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Microblogging: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Microblogging: High-impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Microblogging is a broadcast medium in the form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregate file size. Microblogs ""allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links"".As with traditional blogging, microbloggers post about topics ranging from the simple, such as ""what I'm doing right now,"" to the thematic, such as ""sports cars."" Commercial microblogs also exist, to promote websites, services and/or products, and to promote collaboration within an organization.Some microblogging services offer features such as privacy settings, which allow users to control who can read their microblogs, or alternative ways of publishing entries besides the web-based interface. These may include text messaging, instant messaging, E-mail, or digital audio.This book is your ultimate resource for Microblogging. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Microblogging right away, covering: Microblogging, Blauk, Blog, Facebook, Geosocial networking, Plurk, Social network, Tumblr, Twitter, Comparison of micro-blogging services, Equal Justice for Troops blog, 25 Magazine, Andrew Laties, Apache Wave, Art blog, Jay Baer, Biblioblog, Black Weblog Awards, Blog Action Day, Blog network, Blog rally, Blog traffic, Blogged.com, Blogger's Code of Conduct, Blogging in Iran, Blook, The BOBs (weblog award), Character blogging, Cnbloggercon, Cyberpolitics, The Dump, Editorial calendar, Edublog, Fisking, Google Real-Time Search, Gucci Gang controversy, Haul video, Hauls, Hindi Blogosphere, History of blogging, Indian Blogosphere, Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy, Little Bill Clinton, Liveblogging, Media Bloggers Association, Micropoetry, Mormon blogosphere, Amber Naslund, New Sincerity, New Zealand blogosphere, Niche blogging, Novell Vibe, Photoblog, Reblogging, Science online (conference), Social blogging, Swazi Media Commentary, Tablog, This Week In Blackness, Baratunde Thurston, Tory Bear (blog), Trackback, Typecasting (blogging), United States Air Force Web Posting Response, Video blogging, Wuzly, YULBlog This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Microblogging. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Microblogging with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Microblogging is a broadcast medium in the form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregate file size. Microblogs ""allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links"".As with traditional blogging, microbloggers post about topics ranging from the simple, such as ""what I'm doing right now,"" to the thematic, such as ""sports cars."" Commercial microblogs also exist, to promote websites, services and/or products, and to promote collaboration within an organization.Some microblogging services offer features such as privacy settings, which allow users to control who can read their microblogs, or alternative ways of publishing entries besides the web-based interface. These may include text messaging, instant messaging, E-mail, or digital audio.This book is your ultimate resource for Microblogging. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Microblogging right away, covering: Microblogging, Blauk, Blog, Facebook, Geosocial networking, Plurk, Social network, Tumblr, Twitter, Comparison of micro-blogging services, Equal Justice for Troops blog, 25 Magazine, Andrew Laties, Apache Wave, Art blog, Jay Baer, Biblioblog, Black Weblog Awards, Blog Action Day, Blog network, Blog rally, Blog traffic, Blogged.com, Blogger's Code of Conduct, Blogging in Iran, Blook, The BOBs (weblog award), Character blogging, Cnbloggercon, Cyberpolitics, The Dump, Editorial calendar, Edublog, Fisking, Google Real-Time Search, Gucci Gang controversy, Haul video, Hauls, Hindi Blogosphere, History of blogging, Indian Blogosphere, Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy, Little Bill Clinton, Liveblogging, Media Bloggers Association, Micropoetry, Mormon blogosphere, Amber Naslund, New Sincerity, New Zealand blogosphere, Niche blogging, Novell Vibe, Photoblog, Reblogging, Science online (conference), Social blogging, Swazi Media Commentary, Tablog, This Week In Blackness, Baratunde Thurston, Tory Bear (blog), Trackback, Typecasting (blogging), United States Air Force Web Posting Response, Video blogging, Wuzly, YULBlog This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Microblogging. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Microblogging with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Nov 02, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781743045374
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Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Microblogging Blauk Blog Facebook Geosocial networking Plurk Social network Tumblr Twitter Comparison of micro-blogging services Equal Justice for Troops blog 25 Magazine Andrew Laties Apache Wave Art blog Jay Baer Biblioblog Black Weblog Awards Blog Action Day Blog network Blog rally Blog traffic Blogged.com Blogger's Code of Conduct Blogging in Iran Blook The BOBs (weblog award) Character blogging Cnbloggercon Cyberpolitics The Dump Editorial calendar Edublog Fisking 1 5 6 19 36 39 41 52 54 71 73 74 75 77 83 89 90 91 94 95 95 96 97 98 99 104 105 107 108 108 110 111 114 116

Google Real-Time Search Gucci Gang controversy Haul video Hauls Hindi Blogosphere History of blogging Indian Blogosphere Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy Little Bill Clinton Liveblogging Media Bloggers Association Micropoetry Mormon blogosphere Amber Naslund New Sincerity New Zealand blogosphere Niche blogging Novell Vibe Photoblog Reblogging Science online (conference) Social blogging Swazi Media Commentary Tablog This Week In Blackness Baratunde Thurston Tory Bear (blog) Trackback Typecasting (blogging) United States Air Force Web Posting Response Video blogging Wuzly YULBlog

118 119 123 124 126 127 131 132 137 138 140 141 143 150 151 155 159 161 162 163 165 166 166 167 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 176 177

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 179 186

Article Licenses License 187 .

2005:[3] A tumblelog is a quick and dirty stream of consciousness. with a timeline. Other leading social networking websites Facebook. individual images.and aud. With the growth of microblogging. whatyadoin. JudgIt. PingGadget is a location based microblogging service. developed by Digg founder Kevin Rose among others. and to promote collaboration within an organization. These may include text messaging.fm. Beeing. Services The first microblogs were known as tumblelogs. a bit like a remaindered links style linklog but with more than just links. also have their own microblogging feature. 111 microblogging sites were counted internationally. built over microblogging. to promote websites. microbloggers post about topics ranging from the simple. blog entries turned into short magazine articles.. Flipter uses microblogging as a platform for people to post topics and gather audience's opinions." Commercial microblogs also exist. Plurk has a timeline view which integrates video and picture sharing. such as "sports cars.[1] As with traditional blogging." to the thematic.ca. and posts belonged to a conversation distributed throughout the entire blogosphere. which allow users to control who can read their microblogs. The term was coined by why the lucky stiff in a blog post on April 12. Services such as Lifestream and Profilactic will aggregate microblogs from multiple social networks into a single list while other services. which fudges together a bunch of disparate forms of citation (links.and vid. little cross-blog chatter. will send out your microblog to multiple social networks.really just a way to quickly publish the "stuff" that you run across every day on the web However.. In May 2007. LinkedIn.[4] Among the most notable services are Twitter.[2] “ “ Blogging has mutated into simpler forms (specifically. or video links". many users want to maintain a presence in more than one social network. by 2006 and 2007.in has a concept of sharing emotions. before Movable Type made post titles all but mandatory. Jaiku and identi. PingGadget [5]. Pownce. the term microblog came into greater usage for such services provided by Tumblr and Twitter. Microblogs "allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences.Microblogging 1 Microblogging Microblogging is a broadcast medium in the form of blogging. link. or alternative ways of publishing entries besides the web-based interface. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregate file size. Plurk. . instant messaging. such as "what I'm doing right now.com.in.and mob. varieties of services and software with the feature of microblogging have been developed. Robot Wisdom and Bifurcated Rivets are two older style weblogs that feel very much like these tumblelogs with minimal commentary. flickrings) into a very long and narrow and distracted tumblelog. the barest whiff of a finished published work. quotes. while describing Christian Neukirchen's Anarchaia. integrates microblogging with file sharing and event invitations. Pownce was merged into SixApart in [6] 2008. back when people did sites by hand. almost pure editing. but I don’t think I’ve seen a blog like Chris Neukirchen’s Anarchaia. or digital audio. E-mail.variant). More recently. better known as status updates. ” ” Jason Kottke described tumblelogs on October 19. Emote. services and/or products. 2005. such as Ping. Google Buzz and XING. Tumblr. They remind me of an older style of blogging. Yahoo Pulse. Some microblogging services offer features such as privacy settings. MySpace. Emote.

based on more than 11 million users. where were the possible locations for supplies that matched requirements. such as the location and time of these shared posts.[17] For instance. The study suggests a link between short bursts of activity and feelings of elation. Microblogging services have revolutionized the way information is consumed. and what their opinions are about certain topics. Many individuals like sharing their whereabouts and status updates with microblogging. Microblogging is therefore expected to improve the social and emotional welfare of the workforce.[9] Sysomos' Inside Twitter [8] survey.29% of overall Twitter users who follow more than 2. Facebook. Twitter. and gives us an exciting opportunity to understand social perceptions of the people about certain events of interest. Microblogging has the potential to become a new. what were the main topics (key phrases) that were discussed in the tweets originating from Mumbai during each of the three days of carnage? During the Haiti earthquake. Aggregate analysis [13] of this data includes different dimensions like space. what were the primary immediate requirements in rescue situations. Moreover. The findings of a study by Emily Pronin of Princeton University and Harvard University's Daniel Wegner have been cited as a possible explanation for the rapid growth of microblogging. such as the Mumbai terror attacks or Iran protests. Such analysis can help us answer key questions that could have been asked during recent events for improving situational awareness: During the Mumbai terror attacks.[7] [8] Many of these studies show that for services such as Twitter. with 15% following more than 2.[19] help . especially for collaborative work within organizations. some argue that email is now a slow and inefficient way to communicate. time-consuming 'email chains' can develop.[16] Over the last few years communication patterns have shifted primarily from face-to-face to more online communication in email.[15] Hosted microblogging platforms are also available for commercial and organizational use. The Sysomos study shows that this specific group of marketers on Twitter is much more active than general user population. However. whereby two or more people are involved in lengthy communications for simple matters. such as arranging a meeting. and other microblogging services are also becoming a platform for marketing and public relations. theme. microblogging has the potential to support informal communication among coworkers. power and creativity. have tried to analyze the usage behavior of Microblogging services.000 people. for tapping the pulse of the populace. as correctly pointed out above. time.[10] with a sharp growth in the number of social media marketers. People now share what they observe in their surroundings.[14] Microblogging for organizational usage Users and organizations can set up their own microblogging service: free and open source software is available for this purpose. This is in sharp contrast to only 0.[16] It can increase opportunities to share information. text messaging. However. shows that 10% of Twitter users account for 86% of all activity. reaching its audience in seconds.000 people. information about events.Microblogging 2 Usage Several studies.a perfect medium of communication during crisis management. or recent Pakistan floods.[11] [12] The short nature of updates allow users to post news items quickly. these services store various metadata from these posts. there is a small group of active users contributing to most of the activity. Another implication of remote collaboration is that there are fewer opportunities for face-to-face informal conversations. and other tools. IM. for example government policies in healthcare. It has empowered citizens themselves to act as sensors or sources of data which could lead to important pieces of information.[8] Microblogging services have also emerged as an important source of real-time news updates for recent crisis situations.. and many more queries like these. or a platform for situational awareness and. most notably by Harvard Business School and Sysomos. informal communication medium. network structure etc. as well as streamline the information flow within an organization.[18] The 'one-to-many' broadcasting offered by microblogs is thought to increase productivity by circumventing this. sentiment.

Microblogging realize and utilize expertise within the workforce, and help build and maintain common ground between coworkers. As microblogging use continues to grow every year, it is quickly becoming a core component of Enterprise Social Software.


Issues with micro blogging
Some issues with microblogging are privacy, security, and integration.[16] Privacy is arguably a major issue because users may broadcast sensitive personal information to anyone who views their public feed. Microblog platform providers can also cause privacy issues through altering or presetting users' privacy options in a way users feel compromises their personal information. An example would be Google’s Buzz platform which incited controversy in 2010 by automatically publicizing users’ email contacts as ‘followers’.[20] Google later amended these settings. Security concerns have been voiced within the business world, since there is potential for sensitive work information to be publicized on microblogging sites such as Twitter.[21] [22] This includes information which may be subject to a superinjuction[23] . Integration could be the hardest issue to overcome, since it can be argued that corporate culture must change to accommodate microblogging.

Related concepts
Live Blogging is a derivative of microblogging that generates a continuous feed on a specific web page. Instant messaging systems display status, but generally only one of a few choices, such as: available, off-line, away. Away messages (messages displayed when the user is away) form a kind of microblogging. In the Finger protocol, the .project and .plan files are sometimes used for status updates similar to microblogging.

