnetic fields act independently of one another and are
measured separately."
[6]
Extremely low frequency
41
Military Communications
The United States Navy utilized extremely low frequencies (ELFs) as radio band and radio communications. The
Submarine Integrated Antena System (SIAS) was a research and development effort to communicate with submerged
submarines.
[8]
The Soviet/Russian Navy also utilized ELFs for submarine communications system, ZEVS.
[9]
Explanation
Because of the electrical conductivity of seawater, submarines are shielded from most electromagnetic
communications. Signals in the ELF frequency range, however, can penetrate much deeper. Two factors limit the
usefulness of ELF communications channels: the low data transmission rate of a few characters per minute and, to a
lesser extent, the one-way nature due to the impracticality of installing an antenna of the required size on a
submarine (antennas need to be of exceptional size for the users to achieve successful communication). Generally,
ELF signals were used to order a submarine to rise to a shallow depth where it could receive some other form of
communication.
Difficulties of ELF communication
One of the difficulties posed when broadcasting in the ELF frequency range is antenna size. This is because the
antenna must be at least a substantial fraction of the size (in at least one dimension) of the wavelength of the
frequency of the EM waves. Simply put, a 1 Hz (cycle per second) signal would have a wavelength equal to the
distance EM waves travel through a given medium in 1 second. For ELF, this is very slightly slower than the speed
of light in a vacuum. As used in military applications, the wavelength is ~299,792 km(~187,370 mi) per second
divided by 50–85 Hz, which equals around 3450 to 5996 km (2140 to 3726 mi) long; by comparison, Earth's
diameter is around 12735 km (7913 mi). Because of this huge size requirement and, to transmit internationally using
ELF frequencies, the earth itself must be used as an antenna, with extremely long leads going into the ground.
Various other means are taken to construct radio stations with substantially smaller sizes, such as electrical
lengthening.
The US maintained two sites, in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin and the Escanaba River State
Forest, Michigan (originally named Project Sanguine, then downsized and rechristened Project ELF prior to
construction), until they were dismantled, beginning in late September 2004. Both sites used long power lines,
so-called ground dipoles, as leads. These leads were in multiple strands ranging from 22.5 to 45 kilometres (14.0 to
28 mi) long. Because of the inefficiency of this method, considerable amounts of electrical power were required to
operate the system.
Ecological impact
There have been some concerns over the possible ecological impact of ELF signals. In 1984 a federal judge halted
construction requiring more environmental and health studies. This judgment was overruled by a federal appeals
court on the basis that the US Navy claimed to have spent over 25 million dollars studying the effects of the
electromagnetic fields with results indicating that they were similar to the effect produced by standard power
distribution lines. The judgment was not accepted by everyone and during the time ELF was in use, some Wisconsin
politicians such as Senators Herb Kohl, Russ Feingold and Congressman Dave Obey called for its closure. Similar
concerns have in the past been raised about electromagnetic radiation and health.
Extremely low frequency
42
Other uses
Transmitters in the 20 Hz range are also found in pipeline inspection gauges, also known as "PIGs".
Some radio hams record ELF (or even lower) signals from very large homemade antennas, and play them back at
higher speeds to catch natural fluctuations in the Earth's electromagnetic field. Increasing the playback increases the
pitch, so that it is brought into the audio frequency range.
Natural sources
Naturally occurring ELF waves are present on Earth, resonating in the region between ionosphere and surface. They
are initiated by lightning strikes that make electrons in the atmosphere oscillate.
[10]
Though VLF signals were
predominantly generated from lightning discharges, it was found that an observable ELF component (slow tail)
followed the VLF component in almost all cases.
[11]
The fundamental mode of the Earth-ionosphere cavity has the
wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth, which gives a resonance frequency of 7.8 Hz. This frequency,
and higher resonance modes of 14, 20, 26 and 32 Hz appear as peaks in the ELF spectrum and are called Schumann
resonance.
They have also been tentatively identified on Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's surface is thought to be a poor reflector of
ELF waves, so the waves may instead be reflecting off the liquid-ice boundary of a subsurface ocean of water and
ammonia, the existence of which is predicted by some theoretical models. Titan's ionosphere is also more complex
than Earth's, with the main ionosphere at an altitude of 1200 km (750 mi) but with an additional layer of charged
particles at 63 km (39 mi). This splits Titan's atmosphere to some extent into two separate resonating chambers. The
source of natural ELF waves on Titan is unclear as there doesn't appear to be extensive lightning activity.
[10]
Finally, huge ELF radiation power outputs of 100,000 times the Sun's output in visible light may be radiated by
magnetars. The pulsar in the Crab nebula radiates powers of this order at the frequency 30 hertz [12]. Radiation of
this frequency is below the plasma frequency of the interstellar medium, thus this medium is opaque to it, and it
cannot be observed from Earth.
Exposure
In electromagnetic therapy and electromagnetic radiation and health research, electromagnetic spectrum frequencies
between 0 and 100 hertz are considered extremely-low-frequency fields.
[13]
Since the late 1970s, questions have
been raised whether exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields (EMF) within this range of frequencies produces
adverse health consequences.
[7]
In October 2005, WHO convened a Task Group of scientific experts to assess any
risks to health that might exist from "exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range >0 to
100,000 Hz (100 kHz)."
[7]
Research has shown that ELF electrical and magnetic fields at a high-level short-term
exposure have a negative impact on health (ICNIRP, 2003). However, in regards to recognized ELF safety standards,
the "Health effects related to short-term, high-level exposure have been established and form the basis of two
international exposure limit guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE, 2002). At present, these bodies consider the scientific
evidence related to possible health effects from long-term, low-level exposure to ELF fields insufficient to justify
lowering these quantitative exposure limits."
[7]
A common source of ELF fields in the United States is 60 Hz electric
and magnetic fields from high-voltage electric power transmission lines and secondary distribution lines, such as
those found in residential neighbourhoods.
[6]

[7]

[13]
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has
evaluated the scientific data and has classified ELF magnetic fields as being "possibly carcinogenic" or, in other
words, that there is some evidence that EMFs may contribute to an increased risk of cancer to humans or animals.
[14]
[15]
Epidemiological studies suggest a possible association between long term occupational exposure to ELF and
Alzheimer's disease.
[16]

[17]
Extremely low frequency
43
Patents
• Tanner, R. L., U.S. Patent 3215937
[18]
, "Extremely low-frequency antenna". 1965.
• Hansell, Clarence W., U.S. Patent 2389432
[19]
, "Communication system by pulses through the Earth".
• Altshuler, U.S. Patent 4051479
[20]
, ELF vertical dipole antenna suspended from aircraft
References
Notes
[1] Liemohn, Michael W. and A. A. CHAN, " Unraveling the Causes of Radiation Belt Enhancements (http:/ / lws-trt. gsfc. nasa.gov/
trt_liemohn05eos.pdf)". EOS, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, Volume 88, Number 42, 16 October 2007, pages
427-440. Republished by NASA and accessed online, 8 Feb 2010. Adobe File, page 2.
[2] R. Barr, D. Llanwyn Jones, C. J. Rodger, "ELF and VLF radio waves", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 62,
Issues 17-18, November 2000, Pages 1689-1718, ISSN 1364-6826, DOI:10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00121-8 (http:// dx.doi. org/ 10. 1016/
S1364-6826(00)00121-8).
[3] NASA.gov (http:// smad-ext. grc. nasa. gov/ shed/ pub/ ohpm/ ohpm10-non-ion.pdf), page 8. ">0 to 300 Hz ... Extremely low frequency
(ELF)"
[4] Legros, A; Beuter, A (2006). "Individual subject sensitivity to extremely low frequency magnetic field". Neurotoxicology 27 (4): 534–46.
doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.02.007. PMID 16620992.
[5] ESTECIO, Marcos Roberto Higino and SILVA, Ana Elizabete. Alterações cromossômicas causadas pela radiação dos monitores de vídeo de
computadores (http:// www.docguide. com/ news/ content. nsf/ PaperFrameSet?OpenForm&refid=2&
id=48dde4a73e09a969852568880078c249&c=&newsid=8525697700573E1885256C000059C721& u=http:/ / www.scielo.br/ scielo.
php?script=sci_abstract& pid=S0034-89102002000300012&lng=en& nrm=iso& tlng=en&ref=/news/ content.nsf/
SearchResults?openform& Query=Extremely low frequency&so=date& id=48dde4a73e09a969852568880078c249& Search_Box=All DG).
Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2002, vol.36, n.3, pp. 330-336. ISSN 0034-8910. Republished by docguide.com. Accessed 8 Feb 2010.
[6] " Electromagnetic Fields and Public HealthL - Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) (http:// www.who.int/ docstore/ peh-emf/publications/
facts_press/ efact/efs205. html)". Fact Sheet N205. November 1998. World Health Organization. Accessed 12 Feb 2010. "ELF fields are
defined as those having frequencies up to 300 Hz. ... the electric and magnetic fields act independently of one another and are measured
separately."
[7] " Electromagnetic fields and public health (http:/ / www.who. int/ mediacentre/factsheets/ fs322/ en/ index. html)". Fact Sheet No. 322, June
2007. World Health Organization, Accessed 7 Feb 2010.
[8] " U.S. Navy: Vision...Presence...Power (http:// www.navy. mil/ navydata/ policy/ vision/ vis98/ vis-p10. html)." SENSORS - Subsurface
Sensors. US Navy. Accessed 7 Feb 2010.
[9] http:/ / www. vlf.it/ zevs/ zevs. htm ZEVS, the Russian 82 Hz ELF transmitter
[10] "Titan's Mysterious Radio Wave" (http:/ / saturn. jpl. nasa. gov/ news/ features/feature20070601c.cfm). Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
2007-06-01. . Retrieved 2007-06-02. Republished as " Casini - Unlocking Saturn's Secrets - Titan's mysterious radio wave (http:// www.
nasa. gov/ mission_pages/ cassini/ whycassini/ cassinif-20070601-02.html)". 22 November 2007. NASA. Accessed 7 February 2010.
[11] Tepley, Lee R. " A Comparison of Sferics as Observed in the Very Low Frequency and Extremely Low Frequency Bands (http:/ / www.
agu.org/ pubs/ crossref/1959/ JZ064i012p02315.shtml)". Stanford Research Institute Menlo Park, California. 10 August 1959. 64(12),
2315–2329. Summary republished by American Geophysical Union. Accessed 13 Feb 2010
[12] http:// www. cv. nrao.edu/ course/ astr534/Pulsars. html
[13] Cleary, Stephen F. "Electromagnetic Field: A Danger?". The New Book of Knowledge - Medicine And Health. 1990. 164-74. ISBN
0-7172-8244-9.
[14] GC.ca (http:// www.hc-sc. gc. ca/ hl-vs/ iyh-vsv/ environ/magnet-eng.php#ty)
[15] "Expertise de l’Afsset sur les effets sanitaires des champs électromagnétiques d’extrêmement basses fréquences" (http:// www. afsset. fr/
index.php?pageid=452& newsid=552& MDLCODE=news) (in french). 6 April 2010. . Retrieved 23 April 2010.
[16] García AM, Sisternas A, Hoyos SP (April 2008). "Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and
Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis". International Journal of Epidemiology 37 (2): 329–40. doi:10.1093/ije/dym295. PMID 18245151.
[17] Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks-SCENIHR (January 2009). Health Effects of Exposure to EMF (http:/
/ ec.europa.eu/ health/ ph_risk/committees/ 04_scenihr/ docs/ scenihr_o_022.pdf). Brussels: Directorate General for Health&Consumers;
European Commission. pp. 4–5. . Retrieved 2010-04-27.
[18] http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=3215937
[19] http:// www. google. com/ patents?vid=2389432
[20] http:// www. google. com/ patents?vid=4051479
Extremely low frequency
44
General information
• Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields (2002)]
by the IARC. ( Non-Ionizing Radiation (http:// monographs. iarc.fr/ENG/ Monographs/ vol80/ mono80. pdf))
External links
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
• Extremely low frequency (ELF) fields (http:// www.inchem. org/ documents/ ehc/ ehc/ ehc35. htm) (EHC 35,
1984)
• " Radio waves below 22kHz (http:/ / www. vlf.it/ ): Nature's signals and strange emission at very low frequency"
- a site specialising in low-frequency signals .
• Jacobsen, Trond, " ZEVS, the Russian 82 Hz ELF transmitter (http:/ / www.vlf. it/ zevs/ zevs. htm): An Extrem
Low Frequency transmission-system, using the real longwaves" ALFLAB, Halden, Norway.
• NASA live streaming ELF -> VLF Receiver (http:// spaceweather. com/ glossary/ inspire. html)
• Longitudinal Electric Waves (http:/ / www. miklagaard.com/ longitudinal-electric-waves)
Super low frequency
45
Super low frequency
Super low frequency
Frequency range 30 to 300 Hz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Super low frequency (SLF) is the frequency range between 30 hertz and 300 hertz. This frequency range includes
the frequencies of AC power grids (50 hertz and 60 hertz).
The radio services Seafarer (USA) on 76 hertz and ZEVS (Russia) on 82 hertz operate in this range, which is often
incorrectly called extremely low frequency (ELF). They both provide communication services for submarines at a
certain depth.
PCs with sound cards are increasingly being used instead of radio receivers for this frequency range, because of their
much smaller size and lower cost. Signals received by the sound card with a coil or a wire antenna are analysed by a
software Fast Fourier Transform algorithm and converted into audible sound.
[1]
External articles
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.)
[2]
". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
• NASA live streaming ELF -> VLF Receiver
[3]
References
[1] "Radio waves below 22 kHz" (http:/ / www.vlf. it/ ). .
[2] http:// www. vlf.it/ frequency/bands. html
[3] http:/ / spaceweather. com/ glossary/ inspire. html
Ultra low frequency
46
Ultra low frequency
Ultra low frequency
Frequency range 0.3 to 3 kHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Ultra low frequency (ULF) is the frequency range of electromagnetic waves between 300 hertz and 3 kilohertz. In
magnetosphere science and seismology, alternative definitions are usually given, including ranges from 1 mHz to
100 Hz,
[1]
1 mHz to 1 Hz,
[2]
10 mHz to 10 Hz.
[3]
Frequencies above 3 Hz in atmosphere science are usually assigned
to the ELF range.
Many types of waves in the ULF frequency band can be observed in the magnetosphere and on the ground. These
waves represent important physical processes in the near-Earth plasma environment. The speed of the ULF waves is
often associated with the Alfven velocity that depends on the ambient magnetic field and plasma mass density.
This band is used for communications in mines, as it can penetrate the earth.
[4]
Earthquakes
Some monitoring stations have reported that earthquakes are sometimes preceded by a spike in ULF activity. A
remarkable example of this occurred before the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California.
[5]
On December 9, 2010,
geoscientists announced that the DEMETER satellite observed a dramatic increase in ULF radio waves over Haiti in
the month before the magnitude 7.0 M
w
2010 earthquake.
[6]
Researchers are attempting to learn more about this
correlation to find out whether this method can be used as part of an early warning system for earthquakes.
Earth Mode Communications
ULF has been used by the military for secure communications through the ground. NATO AGARD publications
from the 1960s detailed many such systems, although one suspects the contents of the published papers left a lot
unsaid about what actually was developed secretly for defense purposes. Communications through the ground using
conduction fields is known as "Earth Mode" communications and was first used in WWI. Radio amateurs and
electronics hobbyists have used this mode for limited range communications using audio power amplifiers connected
to widely spaced electrode pairs hammered into the soil. At the receiving end the signal is detected as a weak electric
current between two further pairs of electrodes. Using weak signal reception methods with PC based DSP filtering
with extremely narrow bandwidths it is possible to receive signals at a range of a few kilometers with a transmitting
power of 10-100W and electrode spacing of around 10-50m.
Ultra low frequency
47
References
[1] V.A. Pilipenko, "ULF waves on the ground and in space", Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Volume 52, Issue 12, December
1990, Pages 1193-1209, ISSN 0021-9169, DOI:10.1016/0021-9169(90)90087-4 (http:// dx.doi.org/ 10. 1016/ 0021-9169(90)90087-4).
[2] T. Bösinger and S. L. Shalimov, "On ULF Signatures of Lightning Discharges", Space Science Reviews, Volume 137, Issue 1, Pages
521-532, June 2008, DOI:10.1007/s11214-008-9333-4 (http:/ / dx.doi. org/10. 1007/ s11214-008-9333-4).
[3] O. Molchanov, A. Schekotov, E. Fedorov, G. Belyaev, and E. Gordeev, " Preseismic ULF electromagnetic effect from observation at
Kamchatka (http:/ / www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/ 3/ 203/ 2003/ nhess-3-203-2003.pdf)", Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences,
Volume 3, Pages 203-209, 2003
[4] HF and Lower Frequency Radiation - Introduction (http:// www. weather.nps.navy.mil/ ~psguest/ EMEO_online/module3/ module_3_1.
html)
[5] Fraser-Smith, Antony C.; Bernardi, A.; McGill, P. R.; Ladd, M. E.; Helliwell, R. A.; Villard, Jr., O. G. (August 1990). "Low-Frequency
Magnetic Field Measurements Near the Epicenter of the M
s
7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake" (http:// ee.stanford. edu/ ~acfs/ LomaPrietaPaper.
pdf) (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters (Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union) 17 (9): 1465–1468. ISSN 0094-8276.
OCLC 1795290. . Retrieved December 18, 2010.
[6] KentuckyFC (December 9, 2010). "Spacecraft Saw ULF Radio Emissions over Haiti before January Quake" (http:/ / www. technologyreview.
com/ blog/ arxiv/26114/ ). Physics arXiv Blog (http:/ / www.technologyreview.com/ blog/ arxiv/). Cambridge, Massachusetts:
TechnologyReview.com. . Retrieved December 18, 2010.
External articles
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
• NASA live streaming ELF -> VLF Receiver (http:/ / spaceweather. com/ glossary/ inspire. html)
• Amateur Radio Below 10 kHz " G3XBM's page on Earth Mode Communication (http:/ / homepage.ntlworld.
com/lapthorn/earthmode.htm)"
• Review of Earth Mode Communications " 1966 abstract about Earth Mode Comms by Ames, Frazier and Orange
(http:/ / stinet. dtic. mil/ oai/ oai?& verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0640319)"
• Radio communications within the Earth's crust " Abstract of article by Burrows written in 1963 (http:/ /
ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpl/ freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1138037)"
Very low frequency
48
Very low frequency
Very low frequency
Frequency range 3 to 30 kHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
A VLF receiving antenna at Palmer Station, Antarctica,
operated by Stanford University
Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF)
in the range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz. Since there is not much
bandwidth in this band of the radio spectrum, only the very
simplest signals are used, such as for radio navigation. Also
known as the myriametre band or myriametre wave as the
wavelengths range from ten to one myriametres (an obsolete
metric unit equal to 10 kilometres).
Very low frequency
49
Applications
Part of the aerial of the Grimeton VLF
transmitter
VLF waves can penetrate water to a depth of roughly 10 to 40 metres (30 to
130 feet), depending on the frequency employed and the salinity of the water.
VLF is used to communicate with submarines near the surface (for example
using the transmitter DHO38), while ELF is used for deeply-submerged
vessels. VLF is also used for radio navigation beacons (alpha) and time
signals (beta).
VLF is also used in electromagnetic geophysical surveys. [1]
Early in the history of radio engineering attempts were made to use
radiotelephone using amplitude modulation and single-sideband modulation
within the band starting from 20 kHz, but the result was unsatisfactory
because of the small available bandwidth.
The frequency range below 9 kHz is not allocated by the International
Telecommunication Union and may be used in some nations license-free.
Many natural radio emissions, such as whistlers, can also be heard in this
band.
[2]
In the USA, the time signal station WWVL began transmitting a 500 W
signal on 20 kHz in August 1963. It used Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) to
send data, shifting between 20 kHz and 26 kHz. The WWVL service was
discontinued in July 1972.
The very long wave transmitter SAQ at Grimeton near Varberg in Sweden
can be visited by the public at certain times, such as on Alexanderson Day.
Details of VLF submarine communication methods
The VLF antenna of a World War II U‑boat
High power land-based transmitters in countries that operate
submarines send signals that can be received thousands of miles away.
Transmitter sites typically cover great areas (many acres or square
kilometres), with transmitted power anywhere from 20 kW to 2 MW.
Submarines receive the signal using some form of towed antenna
which floats just under the surface of the water – for example a BCAA
(Buoyant Cable Array Antenna). Modern receivers, such as those
produced by Detica
[3]
, use sophisticated digital signal processing
techniques to remove the effects of atmospheric noise (largely caused
by lightning strikes around the world) and adjacent channel signals,
extending the useful reception range.
Because of the low bandwidth available it is not possible to transmit audio signals, therefore all messaging is done
with alphanumeric data at very low bit rates. Three types of modulation are used:
• OOK / CWK: On-Off Keying / Continuous Wave Keying. Simple Morse code transmission mode where carrier
on = mark and off = space. This is the simplest possible form of radio transmission, but it is difficult for
transmitters to transmit high power levels, and the signal can easily be swamped by atmospheric noise, so this is
Very low frequency
50
only really used for emergencies or basic testing.
• FSK: Frequency-shift keying. The oldest and simplest form of digital radio data modulation. Frequency is
increased by 25 Hz (for example) from the carrier to indicate a binary “1” and reduced by 25 Hz to indicate binary
“0”. FSK is used at rates of 50 bit/s and 75 bit/s.
• MSK: Minimum-shift keying. A more sophisticated modulation method that uses less bandwidth for a given data
rate than FSK. This is the normal mode for submarine communications today, and can be used at data rates up to
300 bit/s- or about 35 8-bit ASCII characters per second (or the equivalence of a sentence every two seconds) – a
total of 450 words per minute. For comparison, the NCTJ's shorthand requirement is 100WPM for newspapers or
80WPM for magazines.
Two alternative character sets may be used: 5-bit ITA2 or 8-bit ASCII. Because these are military transmissions they
are almost always encrypted for security reasons. Although it is relatively easy to receive the transmissions and
convert them into a string of characters, civilians cannot decode any encrypted messages because they most likely
use one-time pads since the amount of text is so small.
PC-based VLF reception
PC based VLF reception is a simple method whereby anyone can pick up VLF signals using the advantages of
modern computer technology. An aerial in the form of a coil of insulated wire is connected to the input of the
soundcard of the PC (via a jack plug) and placed a few metres away from it. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) software
in combination with a sound card allows reception of all frequencies below the Nyquist frequency simultaneously in
the form of spectrogrammes. Because CRT monitors are strong sources of noise in the VLF range, it is
recommended to record the spectrograms on hard disk with any PC CRT monitors turned off. These spectrograms
show many signals, which may include VLF transmitters, the horizontal electron beam deflection of TV sets and
sometimes superpulses and twenty second pulses. The strength of the signal received can vary with a Sudden
Ionospheric Disturbance. These cause the ionization level to drop in the atmosphere. The result of this is that the
VLF signal will reflect down to Earth with greater strength.
List of VLF transmissions
Callsign
Frequency
Location of
transmitter
Remarks
- 11.905 kHz Russia (various
locations)
Alpha-Navigation
- 12.649 kHz Russia (various
locations)
Alpha-Navigation
- 14.881 kHz Russia (various
locations)
- 15.625 kHz - Frequency for horizontal deflection of electron beam in CRT televisions
(576i)
- 15.734 kHz - Frequency for horizontal deflection of electron beam in CRT televisions
(480i)
GBR 15.8 kHz Rugby, England (Regular transmissions ceased April 2003) Many publications listed its
frequency as 16 kHz
JXN 16.4 kHz Helgeland (Norway)
SAQ 17.2 kHz Grimeton (Sweden) Only active at special occasions (Alexanderson Day)
Very low frequency
51
- ca. 17.5
kHz
? Twenty second pulses
NAA 17.8 kHz
VLF station (NAA) at
Cutler, Maine[4]
Transmits occasionally Superpulses
RDL/UPD/UFQE/UPP/UPD8 18.1 kHz Russia (various
locations)
HWU 18.3 kHz Le Blanc (France) Frequently inactive for longer periods
RKS 18.9 kHz Russia (various
locations)
Rarely active
GBZ 19.6 kHz Anthorn (Britain) Many operation modes, even Superpulses.
NWC 19.8 kHz Exmouth, Western
Australia (AUS)
Used for submarine communication, 1 Megawatt.
[5]
ICV 20.27 kHz Tavolara (Italia)
RJH63, RJH66, RJH69, RJH77,
RJH99
20.5 kHz Russia (various
locations)
Time signal transmitter Beta
ICV 20.76 kHz Tavolara (Italia)
HWU 20.9 kHz Le Blanc (France)
RDL 21.1 kHz Russia (various
locations)
rarely active
HWU 21.75 kHz Le Blanc (France)
GBZ 22.1 kHz Skelton (Britain)
- 22.2 kHz Ebino (Japan)
? 22.3 kHz Russia? Only active on 2nd of each month for a short period between 11:00 and
13:00 (respectively 10:00 and 12:00 in winter), if 2nd of each month is
not a Sunday
RJH63, RJH66, RJH69, RJH77,
RJH99
23 kHz Russia (various
locations)
Time signal transmitter Beta
DHO38 23.4 kHz near Rhauderfehn
(Germany)
submarine communication
NAA 24 kHz Cutler, Maine (USA)
Used for submarine communication, at 2 megawatts. [6]
NLF 24.8 kHz Arlington, Washington
(USA)
Used for submarine communication. [7][8]
References
[1] http:/ / www. geonics. com/ html/ vlfsystems. html
[2] Helliwell, R.A. (2006). Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenomena. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-44572-0.
[3] http:/ / www. deticaesg. com/ index. php?option=com_content&task=view& id=1191& Itemid=319
[4] http:// www. random-abstract.com/ radio/
[5] Naval base link to jet plunge (http:// www.smh. com. au/ news/ travel/ naval-base-link-to-qantas-plunge/2008/ 11/ 14/ 1226318890475.
html) - The Sydney Morning Herald 14 November 2008, retrieved on 14 November 2008.
[6] http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/military/ facility/cutler. htm
[7] http:/ / www. vlf.it/ trond2/ 20-25khz.html
[8] http:/ / ludb.clui. org/ex/ i/ WA3248/
Very low frequency
52
Further reading
• Romero, R. (2006) (in Italian). Radio Natura. Albino, Italy: SANDIT S.r.l..
• Klawitter, G.; Oexner, M., Herold, K. (2000) (in German). Langwelle und Längstwelle. Meckenheim: Siebel
Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-89632-043-2.
External links
• Longwave club of America (http:// www. lwca.org)
• Radio waves below 22 kHz (http:/ / www. vlf.it)
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)".
• PC-based VLF-reception
• Gallery of VLF-signals
• NASA live streaming ELF -> VLF Receiver (http:/ / spaceweather. com/ glossary/ inspire. html)
• VLF radio art, 1 (http:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=-g6PcLEx6bs)
• VLF radio art, 2 (http:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=LQoYOXmUuE0)
• VLF radio art, 3 (http:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=B13-09K-Ubc)
• World Wide Lightning Location Network (http:// webflash.ess. washington. edu/ )
• Stanford University VLF group (http:// www-star.stanford.edu/ ~vlf/)
• University of Louisville VLF Monitor (http:/ / moondog. astro. louisville. edu/ index. html)
• Larry's Very Low Frequency site (http:// www. vlfradio.com/ )
• Kiel Longwave Monitor, VLF/LF real time data (http:/ / www.df3lp. de/ )
• Mark's Live Online VLF Receiver, UK (http:/ / www.markyd26uk.110mb. com/ vlf.html)
• IW0BZD VLF TUBE receiver (http:/ / www.qsl.net/ iw0bzd/ VLF_TUBE_RX.htm)
• Internet based VLF listening guide with server list (http:/ / www.ab9il. net/ vlf/vlf1.html)
Low frequency
53
Low frequency
Low frequency
Frequency range 30 to 300 kHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Low frequency or low freq or LF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kHz–300 kHz. In Europe, and
parts of Northern Africa and of Asia, part of the LF spectrum is used for AM broadcasting as the longwave band. In
the western hemisphere, its main use is for aircraft beacon, navigation (LORAN), information, and weather systems.
Time signal stations MSF, HBG, DCF77, JJY and WWVB are found in this band. Also known as the kilometre
band or kilometre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten kilometres.
Propagation of LF signals
Low frequency radio signals can follow the curvature of the Earth. Radio waves reaching the receiver by this route
are called ground waves. Their strength is not reduced by absorption as much as in higher frequencies. Ground wave
can cover an area with a radius of 2000 km about the transmitting antenna.
Propagation by reflection (the actual mechanism is one of refraction) from the ionosphere is also possible. The
reflection can take place at the D layer (50–90 km) or the E layer (90–150 km). These waves, called skywaves, can
be detected at distances exceeding 300 km from the transmitting antenna.
[1]
Standard time signals
An LF Radio clock
In the frequency range 40 kHz–80 kHz, there are several standard time
and frequency stations, such as
• JJY in Japan (40 kHz and 60 kHz)
• MSF in Anthorn, England (60 kHz)
• WWVB in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (60 kHz)
• HBG in Prangins, Switzerland (75 kHz) (to be closed down 31
December 2011)
• DCF77 in Mainflingen near Frankfurt am Main, Germany
(77.5 kHz)
In Europe and Japan, many low-cost consumer devices have since the
late 1980s contained radio clocks with an LF receiver for these signals.
Low frequency
54
Since these frequencies propagate by ground wave only, the precision of time signals is not affected by varying
propagation paths between the transmitter, the ionosphere, and the receiver. In the United States, such devices
became feasible for the mass market only after the output power of WWVB was increased in 1997 and 1999.
Military
Radio signals below 50 kHz are capable of penetrating ocean depths to approximately 200 metres, the longer the
wavelength, the deeper. The British, German, Indian, Russian, Swedish, United States
[2]
and possibly other navies
communicate with submarines on these frequencies.
In the USA, the Ground Wave Emergency Network or GWEN operated between 150 and 175 kHz, until replaced by
satellite communications systems in 1999. GWEN was a land based military radio communications system which
could survive and continue to operate even in the case of a nuclear attack.
Experimental and amateur
A 2.1 kHz allocation, the 136 kHz band (135.7 kHz to 137.8 kHz), is available to amateur radio operators in some
countries in Europe
[3]
, New Zealand, Canada and French overseas dependencies. The world record distance for a
two-way contact is over 10,000 km from near Vladivostok to New Zealand.
[4]
As well as conventional Morse code
many operators use very slow computer controlled Morse code (QRSS) or specialized digital communications
modes. A proposal at the WRC-07 World Radiocommunication Conference aims to make this a worldwide amateur
radio allocation.
The UK allocated a 2.8 kHz sliver of spectrum from 71.6 kHz to 74.4 kHz beginning in April 1996 to UK amateurs
who applied for a Notice of Variation to use the band on a noninterference basis with a maximum output power of 1
W ERP (effective radiated power). This was withdrawn on 30 June 2003 after a number of extensions in favor of the
European-harmonized 136 kHz band.
[5]
A 1-watt transmission of very slow Morse Code between G3AQC (in the
UK) and W1TAG (in the USA) spanned the Atlantic Ocean for 3275 miles (5271 km) on November 21–22, 2001.
In the United States there is a special license free allocation in the longwave range called LowFER. This
experimental allocation between 160 kHz and 190 kHz is sometimes called the "Lost Band". Unlicensed operation
by the public is permitted south of 60 degrees north latitude, except where interference would occur to ten licensed
location service stations located along the coasts. Regulations for use include a power output of no more than 1 watt,
a combined antenna/ground-lead length of no more than 15 meters, and a field strength of no more than 4.9
microvolts/meter. Also, emissions outside of the 160 kHz–190 kHz band must be attenuated by at least 20 dB below
the level of the unmodulated carrier. Many experimenters in this band are amateur radio operators.
Meteorological information broadcasts
A regular service transmitting RTTY marine meteorological information on LF is the German Meteorological
Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD
[6]
). The DWD operates station DDH47 on 147.3 kHz using standard
ITA-2 alphabet with a transmission speed of 50 baud and FSK modulation with 85 Hz shift.
[7]
Radio navigation signals
In parts of the world where there is no longwave broadcasting service, Non-directional beacons or NDB's used for
aeronavigation operate on 190–300 kHz (and beyond into the MW band). In Europe, Asia and Africa, the NDB
allocation starts on 283.5 kHz.
The LORAN-C radio navigation system operates on 100 kHz.
In the past, the Decca Navigator System operated between 70 kHz and 129 kHz. The last Decca chains were closed
down in 2000.
Low frequency
55
Differential GPS telemetry transmitters operate between 283.5 and 325  kHz.
[8]
The commercial "DATATRAK" radio navigation system operates on a number of frequencies, varying by country,
between 120 and 148 kHz.
Radio broadcasting
The longwave radio broadcasting service operates on frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz in Europe and parts
of Asia.
Other applications
Some radio frequency identification (RFID) tags utilize LF. These tags are commonly known as LFID's or LowFID's
(Low Frequency Identification). The LF RFID tags are near field devices.
Antennas
Low cost LF time signal receiver
Antennas (aerials) used at these low frequencies are usually mast
radiators, which are fed at the bottom and which are insulated from
ground, or mast antennas fed by the guy ropes (such masts are usually
grounded). T-antennas and L-antennas are used when antenna height is
an issue. Long wire antennas are also used in rare cases. Nearly all LF
antennas are shorter than one quarter of the radiated wavelength. The
only longwave transmission antenna realized with a height
corresponding to a half radiated wavelength was Warsaw Radio Mast.
Low height antennas need loading coils of high inductance. These coils
have high power losses due to ohmic heating of the coil wire. The
addition of a horizontal section ("top hat") improves the efficiency of
electrically short LF antennas without increasing the height of the antenna or its supporting structures.
The height of antennas differ by usage.
For some non-directional beacons (NDBs) the height can be as low as 10 meters, while for more powerful navigation
transmitters such as DECCA, masts with a height around 100 meters are used. T-antennas have a height between 50
and 200 meters, while mast aerials are usually taller than 150 meters.
The height of mast antennas for LORAN-C is around 190 meters for transmitters with radiated power below
500 kW, and around 400 meters for transmitters greater than 1000 kilowatts. The main type of LORAN-C antenna is
insulated from ground.
LF (longwave) broadcasting stations use mast antennas with heights of more than 150 meters or T-aerials. The mast
antennas can be ground-fed insulated masts or upper-fed grounded masts. It is also possible to use cage antennas on
grounded masts.
For broadcasting stations often directional antennas are required. They consist of multiple masts, which often have
the same height. Some longwave antennas consist of multiple mast antennas arranged in a circle with or without a
mast antenna in the center. Such antennas focus the transmitted power toward ground and give a large zone of
fade-free reception. This type of antenna is rarely used, because they are very expensive and require much space and
because fading occurs on longwave much more rarely than in the medium wave range. One antenna of this kind was
used by transmitter Orlunda in Sweden.
LF transmitting antennas for high power transmitters require large amounts of space, and have been the cause of
controversy in Europe and the United States due to concerns about possible health hazards associated with exposure
to high-power radio waves.
Low frequency
56
References
[1] Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom (Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain) 85 (9): 32.
[2] "Very Low Frequency (VLF) - United States Nuclear Forces" (http:// www. fas. org/nuke/ guide/ usa/ c3i/ vlf.htm). 1998. . Retrieved
2008-01-09.
[3] CEPT/ERC Recommendation 62-01 E (Mainz 1997): Use of the band 135.7-137.8 kHz by the Amateur Service.
[4] "QSO ZL/UA0 on 136 kHz" (http:// www.wireless. org.uk/ newspic92. htm). The World of LF. .
[5] "UK Spectrum Strategy 2002" (http:/ / www.ofcom.org. uk/ static/ archive/ ra/topics/ spectrum-strat/future/strat02/ strategy02app_a.doc).
Ofcom. .
[6] http:// www. dwd. de
[7] "DWD Sendeplan" (http:/ / www. dwd. de/ de/ wir/ Geschaeftsfelder/Seeschifffahrt/Sendeplaene/ Sendeplaene.htm). . Retrieved
2008-01-08.
[8] Alan Gale, G4TMV (2011). "World DGPS database for DXers" (http:/ / www.ndblist. info/ datamodes/ worldDGPSfreqorder.pdf) (PDF). .
Retrieved 2008-01-14.
Further reading
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)".
• IK1QFK Home Page. (http:/ / www.vlf.it)
• Klawitter, G.; Oexner, M., Herold, K. (2000) (in German). Langwelle und Längstwelle. Meckenheim: Siebel
Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-89632-043-2.
• Marten, M. (2007) (in German). Spezial-Frequenzliste 2007/08. Meckenheim: Siebel Verlag GmbH. pp. 36–39.
ISBN 978-3-88180-665-7.
• Mike Dennison, G3XDV and Jim Moritz, M0BMU (2007). LF Today. Radio Society of Great Britain.
ISBN 9781-9050-8636-8.
Medium frequency
57
Medium frequency
Medium frequency
Frequency range 0.3 to 3 MHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Medium frequency (MF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 300 kHz to 3 MHz. Part of this band is the
medium wave (MW) AM broadcast band. The MF band is also known as the hectometer band or hectometer wave
as the wavelengths range from ten down to one hectometers (1,000 to 100 m). Frequencies immediately below MF
are denoted low frequency (LF), and the next higher frequencies are known as high frequency (HF).
Uses and applications
NDB transmitter at 49°12.35′N 2°13.20′W.
Callsign JW - 'Jersey West'. Transmitting on
329.0 kHz, near the lower end of the MF band
Non-directional navigational radio beacons (NDBs) for maritime and
aircraft navigation occupy a band from 190 to 435 kHz, which overlaps
from the LF into the bottom part of the MF band.
500 kHz was for many years the maritime distress and emergency
frequency, and there are more NDBs between 510 and 530 kHz.
Navtex, which is part of the current Global Maritime Distress Safety
System occupies 518 kHz and 490 kHz for important digital text
broadcasts. In recent years, some limited amateur radio operation has
also been allowed in the region of 500 kHz in the USA, UK, Germany
and Sweden.
[1]
Medium wave radio stations are allocated an AM broadcast band from
526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz
[2]
in Europe; in North America this extends
from 535 kHz to 1705 kHz.
[3]
Many home-portable or cordless telephones, especially those that were
designed in the 1980s, transmit low power FM audio signals between
the table-top base unit and the handset on frequencies in the range
1600 to 1800 kHz.
[4]
There is an amateur radio band known as 160 meters or 'top-band' between 1800 and 2000 kHz (allocation depends
on country and starts at 1810 kHz outside the Americas). Amateur operators transmit CW morse code, digital signals
and SSB voice signals on this band.
There are a number of coast guard and other ship-to-shore frequencies in use between 1600 and 2850 kHz. These
include, as examples, the French MRCC on 1696 kHz and 2677 kHz, Stornoway Coastguard on 1743 kHz, the US
Medium frequency
58
Coastguard on 2670 kHz and Madeira on 2843 kHz.
[5]
RN Northwood in England broadcasts Weather Fax data on
2618.5 kHz.
[6]
2182 kHz is the international calling and distress frequency for SSB maritime voice communication
(radiotelephony). It is analogous to Channel 16 on the marine VHF band.
Lastly, there are aeronautical and other mobile SSB bands from 2850 kHz to 3500 kHz, crossing the boundary from
the MF band into the HF radio band.
[5]

[7]
Propagation
Propagation at MF is usually via ground waves. Ground wave propagation at these frequencies follows the curvature
of the Earth over conductive surfaces such as the sea and damp earth. At sea, MF communications can typically be
heard over several hundred miles.
[8]
MF ground-wave propagation depends on the ionosphere's D-layer. When
heavily ionised, such as during the day, especially in summer, and more especially at times of high solar activity, this
atmospheric layer can be electronically noisy and absorptive of MF waves. For this reason, many MF transmitters,
whether for broadcast or communication purposes, need to be high-powered to punch the power through the noise
and losses.
[8]
Late at night, especially in winter months, and particularly at times of low solar activity, the ionospheric D-layer can
virtually disappear. When this happens, MF radio waves can easily be received hundreds or even thousands of miles
away. This can be very useful for long-distance communication on a quiet frequency, but can have the opposite
effect in many other cases. For example, due to the limited number of available channels in the MW broadcast band,
the same frequencies are re-allocated to different broadcasters provided they transmit several hundred miles apart.
On nights of good MF propagation, distant stations may appear superimposed onto local ones causing interference.
Transmission and reception
Even a quarter-wave antenna at MF can be physically large (25 to 250 metres (82 to 820 ft), depending for which
part of the band), and a half-wave dipole will be twice that size. Given the requirements for gaining an adequate
height and for a good earth, this can make demands on establishing an efficient antenna system for an MF
transmitter.
On the other hand, ferrite is very efficient at MF and so a compact and efficient reception antenna can be made from
a ferrite rod with a coil of fine wire wound around it. These are common in AM radios and are also used in portable
radio direction finder (RDF) receivers. The reception pattern of ferrite rod antennas has sharp nulls along the axis of
the rod, so that reception is at its best when the rod is at right angles to the transmitter, but fades to nothing when the
rod points exactly at the transmitter.
References
[1] The 500 KC Amateur Radio Experimental Group (http:// www.500kc.com)
[2] "United Kingdom Frequency Allocation Table 2008" (http:/ / stakeholders. ofcom.org.uk/ binaries/ spectrum/ spectrum-policy-area/
spectrum-management/ UK-FAT-Table-2008/ukfat08.pdf). Ofcom. p. 21. . Retrieved 2010-01-26.
[3] "U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart" (http:/ / www. ntia. doc.gov/ osmhome/ allochrt. pdf). National Telecommunications and Information
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. October 2003. . Retrieved 2009-08-11.
[4] totse.com | How to listen to cordless telephone conversations (http:/ / www. totse.com/ en/ phreak/ bugs_and_taps/ tapphon. html)
[5] MF/HF SSB Frequencies (http:// www.yachtcom. info/Frequencies.htm)
[6] http:/ / www. hffax.de/ Northwood-95.txt
[7] http:// www. ntia. doc. gov/ osmhome/ allochrt.pdf U.S. Government Frequency Allocation Chart
[8] "Ground wave MF and HF propagation" (http:/ / www. ips.gov.au/ Category/ Educational/ Other Topics/Radio Communication/ Intro to HF
Radio. pdf). Introduction to HF Propagation. IPS Radio and Space Services, Sydney Australia. . Retrieved 27 September 2010.
• Federal Standard 1037C
Medium frequency
59
Further reading
• Charles Allen Wright and Albert Frederick Puchstein, "Telephone communication, with particular application to
medium-frequency alternating currents and electro-motive forces". New York [etc.] McGraw-Hill Book
Company, inc., 1st ed., 1925. LCCN 25008275
External articles
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
High frequency
60
High frequency
High frequency
Frequency range 3 to 30 MHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. Also known as the decameter band or
decameter wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). Frequencies
immediately below HF are denoted Medium-frequency (MF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Very
high frequency (VHF). Shortwave (2.310 - 25.820 MHz) overlaps and is slightly lower than HF.
Propagation characteristics
A modern Icom M700Pro two-way radio for
marine HF radio communications.
Since the ionosphere often refracts HF radio waves quite well (a
phenomenon known as skywave propagation), this range is extensively
used for medium and long range radio communication. However,
suitability of this portion of the spectrum for such communication
varies greatly with a complex combination of factors:
• Sunlight/darkness at site of transmission and reception
• Transmitter/receiver proximity to terminator
• Season
• Sunspot cycle
• Solar activity
• Polar aurora
These and other factors contribute, at each point in time for a given communication path, to a
• Maximum usable frequency (MUF)
• Lowest usable high frequency (LUF) and a
• Frequency of optimum transmission (FOT)
High frequency
61
Exploitation of, and limits imposed by, these characteristics
When all factors are at their optimum, worldwide communication is possible on HF. At many other times it is
possible to make contact across and between continents or oceans. At worst, when a band is 'dead', no
communication beyond the limited groundwave paths is possible no matter what powers, antennas or other
technologies are brought to bear. When a transcontinental or worldwide path is open on a particular frequency,
digital, SSB and CW communication is possible using surprisingly low transmission powers, often of the order of
tens of watts, provided suitable antennas are in use at both ends and that there is little or no man-made or natural
interference.
[1]
On such an open band, interference originating over a wide area affects many potential users. These
issues are significant to military, safety
[2]
and amateur radio users of the HF bands.
Uses
An amateur radio station incorporating two HF
transceivers.
The high frequency band is very popular with amateur radio operators,
who can take advantage of direct, long-distance (often
inter-continental) communications and the "thrill factor" resulting from
making contacts in variable conditions. International shortwave
broadcasting utilizes this set of frequencies, as well as a seemingly
declining number of "utility" users (marine, aviation, military, and
diplomatic interests), who have, in recent years, been swayed over to
less volatile means of communication (for example, via satellites), but
may maintain HF stations after switch-over for back-up purposes.
However, the development of Automatic Link Establishment
technology based on MIL-STD-188-141A and MIL-STD-188-141B
for automated connectivity and frequency selection, along with the
high costs of satellite usage, have led to a renaissance in HF usage among these communities. The development of
higher speed modems such as those conforming to MIL-STD-188-110B which support data rates up to 9600 bit/s has
also increased the usability of HF for data communications. Other standards development such as STANAG 5066
provides for error free data communications through the use of ARQ protocols.
CB radios operate in the higher portion of the range (around 27 MHz), as do some studio-to-transmitter (STL) radio
links. Some modes of communication, such as continuous wave morse code transmissions (especially by amateur
radio operators) and single sideband voice transmissions are more common in the HF range than on other
frequencies, because of their bandwidth-conserving nature, but broadband modes, such as TV transmissions, are
generally prohibited by HF's relatively small chunk of electromagnetic spectrum space.
Noise, especially man-made interference from electronic devices, tends to have a great effect on the HF bands. In
recent years, concerns have risen among certain users of the HF spectrum over "broadband over power lines" (BPL)
Internet access, which is believed to have an almost destructive effect on HF communications. This is due to the
frequencies on which BPL operates (typically corresponding with the HF band) and the tendency for the BPL
"signal" to leak from power lines. Some BPL providers have installed "notch filters" to block out certain portions of
the spectrum (namely the amateur radio bands), but a great amount of controversy over the deployment of this access
method remains.
Some radio frequency identification (RFID) tags utilize HF. These tags are commonly known as HFID's or
HighFID's (High Frequency Identification).
High frequency
62
References
[1] Paul Harden (2005). "Solar Activity & HF Propagation" (http:// www.qrparci.org/content/ view/ 58/ 118/ ). QRP Amateur Radio Club
International. . Retrieved 2009-02-22.
[2] "Amateur Radio Emergency Communication" (http:// www.arrl.org/pio/ emergen1.html). American Radio Relay League, Inc.. 2008. .
Retrieved 2009-02-22.
Further reading
• Maslin, N.M. "HF Communications - A Systems Approach". ISBN 0-273-02675-5, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 1987
• Johnson, E.E., et al., "Advanced High-Frequency Radio Communications". ISBN 0-89006-815-1, Artech House,
1997
• V. Narayanamurti, et al., "Selective Transmission of High-Frequency Phonons by a Superlattice: The "Dielectric"
Phonon Filter". Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 2012–2016 (Issue 27 – 31 December 1979).
• Boulos-Paul Bejjani, et al., "Transient Acute Depression Induced by High-Frequency Deep-Brain Stimulation".
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 340:1476-1480 May 13, 1999 Number 19. Massachusetts Medical
Society.
• H. C. Liu, "Analytical model of high-frequency resonant tunneling: The first-order ac current response". Phys.
Rev. B 43, 12538–12548 (Issue 15 – 15 May 1991).
• Sipila, M., et al., "High-frequency periodic time-domain waveform measurement system". IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory and Techniques, Volume 36, Issue 10, pg. 1397-1405, Oct 1988. ISSN 0018-9480 INSPEC
3291255 DOI 10.1109/22.6087
• Morched, A., et al., "A high frequency transformer model for the EMTP". IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Volume 8, Issue 3, pg. 1615-1626, Jul 1993. ISSN 0885-8977 INSPEC 4581865 DOI 10.1109/61.252688
External links
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
• Douglas C. Smith, High Frequency Measurements Web Page; Index and Technical Tidbits (http:/ / www.emcesd.
com/ ). D. C. Smith Consultants, Los Gatos, CA.
• High Frequency Propagation Models (http:// www.its. bldrdoc.gov/ elbert/ hf.html), its.bldrdoc.gov.
• High Frequency Wave Propagation (http:/ / www.cscamm. umd. edu/ programs/hfw05/), cscamm.umd.edu.
• " Grounding for Low- and High-Frequency Circuits (http:// www.analog. com/ UploadedFiles/
Application_Notes/ 698455131755584673020828AN_345.pdf)" (PDF)
• " High frequency noise (http:// www. mrec.org/ pubs/ HighFrequencyNoise_InformationalPage_05.pdf)" (PDF)
• " Advantages of HF Radio (http:/ / www. codan.com. au/ HFRadio/ WhyHF/ tabid/ 305/ Default. aspx)" Codan
Very high frequency
63
Very high frequency
Very high frequency
Frequency range 30 to 300 MHz
Wavelength range 1 to 10 m
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Frequencies immediately
below VHF are denoted High frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Ultra high frequency
(UHF). The frequency allocation is done by ITU.
These names referring to high-end frequency usage originate from mid-20th century, when regular radio service used
MF, Medium Frequencies, better known as "AM" in USA, below the HF. Currently VHF is at the low-end of
practical frequency usage, new systems tending to use frequencies in SHF and EHF above the UHF range. See Radio
spectrum for full picture.
Common uses for VHF are FM radio broadcast, television broadcast, land mobile stations (emergency, business, and
military), long range data communication with radio modems, Amateur Radio, marine communications, air traffic
control communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR, DME & ILS).
Propagation characteristics
VHF propagation characteristics are ideal for short-distance terrestrial communication, with a range generally
somewhat farther than line-of-sight from the transmitter (see formula below). Unlike high frequencies (HF), the
ionosphere does not usually reflect VHF radio and thus transmissions are restricted to the local area (and don't
interfere with transmissions thousands of kilometres away). VHF is also less affected by atmospheric noise and
interference from electrical equipment than lower frequencies. Whilst it is more easily blocked by land features than
HF and lower frequencies, it is less affected by buildings and other less substantial objects than UHF frequencies.
Two unusual propagation conditions can allow much farther range than normal. The first, tropospheric ducting, can
occur in front of and parallel to an advancing cold weather front, especially if there is a marked difference in
humidities between the cold and warm air masses. A duct can form approximately 250 km (155 mi) in advance of
the cold front, much like a ventilation duct in a building, and VHF radio frequencies can travel along inside the duct,
bending or refracting, for hundreds of kilometers. For example, a 50 watt Amateur FM transmitter at 146 MHz can
talk from Chicago, to Joplin, Missouri, directly, and to Austin, Texas, through a repeater. In a July 2006 incident, a
NOAA Weather Radio transmitter in north central Wisconsin was blocking out local transmitters in west central
Michigan, quite far out of its normal range. In midsummer 2006, central Iowa stations were heard in Columbus,
Nebraska and blocked out Omaha radio and TV stations for several days, while WBNX-TV in Akron, Ohio, a
Very high frequency
64
television station on Channel 55 in the analog age, was noted for bleeding over other Channel 55 stations in Wausau
and Kenosha, Wisconsin as far west as the Wisconsin River valley for hours at a time. Similar propagation effects
can affect land-mobile stations in this band, rarely causing interference well beyond the usual coverage area. The
second type, much more rare, is called Sporadic E, referring to the E-layer of the ionosphere. Phenomena still not
completely understood (as of 2010) may allow the formation of ionized "patches" in the ionosphere, dense enough to
reflect back VHF frequencies the same way HF frequencies are usually reflected (skywave). For example, KMID
(TV Channel 2; 54–60 MHz) from Midland, Texas was seen around Chicago, pushing out Chicago's WBBM-TV.
These patches may last for seconds, or extend into hours. FM stations from Miami, Florida; New Orleans, Louisiana;
Houston, Texas and even Mexico were heard for hours in central Illinois during one such event.
Line-of-sight calculation
For analog TV, VHF transmission range is a function of transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, and distance to the
horizon, since VHF signals propagate under normal conditions as a near line-of-sight phenomenon. The distance to
the radio horizon is slightly extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent
back toward the Earth by the atmosphere.
An approximation to calculate the line-of-sight horizon distance (on Earth) is:
• distance in miles = where is the height of the antenna in feet
• distance in kilometres = where is the height of the antenna in metres.
These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are small compared to the radius of the Earth. They
may not necessarily be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio
waves.
In engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area
of a proposed transmitter station.
The accuracy of these calculations for digital TV signals is being debated.
[1]
Universal use
Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world. Some national uses are detailed below.
• 108–118 MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR and Instrument Landing System localiser.
• 118–137 MHz: Airband for air traffic control, AM, 121.5 MHz is emergency frequency
By country
A plan showing VHF use in television, FM radio, amateur radio, marine radio and aviation.
Very high frequency
65
Australia
The VHF TV band in Australia was originally allocated channels 1 to 10 - with channels 2, 7 and 9 assigned for the
initial services in Sydney and Melbourne, and later the same channels were assigned in Brisbane, Adelaide and
Perth. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these and other frequencies as available. For
some strange reason, the initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were respectively allocated channels 6
and 8 rather than 7 or 9.
By the early 1960s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television
services. This was rectified by the addition of three additional frequencies - channels 0, 5A and 11. Older television
sets using rotary dial tuners required adjustment to receive the new channels.
Several TV stations were allocated to VHF channels 3, 4 and 5A, which were within the FM radio bands although
not yet used for that purpose. A couple of notable examples were NBN Newcastle, WIN-4 Wollongong and ABC
Illawarra on channel 5A. Most TVs of that era were not equipped to receive these broadcasts, and so were modified
at the owners' expense to be able to tune into these bands; otherwise the owner had to buy a new TV. Beginning in
the 1990s, the Australian Broadcasting Authority began a process to move these stations to UHF bands to free up
valuable VHF spectrum for its original purpose of FM radio. In addition, by 1985 the federal government decided
new TV stations are to be broadcast on the UHF band.
Two new VHF frequencies, 9A and 12, have since been made available and are being used primarily for digital
services (e.g. ABC in capital cities) but also for some new analogue services in regional areas. Because channel 9A
is not used for television services in or near Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide or Perth, digital radio in those
cities are broadcast on DAB frequencies blocks 9A, 9B and 9C.
New Zealand
• 44–51, 54–68 MHz: Band I Television (channels 1–3)
• 87.5–108 MHz: Band II Radio
• 174–230 MHz: Band III Television (channels 4–11)
In New Zealand, the four main Free-to-Air TV stations still use the VHF Television bands (Band I and Band III) to
transmit their programmes to New Zealand households. Other stations, including a variety of pay and regional
free-to-air stations, are forced to broadcast their programmes in the UHF band, since the VHF band is very
overloaded with four stations sharing a very small frequency band, which can be so overcrowded that one or more
channels, more often than not one of the MediaWorks-owned channels (TV3 and FOUR), is unavailable in some
smaller towns.
United Kingdom
British television originally used VHF band I and band III. Television on VHF was in black and white with 405-line
format (although there were experiments with all three colour systems—NTSC, PAL, and SECAM—adapted for the
405-line system in the late 1950s and early 60s).
British colour television was broadcast on UHF (channels 21–69), beginning in the late 1960s. From then on, TV
was broadcast on both VHF and UHF (VHF being a monochromatic downconversion from the 625-line colour
signal), with the exception of BBC2 (which had always broadcast solely on UHF). The last British VHF TV
transmitters closed down on January 3, 1985. VHF band III is now used in the UK for digital audio broadcasting, and
VHF band II is used for FM radio, as it is in most of the world.
Unusually, the UK has an amateur radio allocation at 4 metres, 70-70.5 MHz.
Very high frequency
66
United States and Canada
Frequency assignments between US and Canadian users are closely coordinated since much of the Canadian
population is within VHF radio range of the US border. Certain discrete frequencies are reserved for radio
astronomy. The general services in the VHF band are:
• 30–46 MHz: Licensed 2-way land mobile communication.
[2]
• 30–88 MHz: Military VHF-FM, including SINCGARS
• 43–50 MHz: Cordless telephones, 49 MHz FM walkie-talkies and radio controlled toys, and mixed 2-way mobile
communication. The FM broadcast band originally operated here (42-50 MHz) before moving to 88-108 MHz.
• 50–54 MHz: Amateur radio 6 meter band
• 54-72 and 76-88 MHz TV channels 2 through 6 (VHF-Lo), known as "Band I" internationally; some DTV
stations will appear here. See North American broadcast television frequencies
• 72–76 MHz: Radio controlled models, industrial remote control, and other devices. Model aircraft operate on
72 MHz while surface models operate on 75 MHz in the USA and Canada, air navigation beacons
74.8-75.2 MHz.
• 88–108 MHz: FM radio broadcasting (88–92 non-commercial, 92–108 commercial in the United States) (known
as "Band II" internationally)
• 108–118 MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR
• 118–137 MHz: Airband for air traffic control, AM, 121.5 MHz is emergency frequency
• 137-138 Space research, space operations, meteorological satellite
[3]
• 138–144 MHz: Land mobile, auxiliary civil services, satellite, space research, and other miscellaneous services
• 144–148 MHz: Amateur radio 2 Meters band
• 148-150 Land mobile, fixed, satellite
• 150–156 MHz: "VHF business band," the unlicensed Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS), and other 2-way land
mobile, FM
• 156–158 MHz VHF Marine Radio; narrow band FM, 156.8 MHz (Channel 16) is the maritime emergency and
contact frequency.
• 160-161 MHz Railways
[4]
• 162.40–162.55: NOAA Weather Stations, narrowband FM
• 174-216 MHz television channels 7 - 13 (VHF-Hi), known as "Band III" internationally. A number of DTV
channels have begun broadcasting here, especially many of the stations which were assigned to these channels for
previous analog operation.
• 174–216 MHz: professional wireless microphones (low power, certain exact frequencies only)
• 216–222 MHz: land mobile, fixed, maritime mobile,
[5]
• 222–225 MHz: 1.25 meters (US) (Canada 219-220, 222-225 MHz) amateur radio
• 225 MHz and above: Military aircraft radio (225–400 MHz) AM, including HAVE QUICK, dGPS RTCM-104
VHF television
It is considered that one of the most significant events in the history of broadcast television regulation was the
creation of an artificial scarcity of VHF licenses. The FCC's decision to locate television service on the limited VHF
band changed the ways of television service and network competition in the industry. The rationale of this policy
was to create a situation of increased competition and viewer choice. Television was added to the VHF band in 1941
on channels one through six. During the war freeze, channel one was removed and used only for war purposes. Later,
in 1945, channels seven through thirteen were added.
[6]
The large technically and commercially valuable slice of the VHF spectrum taken up by television broadcasting has
attracted the attention of many companies and governments recently, with the development of more efficient digital
television broadcasting standards. In some countries much of this spectrum will likely become available (probably
for sale) within the next decade or so (June 12, 2009, in the United States).
Very high frequency
67
87.5-87.9 MHz
87.5-87.9 MHz is a radio frequency which, in most of the world, is used for FM broadcasting. In North America,
however, this bandwidth is allocated to VHF television channel 6 (82-88 MHz). The audio for TV channel 6 is
broadcast at 87.75 MHz (adjustable down to 87.74). Several stations, most notably those joining the Pulse 87
franchise, operate on this frequency as radio stations, though they use television licenses. As a result, FM radio
receivers such as those found in automobiles which are designed to tune into this frequency range can receive the
audio for programming on the local TV channel 6 while in North America.
87.9 MHz is normally off-limits for FM audio broadcasting except for displaced class D stations which have no other
frequencies in the normal 88.1-107.9 MHz subband on which to move. So far, only 2 stations have qualified to
operate on 87.9 MHz: 10-watt KSFH in Mountain View, California and 34-watt translator K200AA in Sun Valley,
Nevada.
Unlicensed operation
In some countries, particularly the United States and Canada, limited low-power license-free operation is available in
the FM broadcast band for purposes such as micro-broadcasting and sending output from CD or digital media
players to radios without auxiliary-in jacks, though this is illegal in some other countries. This practice was legalised
in the United Kingdom on 8 December 2006.
[7]
References
[1] Grotticelli, Michael (2009-06-22). "DTV Transition Not So Smooth in Some Markets" (http:// broadcastengineering.com/ news/
dtv-transition-not-smooth-markets-0622/ ). Broadcast Engineering. . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
[2] The 42 MHz Segment is still currently used by the California Highway Patrol, New Jersey State Police, Tennessee Highway Patrol and other
state law enforcement agencies.
[3] Industry Canada, Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations 9 kHz - 275 GHz, 2005 Edition (revised February 2007) pg. 29
[4] The 160 and 161 areas are AAR 99 channel railroad radios issued to the railroad (Sample, AAR 21 is 160.425 and that is issued to TVRM
and other railroads that want AAR 21)
[5] Canadian table pg. 30
[6] William Boddy, Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 9780252062995
[7] http:// media.ofcom.org. uk/ 2006/ 11/ 23/ change-to-the-law-to-allow-the-use-of-low-power-fm-transmitters-for-mp3-players/
Ultra high frequency
68
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency
Frequency range 0.3 to 3 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) designates the ITU Radio frequency range of electromagnetic waves between 300
MHz and 3 GHz (3,000 MHz), also known as the decimetre band or decimetre wave as the wavelengths range
from one to ten decimetres (10 cm to 1 metre). Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF
(super high frequency) and EHF (extremely high frequency) bands, all of which fall into the microwave frequency
range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF (very high frequency) or lower bands. See Electromagnetic
spectrum and Radio spectrum for a full listing of frequency bands.
Characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages
The point to point transmission and reception of TV and radio signals is affected by many variables. Atmospheric
moisture; solar wind; physical obstructions, such as mountains and buildings; and time of day all affect the signal
transmission and the degradation of signal reception. All radio waves are partly absorbed by atmospheric moisture.
Atmospheric absorption reduces, or attenuates, the strength of radio signals over long distances. The effects of
attenuation degradation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than
lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. The ionosphere, a layer of the Earth's atmosphere, is filled with charged
particles that can reflect some radio waves. Amateur radio enthusiasts primarily use this quality of the ionosphere to
help propagate lower frequency HF signals around the world: the waves are trapped, bouncing around in the upper
layers of the ionosphere until they are refracted down at another point on the Earth. This is called skywave
transmission. UHF TV signals are not carried along the ionosphere but can be reflected off of the charged particles
down at another point on Earth in order to reach farther than the typical line-of-sight transmission distances; this is
the skip distance. UHF transmission and reception are enhanced or degraded by tropospheric ducting as the
atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The main advantage of UHF transmission is the physically short wave that is produced by the high frequency. The
size of transmission and reception antennas is related to the size of the radio wave. The UHF antenna is stubby and
short. Smaller and less conspicuous antennas can be used with higher frequency bands.
The major disadvantage of UHF is its limited broadcast range and reception, often called line-of-sight between the
TV station's transmission antenna and customer's reception antenna, as opposed to VHF's very long broadcast range
and reception, which is less restricted by line of sight.
UHF is widely used in two-way radio systems and cordless telephones, whose transmission and reception antennas
are closely spaced. UHF signals travel over line-of-sight distances. Transmissions generated by two-way radios and
Ultra high frequency
69
cordless telephones do not travel far enough to interfere with local transmissions. Several public-safety and business
communications are handled on UHF. Civilian applications, such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB, 802.11b ("WiFi")
and the widely adapted GSM and UMTS cellular networks, also use UHF frequencies. A repeater propagates UHF
signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required.
• See "Radio horizon".
History
Australia
In Australia, UHF was first anticipated in the mid 1970s with TV channels 27-69. The first UHF TV broadcasts in
Australia were operated by Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) on channel 28 in Sydney and Melbourne starting in
1980, and translator stations for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). The UHF band is now used
extensively as ABC, SBS, commercial and public-access television services have expanded, particularly through
regional areas.
Australia also provides the UHF CB service for general-purpose two-way communications.
Canada
The first Canadian television network was publicly owned Radio-Canada, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Its stations, as well as that of the first private networks (CTV and TVA, created in 1961), are primarily VHF. More
recent third-network operators initially signing-on in the 1970s or 1980s were often relegated to UHF, or (if they
were to attempt to deploy on VHF) to reduced power or stations in outlying areas. Canada's VHF spectrum was
already crowded with both domestic broadcasts and numerous foreign border stations.
The use of UHF to provide programming which otherwise would not be available, such as province-wide educational
services (Knowledge Channel, TVOntario, Télé-Québec), French language programming (outside Québec) and
ethnic/multilingual television, has therefore become common. Third networks such as Quatre-Saisons or Global
often will rely heavily on UHF stations as repeaters or as a local presence in large cities where VHF spectrum is
largely already full. The handful of digital terrestrial television stations currently on-air in Canada as of 2008 are also
all UHF broadcasts, although some digital broadcasts will return to VHF channels vacated after the digital transition
is completed in August 2011.
[1]
Digital Audio Broadcasting, deployed on a very limited scale in Canada in 2005, uses UHF frequencies in the L band
from 1452 to 1492 MHz. There are currently no VHF Band III digital radio stations in Canada as, unlike in much of
Europe, these frequencies are among the most popular for use by television stations.
[2]
Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, UHF was introduced in 1978 to augment the existing RTÉ One VHF 625-line
transmissions and to provide extra frequencies for the new RTÉ Two channel. The first UHF transmitter site was
Cairn Hill in Co. Longford, followed by Three Rock Mountain in South Co. Dublin. These sites were followed by
Clermont Carn in Co. Louth and Holywell Hill in Co. Donegal in 1981. Elsewhere in Ireland, both the RTÉ channels
are available on VHF. Since then RTÉ have migrated nearly all their low-power relay sites to UHF. TV3 and TG4
are transmitted entirely in UHF only. When Digital Terrestrial TV is introduced, it is intended to broadcast this on
UHF only initially, although VHF allocations exist. VHF TV is likely to cease whenever the existing analogue
broadcasts are switched off. The UHF band is also used in parts of Ireland for Television deflector systems bringing
British television signals to towns and rural areas which cannot receive these signals directly
Ultra high frequency
70
Japan
In Japan, an Independent UHF Station (ja:全 国 独 立 UHF放 送 協 議 会 Zenkoku Dokuritsu Yū-eichi-efu Hōsō
Kyōgi-kai, literally National Independent UHF Broadcasting Forum) is one of a loosely knit group of free
commercial terrestrial television stations which is not a member of the major national networks keyed in Tokyo and
Osaka.
Japan's original broadcasters were VHF. Although some experimental broadcasts were made as early as 1939, NHK
(founded in 1926 as a radio network modeled on the BBC) began regular VHF television broadcasting in 1953. Its
two terrestrial television services (NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV) appear on VHF 1 and 3 respectively
in the Tokyo region. Privately owned Japanese VHF TV stations were most often built by large national newspapers
with Tokyo stations exerting a large degree of control over national programming.
The independent stations broadcast in analogue UHF, unlike major networks which were historically primarily
broadcast in analogue VHF. The loose coalition of UHF independents is operated mostly by local governments or
metropolitan newspapers with less outside control. Compared with major network stations, Japan's UHF
independents have more restrictive programming acquisition budgets and lower average ratings; they are also more
likely to broadcast single episode or short-series UHF anime (many of which serve to promote DVD's or other
product tie-ins) and brokered programming such as religion and infomercials.
Japanese terrestrial television is in the process of switching entirely to digital UHF, with all analogue television (both
VHF and UHF) planned to shut down in 2011.
Malaysia
UHF broadcasting was used outside Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley by private TV station TV3 in the late 80s,
with the government stations only transmitting in VHF (Bands 1 and 3) and the 450 MHz range being occupied by
the ATUR cellular phone service operated by Telekom Malaysia. The ATUR service ceased operation in the late
90s, freeing up the frequency for other uses. UHF was not commonly used in the Klang Valley until 1994 (despite
TV3's signal also being available over UHF Channel 29, as TV3 transmitted over VHF Channel 12 in the Klang
Valley). 1994 saw the introduction of the channel MetroVision (which ceased transmission in 1999, got bought over
by TV3's parent company - System Televisyen Malaysia Berhad - and relaunched as 8TV in 2004). This was
followed by Ntv7 in 1998 (also acquired by TV3's parent company in 2005) and recently Channel 9 (which started in
2003, ceased transmission in 2005, was also acquired by TV3's parent company shortly after, and came back as TV9
in early 2006). At current count, there are 4 distinct UHF signals receivable by an analog TV set in the Klang Valley:
Channel 25 (8TV), Channel 29 (TV3 UHF transmission), Channel 37 (NTV7) and Channel 39 (TV9). Channel 39 is
usually allocated for VCRs, decoder units (i.e. the ASTRO and MiTV set top boxes) and other devices that have an
RF signal generator (i.e. game consoles).
United Kingdom
In the UK, UHF television began in 1964 following a plan by the General Post Office to allocate sets of frequencies
for 625-lined television to regions across the country, so as to accommodate four national networks with regional
variations (the VHF allocations allowed for only two such networks using 405 lines). The UK UHF channels would
range from 21 to 68 (later extended to 69) and regional allocations were generally grouped close together to allow
for the use of aerials designed to receive a specific sub-band with greater efficiency than wider-band aerials could.
Aerial manufacturers would therefore divide the band into over-lapping groups; A (channels 21-34), B (39-53), C/D
(48-68) and E (39-68). The first service to use UHF was BBC2 in 1964 followed by BBC1 and ITV (already
broadcast on VHF) in 1969 and Channel 4/S4C in 1982. PAL colour was introduced on UHF only in 1967 (for
BBC2) and 1969 (for BBC1 & ITV).
As a consequence of achieving maximum national coverage, signals from one region would typically over-lap with
that of another, which was accommodated for by allocating a different set of channels in each adjacent area, often
Ultra high frequency
71
resulting in greater choice for viewers when a network in one region aired different programmes to the neighbouring
region.
Initial uptake of UHF television was very slow: Differing propagation characteristics between VHF and UHF meant
new additional transmitters needed to be built, often at different locations to the then-established VHF sites, and
generally with a larger number of relay stations to fill the greater number of gaps in coverage that came with the new
band. This led to poor picture quality in bad coverage areas, and many years before the service achieved full national
coverage. In addition to this, the only exclusively UHF service, BBC2, would run for only a few hours a day and run
alternative programming for minority audiences in contrast to the more populist schedules of BBC1 and ITV.
However the 1970s saw a large increase in UHF TV viewing while VHF took a significant decline: The appeal of
colour, which was never introduced to VHF (despite preliminary plans to do so in the late 1950s and early 1960s)
and the fall in television prices saw most households use a UHF set by the end of that decade. With the second and
last VHF television service having launched in 1955, VHF TV was finally decommissioned for good in 1985 with no
plans for it to return to use.
The launch of Channel 5 in 1997 added a fifth national television network to UHF, requiring deviation from the
original frequency allocation plan of the early 1960s and the allocation of UHF frequencies previously not used for
television (such as UK Channels 35 and 37, previously reserved for RF modulators in devices such as domestic
videocassette recorders, requiring an expensive VCR re-tuning programme funded by the new network). A lack of
capacity within the band to accommodate a fifth service with the complex over-lapping led to the fifth and final
network having a significantly reduced national coverage compared to the other networks, with reduced picture
quality in many areas and the use of wide-band aerials often required.
The launch of digital terrestrial television in 1998 saw the continued use of UHF for television, with six multiplexes
allocated for the service, all within the UHF band. However analogue transmissions have been planned to cease
completely by 2012 after which time it is uncertain as to whether the vacated capacity will be used for additional
digital television services or put into alternative use, such as mobile telecommunications or internet services.
United States
Television
On December 29, 1949, KC2XAK of Bridgeport, Connecticut, became the first UHF television station to operate on
a regular daily schedule. The first commercially licensed UHF television station on the air was KPTV, Channel 27,
in Portland, Oregon, on September 18, 1952. This TV station used much of the equipment, including the transmitter,
from KC2XAK.
American television broadcasting, which began experimentally in the 1930s with some regular commercial
broadcasting in just a few cities (such as New York and Chicago) in 1941, was originally allocated (by the Federal
Communication Commission - the FCC) broadcasting channels solely in the VHF (Very High Frequency) band. All
VHF TV channels except channel 1 through 13 had been removed from the FCC allocation list during World War II
and those frequencies re-allocated for military use, leaving thirteen channels as of May 1945.
[3]
While efforts at TV
broadcasting on any channel were drastically curtailed for the duration of WW II, largely due to lack of available
receivers, the post-war era would bring rapid expansion in the nascent broadcast television industry.
After VHF Channel 1 was re-allocated to land-mobile radio systems in 1948 due to radio-interference problems, a
mere one dozen TV channels remained. These were found to be not enough to serve the needs of television
broadcasting as it grew nationwide during the latter 1940s and the 1950s. For example, these cities were never able
to be allocated any VHF-TV stations at all, due to technical reasons found by the FCC: Fort Wayne, Indiana,
Lexington, Kentucky, Huntsville, Alabama, and Fresno, California. In addition, scores more cities were able to
receive only one VHF broadcast station, for example High Point, North Carolina, Montgomery, Alabama,
Wilmington, Delaware, Bakersfield, California, and Santa Barbara, California. Also, the entire state of New Jersey
Ultra high frequency
72
would receive only one VHF broadcast station of its own (which was to ultimately become WNET 13 Newark),
leaving much of the state to be served from New York City or Philadelphia, and Delaware has had only one VHF
station. Clearly, there was a problem with an insufficient number of TV channels being available to cover all of the
United States.
With a grand total of 106 VHF stations broadcasting by the end of the 1940s in the U.S., problems with interference
between stations due to some overcrowding of stations were already becoming apparent in the densely populated
areas, such as the eastern mid-Atlantic states (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and
Connecticut) and Southern California. In 1949, the Federal Communications Commission stopped accepting
applications for licensing new stations (a freeze that lasted until 1952) in order to address questions such as the
allocation of additional channel frequencies, and also the selection of an electronic system for color television.
Allocating more of the VHF band (30 to 300 MHz) by moving existing radio communication users off this band
seemed to be impossible. For example, FM radio broadcasting had already suffered a huge setback after a forced
move from its original 42-50 MHz allocated band to the current 88-108 MHz band in 1946
[4]
rendered all existing
FM transmitters and receivers obsolete. Furthermore, several other important radio communications services use the
VHF band. For example, in aeronautical radio use, a so-called "UHF radio" system for voice communications
actually falls in VHF spectrum as all of its frequencies are below 300 MHz. The aeronautical radio VHF radio
system, located above 108 MHz, is among the frequencies fall into the wide band that is in between Channel 6 and
Channel 7 of VHF broadcast TV. Police and fire department radios, land-mobile users and two-meter amateur radio
operators also occupy VHF Band II, along with the entire FM broadcast band. It was impractical and uneconomic to
require these well-established users to move to other frequencies, such as to the genuine UHF band (300 MHz-3
GHz).
The U.S. Army and Navy did not need to keep their huge wartime UHF spectrum allocation simply because they had
never used most of it. That allocation had been done hastily in 1942 in the face of the emergency of a huge war of
unknown duration - and with the presence of very new and poorly understood electronic technologies like radar. In
1942, nobody knew how much bandwidth that the Army and the Navy might need for radar and for radio
communications, so the Federal Government took a wise expedient: it allocated a huge amount of radio spectrum to
the uniformed services for the time being, in case the service might need it. Then, it could make adjustments later.
After the War ended, and after the growth of civilian TV broadcasting in the years after the war, by 1950 expansion
of TV channels into the UHF band of frequencies became inevitable. However, lots of UHF TV technology
remained unproven at that time, though plenty had been learned about UHF electronics during the war, especially in
the development and improvement of radar. (There are significant advantages to using shorter wavelengths, hence
higher frequencies, for radars.) Also, the question of which owners should retain the more-valuable (at that time)
VHF TV channels remained hotly contested between several different competing interests.
To incumbent corporations, such as the Radio Corporation of America and its National Broadcasting Company
subsidiary, UHF-TV and FM radio represented disruptive technologies - competition to their existing and
long-established manufacturing and broadcast interests in VHF-TV and AM radio. In the fall of 1944, Columbia
Broadcasting System pressed a high-definition black and white system on the UHF band employing 750-1,000
scanning lines which offered the possibility of higher-definition monochrome and color broadcasting, both then were
precluded from the VHF band because of their bandwidth demands; more significantly, it offered the possibility for
sufficient numbers of conventional 6MHz channels to support the FCC's goals of a "truly nationwide and
competitive service."
[5]
CBS was not trying maximize broadcast (or network) competition through freer market entry
in the UHF system, but instead CBS's 16MHz channels would have allowed only 27 UHF channels versus the 82
channels possible under the standard 6MHz bandwidth.
[6]
Vice President of CBS, Adrian Murphy, told the FCC: "I
would say that it would be better to have two networks in color" instead of the four or more networks possible with
narrower bandwidths in UHF.
[7]
To newer entrants into TV broadcasting such as the DuMont Laboratories company
and its fourth-ranked DuMont Television Network, however, the need for additional TV channels in major markets
Ultra high frequency
73
was urgent.
[8]
For proponents of educational TV broadcasting, the difficulties in competing with commercial
broadcasters for the increasingly scarce VHF channels becoming a key problem.
[9]
Any attempt to pursue the objective of broadcast localism on the VHF-TV channels threatened in many regions to
push the third-network TV companies such as the American Broadcasting Company onto stations in outlying
communities, if they could be accommodated on VHF channels at all.
A key question in the FCC's allocation of TV channels was hence that of intermixture. To allocate four to as many as
seven VHF channels to each of the largest cities would mean forcing the smaller, intervening cities completely onto
the UHF channels, while an allocation scheme that sought to assign one or two VHF channels in each smaller city
would force VHF and UHF stations to compete in most markets. (Some may find it hard to believe, but the large
metropolitan areas of New York City, Washington-Baltimore, Los Angeles, and San Francisco received seven VHF
stations apiece, and Chicago was allocated five, with the other two possible ones going to Milwaukee and Rockford,
Illinois.)
Hopes that UHF-TV would allow dozens of television stations in every
media market were thwarted not only by poor image frequency
rejection in superheterodyne receivers with the standard intermediate
frequency of 45.75 MHz, but also by very poor adjacent-channel
rejection and channel selectivity by early tuner designs and
manufactures. UHF-TV stations in the same immediate area were
usually assigned by the FCC a minimum of six channels apart due to
inadequate TV receiver manufacture. Technical problems with the
design of vacuum tubes for operation at high UHF frequencies were
beginning to be addressed as late as 1954.
[10]
These shortcomings led
to "UHF taboos", which in effect limited each metropolitan area to
only moderately more UHF stations than VHF ones, despite the theoretically much higher number of channels.
[11]
When the Freeze ended in 1952, the television industry exploded. It grew from the 108 pre-Freeze stations to more
than 530 in 1960. These stations were established on the UHF band despite the fact it did not have near the coverage
of their VHF competitors. The FCC tried solving this problem by allowing the lower powered UHF stations more
power, but it did not work, VHF still had more coverage. At the same time, advertisers had caught on to this and did
most of their business with VHF stations. In all, the FCC’s effort to try to intermix VHF and UHF stations in the
same market had failed
[12]
. While the more-established broadcasters were operating profitably on VHF channels as
affiliates of the largest TV networks (at the time, NBC and CBS), most of the original UHF local stations of the
1950s soon went bankrupt, limited by the range their signals could supposedly travel, the lack of UHF tuners in most
TV sets, and difficulties in finding advertisers willing to spend money on them. UHF stations fell quickly behind the
VHF stations. UHF station revenues in 1953 were recorded as having a loss of $10,500,000. More stations left the air
than began broadcasting and 60 percent of the industry losses were by UHF stations from 1953 to 1956.
[13]
TV
network affiliations were also difficult to get in many locations; the UHF stations with major-network affiliation
would often lose these affiliations in favour of any viable new VHF TV station which entered the same market. Of
the 82 new UHF-TV stations in the United States broadcasting as of June 1954, only 24 of them remained on the air
a year later.
[14]
The fraction of new TV receivers that were factory-equipped with all-channel tuners dropped from
35% in early 1953 to 9% by 1958, a drop that was only partially compensated for by field upgrades or the
availability of UHF converters for separate purchase.
The majority of the 165 UHF stations to begin telecasting between 1952 and 1959 did not survive. Under the
All-Channel Receiver Act, FCC regulations by 1965 would ensure that all new TV sets sold in the U.S. had built-in
UHF tuners that could receive channels 14-83. In spite of this, by 1971, there were just more than 170 full-service
UHF broadcast stations nationwide.
[15]
Ultra high frequency
74
Independent and educational stations
In the United States, the UHF stations gained a reputation for being locally owned, less polished and professional,
not as popular, and having weaker signal propagation than their VHF channel counterparts.
While UHF-TV has been available to American TV broadcasters since 1952, affiliates of the four major American
TV networks (NBC, CBS, ABC, and DuMont) continued to transmit their programs primarily on VHF channels
wherever they were available. With the availability of the twelve VHF television channels limited by FCC spacing
rules to avoid co-channel and adjacent channel interference between TV stations in the same or nearby cities, all
available VHF-TV allocations were already in use in most large TV markets by the mid-1950s.
To be more specific, two TV stations on the same channel needed to be about 160 or more miles apart, and two TV
stations on adjacent channels needed to be about 60 or more miles apart. Exceptions to this rule occurred with VHF
channels 4 and 5, and VHF channels 6 and 7, because there are additional "guard bands" between these two pairs that
are allocated to other uses. Thus, the pair channel 4 and 5 was found in New York City, Washington, D.C., St. Louis,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, and many other places. Likewise, the pair channel 6 and 7 was found in Denver and
several other places.
With the most financially affluent and network-connected TV broadcasters all on VHF channels, UHF stations in
major population centers of the United States were usually unable to get big TV-network affiliations (ABC, CBS, &
NBC), and thus were usually either educational network or independent TV stations.
[16]
Other UHF stations did for a
time affiliate with less-affluent broadcast networks that didn't last very long; for example, the fourth-ranked DuMont
Network, which operated from 1946 to 1956, and then went out of business. The movie UHF, which starring "Weird
Al" Yankovic and Michael Richards, parodied the independent UHF station phenomenon.
[17]
However, there were significant cities that had few or no VHF channels allocated to them. Hence, these cities did get
UHF stations that did get major network affiliations and did become financially sound businesses. Some of these
stations have been located in or near state capital cities or served nearby major rural regions, such as Montgomery,
Alabama, Frankfort, Kentucky, Dover, Delaware, Lincoln, Nebraska, Topeka, Kansas, Jefferson City, Missouri,
Lansing, Michigan, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Madison, Wisconsin, and Springfield, Missouri. In the United States,
television stations of or near state capital cities are important because they closely cover the operations of the state
governments and spread the information to the residents of a wide region of the states.
TV antenna manufacturers of years ago often rated their top-of-the-line "deep-fringe" antenna models with phrases
like "100 miles VHF/60 miles UHF" if the antenna included UHF reception at all. (In the practice of electrical
engineering, the frequency range in which an antenna is to be used is an important factor in its design.)
TV set manufacturers of years ago often treated UHF tuners as extra-charge optional-items until the All-Channel
Receiver Act of 1964 forced their inclusion in all new TV sets as a standard. By 1964, many pioneering UHF
broadcasters had already gone bankrupt. Various attempts were made by the FCC regulators to stem the tide of UHF
station failures met with mixed results:
• Limits on the number of owned-and-operated stations controlled by one corporation were raised from five stations
to seven, provided that two of them were UHF stations. Both NBC-TV (WBUF 17 Buffalo, WNBC 30 Hartford)
and CBS-TV (WHCT 18 Hartford, WXIX 19 Milwaukee) acquired pairs of UHF stations as an experiment in the
mid-1950s, only to abandon the stations in 1958-59. Their commercial network programming soon returned to
VHF channel affiliates. WBUF's allocation on channel 17 was donated to the public-TV broadcaster WNED-TV,
which now broadcasts as a Public Broadcasting Service station.
[18]
• The UHF television impact policy (1960–1988) allowed applications for new VHF TV stations to be opposed in
cases where licensure could lead to the economic failure of an existing UHF TV broadcaster.
[19]
• The secondary affiliation rule (1971–1995) prohibited a network entering a market with two existing VHF TV
network affiliates and one UHF independent TV station from placing its programs on a secondary basis on one or
both VHF stations without offering them to the UHF station.
[20]
Ultra high frequency
75
• Limits on UHF effective radiated power, originally very restrictive, were relaxed. A UHF TV station could be
licensed for up to five megawatts of carrier power, unlike VHF TV stations, which were limited to 100 (Channels
2-6) or 316 kilowatts of carrier power (Channels 7-13) depending on their channel.
• More recent limits on station ownership are based on the combined percentage of the American population
(originally 35% maximum, now increased to 45%) reached by one group of stations under common ownership. A
UHF discount, by which only half of the audience of a UHF station would be counted against these limits, would
ultimately allow groups such as PAX to reach the majority of the American audience using owned-and-operated
UHF stations.
[21]
The situation was to begin to improve in the 1960s and 1970s, but progress was to be slow and difficult.
While ABC-TV and the short-lived DuMont Network, being smaller and less prosperous networks, had had a
number of UHF affiliates,
[22]
National Educational Television and the later PBS had even more.
The original SIN (Spanish International Network), which was established in 1962 as the predecessor of the modern
Univision network, was built primarily by UHF-TV broadcasters, such as charter stations KWEX-TV, Channel 41 in
San Antonio and KMEX-TV, Channel 34, in Los Angeles.
Ultimately, in addition to providing TV service where VHF channels simply were not possible because of the
limitations on the technology, UHF-TV also became a means to obtain programming which was not being provided
by the "Big Three" commercial networks. For example, there were educational services like the Public Broadcasting
Service, religious broadcasting, and Spanish language or multilingual broadcasting that all relied primarily on UHF
channels to offer programming alternatives.
Fourth networks, satellite and cable television
In 1970, Ted Turner had acquired a struggling independent station on Channel 17 in Atlanta, Georgia, purchasing
reruns of popular television shows, the Atlanta Braves baseball team and the Atlanta Hawks basketball team in order
to provide access to entertainment for broadcast.
This station, renamed as WTBS, was uplinked in 1975 to satellite alongside new premium channels such as HBO,
gaining access to distant cable television markets and becoming the first of various superstations to obtain national
coverage. In 1986 Turner purchased the entire MGM film library, and Turner Broadcasting System's access to movie
rights was to prove commercially valuable as home videocassette rental became ubiquitous in the 1980s.
In 1986, the DuMont owned-and-operated station group Metromedia was acquired by News Corporation and used as
the foundation to relaunch a fourth commercial network which obtained affiliation with many former big-city
independent stations as Fox TV.
While largely built from former independents and UHF stations in its early years, Fox had the large programming
budgets that the original DuMont lacked. Ultimately it was able in some markets to draw existing long-standing
VHF affiliates away from established big-three networks, outbidding CBS for National Football Conference
programming in 1994 and attracting many of that network's affiliates. Various smaller networks were created with
the intent to follow in its footsteps, often assembling a fledgling network by affiliating with a disparate collection of
formerly independent UHF stations which otherwise would have no network programming.
Fox launched in 1986. The film UHF portrayed a fictional station on channel 62 in 1989. By 1994, New World
Communications was moving its established stations from CBS to Fox affiliations in multiple markets, including
WJBK-TV 2 Detroit. In many cases, this pushed CBS onto UHF; "U-62" as the new home of CBS in Detroit became
CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV in 1995, obtaining access to audiences thousands of miles distant
through satellite and cable television.
The concentration of media ownership, the proliferation of cable and satellite television and the digital television
transition have contributed to the quality equalization of VHF and UHF broadcasts. The distinction between UHF
and VHF characteristics has declined in importance with the emergence of additional broadcast television networks
Ultra high frequency
76
(Fox, The CW, MyNetworkTV, Univision, Telemundo and ION), and the decline of direct OTA reception. The
number of major large-city independent stations has also declined as many have joined or formed new networks.
Digital television
See also DTV transition in the United States#VHF_frequencies_and_digital_television
The majority of digital TV stations currently broadcast their over-the-air signals in the UHF band, both because VHF
had been largely already filled with analog TV at the time the digital facilities were built and because of severe
issues with impulse noise on digital low-VHF channels. While virtual channel numbering schemes routinely display
channel numbers like "2.1" or "6.1" for individual North American terrestrial HDTV broadcasts, these are more often
than not actually UHF signals. Many equipment vendors therefore use "HDTV antenna" or similar branding as all
but synonymous to "UHF antenna".
Terrestrial digital television is based on a forward error correction scheme, in which a channel is assumed to have a
random bit error rate and additional data bits may be sent to allow these errors to be corrected at the receiver. While
this error correction can work well in the UHF band where the interference consist largely of white noise, it has
largely proven inadequate on lower VHF channels where bursts of impulse noise disrupt the entire channel for short
lengths of time. A short impulse-noise burst might be a minor annoyance to analog TV viewers, but due to the fixed
timing and repetitive nature of analog video synchronization is usually recoverable. The same interference can prove
severe enough to prevent the reliable reception of the more fragile and more highly compressed ATSC digital
television. Power limits are also lower on low-VHF; a digital UHF station may be licensed to transmit up to a
megawatt of effective radiated power. Very few stations returned to VHF channels 2-6 after digital transition was
completed in 2009. At least three quarters of all full-power digital broadcasts continued to use UHF transmitters,
even after transition is complete, with most of the others located on the high-VHF channels. In some American
markets, such as Syracuse, New York, there are no full-service VHF TV stations remaining after digital transition.
The one remaining limitation of UHF, that of a greatly reduced ability for signals to travel great distances in the
presence of obstacles due to terrain, continues to adversely affect digital UHF TV reception. Potentially, this
limitation could be overcome by the use of DTS (Distributed Transmission Systems). Multiple digital UHF
transmitters in carefully selected locations can be synchronized as a single-frequency network to produce a tailored
coverage area pattern rivaling that of a single full-power VHF transmitter.
While the Federal Communications Commission authorization to use DTS on anything more than an experimental
basis came in November 2008, too late for sites to be acquired and transmitters built before the 2009 end of
American digital transition, it is likely that more of these distributed UHF transmission systems will be constructed
alongside conventional digital broadcast translator systems in the years to come as a means to get digital and
high-definition television out to a wider audience.
UHF islands
One notable exception to historical patterns favoring VHF broadcasters has existed in mid-sized television markets
within the United States which were too close to the outer fringe of the broadcast range of large-city VHF stations to
qualify for their own stations on these frequencies. As no full-power VHF channels could be made available in these
areas without encountering problems of interference from overlapping broadcast ranges, the Federal
Communications Commission granted some mid-sized cities only UHF licenses. With all stations (including
big-three network affiliates) on UHF, all-channel receivers and antennas became commonplace locally and UHF
stations signing on as early as 1954 were often able to obtain the programming and viewership needed to remain
viable into the modern era.
[23]
These communities, known as UHF islands, included cities like Huntsville, Alabama; Fresno, California; South
Bend, Indiana; Elmira, New York; Scranton, Pennsylvania; Fort Wayne, Indiana; Lexington, Kentucky, and
Springfield, Massachusetts. Other smaller cities found that only one VHF channel was open and any additional
Ultra high frequency
77
programming would need to be provided either by UHF, by distant stations or by low-power broadcasting.
Broadcast translators and low-power television
A large number of very small UHF TV transmitters continue to operate with no programming or commercial identity
of their own, merely retransmitting signals of existing full-power stations to a smaller area poorly covered by the
main VHF signal. Such transmitters are called "translators" rather than “stations”. The smallest, owned by local
municipal-level groups or the originating TV stations, are numbered sequentially - W or K, followed by the channel
number, followed by two sequentially issued letters, yielding a "translator callsign" in a generic format which
appears K14AA through W69ZZ. Translators and repeaters also exist on VHF channels, but infrequently and with
stringently limited power as the VHF spectrum is already crowded with full-power network stations in most regions.
The translator band, UHF TV channels 70-83, consisted mostly of these small repeaters; it was removed from
television use in 1983 with the tiny repeaters moved primarily to lower UHF channels. The 804-890 MHz band
segment is now primarily used by mobile phones.
As improvements to originating stations signals lessen the need for these small translators in some areas, often the
small transmitter facilities and their allocated frequencies would be repurposed for low-power broadcasting; instead
of repeating a distant signal, the tiny transmitter would be used to originate programming for a small local area.
Radio, mobile and non-broadcast applications
The Family Radio Service and General Mobile Radio Service use the 462 and 467 MHz areas of the UHF spectrum.
There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around
900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. These ISM bands - open frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use
originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus - are now becoming some of the most crowded in the spectrum
because they are open to everyone.
The 2.45 GHz frequency, readily absorbed by water, is the standard for use by microwave ovens.
The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70-83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in
1983, primarily for analogue mobile telephony. In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air
broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52-69) was also no longer used for
TV broadcasting. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to Qualcomm for their MediaFLO service, which is resold
under various mobile telephone network brands. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this
channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use.
The FCC's scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008.
[24]
Frequency allocation
Australia
• UHF CB Australia
[25]
- UHF CB News, Information & Repeater Locations. UHF CB Australia Supporting and
expanding the UHF CB network
• UHF Citizens Band: 300- 3000MHz
Canada
• 470-806 MHz: Terrestrial television (with select channels in the 700 MHz band left vacant)
• 1452-1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting (L band)
[26]
• Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts
Ultra high frequency
78
United Kingdom
• 380–395 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service for emergency use
• 430–440 MHz: Amateur radio (ham - 70 cm band)
• 457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, mostly assigned to the water, gas and electricity industries
• 606–614 MHz: Protected for radio-astronomy
• 470–862 MHz: TV channels 21–69 (channel 36 used for radar, channel 38 used for radio astronomy, channel 69
used for licenced and licence exempt wireless microphones, channels 31-40 and 63-68 to be released and may be
made available for other uses by Ofcom. Public consultation due December 2006)
• 1240–1316 MHz: Amateur radio (ham - 23 cm band)
• 1880–1900 MHz: DECT Cordless telephone
• 2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham - 13 cm band)
United States
A brief summary of some UHF frequency use:
• 225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use
[27]
• 420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band)
• 433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature
sensors
• 450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way
"walkie-talkies", public safety
• 470–512 MHz: TV channels 14–20 (also shared for land mobile 2-way radio use in some areas)
• 512–698 MHz: TV channels 21–51 (channel 37 used for radio astronomy)
• 698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was
completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly UHF TV channels 52–69)
• 806–824 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72)
• 824–851 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77)
• 851–869 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80)
• 869–896 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83)
• 902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency
identification, datalinks
• 929–930 MHz: Pagers
• 931–932 MHz: Pagers
• 935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio
• 941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other.
• 960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical Radionavigation
• 1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band)
• 1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe)
• 1710–1755 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) Operating Band
• 1850–1910 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F = 5 MHz
• 1920–1930 MHz: DECT Cordless telephone
• 1930–1990 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F = 5 MHz
• 2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile phone downlink (DL) Operating Band
• 2300–2310 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment)
• 2310–2360 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM)
• 2390–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment)
Ultra high frequency
79
• 2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n Wireless LAN, IEEE 802.15.4-2006,
Bluetooth, Radio-controlled aircraft, Microwave oven, ZigBee
References
[1] http:/ / www. ic. gc. ca/ eic/ site/ smt-gst. nsf/ vwapj/ DTV_PLAN_Dec08-e.pdf/ $file/DTV_PLAN_Dec08-e.pdf
[2] About DAB - Canadian Association of Broadcasters (http:/ / www.cab-acr.ca/ drri/index.shtm)
[3] Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, William Boddy, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 9780252062995
[4] http:/ / www. nrcdxas. org/articles/ 1945ass. txt
[5] Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, William Boddy, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 9780252062995
[6] Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, William Boddy, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 9780252062995
[7] Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, William Boddy, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 9780252062995
[8] Radio and Television Regulation: Broadcast Technology in the United States 1920-1960, Hugh Richard Slotten, JHU Press, 2000, ISBN
9780801864506
[9] Missed Opportunities: FCC Commissioner Frieda Hennock and the UHF Debacle, Susan L. Brinson, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic
Media • Spring, 2000 (http:/ / www.entrepreneur.com/ tradejournals/ article/print/63018844. html)
[10] VALVES AT UHF: A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, S. Simpson, Practical Television magazine, March 1954 (http:// www.
thevalvepage.com/ valvetek/ uhfvalve/ uhfvalve.htm)
[11] TV-technology.com The Superheterodyne Concept and Reception, Charles W. Rhodes, TV Technology, July 20, 2005 (http:// www.
tv-technology.com/pages/ s. 0072/ t. 1648. html)
[12] Sterling, C. H., & Kittross, J. M. (1990). Stay Tuned: A concise history of American broadcasting (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth.
[13] Boddy,W.(1990) Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics. Urbana,IL: University of Illinois Press.
[14] http:/ / tulsatvmemories. com/ tvthesi3. html
[15] Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting; pp 387-388; Christopher H. Sterling, John M. Kittross; Erlbaum 2002; ISBN
9780805826241
[16] UHF morgue (http:// radiodxer.bravehost. com/ morgue.html)
[17] U-62 program schedule, July 1989 (http:// www. allthingsyank. com/ uhf15/u-62.htm)
[18] Buffalo Broadcasters: History - UHF (http:/ / www.buffalobroadcasters.com/ hist_uhf. asp)
[19] Media Economics: Theory and Practice, Alison Alexander, Erlbaum Associates 2004 ISBN 9780805845808
[20] FCC order revoking secondary affiliation rule, 1995 (http:// www.fcc.gov/ Bureaus/ Mass_Media/ Orders/1995_Orders/fcc95097.txt)
[21] http:// www. wcl. american. edu/ journal/lawrev/53/ rothenberger.pdf
[22] The DuMont Television Network, Appendix 10/11: A Trail of Bleached Bones, C. Ingram (http:// www.dumonthistory. tv/ a10. html)
[23] WSJV 28 South Bend, Indiana history (http:// www. fox28. com/ Global/ story.asp?S=8396164& nav=menu1356_11) indicates station
founded 1954, still extant as no VHF channels available due to proximity to Chicago
[24] Going once, twice, the 700MHz spectrum is sold, NY Times, Mar 18 2008 (http:/ / bits. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 03/ 18/
going-oncegoing-twicethe-700-mhz-spectrum-is-sold/?ref=technology)
[25] http:// www. uhfcb.com. au
[26] http:/ / www. broadcasting-history.ca/ stations/ radio/Digital_Audio_Broadcasting. html
[27] http:// www. raytheon.com/ capabilities/ rtnwcm/groups/ ncs/ documents/ content/ rtn_ncs_products_arc164_pdf.pdf
External links
• U.S. cable television channel frequencies (http:// www.jneuhaus. com/ fccindex/ cablech. html)
• TVTower.com - Commercial Television Frequencies (http:// www.tvtower. com/ Commercial Television
Frequencies. html)
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands.
html)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
Super high frequency
80
Super high frequency
Super high frequency
Frequency range 3 to 30 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Super high frequency (or SHF) refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 GHz and 30 GHz. Also known as
the centimeter band or centimeter wave as the wavelengths range from ten to one centimeters.
Description
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), an international civil organization established to standardized
worldwide telecommunications, have stated that the superhigh frequency is encountered between 100 mm to 10 mm.
Super high frequency electromagnetic waves are relatively short for radio waves. This frequency is used for
microwave devices, WLAN, most modern radars. The commencing Wireless USB technology will be using
approximately 1/3 of this spectrum.
Uses
Some uses are IEEE 802.11a wireless LANs, satellite uplinks/downlinks and terrestrial high-speed data links which
are sometimes referred to as "backhauls".
External links
• Tomislav Stimac, " Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.)
[2]
". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it).
• Inés Vidal Castiñeira, " Celeria: Wireless Access To Cable Networks
[1]
"
References
[1] http:/ / www. broadbandhomecentral.com/ report/backissues/ Report0308_3. html
Extremely high frequency
81
Extremely high frequency
Extremely high frequency
Frequency range 30 to 300 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Extremely high frequency is the highest radio frequency band. EHF runs the range of frequencies from 30 to 300
gigahertz, above which electromagnetic radiation is considered to be low (or far) infrared light, also referred to as
terahertz radiation. This band has a wavelength of ten to one millimetre, giving it the name millimeter band or
millimetre wave, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW.
Compared to lower bands, terrestrial radio signals in this band are extremely prone to atmospheric attenuation,
making them of very little use over long distances. In particular, signals in the 57–64 GHz region are subject to a
resonance of the oxygen molecule and are severely attenuated. Even over relatively short distances, rain fade is a
serious problem, caused when absorption by rain reduces signal strength. In climates other than deserts absorption
due to humidity also has an impact on propagation. While this absorption limits potential communications range, it
also allows for smaller frequency reuse distances than lower frequencies. The small wavelength allows modest size
antennas to have a small beam width, further increasing frequency reuse potential.
Applications
Scientific research
This band is commonly used in radio astronomy and remote sensing. Ground-based radio astronomy is limited to
high altitude sites such as Kitt Peak and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) due to atmospheric absorption
issues. Satellite-based remote sensing near 60 GHz can determine temperature in the upper atmosphere by measuring
radiation emitted from oxygen molecules that is a function of temperature and pressure. The ITU non-exclusive
passive frequency allocation at 57-59.3 is used for atmospheric monitoring in meteorological and climate sensing
applications, and is important for these purposes due to the properties of oxygen absorption and emission in Earth’s
atmosphere. Currently operational U.S. satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)
on one NASA satellite (Aqua) and four NOAA (15-18) satellites and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder
(SSMI/S) on Department of Defense satellite F-16 make use of this frequency range.
[1]
Extremely high frequency
82
Telecommunications
In the United States, the band 38.6 - 40.0 GHz is used for licensed high-speed microwave data links, and the 60 GHz
band can be used for unlicensed short range (1.7 km) data links with data throughputs up to 2.5 Gbit/s. It is used
commonly in flat terrain.
The 71-76, 81-86 and 92–95 GHz bands are also used for point-to-point high-bandwidth communication links. These
frequencies, as opposed to the 60 GHz frequency, require a transmitting license in the US from the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), though they do not suffer from the effects of oxygen absorption as the 60 GHz
does. There are plans for 10 Gbit/s links using these frequencies as well. In the case of the 92–95 GHz band, a small
100 MHz range has been reserved for space-borne radios, making this reserved range limited to a transmission rate
of under a few gigabits per second.
[2]
The band is essentially undeveloped and available for use in a broad range of new products and services, including
high-speed, point-to-point wireless local area networks and broadband Internet access. WirelessHD is another recent
technology that operates near the 60 GHz range. Highly directional, "pencil-beam" signal characteristics permit
systems in these bands to be engineered in close proximity to one another without causing interference. Potential
applications include radar systems with very high resolution.
Uses of the millimeter wave bands include point-to-point communications, intersatellite links, and
point-to-multipoint communications.
Because of shorter wavelengths, the band permits the use of smaller antennas than would be required for similar
circumstances in the lower bands, to achieve the same high directivity and high gain. The immediate consequence of
this high directivity, coupled with the high free space loss at these frequencies, is the possibility of a more efficient
use of the spectrum for point-to-multipoint applications. Since a greater number of highly directive antennas can be
placed in a given area than less directive antennas, the net result is higher reuse of the spectrum, and higher density
of users, as compared to lower frequencies. Furthermore, because one can place more voice channels or broadband
information using a higher frequency to transmit the information, this spectrum could potentially be used as a
replacement for or supplement to fiber optics.
ASELSAN, a Turkish Armed Forces owned company, is currently working on an on-board processing EHF satellite
transponder in conjunction with the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and
Bilkent University. ASELSAN's aim is to produce an indegenous on-board processing EHF satellite transponder and
its phased array antenna.
[3]
As reported in incisor.tv monthly magazine, the WiMedia Alliance is looking at using the 60 GHz range in their road
map.
[4]
Weapons systems
The U.S. Air Force is reported to have developed a nonlethal weapon system called Active Denial System (ADS)
which emits a beam of radiation with a wavelength of 3 mm.
[5]
The weapon is reportedly not dangerous and causes
no physical harm, but is extremely painful and causes the target to feel an intense burning pain, as if his or her skin is
going to catch fire.
Security screening
A recent development has been imagers for security applications as clothing and other organic materials are
translucent in some mm-wave atmospheric windows.
[6]
Privacy advocates are concerned about the use of this
technology because it allows screeners to see airport passengers as if without clothing.
The TSA has deployed a $170,000 machine, in the month of February 2009, for use in Tulsa International Airport
according to USA Today. Machines will follow in Las Vegas, San Francisco, Albuquerque and Salt Lake City by
May 2009.
[7]
Similar units have been deployed in Baltimore (BWI) and Raleigh (RDU) for some time. These
Extremely high frequency
83
machines were been deployed in the Jersey City PATH train system for two weeks in 2006.
[8]
Currently the technology does not mask any part of the bodies of the people who are being scanned. However,
passengers' faces are deliberately masked by the system. The photos are screened by technicians in a closed room,
then deleted immediately upon search completion. Currently, passengers can decline scanning and be screened via a
metal detector and patted down. The machines do allow the screener to see detailed images of body parts. Privacy
advocates are concerned. "We're getting closer and closer to a required strip-search to board an airplane," said Barry
Steinhardt of the American Civil Liberties Union.
[7]
Three security scanners using millimeter waves were put into use at Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam on 15 May
2007, with more expected to be installed later. The passenger's head is masked from the view of the security
personnel.
According to Farran Technologies, a manufacturer of one model of the millimeter wave scanner, the technology
exists to extend the search area to as far as 50 meters beyond the scanning area which would allow security workers
to scan a large number of people without their awareness that they are being scanned.
[9]
Medicine
Most widely used in former USSR nations,
[10]