[1] Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael (2011) The early bird catches the news: Nine things you should know about micro-blogging, Business Horizons, 54(2). [2] http:/ / redhanded. hobix. com/ inspect/ tumbleloggingAssortedLarvae. html [3] Tumblelogs (kottke.org) (http:/ / www. kottke. org/ 05/ 10/ tumblelogs) [4] Article on thws.cn. (http:/ / www. thws. cn/ articles/ twitter-clones. html) A Chinese site, but the article is in English. Retrieved August 4, 2008. [5] http:/ / www. pinggadget. com [6] Pownce website (http:/ / www. pownce. com/ ) [7] "New Twitter Research: Men Follow Men and Nobody Tweets" (http:/ / blogs. harvardbusiness. org/ cs/ 2009/ 06/ new_twitter_research_men_follo. html). Harvard Business School. 2009-06-01. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [8] "Inside Twitter: An In-depth Look Inside the Twitter World" (http:/ / www. sysomos. com/ insidetwitter/ ). Sysomos. 2009-06-10. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [9] "The More Followers You Have, The More You Tweet. Or Is It The Other Way Around?" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 06/ 10/ the-more-followers-you-have-the-more-you-tweet-or-is-it-the-other-way-around/ ). TechCrunch. 2009-06-10. . Retrieved 2010-06-23. [10] Jin, Liyun (2009-06-21). "Businesses using Twitter, Facebook to market goods" (http:/ / www. post-gazette. com/ pg/ 09172/ 978727-96. stm). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [11] "First Hand Accounts Of Terrorist Attacks In India On Twitter, Flickr" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. com/ 2008/ 11/ 26/ first-hand-accounts-of-terrorist-attacks-in-india-on-twitter/ ). TechCrunch. 2008-11-26. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [12] "Twitter on Iran: A Go-to Source or Almost Useless?" (http:/ / www. findingdulcinea. com/ news/ technology/ 2009/ June/ Twitter-on-Iran-a-Go-to-Source-or-Almost-Useless. html). 2009-06-22. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [13] M. Nagarajan et. al. "'Spatio-Temporal-Thematic Analysis of Citizen-Sensor Data - Challenges and Experiences'" (http:/ / knoesis. wright. edu/ library/ resource. php?id=00559). WISE 2009 Conference. . [14] "Could this be a factor in the allure of microblogs?" (http:/ / thelaughingbuddha. wordpress. com/ 2009/ 04/ 19/ could-this-be-a-factor-in-the-allure-of-microblogs/ ). . [15] "StatusNet - Open Source microblogging service" (http:/ / status. net/ ). . Retrieved 2010-01-05.

[16] Dejin Zhao & Mary Beth Rosson (May 2009). "'How and why people Twitter: the role that micro-blogging plays in informal communication at work'" (http:/ / portal. acm. org/ citation. cfm?id=1531710). ACM GROUP2009 Conference. . [17] Ross Mayfield (October 15, 2008). "'Email hell'" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2008/ 10/ 15/ cio-email-manage-tech-cio-cx_rm_1015email. html). Forbes. . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [18] "Delicious Productivity Improvements For This Flavor Partner" (http:/ / www. socialtext. com/ customers/ casestudy_fona. php). Socialtext.com. . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [19] Joab Jackson (November 20, 2009). "NASA program proves the benefits of social networking" (http:/ / gcn. com/ Articles/ 2009/ 11/ 30/ A-Space-side-NASA-social-networking. aspx?Page=1). Government Computer News. . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [20] "'Google Buzz redesigned after privacy complaints'" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ technology/ google/ 7240754/ Google-Buzz-redesigned-after-privacy-complaints. html). The Telegraph (London). February 15, 2010. . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [21] Emma Barnett (March 20, 2010). "'Have business networking sites finally come of age?'" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ technology/ 7482116/ Have-business-networking-sites-finally-come-of-age. html). The Telegraph (London). . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [22] "'A world of connections'" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ specialreports/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=15351002). The Economist. Jan 28th, 2010. . Retrieved March 25, 2010. [23] http:/ / uk. reuters. com/ article/ 2011/ 05/ 09/ uk-britain-superinjunctions-twitter-idUKTRE7481YV20110509





URL Slogan Commercial? Type of site Registration

http:/ / blauk. com I saw you there.. and I thought... Yes Microblogging Required

Available language(s) English (Indian) Content license Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank Current status Creative Commons licenses Blauk.com Samson Manickaraj January 30, 2010 551,188 Active [2] [1]

Blauk.com is a microblogging website that lets users to express their thoughts to a stranger or acquaintance they see everyday at public places.[3] Blauk.com ensures that the people being talked about can read these thoughts and allows people to read what strangers think of them. This site was founded by a Chennai born entrepreneur, Samson Manickaraj, who calls this the future of social networking. [4]

Samson, who has a masters in Computer Science, from the University of Southern California, San Diego, was fascinated with social networking , and wanted to contribute to it. He did not know how to, until an incident at a pizza restaurant in San Diego. “One of the customers was exasperatingly loud, and diners four tables away turned to see who was making all that noise. I thought to myself somebody should tell him the effect he was having on others, and enable him to curtail this unpleasant social behaviour.”[5] He is also very clear that Blauk is quite different from popular social networking websites that help users only to be in touch with their friends and associates. By using Blauk, the users can express their likes, dislikes or amusements about each other. He says, “While actual social networking happens each time we step out of home into malls, theaters or business offices where we see a number of people we like, popular social networking sites focus primarily on helping people stay in touch with existing friends and associates. With Blauk.com, we have created a fusion between reality and the virtual world where people who are strangers in real-life can express their views about each other”. And he adds, “Vice-versa, the idea of reading feedback from strangers about our looks or hairstyle is appealing for most of us and hence Blauk.com will be a very essential tool for the individual because it lets you read what the world thinks of you. This interaction also provides social networking a more dynamic feel.”[5]

Microblogging is another type of blogging. 2011. thehindu. or journalers. video. The Hindu. ece). Blog can also be used as a verb. Retrieved October 21. there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters.[2] Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb ("to blog." was coined by Peter Merholz.com" (http:/ / blauk. and audio (podcasting). music (MP3 blog). Blauk. As of 16 February 2011. com/ aboutus. Alexa. allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. where people would keep a running account of their personal lives. and other media related to its topic. Retrieved October 22. Internet forum software. although some focus on art (art blog). in/ 2010/ 01/ 18/ new-microblogging-site-blauk-com-launched-in-india. Retrieved February 22.[8] Origins Before blogging became popular. and links to other blogs. Most blogs are interactive." The modern blog evolved from the online diary. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance. who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. digital communities took many forms. leading to the popularization of the terms. oneindia. descriptions of events. who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College. Blog A blog (a blend of the term web log)[1] is a type of website or part of a website. . "Alexa Page Ranking" (http:/ / www. including Usenet. Corporate Information. videos (video blogging). featuring very short posts.Blauk 6 References [1] [2] [3] [4] "Are you being blauked?" (http:/ / www. and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. .[10] as is Jerry Pournelle. ece). A typical blog combines text. com/ life-and-style/ nxg/ article444350.com in April or May 1999. BiX and the early CompuServe. "The Future of Social Networking" (http:/ / news. In the 1990s. commercial online services such as GEnie.[5] [6] [7] Shortly thereafter. . 2010. Most such writers called themselves diarists. com& r=home_home& p=bigtop). an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text. html). Web pages. journalists. com/ search?q=blauk. The short form. .[11] Dave Winer's Scripting News is also credited with being one of the oldest and longest running weblogs. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. 2010. Retrieved October 21. Justin Hall. [5] "The Story Behind Blauk" (http:/ / www. . or other material such as graphics or video. Retrieved October 26. 2010.[3] History The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger[4] on 17 December 1997. created running conversations with "threads. The Hindu. photographs (photoblog). The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Interviewed by OneIndia News Portal.[12] [13] Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam. php). alexa. others function as more personal online diaries. is generally recognized as one of the earliest bloggers. e-mail lists[9] and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS). . "blog. thehindu. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. com/ life-and-style/ metroplus/ article91295." meaning "to edit one's weblog or to post to one's weblog") and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product. Most blogs are primarily textual.com. 2010. images." Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard. "About Blauk.

• Andrew Smales created Pitas. 7 Rise in popularity After a slow start. Blog usage spread during 1999 and the years following. who began in 1997.Blog Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Web sites.com in July 1999 as an easier alternative to maintaining a "news page" on a Web site. less technical. the evolution of tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of Web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger. For instance. actually referred to their online presence as a zine. Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services. which soon grew to thousands of online diaries. Open Diary innovated the reader comment. the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging". • Brad Fitzpatrick started LiveJournal in March 1999. focusing more on a personal diary community. becoming the first blog community where readers could add comments to other writers' blog entries.com in August 1999 (purchased by Google in February 2003) . Some early bloggers. However. being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blog tools: • Bruce Ableson launched Open Diary in October 1998. such as The Misanthropic Bitch. or they can be run using blog software.[14] • Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs) launched blogger. this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today. population. followed by Diaryland in September 1999. before the term blog entered common usage. blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Ultimately. or on regular web hosting services.

) Mainstream popularity By 2004. Josh Marshall's talkingpointsmemo. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view.S. Senator Strom Thurmond. J. no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story. blogs have gained increasing notice and coverage for their role in breaking.) Even politicians not actively campaigning. Bradford DeLong or Brad Setser. and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming. an increasing number of experts blogged. (See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark.com blog called attention to U. such as the UK's Labour Party's MP Tom Watson. Lott's critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of racial segregation. at a party honoring U. Senator Lott was eventually to resign his Senate leadership position over the matter.S. CBS apologized for what it said were inadequate reporting techniques (see Little Green Footballs). More often. bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light. To wit: (television journalist) Dan Rather presented documents (on the CBS show 60 Minutes) that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush's military service record. both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure. news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. Senator Lott's comments regarding Senator Thurmond.) Though Lott's comments were made at a public event attended by the media. blogs were among the driving forces behind the "Rathergate" scandal. making blogs a source of in-depth analysis. Though often seen as partisan gossips. (See Josh Marshall's Talking Points Memo. praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States would have been better off had Thurmond been elected president. . as political consultants. (See Daniel Drezner. An early milestone in the rise in importance of blogs came in 2002. Meanwhile. and spinning news stories. The Iraq war saw bloggers taking measured and passionate points[15] of view that go beyond the traditional left-right divide of the political spectrum. On 6 December 2002. however. Similarly. when many bloggers focused on comments by U. the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream. This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers.Blog 8 Political impact See also: Political blog Since 2002. Many bloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs' acceptance by the mass media. shaping. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott. began to blog to bond with constituents. Consequently. a policy advocated by Thurmond's 1948 presidential campaign.[16] Senator Lott. Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to express opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs' role as a news source.S. The impact of these stories gave greater credibility to blogs as a medium of news dissemination. news services. with mainstream media having to follow their lead. Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majority leader.

Blogging can have a sentimental quality. Robert Scoble. Blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned are called typecast or typecast blogs. the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs became active in adopting Web 2. as in most cases. resulting in less direct competition between newspapers within the same circulation area. house [23] [24] fashion blogs. most common blog. Similar blogs for clubs and societies are called club blogs. a site containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketchblog or one comprising photos is called a photoblog. Corporate and organizational blogs A blog can be private.[17] Israel's was among the first national governments to set up an official blog. allow bloggers to share thoughts and feelings instantaneously with friends and family. and are much faster than emailing or writing. Jason Goldman. or works of art. Few personal blogs rise to fame and the mainstream.[19] The Foreign Ministry also held a microblogging press conference via Twitter about its war with Hamas. President Barack Obama acknowledged the emerging influence of blogging upon society by saying "if the direction of the news is all blogosphere. all opinions. Blogs used internally to enhance the communication and culture in a corporation or externally for marketing. see typecasting (blogging). In 2009.[18] Under David Saranga.[21] The impact of blogging upon the mainstream media has also been acknowledged by governments. classical music blogs. Xeni Jardin. but some personal blogs quickly garner an extensive following. Jonathan Schwartz. travel blogs (also known as travelogs). such as political blogs. one comprising links is called a linklog. no serious attempts to put stories in context. One type of personal blog. quizzing blogs blogs.[22] 9 Types There are many different types of blogs.[30] Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media types are called tumblelogs.0 initiatives. Two common types of genre blogs are art blogs and music blogs.[25] [26] [27] [28] [29] While not a legitimate type of blog. including an official video blog[18] and a political blog. even if their blog is never read. By genre Some blogs focus on a particular subject. niche blogs. . an ongoing diary or commentary by an individual. referred to as a microblog. with no serious fact-checking. and Jason Calacanis. Mena Trott. Personal bloggers usually take pride in their blog posts. branding or public relations purposes are called corporate blogs. the presence of the American journalism industry had declined to the point that several newspaper corporations were filing for bankruptcy. or it can be for business purposes. Fortune magazine listed eight bloggers that business people "could not ignore": Peter Rojas. differing not only in the type of content. Personal blogs The personal blog. project blogs. and legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs) or dreamlogs. Discussion emerged as to whether the newspaper industry would benefit from a stimulus package by the federal government. Some sites.Blog In January 2005. one used for the sole purpose of spamming is known as a Splog. A blog featuring discussions especially about home and family is not uncommonly called a mom blog. the country's official political blog. but also in the way that content is delivered or written. typical use is to inform members and other interested parties of club and member activities. they become a way to reflect on life. Blogs often become more than a way to just communicate. By media type A blog comprising videos is called a vlog.[20] The questions and answers were later posted on IsraelPolitik. such as Twitter. with Saranga answering questions from the public in common text-messaging abbreviations during a live worldwide press conference. or by similar names. that what you will end up getting is people shouting at each other across the void but not a lot of mutual understanding”. is the traditional. Ben Trott. group blogs. is extremely detailed and seeks to capture a moment in time. education blogs.

For instance.[32] BlogDay Blogday. 10 Community and cataloging The Blogosphere The collective community of all blogs is known as the blogosphere. "with emphasis on voices that are not ordinarily heard in international mainstream media. The basic conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls. video.[35] Interest-specific blogging platforms are also available. previously unknown blogs. By device Blogs can also be defined by which type of device is used to compose it. so that readers discover new. and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site. trackbacks or pingbacks) and backlinks. such as Bloglines. Such journals have been used as evidence in legal matters. provides current information on both popular searches and tags used to categorize blog postings. The designated date is August 31. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance.e. linkbacks (refbacks."[36] Blogging and advertising It is common for blogs to feature advertisements either to financially benefit the blogger or to promote the blogger's favorite causes. as well as popularity through affiliation (i.[34] The research community is working on going beyond simple keyword search. Blog search engines Several blog search engines are used to search blog contents. A blog written by a mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a moblog. through blogrolls. Since all blogs are on the internet by definition. There are essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations. which is among the most popular blog search engines. Internet marketers pay close attention to "trends in the blogosphere". untapped communities of bloggers can emerge in the space of a few years. blogroll). Because new.[38] . an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text. comments. Technorati. permalinks can boost popularity more quickly. it resembles the word "Blog".org[33] was created with the belief that bloggers should have one day dedicated to getting to know other bloggers from other countries and areas of interest. Blogging communities and directories Several online communities exist that connect people to blogs and bloggers to other bloggers. including BlogCatalog and MyBlogLog. since they denote that people are actually reading the blog's content and deem it valuable or noteworthy in specific cases. bloggers recommend five new blogs to their visitors. Blogster has a sizable community of political bloggers among its members. Global Voices aggregates international bloggers.[37] Popularity Researchers have analyzed the dynamics of how blogs become popular. and are perhaps more indicative of popularity and authority than blogrolls. and Technorati.[31] One early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam. Discussions "in the blogosphere" are occasionally used by the media as a gauge of public opinion on various issues. as demonstrated by projects like BlogScope. because when written 3108. by inventing new ways to navigate through huge amounts of information present in the blogosphere.Blog A rare type of blog hosted on the Gopher Protocol is known as a Phlog. they may be seen as interconnected and socially networked. BlogScope. On that day. The popularity of blogs has also given rise to "fake blogs" in which a company will create a fictional blog as a marketing tool to promote a product.

The first known use of a blog on a news site was in August 1998. with many of these books not selling as well as their blogs. and autonomously tracked the most contagious information spreading in the blog community. Equally many established authors. . success has been elusive offline. ScrappleFace. The following bloggers (and others) have appeared on radio and television: Duncan Black (known widely by his pseudonym. In August 2006.com).com.[43] However. Ana Marie Cox (Wonkette). but a similar function is now served by tailrank. Some critics worry that bloggers respect neither copyright nor the role of the mass media in presenting society with credible news. Ellen Simonetti. Only blogger Tucker Max made the New York Times Bestseller List. adding to his reach in "old media" by being an influential blogger. particularly those engaged in participatory journalism.[44] The book based on Julie Powell's blog "The Julie/Julia Project" was made into the film Julie & Julia. Jessica Cutler. Blogs are given rankings by Technorati based on the number of incoming links and Alexa Internet based on the Web hits of Alexa Toolbar users.[41] Some bloggers have moved over to other media. Bloggers and other contributors to user-generated content are behind Time magazine naming their 2006 person of the year as "you". this is particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages. Glenn Reynolds (Instapundit). Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass-media personality who has moved in the other direction. There are many examples of bloggers who have published books based on their blogs. claiming it to be the most popular blog in the world. apparently the first to do so.g. Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages.[39] 11 Blurring with the mass media Many bloggers. Blog-based books have been given the name blook.. when Jonathan Dube of The Charlotte Observer published one chronicling Hurricane Bonnie. A prize for the best blog-based book was initiated in 2005. and Ezra Klein (Ezra Klein blog in The American Prospect. ranking it by recency and popularity. The project is no longer active. In counterpoint.[39] Chinese media Xinhua reported that this blog received more than 50 million page views. e. Alex Steffen (Worldchanging). Salam Pax. now in the Washington Post). It can therefore be considered the first instantiation of a memetracker.Blog The blogdex project was launched by researchers in the MIT Media Lab to crawl the Web and gather data from thousands of blogs in order to investigate their social properties. Minority language publishing (which may lack economic feasibility) can find its audience through inexpensive blogging.net's J-blog list. Technorati found that the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei. Markos Moulitsas Zúniga (Daily Kos). meanwhile. bringing together scattered speakers and learners. Atrios).[40] Technorati rated Boing Boing to be the most-read group-written blog. for example Mitzi Szereto have started using Blogs to not only update fans on their current works but also to expand into new areas of writing. Some institutions see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" and pushing messages directly to the public. It gathered this information for over 4 years.[42] the Lulu Blooker Prize. write their own blogs — well over 300. differentiate themselves from the mainstream media. Many mainstream journalists. according to CyberJournalist. while others are members of that media working through a different channel. Nate Silver (FiveThirtyEight.

[47] The courts have returned with mixed verdicts. In Doe v. and the mayor settled the case rather than going to trial. Hishamuddin bin Aun and Brenden John a/l John Pereira over an alleged defamation. NDTV issued a legal notice to Indian blogger Chetan Kunte for "abusive free speech" regarding a blog post criticizing their coverage of the Mumbai attacks. opinion. Defamation or liability Several cases have been brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning issues of defamation or liability. the Malaysian government proposed to "register" all bloggers in Malaysia in order to better control parties against their interest.[50] This is the first such legal case against bloggers in the country. However. to take advantage of this new development as well. In the United States. The Cahills amended their original complaint. Among the various forms of advertising on blog. were sued by pro-government newspaper. U. Kalimullah bin Masheerul Hassan.[59] The blogger unconditionally withdrew his post. who turned out to be the person they suspected: the town's mayor."[52] Wall and other "white hat" search engine optimization consultants had exposed Traffic Power in what they claim was an effort to protect the public. The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad. in some cases these have been covered by umbrella insurance. Communications Decency Act and the EU Directive 2000/31/EC). payouts related to blogging totaled $17. replacing it with legal undertaking and an admission that his post had been "defamatory and untrue" which resulted in several Indian bloggers criticizing NDTV for trying to silence critics.S. blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and publication of trade secrets [51] According to Wired Magazine.[53] The case was dismissed for lack of personal jurisdiction.[54] [55] [56] [57] In 2009. are immune from liability for information that originates with third parties (U. in general.[49] Following the suit. On the other hand.[60] . search engine results. the most controversial are the sponsored posts. Councilman Cahill's political rival. the Cahills were able to obtain the identity of John Doe. the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to be met to unmask the anonymous posts of bloggers and also took the unusual step of dismissing the libel case itself (as unfounded under American libel law) rather than referring it back to the trial court for reconsideration. Traffic Power had been "banned from Google for allegedly rigging in 2005.[58] In 2009.4 million by 2009. reviews. In January 2007. Jeff Ooi and Ahiruddin Attan. two prominent Malaysian political bloggers. videos. and Traffic Power failed to appeal within the allowed time.S. there are many people who look negatively on this new development. Internet Service Providers (ISPs). a controversial and landmark decision by The Hon. new companies specialised in blog advertising have been established. The case was watched by many bloggers because it addressed the murky legal question of who is liable for comments posted on blogs. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government. and usually contain a link back to the desired site using a keyword/s. Mr Justice Eady refused to grant an order to protect the anonymity of Richard Horton.[48] In a bizarre twist.[46] Legal and social consequences Blogging can result in a range of legal liabilities and other unforeseen consequences. etc. Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the traditional advertising model where companies can skip over the advertising agencies (previously the only interface with the customer) and contact the customers directly themselves.Blog 12 Consumer-generated advertising in blogs Consumer-generated advertising is a relatively new and controversial development and it has created a new model of marketing communication from businesses to consumers. Cahill. Some believe that any form of commercial activity on blogs will destroy the blogosphere’s credibility.[45] These are blog entries or posts and may be in the form of feedbacks.

a. After the blog was discovered and she was fired. IIPM.[75] On the other hand.k. It is the first time in the history of Egypt that a blogger was prosecuted. and one year for insulting Mubarak.[62] [63] This case highlighted the issue of personal blogging and freedom of expression versus employer rights and responsibilities.[66] Mark Cuban. Blogs are much harder to control than broadcast or even print media. Political dangers Blogging can sometimes have unforeseen consequences in politically sensitive areas. After a brief trial session that took place in Alexandria. was ordered by the convenor of his department to "take down and destroy" his blog in which he discussed the quality of education at the school. Cutler is presently being sued by one of her former lovers in a case that could establish the extent to which bloggers are obligated to protect the privacy of their real life associates. a tenured senior lecturer at the London School of Economics. attempts by employee bloggers to protect themselves by maintaining anonymity have proved ineffective.[65] In early 2006.[70] Jessica Cutler. and so it received wide media attention. Sanderson later won a compensation claim case against the British firm. led to management of IIPM threatening to burn their IBM laptops as a sign of protest against him. aka "The Washingtonienne".[78] .[67] Mark Jen was terminated in 2005 after 10 days of employment as an Assistant Product Manager at Google for discussing corporate secrets on his personal blog. Petite Anglaise. defamation of character and lost future wages". was fined during the 2006 NBA playoffs for criticizing NBA officials on the court and in his blog. two ethnic Chinese were imprisoned under the country’s anti-sedition law for posting anti-Muslim remarks in their blogs.[74] Although given in the blog in a fairly anonymous manner.[73] Catherine Sanderson.[64] The suit was postponed while Delta was in bankruptcy proceedings (court docket). Simonetti took legal action against the airline for "wrongful termination. owner of the Dallas Mavericks.Blog 13 Employment Employees who blog about elements of their place of employment can begin to affect the brand recognition of their employer. blogger Gaurav Sabnis resigned from IBM after his posts exposing the false claims of a management school.[71] blogged about her sex life while employed as a congressional assistant. In general. however. entitled "Blogs 'essential' to a good career".[68] He blogged about unreleased products and company finances a week before the company's earnings announcement.a. some of the descriptions of the firm and some of its people were less than flattering. then called 99zeros and hosted on the Google-owned Blogger service. As a result.[76] She was one of the first journalists to point out that a large portion of bloggers are professionals and that a well-written blog can help attract employers.[69] In India.[72] she wrote a novel based on her experiences and blog: The Washingtonienne: A Novel. Erik Ringmar. Penelope Trunk wrote an upbeat article in the Boston Globe back in 2006.[61] Delta Air Lines fired flight attendant Ellen Simonetti because she posted photographs of herself in uniform on an airplane and because of comments posted on her blog "Queen of Sky: Diary of a Flight Attendant" which the employer deemed inappropriate.[77] Egyptian blogger Kareem Amer was charged with insulting the Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak and an Islamic institution through his blog. lost her job in Paris at a British accountancy firm because of blogging. He was fired two days after he complied with his employer's request to remove the sensitive material from his blog. the blogger was found guilty and sentenced to prison terms of three years for insulting Islam and inciting sedition. In Singapore. totalitarian and authoritarian regimes often seek to suppress blogs and/or to punish those who maintain them.

Rebecca (September 7. was given three days notice to leave Sudan. co. org/ cgi-bin/ wa?A2=ind0804C& L=ADS-L& P=R16795& I=-3). [2] Mutum. 5. com/ entertainment/ theweb/ news/ 2007/ 12/ blog_anniversary). kottke.org" (http:/ / www. net/ essays/ weblog_history. The Internet Archive. 1. archive. After expressing opinions in his personal blog about the state of the Sudanese armed forces. American Dialect Society Mailing List (Apr. Matthew S.[79] Monem is a member of the banned Muslim Brotherhood. The code was proposed due to threats made to blogger Kathy Sierra.[85] While a blogger's anonymity is often tenuous. the Future's Brighter Than Ever" (http:/ / www. google. Wang. html). com/ index. 6. linguistlist.[83] 14 Personal safety One consequence of blogging is the possibility of attacks or threats against the blogger. author of the innocuous blog "Creating Passionate Users". 7. 20. February 16. org/ web/ 19991013021124/ http:/ / peterme. David (2005-07-13). Take responsibility not just for your own words. Internet trolls who would attack a blogger with threats or insults can be emboldened by anonymity. a blogger. Retrieved 2008-06-05. was sentenced to 20 years in jail for posting a cartoon critical of head of state Than Shwe. The Sudanese army had demanded his deportation. "Weblogs: A History And Perspective" (http:/ / www. Label your tolerance level for abusive comments. com/ index."[88] O'Reilly and others came up with a list of seven proposed ideas:[89] [90] [91] [92] [93] 1. com/ surveys/ displaystory. Qing (2010). . . stupid" (http:/ / www. The Economist. org/ archives/ development/ 2005-07/ msg00208. . archive. [3] "BlogPulse" (http:/ / www. I would hope that it doesn't come through any kind of regulation it would come through self-regulation. html) ( – Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. .com" (http:/ / web. United Nations Special Representative for the Sudan.Blog Egyptian blogger Abdel Monem Mahmoud was arrested in April 2007 for anti-government writings in his blog. 4. drupal. 2000). [7] Kottke. 2011. Consider eliminating anonymous comments.Norman. pp. IGI Global. 2. The Nielsen Company. org/ web/ 20070607235110/ http:/ / lists. [5] "It's the links. 248–261. Archived from the original (http:/ / peterme. "kottke. "Peterme. . Eastin. fearing for her safety. 2006-04-20. Ignore the trolls. Sierra and supporters initiated an online discussion aimed at countering abusive online behavior[86] and developed a blogger's code of conduct. Take the conversation offline. economist. or find an intermediary who can do so. "Users confused by blogs" (http:/ / web. Jan Pronk. rebeccablood. Handbook of Research on Digital Media and Advertising: User Generated Content Consumption. Retrieved 2008-06-05. [4] "After 10 Years of Blogs. Behavior The Blogger's Code of Conduct is a proposal by Tim O'Reilly for bloggers to enforce civility on their blogs by being civil themselves and moderating comments on their blog. Retrieved 2011-02-17. "Consumer Generated Advertising in Blogs". sometimes without apparent reason. Retrieved 2008-06-05. org/ 03/ 08/ its-weblog-not-web-log). Retrieved 2008-06-05. Kathy Sierra. [9] The term "e-log" has been used to describe journal entries sent out via e-mail since as early as March 1996. If you know someone who is behaving badly. Burns. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Norman+ intitle:Users+ confused+ by+ . html). [8] Origins of "Blog" and "Blogger" (http:/ / listserv. cfm?story_id=6794172). References [1] Blood.[84] was the target of such vicious threats and misogynistic insults that she canceled her keynote speech at a technology conference in San Diego. who quoted O'Reilly saying. . 2008). Don't say anything online that you wouldn't say in person. Jason (2003-08-26). blogpulse.[80] [81] [82] In Myanmar. Peter (1999). Terry Daugherty. com/ ). Dilip. wired.[87] The idea of the code was first reported by BBC News. "I do think we need some code of conduct around what is acceptable behaviour. [6] Merholz. In Neal M. html) on 1999-10-13. and talk directly. 3. tell them so. but for the comments you allow on your blog. Nay Phone Latt.