[11]
low intensity (usually 10 mW/cm
2
or less) electromagnetic
radiation of extremely high frequency (especially in the range 40 - 70 GHz, which corresponds to wavelength of 7.5
- 4.3 mm) is used in human medicine for the treatment of many types of diseases.
[11]

[12]
This type of therapy is
called Millimeter Wave (MMW) Therapy or Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Therapy. More than 10 000 devices
are used for Millimeter Wave Therapy worldwide
[13]
and more than a million people have been successfully treated
with millimeter wave therapy during its documented history.
[13]
Established in 1992, the Russian Journal Millimeter
waves in biology and medicine is dedicated to the scientific basis and clinical applications of Millimeter Wave
Therapy.
[14]
More than 50 issues of it have been published.
References
[1] FCC.gov (http:/ / gullfoss2. fcc. gov/ prod/ecfs/ retrieve.cgi?native_or_pdf=pdf&id_document=6519741794), Comments of IEEE
Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, FCC RM-11104, 10/17/07
[2] Rfdesign.com (http:// rfdesign.com/ mag/ 605RFDF4. pdf), Multigigabit wireless technology at 70 GHz, 80 GHz and 90 GHz, RF Design,
May 2006
[3] "Processed EHF Transponder And Antenna Design And Production" (http:/ / www.aselsan. com. tr/ urun.asp?urun_id=229& lang=en). .
Retrieved 5 June 2009.
[4] Incisor.tv (http:/ / www. incisor. tv/ download. php?file=124july2008.pdf)
[5] "Slideshow: Say Hello to the Goodbye Weapon" (http:/ / www.wired.com/ news/ technology/ 0,72134-0.html). . Retrieved 4 June 2009.
[6] Newscientisttech.com (http:/ / www.newscientisttech. com/ article.ns?id=dn10160& feedId=tech_rss20)
[7] Frank, Thomas (18 February 2009). "Body scanners replace metal detectors in tryout at Tulsa airport." (http:/ / www.usatoday. com/ travel/
flights/2009-02-17-detectors_N.htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 2 May 2010.
[8] "Mirror for Star Ledger Article "PATH riders to face anti-terror screening -- Program will begin at station in Jersey City" (http:// www.
hudsoncity.net/ tubes/ securitytesting. html). 2006/07/12 Wed. p. 014. .
[9] Scenta.co.uk (http:// www. scenta. co. uk/ scenta/ news. cfm?cit_id=289412&FAArea1=customWidgets. content_view_1)
[10] M. Rojavin and M. Ziskin, Medical application of millimetre waves, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, vol. 91, no. 1, p. 57, 1998,
http:/ / qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/ 91/ 1/ 57. full. pdf
[11] Pakhomov, A.G., Murphy, P.R., Low-intensity millimeter waves as a novel therapeutic modality, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science,
2000, vol. 28, no. 1, http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1109/ 27. 842821
[12] Betskii, O. V. , Devyatkov, N. D., Kislov, V., Low Intensity Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology, Critical Reviews in Biomedical
Engineering, 2000, vol. 28 no. 1&2, p. 247-268 http:// www.begellhouse. com/ journals/ 4b27cbfc562e21b8.html
[13] Betskii, O. V., Kotrovskaya T. I., Lebedeva, N. N., Millimeter Waves in Biology and Medicine, III Всероссийская конференция
«Радиолокация и радиосвязь» – ИРЭ РАН, 26-30 октября 2009, http:/ / jre.cplire.ru/jre/ library/3conference/pdffiles/ b004. pdf
[14] http:/ / www. benran.ru/ Magazin/ El/13/ N71320. HTM
Extremely high frequency
84
External links
• FCC bulletin on MMW propagation (http:/ / www. fcc.gov/ Bureaus/ Engineering_Technology/Documents/
bulletins/ oet70/ oet70a. pdf)
• Asyrmatos Millimeter Wave Communication System (http:/ / www.asyrmatos. com)
• L-3 Communications ProVision Body Screening System (http:// www.dsxray. com/ products/ mmwave. htm)
• FCC 70/80/90 GHz overview. (http:/ / wireless. fcc.gov/ services/ millimeterwave)
• FCC 57–64 GHz rules. (http:/ / edocket. access. gpo. gov/ cfr_2007/octqtr/47cfr15.255. htm)
• Civil mm-wave Regulation in US (http:/ / www.marcus-spectrum.com/ MMW. htm)
• Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.) (http:// www.vlf. it/ frequency/bands. html)
• Millimetre-Wave Technology Group (http:/ / www.mmt. rl.ac. uk/ ) at Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory
• Overview of active methods for shielding spacecraft from energetic space radiation (http:// www.physicamedica.
com/ VOLXVII_S1/17-TOWNSEND.pdf)
• St. Andrews University mm-wave group (http:/ / www.st-andrews. ac. uk/ ~mmwave/ mmwave/ index. shtml)
• A Survey of University Capabilities for a New Canadian Radio Telescope (http:/ /www. drao-ofr.hia-iha.
nrc-cnrc. gc. ca/ science/ ska/ univ_assessment. html)
• US Patent 7220488 - Deflecting magnetic field shield (http:// www.patentstorm. us/ patents/ 7220488/
description. html)
A band (radio)
85
A band (radio)
This is article is about the wireless term. For other uses see A band.
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The A band is the range of radio frequencies up to 250 MHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to wave
lengths greater than 1.2 m.
B band
86
B band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The B band is the range of radio frequencies from 250 MHz to 500 MHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is
equal to wave lengths between 1.2 m and 0.6 m. The B band is in the VHF/UHF range of the radio spectrum.
The B band is identical to the P band of the older IEEE classification system.
C band
87
C band
C band
Frequency range NATO: 500 – 1000
MHz
IEEE: 4 – 8 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The C band is a name given to certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, including wavelengths of
microwaves that are used for long-distance radio telecommunications. The IEEE C-band - and its slight variations -
contains frequency ranges that are used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi devices, some
cordless telephones, and some weather radar systems. For satellite communications, the microwave frequencies of
the C-band perform better under adverse weather conditions in comparison with K
u
band (11.2 GHz to 14.5 GHz)
microwave frequencies, which are used by another large set of communication satellites.
[1]
The adverse weather
conditions, collectively referred to as rain fade, all have to do with moisture in the air, including rain and snow.
C band
88
The NATO C-band
The NATO C-band is that portion of the radio spectrum between 500 megahertz (MHz) and 1000 MHz, but this
terminology is rarely used in the two very large NATO members that are located in North America.
The IEEE C-band
C-band antennas of this type became widespread
in the United States in the 1950s
The IEEE C-band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the
microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz
(GHz).,
[2]
but this definition is the one that is followed by radar
manufacturers and users, but not necessarily by microwave radio
telecommunications users.
The communications C-band was the first frequency band that was
allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites. The same
frequencies were already in use for terrestrial microwave radio relay
chains. Nearly all C-band communication satellites use the band of
frequencies from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz for their downlinks, and the band of
frequencies from 5.925 GHz to 6.425 GHz for their uplinks. Note that
by using the band from 3.7 to 4.0 GHz, this C-band overlaps somewhat
into the IEEE S-band for radars.
The C-band communication satellites typically have 24 radio
transponders spaced 20 MHz apart, but with the adjacent transponders
on opposite polarizations. [3] Hence, the transponders on the same
polarization are always 40 MHz apart. Of this 40 MHz, each
transponder utilizes about 36 MHz. (The unused 8.0 MHz between the pairs of transponders acts as "guard bands"
for the likely case of imperfections in the microwave electronics.)
The C-band is primarily used for open satellite communications, whether for full-time satellite TV networks or raw
satellite feeds, although subscription programming also exists. This use contrasts with direct broadcast satellite,
which is a completely closed system used to deliver subscription programming to small satellite dishes that are
connected with proprietary receiving equipment.
The satellite communications portion of the C-band is highly associated with television receive-only satellite
reception systems, commonly called "big dish" systems, since small receiving antennas are not optimal for C-band
systems. Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems ranges from 7.5 to 12 feet (2.5 to 3.5 meters) on
consumer satellite dishes, although larger ones also can be used.
The C-band frequencies of 5.4 GHz band [5.15 to 5.35 GHz, or 5.47 to 5.725 GHz, or 5.725 to 5.875 GHz,
depending on the region of the world] is used for IEEE 802.11a Wi-Fi and cordless telephone applications, leading
to occasional interference with some weather radars that are also allocated to the C-band.
C-band variations
Slight variations in the assignments of C-band frequencies have been approved for use in various parts of the world,
depending on their locations in the three International Telecommunications Union radio regions. Note that one
region includes all of the Americas; a second includes all of Europe and Africa, plus all of Russia, and the third
region includes all of Asia outside of Russia, plus Australia and New Zealand. This latter region is the most populous
one, since it includes the People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
C band
89
C-Band Variations Around The World
Band Transmit Frequency
(GHz)
Receive Frequency
(GHz)
Standard C-Band 5.850–6.425 3.625–4.200
Extended C-Band 5.850–6.725 3.400–4.200
INSAT / Super-Extended C-Band 6.725–7.025 4.500–4.800
Russian C-Band 5.975–6.475 3.650–4.150
LMI C-Band 5.7250–6.025 3.700–4.000
Amateur radio
• The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the
frequency range from 5.650 to 5.925 GHz.
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as the electromagnetic spectrum that ranges from 1.0 GHz to 30 GHz in
frequency, but some antiquated usages includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1.0 to
30 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below. Note that frequencies above 30 GHz are typically said to be in the "millimeter wave". because their
wavelengths can be conveniently measured in millimeters (mm). The frequency of 30 GHz corresponds quite closely
to a wavelength of 10 mm, or 1.0 centimeter.
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: "P-band" is sometimes incorrectly used for the Ku-band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the
United Kingdom that ranged from 250 to 500 MHz, which is now completely obsolete by the IEEE Standard 521,
see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
C band
90
Fiberoptic Communications
In infrared optical communications, C-band refers to the wavelength range 1530 - 1565 nm, which corresponds to
the amplification range of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs).
[4]
External links
• The VSAT Installation Manual Video Presentation shows examples of the arrangement of the Feed for c-band
polarization requirements
[5]
• VSAT Installation Manual with explanation of c-band polarization requirements for a VSAT
[6]
Notes
[1] What is C Band (http:/ / www. tech-faq.com/ c-band.shtml) page from tech-faq (accessed Aug. 14, 2008)
[2] Peebles, Peyton Z. Jr, (1998), Radar Principles, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p 20.
[3] http:// www. lyngsat. com/ america.html
[4] Optical Fiber Communications (http:/ / www. rp-photonics.com/ optical_fiber_communications. html) article in rp-photonics' Encyclopedia
of Laser Physics and Technology (http:// www. rp-photonics.com/ encyclopedia.html) (accessed Nov. 11 2010)
[5] http:// www. skyvision. net/ glossary/ c-band
[6] http:/ / www. skyvision. net/ sites/ default/ files/ SkyVision%20VSAT%20Installation%20Manual%20(Version%201).pdf
D band
91
D band
D band
Frequency range 110 – 170 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
D band is the range of radio frequencies from 110 GHz to 170 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to
wave lengths between 1.8 mm and 2.7 mm. The D band is in the EHF range of the radio spectrum.
The modern D band intersects with the L band (0.5—1.55 GHz) of the older IEEE classification system.
A newer D-Band lies at the approach to upper frequency limit of contemporary electronic oscillator technology,
between 110 and 170 GHz.
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
D band
92
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see[5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
E band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The NATO E band is the range of radio frequencies from 2 GHz to 3 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is
equal to wave lengths between 15 cm and 10 cm. The E band is in the upper UHF range of the radio spectrum. The
NATO E band lies in the S band (2—4 GHz) of the older IEEE classification system.
The newer designation of "E-Band" lies in the extremely high frequency bands from 71 to 76 gigahertz (GHz), 81 to
86 GHz and 92 to 95 GHz. It is being used for short range, high bandwidth communications.
[1]
Atmospheric Effects
At these high frequencies the short wavelengths give the radiation a very directional quality, similar to visible light.
Many molecules possess rotational and vibrational states excited by very specific wavelengths in this band, thus the
atmospheric gasses such as Oxygen, Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen can absorb, and be excited causing
variable beam attenuation effects dependent on meteorological and atmospheric conditions.
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
Amateur radio
• The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union allow amateur radio operations in the
frequency range from 76.000 to 81.000 GHz.
E band
93
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see[5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
References
[1] (http:// rfdesign. com/ mag/ 605RFDF4.pdf) Multigigabit wireless technology at 70 GHz, 80 GHz and 90 GHz, RF Design, May 2006
F band
94
F band
F band
Frequency range 90 – 140 GHz
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The F band is the range of radio frequencies from 90 GHz to 140 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is
equal to wave lengths between 2.1 mm and 3.3 mm. The F band is in the lower parts of the SHF range of the radio
spectrum.
The F band lies in the S band of the older classification system.
A new F Band lies up between 90 and 140 GHz.
Other Microwave bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 30 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
F band
95
Footnote: P band is sometimes incorrectly used for Ku Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see[5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
G band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
NATO G band
The G band in the modern (NATO/EU) sense is the range of radio frequencies from 4 GHz to 6 GHz in the
electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to wave lengths between 7.5 cm and 5 cm. The G band is in the SHF range
of the radio spectrum.
The G band is in the C band of the older classification system.
IEEE G band
With the older system, the G band covers frequencies from 200 to 250 MHz (1.5 m—1.2 m) and is in the modern A
band.
H band
96
H band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
H band can refer to two different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the radio and near-infrared.
Radio
The H band is the range of radio frequencies from 6 GHz to 8 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to
wave lengths between 5 cm and 3.75 cm. The H band is in the SHF range of the radio spectrum.
The modern H band lies in the C band (4–8 GHz) of the older IEEE classification system.
Infrared astronomy
Atmospheric windows in the infrared. The H
band is the transmission window centred on 1.7
micrometres
In infrared astronomy, the H band refers to an atmospheric
transmission window centred on 1.65 micrometres with a FWHM
width of 0.35 micrometres
[1]
(in the near-infrared).
References
[1] Ian McClean, Electronic Imaging in Astronomy, Second Edition, Springer, 2008.
I band
97
I band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
The I band is the range of radio frequencies from 8 GHz to 10 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal to
wave lengths between 3.75 cm and 3 cm. The I band is in the SHF range of the radio spectrum.
The I band lies in the X band of the older classification system.
Uses
Marine navigation radars often operate with I band frequencies.
J band
98
J band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
J band can refer to two different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the radio and near-infrared.
Radio
The J band is the range of radio frequencies from 10 GHz to 20 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is equal
to wave lengths between 3 and 1.5 centimetres (1.2 and 0.59 in). The J band is in the SHF range of the radio
spectrum.
The I band intersects with the X band and K band of the older classification system. The K
u
band is within the J
band.
Infrared astronomy
Atmospheric windows in the infrared. The J band
is the transmission window centred on 1.25
micrometres
In infrared astronomy, the J band refers to an atmospheric transmission
window centred on 1.25 micrometres (in the near-infrared).
Uses
The J band is used for satellite communications and radar, the latter
being central to aircraft systems and their avionics. Satellite
communications systems can be used in conjunction with aircraft to
help locate and identify enemy targets or provide a role as a
reconnaissance platform for soldiers on the ground.
M band
99
M band
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
M band can refer to two different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the radio and near-infrared.
Radio
The M band is the range of radio frequencies from 60 GHz to 100 GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. This is
equal to wave lengths between 5 mm and 3 mm. The M band is in the EHF range of the radio spectrum.
The modern M band intersects with the V (50–75 GHz) and W band (75–110 GHz) of the older IEEE classification
system.
Infrared astronomy
Atmospheric windows in the infrared. The M
band is the transmission window centred on 4.7
micrometres
In infrared astronomy, the M band refers to an atmospheric
transmission window centred on 4.7 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).
Microwave
100
Microwave
A microwave telecommunications tower on
Wrights Hill in Wellington, New Zealand
Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging
from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or
equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and
300 GHz.
[1]
This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF
(millimeter waves), and various sources use different boundaries.
[2]
In
all cases, microwave includes the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10
to 1 cm) at minimum, with RF engineering often putting the lower
boundary at 1 GHz (30 cm), and the upper around 100 GHz (3mm).
Apparatus and techniques may be described qualitatively as
"microwave" when the wavelengths of signals are roughly the same as
the dimensions of the equipment, so that lumped-element circuit theory
is inaccurate. As a consequence, practical microwave technique tends
to move away from the discrete resistors, capacitors, and inductors
used with lower frequency radio waves. Instead, distributed circuit
elements and transmission-line theory are more useful methods for
design and analysis. Open-wire and coaxial transmission lines give
way to waveguides and stripline, and lumped-element tuned circuits
are replaced by cavity resonators or resonant lines. Effects of
reflection, polarization, scattering, diffraction and atmospheric absorption usually associated with visible light are of
practical significance in the study of microwave propagation. The same equations of electromagnetic theory apply at
all frequencies.
While the name may suggest a micrometer wavelength, it is better understood as indicating wavelengths much
shorter than those used in radio broadcasting. The boundaries between far infrared light, terahertz radiation,
microwaves, and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields
of study.
Microwave
101
Stripline techniques become increasingly
necessary at higher frequencies
Electromagnetic waves longer (lower frequency) than microwaves are
called "radio waves". Electromagnetic radiation with shorter
wavelengths may be called "millimeter waves", terahertz radiation or
even T-rays. Definitions differ for millimeter wave band, which the
IEEE defines as 110 GHz to 300 GHz.
Above 300 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's
atmosphere is so great that it is effectively opaque, until the
atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and
optical window frequency ranges.
Microwave sources
Vacuum tube devices operate on the ballistic motion of electrons in a
vacuum under the influence of controlling electric or magnetic fields,
and include the magnetron, klystron, traveling-wave tube (TWT), and
gyrotron. These devices work in the density modulated mode, rather
than the current modulated mode. This means that they work on the
basis of clumps of electrons flying ballistically through them, rather
than using a continuous stream.
Cutaway view inside a cavity magnetron as used
in a microwave oven
Low power microwave sources use solid-state devices such as the
field-effect transistor (at least at lower frequencies), tunnel diodes,
Gunn diodes, and IMPATT diodes.
[3]
A maser is a device similar to a laser, which amplifies light energy by
stimulating photons. The maser, rather than amplifying light energy,
amplifies the lower frequency, longer wavelength microwaves and
radio frequency emissions.
The sun also emits microwave radiation, and most of it is blocked by
Earth's atmosphere.
[4]
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) is a source of
microwaves that supports the science of cosmology's Big Bang theory of the origin of the Universe.
Uses
Communication
Before the advent of fiber-optic transmission, most long distance telephone calls were carried via networks of
microwave radio relay links run by carriers such as AT&T Long Lines. Starting in the early 1950s, frequency
division multiplex was used to send up to 5,400 telephone channels on each microwave radio channel, with as many
as ten radio channels combined into one antenna for the hop to the next site, up to 70 km away.
Wireless LAN protocols, such as Bluetooth and the IEEE 802.11 specifications, also use microwaves in the 2.4 GHz
ISM band, although 802.11a uses ISM band and U-NII frequencies in the 5 GHz range. Licensed long-range (up to
about 25 km) Wireless Internet Access services have been used for almost a decade in many countries in the
3.5–4.0 GHz range. The FCC recently carved out spectrum for carriers that wish to offer services in this range in the
U.S. — with emphasis on 3.65 GHz. Dozens of service providers across the country are securing or have already
received licenses from the FCC to operate in this band. The WIMAX service offerings that can be carried on the
Microwave
102
3.65 GHz band will give business customers another option for connectivity.
Metropolitan area networks: MAN protocols, such as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
based in the IEEE 802.16 specification. The IEEE 802.16 specification was designed to operate between 2 to
11 GHz. The commercial implementations are in the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 5.8 GHz ranges.
Wide Area Mobile Broadband Wireless Access: MBWA protocols based on standards specifications such as IEEE
802.20 or ATIS/ANSI HC-SDMA (e.g. iBurst) are designed to operate between 1.6 and 2.3 GHz to give mobility
and in-building penetration characteristics similar to mobile phones but with vastly greater spectral efficiency.
Some mobile phone networks, like GSM, use the low-microwave/high-UHF frequencies around 1.8 and 1.9 GHz in
the Americas and elsewhere, respectively. DVB-SH and S-DMB use 1.452 to 1.492 GHz, while
proprietary/incompatible satellite radio in the U.S. uses around 2.3 GHz for DARS.
Microwave radio is used in broadcasting and telecommunication transmissions because, due to their short
wavelength, highly directional antennas are smaller and therefore more practical than they would be at longer
wavelengths (lower frequencies). There is also more bandwidth in the microwave spectrum than in the rest of the
radio spectrum; the usable bandwidth below 300 MHz is less than 300 MHz while many GHz can be used above
300 MHz. Typically, microwaves are used in television news to transmit a signal from a remote location to a
television station from a specially equipped van. See broadcast auxiliary service (BAS), remote pickup unit (RPU),
and studio/transmitter link (STL).
Most satellite communications systems operate in the C, X, K
a
, or K
u
bands of the microwave spectrum. These
frequencies allow large bandwidth while avoiding the crowded UHF frequencies and staying below the atmospheric
absorption of EHF frequencies. Satellite TV either operates in the C band for the traditional large dish fixed satellite
service or K
u
band for direct-broadcast satellite. Military communications run primarily over X or K
u
-band links,
with K
a
band being used for Milstar.
Radar
Radar uses microwave radiation to detect the range, speed, and other characteristics of remote objects. Development
of radar was accelerated during World War II due to its great military utility. Now radar is widely used for
applications such as air traffic control, weather forecasting, navigation of ships, and speed limit enforcement.
A Gunn diode oscillator and waveguide are used as a motion detector for automatic door openers.
Radio astronomy
Most radio astronomy uses microwaves. Usually the naturally-occurring microwave radiation is observed, but active
radar experiments have also been done with objects in the solar system, such as determining the distance to the
Moon or mapping the invisible surface of Venus through cloud cover.
Galactic background radiation of the Big Bang
mapped with increasing resolution
Navigation
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including the Chinese
Beidou, the American Global Positioning System (GPS) and the
Russian GLONASS broadcast navigational signals in various bands
between about 1.2 GHz and 1.6 GHz.
Microwave
103
Power
A microwave oven passes (non-ionizing) microwave radiation (at a frequency near 2.45 GHz) through food, causing
dielectric heating by absorption of energy in the water, fats, and sugar contained in the food. Microwave ovens
became common kitchen appliances in Western countries in the late 1970s, following development of inexpensive
cavity magnetrons. Water in the liquid state possesses many molecular interactions which broaden the absorption
peak. In the vapor phase, isolated water molecules absorb at around 22 GHz, almost ten times the frequency of the
microwave oven.
Microwave heating is used in industrial processes for drying and curing products.
Many semiconductor processing techniques use microwaves to generate plasma for such purposes as reactive ion
etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).
Microwave frequencies typically ranging from 110 – 140 GHz are used in stellarators and more notably in tokamak
experimental fusion reactors to help heat the fuel into a plasma state. The upcoming ITER Thermonuclear Reactor
[5]
is expected to range from 110–170 GHz and will employ Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH).
[6]
Microwaves can be used to transmit power over long distances, and post-World War II research was done to
examine possibilities. NASA worked in the 1970s and early 1980s to research the possibilities of using solar power
satellite (SPS) systems with large solar arrays that would beam power down to the Earth's surface via microwaves.
Less-than-lethal weaponry exists that uses millimeter waves to heat a thin layer of human skin to an intolerable
temperature so as to make the targeted person move away. A two-second burst of the 95 GHz focused beam heats the
skin to a temperature of 130 °F (54 °C) at a depth of 1/64th of an inch (0.4 mm). The United States Air Force and
Marines are currently using this type of active denial system.
[7]
Spectroscopy
Microwave radiation is used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR or ESR) spectroscopy, typically in the X-band
region (~9 GHz) in conjunction typically with magnetic fields of 0.3 T. This technique provides information on
unpaired electrons in chemical systems, such as free radicals or transition metal ions such as Cu(II). The microwave
radiation can also be combined with electrochemistry as in microwave enhanced electrochemistry.
Microwave frequency bands
The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to
100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies. Most common applications are within the 1 to
40 GHz range. Microwave frequency bands, as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), are shown in
the table below:
ITU Radio Band Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
ITU Radio Band Symbols
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF
SHF EHF
NATO Radio bands
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
IEEE Radar bands
HF VHF UHF L S C X K
u
K K
a
Q V W
Microwave
104
Microwave frequency bands
Letter Designation Frequency range
L band 1 to 2 GHz
S band 2 to 4 GHz
C band 4 to 8 GHz
X band 8 to 12 GHz
K
u
band 12 to 18 GHz
K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
K
a
band 26.5 to 40 GHz
Q band 33 to 50 GHz
U band 40 to 60 GHz
V band 50 to 75 GHz
E band 60 to 90 GHz
W band 75 to 110 GHz
F band 90 to 140 GHz
D band 110 to 170 GHz
Footnote (1): P band is sometimes incorrectly used for K
u
Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK
ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521, see [5] and [6]. For other definitions see Letter
Designations of Microwave Bands
[7]
.
Footnote (2): When radars were first developed at K band during World War II, it was not realized that there was a
nearby absorption band (due to water vapor and oxygen at the atmosphere). To avoid this problem, the original K
band was split into a lower band, K
u
, and upper band, K
a
see.
[8]
Microwave frequency measurement
Microwave frequency can be measured by either electronic or mechanical techniques.
Frequency counters or high frequency heterodyne systems can be used. Here the unknown frequency is compared
with harmonics of a known lower frequency by use of a low frequency generator, a harmonic generator and a mixer.
Accuracy of the measurement is limited by the accuracy and stability of the reference source.
Mechanical methods require a tunable resonator such as an absorption wavemeter, which has a known relation
between a physical dimension and frequency.
Microwave
105
Wavemeter for measuring in the K
u
band
In a laboratory setting, Lecher lines can be used to directly measure the
wavelength on a transmission line made of parallel wires, the
frequency can then be calculated. A similar technique is to use a slotted
waveguide or slotted coaxial line to directly measure the wavelength.
These devices consist of a probe introduced into the line through a
longitudinal slot, so that the probe is free to travel up and down the
line. Slotted lines are primarily intended for measurement of the
voltage standing wave ratio on the line. However, provided a standing
wave is present, they may also be used to measure the distance
between the nodes, which is equal to half the wavelength. Precision of
this method is limited by the determination of the nodal locations.
Health effects
Microwaves do not contain sufficient energy to chemically change
substances by ionization, and so are an example of nonionizing
radiation. The word "radiation" refers to the fact that energy can
radiate. The term in this context is not to be confused with
radioactivity. It has not been shown conclusively that microwaves (or
other nonionizing electromagnetic radiation) have significant adverse biological effects at low levels. Some but not
all studies suggest that long-term exposure may have a carcinogenic effect.
[9]
This is separate from the risks
associated with very high intensity exposure, which can cause heating and burns like any heat source, and not a
unique property of microwaves specifically.
During World War II, it was observed that individuals in the radiation path of radar installations experienced clicks
and buzzing sounds in response to microwave radiation. This microwave auditory effect was thought to be caused by
the microwaves inducing an electric current in the hearing centers of the brain.
[10]
Research by NASA in the 1970s
has shown this to be caused by thermal expansion in parts of the inner ear.
When injury from exposure to microwaves occurs, it usually results from dielectric heating induced in the body.
Exposure to microwave radiation can produce cataracts by this mechanism, because the microwave heating
denatures proteins in the crystalline lens of the eye (in the same way that heat turns egg whites white and opaque)
faster than the lens can be cooled by surrounding structures. The lens and cornea of the eye are especially vulnerable
because they contain no blood vessels that can carry away heat. Exposure to heavy doses of microwave radiation (as
from an oven that has been tampered with to allow operation even with the door open) can produce heat damage in
other tissues as well, up to and including serious burns which may not be immediately evident because of the
tendency for microwaves to heat deeper tissues with higher moisture content.
History and research
The existence of electromagnetic waves was predicted by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864 from his equations. In 1888,
Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus that
produced and detected microwaves in the UHF region. The design necessarily used horse-and-buggy materials,
including a horse trough, a wrought iron point spark, Leyden jars, and a length of zinc gutter whose parabolic
cross-section worked as a reflection antenna. In 1894 J. C. Bose publicly demonstrated radio control of a bell using
millimeter wavelengths, and conducted research into the propagation of microwaves.
[11]
Perhaps the first, documented, formal use of the term microwave occurred in 1931:
Microwave
106
"When trials with wavelengths as low as 18 cm were made known, there was undisguised surprise that the
problem of the micro-wave had been solved so soon." Telegraph & Telephone Journal XVII. 179/1
In 1943: the Hungarian engineer Zoltán Bay sent ultra-short radio waves to the moon, which, reflected from there
worked as a radar, and could be used to measure distance, as well as to study the moon.
[12]
Perhaps the first use of the word microwave in an astronomical context occurred in 1946 in an article "Microwave
Radiation from the Sun and Moon" by Robert Dicke and Robert Beringer. This same article also made a showing in
the New York Times issued in 1951.
In the history of electromagnetic theory, significant work specifically in the area of microwaves and their
applications was carried out by researchers including:
Specific work on microwaves
Work carried out by Area of work
Barkhausen and Kurz Positive grid oscillators
Hull Smooth bore magnetron
Varian Brothers Velocity modulated electron beam → klystron tube
Randall and Boot Cavity magnetron
Electromagnetic spectrum with visible light highlighted
References
[1] Pozar, David M. (1993). Microwave Engineering Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company. ISBN 0-201-50418-9.
[2] http:/ / www. google. com/ search?hl=en& defl=en&q=define:microwave&
ei=e6CMSsWUI5OHmQee2si1DQ& sa=X& oi=glossary_definition&ct=title
[3] Microwave Oscillator (http:/ / www.herley.com/ index. cfm?act=app_notes&
notes=oscillators) notes by Herley General Microwave
[4] Liou, Kuo-Nan (2002). An introduction to atmospheric radiation (http://
books.google. com/ ?id=6xUpdPOPLckC&pg=PR13& dq=The+sun+ also+
emits+ microwave+radiation,+and+ most+ of+it+ is+ blocked+ by+Earth's+
atmosphere.& q=microwaves from Sun). Academic Press. p. 2. ISBN 0124514510. . Retrieved 12 July 2010.
[5] http:// www. iter.org/ default.aspx
[6] http:// www. ipp. mpg.de/ ippcms/ eng/for/bereiche/ technologie/ projekte/ecrh.html
[7] Raytheon's Silent Guardian millimeter wave weapon (http:// www. raytheon.com/ products/ stellent/ groups/ public/ documents/ content/
cms04_017939.pdf)
[8] Merrill I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems,Third Ed., Page 522, McGraw Hill, 2001,
[9] Goldsmith, JR (December 1997). "Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects". Environmental Health Perspectives 105
(Suppl. 6): 1579–1587. doi:10.2307/3433674. JSTOR 3433674. PMC 1469943. PMID 9467086.
[10] Philip L. Stocklin, US Patent 4,858,612, December 19, 1983
[11] http:// www. tuc. nrao.edu/ ~demerson/ bose/ bose. html The work of Jagdish Chandra Bose: 100years of MM-wave research, retrieved
2010 01 31
[12] http:// dieselpingwin. multiply. com/reviews/ item/ 8
Microwave
107
External links
• EM Talk, Microwave Engineering Tutorials and Tools (http:// www.emtalk. com)
• Microwave Irradiation for Negative Refraction by using Metamaterials (http:/ / www.metamaterials. net)
• Microwaves101, web resource covering the fundamental principles of microwave design (http:/ / www.
microwaves101. com)
• Applications of Microwaves in Medicine (http:/ / ieee. li/ pdf/viewgraphs_applications_microwaves_medicine.
pdf)
• Microwave Technology Video (http:// homeguide123. com/ videos/ Microwave_Technology_Video. html)
Electromagnetic spectrum
Although some radiations are marked as "N" for "no" in the diagram, some waves do in
fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other
radiations.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the
range of all possible frequencies of
electromagnetic radiation.
[1]
The
"electromagnetic spectrum" of an
object is the characteristic distribution
of electromagnetic radiation emitted or
absorbed by that particular object.
The electromagnetic spectrum extends
from low frequencies used for modern
radio to gamma radiation at the
short-wavelength end, covering
wavelengths from thousands of
kilometers down to a fraction of the
size of an atom. The long wavelength
limit is the size of the universe itself,
while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length, although in principle the
spectrum is infinite and continuous.
Electromagnetic spectrum
108
Legend What is Light? – UC Davis lecture
slidesGlenn Elert. "The Electromagnetic
Spectrum, The Physics Hypertextbook".
Hypertextbook.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-16.
"Definition of frequency bands on". Vlf.it. .
Retrieved 2010-10-16.
Range of the spectrum
EM waves are typically described by any of the following three
physical properties: the frequency f, wavelength λ, or photon energy E.
Frequencies range from 2.4 × 10
23
 Hz (1 GeV gamma rays) down to
the local plasma frequency of the ionized interstellar medium
(~1 kHz). Wavelength is inversely proportional to the wave frequency,
so gamma rays have very short wavelengths that are fractions of the
size of atoms, whereas wavelengths can be as long as the universe.
Photon energy is directly proportional to the wave frequency, so
gamma rays have the highest energy (around a billion electron volts)
and radio waves have very low energy (around femto electron volts).
These relations are illustrated by the following equations:
where:
• c = 299792458 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum and
• h = 6.62606896(33) × 10
−34
 J s = 4.13566733(10) × 10
−15
 eV s is Planck's constant.
[5]
Whenever electromagnetic waves exist in a medium with matter, their wavelength is decreased. Wavelengths of
electromagnetic radiation, no matter what medium they are traveling through, are usually quoted in terms of the
vacuum wavelength, although this is not always explicitly stated.
Generally, EM radiation is classified by wavelength into radio wave, microwave, infrared, the visible region we
perceive as light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The behavior of EM radiation depends on its wavelength.
When EM radiation interacts with single atoms and molecules, its behavior also depends on the amount of energy
per quantum (photon) it carries.
Spectroscopy can detect a much wider region of the EM spectrum than the visible range of 400 nm to 700 nm. A
common laboratory spectroscope can detect wavelengths from 2 nm to 2500 nm. Detailed information about the
physical properties of objects, gases, or even stars can be obtained from this type of device. Spectroscopes are widely
used in astrophysics. For example, many hydrogen atoms emit a radio wave photon which has a wavelength of
21.12 cm. Also, frequencies of 30 Hz and below can be produced by and are important in the study of certain stellar
nebulae
[6]
and frequencies as high as 2.9 × 10
27
 Hz have been detected from astrophysical sources.
[7]
Electromagnetic spectrum
109
Rationale
Electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in different ways in different parts of the spectrum. The types of
interaction can be so different that it seems to be justified to refer to different types of radiation. At the same time,
there is a continuum containing all these "different kinds" of electromagnetic radiation. Thus we refer to a spectrum,
but divide it up based on the different interactions with matter.
Region of the spectrum Main interactions with matter
Radio Collective oscillation of charge carriers in bulk material (plasma oscillation). An example would be the oscillation of the
electrons in an antenna.
Microwave through far
infrared
Plasma oscillation, molecular rotation
Near infrared Molecular vibration, plasma oscillation (in metals only)
Visible Molecular electron excitation (including pigment molecules found in the human retina), plasma oscillations (in metals
only)
Ultraviolet Excitation of molecular and atomic valence electrons, including ejection of the electrons (photoelectric effect)
X-rays Excitation and ejection of core atomic electrons, Compton scattering (for low atomic numbers)
Gamma rays Energetic ejection of core electrons in heavy elements, Compton scattering (for all atomic numbers), excitation of atomic
nuclei, including dissociation of nuclei
High energy gamma rays Creation of particle-antiparticle pairs. At very high energies a single photon can create a shower of high energy particles
and antiparticles upon interaction with matter.
Electromagnetic spectrum
110
Types of radiation
The electromagnetic spectrum
While the classification scheme is generally accurate, in
reality there is often some overlap between neighboring
types of electromagnetic energy. For example, SLF radio
waves at 60 Hz may be received and studied by
astronomers, or may be ducted along wires as electric
power, although the latter is, strictly speaking, not
electromagnetic radiation at all (see near and far field)
The distinction between X and gamma rays is based on
sources: gamma rays are the photons generated from
nuclear decay or other nuclear and subnuclear/particle
process, whereas X-rays are generated by electronic
transitions involving highly energetic inner atomic
electrons. Generally, nuclear transitions are much more
energetic than electronic transitions, so usually,
gamma-rays are more energetic than X-rays, but
exceptions exist. By analogy to electronic transitions,
muonic atom transitions are also said to produce X-rays,
even though their energy may exceed
6 megaelectronvolts (0.96 pJ),
[8]
whereas there are many
(77 known to be less than 10 keV (1.6 fJ)) low-energy
nuclear transitions (e.g. the 7.6 eV (1.22 aJ) nuclear
transition of thorium-229), and despite being one
million-fold less energetic than some muonic X-rays, the
emitted photons are still called gamma rays due to their
nuclear origin.
[9]
Also, the region of the spectrum of the particular electromagnetic radiation is reference-frame dependent (on account
of the Doppler shift for light) so EM radiation which one observer would say is in one region of the spectrum could
appear to an observer moving at a substantial fraction of the speed of light with respect to the first to be in another
part of the spectrum. For example, consider the cosmic microwave background. It was produced, when matter and
radiation decoupled, by the de-excitation of hydrogen atoms to the ground state. These photons were from Lyman
series transitions, putting them in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Now this radiation has
undergone enough cosmological red shift to put it into the microwave region of the spectrum for observers moving
slowly (compared to the speed of light) with respect to the cosmos. However, for particles moving near the speed of
light, this radiation will be blue-shifted in their rest frame. The highest energy cosmic ray protons are moving such
that, in their rest frame, this radiation is blueshifted to high energy gamma rays which interact with the proton to
produce bound quark-antiquark pairs (pions). This is the source of the GZK limit.
Electromagnetic spectrum
111
Radio frequency
Radio waves generally are utilized by antennas of appropriate size (according to the principle of resonance), with
wavelengths ranging from hundreds of meters to about one millimeter. They are used for transmission of data, via
modulation. Television, mobile phones, wireless networking and amateur radio all use radio waves. The use of the
radio spectrum is regulated by many governments through frequency allocation.
Radio waves can be made to carry information by varying a combination of the amplitude, frequency and phase of
the wave within a frequency band. When EM radiation impinges upon a conductor, it couples to the conductor,
travels along it, and induces an electric current on the surface of that conductor by exciting the electrons of the
conducting material. This effect (the skin effect) is used in antennas. EM radiation may also cause certain molecules
to absorb energy and thus to heat up, causing thermal effects and sometimes burns. This is exploited in microwave
ovens.
Microwaves
Plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of
electromagnetic radiation.
The super high frequency (SHF) and
extremely high frequency (EHF) of
microwaves come next up the
frequency scale. Microwaves are
waves which are typically short
enough to employ tubular metal
waveguides of reasonable diameter.
Microwave energy is produced with
klystron and magnetron tubes, and
with solid state diodes such as Gunn
and IMPATT devices. Microwaves are
absorbed by molecules that have a
dipole moment in liquids. In a
microwave oven, this effect is used to heat food. Low-intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi, although this
is at intensity levels unable to cause thermal heating.
Volumetric heating, as used by microwaves, transfers energy through the material electromagnetically, not as a
thermal heat flux. The benefit of this is a more uniform heating and reduced heating time; microwaves can heat
material in less than 1% of the time of conventional heating methods.
When active, the average microwave oven is powerful enough to cause interference at close range with poorly
shielded electromagnetic fields such as those found in mobile medical devices and cheap consumer electronics.
Terahertz radiation
Terahertz radiation is a region of the spectrum between far infrared and microwaves. Until recently, the range was
rarely studied and few sources existed for microwave energy at the high end of the band (sub-millimetre waves or
so-called terahertz waves), but applications such as imaging and communications are now appearing. Scientists are
also looking to apply terahertz technology in the armed forces, where high frequency waves might be directed at
enemy troops to incapacitate their electronic equipment.
[10]
Electromagnetic spectrum
112
Infrared radiation
The infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the range from roughly 300 GHz (1 mm) to 400 THz
(750 nm). It can be divided into three parts:
• Far-infrared, from 300 GHz (1 mm) to 30 THz (10 μm). The lower part of this range may also be called
microwaves. This radiation is typically absorbed by so-called rotational modes in gas-phase molecules, by
molecular motions in liquids, and by phonons in solids. The water in the Earth's atmosphere absorbs so strongly
in this range that it renders the atmosphere effectively opaque. However, there are certain wavelength ranges
("windows") within the opaque range which allow partial transmission, and can be used for astronomy. The
wavelength range from approximately 200 μm up to a few mm is often referred to as "sub-millimetre" in
astronomy, reserving far infrared for wavelengths below 200 μm.
• Mid-infrared, from 30 to 120 THz (10 to 2.5 μm). Hot objects (black-body radiators) can radiate strongly in this
range. It is absorbed by molecular vibrations, where the different atoms in a molecule vibrate around their
equilibrium positions. This range is sometimes called the fingerprint region since the mid-infrared absorption
spectrum of a compound is very specific for that compound.
• Near-infrared, from 120 to 400 THz (2,500 to 750 nm). Physical processes that are relevant for this range are
similar to those for visible light.
Visible radiation (light)
Above infrared in frequency comes visible light. This is the range in which the sun and stars similar to it emit most
of their radiation. It is probably not a coincidence that the human eye is sensitive to the wavelengths that the sun
emits most strongly. Visible light (and near-infrared light) is typically absorbed and emitted by electrons in
molecules and atoms that move from one energy level to another. The light we see with our eyes is really a very
small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A rainbow shows the optical (visible) part of the electromagnetic
spectrum; infrared (if you could see it) would be located just beyond the red side of the rainbow with ultraviolet
appearing just beyond the violet end.
Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 380 nm and 760 nm (790–400 terahertz) is detected by the
human eye and perceived as visible light. Other wavelengths, especially near infrared (longer than 760 nm) and
ultraviolet (shorter than 380 nm) are also sometimes referred to as light, especially when the visibility to humans is
not relevant.
If radiation having a frequency in the visible region of the EM spectrum reflects off an object, say, a bowl of fruit,
and then strikes our eyes, this results in our visual perception of the scene. Our brain's visual system processes the
multitude of reflected frequencies into different shades and hues, and through this not-entirely-understood
psychophysical phenomenon, most people perceive a bowl of fruit.
At most wavelengths, however, the information carried by electromagnetic radiation is not directly detected by
human senses. Natural sources produce EM radiation across the spectrum, and our technology can also manipulate a
broad range of wavelengths. Optical fiber transmits light which, although not suitable for direct viewing, can carry
data that can be translated into sound or an image. The coding used in such data is similar to that used with radio
waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum
113
Ultraviolet light
The amount of penetration of UV relative to altitude in Earth's
ozone
Next in frequency comes ultraviolet (UV). This is radiation
whose wavelength is shorter than the violet end of the
visible spectrum, and longer than that of an X-ray.
Being very energetic, UV can break chemical bonds,
making molecules unusually reactive or ionizing them (see
photoelectric effect), in general changing their mutual
behavior. Sunburn, for example, is caused by the disruptive
effects of UV radiation on skin cells, which is the main
cause of skin cancer, if the radiation irreparably damages
the complex DNA molecules in the cells (UV radiation is a
proven mutagen). The Sun emits a large amount of UV
radiation, which could quickly turn Earth into a barren
desert. However, most of it is absorbed by the atmosphere's
ozone layer before reaching the surface.
X-rays
After UV come X-rays, which are also ionizing, but due to their higher energies they can also interact with matter by
means of the Compton effect. Hard X-rays have shorter wavelengths than soft X-rays. As they can pass through most
substances, X-rays can be used to 'see through' objects, most notably diagnostic X-ray images in medicine (a process
known as radiography), as well as for high-energy physics and astronomy. Neutron stars and accretion disks around
black holes emit X-rays, which enable us to study them. X-rays are given off by stars and are strongly emitted by
some types of nebulae.
Gamma rays
After hard X-rays come gamma rays, which were discovered by Paul Villard in 1900. These are the most energetic
photons, having no defined lower limit to their wavelength. They are useful to astronomers in the study of high
energy objects or regions, and find a use with physicists thanks to their penetrative ability and their production from
radioisotopes. Gamma rays are also used for the irradiation of food and seed for sterilization, and in medicine they
are used in radiation cancer therapy and some kinds of diagnostic imaging such as PET scans. The wavelength of
gamma rays can be measured with high accuracy by means of Compton scattering.
Note that there are no precisely defined boundaries between the bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation of
some types have a mixture of the properties of those in two regions of the spectrum. For example, red light
resembles infrared radiation in that it can resonate some chemical bonds.
References
[1] "Imagine the Universe! Dictionary" (http:// imagine. gsfc. nasa. gov/ docs/ dict_ei. html#em_spectrum). .
[2] What is Light? (http:// cbst. ucdavis. edu/ education/ courses/ winter-2006-IST8A/ist8a_2006_01_09light. pdf) – UC Davis lecture slides
[3] Glenn Elert. "The Electromagnetic Spectrum, The Physics Hypertextbook" (http:// hypertextbook.com/ physics/ electricity/ em-spectrum/).
Hypertextbook.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-16.
[4] "Definition of frequency bands on" (http:/ / www.vlf.it/ frequency/bands. html). Vlf.it. . Retrieved 2010-10-16.
[5] Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Newell, David B. (2008). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006"
(http:/ / physics. nist. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. pdf). Rev. Mod. Phys. 80: 633–730. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633. . Direct link to value
(http:// physics. nist. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?h).
[6] J. J. Condon and S. M. Ransom. "Essential Radio Astronomy: Pulsar Properties" (http:/ / www.cv. nrao. edu/ course/ astr534/ Pulsars.html).
National Radio Astronomy Observatory. . Retrieved 2008-01-05.
Electromagnetic spectrum
114
[7] A. A. Abdo et al. (2007-03-20). "Discovery of TeV Gamma‐Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy". The Astrophysical
Journal Letters 658: L33. arXiv:astro-ph/0611691. Bibcode 2007ApJ...658L..33A. doi:10.1086/513696.
[8] Corrections to muonic X-rays and a possible proton halo (http:/ / www. slac.stanford.edu/ cgi-wrap/getdoc/ slac-pub-0335. pdf)
slac-pub-0335 (1967)
[9] "Hyperphysics (see Gamma-Rays" (http:// hyperphysics. phy-astr.gsu. edu/ hbase/ ems3.html#c5). Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. .
Retrieved 2010-10-16.
[10] "Advanced weapon systems using lethal Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas" (http:// www.
indiadaily.com/ editorial/1803. asp). India Daily. March 6, 2005. . Retrieved 2010-09-27.
External links
• UnwantedEmissions.com (http:/ / www. unwantedemissions. com) (U.S. radio spectrum allocations resource)
• Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Allocations Chart (http:// www.acma. gov.au/ webwr/radcomm/
frequency_planning/ spectrum_plan/ arsp-wc.pdf) (from Australian Communications and Media Authority)
• Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations (http:/ / www.ic. gc.ca/ epic/ site/ smt-gst. nsf/ vwapj/
spectallocation-08.pdf/$FILE/spectallocation-08. pdf) (from Industry Canada)
• U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart (http:/ / www. ntia. doc. gov/ osmhome/ allochrt. html) — Covering the range
3 kHz to 300 GHz (from Department of Commerce)
• UK frequency allocation table (http:// www. ofcom.org.uk/ static/ archive/ra/ topics/ spectrum-strat/ future/
strat02/ strategy02app_b. pdf) (from Ofcom, which inherited the Radiocommunications Agency's duties, pdf
format)
• Flash EM Spectrum Presentation / Tool (http:// www.e-builds. com/ EM spectrum/ ) – Very complete and
customizable.
• How to render the color spectrum / Code (http:// mintaka. sdsu. edu/ GF/ explain/ optics/ rendering.
html#CIEdiag/) – Only approximately right.
• Poster "Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum" (http:/ / unihedron.com/ projects/ spectrum/ downloads/
spectrum_20090210. pdf) (992 kB)
Communications satellite
115
Communications satellite
U.S. military WGSS communications satellite
A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to
COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space
for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern
communications satellites use a variety of orbits
including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other
elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth
orbits.
For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications
satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology
complementary to that of communication cables. They
are also used for mobile applications such as
communications to ships, vehicles, planes and
hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio
broadcasting, for which application of other
technologies, such as cable, is impractical or
impossible.
History
See: Geostationary Orbit and Geosynchronous orbit
Satellites.
The first artificial satellite was the Soviet Sputnik 1, launched on October 4, 1957, and equipped with an on-board
radio-transmitter that worked on two frequencies, 20.005 and 40.002 MHz. The first American satellite to relay
communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It
was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. NASA launched an
Echo satellite in 1960; the 100-foot (30 m) aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio
communications. Courier 1B, built by Philco, also launched in 1960, was the world’s first active repeater satellite.
Telstar was the first active, direct relay communications satellite. Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national
agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, and the French
National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on
July 10, 1962, the first privately sponsored space launch. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (completed once
every 2 hours and 37 minutes), rotating at a 45° angle above the equator.
An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was Hughes’ Syncom 2, launched on July 26, 1963. Syncom
2 revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion, special
equipment was needed to track it.
Communications satellite
116
Geostationary orbits
Geostationary orbit
A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to
an earth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the
earth at the same angular velocity of the erath itsels 360 degrees every
24 hours in an equatorial orbit, and therfore it seems to be in a fixed
position over the equator.
The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications
because ground based antennas, which must be directed toward the
satellite, can operate effectively without the need for expensive
equipment to track the satellite’s motion. Especially for applications
that require a large number of ground antennas (such as direct TV
distribution), the savings in ground equipment can more than justify
the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite into the
relatively high geostationary orbit. The main drawback of a
geostationary satellite , however, is that it cannot be "seen" from polar regions, so it cannot provide commumications
to extreme northerly or southerly areas of the globe. Another drawback of GEO satellites is their distance from earth
(~37,000 kilometers), which more requires powerful transmitters, larger (usually dish) antennas. and high sensitivity
receivers to Satellite Earth Stations. This distance also introduces a large (~0.25 second) delay into satellite
communications link which has to be taken into account.
The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work
by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik (writing as Herman Noordung) Das Problem
der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-motor. In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled
“Extra-terrestrial Relays
[1]
” in the British magazine Wireless World. The article described the fundamentals behind
the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. Thus Arthur C.
Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite.
The first truly geostationary satellite launched in orbit was the Syncom 3, launched on August 19, 1964. It was
placed in orbit at 180° east longitude, over the International Date Line. It was used that same year to relay
experimental television coverage of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan to the United States, making these
Olympic games the first to be broadcast internationally. Although Syncom 3 is sometimes credited with the first
television transmission to cross the Pacific Ocean, the Relay 1 satellite first broadcast from the United States to
Japan on November 22, 1963.
[2]
Shortly after Syncom 3, Intelsat I, aka Early Bird, was launched on April 6, 1965 and placed in orbit at 28° west
longitude. It was the first geostationary satellite for telecommunications over the Atlantic Ocean.
On November 9, 1972, Canada's first geostationary satellite serving the continent, Anik A1, was launched by Telesat
Canada, with the United States following suit with the launch of Westar 1 by Western Union on April 13, 1974.
On May 30, 1974, the first geostationary communications satellite in the world to be three-axis stabilized was
launched: the experimental satellite ATS-6 built for NASA
After the launches of Telstar, Syncom 3, Early Bird, Anik A1, and Westar 1, RCA Americom (later GE Americom,
now SES Americom) launched Satcom 1 in 1975. It was Satcom 1 that was instrumental in helping early cable TV
channels such as WTBS (now TBS Superstation), HBO, CBN (now ABC Family), and The Weather Channel
become successful, because these channels distributed their programming to all of the local cable TV headends using
the satellite. Additionally, it was the first satellite used by broadcast television networks in the United States, like
ABC, NBC, and CBS, to distribute programming to their local affiliate stations. Satcom 1 was widely used because
it had twice the communications capacity of the competing Westar 1 in America (24 transponders as opposed to the
12 of Westar 1), resulting in lower transponder-usage costs. Satellites in later decades tended to have even higher
Communications satellite
117
transponder numbers.
By 2000, Hughes Space and Communications (now Boeing Satellite Development Center) had built nearly 40
percent of the more than one hundred satellites in service worldwide. Other major satellite manufacturers include
Space Systems/Loral, Orbital Sciences Corporation with the STAR Bus series, Indian Space Research Organization,
Lockheed Martin (owns the former RCA Astro Electronics/GE Astro Space business), Northrop Grumman, Alcatel
Space, now Thales Alenia Space, with the Spacebus series, and Astrium.
Low-Earth-orbiting satellites
Low Earth orbit in Cyan
A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400
kilometres above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period
(time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. Because of
their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius
of roughly 1000 kilometres from the sub-satellite point. In addition,
satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground
position quickly. So even for local applications, a large number of
satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity.
Low earth orbiting satellites are less expensive to launch into orbit than
geostationary satellites and, due to proximity to the ground, do not
require as high signal strength (Recall that signal strength falls off as
the square of the distance from the source, so the effect is dramatic).
Thus there is a trade off between the number of satellites and their cost.
In addition, there are important differences in the onboard and ground equipment needed to support the two types of
missions.
A group of satellites working in concert is known as a satellite constellation. Two such constellations, intended to
provide satellite phone services, primarily to remote areas, are the Iridium and Globalstar systems. The Iridium
system has 66 satellites. Another LEO satellite constellation known as Teledesic, with backing from Microsoft
entrepreneur Paul Allen, was to have over 840 satellites. This was later scaled back to 288 and ultimately ended up
only launching one test satellite.
It is also possible to offer discontinuous coverage using a low Earth orbit satellite capable of storing data received
while passing over one part of Earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. This will be the case
with the CASCADE system of Canada’s CASSIOPE communications satellite. Another system using this store and
forward method is Orbcomm.
Molniya satellites
Geostationary satellites must operate above the equator and will therefore appear lower on the horizon as the receiver
gets the farther from the equator. This will cause problems for extreme northerly lattitudes, affecting connectivity
and causing multipath (interference caused by signals reflecting off the ground and into the ground antenna). For
areas close to the North (and South) Pole, a geostationary satellite may appear below the horizon. Therefore Molniya
orbit satellite have been launched, mainly in Russia, to alleviate this problem. The first satellite of the Molniya series
was launched on April 23, 1965 and was used for experimental transmission of TV signal from a Moscow uplink
station to downlink stations located in Siberia and the Russian Far East, in Norilsk, Khabarovsk, Magadan and
Vladivostok. In November 1967 Soviet engineers created a unique system of national TV network of satellite
television, called Orbita, that was based on Molniya satellites.
Molniya orbits can be an appealing alternative in such cases. The Molniya orbit is highly inclined, guaranteeing good
elevation over selected positions during the northern portion of the orbit. (Elevation is the extent of the satellite’s
Communications satellite
118
position above the horizon. Thus, a satellite at the horizon has zero elevation and a satellite directly overhead has
elevation of 90 degrees).
The Molniya orbit is designed so that the satellite spends the great majority of its time over the far northern latitudes,
during which its ground footprint moves only slightly. Its period is one half day, so that the satellite is available for
operation over the targeted region for six to nine hours every second revolution. In this way a constellation of three
Molniya satellites (plus in-orbit spares) can provide uninterrupted coverage.
Structure of a Communications Satellite
Communications Satellites are usyally composed of the following subsytems:
• Communication Payload, normally composed of satellite transponder, antenna and switching sytems
• Engines used to bring the staellite to its desired orbit
• Station Kreeping Tracking and stabilization subsytem used to keep the staellite in the right orbit , with its
antennas pointed in the right direction, and its power system ponted towards the sun
• Power subsystem, used to power the Satellite systems, normally composed of Solar Cell, and batteries that
mauntain power during Solar Eclipse
• Command and Control subsytem, which maintains communications with ground conrol stations, The ground
conrols earth stations monitor the staellite performance and control its funconality during various phases of its
life-cycle.
Bandwidth of a satellite
The bandwidth available from a satellite depends upon the number of transponders provided by the satellite. Each
service (TV, Voice, Internet, radio) requires a different amount of bandwidth for transmission. The bandwidth of
transponder is used to carry these services
Satellite Applications
Telephone
An Iridium satellite
The first and historically most important application for communication satellites
was in intercontinental long distance telephony. The fixed Public Switched
Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line telephones to an earth
station, where they are then transmitted to a geostationary satellite. The downlink
follows an analogous path. Improvements in submarine communications cables,
through the use of fiber-optics, caused some decline in the use of satellites for fixed
telephony in the late 20th century, but they still serve remote islands such as
Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Diego Garcia, and Easter Island, where no
submarine cables are in service. There are also regions of some continents and countries where landline
telecommunications are rare to nonexistent, for example large regions of South America, Africa, Canada, China,
Russia, and Australia. Satellite communications also provide connection to the edges of Antarctica and Greenland.
Satellite phones connect directly to a constellation of either geostationary or low-earth-orbit satellites. Calls are then
forwarded to a satellite teleport connected to the Public Switched Telephone Network
Communications satellite
119
Satellite television
As television became the main market, its demand for simultaneous delivery of relatively few signals of large
bandwidth to many receivers being a more precise match for the capabilities of geosynchronous comsats. Two
satellite types are used for North American television and radio: Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), and Fixed Service
Satellite (FSS)
The definitions of FSS and DBS satellites outside of North America, especially in Europe, are a bit more ambiguous.
Most satellites used for direct-to-home television in Europe have the same high power output as DBS-class satellites
in North America, but use the same linear polarization as FSS-class satellites. Examples of these are the Astra,
Eutelsat, and Hotbird spacecraft in orbit over the European continent. Because of this, the terms FSS and DBS are
more so used throughout the North American continent, and are uncommon in Europe.
Fixed Service Satellite
Fixed Service Satellites use the C band, and the lower portions of the K
u
bands. They are normally used for
broadcast feeds to and from television networks and local affiliate stations (such as program feeds for network and
syndicated programming, live shots, and backhauls), as well as being used for distance learning by schools and
universities, business television (BTV), Videoconferencing, and general commercial telecommunications. FSS
satellites are also used to distribute national cable channels to cable television headends.
Free-to-air satellite TV channels are also usually distributed on FSS satellites in the K
u
band. The Intelsat Americas
5, Galaxy 10R and AMC 3 satellites over North America provide a quite large amount of FTA channels on their K
u
band transponders.
The American DISH Network DBS service has also recently utilized FSS technology as well for their programming
packages requiring their SuperDish antenna, due to Dish Network needing more capacity to carry local television
stations per the FCC's "must-carry" regulations, and for more bandwidth to carry HDTV channels.
Direct broadcast satellite
A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to
24 inches or 45 to 60 cm in diameter). Direct broadcast satellites generally operate in the upper portion of the
microwave K
u
band. DBS technology is used for DTH-oriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite TV services, such as
DirecTV and DISH Network in the United States, Bell TV and Shaw Direct in Canada, Freesat and Sky Digital in
the UK, the Republic of Ireland, and New Zealand and DSTV in South Africa .
Operating at lower frequency and lower power than DBS, FSS satellites require a much larger dish for reception (3
to 8 feet (1 to 2.5m) in diameter for K
u
band, and 12 feet (3.6m) or larger for C band). They use linear polarization
for each of the transponders' RF input and output (as opposed to circular polarization used by DBS satellites), but
this is a minor technical difference that users do not notice. FSS satellite technology was also originally used for
DTH satellite TV from the late 1970s to the early 1990s in the United States in the form of TVRO (TeleVision
Receive Only) receivers and dishes. It was also used in its K
u
band form for the now-defunct Primestar satellite TV
service.
Satellites for communication have now been launched that have transponders in the K
a
band, such as DirecTV's
SPACEWAY-1 satellite, and Anik F2. NASA as well has launched experimental satellites using the K
a
band
recently.
Communications satellite
120
Mobile satellite technologies
Initially available for broadcast to stationary TV receivers, by 2004 popular mobile direct broadcast applications
made their appearance with that arrival of two satellite radio systems in the United States: Sirius and XM Satellite
Radio Holdings. Some manufacturers have also introduced special antennas for mobile reception of DBS television.
Using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology as a reference, these antennas automatically re-aim to the
satellite no matter where or how the vehicle (on which the antenna is mounted) is situated. These mobile satellite
antennas are popular with some recreational vehicle owners. Such mobile DBS antennas are also used by JetBlue
Airways for DirecTV (supplied by LiveTV, a subsidiary of JetBlue), which passengers can view on-board on LCD
screens mounted in the seats.
Satellite radio
Satellite radio offers audio services in some countries, notably the United States. Mobile services allow listeners to
roam a continent, listening to the same audio programming anywhere.
A satellite radio or subscription radio (SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite,
which covers a much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals.
Satellite radio offers a meaningful alternative to ground-based radio services in some countries, notably the United
States. Mobile services, such as Sirius, XM, and Worldspace, allow listeners to roam across an entire continent,
listening to the same audio programming anywhere they go. Other services, such as Music Choice or Muzak's
satellite-delivered content, require a fixed-location receiver and a dish antenna. In all cases, the antenna must have a
clear view to the satellites. In areas where tall buildings, bridges, or even parking garages obscure the signal,
repeaters can be placed to make the signal available to listeners.
Radio services are usually provided by commercial ventures and are subscription-based. The various services are
proprietary signals, requiring specialized hardware for decoding and playback. Providers usually carry a variety of
news, weather, sports, and music channels, with the music channels generally being commercial-free.
In areas with a relatively high population density, it is easier and less expensive to reach the bulk of the population
with terrestrial broadcasts. Thus in the UK and some other countries, the contemporary evolution of radio services is
focused on Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) services or HD Radio, rather than satellite radio.
Amateur radio
Amateur radio operators have access to the OSCAR satellites that have been designed specifically to carry amateur
radio traffic. Most such satellites operate as spaceborne repeaters, and are generally accessed by amateurs equipped
with UHF or VHF radio equipment and highly directional antennas such as Yagis or dish antennas. Due to launch
costs, most current amateur satellites are launched into fairly low Earth orbits, and are designed to deal with only a
limited number of brief contacts at any given time. Some satellites also provide data-forwarding services using the
AX.25 or similar protocols.
Communications satellite
121
Satellite Internet
After the 1990s, satellite communication technology has been used as a means to connect to the Internet via
broadband data connections. This can be very useful for users who are located in remote areas, and cannot access a
broadband connection, or require high availability of services.
Military uses
Communications satellites are used for military communications applications, such as Global Command and Control
Systems. Examples of military systems that use communication satellites are the MILSTAR, the DSCS, and the
FLTSATCOM of the United States, NATO satellites, United Kingdom satellites, and satellites of the former Soviet
Union. Many military satellites operate in the X-band, and some also use UHF radio links, while MILSTAR also
utilizes K
a
band.
References
[1] http:/ / www. lsi. usp. br/ ~rbianchi/clarke/ACC. ETRelaysFull.html
[2] "Significant Achievements in Space Communications and Navigation, 1958-1964" (http:/ / ntrs.nasa. gov/ archive/ nasa/ casi. ntrs.nasa. gov/
19660009169_1966009169. pdf). NASA-SP-93. NASA. 1966. pp. 30–32. . Retrieved 2009-10-31.
External links
• European Satellite installer (http:// www. europe-satellite.com)
• GLOBCOS NetWorks GmbH (http:/ / www.globcos. com)
• Satellite Industry Association. (http:// www. sia. org/)
• European Satellite Operators Association. (http:// www.esoa. net/ )
• Online Satellite Glossary & Resource for Satcoms. (http:/ / www.prmt.com)
• SatMagazine an on-line magazine on communications satellites. (http:/ / www.satmagazine. com)
• SatNews an on-line directory of communications satellites. (http:// www.satnews. com)
• LyngSat, an on-line directory of FSS & DBS communications satellites, and their transponder information (http:/
/www. lyngsat. com)
• The future of communication satellite business (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/3721312.stm)
• Communications satellites short history (http:/ / www.hq.nasa. gov/ office/pao/ History/ satcomhistory. html) by
David J. Whalen
• Beyond The Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (NASA SP-4217, 1997) (http:// history. nasa.
gov/ SP-4217/sp4217. htm) – an entire book online—scroll down for “contents” link.
• NASA experimental communications satellites (http:/ / roland.lerc.nasa. gov/ ~dglover/sat/ satcom2. html)
• Syncom 2 satellite description (http:// nssdc. gsfc. nasa. gov/ nmc/ spacecraftDisplay. do?id=1963-031A)
• Lloyd’s Satellite Constellations (http:// www. ee.surrey.ac. uk/ Personal/ L.Wood/ constellations/ index. html)
• Satcom Online – A Resource for Satcom Engineers (http:// www.satcom. co.uk/ )
• An Overview of Satellite Operating Frequencies and their Applications. (http:// www.canadaconnects. ca/
broadband/ main/ 1113/ )
• Unofficial USAF Satellite, Wideband and Telemetry Communications Career Field Page (http:// www. 2e1x1.
com)
• Tool to point parabolic antennas (http:/ / itunes.apple. com/ es/ app/ isatapp/ id406009646?mt=8)
• Computation of radiowave attenuation in the atmosphere
Telecommunications link
122
Telecommunications link
A telecommunications link is generally one of several types of information transmission paths accomplished by
communication satellites to connect two points on earth.
Uplink
An uplink (UL or U/L) is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth
terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform. An uplink is the inverse of a downlink. An uplink or downlink is
distinguished from reverse link or forward link (see below).
• Pertaining to data transmission from a data station to the headend.
• Pertaining to GSM and cellular networks, the radio uplink is the transmission path from the Mobile Station (Cell
Phone) to a Base Station (Cell Site). Traffic and signalling flows within the BSS and NSS may also be identified
as uplink and downlink.
Downlink
A downlink (DL) is the link from a satellite to a ground station.
• Pertaining to cellular networks, the radio downlink is the transmission path from a Base Transceiver Station (Cell
Site) to the Mobile Station (Cell Phone). Traffic and signalling flows within the BSS and NSS may also be
identified as uplink and downlink.
Forward link
A forward link is the link from a fixed location (e.g., a base station) to a mobile user. If the link includes a
communications relay satellite, the forward link will consist of both an uplink (base station to satellite) and a
downlink (satellite to mobile user).
Reverse link
The reverse link (sometimes called a return channel) is the link from a mobile user to a fixed base station.
If the link includes a communications relay satellite, the reverse link will consist of both an uplink (mobile station to
satellite) and a downlink (satellite to base station) which together constitute a half hop.
Sources
•  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the General Services
Administration (in support of MIL-STD-188).
Radar
123
Radar
A long-range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR,
used to detect and track space objects in
conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald
Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein Atoll.
Israeli military radar is typical of the type of radar
used for air traffic control. The antenna rotates at
a steady rate, sweeping the local airspace with a
narrow vertical fan-shaped beam, to detect
aircraft at all altitudes.
Radar is an object-detection system which uses electromagnetic
waves—specifically radio waves—to determine the range, altitude,
direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft,
ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations,
and terrain. The radar dish, or antenna, transmits pulses of radio waves
or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object
returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is
usually located at the same site as the transmitter.
Practical radar was developed in secrecy during World War II by
Britain and other nations. The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the
U.S. Navy as an acronym for radio detection and ranging.
[1]