"Is it a diary? Is it an ad? It's a mummy blog" (http:/ / www.com. [33] Blogday. CNET.L-3220593. . com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0.Blog blogs& as_publication=& as_ylo=2005& as_yhi=2005& btnG=Search)). Presented at the International Communication Association Conference. Retrieved 2009-10-10. Archived from the original (http:/ / lists.. html). . BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-31. . "Technology. Kara (2008-07-27). Pallavi (2006-10-09). com/ 2008/ 07/ 27/ fashion/ 27blogher. Retrieved 2008-06-05. The Jerusalem Post. • 15 . preceded the Web by a lot. 2009 (2009-11-07). delawareonline. jpost. TIME.00. uk/ news-archive/ archive/ 2003/ december-2003/ latest/ newsitem. "Newsmaker: Blogging comes to Harvard" (http:/ / news. .00. com/ about) on May 5. Retrieved 2007-01-25. The New York Times. 2008.7340.com) is one of the oldest blogs. com/ gst/ fullpage. .com. org/ issues/ 2003/ 5/ blog-jensen. com/ 2009/ 11/ 07/ the-charge-of-the-nato-crusade/ ). Robert W. DTL). . html) [18] Israel Video Blog aims to show the world 'the beautiful face of real Israel' (http:/ / www. December 2003. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 11. September 2007 [25] Paul. Post-gazette. and long before the term "blog" or Web Log was invented. 2008. jerrypournelle. 2009. MacKenzie (2007-10-31). com/ articles/ 0. the Byte information exchange. . . March 2006 [24] Jennifer Saranow. com/ fortune/ technology/ articles/ 0.00. html) on 2007-06-07. com/ articles/ 22960). uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 2783951. A rift among bloggers" (http:/ / query. mybloglog. omaha. [21] The Toughest Q’s Answered in the Briefest Tweets (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-25. [16] Massing. unknown. org/ wiki/ What_is_a_Photoblog). New York Review of Books (The New York Review of Books) 56 (13): 29–32. [26] Carpenter. "‘The Charge of the NATO Crusade’ « Mervin Dean's Blog" (http:/ / mervindean. [23] Stephan Metcalf. pdf). org/ about/ ). htm). "Fixing a Hole". . Jonathan (2005-02-05). com/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1230456533492& pagename=JPost/ JPArticle/ ShowFull). Retrieved 2010-03-26. time. businessweek. com/ index. independent. and I also had a daily journal on GE Genie. The Independent (London): p. . media. Michael (2009-08-13). com/ pg/ 07304/ 829747-51. blogday. com/ 2008-1082-985714.. 2009. cgi?file=/ c/ a/ 2005/ 02/ 20/ MNGBKBEJO01. 2003-02-23. com/ cgi-bin/ article. Reyhan (2005-02-20)."David F. bbc. com/ buzz/ help/ #a200502282152271). html?_r=2& sq=blogher women blogging& st=cse& adxnnl=1& scp=1& adxnnlx=1228493929-MAKTyKJ3qiW/ + fidCwXbFg). MyBlogLog. cnet. photoblogs. mit.7340. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Wall Street Journal.993832-3. com/ #whatabout): "I can make some claim to this being The Original Blog and Daybook. Mcchesney and John Nichols. 2007.wordpress. com/ about). December 30. Retrieved 2008-06-05.com (http:/ / www. . [14] Jensen. Retrieved 2007-06-29. Audience.. html). shtml?03120901). . html).. "The New Family Album" (http:/ / www.Jerry Pournelle [12] Paul Festa (2003-02-25). stm). Retrieved 2008-06-05 "Research staff and students welcome ‘E-Log’" (http:/ / www. html). February 24. [30] "What is a photoblog" (http:/ / wiki. co. I certainly started keeping a day book well before most. 2009. post-gazette. [35] "About MyBlogLog" (http:/ / www. php?u_page=1219& u_sid=10322842). [20] Battlefront Twitter (http:/ / fr. University College London. sfgate. . June 21. com/ 2009/ 01/ 04/ weekinreview/ 04cohen. "Blogwatch: This Old House". Retrieved 2009-10-10. "Wal-Mart's Jim and Laura: The Real Story" (http:/ / www. sharing and reaching a key demographic" (http:/ / www. 2004. Retrieved 2010-03-30. uk/ news/ science/ the-drooling-minutiae-of-childhood-revealed-for-all-to-see-as-mommy-blogs-come-of-age-485573. . [19] Latest PR venture of Israel's diplomatic mission in New York attracts large Arab audience (http:/ / www. All that was long before the World Wide Web.Dave Winer. Haviv Rettig Gur. November 3. ucl. . wordpress. "The News About the Internet" (http:/ / www. Retrieved November 10. 2009. Ynet. May. html). "More women are entering the blogosphere . uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ news/ is-it-a-diary-is-it-an-ad-its-a-mummy-blog-1776163. ynetnews. html). BusinessWeek. November 7. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 5. The New York Times.L-3220593. Susie (2009-08-23). Retrieved 2006-06-25. nytimes. Delaware Online. mervindean. Pamela (2004-04-12). Archived from the original (http:/ / technorati. [27] Brown. whose Scripting News (scripting. 2008. co. Ynet. ac. drupal. [29] Jesella. html?res=9E0DE3DE103DF933A25755C0A9649C8B63). LA. Retrieved 2010-03-31.00. independent. asp?printerfriendly=yes) [15] Mervin Dean. edu/ ~cameron/ cv/ pubs/ 04-01. Noam Cohen. com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ content/ oct2006/ db20061009_579137. The Independent (London). [22] Journalists deserve subsidies too (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-04-02. fortune. BIX. nytimes. [31] "Blogging goes mobile" (http:/ / news. [38] Marlow. com/ article/ 20091103/ OPINION16/ 91102031/ 1004/ OPINION/ Journalists-deserve-subsidies-too). New York Times.org.1011763-1. com/ articles/ 0. [17] Fortune. archive." -. "The drooling minutiae of childhood revealed for all to see as 'Mommy blogs' come of age" (http:/ / www. Omaha.9171. January 3. New Orleans. Photoblogs. nybooks. org/ archives/ development/ 2005-07/ msg00208. technorati. [36] "Global Voices: About" (http:/ / globalvoicesonline. nytimes. . Gallagher (2002-06-10). "Blogging’s Glass Ceiling" (http:/ / www. . GlobalVoices. [10] Harmanci.org Wiki. structure and authority in the weblog community (http:/ / alumni. "Time to get a life — pioneer blogger Justin Hall bows out at 31" (http:/ / www. co. [28] "Living" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-03-31. New York Times. stm). [37] Gogoi. html). . ynetnews. [11] Chaos Manor in Perspective (http:/ / www. [32] See for instance: Mesure.satirizing. org/ web/ 20080505011927/ http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-28. [13] ". . org/ ) [34] "Welcome to Technorati" (http:/ / web.com.15114. C. Mallory A Brief History of Weblogs (http:/ / cjrarchives.org (http:/ / www.

org. Matthew S. usatoday. . M. [50] "Government plans to force bloggers to register" (http:/ / web. Yro. [60] Indian bloggers criticizing NDTV (http:/ / www. [42] "Blooker rewards books from blogs" (http:/ / news. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 3974081. In Neal M. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 2006-05-11. David (2005-08-31). Wall Street Journal Online. Retrieved 2008-06-05. com/ 2006/ 04/ 16/ fashion/ sundaystyles/ 16CADS. pdf) [66] MacLeod. com/ nba/ playoffs2006/ news/ story?id=2440355). 2007-03-17. rsf. ece) [59] "Barkha versus blogger" (http:/ / www. Cahill (http:/ / caselaw. . Retrieved 2008-06-05. theregister.Blog [39] Fickling. html). 2005-10-11. BBC News. Cathrine (2007-04-02). . wired. IGI Global. desipundit. Retrieved 2007-04-04.pamil-visions. php3?id_article=20489) on 2008-06-08. bbc. Wall Street Journal "Blogger Faces Lawsuit Over Comments Posted by Readers" (http:/ / online. [47] McQueen MP. [49] "New Straits Times staffers sue two bloggers" (http:/ / web. html). plaxoed. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 2005-09-08. com. php?storyid=3629& mod=1& pg=1& sectionId=6& valid=true).com. . org/ web/ home/ story. Warren (2006-04-16). Qing (2010). [41] "Blogging Bonnie. asp?id=52& aid=48413/ ). php3?id_article=21606) on 2008-06-11. June 30). co. php3?id_article=20489). Donald (2006-05-03). Evan (2005-02-08).slashdot. go. Reporters Without Borders. 2005 [53] "Slashdot. stm).searchenginewatch. com/ culture/ lifestyle/ news/ 2005/ 09/ 68799). . [54] Sullivan. BBC News. co. Retrieved 2008-06-05. . wsj. . co. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Bloggers. 2006-08-24. lp." (http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 6446271. bbc. ewriting. Reporters Without Borders.com (http:/ / deltadocket. com/ 2005/ 02/ 11/ the-official-story-straight-from-the-source/ ). . uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 4326908.org. co. [44] St.com. org/ column. uk/ news/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ 15/ internet_killed_the_tv_star. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. rsf. seobook. com/ article/ SB124287328648142113. 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USA Today. com/ blog/ 060413-084431).com. “Consumer Generated Advertising in Blogs”. (2009). "Blogger beware!" (http:/ / commentisfree. co. . 2003-09-18. rsf.com (http:/ / www.com offers to sell your soul. . "Lecturer's Blog Sparks Free Speech Row" (http:/ / education. Wolf-howl.2d 451 (Del. 884 A. Wall Street Journal. guardian. "Aaron Wall – Local Search Interview" (http:/ / www. Seobook. [58] Ruling on NightJack author Richard Horton kills blogger anonymity (http:/ / technology. . Jo (2004-11-03). [48] Doe v. [56] Michael Gray. . wsj. com/ delta_downloads/ delta_downloads_CourtFiledDocuments/ Twelfth_OmnibusClaimsObjection. com/ 2009/ 01/ 28/ blogger-silenced-by-ndtv/ ) [61] Sanderson. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-06-05. com/ data2/ delawarestatecases/ 266-2005. [51] Kesmodel. WSJ. . 2005-08-31. Danny (2006-04-13). [64] "Queen of the Sky gets marching orders" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-07-31. cn/ china/ 2006-08/ 24/ content_672747. org/ yro/ 05/ 08/ 31/ 1427228. com/ 2007/ 02/ 05/ interview-with-aaron-wall- -author-of-the-web s-most-popular- seo-book / ).00. Aug 31" (http:/ / yro. net/ forgethefootnotes/ ) [67] "NBA fines Cuban $200K for antics on. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2004-11-03. here's my book" (http:/ / www. uk/ higher/ news/ story/ 0. htm). guardian. [65] Deltadocket. (2006. cnet. archive. Terry Daugherty. com/ blog). CNET News. See also Forget the Footnotes (http:/ / ringmar. Eastin (Eds) Handbook of Research on Digital Media and Advertising: User Generated Content Consumption (Vol 1). Sept 8. techcrunch. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Legal Showdown in Search Fracas (http:/ / www. php3?id_article=21606).. Retrieved 2010-07-31. org/ article. chinadaily. co. Retrieved 2010-07-31. London: The Guardian. shtml?tid=123). org/ web/ 20080608220312/ http:/ / www. straight from the source" (http:/ / blog. uk/ tol/ news/ tech_and_web/ the_web/ article6509677. html). htm). Dilip and Wang. Retrieved 2008-06-05. [45] Mutum. [46] Techchrunch. findlaw. Retrieved 2007-04-02. timesonline. [69] "Official Story. com/ local-search/ aaron-wall-local-search-interview/ ). "US Blogger Fired by her Airline" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2010-07-31. ESPN.com. thehoot. off court" (http:/ / sports. . pdf). wolf-howl. [43] "Blooker prize honours best blogs" (http:/ / news. . com/ travel/ news/ 2005-09-08-delta-blog_x. [57] "Aaron Wall's SEO Book Blog" (http:/ / www. espn. Kirkpatrick. Blog. html). Retrieved 2008-06-05. 2007-04-06. html?ex=1302840000& en=778087aa367d0620& ei=5090& partner=rssuserland& emc=rss). 2005). "Google blogger has left the building" (http:/ / news. searchenginewatch. co. uk/ catherine_sanderson/ 2007/ 04/ blogger_beware. China Daily. David. Poynter. . [63] "Delta employee fired for blogging sues airline" (http:/ / www.com. co. 2007-01-19.