[2]
The
term radar has since entered the English and other languages as the
common noun radar, losing all capitalization. In the United Kingdom,
the technology was initially called RDF (range and direction finding),
using the same initials used for radio direction finding to conceal its
ranging capability.
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic
control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems;
nautical radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft
anticollision systems; ocean-surveillance systems, outer-space
surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation
monitoring; altimetry and flight-control systems; guided-missile
target-locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological
observations. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal
processing and are capable of extracting objects from very high noise
levels.
Other systems similar to radar have been used in other parts of the
electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar", which uses visible
light from lasers rather than radio waves.
History
Several inventors, scientists, and engineers contributed to the
development of radar.
As early as 1886, Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895 Alexander
Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a
coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes. The next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. During 1897,
while testing this in communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused
by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects,
but he did nothing more with this observation.
[3]
Radar
124
This Melbourne base Primary and secondary
radar is used for air traffic control and terminal
area intrusion detection by local domestic
aircraft.
The German Christian Huelsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to
detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904 he
demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its
distance.
[4]
He received Reichspatent Nr. 165546
[5]
for his detection
device in April 1904, and later patent 169154
[6]
for a related
amendment for also determining the distance to the ship. He also
received a British patent on September 23, 1904
[7]
for the first full
Radar application, which he called telemobiloscope.
A Chain Home tower in Great
Baddow, United Kingdom.
In August 1917 Nikola Tesla outlined a concept for primitive radar units.
[8]
He
stated, "[...] by their [standing electromagnetic waves] use we may produce at
will, from a sending station, an electrical effect in any particular region of the
globe; [with which] we may determine the relative position or course of a
moving object, such as a vessel at sea, the distance traversed by the same, or its
speed."
In 1922 A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young, researchers working with the U.S.
Navy, discovered that when radio waves were broadcast at 60 MHz it was
possible to determine the range and bearing of nearby ships in the Potomac
River. Despite Taylor's suggestion that this method could be used in darkness
and low visibility, the Navy did not immediately continue the work.
[9]
Serious
investigation began eight years later after the discovery that radar could be used
to track airplanes.
[10]
Before the Second World War, researchers in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the
Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States,
independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the
modern version of radar. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa
followed prewar Great Britain, and Hungary had similar developments during the
war.
[11]
In 1934 the Frenchman Émile Girardeau stated he was building an obstacle-locating radio apparatus "conceived
according to the principles stated by Tesla" and obtained a patent (French Patent n° 788795 in 1934) for a working
system, a part of which was installed on the Normandie liner in 1935.
[12]

[13]

[14]
During the same year, the Soviet
military engineer P.K.Oschepkov, in collaboration with Leningrad Electrophysical Institute, produced an
experimental apparatus, RAPID, capable of detecting an aircraft within 3 km of a receiver.
[15]
The French and Soviet
systems, however, had continuous-wave operation and could not give the full performance that was ultimately at the
center of modern radar.
Radar
125
Full radar evolved as a pulsed system, and the first such elementary apparatus was demonstrated in December 1934
by the American Robert M. Page, working at the Naval Research Laboratory.
[16]
The year after the US Army
successfully tested a primitive surface to surface radar to aim coastal battery search lights at night.
[17]
This was
followed by a pulsed system demonstrated in May 1935 by Rudolf Kühnhold and the firm GEMA in Germany and
then one in June 1935 by an Air Ministry team led by Robert A. Watson Watt in Great Britain. Later, in 1943, Page
greatly improved radar with the monopulse technique that was then used for many years in most radar
applications.
[18]
The British were the first to fully exploit radar as a defence against aircraft attack. This was spurred on by fears that
the Germans were developing death rays. The Air Ministry asked British scientists in 1934 to investigate the
possibility of propagating electromagnetic energy and the likely effect. Following a study, they concluded that a
death ray was impractical but that detection of aircraft appeared feasible.
[19]
Robert Watson Watt's team
demonstrated to his superiors the capabilities of a working prototype and then patented the device (British Patent
GB593017).
[14]

[20]

[21]
It served as the basis for the Chain Home network of radars to defend Great Britain. In April
1940, Popular Science showed an example of a radar unit using the Watson-Watt patent in an article on air defence,
but not knowing that the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy were working on radars with the same principle, stated under the
illustration, "This is not U.S. Army equipment."
[22]
The war precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability, and more features for radar, including
complementary navigation systems like Oboe used by the RAF's Pathfinder. The postwar years have seen the use of
radar in fields as diverse as air traffic control, weather monitoring, astrometry, and road speed control.
Applications of radar
Commercial marine radar antenna. The rotating
antenna radiates a vertical fan-shaped beam.
The information provided by radar includes the bearing and range (and
therefore position) of the object from the radar scanner. It is thus used
in many different fields where the need for such positioning is crucial.
The first use of radar was for military purposes: to locate air, ground
and sea targets. This evolved in the civilian field into applications for
aircraft, ships, and roads.
In aviation, aircraft are equipped with radar devices that warn of
obstacles in or approaching their path and give accurate altitude
readings. They can land in fog at airports equipped with radar-assisted
ground-controlled approach (GCA) systems, in which the plane's flight
is observed on radar screens while operators radio landing directions to
the pilot.
Marine radars are used to measure the bearing and distance of ships to
prevent collision with other ships, to navigate and to fix their position
at sea when within range of shore or other fixed references such as islands, buoys, and lightships. In port or in
harbour, vessel traffic service radar systems are used to monitor and regulate ship movements in busy waters. Police
forces use radar guns to monitor vehicle speeds on the roads.
Meteorologists use radar to monitor precipitation. It has become the primary tool for short-term weather forecasting
and to watch for severe weather such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, winter storms, precipitation types, etc. Geologists
use specialised ground-penetrating radars to map the composition of the Earth's crust.
Radar
126
Principles
A radar system has a transmitter that emits radio waves called radar signals in predetermined directions. When these
come into contact with an object they are usually reflected and/or scattered in many directions. Radar signals are
reflected especially well by materials of considerable electrical conductivity—especially by most metals, by
seawater, by wet land, and by wetlands. Some of these make the use of radar altimeters possible. The radar signals
that are reflected back towards the transmitter are the desirable ones that make radar work. If the object is moving
either closer or farther away, there is a slight change in the frequency of the radio waves, due to the Doppler effect.
Radar receivers are usually, but not always, in the same location as the transmitter. Although the reflected radar
signals captured by the receiving antenna are usually very weak, these signals can be strengthened by the electronic
amplifiers that all radar sets contain. More sophisticated methods of signal processing are also nearly always used in
order to recover useful radar signals.
The weak absorption of radio waves by the medium through which it passes is what enables radar sets to detect
objects at relatively-long ranges—ranges at which other electromagnetic wavelengths, such as visible light, infrared
light, and ultraviolet light, are too strongly attenuated. Such things as fog, clouds, rain, falling snow, and sleet that
block visible light are usually transparent to radio waves. Certain, specific radio frequencies that are absorbed or
scattered by water vapor, raindrops, or atmospheric gases (especially oxygen) are avoided in designing radars except
when detection of these is intended.
Finally, radar relies on its own transmissions, rather than light from the Sun or the Moon, or from electromagnetic
waves emitted by the objects themselves, such as infrared wavelengths (heat). This process of directing artificial
radio waves towards objects is called illumination, regardless of the fact that radio waves are completely invisible to
the human eye or cameras.
Reflection
Brightness can indicate reflectivity as in this 1960
weather radar image (of Hurricane Abby). The
radar's frequency, pulse form, polarization, signal
processing, and antenna determine what it can
observe.
Electromagnetic waves reflect (scatter) from any large change in the
dielectric constant or diamagnetic constants. This means that a solid
object in air or a vacuum, or other significant change in atomic density
between the object and what is surrounding it, will usually scatter radar
(radio) waves. This is particularly true for electrically conductive
materials, such as metal and carbon fiber, making radar particularly
well suited to the detection of aircraft and ships. Radar absorbing
material, containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances, is
used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection. This is the radio
equivalent of painting something a dark color so that it cannot be seen
through normal means (see stealth technology).
Radar waves scatter in a variety of ways depending on the size
(wavelength) of the radio wave and the shape of the target. If the
wavelength is much shorter than the target's size, the wave will bounce
off in a way similar to the way light is reflected by a mirror. If the
wavelength is much longer than the size of the target, the target may
not be visible due to poor reflection. Low Frequency radar technology
is dependent on resonances for detection, but not identification, of targets. This is described by Rayleigh scattering,
an effect that creates the Earth's blue sky and red sunsets. When the two length scales are comparable, there may be
resonances. Early radars used very long wavelengths that were larger than the targets and received a vague signal,
whereas some modern systems use shorter wavelengths (a few centimeters or shorter) that can image objects as small
as a loaf of bread.
Radar
127
Short radio waves reflect from curves and corners, in a way similar to glint from a rounded piece of glass. The most
reflective targets for short wavelengths have 90° angles between the reflective surfaces. A structure consisting of
three flat surfaces meeting at a single corner, like the corner on a box, will always reflect waves entering its opening
directly back at the source. These so-called corner reflectors are commonly used as radar reflectors to make
otherwise difficult-to-detect objects easier to detect, and are often found on boats in order to improve their detection
in a rescue situation and to reduce collisions.
For similar reasons, objects attempting to avoid detection will angle their surfaces in a way to eliminate inside
corners and avoid surfaces and edges perpendicular to likely detection directions, which leads to "odd" looking
stealth aircraft. These precautions do not completely eliminate reflection because of diffraction, especially at longer
wavelengths. Half wavelength long wires or strips of conducting material, such as chaff, are very reflective but do
not direct the scattered energy back toward the source. The extent to which an object reflects or scatters radio waves
is called its radar cross section.
Radar equation
The power P
r
returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation:
where
• P
t
= transmitter power
• G
t
= gain of the transmitting antenna
• A
r
= effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna
• σ = radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target
• F = pattern propagation factor
• R
t
= distance from the transmitter to the target
• R
r
= distance from the target to the receiver.
In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location, R
t
= R
r
and the term R
t
² R
r
² can
be replaced by R
4
, where R is the range. This yields:
This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range, which means that the reflected power
from distant targets is very, very small.
The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference. The propagation factor accounts
for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. In a real-world situation,
pathloss effects should also be considered.
Radar
128
Doppler effect
Ground-based radar systems used for detecting speeds rely on the Doppler effect. The apparent frequency (f) of the
wave changes with the relative position of the target. The doppler equation is stated as follows for (the radial
speed of the observer) and (the radial speed of the target) and frequency of wave :
However, the change in phase of the return signal is often used instead of the change in frequency. It is to be noted
that only the radial component of the speed is available. Hence when a target is moving at right angle to the radar
beam, it has no velocity while one parallel to it has maximum recorded speed even if both might have the same real
absolute motion.
Polarization
In the transmitted radar signal, the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, and this direction of
the electric field is the polarization of the wave. Radars use horizontal, vertical, linear and circular polarization to
detect different types of reflections. For example, circular polarization is used to minimize the interference caused by
rain. Linear polarization returns usually indicate metal surfaces. Random polarization returns usually indicate a
fractal surface, such as rocks or soil, and are used by navigation radars.
Limiting factors
Beam path and range
Echo heights above ground
The radar beam would follow a linear path
in vacuum but it really follows a somewhat
curved path in the atmosphere due to the
variation of the refractive index of air. Even
when the beam is emitted parallel to the
ground, it will raise above it as the Earth
curvature sink below the horizon.
Furthermore, the signal is attenuated by the
medium it crosses and the beam disperse as
its not a perfect pencil shape.
The maximum range of a conventional radar
can either be limited by a number of factors:
1. Line of sight, which depends on height
above ground.
2. The maximum non-ambiguous range
(MUR) which is determined by the Pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Simply put, MUR is the distance the pulse
could travel and return before the next pulse is emitted.
3. Radar sensitivity and power of the return signal as computed in the radar equation. This includes factors such as
environmentals and the size (or radar cross section) of the target.
Radar
129
Noise
Signal noise is an internal source of random variations in the signal, which is generated by all electronic components.
Noise typically appears as random variations superimposed on the desired echo signal received in the radar receiver.
The lower the power of the desired signal, the more difficult it is to discern it from the noise (similar to trying to hear
a whisper while standing near a busy road). Noise figure is a measure of the noise produced by a receiver compared
to an ideal receiver, and this needs to be minimized.
Noise is also generated by external sources, most importantly the natural thermal radiation of the background scene
surrounding the target of interest. In modern radar systems, due to the high performance of their receivers, the
internal noise is typically about equal to or lower than the external scene noise. An exception is if the radar is aimed
upwards at clear sky, where the scene is so "cold" that it generates very little thermal noise.
There will be also flicker noise due to electrons transit, but depending on 1/f, will be much lower than thermal noise
when the frequency is high. Hence, in pulse radar, the system will be always heterodyne. See intermediate
frequency.
Interference
Radar systems must overcome unwanted signals in order to focus only on the actual targets of interest. These
unwanted signals may originate from internal and external sources, both passive and active. The ability of the radar
system to overcome these unwanted signals defines its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). SNR is defined as the ratio of a
signal power to the noise power within the desired signal.
In less technical terms, SNR compares the level of a desired signal (such as targets) to the level of background noise.
The higher a system's SNR, the better it is in isolating actual targets from the surrounding noise signals.
Clutter
Clutter refers to radio frequency (RF) echoes returned from targets which are uninteresting to the radar operators.
Such targets include natural objects such as ground, sea, precipitation (such as rain, snow or hail), sand storms,
animals (especially birds), atmospheric turbulence, and other atmospheric effects, such as ionosphere reflections,
meteor trails, and three body scatter spike. Clutter may also be returned from man-made objects such as buildings
and, intentionally, by radar countermeasures such as chaff.
Some clutter may also be caused by a long radar waveguide between the radar transceiver and the antenna. In a
typical plan position indicator (PPI) radar with a rotating antenna, this will usually be seen as a "sun" or "sunburst"
in the centre of the display as the receiver responds to echoes from dust particles and misguided RF in the
waveguide. Adjusting the timing between when the transmitter sends a pulse and when the receiver stage is enabled
will generally reduce the sunburst without affecting the accuracy of the range, since most sunburst is caused by a
diffused transmit pulse reflected before it leaves the antenna.
While some clutter sources may be undesirable for some radar applications (such as storm clouds for air-defence
radars), they may be desirable for others (meteorological radars in this example). Clutter is considered a passive
interference source, since it only appears in response to radar signals sent by the radar.
There are several methods of detecting and neutralizing clutter. Many of these methods rely on the fact that clutter
tends to appear static between radar scans. Therefore, when comparing subsequent scans echoes, desirable targets
will appear to move and all stationary echoes can be eliminated. Sea clutter can be reduced by using horizontal
polarization, while rain is reduced with circular polarization (note that meteorological radars wish for the opposite
effect, therefore using linear polarization the better to detect precipitation). Other methods attempt to increase the
signal-to-clutter ratio.
Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR, a form of Automatic Gain Control, or AGC) is a method relying on the fact that
clutter returns far outnumber echoes from targets of interest. The receiver's gain is automatically adjusted to maintain
a constant level of overall visible clutter. While this does not help detect targets masked by stronger surrounding
Radar
130
clutter, it does help to distinguish strong target sources. In the past, radar AGC was electronically controlled and
affected the gain of the entire radar receiver. As radars evolved, AGC became computer-software controlled, and
affected the gain with greater granularity, in specific detection cells.
Radar multipath echoes from a target cause
ghosts to appear.
Clutter may also originate from multipath echoes from valid targets
due to ground reflection, atmospheric ducting or ionospheric
reflection/refraction (e.g. Anomalous propagation). This clutter type is
especially bothersome, since it appears to move and behave like other
normal (point) targets of interest, thereby creating a ghost. In a typical
scenario, an aircraft echo is multipath-reflected from the ground below,
appearing to the receiver as an identical target below the correct one.
The radar may try to unify the targets, reporting the target at an
incorrect height, or—worse—eliminating it on the basis of jitter or a
physical impossibility. These problems can be overcome by
incorporating a ground map of the radar's surroundings and eliminating
all echoes which appear to originate below ground or above a certain height. In newer Air Traffic Control (ATC)
radar equipment, algorithms are used to identify the false targets by comparing the current pulse returns, to those
adjacent, as well as calculating return improbabilities due to calculated height, distance, and radar timing.
Jamming
Radar jamming refers to radio frequency signals originating from sources outside the radar, transmitting in the
radar's frequency and thereby masking targets of interest. Jamming may be intentional, as with an electronic warfare
(EW) tactic, or unintentional, as with friendly forces operating equipment that transmits using the same frequency
range. Jamming is considered an active interference source, since it is initiated by elements outside the radar and in
general unrelated to the radar signals.
Jamming is problematic to radar since the jamming signal only needs to travel one-way (from the jammer to the
radar receiver) whereas the radar echoes travel two-ways (radar-target-radar) and are therefore significantly reduced
in power by the time they return to the radar receiver. Jammers therefore can be much less powerful than their
jammed radars and still effectively mask targets along the line of sight from the jammer to the radar (Mainlobe
Jamming). Jammers have an added effect of affecting radars along other lines of sight, due to the radar receiver's
sidelobes (Sidelobe Jamming).
Mainlobe jamming can generally only be reduced by narrowing the mainlobe solid angle, and can never fully be
eliminated when directly facing a jammer which uses the same frequency and polarization as the radar. Sidelobe
jamming can be overcome by reducing receiving sidelobes in the radar antenna design and by using an
omnidirectional antenna to detect and disregard non-mainlobe signals. Other anti-jamming techniques are frequency
hopping and polarization. See Electronic counter-counter-measures for details.
Interference has recently become a problem for C-band (5.66 GHz) meteorological radars with the proliferation of
5.4 GHz band WiFi equipment.
Radar
131
Radar signal processing
Distance measurement
Transit time
Pulse radar: The round-trip time for the radar
pulse to get to the target and return is measured.
The distance is proportional to this time.
Continuous wave (CW) radar
One way to measure the distance to an object is to transmit a short
pulse of radio signal (electromagnetic radiation), and measure the time
it takes for the reflection to return. The distance is one-half the product
of the round trip time (because the signal has to travel to the target and
then back to the receiver) and the speed of the signal. Since radio
waves travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles per second or
300,000,000 meters per second), accurate distance measurement
requires high-performance electronics.
In most cases, the receiver does not detect the return while the signal is
being transmitted. Through the use of a device called a duplexer, the
radar switches between transmitting and receiving at a predetermined
rate. The minimum range is calculated by measuring the length of the
pulse multiplied by the speed of light, divided by two. In order to
detect closer targets one must use a shorter pulse length.
A similar effect imposes a maximum range as well. If the return from
the target comes in when the next pulse is being sent out, once again
the receiver cannot tell the difference. In order to maximize range,
longer times between pulses should be used, referred to as a pulse repetition time (PRT), or its reciprocal, pulse
repetition frequency (PRF).
These two effects tend to be at odds with each other, and it is not easy to combine both good short range and good
long range in a single radar. This is because the short pulses needed for a good minimum range broadcast have less
total energy, making the returns much smaller and the target harder to detect. This could be offset by using more
pulses, but this would shorten the maximum range again. So each radar uses a particular type of signal. Long-range
radars tend to use long pulses with long delays between them, and short range radars use smaller pulses with less
time between them. This pattern of pulses and pauses is known as the pulse repetition frequency (or PRF), and is one
of the main ways to characterize a radar. As electronics have improved many radars now can change their PRF
thereby changing their range. The newest radars fire 2 pulses during one cell, one for short range 10 km / 6 miles and
a separate signal for longer ranges 100 km /60 miles.
The distance resolution and the characteristics of the received signal as compared to noise depends heavily on the
shape of the pulse. The pulse is often modulated to achieve better performance using a technique known as pulse
compression.
Distance may also be measured as a function of time. The radar mile is the amount of time it takes for a radar pulse
to travel one nautical mile, reflect off a target, and return to the radar antenna. Since a nautical mile is defined as
exactly 1,852 meters, then dividing this distance by the speed of light (exactly 299,792,458 meters per second), and
then multiplying the result by 2 (round trip = twice the distance), yields a result of approximately 12.36
microseconds in duration.
Radar
132
Frequency modulation
Another form of distance measuring radar is based on frequency modulation. Frequency comparison between two
signals is considerably more accurate, even with older electronics, than timing the signal. By measuring the
frequency of the returned signal and comparing that with the original, the difference can be easily measured.
This technique can be used in continuous wave radar, and is often found in aircraft radar altimeters. In these systems
a "carrier" radar signal is frequency modulated in a predictable way, typically varying up and down with a sine wave
or sawtooth pattern at audio frequencies. The signal is then sent out from one antenna and received on another,
typically located on the bottom of the aircraft, and the signal can be continuously compared using a simple beat
frequency modulator that produces an audio frequency tone from the returned signal and a portion of the transmitted
signal.
Since the signal frequency is changing, by the time the signal returns to the aircraft the broadcast has shifted to some
other frequency. The amount of that shift is greater over longer times, so greater frequency differences mean a longer
distance, the exact amount being the "ramp speed" selected by the electronics. The amount of shift is therefore
directly related to the distance traveled, and can be displayed on an instrument. This signal processing is similar to
that used in speed detecting Doppler radar. Example systems using this approach are AZUSA, MISTRAM, and
UDOP.
A further advantage is that the radar can operate effectively at relatively low frequencies, comparable to that used by
UHF television. This was important in the early development of this type when high frequency signal generation was
difficult or expensive.
A new terrestrial radar uses low-power FM signals that cover a larger frequency range. The multiple reflections are
analyzed mathematically for pattern changes with multiple passes creating a computerized synthetic image. Doppler
effects are not used which allows slow moving objects to be detected as well as largely eliminating "noise" from the
surfaces of bodies of water. Used primarily for detection of intruders approaching in small boats or intruders
crawling on the ground toward an objective.
Speed measurement
Speed is the change in distance to an object with respect to time. Thus the existing system for measuring distance,
combined with a memory capacity to see where the target last was, is enough to measure speed. At one time the
memory consisted of a user making grease-pencil marks on the radar screen, and then calculating the speed using a
slide rule. Modern radar systems perform the equivalent operation faster and more accurately using computers.
However, if the transmitter's output is coherent (phase synchronized), there is another effect that can be used to make
almost instant speed measurements (no memory is required), known as the Doppler effect. Most modern radar
systems use this principle in the pulse-doppler radar system. Return signals from targets are shifted away from this
base frequency via the Doppler effect enabling the calculation of the speed of the object relative to the radar. The
Doppler effect is only able to determine the relative speed of the target along the line of sight from the radar to the
target. Any component of target velocity perpendicular to the line of sight cannot be determined by using the
Doppler effect alone, but it can be determined by tracking the target's azimuth over time. Additional information of
the nature of the Doppler returns may be found in the radar signal characteristics article.
It is also possible to make a radar without any pulsing, known as a continuous-wave radar (CW radar), by sending
out a very pure signal of a known frequency. CW radar is ideal for determining the radial component of a target's
velocity, but it cannot determine the target's range. CW radar is typically used by traffic enforcement to measure
vehicle speed quickly and accurately where range is not important.
Other mathematical developments in radar signal processing include time-frequency analysis (Weyl Heisenberg or
wavelet), as well as the chirplet transform which makes use of the fact that radar returns from moving targets
typically "chirp" (change their frequency as a function of time, as does the sound of a bird or bat).
Radar
133
Reduction of interference effects
Signal processing is employed in radar systems to reduce the radar interference effects. Signal processing techniques
include moving target indication (MTI), pulse doppler, moving target detection (MTD) processors, correlation with
secondary surveillance radar (SSR) targets, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), and track-before-detect (TBD).
Constant false alarm rate (CFAR) and digital terrain model (DTM) processing are also used in clutter environments.
Plot and track extraction
Radar video returns on aircraft can be subjected to a plot extraction process whereby spurious and interfering signals
are discarded. A sequence of target returns can be monitored through a device known as a plot extractor. The non
relevant real time returns can be removed from the displayed information and a single plot displayed. In some radar
systems, or alternatively in the command and control system to which the radar is connected, a radar tracker is used
to associate the sequence of plots belonging to individual targets and estimate the targets' headings and speeds.
Radar engineering
Radar components
A radars components are:
• A transmitter that generates the radio signal with an oscillator such
as a klystron or a magnetron and controls its duration by a
modulator.
• A waveguide that links the transmitter and the antenna.
• A duplexer that serves as a switch between the antenna and the
transmitter or the receiver for the signal when the antenna is used in
both situations.
• A receiver. Knowing the shape of the desired received signal (a
pulse), an optimal receiver can be designed using a matched filter.
• An electronic section that controls all those devices and the antenna
to perform the radar scan ordered by a software.
• A link to end users.
Antenna design
Radio signals broadcast from a single antenna will spread out in all directions, and likewise a single antenna will
receive signals equally from all directions. This leaves the radar with the problem of deciding where the target object
is located.
Early systems tended to use omni-directional broadcast antennas, with directional receiver antennas which were
pointed in various directions. For instance the first system to be deployed, Chain Home, used two straight antennas at
right angles for reception, each on a different display. The maximum return would be detected with an antenna at
right angles to the target, and a minimum with the antenna pointed directly at it (end on). The operator could
determine the direction to a target by rotating the antenna so one display showed a maximum while the other shows a
minimum.
One serious limitation with this type of solution is that the broadcast is sent out in all directions, so the amount of
energy in the direction being examined is a small part of that transmitted. To get a reasonable amount of power on
the "target", the transmitting aerial should also be directional.
Radar
134
Parabolic reflector
More modern systems use a steerable parabolic "dish" to create a tight broadcast beam, typically using the same dish
as the receiver. Such systems often combine two radar frequencies in the same antenna in order to allow automatic
steering, or radar lock.
Parabolic reflectors can be either symmetric parabolas or spoiled parabolas:
• Symmetric parabolic antennas produce a narrow "pencil" beam in both the X and Y dimensions and consequently
have a higher gain. The NEXRAD Pulse-Doppler weather radar uses a symmetric antenna to perform detailed
volumetric scans of the atmosphere.
Surveillance radar antenna
• Spoiled parabolic antennas produce a narrow beam in one
dimension and a relatively wide beam in the other. This feature is
useful if target detection over a wide range of angles is more
important than target location in three dimensions. Most 2D
surveillance radars use a spoiled parabolic antenna with a narrow
azimuthal beamwidth and wide vertical beamwidth. This beam
configuration allows the radar operator to detect an aircraft at a
specific azimuth but at an indeterminate height. Conversely,
so-called "nodder" height finding radars use a dish with a narrow
vertical beamwidth and wide azimuthal beamwidth to detect an
aircraft at a specific height but with low azimuthal precision.
Types of scan
• Primary Scan: A scanning technique where the main antenna aerial is moved to produce a scanning beam,
examples include circular scan, sector scan etc.
• Secondary Scan: A scanning technique where the antenna feed is moved to produce a scanning beam, examples
include conical scan, unidirectional sector scan, lobe switching etc.
• Palmer Scan: A scanning technique that produces a scanning beam by moving the main antenna and its feed. A
Palmer Scan is a combination of a Primary Scan and a Secondary Scan.
Slotted waveguide
Slotted waveguide antenna
Applied similarly to the parabolic reflector, the slotted waveguide is
moved mechanically to scan and is particularly suitable for
non-tracking surface scan systems, where the vertical pattern may
remain constant. Owing to its lower cost and less wind exposure,
shipboard, airport surface, and harbour surveillance radars now use this
in preference to the parabolic antenna.
Radar
135
Phased array
Phased array: Not all radar antennas must rotate
to scan the sky.
Another method of steering is used in a phased array radar. This uses
an array of similar aerials suitably spaced, the phase of the signal to
each individual aerial being controlled so that the signal is reinforced
in the desired direction and cancels in other directions. If the individual
aerials are in one plane and the signal is fed to each aerial in phase with
all others then the signal will reinforce in a direction perpendicular to
that plane. By altering the relative phase of the signal fed to each aerial
the direction of the beam can be moved because the direction of
constructive interference will move. Because phased array radars
require no physical movement the beam can scan at thousands of
degrees per second, fast enough to irradiate and track many individual
targets, and still run a wide-ranging search periodically. By simply
turning some of the antennas on or off, the beam can be spread for
searching, narrowed for tracking, or even split into two or more virtual radars. However, the beam cannot be
effectively steered at small angles to the plane of the array, so for full coverage multiple arrays are required, typically
disposed on the faces of a triangular pyramid (see picture).
Phased array radars have been in use since the earliest years of radar use in World War II, but limitations of the
electronics led to fairly poor accuracy. Phased array radars were originally used for missile defense. They are the
heart of the ship-borne Aegis combat system, and the Patriot Missile System, and are increasingly used in other areas
because the lack of moving parts makes them more reliable, and sometimes permits a much larger effective antenna,
useful in fighter aircraft applications that offer only confined space for mechanical scanning.
As the price of electronics has fallen, phased array radars have become more and more common. Almost all modern
military radar systems are based on phased arrays, where the small additional cost is far offset by the improved
reliability of a system with no moving parts. Traditional moving-antenna designs are still widely used in roles where
cost is a significant factor such as air traffic surveillance, weather radars and similar systems.
Phased array radars are also valued for use in aircraft, since they can track multiple targets. The first aircraft to use a
phased array radar is the B-1B Lancer. The first aircraft fighter to use phased array radar was the Mikoyan MiG-31.
The MiG-31M's SBI-16 Zaslon phased array radar is considered to be the world's most powerful fighter radar [23].
Phased-array interferometry or, aperture synthesis techniques, using an array of separate dishes that are phased into a
single effective aperture, are not typically used for radar applications, although they are widely used in radio
astronomy. Because of the Thinned array curse, such arrays of multiple apertures, when used in transmitters, result in
narrow beams at the expense of reducing the total power transmitted to the target. In principle, such techniques used
could increase the spatial resolution, but the lower power means that this is generally not effective. Aperture
synthesis by post-processing of motion data from a single moving source, on the other hand, is widely used in space
and airborne radar systems (see Synthetic aperture radar).
Radar
136
Frequency bands
The traditional band names originated as code-names during World War II and are still in military and aviation use
throughout the world in the 21st century. They have been adopted in the United States by the IEEE, and
internationally by the ITU. Most countries have additional regulations to control which parts of each band are
available for civilian or military use.
Other users of the radio spectrum, such as the broadcasting and electronic countermeasures (ECM) industries, have
replaced the traditional military designations with their own systems.
Radar frequency bands
Band
name
Frequency
range
Wavelength
range
Notes
HF 3–30 MHz 10–100 m coastal radar systems, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) radars; 'high frequency'
P < 300 MHz 1 m+ 'P' for 'previous', applied retrospectively to early radar systems
VHF 30–300 MHz 1–10 m Very long range, ground penetrating; 'very high frequency'
UHF 300–1000 MHz 0.3–1 m Very long range (e.g. ballistic missile early warning), ground penetrating, foliage penetrating; 'ultra
high frequency'
L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm Long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long'
S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm Moderate range surveillance, Terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for
'short'
C 4–8 GHz 3.75–7.5 cm Satellite transponders; a compromise (hence 'C') between X and S bands; weather; long range tracking
X 8–12 GHz 2.5–3.75 cm Missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the
USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar; short range tracking. Named X
band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.
K
u
12–18 GHz 1.67–2.5 cm high-resolution
K 18–24 GHz 1.11–1.67 cm from German kurz, meaning 'short'; limited use due to absorption by water vapour, so K
u
and K
a
were
used instead for surveillance. K-band is used for detecting clouds by meteorologists, and by police for
detecting speeding motorists. K-band radar guns operate at 24.150 ± 0.100 GHz.
K
a
24–40 GHz 0.75–1.11 cm mapping, short range, airport surveillance; frequency just above K band (hence 'a') Photo radar, used
to trigger cameras which take pictures of license plates of cars running red lights, operates at 34.300 ±
0.100 GHz.
mm 40–300 GHz 7.5 mm –
1 mm
millimetre band, subdivided as below. The frequency ranges depend on waveguide size. Multiple
letters are assigned to these bands by different groups. These are from Baytron, a now defunct
company that made test equipment.
V 40–75 GHz 4.0–7.5 mm Very strongly absorbed by atmospheric oxygen, which resonates at 60 GHz.
W 75–110 GHz 2.7–4.0 mm used as a visual sensor for experimental autonomous vehicles, high-resolution meteorological
observation, and imaging.
UWB 1.6–10.5 GHz 18.75 cm –
2.8 cm
used for through-the-wall radar and imaging systems.
Radar
137
Radar modulators
Modulators act to provide the waveform of the RF-pulse. There are two different radar modulator designs:
• high voltage switch for non-coherent keyed power-oscillators
[24]
These modulators consist of a high voltage pulse
generator formed from a high voltage supply, a pulse forming network, and a high voltage switch such as a
thyratron. They generate short pulses of power to feed the e.g. magnetron, a special type of vacuum tube that
converts DC (usually pulsed) into microwaves. This technology is known as Pulsed power. In this way, the
transmitted pulse of RF radiation is kept to a defined, and usually, very short duration.
• hybrid mixers,
[25]
fed by a waveform generator and an exciter for a complex but coherent waveform. This
waveform can be generated by low power/low-voltage input signals. In this case the radar transmitter must be a
power-amplifier, e.g. a klystron tube or a solid state transmitter. In this way, the transmitted pulse is
intrapulsemodulated and the radar receiver must use pulse compression technique mostly.
Radar coolant
Coolanol and PAO (poly-alpha olefin) are the two main coolants used to cool airborne radar equipment today.
Coolanol (silicate ester) was used in several military radars in the 1970s, for example the AN/APG-63 in the F-15.
However, it is hygroscopic, leading to formation of highly flammable alcohol. The loss of a U.S. Navy aircraft in
1978 was attributed to a silicate ester fire.
[26]
Coolanol is also expensive and toxic. The U.S. Navy has instituted a
program named Pollution Prevention (P2) to reduce or eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste, air emissions, and
effluent discharges. Because of this Coolanol is used less often today.
PAO is a synthetic lubricant blend of a polyol ester admixed with effective amounts of an antioxidant, yellow metal
pacifier and rust inhibitors. The polyol ester blend includes a major proportion of poly (neopentyl polyol) ester blend
formed by reacting poly(pentaerythritol) partial esters with at least one C7 to C12 carboxylic acid mixed with an
ester formed by reacting a polyol having at least two hydroxyl groups and at least one C8-C10 carboxylic acid.
Preferably, the acids are linear and avoid those which can cause odours during use. Effective additives include
secondary arylamine antioxidants, triazole derivative yellow metal pacifier and an amino acid derivative and
substituted primary and secondary amine and/or diamine rust inhibitor.
A synthetic coolant/lubricant composition, comprising an ester mixture of 50 to 80 weight percent of poly (neopentyl
polyol) ester formed by reacting a poly (neopentyl polyol) partial ester and at least one linear monocarboxylic acid
having from 6 to 12 carbon atoms, and 20 to 50 weight percent of a polyol ester formed by reacting a polyol having
5 to 8 carbon atoms and at least two hydroxyl groups with at least one linear monocarboxylic acid having from 7 to
12 carbon atoms, the weight percents based on the total weight of the composition.
Radar configurations and types
Radars configurations include Monopulse radar, Bistatic radar, Doppler radar, Continuous-wave radar, etc..
depending on the types of hardware and software used. It is used in aviation (Primary and secondary radar), sea
vessels, law enforcement, weather surveillance, ground mapping, geophysical surveys, and biological research.
Notes
[1] NASA. "RADAR means: Radio Detection and Ranging" (http:/ / web.archive. org/web/ 20071014061010/ http:/ / nasaexplores. com/
show_k4_teacher_st. php?id=030703122033). Nasa Explores. Archived from the original (http:// www.nasaexplores.com/
show_k4_teacher_st.php?id=030703122033) on 2007-10-14. .
[2] "Radar definition in multiple dictionaries" (http:// www.answers.com/ topic/ radar). Answers.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[3] Kostenko, A. A., A. I. Nosich, and I. A. Tishchenko, "Radar Prehistory, Soviet Side," Proc. of IEEE APS International Symposium 2001,
vol.4. p. 44, 2003
[4] Christian Hülsmeyer by Radar World (http:// www.radarworld.org/huelsmeyer.html)
Radar
138
[5] Patent DE165546; Verfahren, um metallische Gegenstände mittels elektrischer Wellen einem Beobachter zu melden. (http:/ / upload.
wikimedia. org/wikipedia/ commons/ 1/ 11/ DE165546.pdf)
[6] Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Entfernung von metallischen Gegenständen (Schiffen o. dgl.), deren Gegenwart durch das Verfahren nach
Patent 16556 festgestellt wird. (http:/ / upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/ e/ e9/ DE169154.pdf)
[7] GB 13170 (http:/ / v3. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=GB13170) Telemobiloscope
[8] The Electrical Experimenter, 1917
[9] Post-War Research and Development of Radio Communication Equipment (http:/ / earlyradiohistory.us/ 1963hw28. htm)
[10] Radar (http:// earlyradiohistory.us/ 1963hw38. htm)
[11] Watson, Raymond C., Jr., Radar Origins Worldwide: History of Its Evolution in 13 Nations Through World War II, Trafford Publishing,
2009, ISBN 978-1-4269-2111-7
[12] (http:// www. teslasociety. com/ time. jpg)
[13] FR 788795 (http:/ / v3. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=FR788795) Nouveau système de repérage d'obstacles et ses
applications
[14] (French) Copy of Patents for the invention of radar (http:// www.radar-france.fr/brevet radar1934.htm) on www.radar-france.fr
[15] John Erickson. Radio-Location and the Air Defence Problem: The Design and Development of Soviet Radar. Science Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3
(Jul., 1972), pp. 241-263
[16] Page, Robert Morris, The Origin of Radar, Doubleday Anchor, New York, 1962, p. 66
[17] "Mystery Ray Locates Enemy" (http:// books. google. com/ books?id=bygDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA29& dq=Popular+Science+1932+
plane&hl=en& ei=Ku9QTcb4A425tgf6nbmeCQ&sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=5& ved=0CDoQ6AEwBDgy#v=onepage&
q& f=true) Popular Mechanics, October 1935
[18] Goebel, Greg (2007-01-01). "The Wizard War: WW2 & The Origins Of Radar" (http:// www.vectorsite. net/ ttwiz_01.html). . Retrieved
2007-03-24.
[19] http:// www. doramusic. com/ Radar. htm
[20] British man first to patent radar (http:/ / www.patent. gov.uk/ media/ pressrelease/ 2001/ 1009.htm) official site of the Patent Office
[21] GB 593017 (http:// v3. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=GB593017) Improvements in or relating to wireless systems
[22] illustration bottom page 56 Popular Mechanics April 1940 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=hCcDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA56&
dq=popular+ science+ April+1940& hl=en& ei=SHqMTJ6CK8fanAeroIC0Cw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=5&
ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q& f=true)
[23] http:// www. globalsecurity. org/military/ world/russia/ mig-31.htm
[24] Radartutorial (http:// www.radartutorial.eu/ / 08. transmitters/ tx06.en.html)
[25] Radartutorial (http:// www.radartutorial.eu/ / 08. transmitters/ tx10.en.html)
[26] Stropki, Michael A. (1992). "POLYALPHAOLEFINS: A NEW IMPROVED COST EFFECTIVE AIRCRAFT RADAR COOLANT"
(http:// www. dtic. mil/ cgi-bin/ GetTRDoc?AD=ADA250517&Location=U2& doc=GetTRDoc.pdf). Melbourne, Australia: Aeronautical
Research Laboratory, Defense Science and Technology Organisation, Department of Defense. . Retrieved 2010-03-18.
References
• Barrett, Dick, " All you ever wanted to know about British air defence radar (http:/ / www.radarpages.co. uk/
index.htm)". The Radar Pages. (History and details of various British radar systems)
• Buderi, " Telephone History: Radar History (http:/ / www.privateline.com/ TelephoneHistory3/
radarhistorybuderi.html)". Privateline.com. (Anecdotal account of the carriage of the world's first high power
cavity magnetron from Britain to the US during WW2.)
• Ekco Radar WW2 Shadow Factory (http:/ / www. ekco-radar.co. uk/ ) The secret development of British radar.
• ES310 " Introduction to Naval Weapons Engineering.". (Radar fundamentals section) (http:/ / www.fas. org/
man/dod-101/navy/ docs/ es310/ syllabus. htm)
• Hollmann, Martin, " Radar Family Tree (http:// www.radarworld.org/index. html)". Radar World (http://
www. radarworld.org/).
• Penley, Bill, and Jonathan Penley, " Early Radar History (http:/ / www.penleyradararchives.org.uk/ history/
introduction.htm)—an Introduction". 2002.
• Pub 1310 Radar Navigation and Maneuvering Board Manual, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Bethesda,
MD 2001 (US govt publication '...intended to be used primarily as a manual of instruction in navigation schools
and by naval and merchant marine personnel.')
• Swords, Seán S., Technical History of the Beginnings of Radar, IEE History of Technology Series, Vol. 6,
London: Peter Peregrinus, 1986
Radar
139
Further reading
• Batt, Reg, "The Radar Army: Winning the War of the Airwaves", Robert Hale Ltd. 1991 ISBN 0-7090-4508-5
• Bowen, E.G., Radar Days, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1987., ISBN 0-7503-0586-X
• Bragg, Michael., RDF1 The Location of Aircraft by Radio Methods 1935–1945, Hawkhead Publishing, Paisley
1988 ISBN 0-9531544-0-8 The history of ground radar in the UK during World War II
• Brown, Louis., A Radar History of World War II, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1999., ISBN
0-7503-0659-9
• Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World: How a Small Group of Radar Pioneers Won the Second
World War and Launched a Technological Revolution, Simon & Schuster, 1996. ISBN 0-684-81021-2
• Burch, David F., Radar For Mariners, McGraw Hill, 2005, ISBN 0-07-139867-8.
• Hall, P.S., T.K. Garland-Collins, R.S. Picton and R.G. Lee, Radar, Brassey's (UK) Ltd., 1991, Land Warfare
Series: Vol 9, ISBN 0-08-037711-4.
• Howse, Derek, Radar At Sea The Royal Navy in World War 2, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, USA,
1993, ISBN 1-55750-704-X
• Jones, R.V., Most Secret War, ISBN 1-85326-699-X. R.V. Jones' account of his part in British Scientific
Intelligence between 1939 and 1945, working to anticipate the German's radar, radio navigation and V1/V2
developments.
• Kaiser, Gerald, Chapter 10 in "A Friendly Guide to Wavelets", Birkhauser, Boston, 1994.
• Kouemou, Guy (Ed.): Radar Technology. InTech, 2010, ISBN 978-953-307-029-2, ( (http:// www.intechopen.
com/ books/ show/ title/radar-technology)).
• Latham, Colin & Stobbs, Anne., Radar A Wartime Miracle, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud 1996 ISBN
0-7509-1643-5 A history of radar in the UK during World War II told by the men and women who worked on it.
• Le Chevalier, François, Principles of Radar and Sonar Signal Processing, Artech House, Boston, London, 2002.
ISBN 1-58053-338-8.
• Pritchard, David., The Radar War Germany's Pioneering Achievement 1904–1945 Patrick Stephens Ltd,
Wellingborough 1989., ISBN 1-85260-246-5
• Skolnik, Merrill I., Introduction to Radar Systems, McGraw-Hill (1st ed., 1962; 2nd ed., 1980; 3rd ed., 2001),
ISBN 0-07-066572-9. The de-facto radar introduction bible.
• Skolnik, Merrill I., Radar Handbook. ISBN 0-07-057913-X widely used in the US since the 1970s. New 3rd
Edition, February 2008, ISBN 0-07-148547-3; 978-0-07-148547-0
• Stimson, George W., Introduction to Airborne Radar, SciTech Publishing (2nd edition, 1998), ISBN
1-891121-01-4. Written for the non-specialist. The first half of the book on radar fundamentals is also applicable
to ground- and sea-based radar.
• Younghusband, Eileen., Not an Ordinary Life. How Changing Times Brought Historical Events into my Life,
Cardiff Centre for Lifelong Learning, Cardiff, 2009., ISBN 987-0-9561156-9-0 (Pages 36–67 contain the
experiences of a WAAF radar plotter in WWII.)
• Zimmerman, David., Britain's Shield Radar and the Defeat of the Luftwaffe, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud, 2001,
ISBN 0-7509-1799-7
Radar
140
External links
• MIT Video Course: Introduction to Radar Systems (http:/ / ocw.mit. edu/ resources/
res-ll-001-introduction-to-radar-systems-spring-2007/) A set of 10 video lectures developed at Lincoln
Laboratory to develop an understanding of radar systems and technologies.
• Popular Science, August 1943, What Are the Facts About RADAR (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=_yYDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA66&dq=popular+science+ june+1941& hl=en&
ei=cT2TTNqUB9Ofnwfn49ywCA&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=4&
ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q& f=true) one of the first detailed factual articles on radar history,
principles and operation published in the US
• "The Great Detective", 1946. Story of the development of radar by the Chrysler Corporation (http:/ /
imperialclub.com/ Yr/ 1945/ 46Radar/ Cover. htm)
• Christian Hülsmeyer and the early days of radar (http:/ / www.xs4all. nl/ ~aobauer/Huelspart1def.pdf)
• Radar: The Canadian History of Radar - Canadian War Museum (http:// www.warmuseum. ca/ cwm/
exhibitions/radar/index_e. shtml)
• Radar technology principles (http:/ / www.radartutorial.eu/ index. en. html)
• History of radar (http:/ / math. la. asu. edu/ ~kuang/ LM/ 030902-Radar_History10.pdf)
• Radar invisibility with metamaterials (http:/ / www.metamaterials. net)
• Radar Research Center-Italy (http:// crr.sesm. it)
• Early radar development in the UK (http:// www.purbeckradar.org.uk/ )
• Principles of radar target acquisition and weapon guidance systems (http:/ / ourworld.compuserve. com/
homepages/edperry/ewtutor1. htm)
• Cloaking and radar invisibility (http:/ / www.radartechnology.eu/ )
• The Secrets of Radar Museum (http:/ / www.secretsofradar.com)
• 84th Radar Evaluation Squadron (http:/ / www.rades.hill. af.mil/ )
• Radar (http:/ / www. skybrary.aero/index. php/ Radar)
• EKCO WW II ASV radar units (http:/ / www. ekco-radar.co.uk/ ASV19/ asv. php)
• RAF Air Defence Radar Museum (http:/ / www. radarmuseum.co. uk/ )
• Radar - A case study highlighting the vital contribution physics research has made to major technological
development (http:/ / www. iop. org/ publications/ iop/ 2011/ page_47522. html)
Kepler (spacecraft)
141
Kepler (spacecraft)
Kepler
General information
NSSDC ID
2009-011A
[1]
Organization NASA
Major contractors Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.
Launch date
2009-03-07, 03:49:57.465 UTC
[2]
Launched from Space Launch Complex 17-B
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Launch vehicle Delta II (7925-10L)
Mission length ≥ 3.5 years
elapsed: 2 years, 2 months, and 21 days
Mass 1039 kg (2290 lb)
Type of orbit Earth-trailing heliocentric
Orbit height 1 AU
Orbit period 372.5 days
Wavelength
400–865 nm
[3]
Diameter 0.95 m (3.1 ft)
Collecting area
0.708 m
2