lies and the doocing: The next hotbed of litigation?". [79] Ana-ikhwan. Blog!: How the Newest Media Revolution is Changing Politics. yankeesailor. • Kline.blogspot. oreilly.clsr.L. . Retrieved 2006-10-24. g). Axel. "Weblogs: A History and Perspective" (http://www. Yankeesailor.blogspot. Peter Lang. . Retrieved 2007-03-14. O'Reilly Radar. stm). . . David. 23 October 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-14. stm). com/ 2006/ WORLD/ africa/ 10/ 22/ sudan. Retrieved 2011-01-30.com. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 6385849. [73] "Steamy D. Cities.01. co. Retrieved 2008-06-05. html). org/ web/ 20080625081401/ http:/ / www. [84] Headrush. BBC News. Nasrin.com (http:/ / headrush.com (http:/ / washingtoniennearchive. 2006-10-22. bbc. 2005.C. New York.com.oreilly. MSNBC. Radar.typepad. Blogger. 17 Further reading • Alavi. 27 October 2006. • Ringmar.wikia.com/article/CA502009.N. [74] "Bridget Jones Blogger Fire Fury" (http:/ / edition. stm). com/ p/ articles/ mi_kmafp/ is_200703/ ai_n18772706). Retrieved 2008-06-05. 2007-03-30. BBC News. "Call for a Blogger's Code of Conduct" (http:/ / radar. un/ index. blogspot. . The Washington Post. com/ ) [85] Pham. html?section=cnn_tech). story?coll=la-home-headlines) on 2007-04-02. [76] Boston. bbc. ISBN 1-59315-141-1. Retrieved 2011-01-30. com/ images/ LAtimes_3_31_07. . AFP. 2006-12-27. Squibnocket Partners. . 2007-02-22. org/ apps/ news/ story. bbc. ISBN 0-8204-8124-6. un. [78] "Egypt blogger jailed for "insult"" (http:/ / news. BBC NEWS (BBC). html). .Blog [70] "Express India" (http:/ / cities.libraryjournal. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 6076022. A Blogger's Manifesto: Free Speech and Censorship in the Age of the Internet (http://www. L. Burstein. washingtonpost. [92] Code of Conduct: Lessons Learned So Far (http:/ / radar. com/ 2006/ WORLD/ europe/ 07/ 19/ france. blogger. [88] "Call for blogging code of conduct" (http:/ / news. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. imsafer. Retrieved 2008-06-05. . html). Retrieved 2007-04-14.us. "Blogs.com.pdf) (London: Anthem Press. 2004-05-23. 2008-11-11. com/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ call_for_a_blog_1. [86] "Blog death threats spark debate" (http:/ / news.002. co. [87] Tim O'Reilly (2007-03-03). oreilly. com/ archives/ 2007/ 04/ code_of_conduct. Retrieved 2011-01-30. archive. cnn. • Michael Gorman. We Are Iran: The Persian Blogs.C. pdf). [90] "Blogger's Code of Conduct at Blogging Wikia" (http:/ / blogging. UN News Centre (UN). threats quiet bloggers' keyboards" (http:/ / web. ana-ikhwan. Los Angeles Times. New York. stm). com/ ) [72] "The Hill's Sex Diarist Reveals All (Well. latimes. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ archives/ 2007/ 04/ draft_bloggers_1. expressindia. Business. Computer Law & Security Report 22 (2): 127. . 2007). blogspot. Retrieved 2008-06-05.expressindia. Some)" (http:/ / www. . html). Retrieved 2010-03-26. ISBN 1-933368-05-5. us/ ?p=113). The Associated Press.com. Erik. CNN. html). uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 6502643. 2007-03-28. • Blood. stm). envoy for blog" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 2006-07-19. and Culture.4064392.com (http:/ / www. doi:10. com/ id/ 16366256/ ). co. . . Alex (2007-03-31). com/ s/ afp/ 20070330/ tc_afp/ lifestyleinternet_070330205230) on 2007-03-30.1016/j.net/essays/weblog_history.. "Rebecca's Pocket". Retrieved 2008-06-05. msnbc. "Abuse. typepad. Retrieved 2008-06-05.rebeccablood. com/ business/ la-fi-internet31mar31. . com/ content. Uses of Blogs. 2005. darfur. Library Journal. [81] "UN envoy leaves after Sudan row" (http:/ / news. [82] "Annan confirms Pronk will serve out his term as top envoy for Sudan" (http:/ / www. 2007-03-27. BBC News. co. eds. com/ business/ globe/ articles/ 2006/ 04/ 16/ blogs_essential_to_a_good_career/ ) [77] Kierkegaard. archive. "Revenge of the Blog People!" (http://www. BBC News. bbc. php?newsid=152721). [71] Washingtoniennearchive. com/ ) [80] "Sudan expels U. 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-05. Rebecca. asp?NewsID=20396& Cr=sudan& Cr1=). cnn. Retrieved 2011-01-30. • Bruns. Sylvia (2006). and Joanne Jacobs. oreilly. Dan. Soft Skull Press. bbc. [91] "MilBlogs Rules of Engagement" (http:/ / www.html).com (http:/ / www.org/download/ABloggersManifestoFreeSpeechAndCensorshipInTheAgeOfTheInternet/ ErikRingmarABloggersManifesto. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 6499095. co. 2005-05-20. [83] "Burma blogger jailed for 20 years" (http:/ / news. boston. html). . Sex Blog Scandal Heads to Court" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-30. wikia. Blogging. . [89] "Draft Blogger's Code of Conduct" (http:/ / radar. by Tim O'Reilly [93] "Blogger Content Policy" (http:/ / www. . . [75] "Sacked "petite anglaise" blogger wins compensation claim" (http:/ / findarticles. CNN. msn. blog/ index. com/ wp-dyn/ articles/ A48909-2004May22.0. yahoo.2006. com/ fullstory. com/ wiki/ Blogger's_Code_of_Conduct). . uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 7721271.

weblogmatrix. personal participation in public knowledge-building on the web (http://www. Chimera Working Paper 2005-02 Colchester: University of Essex • Blog software comparison Web site (http://www. Lies and the Doocing by Sylvia Kierkegaard (2006) • Legal Guide for bloggers (http://www.org/bloggers/lg/) by the Electronic Frontier Foundation .com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VB3-4JH47F6-5&_user=10& _handle=V-WA-A-W-AB-MsSAYZW-UUA-U-AAVYYUUEZC-AAVZBYADZC-YBADCWEZW-AB-U& _fmt=summary&_coverDate=12/31/2006&_rdoc=5&_orig=browse& _srch=#toc#5915#2006#999779997#619171!&_cdi=5915&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1& .sciencedirect. Pages 127-136 (http://www.eff.uk/chimera/ content/pubs/wps/CWP-2005-02-blogging-in-the-Knowledge-Society-MB. and why it matters (http://books. • Computer Law and Security Report Volume 22 Issue 2. ISBN 978-0-307-45136-1 18 External links • Blogging.essex.ac. 2009. New York : Crown Publishers. Say Everything: how blogging Began.pdf) (PDF file) by Mark Brady. what it's becoming.com/books?id=opmZQrBNPssC&printsec=frontcover). google._urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3a78d26b9ff73d0a9c37060c8bed6dbc) blogs. Scott.org/) created by the people of CosmoCode.Blog • Rosenberg.

v6. . Graham (Chairman) US$2 billion (2010 est. California.[1] As of January 2011.S.) N/A 2000+(2011) [4] www. add other users as friends. users may join common interest user groups. Facebook has more than 600 million active users. casual games Required 600 million [7] [8] (active in January 2011) Multilingual February 4.S. referral marketing. 2004 Current status Active Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004. including automatic notifications when they update their profile. school or college. The name of the service stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other better. U. Facebook allows anyone who declares themselves to be at least 13 years old to become a registered user of the website. in June 2011 Worldwide • • • • Mark Zuckerberg (CEO) Chris Cox (VP of Product) Sheryl Sandberg (COO) Donald E. Massachusetts • • • • Mark Zuckerberg Eduardo Saverin Dustin Moskovitz Chris Hughes [1] (2004) Headquarters Area served Key people Palo Alto. and exchange messages. Additionally. Type Founded Founder Private Cambridge.Facebook 19 Facebook Facebook. organized by workplace. Inc. California. Inc. or other characteristics.[7] [8] Users may create a personal profile.com 2 (May 2011 [6] ) [5] [3] [2] Revenue Net income Employees Website IPv6 support Alexa rank Type of site Advertising Registration Users Available in Launched Social networking service Banner ads. will be moved to Menlo Park.. U.facebook. operated and privately owned by Facebook.

subsequently settling. placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the 'hotter' person". Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22.S. and people started sharing their notes. Mark Zuckerberg co-created Facebook in his Harvard dorm room. the site was comparable to Hot or Not.[22] Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College.5 million children under 13 with accounts. The three later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg. Ultimately. and Stanford University. violating copyrights. Harvard at that time did not have a student "facebook" (a directory with photos and basic information). According to The Harvard Crimson. Zuckerberg launched by an editorial in The Harvard Crimson about the Facemash incident. more than half the undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service. the Ivy League.[9] The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students. accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection. New York University. and "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses.6% of the U. The following semester. bug our friends. he said. and violating individual privacy. Columbia. but based on ConsumersReports.S. Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004.com study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Facebook expanded to Stanford. and faced expulsion. visitors in October 2010. on October 28. "How on earth did we stalk our exes.com. and Divya Narendra. and. In March 2004. Dustin Moskovitz (programmer). the predecessor to Facebook. there are 7. 2004. and the newspaper began an investigation.[11] Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list.[15] [17] The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers. Zuckerberg was charged by the administration with breach of security. Cameron Winklevoss.[17] He opened the site up to his classmates.[18] Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final. Boston University.000 photo-views in its first four hours online.[14] 20 History Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash. three Harvard seniors. Andrew McCollum (graphic artist). to anyone aged 13 and over. population had a Facebook account. however.[10] A January 2009 Compete. with one image per page along with a comment section. It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students.Facebook Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin.com. in April 2010 an estimated 41. MIT. remember our co-workers' birthdays.[21] The three complained to the Harvard Crimson. by uploading 500 Augustan images to a website.1 million monthly unique U. Tyler Winklevoss. Zuckerberg hacked into the protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied the houses' private dormitory ID images. He was inspired. while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. while attending Harvard as a sophomore. 2003.[24] It soon opened to the other Ivy League schools. originally located at thefacebook. the charges were dropped. followed by MySpace. and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website.[23] Eduardo Saverin (business aspects). finally. and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"[12] Quantcast estimates Facebook has 135.[13] According to Social Media Today. and within the first month. Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. [20] "Thefacebook". but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration.org on May 2011. saying.[15] [16] To accomplish this. Six days after the site launched. violating the site's terms. and Yale. but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area. and gradually most universities in Canada . [19] On February 4.

giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. the Philippines. 2010.com in 2005 for $200. who had been informally advising Zuckerberg. which Zuckerberg called the next logical step.[40] Facebook later expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies.[25] [26] Facebook incorporated in the summer of 2004. California. based on SecondMarket Inc.000 profiles from the site every day for various infractions. an exchange for shares of privately held companies.Facebook and the United States. California. Malaysia.[44] Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international ads on Facebook.[46] In September 2009.cc in Taiwan..[47] In November 2010.99% 4.[41] Facebook was then opened on September 26. More people visited Facebook than Google for the week ending March 13.[50] Facebook also became the top social network across eight individual markets — in Australia. the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park. Singapore. Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto. Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin. 2009 300[33] February 5. became the company's president. including Apple Inc. Mixi. 2010 July 21.[24] It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. 2007. 2010 January 5.[52] [53] .52% 3.33% 10% 6.[42] [43] On October 24.57% [30] 21 August 26. as part of its efforts to boost cyber security. CyWorld in South Korea. and Yahoo!'s Wretch. 2006. New Zealand. Ireland. and the entrepreneur Sean Parker.[27] In June 2004. including Google-owned Orkut in India.[28] The company dropped The from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook. including spam.[49] Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. In March 2011 it was reported that Facebook removes approximately 20. Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.[48] Facebook has been identified as a possible candidate for an IPO by 2013. high-school networks required an invitation to join. Indonesia. and Microsoft. 2009 1665 225 150 143 166 [32] September 15.6% share of Facebook for $240 million.000.[39] At that time. Facebook said that it had turned cash flow positive for the first time. Hong Kong and Vietnam — while other brands commanded the top positions in certain markets. 2011 400 500 600 [34] [35] [36] [37] 168 |+ Total active users[38] Facebook launched a high-school version in September 2005. inappropriate content and underage use.jp in Japan.38% 13. Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters.[29] Date Users (in millions) 100 200 [31] Days later Monthly growth 178. to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address.[45] In October 2008.[51] In early 2011. 2008 April 8. Facebook's value was $41 billion (slightly surpassing eBay's) and it became the third largest US web company after Google and Amazon.

Facebook 22 Company Ownership Mark Zuckerberg owns 24% of the company. chief technology officer and friend of Zuckerberg. while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80.000 clicks for every one million searches). California. Sean Parker owns 4%. and that CTR for ads tend to fall within two . Eduardo Saverin owns 5%. Sheryl Sandberg (COO). Banner advertisements on Facebook have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole. including Matt Cohler. Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Revenue $52 [59] [60] Growth — 188% 87% 177% 158% $150 $280 $775 [61] [62] [2] $2000 |+ Revenues (estimated.05% to 0. and that he was no longer interested in partial ownership of the company. Li Ka-shing owns 0. Adam D'Angelo.[63] This means that a smaller percentage of Facebook's users click on advertisements than many other large websites. Accel Partners owns 10%. have sizable holdings of the company.[65] Sarah Smith. and Donald E. Digital Sky Technologies owns 10%. Graham (Chairman). Microsoft owns 1. As of April 2011.[58] and as such Facebook only serves advertisements that exist in Microsoft's advertisement inventory.[54] Dustin Moskovitz owns 6%. Chris Hughes.04%.[57] Revenue Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising. the Interpublic Group owns less than 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages). Greylock Partners and Meritech Capital Partners own between 1 to 2% each.75%. confirmed that successful advertising campaigns can have clickthrough rates as low as 0. Facebook has over 2. Jeff Rothschild. For example.000 employees. and Owen Van Natta. Peter Thiel owns 3%. Palo Alto. and outside investors.3%. and the remaining 30% or so are owned by employees. who was Facebook's Online Sales Operations Manager. resigned in May 2008.5%. and offices in 15 countries. while Reid Hoffman and Mark Pincus Entrance to Facebook's current headquarters in the Stanford Research Park. in millions US$) Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major websites. Microsoft is Facebook's exclusive partner for serving banner advertising.[56] Management Key management personnel comprise Chris Cox (VP of Product).[55] Adam D'Angelo.[64] Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0. an undisclosed number of celebrities. Reports claimed that he and Zuckerberg began quarreling. a small group of current and former employees and celebrities own less than 1% each.

Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages and a chat feature. Facebook enables existing users. while Facebook users spend their time communicating with friends and therefore have their attention diverted away from advertisements. announced in July 2008 that it managed to attain a CTR of 0. however. and a registration form directly underneath for new users to choose their own privacy settings and choose visitors. for video advertisements on Facebook.[70] 23 Mergers and acquisitions On November 15. Explanations for Facebook's low CTR include the fact that Facebook's users are more technologically savvy and therefore use ad blocking software to hide advertisements.Facebook weeks. managing to convert 1. until April 19. some of which are maintained by organizations as a means of advertising. 2010). Facebook announced it had acquired FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history. 2011. [74] The who can see specific parts of their profile. making the acquisition of FB. a social marketing platform. such as banner ads. Users can control who sees other information they have shared. and generates revenue from advertising. is about 0.7% on Facebook (over 10 times the typical CTR for Facebook ad campaigns) for its first client. They can also create and join interest groups and "like pages" (formerly called "fan pages".[72] Website Users can create profiles with photos. while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads. contact information. as well as who can find them in searches. that users are younger and therefore are better at ignoring advertising messages. some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. and other personal information.[67] On pages for brands and products.5 times better than Facebook's but still low compared to many other websites. 2. in comparison. the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.[69] A study found that.000 visitors to their website. lists of personal interests. 2010.5 million in "domain sales income".1%. On January 11. Oregon.[76] . over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video. website is free to users.[73] Facebook's homepage features a login form on the top right for To allay concerns about privacy.49% for Wall posts.1 million views into 8.[75] Facebook requires a user's name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Serena Software. and that MySpace users spend more time browsing through content.[68] Involver.[71] Operations A custom-built data center with substantially reduced ("38% less") power consumption compared to existing Facebook data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville. through their privacy settings.[66] Competing social network MySpace's CTR.

a demand that MySpace does not make.[92] [93] [94] [95] .[77] Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity. 2010. Facebook users were limited to 60 photos per album. In July 2007. anyone who can see a user's profile can also view that user's Wall. 24 Facebook mobile graphical user interface On February 23. some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information.[90] One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application. the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users. During the first years. Since then. and birthdays of the user's friends.[89] The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent.[84] This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. while Facebook only allows plain text. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities. Photos. which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions. Facebook was granted a patent[88] on certain aspects of its News Feed. where users can upload albums and photos. a News Feed was announced. which may potentially include websites such as Twitter. this limit has been increased to 200 photos per album.Facebook The media often compare Facebook to MySpace. while others were concerned it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes. 2006. a space on every user's profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see. As of May 2009.[91] Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos. compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr.[85] Initially. users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user.[86] In response.[78] MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only. and conversations with other users). which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. including profile changes. Wall posts. Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall. and newly added [87] friends.[82] and Status.[80] Pokes. which allows users to send a virtual Profile shown on Facebook in 2011. but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization.[79] Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. "poke" to each other (a notification then tells a user that [81] they have been poked). events.[83] Depending on privacy settings. upcoming events. Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features.[80] On September 6. which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes. where users can upload albums and photos. They include the Wall.

Facebook launched Gifts on February 8. and the WebOS. instant messaging. the Android OS.[96] Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22. Nokia and Research In Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. and provides them a link to see the photo. An official Facebook application is available for the iPhone OS. LiveJournal. Users were later able to import blogs from Xanga.[42] During the week of April 7.[111] . 2008. 2010. Facebook announced a new "Facebook Messages" service. combines text messaging. limiting the groups of users that can see an album. enabling the extraction of details to users' own calendar or mapping applications. and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look. More than 150 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries. facebook. and a personalized message can be [99] [100] On May 14." Facebook Messages took 15 months to develop. and other blogging services. Facebook began migrating all users to the new version beginning in September 2008. then the user can tag the friend in the photo." or label." The launch of such a feature had been anticipated for some time before the announcement. Gifts cost $1. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated. 2007. if a photo contains a user's friend.com email addresses. On November 15. CEO Mark Zuckerberg said. Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag. Codenamed "Project Titan. "It's true that people will be able to have an @facebook. a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta".[101] Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET. 2006. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged. with some calling it a "Gmail killer. to be available to all of the website's users. 2007. and the hCard microformat for the events' venues. For instance. php?id=20531316728 [107]. 2009.[105] Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005 25 Facebook profile shown in 2007 On June 13. 2008. users in a photo. Blogger. but it's not email.[102] On July 20. whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs such as http:/ / www. a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. emails.[98] which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers. the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album. 2008." The system.[104] On December 11. com/ profile. profiles were separated into tabbed sections. Facebook began to use the hCalendar microformat to mark up events. For example. it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.[103] After initially giving users a choice to switch. and will include privacy settings similar to those of other Facebook [109] [110] services. com/ facebook [106] as opposed to http:/ / www. Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature. Facebook launched attached to each gift. In February 2011. which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are seen only by users in the same network as that user. Facebook released a Comet-based[97] instant messaging application called "Chat" to several networks. which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipient's profile. which lets users post free classified ads.[108] Many new smartphones offer access to the Facebook services either through their web-browsers or applications. facebook. In a media event that day. whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone. and regular messages. Marketplace.00 each to purchase.Facebook Privacy settings can be set for individual albums. while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it.

Facebook won the Crunchie “Best Overall Startup Or Product” the third year in a row[130] and was recognized as one of the "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" by Lead411.[113] ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 130 million unique visitors in May 2010.S.Facebook As of April 2011 Facebook users now have the ability to make live voice calls via Facebook Chat allowing users to chat with others from all over the world.com ranks it 2nd in the U. airlines. according to The New York Times. Inc.S.[137] In December 2009.[139] Indonesia has become the country with the second largest number of Facebook . In 2010. the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Glendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook.. and LinkedIn. Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100. Twitter.[116] and Compete. an increase of 8. the New Oxford American Dictionary declared their word of the year to be the verb "unfriend". 60% of which responded that they believed that Facebook was the social network that posed the biggest threat to security. the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. Facebook.[133] In March 2009. and is currently 2nd.[134] Employers (such as Virgin Atlantic Airways) have also used Facebook as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.[136] In 2008. Latin America (58 percent).'"[138] As of April 2010.[126] The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007. defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook. Facebook penetration is highest in North America (69 percent). placing it in the bottom 5% of all private sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction. in traffic. the class action lawsuit arising out of Facebook's Beacon program.[112] 26 Reception According to comScore.[120] the United Kingdom.[128] In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor. with 50 billion uploaded cumulatively.[122] [123] [124] [125] In regional Internet markets.[118] In 2010.[131] However. and spam. including Canada. in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index. Europe (57 percent). a New Jersey-based company specializing in research concerning the college student market. As in. having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008.6 million people. Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as their new Word of the Year.[132] In December 2008. the United Kingdom and Indonesia. followed by Middle East-Africa (67 percent). 'I decided to unfriend my roommate on Facebook after we had a fight. countries with most Facebook users are the United States.[121] and the United States.[115] Quantcast ranks the website 2nd in the U. Judge Richard Seeborg issued an order approving the class settlement in Lane v. and cable companies. This feature which is provided free through T-Mobile's new Bobsled service lets the user add voice to the current Facebook Chat as well as leave voice messages on Facebook. the results returned by the News Feed. Reasons for why Facebook scored so poorly include privacy problems. frequent changes to the website's interface.[129] On March 2010. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook as legally binding. from September 2006 to September 2007.[135] By 2005.[127] and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.[117] The website is the most popular for uploading photos. Sophos's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms. Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates.[119] Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries. well ahead of MySpace. Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors. alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system. and Asia-Pacific (17 percent). the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in worldwide traffic.[114] According to Alexa. tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod. the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own.

[151] In May 2011 emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making critical allegations about Google's privacy policies. however it was later discovered that the anti-Google campaign. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent employees wasting their time on the site."[152] Media impact In April 2011. One such reunion was between John Watson and the daughter he had been searching for 20 years. They met after Watson found her facebook profile. an avowed parody website (and privacy advocacy website)[141] that enables text-based searches of those Wall posts that are available to "Everyone". after the United States.[142] 27 Privacy According to comScore.[156] Some studies have named Facebook as a source of problems in relationships. with 24 million users. "We have taken immediate action to disable all applications that violate our terms". Criticism Facebook has met with controversies.[145] Iran. and Top Gear. Facebook said. Facebook launched Facebook Beacon.[147] Pakistan. Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft. but the claims have been questioned and refuted by other commentators. which was an ultimately failed attempt to advertise to friends of users using the knowledge of what purchases friends made.e.[140] Also in early 2010.[155] Another father-daughter reunion was between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson who had not seen each other for nearly 48 years.[153] The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebook’s top executives at an “influencers’ summit” in February 2010.[150] The privacy of Facebook users has also been an issue. American Idol.[146] Uzbekistan.[154] Social impact Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. conducted by PR giant Burson-Marsteller. i. the security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users' privacy. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property.[157] .[148] Syria. Writers for The Wall Street Journal found in 2010 that Facebook apps were transmitting identifying information to "dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". Facebook has now been involved in campaigns for True Blood. Openbook was established. was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called a "clumsy smear.[143] In 2010. It can reunite lost family members and friends.[149] and Bangladesh on different bases. Several news stories have suggested that using Facebook causes divorce and infidelity. but considerably less than Yahoo!.[144] Vietnam. For example. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the People's Republic of China.Facebook users. to everyone on the Internet. it was banned in many countries of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti-Islamic and containing religious discrimination. Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook.[119] On November 6. 2007. and the safety of user accounts has been compromised several times. The apps used an HTTP referrer which exposed the user's identity and sometimes their friends'. or 10% of Indonesia's population. an internet marketing research company.

she had 4. a December 2008 episode of the British sitcom. Media • At age 102.[165] In 2010 an English director of public health. The reports of this research were rebuked by Facebook as "ignoring the difference between correlation and causation. titled The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook.[171] • In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the ban of the website in Pakistan. Uriminzokkiri.[174] The film features an ensemble cast consisting of Jesse Eisenberg as Mark Zuckerberg. and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election. Facebook users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics. Sarah. She became the oldest person to ever use the Twitter website. one of North Korea's official government websites and the official news agency of the country.[168] Some time after creating her Facebook page. Genius. an Islamic version of the website was created.[173] • The Social Network. Bean also joined Twitter. an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series. South Park. An inspiration to other residents of the care home in which she lived.[164] In August 2010. and message questions. Money. linked and attributed a rise in Syphilis cases in areas of Britain to Facebook.[167] she quickly became more widely known and several fan pages were made in her honor. 2010.[163] In February 2008.000 people installed the Facebook application 'US politics' in order to take part. better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name).com illustrates how the "facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates.[161] Over 1. whose staff was researching Syphilis. joined Facebook. Her death was widely reported in the media and she received tributes from [169] several notable media personalities. Ivy Bean of Bradford. in Downing Street early in 2010.Facebook 28 Political impact Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008.[170] • American author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Mark Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook. shortly before the New Hampshire primary.[158] [159] [160] Charles Gibson moderated both debates.[172] • "You Have 0 Friends".[162] This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook was an extremely popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions.962 friends on Facebook and more than 56. register to vote. and Betrayal."[166] The stage at the Facebook – Saint Anselm College debates in 2008. . An article by Michelle Sullivan of Uwire. a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. making her one of the oldest people ever on Facebook. She visited Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife. England joined Facebook in 2008. At the time of her death in July 2010. A Tale of Sex. was released October 1. when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. when she passed the maximum number of friends allowed by Facebook. • "FriendFace". held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College. parodied Facebook and social networking sites in general. support by youth of political candidates.000.000 followers on Twitter. a drama film directed by David Fincher about the founding of Facebook. The IT Crowd. parodied Facebook. called MillatFacebook. and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.