[4]
Website
kepler.nasa.gov
[5]
Kepler is a NASA spacecraft equipped with a space observatory designed to discover Earth-like planets orbiting
other stars.
[6]
The spacecraft is named in honor of German astronomer Johannes Kepler.
[7]
The spacecraft was
launched on March 7, 2009,
[8]
with a planned mission lifetime of at least 3.5 years.
[9]
Kepler (spacecraft)
142
According to NASA, the Kepler Mission is "specifically designed to survey a portion of our region of the Milky
Way galaxy to discover dozens of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the
billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets."
[10]
Kepler uses a photometer developed by NASA to continuously monitor the brightness of over 145,000
[11]
main
sequence stars in a fixed field of view. The data collected from these observations will be analyzed to detect periodic
fluctuations that indicate the presence of extrasolar planets (planets outside our solar system) that are in the process
of crossing the face of other stars.
Kepler is a project under NASA's Discovery Program of relatively low-cost, focused science missions. NASA's
Ames Research Center is the home organization of the science principal investigator and is responsible for the
ground system development, mission operations and science data analysis. Kepler mission development was
managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory until December 2009 but was then transferred to the Ames Research
Center. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. was responsible for developing the Kepler flight system.
The Kepler observatory is currently in active operation, with the first main results announced on 4 January 2010. As
expected, the initial discoveries were all short-period planets, with longer period planets expected later. The first six
weeks of data revealed five previously unknown planets, all very close to their stars.
[12]

[13]
Among the notable
results are one of the least dense planets yet found,
[14]
and two low-mass white dwarf stars
[15]
that were initially
reported as being members of a new class of stellar objects.
[16]
On 2 February 2011, the Kepler team announced the results from the data of May to September 2009. They found
1235 planetary candidates circling 997 host stars, more than twice the number of currently known exoplanets. The
Kepler results included 68 planetary candidates of Earth-like size and 54 planetary candidates in the habitable zone
of their star. The team estimated that 6% of stars host Earth-size planets and 19% of all stars have multiple planets.
Kepler spacecraft
Components of the Kepler telescope
The spacecraft has a mass of 1039
kilograms (2290 lb), has a 0.95-meter
(37.4 in) aperture, and a 1.4-meter (55 in)
primary mirror (when it was launched this
was the largest on any telescope outside of
Earth orbit).
[17]
The spacecraft has a 105
deg
2
(about 12 degree diameter) field of
view (FOV), roughly equivalent to the size
of one's fist held at arm's length. The
photometer has a soft focus to provide
excellent photometry, rather than sharp
images. The mission goal is a combined
differential photometric precision (CDPP) of
20 ppm for a m(V)=12 solar-like star for a
6.5 hour integration, though the
observations so far fall short of this objective (see mission status). An Earth-like transit produces a brightness change
of 84 ppm and lasts for 13 hours when it crosses the center of the star.
Kepler (spacecraft)
143
Kepler Camera
Kepler Spacecraft Mission Focal Plane
The focal plane of the spacecraft's camera is made up of 42 CCDs at
2200 × 1024 pixels which makes it the largest camera launched into
space with a resolution of 95 megapixels.
[18]

[19]
The array is cooled by
heat pipes connected to an external radiator.
[20]
The CCDs are read out
every three seconds (to limit saturation) and co-added on board for 30
minutes. However, even though at launch Kepler had the highest data
rate of any NASA mission, the 30 minute sums of all 95 million pixels
constitute more data than can be stored and sent back to Earth.
Therefore the science team has pre-selected the relevant pixels
associated with each star of interest, amounting to about 5 percent of the pixels. The data from these pixels is then
requantized, compressed and stored, along with other auxiliary data, in the on-board 16 gigabyte solid-state recorder.
Data that is stored and downlinked includes science stars, p-mode stars, smear, black level, background and full
field-of-view images.
[20]
The mission's life-cycle cost is estimated at US$600 million, including funding for 3.5 years of operation.
[20]
Spacecraft history
Kepler's launch on March 7, 2009
In January 2006, the project was delayed eight months because of budget cuts
and consolidation at NASA.
[21]
It was delayed again by four months in March
2006 due to fiscal problems.
[21]
At this time the high-gain antenna was changed
from a gimballed design to one fixed to the frame of the spacecraft to reduce cost
and complexity, at the cost of one observation day per month.
[21]
The observatory was launched on March 7, 2009 at 03:49:57 UTC (March 6,
10:49:57 p.m. EST) aboard a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force
Station, Florida.
[2]

[8]
The launch was a complete success and all three stages
were completed by 04:55 UTC. The cover of the telescope was jettisoned on
April 7, 2009 and the first light images were taken on the next day.
[22]

[23]
On April 20, 2009, it was announced that the Kepler science team had concluded
that further refinement of the focus would dramatically increase the scientific
return.
[24]
On April 23, 2009 it was announced that the focus had been
successfully optimized by moving the primary mirror 40 micrometers (1.6
thousandths of an inch) towards the focal plane and tilting the primary mirror 0.0072 degree.
[25]
On May 12, 2009 at 5:01 p.m. Pacific Time (17:01 UTC-8), Kepler successfully completed its commissioning phase
and began its search for planets around other stars.
[26]

[27]
On June 19, 2009, the spacecraft successfully sent its first science data to Earth. It was discovered that Kepler had
entered safe mode on June 15. A second safe mode event occurred on July 2. In both cases the event was triggered
by a processor reset. The spacecraft resumed normal operation on July 3 and the science data that had been collected
since June 19 was downlinked that day.
[28]
On October 14, 2009, the cause of these safing events was determined to
be a low voltage power supply which provides power to the RAD750 processor.
[29]
On January 12, 2010, one
portion of the focal plane transmitted anomalous data, suggesting a problem with focal plane MOD-3 module,
covering 2 out of Kepler's 42 CCDs. As of October 2010, the module was described as "failed", but the coverage still
exceeded the science goals.
[30]
In terms of photometric performance, Kepler is working well, much better than any Earth-bound telescope, but still
short of the design goals. The objective was a combined differential photometric precision (CDPP) of 20 parts per
Kepler (spacecraft)
144
million (PPM) on a magnitude 12 star for a 6.5 hour integration, allowing 10 ppm for stellar variability. The obtained
accuracy for this observation has a wide range, depending on the star and position on the focal plane, with a median
of 39.5 PPM. This may be improved if the variability can be calibrated out of data, as the noise sources are better
understood.
[31]
Kepler downloads roughly 90-100 gigabits of science data
[32]
about once per month
[33]
- an example of such a
download was on 22–23 November 2010.
[34]
Once Kepler has detected a transit-like signature, it is necessary to rule out false positives with follow-up tests
[35]
such as doppler spectroscopy. Although Kepler was designed for photometry it turns out that it is capable of
astrometry and such measurements can help confirm or rule out planet candidates.
[36]
Spacecraft orientation
Kepler Mission search in context of Milky Way
galaxy
The photometer's field of view in the
constellations Cygnus, Lyra and Draco
The Kepler space observatory is not in an Earth orbit, but in an
Earth-trailing solar orbit,
[37]

[38]
so that Earth does not occlude the stars
which are observed continuously and the photometer is not influenced
by stray light from Earth. This orbit avoids the gravitational
perturbations and torques inherent in an Earth orbit, allowing for a
more stable viewing platform. The photometer points to a field in the
northern constellations of Cygnus, Lyra and Draco, which is well out
of the ecliptic plane, so that sunlight never enters the photometer as the
spacecraft orbits the Sun. Cygnus is also a good choice to observe
because it will never be obscured by Kuiper belt objects or the asteroid
belt.
[20]
An additional benefit of that choice is that Kepler is pointing in the
direction of the Solar System's motion around the center of the galaxy.
Thus, the stars which are observed by Kepler are roughly the same
distance from the galactic center as the Solar System, and also close to
the galactic plane. This fact is important if position in the galaxy is
related to habitability, as suggested by the Rare Earth hypothesis.
Kepler (spacecraft)
145
Spacecraft operations
Kepler's orbit. The solar array is adjusted at
solstices and equinoxes
Kepler is operated out of Boulder, Colorado, USA, by the Laboratory
for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The spacecraft's solar
array will be rotated to face the Sun at the solstices and equinoxes.
These rotations will be used to optimize the amount of sunlight falling
on the solar array and to keep the heat radiator pointing towards deep
space.
[20]
Together, LASP and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.
(who are responsible for building the spacecraft and instrument)
control the spacecraft from the mission operations center located on the
research campus of the University of Colorado. LASP performs
essential mission planning and the initial collection and distribution of
the science data.
Communications
NASA contacts the spacecraft using the X band communication link twice a week for command and status updates.
Scientific data are downloaded once a month using the K
a
band link at a maximum data transfer rate of 4.33 Mb/s.
The Kepler spacecraft conducts its own partial analysis on board and only transmits scientific data deemed necessary
to the mission in order to conserve bandwidth.
[39]
Data management
Science data telemetry collected during mission operations at LASP is sent on for processing at the Kepler Data
Management Center (DMC), located at the Space Telescope Science Institute on the campus of the Johns Hopkins
University in Baltimore, Maryland. The science data telemetry is decoded and processed into uncalibrated
FITS-format science data products by the DMC, which are then passed along to the Science Operations Center
(SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center, for calibration and final processing. The SOC at NASA Ames Research
Center (ARC) develops and operates the tools needed to process scientific data for use by the Kepler Science Office
(SO). Accordingly, the SOC develops the pipeline data processing software based on scientific algorithms developed
by the SO. During operations, the SOC (1) receives calibrated pixel data from the DMC, (2) applies the analysis
algorithms to produce light curves for each star, (3) performs transit searches for detection of planets
(threshold-crossing events, or TCEs) and (4) performs data validation of candidate planets by evaluating various data
products for consistency as a way to eliminate false positive detections. The SOC also evaluates the photometric
performance on an on-going basis and provides the performance metrics to the SO and Mission Management Office.
Finally, the SOC develops and maintains the project’s scientific databases, including catalogs and processed data.
The SOC finally returns calibrated data products and scientific results back to the DMC for long-term archiving, and
distribution to astronomers around the world through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST).
Kepler (spacecraft)
146
Objectives and methods
The scientific objective of the Kepler mission is to explore the structure and diversity of planetary systems.
[40]
This
is achieved by surveying a large sample of stars to achieve several goals:
• Determine how many Earth-size and larger planets there are in or near the habitable zone (often called
"Goldilocks planets")
[41]
of a wide variety of spectral types of stars.
• Determine the range of size and shape of the orbits of these planets.
• Estimate how many planets there are in multiple-star systems.
• Determine the range of orbit size, brightness, size, mass and density of short-period giant planets.
• Identify additional members of each discovered planetary system using other techniques.
• Determine the properties of those stars that harbor planetary systems.
Most of the extrasolar planets detected so far by other projects are giant planets, mostly the size of Jupiter and
bigger. Kepler is designed to look for planets 30 to 600 times less massive, closer to the order of Earth's mass
(Jupiter is 318 times more massive than Earth). The method used, the transit method, involves observing repeated
transit of planets in front of their stars, which causes a slight reduction in the star's apparent magnitude, on the order
of 0.01% for an Earth-size planet. The degree of this reduction in brightness can be used to deduce the diameter of
the planet, and the interval between transits can be used to deduce the planet's orbital period, from which estimates of
its orbital semi-major axis (using Kepler's laws) and its temperature (using models of stellar radiation) can be
calculated.
The probability of a random planetary orbit being along the line-of-sight to a star is the diameter of the star divided
by the diameter of the orbit.
[42]
For an Earth-like planet at 1 AU transiting a Sol-like star the probability is 0.465%,
or about 1 in 215. At 0.72 AU (the orbital distance of Venus) the probability is slightly larger, at 0.65%; such planets
could be Earth-like if the host star is a late G-type star such as Tau Ceti. In addition, because planets in a given
system tend to orbit in similar planes, the possibility of multiple detections around a single star is actually rather
high. For instance, if a Kepler-like mission conducted by aliens observed Earth transiting the Sun, there is a 12%
chance that it would also see Venus transiting.
Kepler has a much higher probability of detecting Earth-like planets than the Hubble Space Telescope, since it has a
much larger field of view (approximately 10 degrees square), and is dedicated to detecting planetary transits. The
Hubble Space Telescope, in contrast, is used to address a wide range of questions and rarely looks continuously at
just one starfield. Of the approximately half-million stars in Kepler's field of view, around 150,000 stars were
selected
[43]
for observation, and they are observed simultaneously, with the spacecraft measuring variations in their
brightness every 30 minutes. This provides a better chance for seeing a transit. In addition, the 1-in-215 probability
means that if 100% of stars observed had the same diameter as the Sun, and each had one Earth-like terrestrial planet
in an orbit identical to that of the Earth, Kepler would find about 465; but if only 10% of stars observed were such,
then it would find about 46. The mission is well suited to determine the frequency of Earth-like planets orbiting other
stars.
[20]

[44]
Since Kepler must see at least three transits to be sure the dimming was caused by a planet, and since larger planets
give a signal that is easier to check, scientists expect the first reported results will be larger Jupiter-size planets in
tight orbits. The first of these were reported after only a few months of operation. Smaller planets, and planets farther
from their sun will take longer, and discovering planets comparable to Earth is expected to take three years or
longer.
[37]
Data collected by Kepler is also being used for studying variable stars of various types and performing
asteroseismology,
[45]
particularly on stars showing solar-like oscillations.
[46]
Kepler (spacecraft)
147
Mission results to date
A photo taken by Kepler with two points of
interest outlined. Celestial north is towards the
lower left corner.
Detail of Kepler's image of the investigated area
showing open star cluster NGC 6791. Celestial
north is towards the lower left corner.
2009
NASA held a press conference to discuss early science results of the
Kepler mission on August 6, 2009.
[47]
At this press conference, it was
revealed that Kepler had confirmed the existence of the previously
known transiting exoplanet HAT-P-7b, and was functioning well
enough to discover Earth-size planets.
[48]

[49]
Since Kepler's detection of planets depends on seeing very small
changes in brightness, stars that vary in brightness all by themselves
(variable stars) are not useful in this search.
[33]
From the first few
months of data, Kepler scientists have determined that about 7,500
stars from the initial target list are such variable stars. These were
dropped from the target list, and will be replaced by new candidates.
On November 4, 2009, the Kepler project publicly released the light
curves of the dropped stars.
[50]
Ground-based follow-up studies of the first six weeks of data, revealed
five previously unknown planets, all very close to their stars, one
(Kepler-4b) slightly larger than Neptune and four (Kepler-5b, 6b, 7b
and 8b) larger than Jupiter,
[12]
and Kepler-7b one of the least dense
planets found yet.
[14]
Another discovery, not yet understood, was of at
least two objects that are the size of planets, but hotter than their
stars.
[16]
One analysis suggests these objects are white dwarfs.
[51]
2010
On 15 June 2010, the Kepler Mission released data on all but 400 of
the ~156,000 planetary target stars to the public. 706 targets from this
first data set have viable exoplanet candidates, with sizes ranging from
as small as the Earth to larger than Jupiter. The identity and
characteristics of 306 of the 706 targets were given. The released
targets included 5 candidate multi-planet systems. Data for the
remaining 400 targets with planetary candidates will be released in February 2011. The Kepler results, based on the
candidates in the released list, imply that most candidate planets have radii less than half that of Jupiter. The Kepler
results also imply that small candidate planets with periods less than 30 days are much more common than large
candidate planets with periods less than 30 days and that the ground-based discoveries are sampling the large-size
tail of the size distribution.
[52]
This contradicted older theories which had suggested small and Earth-like planets
would be relatively infrequent.
[53]

[54]
Based on the Kepler data, an estimate of around 100 million habitable planets
in our galaxy may be realistic.
[55]
However, some media reports of the TED talk have led to misunderstandings,
apparently
Kepler (spacecraft)
148
Detail of Kepler's image of the investigated area.
The location of TrES-2b within this image is
shown. Celestial north is towards the lower left
corner.
partly due to confusion concerning the term "Earth-like". By way of
clarification, a letter to the Director of the NASA Ames Research
Center, for the Kepler Science Council dated August 2, 2010 states,
"Analysis of the current Kepler data does not support the assertion that
Kepler has found any Earth-like planets."
[56]

[57]

[58]
2011
Exoplanets in Kepler's FOV, in context of all discovered exoplanets (as of
2010-10-03), with some transit probabilities for example scenarios indicated
On 2 February 2011, the Kepler team
announced the results of analysis of the data
taken between 2 May and 16 September
2009.
[59]
They found 1235 planetary
candidates circling 997 host stars. (The
numbers that follow assume the candidates
are really planets, though the official papers
call them only candidates. Independent
analysis indicates that at least 90% of them
are real planets and not false positives.
[60]
)
68 planets were approximately Earth-size,
288 super-Earth-size, 662 Neptune-size, 165
Jupiter-size, and 19 up to twice the size of
Jupiter. 54 planets were within the habitable
zone, including 5 less than twice the size of
the Earth. In contrast to previous work,
roughly 74% of the planets are smaller than
Neptune, most likely as a result of previous
work finding large planets more easily than
smaller ones. The observed planet count
versus size increases to a peak at two to
three times Earth-size and then declines
inversely proportional to area of the planet.
Kepler's current best estimate, after
accounting for currently known biases: 6%
of stars host Earth-size candidates, 7% host super-Earth-size candidates, 17% host Neptune-size candidates, and 4%
host Jupiter-size candidates. Multi-planet systems are common; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems,
and 33.9% of all the planets are in multiple planet systems.
Kepler (spacecraft)
149
Follow-ups by other teams
In the candidate data publicly released by the Kepler team, the planet KOI 428b was discovered (KOI stands for
"Kepler Object of Interest").
[61]
Citizen scientist participation
Kepler Mission data has recently
[62]
been used for the Zooniverse project "planethunters.org", which allows
volunteers to look for transit events in the light curves to identify planets that the computer algorithms might miss.
Currently, users may have found ninety candidates that were previously unrecognized by the Kepler Mission
team.
[63]

[64]

[65]
The team has plans to publicly credit amateurs who spot such planets.
Extrasolar planets detected
Diagram of Kepler's investigated area with
celestial coordinates
Kepler's first five exoplanets
Kepler has a fixed field of view (FOV) against the sky. The diagram to
the right shows the celestial coordinates and where the detector fields
are located, along with the locations of a few bright stars with celestial
north at the top left corner. Click on the diagram to see a detailed view.
The mission website has a calculator
[66]
that will determine if a given
object falls in the FOV, and if so, where it will appear in the photo
detector output data stream.
Kepler has identified two systems containing objects which are smaller
and hotter than their parent stars: KOI 74 and KOI 81.
[67]
These
objects are probably low-mass white dwarf stars produced by previous
episodes of mass transfer in their systems.
[15]
In 2010, the Kepler team released a paper which had data for 312
extrasolar planet candidates from 306 separate stars. Only 33.5 days of
data were available for most of the candidates.
[52]
NASA also
announced data for another 400 candidates were being withheld to
allow members of the Kepler team to perform follow-up
observations.
[68]
The data for these candidates were made public on
February 2, 2011.
[59]
On February 2, 2011, the Kepler team released a list of 1235 extrasolar
planet candidates, including 54 that may be in the "habitable zone."
[69]
[70]
There were previously only two planets thought to be in the
"habitable zone," so these new findings represent an enormous
expansion of the potential number of "Goldilocks planets" (planets of
the right temperature to support liquid water).
[71]
All of the habitable
zone candidates found thus far orbit stars significantly smaller and
cooler than the Sun (habitable candidates around Sun-like stars will take several additional years to accumulate the
three transits required for detection).
[72]
Of all the new planet candidates, 68 are 125% of Earth's size or smaller, or
smaller than all previously discovered exoplanets.
[70]
"Earth-size" and "super-Earth-size" is defined as "less than or
equal to 2 Earth radii (Re)" [(or, Rp ≤ 2.0 Re) - Table 5].
[59]
Six such planet candidates [namely: KOI 326.01
(Rp=0.85), KOI 701.03 (Rp=1.73), KOI 268.01 (Rp=1.75), KOI 1026.01 (Rp=1.77), KOI 854.01 (Rp=1.91), KOI
70.03 (Rp=1.96) - Table 6]
[59]
are in the "habitable zone."
[69]
A more recent study found that one of these candidates
(KOI 326.01) is in fact much larger and hotter than first reported.
[73]
Kepler (spacecraft)
150
Based on the latest Kepler findings, astronomer Seth Shostak estimates that "within a thousand light-years of Earth,"
there are "at least 30,000" habitable planets.
[74]
Also based on the findings, the Kepler team has estimated that there
are "at least 50 billion planets in the Milky Way", of which "at least 500 million" are in the habitable zone.
[75]
In
March, 2011, astronomers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) reported that about "1.4 to 2.7 percent" of all
sunlike stars are expected to have earthlike planets "within the habitable zones of their stars". This means there are
"two billion" of these "Earth analogs" in our own Milky Way galaxy alone. The JPL astronomers also noted that
there are "50 billion other galaxies", potentially yielding more than one sextillion "Earth analog" planets if all
galaxies have similar numbers of planets to the Milky Way.
[76]
Confirmed planets
Below is a table of known extrasolar planetary systems from the list of extrasolar planets within the FOV of Kepler.
Star Kepler
Input
Catalog
(KIC)
Constellation Right
ascension
Declination App.
mag.
Distance
(ly)
Spectral
type
Planet Mass
(M
J
)
Radius
(R
J
)
Orbital
period
(d)
Semimajor
axis
(AU)
Orbital
ecc.
Inc.
(°)
Discovery
year
TrES-2
KIC 
11446443
[77]
Draco
19
h
 07
m
 14
s +49° 18′ 59″ 11.41 750 G0V TrES-2b
(Kepler-1b)
1.199 1.272 1.49 0.03556 0
83.62
2006
HAT-P-7
KIC 
10666592
[78]
Cygnus
19
h
 28
m
 59
s +47° 58′ 10″ 10.46 1044 F8 HAT-P-7b
(Kepler-2b)
1.776 1.363
2.2047299
0.0377 0 85.7 2008
16 Cygni B
KIC 
12069449
[79]
Cygnus
19
h
 41
m
 51.9720
s +50° 31′ 03.083″ 5.96 70.5 G2.5Vb 16 Cygni Bb 1.68 ? 798.5 1.681 0.681 85.9 1996
HAT-P-11
KIC 
10748390
[80]
Cygnus
19
h
 50
m
 50.2469
s +48° 04′ 51.085″ 9.59 123 K4 HAT-P-11b
(Kepler-3b)
0.081 0.422
4.8878045
0.053 0.198 88.5 2009
Kepler-4
KIC 
11853905
[81]
Draco
19
h
 2
m
 27.7
s +50° 8′ 8.7″ 12.6 1794 Kepler-4b 0.077 0.357 3.2135 0.04558 0
89.76
2010
Kepler-5
KIC 
8191672
[82]
Cygnus
19
h
 57
m
 37.7
s +44° 2′ 6.2″ 13.9 Kepler-5b 2.114 1.431 3.5485 0.05064 0 86.3 2010
Kepler-6
KIC 
10874614
[83]
Cygnus
19
h
 47
m
 20.9
s +48° 14′ 23.8″ 13.8 Kepler-6b 0.669 1.323 3.2347 0.04567 0 86.8 2010
Kepler-7
KIC 
5780885
[84]
Lyra
19
h
 14
m
 19.6
s +41° 5′ 23.3″ 13.3 Kepler-7b 0.433 1.478 4.8855 0.06224 0 86.5 2010
Kepler-8
KIC 
6922244
[85]
Lyra
18
h
 45
m
 9.1
s +42° 27′ 3.8″ 13.9 4338 Kepler-8b 0.603 1.419 3.5225 0.0483 0
84.07
2010
Kepler-9
KIC 
3323887
[86]
Lyra
19
h
 2
m
 17.76
s +38° 24′ 3.2″
13.9
[87] 2300 G2V Kepler-9b 0.252 0.842 19.24 0.14 0.15
88.55
2010
Kepler (spacecraft)
151
Kepler-9
KIC 
3323887
[86]
Lyra
19
h
 2
m
 17.76
s +38° 24′ 3.2″
13.9
[87] 2300 G2V Kepler-9c 0.171 0.823 38.91 0.225 0.13
88.12
2010
Kepler-9
KIC 
3323887
[86]
Lyra
19
h
 2
m
 17.76
s +38° 24′ 3.2″
13.9
[87] 2300 G2V Kepler-9d 0.022? 0.15 1.592851 0.02730 ? ? 2010
Kepler-10
KIC 
11904151
[88]
Draco
19
h
 2
m
 43
s +50° 14′ 29″ 10.96 564 G Kepler-10b 0.0143 0.127 0.837495 0.01684 0 84.4 2011
Kepler-10
KIC 
11904151
[88]
Draco
19
h
 2
m
 43
s +50° 14′ 29″ 10.96 564 G Kepler-10c < 0.063 0.199 45.29485 0.2407 0
89.65
2011
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11b 0.01353 0.1762 10.30375 0.091 0 88.5
2011
[90]
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11c 0.0425
0.28175
13.02502 0.106 0 89
2011
[90]
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11d 0.01919 0.3068 22.68719 0.159 0 89.3
2011
[90]
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11e 0.02643 0.4043 31.9959 0.194 0 88.8
2011
[90]
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11f
0.007237
0.2335 46.68876 0.25 0 89.4
2011
[90]
Kepler-11
KIC 
6541920
[89]
Cygnus
19
h
 14
m
 27.62
s +41° 54′ 32.9″ 14.2 1999 GV Kepler-11g < 0.95 0.3274
118.37774
0.462 0 89.8
2011
[90]
The planet KOI 428b.
[61]
KOI=Kepler Object of Interest.
Kepler Input Catalog
The Kepler Input Catalog (or KIC) is a publicly searchable database of roughly 13.2 million targets used for the
Kepler Spectral Classification Program and Kepler.
[91]

[92]
The catalog alone is not used for finding Kepler targets,
because only a portion (about 1/3 of the catalog) can be observed by the spacecraft.
[91]
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[79] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=12069449&action=Search
[80] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=10748390&action=Search
[81] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=11853905&action=Search
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[83] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=10874614&action=Search
[84] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=5780885&action=Search
[85] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=6922244&action=Search
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[87] Schneider, Jean. "Star:Kepler-9" (http:// exoplanet. eu/ star.php?st=Kepler-9). EPE. Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. . Retrieved
2011-04-23.
[88] http:// archive.stsci. edu/ kepler/kic10/ search. php?kic_kepler_id=11904151&action=Search
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[90] Schneider, Jean. "Star:Kepler-11" (http:// exoplanet. eu/ star.php?st=Kepler-11#a_publi). EPE. Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. .
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Kepler (spacecraft)
155
Further reading
• "Star : Kepler-10" (http:// exoplanet. eu/ star. php?st=Kepler-10). EPE. Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.
Retrieved 2011-01-11.
External links
• Audio - Cain/Gay (2010) Astronomy Cast (http:// www.astronomycast. com/ missions/ ep-190-kepler-mission/)
Kepler Mission
• Summary Table of Kepler Discoveries (http:// kepler.nasa. gov/ Mission/ discoveries/ )
• Kepler Mission website on www.nasa.gov (http:/ / www.nasa. gov/ mission_pages/ kepler/ main/ index. html)
• Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC) (http:// astro. phys. au. dk/ KASC/ )
• Spherical panorama of Kepler in the clean room prior to fueling (http:// nasatech. net/ Kepler090130/ )
• Kepler (spacecraft) (http:/ / twitter.com/ NASAKepler) on Twitter
• New Planetary System discovered by Kepler (http:/ / www.nasa. gov/ mission_pages/ kepler/news/
new_planetary_system. html)
Radio Society of Great Britain
156
Radio Society of Great Britain
Radio Society of Great Britain
RSGB headquarters in Bedford, UK, July 2009.
Abbreviation RSGB
Formation
1913
[1]
Type Non-profit organization
Purpose/focus Advocacy, Education
Headquarters
3 Abbey Court, Fraser Road, Priory Business Park, Bedford MK44
3WH
IO92sd
[2]
Region served UK
Membership
22,600
[3]
President Dave Wilson, M0OBW
Main organ Board of Directors
Affiliations International Amateur Radio Union
Website http:/ / www.rsgb. org/
First founded in 1913 as the London Wireless Club,
[1]
the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) is the United
Kingdom's recognised national society for amateur radio operators. The society's patron is Prince Philip, Duke of
Edinburgh and it represents the interests of the UK’s 60,000 licensed radio amateurs. A long recognised amateur
radio organisation, the society is the national member society representing the United Kingdom and certain
dependent territories of the United Kingdom in the International Amateur Radio Union. It also acts as a medium for
communication between the enthusiasts and the UK government.
Role of the RSGB
The RSGB has traditionally acted as the organisation through which amateur radio enthusiasts interact with the
telecommunications regulatory authority of the United Kingdom, Ofcom. Although Ofcom has recently used its web
site to solicit opinions directly from interested parties, the RSGB continues to advise and to seek to influence Ofcom
on the likely impact of proposed changes in many areas – from decisions on licensing and bandwidth controls
through to the use of Broadband over Power Lines PLT (which it is thought would cause large amounts of
Radio Society of Great Britain
157
electromagnetic noise).
RSGB also acts as a parent organisation to many smaller groups and societies. Some of these societies unite local
areas (such as repeater groups) or groups of individuals (such as Forces service groups, or old timer groups) or even
people interested in a particular amateur radio band (such as 2 metre band groups).
The society publishes a monthly magazine called RadCom, along with a range of technical books.
History of the RSGB
The RSGB made the first radio transmission across to the United States, but failed to have any receiving equipment.
Many members were slightly annoyed by this fact and so formed other sections of the RSGB which were later
absorbed into the RSGB itself.
During World War II, the entire RSGB Council and many of its members were recruited into MI8, also known as the
Radio Security Service. Its mission was to intercept clandestine enemy transmissions.
[4]