blogs. com). Schwartz. Tim. . was a consultant for Mezrich's book. Thom.[175] • On February 22. (February 9. . However. [14] Wells. 2011. Eduardo Saverin. Time (New York). com). including Zuckerberg. nytimes. Dresses. Chris. com/ how-facebook-was-founded-2010-3#we-can-talk-about-that-after-i-get-all-the-basic-functionality-up-tomorrow-night-1). com/ roywells1/ 158020/ 416-us-population-has-facebook-account).00. html?mod=googlenews_wsj). Ellen. time. (July 25. Vary. com/ press/ info. [23] Phillips. "The Battle for Facebook" (http:/ / web. Ward. 2007. "At Last – The Full Story Of How Facebook Was Founded" (http:/ / www.com – Traffic Details from Alexa (http:/ / www. html). New York Times blog. . com/ magazine/ 115/ open_features-hacker-dropout-ceo. "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website" (http:/ / web. [3] "Press Info" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20050403215543/ www. MSNBC. consumerreports. Dan. com/ article/ SB118539991204578084. quantcast. rollingstone. 2008. [17] McGirt. . 2010). May 1. January 5. . . 2010). [8] "Facebook Has More Than 600 Million Users. Michael. The film was distributed by Columbia Pictures. [12] Geier. an Egyptian baby was named "Facebook" to commemorate the vital role Facebook and other social media played in Egypt's revolution. 2007). Lynette. "Facebook 2010 Sales Said Likely to Reach $2 Billion. . 2010. The Harvard Crimson. 2009. Sarah (July 25. Dropout. The film was written by Aaron Sorkin and adapted from Ben Mezrich's 2009 book. Bloomberg. 2008). "Judge Expresses Skepticism About Facebook Lawsuit" (http:/ / online. Roy (August 8. com/ [6] Facebook. Music Videos. Scenes. 2008. 2007). aspx?ref=357292). Books. 2008. "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU" (http:/ / bits. [10] http:/ / news. 2008). php). Adam. "In 2004. [15] Locke. rollingstone. Characters. [9] Carlson. Jordan. [18] Kaplan. 2011. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Compete. Alexa Internet.6% of the U.1644040. TV Shows. [7] "Goldman to clients: Facebook has 600 million users" (http:/ / www. one of Facebook's co-founders. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18/ 2008-growth-puts-facebook-in-better-position-to-make-money/ ). com/ article. . [19] Hoffman. Snierson. [20] Seward. bloomberg. Kate (December 11. "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot.com. Retrieved February 7. 2004). 2010. . Simon. Whitney. 2008. More Than Estimated" (http:/ / www. Retrieved January 5. html). Katherine (November 19. facebook. "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Nicolas (March 5. 2007). Slezak. html). Retrieved March 7. [21] Carlson. aspx?ref=350143). Brian (December 16.S. thecrimson. .S. and Trends that entertained us over the 10 Years". co. 2003). Social Media Today. The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 17. 2011. Retrieved December 19. Mark Zuckerberg has said that The Social Network is inaccurate. socialmediatoday. . 2011. Ken. "THE 100 Greatest Movies. [22] Stone. Alan J. com/ facebook-has-more-than-600-million-users-goldman-tells-clients-2011-1). Brad (June 28. Zachary M. "2008 Growth Puts Facebook In Better Position to Make Money" (http:/ / venturebeat. "41. Claire (June 28. Missy. [13] "facebook. Josh. Nashawaty. "The Future of Facebook" (http:/ / www. Rolling Stone (New York). Nicholas (March 5. Markovitz. businessinsider. 2009). archive. Andy (February 9. Quantcast. [2] Womack. com/ news/ story/ 21129674/ the_battle_for_facebook/ ). The Wall Street Journal (New York). . Tucker. com/ news/ story/ 21129674/ the_battle_for_facebook/ ) on July 3. Retrieved February 5. compete. were involved with the project.com. alexa." (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 02/ 09/ facebook-myspace-twitter-social-network/ ). wsj. Retrieved April 30.8599. 2009. 2011. No staff members of Facebook. guardian. VentureBeat. fastcompany. 2011. CEO. Retrieved March 5. com/ how-mark-zuckerberg-hacked-into-the-harvard-crimson-2010-3).[176] 29 Notes [1] Eldon. "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board" (http:/ / www. Jeff. org/ web/ 20080703220456/ http:/ / www. businessinsider. "A brief history of Facebook" (http:/ / www. html [11] Kazeniac. 2009. thecrimson. 2010. and Armie Hammer as Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss. [4] https:/ / www. Margaret. The Guardian (London). com/ facebook.com — Quantcast Audience Profile" (http:/ / www. Eric (December 18. Retrieved November 7. Rottenberg. . . Kate.. . January 5. Episodes. msnbc. com/ news/ 2010-12-16/ facebook-sales-said-likely-to-reach-2-billion-this-year-beating-target. Twitter Climbs" (http:/ / blog. com/ time/ business/ article/ 0. facebook. 2008). . 2009). com/ article. Jensen. Retrieved February 5. 2009. Retrieved November 7. 2009. Retrieved November 5. Pastorek. msn. Retrieved May 27. Vozick-Levinson. [16] Tabak. 2008. Songs. archive. Retrieved January 15. Goldman Tells Clients" (http:/ / www. 2010). Stack. newmedia). Entertainment Weekly (New York) ((1079/1080):74-84). com/ id/ 40929239/ ns/ technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/ ). org/ electronics/ 2011/ 05/ five-million-facebook-users-are-10-or-younger. 2011. v6. com/ 2008/ 06/ 26/ judge-ends-facebooks-feud-with-connectu/ index. Business Insider. Retrieved January 6. . 2011. October 27. Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account" (http:/ / www. of the U. Laura (July 17. Stroup. Retrieved July January 15. 2010. facebook.Facebook Andrew Garfield as Eduardo Saverin. Rice. Tina. Justin Timberlake as Sean Parker. Population has a Facebook account" (http:/ / www. Business Insider. uk/ technology/ 2007/ jul/ 25/ media. 2010). Fast Company. Facebook. Lyons. com [5] http:/ / www. com/ siteinfo/ facebook. Business Insider. Retrieved November 13. Albums. businessinsider. . Adam B.

000 underage profiles daily" (http:/ / ibnlive. 2006). 2011). Brian (November 15. businessinsider. Sandy (February 8. [35] Zuckerberg. "Facebook moving headquarters to Menlo Park: Social-networking giant to move into former Sun/Oracle campus" (http:/ / www. The Jakarta Globe. Laura (August 3. Retrieved December 18. Press release. tuftsdaily. . 2008. Retrieved June 13. com/ 2010/ 10/ 04/ facebooks-friend-in-russia/ ?source=cnn_bin& hpt=Sbin). [27] Rosen. . Lisa (January 25. The Tufts Daily (Medford. 2008. 2011. html). everyone" (http:/ / blog. com/ blog. "Why MySpace Doesn't Card" (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 09/ 11/ facebook-opens-up-cx_rr_0911facebook. co. 5541/ 1. hitwise. 2008. Retrieved March 24. . in. Business Insider. [48] Womack. David (2010). Press release. 2008. . [28] "Why you should beware of Facebook" (http:/ / www. Facebook blog. [44] Microsoft (October 24. . html). MA). . [50] Dougherty. Retrieved November 30. forbes. . cnn. com/ magazine/ content/ 08_33/ b4096000952343. Retrieved March 9. . theage. Retrieved November 8. . 2011). BusinessWeek (New York). php?p=59042). [26] Nguyen. Forbes (New York). php?post=28111272130). 2009. . uk/ 2007/ 10/ 01/ facebook_domain_dispute/ ). . 2006). php?post=2210227130). Retrieved April 30. 2010). "Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin. CBC News (Toronto). [37] This value is from an investment document. Press release. . Press Trust of India (Noida.| [30] "Monthly growth" is the average percentage growth rate at which the total number of active users grows each month over the specified period. "Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million" (http:/ / www. [45] "Facebook Stock For Sale" (http:/ / www. forbes. IBN Live. html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2). Retrieved February 11. Retrieved June 26. . 2010. Retrieved May 18. 30 . com. . com/ heather-dougherty/ 2010/ 03/ facebook_reaches_top_ranking_i. com/ press/ info. [36] Carlson. December 10. 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[33] "Blog post" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved March 23. . MSNBC. October 4. com/ blog. Uttar Pradesh). microsoft. "Facebook Reaches Top Ranking in US" (http:/ / weblogs. Fortune. php?post=72353897130). Retrieved March 5. [54] "Facebook's friend in Russia" (http:/ / tech. php?post=136782277130). . New York: Simon & Schuster. "Facebook and Microsoft Expand Strategic Alliance" (http:/ / www. "Welcome to Facebook. Retrieved June 26. 2010. facebook. . 2009. Rachel (September 11. 2010. com/ id/ 40929239/ ns/ technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/ ). 2007). html?_r=2& scp=1& sq=thefacebook+ parker& st=nyt). . Ireland" (http:/ / www. The Register (London). 2008. 2010. ca/ technology/ story/ 2009/ 09/ 16/ tech-facebook-300-million-users. March 24. htm?chan=rss_topEmailedStories_ssi_5). facebook. businessweek. php?id=8270). Heather (March 15. Retrieved March 8. . The date is from when the document was revealed to the public. The New York Times. 2010." 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"The book that Facebook doesn't want you to read" (http:/ / money. March 24. . 2010. google. Retrieved March 23. [160] Bradley. 2010). .com (http:/ / abclocal. 2010. . Doug (November 29. csmonitor. uk/ technology/ twitter/ 5327822/ Oldest-Tweeter-talks-cuppas-and-casserole-on-Twitter-at-104. com/ wabc/ story?section=news/ local& id=7739245) [156] Facebook reunites father. . Facebook Blog. scienceofrelationships. 2009. 2010. 'world's oldest Twitter user. abcnews. [168] Millson. CNN. . Ph. Alex (July 28. media/ 07/ 28/ obit. . Associated Press. au/ breaking-news-technology/ vietnam-internet-users-fear-facebook-blackout-20091117-iki0. Melissa (July 28. . May 15. Afshin (July 27. com/ home/ 2011/ 3/ 29/ does-facebook-cause-divorce-and-infidelity. . 2008). denofgeek. [151] Stone. Retrieved August 16. Retrieved November 5. Retrieved March 23. Ben (November 17. 2010. 2007). html). "Anyone who passes more than 15% of their working day on Facebook will love the 'Friendface' episode in series 3. html). [149] "Red lines that cannot be crossed" (http:/ / www. Jessi (June 25. [169] Gray. "Facebook banned for Ontario staffers" (http:/ / www. 2007. 2007). . Den Of Geek. Tonight 7 pm/6c on ABC" (http:/ / blog. .D. php?post=8183627130). aspx?ArticleID=15313). . [165] Roberts. 2010. "Republicans Lead off ABC News. com/ tech/ internet/ facebook-reunites-father-daughter-after-48-years/ articleshow/ 5502580. Agence France-Presse. WMUR-TV and Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire" (http:/ / blogs. cnn. [146] Shahi. Daily Star (Cairo). Retrieved June 9. 2010. 2010. Russell (January 5. Michelle (November 3. co. [162] Goldman. . "Pakistan Bans Facebook Over Muhammad Caricature Row – Tech Talk" (http:/ / www. Political Radar (blog) (ABC News). 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. .com/facebook) on Twitter • Collected news and commentary (http://topics. cnet. [176] Trenholm. com/ title/ tt1285016/ ). April 8.com/cms/s/2/ 67e89ae8-30f7-11df-b057-00144feabdc0. "Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates.com/ 2006/10/06/magazines/fortune/fastforward_facebook.co. And it's not just another social network.telegraph. [174] "The Social Network (2010)" (http:/ / www.nytimes. Retrieved June 7.html#axzz1BfiyklYU) . 2006 External links • Official website (http://https://www. Jeffery (October 20. . com/ 8301-1023_3-20034931-93. [175] Racheff.cnn. co. October 6. 2010.ft.com/top/news/business/companies/facebook_inc/ index. . Limelife. Internet Movie DataBase.html) at The New York Times • Facebook news and reviews (http://www. 2010. 2011). "Mark Zuckerberg Calls The Social Network Inaccurate" (http:/ / www. David. Retrieved July 3.Facebook [173] "South Park parodies Facebook" (http:/ / www. CNET News. html). guardian. 35 References Further reading • Kirkpatrick. Guardian media blog (London). uk/ media/ mediamonkeyblog/ 2010/ apr/ 08/ south-park-season-4-episode-14-facebook). html).com) • Facebook (http://twitter. imdb. Fortune magazine. 2010). "Egyptian names baby 'Facebook'" (http:/ / news.fortune/index.facebook.htm). Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships" (http://money. com/ blog-entry/ Mark-Zuckerberg-Calls-The-Social-Network-Inaccurate-VIDEO/ 77351. Rich (February 22. 2010. limelife.uk/technology/facebook/) at The Daily Telegraph • Hits chart between Facebook and Google (http://www.

geosocial networking can allow users to coordinate around collaboratively filtered geotag information on hazards and disaster aid activities to develop a collective situational awareness through an assembly of individual perspectives. Web mapping services with geocoding data for places (streets. For mobile social networks. announcing its social API at the end of 2000 and allowing free access to over An infographic illustrating and comparing the popularity of different geosocial 21. Inc.Geosocial networking 36 Geosocial networking Geosocial Networking is a type of social networking in which geographic services and capabilities such as geocoding and geotagging are used to enable additional social dynamics.[9] .[6] The Facebook Developer's API is considered the first to be specific to a social network and was launched in 2006. and parks) can be used with geotagged information (meetups. By 2008. nightclubs or restaurant reviews) to match users with a place. began testing an API in April 2002 and currently owns dozens that are used by thousands of applications. buildings.[3] [4] Amazon's networking services in August 2010 primary API was released in 2002.[7] By June. geolocated messages could assist automated tools to detect and track potential dangers for the general public such as an emerging epidemic (see Flu Detector [8] application on Twitter). [5] Google. This type of geosocial networking is known as collaborative mapping. concert events. Furthermore. Facebook later created an open stream API. History The evolution of geosocial can be traced back to the implication of social application programming interfaces by internet-based corporations in the early 2000s. allowing outside developers access to user's status updates. Geolocation on web-based social network services can be IP-based or use hotspot trilateration. expanded geolocation technologies including cell tower localization became available and devices such as digital cameras and camera phones began to integrate features such as Wi-Fi connectivity and GPS navigation into more sophisticated capabilities. texted location information or mobile phone tracking can enable location-based services to enrich social networking.[1] [2] User-submitted location data or geolocation techniques can allow social networks to connect and coordinate users with local people or events that match their interests. Uses Geosocial networking allows users to interact relative to their current locations. which allowed developers to pull consumer information like product reviews into third party applications. Twitter integrated API into their applications and is considered the most open of all social networks. EBay uses one of the oldest.000 developers in late 2005. 2010. event or local group to socialize in or enable a group of users to decide on a meeting activity. In disaster scenarios.