[4]
In 2006, the RSGB cooperated with Ofcom to revise the amateur radio licence in the United Kingdom. Changes
included removing the annual licence fee and removing the requirement to log all transmissions. Amateur radio
operators gained permission to operate one's amateur radio station remotely, and the changes increased the spectrum
available to the lower classes of licensees.
Future of the RSGB
There are competing demands from more and more non-amateur uses of radio (for example mobile operators and
wireless devices). Despite this, the RSGB has been able to maintain existing amateur radio allocations and negotiate
some new ones.
Publications
Books
The RSGB publishes many books on amateur radio and related matters. A very small sample includes
• Brown, Chris (ed) (2001) Radio & Electronics Cookbook Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 0-7506-5214-4
• Dennison, Mike and Lorek, Chris, eds. (2006). RSGB Radio Communication Handbook. 8th Edition. Radio
Society of Great Britain. ISBN 0-905086-09-1.
• Dodd, Peter (1996) Antenna Experimenter's Guide, The Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 1-872309-36-4
• Fielding, John (2006) Power Supply Handbook Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 1-905086-21-0
• Fielding, John (2006) Amateur Radio Astronomy Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 1-905086-16-4
• Hawker, Pat (2002) Antenna Topics Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 1-872309-89-5
• Poole, Ian (2004) Radio Propagation—Principles & Practice Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN
1-872309-97-6
• Read, Giles (2010) HF Antennas for everyone Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN 978-1-90-508659-7
Radio Society of Great Britain
158
Magazines
• RadCom The official journal of the Radio Society of Great Britain.
References
[1] Clarricoats, John. World at their fingertips. ISBN 0-900612-09-6.
[2] http:/ / toolserver.org/ ~geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Radio_Society_of_Great_Britain&params=52.127804_N_-0.417352_E_
[3] "RSGB Annual Report - 1 January to 31 December 2008" (http:// www. rsgb.org/ rsgbinfo/annualreport/annualreport.pdf). RSGB. .
[4] West, Nigel. GCHQ: The Secret Wireless War 1900-1986. ISBN 0-340-41197-X.
External links
• Radio Society of Great Britain (http:// www.rsgb. org/)
Article Sources and Contributors
159
Article Sources and Contributors
K
a
band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426906665  Contributors: A.R., Atlant, Borgx, Bryan Derksen, D1ma5ad, Danroa, Dddstone, Evice, Fetchmaster, Fleminra, Globe
Collector, Gobonobo, Graeme Bartlett, Iediteverything, Isotope23, Jonverve, Mugaliens, Nintendude, Nmh, Remember the dot, Snesjomann, Template namespace initialisation script, Thuvia1,
Vegaswikian, WarthogDemon, Wasabie, 16 anonymous edits
Instructional Television Fixed Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=389578560  Contributors: Azumanga1, Daniel Case, Dawnseeker2000, Ground Zero, Gwern,
Kreynen, MGlosenger, Mlaffs, Petri Krohn, RandallJones, Shell Kinney, Soap, Stereorock, 9 anonymous edits
K band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427233128  Contributors: A.R., Atlant, Bryan Derksen, Dddstone, Dietlein, Evil Monkey, F91jsw, Fleminra, Globe Collector,
Iediteverything, Jaraalbe, Jim.henderson, John Miles, Jonverve, Kidbritish, Mlnovaaa, Modest Genius, Mulad, Ossworks, Oz1sej, Paumard, Taral, Template namespace initialisation script,
Truthlobby, Wasabie, Wiher, 22 anonymous edits
K
u
band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426823135  Contributors: 16@r, A.R., Aldie, Alex19568, Alvestrand, Asfarer, Asni Harismi, Atlant, Belovedfreak, Bobblewik,
Borgx, Bryan Derksen, Bumbulski, Cstaffa, D4R4, Dah31, Dddstone, Dysprosia, El C, Eve Hall, Evice, Eyreland, Fleminra, FrisB33, Fxhomie, Gene Nygaard, Globe Collector, Gobonobo,
Graeme Bartlett, GregorB, Gsp, Guirro, HappyApple, Iediteverything, Isotope23, Jablto, James Michael 1, JamesAM, Jamesfbrown, Jerome Charles Potts, Jonverve, Kadin2048, Kharker, Kiand,
Kman543210, Krash, Kvonk, MMuzammils, MarkPos, MartinVillafuerte85, Maudemiller, Mike.lifeguard, Naryathegreat, Radiojon, Real Deuce, Remember the dot, Rfc1394, SEWilco, Satbuff,
Sforgue, Stdjsb25, Stroppolo, Template namespace initialisation script, Tjhowse, Vegaswikian, Wasabie, Wiher, Xyzzyva, Zerbey, 95 anonymous edits
L band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419715781  Contributors: A.R., Atlant, Bryan Derksen, Chmod007, Cryonic07, Dddstone, Denelson83, Eyreland, Fleminra, Fratrep,
Gene Nygaard, GeorgeLouis, Globe Collector, Gpvos, Igiffin, Iridescent, Java13690, Jim.henderson, Jonverve, Kcordina, Keenan Pepper, Krash, Lightmouse, MartinVillafuerte85, Mhardcastle,
Modest Genius, Ninly, RTG, Radiojon, Senthil, Smiker, Srleffler, Template namespace initialisation script, Towel401, UltraAyla, Updatehelper, Vegaswikian, Wasabie, 39 anonymous edits
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429522643  Contributors: Alai, Baldur, Bearcat, Bobblewik, Boffin, Bswee, Bumm13,
CanadianLinuxUser, CaribDigita, Cheluco, Clawed, Dale Arnett, Dawnseeker2000, Denelson83, Denis tarasov, Deville, Djmckee1, Freedomlinux, Georgiafreak72, Greyengine5, Ground Zero,
Gsingh, Jamsignal, Jim.henderson, Jimj wpg, JustinRossi, KJRehberg, KelleyCook, Kgaughan, LilHelpa, Metamusing, Mikeblas, Mlaffs, Moogle10000, MrOllie, Nadav1, Nelson50, Owen,
Palica, Phatom87, Radagast, Radiojon, Rfc1394, Spiral5800, Subwayguy, Timewatcher, Tonchizerodos, Woohookitty, WorldWide Update, Zachlipton, Zilog Jones, Zollerriia, Zzuuzz, 66
anonymous edits
Q band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390735580  Contributors: Globe Collector, Jonverve, LouScheffer, Rjwilmsi, 3 anonymous edits
S band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430062030  Contributors: A.R., Alfio, Atlant, Bhadani, Bryan Derksen, Captain Klystron, Clawson, Dankyjoe, Dddstone,
Denelson83, Electron9, EoGuy, Fleminra, Fstanchina, Globe Collector, Gpvos, Hannospijker, Hcobb, Iolar, Jonverve, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jtru88, Kcordina, KeypadSDM, LouScheffer,
Monedula, Pierre cb, Pomona17, Pot, R'n'B, Radiojon, Tedernst, Template namespace initialisation script, TrbleClef, Tri400, Vegaswikian, Wasabie, Webbyj, 53 anonymous edits
U-NII  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417725572  Contributors: Altaphon, Dawnseeker2000, Dddstone, Falkonry, Glenn, KelleyCook, Limlim, Mets501, Mlaffs,
Shaghayeghi, Vegaswikian, 10 anonymous edits
V band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419824028  Contributors: 16@r, Atlant, Benkid77, Bryan Derksen, Dddstone, Eyreland, Fleminra, Globe Collector, Hlm Z.,
Horwathbd, Jonverve, Jorp, Modest Genius, Ossworks, Raymondwinn, Siliconspectrum, Template namespace initialisation script, Wiher, 23 anonymous edits
W band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414507891  Contributors: Amatulic, Binksternet, Dancraggs, Dddstone, DeknMike, Fleminra, Globe Collector, Jaraalbe, Jonverve,
MarkPos, Mets501, Neparis, Ossworks, Petr lorenz, 10 anonymous edits
X band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426826342  Contributors: A.R., Andy Dingley, Armeria, Atlant, BL Lacertae, Bocianski, Bryan Derksen, Chrispetrich, Cmdrjameson,
Coneslayer, Cphi, Dcoetzee, Dddstone, Eteq, Evmore, Fleminra, GTBacchus, GeorgeLouis, Globe Collector, Gobonobo, Haikupoet, Hodgson-Burnett's Secret Garden, InShaneee, Isnow, Jda,
JohnI, Jonverve, Jovianeye, Jsnow, Justinafuller, Kevin.py, Lisamh, Longhair, Marie Poise, Meggar, MrNonchalant, Mugaliens, Neparis, Ng.j, Omicronpersei8, Ossworks, Pierre cb, Quantpole,
Qutezuce, Radagast83, Roberteleejr, Sanders muc, SlackerMom, Template namespace initialisation script, UtherSRG, Wasabie, Wattyirl, Wikiborg, Wongm, World of Radar, Yworo, 69
anonymous edits
Radio spectrum  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430209630  Contributors: 28bytes, Alansohn, Chris the speller, Dicklyon, Dr. Zombieman, Dravecky, DuncanHill, Fanatix,
Gerrit, GoingBatty, GyroMagician, Harumphy, Jonverve, Kajervi, Maaf, Mneuner, Mulad, Ninly, Nomad, Perohanych, RTG, RingtailedFox, Spinningspark, Tabletop, The Original Wildbear,
TheAnarcat, Thryduulf, Vdonof, Wavelength, WikHead, Wiki libs, Wnt, Wtshymanski, Yaman32, 54 anonymous edits
Extremely low frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425102981  Contributors: 2over0, 84user, 8r455, Adamantios, Aido2002, Amilnerwhite, Andy Christ,
Ashishbhatnagar72, Avocade, BenBurch, Betacommand, Binksternet, BioTube, Bluap, Bryan Derksen, Cacycle, Cburnett, Ce garcon, Cexycy, Cleduc, Congruence, Conversion script, CyclePat,
DJGB, Dachshund, Darrien, Deville, Dinsdagskind, Dreish, Dual Freq, Dying, Ed Fitzgerald, Edcolins, Edison, Ejay, Feedmecereal, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, Giftlite, Graham87,
Grodno100, Gurch, Heron, Hydrogen Iodide, Ily1145, Incnis Mrsi, Jaydee2584, Jeffrey Mall, Jerzy, Jll, Jonverve, Jorge Stolfi, Karl-Henner, Kjkolb, Kurykh, LMB, Light current, LilHelpa,
LorenzoB, Lotje, Lowellian, Maximus Rex, Maxistheman, Meggar, Meltonkt, Michael Hardy, Mulad, NickBush24, Nikai, Nutriveg, Omegatron, PDH, PatVanHove, Pinethicket, Plop, PrestonH,
Prickus, Radiojon, Ralian, Rcooley, Reddi, Relmeligy, Richard W.M. Jones, Rijkbenik, Rjwilmsi, Roricka, SAE1962, SEWilco, Sam Hocevar, Sanders muc, Scott S, Sjc, Soakologist, Spra,
StephanieM, Tbonnie, Tebloraf, Template namespace initialisation script, The Anome, The Brain, The Epopt, Timc, Timo Honkasalo, TwoOneTwo, Verbal, Viriditas, 109 anonymous edits
Super low frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=415962434  Contributors: AHMartin, Adamantios, Ashishbhatnagar72, BenBurch, Binksternet, CheekyMonkey,
Graeme Bartlett, Heron, Jerzy, Jonnabuz, Jonverve, Mikeblas, Nandhp, Omegatron, Sanders muc, The Anome, Tufflaw, Unyoyega, 23 anonymous edits
Ultra low frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422252667  Contributors: AHMartin, Adamantios, Ashishbhatnagar72, BenBurch, Binksternet, Bwilkins,
CheekyMonkey, Denelson83, G-W, Gene Nygaard, Jerzy, Jonverve, Jxm, Miky9585, Nandhp, Omegatron, Pogostix, RJFJR, Sam Hocevar, Slawojarek, Swpb, The Anome, The Hokkaido Crow,
Ulfwaves, Wikianon, 33 anonymous edits
Very low frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429376694  Contributors: 121a0012, Aaron Brenneman, Adamantios, Alex Sims, Alureiter, Ashdurbat, Audriusa,
Ayecee, Backeby, BenBurch, Bluemoose, Bobblewik, BringItOn TheAteam, Bumm13, Caerwine, Chris Henniker, CosineKitty, Crosbiesmith, DMG413, DaveGorman, Dddstone, Denelson83,
Dogaroon, EEPROM Eagle, Ejay, Equuleusky, Graeme Bartlett, Harumphy, Heinz it up 57, Icairns, Iknowsomethingyoudon'tknow, Isidore, Jeffreykopp, Jerzy, Jonverve, Joseph Banks,
Jujutacular, K7aay, KD5TVI, Kjkolb, Lightmouse, LorenzoB, M for Molecule, Marky26 uk, Michael Hardy, Mikez, Milonica, NJGW, Nabokov, Omegatron, Phil Boswell, Prefect, R9tgokunks,
Radiojon, Redcrown01, Reddi, Rgrg, Rhanbury, Roadrunner, Rsg, Shadow demon, Slawojarek, Sota767, Stephan Leeds, Surv1v4l1st, Sv1xv, Tbonnie, Template namespace initialisation script,
The Anome, Thiseye, Toreau, Vakarel, Wfeidt, Whitepaw, WormRunner, Wtshymanski, Xezbeth, Yamagawa10k, YellowMonkey, 87 anonymous edits
Low frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430439136  Contributors: Adamantios, Addshore, Andre Engels, Andy M. Wang, Aranel, ArnoldReinhold, Asfarer, Bin im
Garten, Bobblehead, Bruce Couper, Caerwine, Callidior, Chrisd87, Denelson83, DrZeus, Dsergeant, Evice, Fbfree, Gerry Lynch, Growler37, Harumphy, IVAN3MAN, Ignacioerrico, Jeffreykopp,
Jerzy, Jonverve, Krashlandon, Lagame, Liftarn, LilHelpa, Lysy, Mailer diablo, Marknagel, Mcpusc, Metroccfd, Michael Hardy, Mikez, Omegatron, Prefect, R'n'B, Rchandra, Rgrg, Rjwilmsi,
Sailsbystars, Sam8, Sega381, Shanes, Sv1xv, Tero, The Anome, The Original Wildbear, Vgy7ujm, Wfeidt, Wtshymanski, 54 anonymous edits
Medium frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427419651  Contributors: Adamantios, AeroPsico, Alex S, Amalas, Antandrus, ArnoldReinhold, Caerwine, Ccrrccrr,
Denelson83, Dethme0w, Dravecky, Dsergeant, Eyreland, Frodo300, Isnow, Jerzy, Jonverve, Liberian Ace Ventura, Liveinthewire, Materialscientist, Minesweeper, Nigelj, Omegatron, Prefect,
ProhibitOnions, Rgrg, RingtailedFox, Stereorock, The Anome, Wfeidt, 29 anonymous edits
High frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428910321  Contributors: Adamantios, AeroPsico, Ajdiggens, Alansohn, Bloodshedder, Caerwine, Choess, Chris Roy,
DS1953, Dysprosia, Edit Centric, Ee prof, Egil, Evice, Fg2, Font, Frodo300, GRAHAMUK, Glenn, Graeme Bartlett, Hetar, Ibn Battuta, J.delanoy, Jakes18, Jbmann, Jerzy, Johantheghost,
Jonverve, Korva, Krash, Lightmouse, Lonelydarksky, Materialscientist, Metroccfd, Michael Hardy, Mimihitam, Nigelj, Odedee, Omegatron, Patrick, Pavel Kolotilov, Radiojon, Robertvan1,
Sam8, Sceptre, Scott14, Smack, Stephan Leeds, Sv1xv, Template namespace initialisation script, Tero, The Anome, Twang, Vadim Makarov, Voidxor, Wfeidt, Wikianon, Wireless friend, Yath,
ععععع ع ععع عع, 85 anonymous edits
Article Sources and Contributors
160
Very high frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426007709  Contributors: 0612, ABF, Adamantios, Adamm, Ahoerstemeier, Ali@gwc.org.uk, Andjb, Antennaman,
Armistej, ArnoldReinhold, Asmeurer, Billscottbob, Bobo192, Bovineone, Brycen, Bsadowski1, C-town dude, Caerwine, Calabrese, Chillysnow, Christian List, Ciphers, Cottingham,
DangApricot, Daniel Christensen, Denelson83, Devilboy1015, Djg2006, ESkog, Ebear422, Eric Kvaalen, Ericd, Evice, Evilboy, Fayenatic london, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Flightx52, Frecklefoot,
GABaker, GRAHAMUK, Gerry Lynch, Glenn, Gloop, Haikupoet, Hurricane111, Iluvcapra, JMyrleFuller, James.pole, Jan olieslagers, Jcs45, Jeffq, Jerzy, Jeysaba, JimVC3, Jol123, Jonverve,
Joseph Solis in Australia, Jpers36, JustinSmith, KansasCity, Kapow, Kirby Morgan, Lcmortensen, Lee M, Liam Skoda, Luckas Blade, Ma3nocum, Marc Venot, Marknagel, Martarius,
MartinVillafuerte85, Maximaximax, Mboverload, McTavidge, Mendors, Merbenz, Michael Hardy, Monkeybait, Mrschimpf, Mulad, NawlinWiki, Nedim Ardoğa, Niteowlneils, Northumbrian,
Omegatron, PMDrive1061, Palmpilot900, Papna, Patrick, Psychorob, Quicksilvre, Radiojon, Rebrane, Rich Farmbrough, RingtailedFox, Rockhopper10r, Seikku Kaita, SirChan, Slawojarek,
Speciate, Stickeylabel, Swid, TVSRR, Tarinatots, Template namespace initialisation script, Tero, The Anome, The Original Wildbear, The PIPE, Thunderbird2, Tim-m-m-m-m, Tonsofpcs,
Tristan Horn, Umapathy, Unyoyega, ValRon, Vchimpanzee, Vladkornea, Voidxor, Wavelength, Wfeidt, Wongm, Wrodina, Wtshymanski, Wælgæst wæfre, Xyb, Y control, Z-Gleb,
ZanderSchubert, 145 anonymous edits
Ultra high frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430304744  Contributors: AJenbo, Acs4b, Alexwcovington, Anaxial, AndreyMavlyanov, Angilbas, Angstorm,
Ansbaradigeidfran, AnthonyQBachler, Arteitle, AxG, BAxelrod, Balaji7, BaronLarf, Bergsten, BevanFindlay, Bigbob, BilCat, Bloodshedder, Bogsat, Bovineone, Bridesmill, Bryan Derksen,
Bucketsofg, Bumm13, Caerwine, CamdenTommy, Camilo Sanchez, Canberra photographer, Carlb, Cfrjlr, Chris 1127, Chris the speller, ChrisPUT, CieloEstrellado, Ciphers, Clawson,
Cleosimble, Cntras, Co149, Collabi, Colonies Chris, Coloursinmyhead, Commander Keane, Coneslayer, Cootiequits, CosineKitty, Courcelles, Crmadsen, D119, DSRH, DV8 2XL, Dale Arnett,
Dcandeto, Denni, Dethme0w, DisambiguationGuy, Dismas, DocWatson42, Docu, Ds9kicks, ERobson, Edman274, Eetvartti, Ejay, Emricha, Enigmaman, EoGuy, Ericd, Evice, Feydey, Firsfron,
Fluteboy, Frankieroberto, Franl, Funandtrvl, Fursday, GSK, Gavinatkinson, GerbilSoft, Giraffedata, Glenn, Gpvos, Graymornings, Hadal, Haikupoet, Ianblair23, Idontthinkso, Iluvcapra, JFG,
Jakes18, Jdaloner, Jeffq, Jerzy, Jhapney, Jim.henderson, Joel7687, Jonverve, Jrdioko, Kascatu, Kelisi, Keraunos, Krash, Kreline, Krisorey, Laurence Gilcrest, Leafyplant, Lee M, Liftarn, MBread,
Ma3nocum, Mahanga, Martian, Martin451, Martnym, Mav, Mdebets, Meano.Culpa, Mellery, Metroccfd, Michael Hardy, Misternuvistor, Misto, Mrschimpf, Nascarkylebuschj12, Nedim Ardoğa,
Nedlowe, Nkshanl, Noisy, NorthernThunder, Nufy8, Nuggetboy, OlEnglish, Oli Filth, Omegatron, Optikos, PSzalapski, Patrick, Pauladin, Pavel Kolotilov, Picapica, PigFlu Oink, Pjvpjv,
Platinumfawkes, Prefect, Preslethe, Prince wiki thai, Puckly, Qui1che, Qutezuce, RAMChYLD, RTC, RTG, Radiojon, Reaper Eternal, Reddi, RingtailedFox, Rjhanson54, Rjwilmsi, RoyBoy,
RussBlau, Scchipli, Semiwiki, Sineui, SiobhanHansa, Slawojarek, Smack, Ssd, Starionwolf, Stephan Leeds, Stereorock, Swid, Tabletop, Tagishsimon, Template namespace initialisation script,
The Anome, The PIPE, TheGerm, Thingg, ThinkBlue, ThomasPusch, Thunderbird2, Timc, TomCat4680, Tompagenet, Tonsofpcs, Towel401, TrbleClef, Troyoda1990, Umerfarooqawan,
ValRon, Verkhovensky, Viking880, Voidxor, Wfeidt, Wireless friend, Wordie, Wordsmith, XL2D, Y control, Ynhockey, Zaphraud, Zariane, Zeno333, 373 anonymous edits
Super high frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423642606  Contributors: Adamantios, Black-Velvet, Bobblewik, Caerwine, D.bennett08, Eetvartti, Esradekan,
Forajump, Gene Nygaard, Gurch, Jonah Saltzman, Jonverve, Mlaffs, Nnh, Raz1el, Rgrg, ThomasPusch, TubularWorld, Voidxor, Whaa?, Whitepaw, Wireless friend, 32 anonymous edits
Extremely high frequency  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=430130010  Contributors: 4kinnel, Adamantios, Antonrojo, Ashishbhatnagar72, Ayecee, Baellen, Beland, Black
Pullet, Bluemoose, Bobblewik, Bpack1, Chowbok, Cobalttempest, DV8 2XL, Dalillama, Debresser, Deville, Eetvartti, EmreDuran, Firsfron, Galoubet, Goobergunch, Ground Zero, Imoeng,
InsufficientData, JLaTondre, Jaraalbe, Jerzy, Jitse Niesen, Jonverve, Joolsr, Jordan Brown, Keenan Pepper, Leonard G., Lloyd Wood, Lmdlmd, Lotje, Lt coolbud, Maximus Rex, Meneth,
Mjmarcus, Mmwaveguru, Nandhp, Neutrality, Patrick, Pdklein, Phelonius Friar, Pjvpjv, Polsok, Radiojon, Rchandra, Rgrg, Rjwilmsi, Skapur, Small black sun, Stevertigo, Template namespace
initialisation script, Teohhanhui, The Anome, ThomasPusch, Thunderbird2, Veinor, Walld, Wdfarmer, Wmt, Woohookitty, Ygtai, 102 anonymous edits
A band (radio)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416892763  Contributors: A.R., Alureiter, Brooza, Elonka, JeepdaySock, Nasa-verve, Totnesmartin, Vegaswikian
B band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=411941974  Contributors: Alureiter, Avicennasis, Modest Genius, Vegaswikian
C band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=427622836  Contributors: 16@r, A.R., Alex19568, AnOddName, Atlant, Bobblewik, Brian Patrie, Bryan Derksen, Bumm13, Charles
Gaudette, ChrisHodgesUK, Cronium, Cryonic07, Dcsutherland, Dddstone, DocWatson42, Dysmorodrepanis, Edward, Eve Hall, Felipebm, Fleminra, Fxhomie, GanjaManja, Geoffrey.landis,
Globe Collector, Graeme Bartlett, Haikupoet, Hydrargyrum, Jakes18, Jim.henderson, Jmccormac, JonHarder, Jonverve, Kcordina, Marclegrand, Mets501, Mike Peel, Miracle Pen, Mlm42, Nate
Silva, Neparis, Night Gyr, Open2universe, Ossworks, OverlordQ, Patrick Bernier, Pierre cb, Pizzadeliveryboy, Poutounet, Robfwb, Rockfang, SchuminWeb, Shaddack, SkyvisionVSAT,
Srleffler, Stilwebm, Sudch27, Template namespace initialisation script, Timc, Wasabie, Wiher, 64 anonymous edits
D band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=394083399  Contributors: A.R., Alureiter, Globe Collector, Kungfuadam, Nasa-verve, TheGreatLarryBirdJersey33, Vegaswikian, 3
anonymous edits
E band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=400092031  Contributors: Alureiter, Globe Collector, JimRCarlson, Maher-shalal-hashbaz, Mmwaveguru, Vegaswikian, 3 anonymous
edits
F band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=394083551  Contributors: A.R., Alureiter, Globe Collector, Nasa-verve, Vegaswikian, 2 anonymous edits
G band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414924938  Contributors: A.R., Alureiter, Skiminki, ThePointblank, Vegaswikian, 6 anonymous edits
H band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=423683897  Contributors: Alureiter, Bwtaylor tir, Dankyjoe, Lightmouse, Modest Genius, Rich Farmbrough, Temporaluser,
Vegaswikian, 1 anonymous edits
I band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=332105174  Contributors: Alureiter, Vegaswikian
J band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=412206182  Contributors: A.R., Alureiter, Avicennasis, Lightmouse, Meltonkt, Modest Genius, Rosarinagazo, Vegaswikian, 1
anonymous edits
M band  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=369218690  Contributors: Alureiter, ImperatorExercitus, Lightmouse, Modest Genius, Vegaswikian, 4 anonymous edits
Microwave  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431143556  Contributors: ...---...SOS, 03matt, 165.123.179.xxx, 1exec1, 203.170.3.xxx, 216.237.32.xxx, 21655, 28bytes, A little
insignificant, A5b, AGToth, AGould28564, AThing, Academic Challenger, Adashiel, Addshore, Aemiliano, Afluent Rider, Agent Smith (The Matrix), Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Alansohn, Ale jrb,
Alexf, AlexiusHoratius, Allstarecho, Alpha Omicron, Altaphon, Andrea105, AndreasJS, Andrewpmk, Anna Frodesiak, Anna Lincoln, Antandrus, Antennaman, Anwar saadat, Apparition11,
Archanamiya, ArglebargleIV, Arker, ArnoldReinhold, Arthena, Ascidian, Atb 43, Autorads, Avia, Avionix1, Avoided, Axeman89, Axl, BANZ111, Baa, Bahar101, Bangvang, Barklund, Baseball
Watcher, Bearcat, Becky Sayles, Beland, Benny-bo-bop, Benny4540, Bennyjoe, BesselDekker, Bettia, Bibliomaniac15, Bidabadi, Big Brother 1984, Bigwhiteyeti, Binksternet, Blackhorse1739,
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Kepler (spacecraft)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=431283150  Contributors: 84user, A2Kafir, Abune, Adam P., Adams kevin, Aldaron, Aldebaran66, Alexandre Gilbert,
Alsandro, Ardric47, Art LaPella, Artichoker, Ashmoo, Athaenara, Atomic7732, Attilios, AussieLegend, Axeman, Ayrenz, BatteryIncluded, Bdell555, Bealevideo, Beefyt, Beland, Bender235,
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Radio Society of Great Britain  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425964263  Contributors: 9h1lo, Adambro, Anonym1ty, Cyrius, Dawkeye, Denelson83, Dsergeant, Erianna,
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
163
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Atmosfaerisk spredning.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Atmosfaerisk_spredning.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adoniscik, Cepheiden,
Jim.henderson, Maksim, 1 anonymous edits
Image:mmds dish1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mmds_dish1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jim Jaworski
Image:2.4 GHz Wi-Fi channels (802.11b,g WLAN).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2.4_GHz_Wi-Fi_channels_(802.11b,g_WLAN).svg  License: Creative
Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Michael Gauthier, Wireless Networking in the Developing World
Image:Clam Lake ELF.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Clam_Lake_ELF.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Service Depicted: Navy
image:VLFatPalmer.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VLFatPalmer.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: F1jmm -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Heinz_it_up_
Image:Grimetonmasterna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Grimetonmasterna.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Chris 73,
Commonlingua, Compaq, Fred J, MichaelFrey, Ronaldino, Schieber, Ultratomio, Zejo, た ね , 2 anonymous edits
Image:Uboatvlfantenna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Uboatvlfantenna.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors:
Audriusa
Image:Atomic clock.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Atomic_clock.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Karel K., NielsB,
WikipediaMaster, Zwiadowca21, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Low cost DCF77 receiver.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Low_cost_DCF77_receiver.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: User:Jaho
File:JW NDB transmitter 329.0kHz.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JW_NDB_transmitter_329.0kHz.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: Nigelj (talk)
File:Icom M700Pro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Icom_M700Pro.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Petty Officer 1st Class Nico Figueroa
File:Amateurfunkstation.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Amateurfunkstation.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Emil Neuerer, DJ4PI
Image:VHF Usage.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VHF_Usage.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: ZanderSchubert (talk)
File:Primary Network Affiliates May 1954.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Primary_Network_Affiliates_May_1954.png  License: GNU Free Documentation
License  Contributors: user:Firsfron
File:Hogg horn antennas.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hogg_horn_antennas.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors:
Seattle-Capitol-Hill-Radio-Antennas-3357.jpg: Vladimir Menkov derivative work: Chetvorno (talk)
Image:Microwave tower silhouette.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Microwave_tower_silhouette.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors:
Tony Wills
File:Antennenw1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Antennenw1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Ulfbastel
File:Magnetron section transverse to axis.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnetron_section_transverse_to_axis.JPG  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Pingu Is Sumerian
File:BigBangNoise.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BigBangNoise.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Angeloleithold, Duesentrieb, GDK, Iluvalar, Juiced
lemon, Mdd, WikipediaMaster
File:Ondamtr.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ondamtr.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Antonio Pedreira
Image:EM spectrum.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EM_spectrum.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Sakurambo
Image:EM Spectrum Properties edit.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EM_Spectrum_Properties_edit.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Inductiveload, NASA
Image:Light spectrum.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Light_spectrum.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Light_spectrum.png: Original
uploader was Denelson83 at en.wikipedia derivative work: B. Jankuloski (talk)
Image:Electromagnetic-Spectrum.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Electromagnetic-Spectrum.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5
 Contributors: Belfer00, Materialscientist, Penubag
Image:Atmospheric electromagnetic opacity.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Atmospheric_electromagnetic_opacity.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
NASA (original); SVG by w:User:MysidMysid.
Image:Ozone altitude UV graph.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ozone_altitude_UV_graph.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA
File:Wideband Global SATCOM Satellite.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wideband_Global_SATCOM_Satellite.jpg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Kronik
overkill, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Geostat.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Geostat.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Brandir
Image:Orbits around earth scale diagram.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orbits_around_earth_scale_diagram.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Image of
earth: yeKcim on the Open Clip Art Library. Scale orbits: Mike1024
Image:Iridium satellite.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Iridium_satellite.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Flickr user
ideonexus
Image:PD-icon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various. See log. (Original SVG was based on File:PD-icon.png
by Duesentrieb, which was based on Image:Red copyright.png by Rfl.)
Image:Radar antenna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar_antenna.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Angeloleithold, Dual Freq, Get It, Huntster,
Saperaud, Tony Wills, 1 anonymous edits
File:Radar-hatzerim-1-1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar-hatzerim-1-1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Bukvoed
File:GBH_Primary_Secondory_Radar.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GBH_Primary_Secondory_Radar.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: Lnbogoda
File:Chain home.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chain_home.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Stuart166axe at en.wikipedia
Image:Radar antennas on USS Theodore Roosevelt SPS-64.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar_antennas_on_USS_Theodore_Roosevelt_SPS-64.jpg  License:
Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Navy
Image:weather radar.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Weather_radar.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: NOAA's National Weather Service
File:Radar-height.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar-height.PNG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Pierre_cb
File:Multipath propagation diagram en.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Multipath_propagation_diagram_en.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original
image: Lithium57 English translation: MichaelBillington (talk)
Image:Radaroperation.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radaroperation.gif  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Original uploader
was Averse at de.wikipedia
Image:Sonar Principle EN.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sonar_Principle_EN.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors:
Georg Wiora (Dr. Schorsch)
Image:Radar composantes.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar_composantes.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Pierre cb,
Vanessaezekowitz, WikipediaMaster, 1 anonymous edits
File:SPS-10 radar antenna on a Knox class frigate.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SPS-10_radar_antenna_on_a_Knox_class_frigate.jpg  License: unknown
 Contributors: DON S. MONTGOMERY
File:Radar antennas on USS Theodore Roosevelt SPS-64.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Radar_antennas_on_USS_Theodore_Roosevelt_SPS-64.jpg  License:
Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Navy
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
164
Image:PAVE PAWS Radar Clear AFS Alaska.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PAVE_PAWS_Radar_Clear_AFS_Alaska.jpg  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: AirBa, Avron, Chetvorno, Tony Wills
Image:Kepler space telescope shortly after the assembly to the third stage.jpg  Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler_space_telescope_shortly_after_the_assembly_to_the_third_stage.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Photo credit: NASA/Troy
Cryder
Image:Backside of the Kepler space telescope.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Backside_of_the_Kepler_space_telescope.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
Photo credit: NASA/Troy Cryder
Image:Keplerspacecraft-20110215.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Keplerspacecraft-20110215.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was
en:User:Drbogdan at en.wikipedia
Image:Keplerspacecraft-FocalPlane-cutout.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Keplerspacecraft-FocalPlane-cutout.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original
uploader was en:User:Drbogdan at en.wikipedia
Image:Delta II with Kepler.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Delta_II_with_Kepler.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA/Jack Pfaller
Image:LombergA1024.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LombergA1024.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Painting by Jon Lomberg, Kepler mission diagram
added by NASA.
Image:MilkywaykeplerfovbyCRoberts.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MilkywaykeplerfovbyCRoberts.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Carter Roberts.
Original uploader was Noonehasthisnameithink at en.wikipedia
Image:Kepler orbit.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler_orbit.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: DKG
File:329161main fullFFIHot300.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:329161main_fullFFIHot300.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech
File:Kepler329150main NGC6791.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler329150main_NGC6791.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech
File:Kepler First Light Detail TrES-2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler_First_Light_Detail_TrES-2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech
Image:Exoplanet Period-Mass Scatter Kepler.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Exoplanet_Period-Mass_Scatter_Kepler.png  License: unknown  Contributors:
Aldaron, KGyST
File:Kepler FOV hiRes.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler_FOV_hiRes.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech, Image credit:
Software Bisque
File:Kepler first five exoplanet size.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kepler_first_five_exoplanet_size.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: David Koch, Alan
Gould, Edna DeVore
Image:RSGB-Logo.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RSGB-Logo.png  License: Fair Use  Contributors: J.P.Lon, Kharker
Image:RSGB_HQ_UK.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RSGB_HQ_UK.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:G1MFG
License
165
License
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Contents
Articles
Ka band K band L band Ku band 1 2 5 7 11 14 17 19 20 26 28 30 33 40 45 46 48 53 57 60 63 68 80 81 85 86 87 91 92 94 95 96 97 98 Instructional Television Fixed Service

Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Q band S band U-NII V band W band X band Radio spectrum Extremely low frequency Super low frequency Ultra low frequency Very low frequency Low frequency Medium frequency High frequency Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Super high frequency Extremely high frequency A band (radio) B band C band D band E band F band G band H band I band J band

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