users are able to search and browse nearby stores.Geosocial networking 37 Additional features All geosocial networks revolve around specific features that are additional to geolocating.[10] Examples include Apple's iGroups[11] and Hot Potato. employees. Paperless Ticketing eliminates wasteful paper use. Tagzania and forms of collaborative mapping.[10] Besides becoming more convenient than the normal ticketing process. colleagues. Some Social Shopping sites form affiliate relationships with merchants.[10] Location-planning With location-planning. Social shopping Social shopping service users create personal profiles to collect information on different items they find. Some fashion corporations have invested in sensors placed in their stores and dressing rooms so users on Social Shopping applications have to physically be in their store or trying something on in order to gather points. who often pay percent commissions on sales that come as a result of their products being featured on other sites. This . etc.[10] Examples include Google's Ogle Earth. In addition to checking in. Examples [13] . and Ticketmaster's smart phone include Apple's recently purchased patent for a travel ticketing app. These networks use the location of mobile phones to connect users and may also provide directions to and from the venue by linking to a GPS service. Users choose the ingredients of their order.[10] Paperless ticketing Paperless ticketing is a feature that uses smart phones as digital tickets for events and travel. Moodsourcing Some networks use Moodsourcing as a recreational way to make user's status's seem more similar to personal interaction.[12] Freelancing Freelancing networks are created with the specific purpose to allow users to find or post temporary employment opportunities. These groups are then able to communicate freely with each other. [14] Sites have gone so far as to allow users to add their credit card number so their purchases are automatically checked in. Customers are given discounts and coupons for their involvement and the restaurant receives more customers. and are awarded points for every order based on their suggestion. This sort of social networking is used mostly during events so the host (operating the master device) can provide information. suggestions or coupons specific to the event. users convey their current mood with a corresponding emoticon. restaurants. ITravel application. Users Venues are assigned profiles and users can rate them. like 4Food. Food sourcing A less-utilized form of geosocial networking is one mostly used by fast food restaurants. users download software that allows them to grab images of those products to post on their own shopping lists. classmates and friends. Users establish and operate a professional profile and are able to connect with past and possible employers. or social-mapping. share their opinions and post pictures. name it. Instead of simply updating their status on other social networks with a description or link of their purchases. in which customers check-in their orders rather than themselves. Ad hoc networking A mobile ad hoc network is an opt-in group of mobile devices in the same immediate area linked to a master device.

In the second. Retrieved 8 October 2010. . Daniele Quercia. In the first incident. Cristianini N (2010). cnet. "Reporters' Roundtable: Checking in with Facebook and Foursquare" (http:/ / www. Cognitive Information Processing (CIP). socialtimes. jsp?arnumber=5604088). Rafe. cam. pp. cnet. unauthorized joke Textual logo for Twitter tweets were made from nine accounts and hackers may have accessed nonpublic information such as email addresses and mobile phone numbers. 38 Privacy policies Some sites. "Tracking the flu pandemic by monitoring the Social Web" (http:/ / ieeexplore. com/ 2010/ 04/ apple-gets-patent-for-mobile-paperless-itravel-tickets/ [14] Tedeschi. ac. com/ apple/ 2010/ 03/ 18/ apples-working-social-location-app-called-igroups/ [12] Bilton. org/ xpls/ abs_all. "Like Shopping? Social Networking? Try Social Shopping" (http:/ / www. ieee. Claire Cane Miller. bris. The host is then given permission to access the user's information and to contact him or her. cnet. uk/ epidemics/ [9] Lampos V. In the April incident. closed the security hole and notified affected account holders.. com/ 2010/ 04/ 8-mobile-geo-location-application-types/ ) [11] http:/ / thenextweb. uk/ ~dq209/ publications/ recommending10quercia. The New York Times. com/ eBay-to-make-APIs-free-to-developers/ 2110-1032_3-5949958. have been scrutinized for allowing users to "tag" their friends via email while checking in."[15] References [1] Needleman. html [6] http:/ / mashable. [2] "Recommending Social Events from Mobile Phone Location Data" (http:/ / www. If they don't. is an automatic application that requires users to opt-out.'s security practices related to these attacks and announced that both they and Twitter Co. nytimes. Nick (13 August 2010). Twitter Co. com/ Amazon-opens-Web-services-shop/ 2100-1017_3-944541. html [5] http:/ / news. Shopkick and Do Together. Users must remove themselves from the network if they wish to not be included. 411-416.Geosocial networking increases participation and encourages customers to try on other clothes. com/ 8301-30976_1-20015615-10348864. pdf). Twitter Co. Adrianne Jeffries (3 September 2010). private information was accessible and at least one user’s password was reset. Since the account breaches and FTC statements. Buzz. Google's new project. profiles displaying their social information will be open to all g-mail users. [10] 8 Mobile Geo-Location Application Types (http:/ / www. vs. Bob (11 September 2006). . enm. An "opt-out" network is defaulted to have the user included in a group. com/ 2010/ 08/ 13/ making-lunch-a-social-networking-game/ ?scp=6& sq=social networking& st=Search). Examples include ThisNext. com/ 2006/ 09/ 11/ technology/ 11ecom. like Facebook. ICDM 2010 [3] http:/ / mashable. et al. com/ 2009/ 05/ 21/ social-media-api/ [4] http:/ / news. nytimes. . "Making Lunch a Social Networking Game" (http:/ / bits. reached an agreement that resolves the FTC's security concerns. The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) launched an inquiry into Twitter Co. ac. the FTC Early in 2009 Twitter faced two different security incidents in which user accounts were accessed by unauthorized sources. [13] http:/ / www. Opt-in vs. opt-out An "opt-in" is a permission-based network that requires a user to join or sign up. has implemented many of the FTC's suggestions and released a statement that the agreement "formalizes our commitment to those security practices. Twitter Co. html). There were 45 accounts accessed in a January incident and 10 that April for short periods of time. com/ 2009/ 04/ 26/ facebook-open-updates/ [8] http:/ / geopatterns. cl. . within minutes of the hack Twitter Co. html). com/ 2009/ 05/ 21/ social-media-api/ [7] http:/ / mashable. Within hours of the January breach. . The New York Times. removed administrative access to the hacker and quickly notified affected users. socialtimes. blogs. CNET.

and between e-mail messaging and instant messaging. html) 39 Plurk Plurk Screenshot of a Plurk timeline URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Plurk. which can be up to 140 text characters in length.Geosocial networking [15] Twitter Blog: FTC Announcement (http:/ / blog. Users can respond to other users' updates from their timeline through the Plurk. According to Alexa. 41.5% of Plurk's traffic comes from Taiwan. 2011. and delivered to other users who have signed up to receive them. by instant messaging. twitter.com website. com/ 2010/ 06/ ftc-announcement.[5] Plurk is also ranked 27th in Taiwan and 1. Updates are then shown on the user's home page using a timeline which lists all the updates received in chronological order. unity. similar to how Google was eventually used as a verb . love.com Yes Micro-blogging Required [1] Available language(s) Multilingual Owner Created by Launched Plurk. or by text messaging. 2008 Plurk is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to send updates (otherwise known as plurks) through short messages or links. respect. The A-team [2][3] [4] May 12. and karma verb neologism. as of April 4.[6] The etymology of the name was explained by the developers as such:[7] • • • • abbreviation of 'people' and 'lurk' portmanteau of 'play' and 'work' acronym of peace.[5] History Plurk was developed by and envisioned as a communication medium meant to form a balance between blogs and social networks. Plurk was launched on May 2008.297th worldwide. After months of development. Inc.

[16] References http:/ / www. the new Twitter?" (http:/ / www.[9] The Plurk. videos. com/ 2008/ 05/ 20/ das-leben-der-anderen-a-window-into-the-lives-of-others/ ).2817. Plurk Inc. akan (2008-05-20). Users can post new messages with optional 'qualifiers'. [8] Plurk.. plurk. TwiT.com that called for the assassination of the Taiwan. . [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] . Plurk hosts its own translation website where users can submit translations of the Plurk user interface in their own local language.. Retrieved 2008-07-23.Site Info from Alexa (http:/ / www.com opens up" (http:/ / amix. Retrieved 2008-07-23. com/ plurk-over-twitter/ ).. "Plurk API Service" (http:/ / blog. com/ plurkteam Plurk. Retrieved 2008-09-20.[14] [15] Controversies President of Taiwan assassination controversy On March 20. com/ 2008/ 06/ 28/ introducing-the-plurk-collaborative-translation-project/ ). com/ siteinfo/ plurk. "feels".. . "‘Plurk’? An etymological deconstruction of the word you love to hate" (http:/ / blog. com/ http:/ / www.com . plurk. Taiwanese police investigated an Internet threat posted on plurk. etc. dk/ blog/ viewEntry/ 19320). 2009 [10] Due to messages being sent between users in near-realtime. Plurk is translated into over twenty languages. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc.. com/ plurkteam). com/ 2009/ 12/ 04/ plurk-api-service/ ). Plurk also supports group conversations between friends and allows usage of emoticons together with the usual text micro-blogging. many users use Plurk as an alternative to chat. plurk.Plurk 40 Features and technology Plurk's interface shows updates in horizontal form through a scrollable timeline written in JavaScript and updated through AJAX. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. plurk. an earlier micro-blogging service. "thinks". . techleader. [10] alvin (2009-12-04).Help Us Bring Plurk to your Language" (http:/ / blog. "net@night 55: Tiffany Roll" (http:/ / twit. Plurk Inc. Availability in other languages To help translate their base list of qualifiers/verbs into a number of languages. Retrieved 2008-07-24. plurk.. plurk. and other media. Plurk. asp). com/ 2008/ 06/ 02/ why-plurk-an-etymological-deconstruction-of-the-word-you-love-to-hate/ ). "loves". Plurk Inc. com). "das leben der anderen . "The A-Team" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-07-23. [11] akan (2008-06-28). pcmag.tv.[12] [13] In June 2008.[11] As of July 2008. "Plurk.Reviews by PC Magazine" (http:/ / www.2321480.). [9] Prashant Sharma. which are one-word verbs used to represent a thought (e. "Introducing the Plurk Collaborative Translation Project . . com/ faq). "FAQ" (http:/ / www. Plurk Inc. Plurk received online attention when it was featured by Leo Laporte and Amber MacArthur on their net@night show in the TWiT.com . "Plurk. tv/ natn55). [7] akan (2008-06-02). co. Retrieved 2008-07-24.a window into the lives of others. plurk. as in other social sites. . [13] Stii Pretorius (2008-06-03). Reception Plurk has often been considered to be a rival to Twitter. 2011.com.tv podcast network.g. posting updates on events earlier in the day. Inc.com. Retrieved 2008-07-23.com developers released public access to API on December 4. za/ stii/ 2008/ 06/ 03/ plurk-the-new-twitter/ ).[8] Plurks can also be "liked". Amir Salihefendic (2008-05-12). and sharing images. "Plurk. Plurk. . com/ article2/ 0." (http:/ / blog.Full Review . plurk.com. Ma Ying-jeou. Retrieved 2008-07-23. [12] Michael Muchmore (2008-06-23). Retrieved on April 4. TechPluto. . techpluto. Retrieved 2008-07-24. Mail & Guardian Online. . 2010. There are also advanced features such as sending updates only to a subset of your friends. plurk. . [14] Amber MacArthur and Leo Laporte (2008-06-04). "Why Plurking is more fun than tweeting" (http:/ / www. .00. alexa.

"Plurk: Like Twitter.com/) Plurk Layouts . a social network is a map of specified ties. common interest. links. or connections).com/) Social network A social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called "nodes". sexual relationships. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels. com/ 8301-17939_109-9957487-2.com/) Plurk API (http://www. html?tag=bl).style your Plurk profile (http://plurklayouts. In its simplest form. Retrieved 2008-07-23. such as friendship. taipeitimes. The network can also be used to measure social capital – the value that an individual gets from the social network. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram. . organizations are run. . from families up to the level of nations. dislike.com homepage (http://www. 2009-03-21.Plurk Templates (http://plurktemplates.. Inc.com/) Beautifying Your Plurk World! . and occasionally users may find elements of it not working." [16] "Plurk User Calls for Assassination of Taiwan President" (http:/ / www. which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency.com/) Plurk Themes . where nodes are the points and ties are the lines. CNET Networks. in good and bad ways" (http:/ / news. and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. such as friendship. cnet. The nodes to which an individual is thus connected are the social contacts of that individual. between the nodes being studied.Unique quality Plurk Layouts with live preview (http://plurk-layout. . com/ News/ front/ archives/ 2010/ 03/ 21/ 2003468547).Plurk [15] Rafe Needleman (2008-06-02). There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes.plurk. taipeitimes. kinship.com/API) Plurk Collaborative Translation Project (http://translate. financial exchange. "An influx of users over the weekend (which is being blamed on or credited to Leo Laporte) has apparently overloaded the system.com. and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties (also called edges. knowledge or prestige. and ties are the relationships between the actors. 41 External links • • • • • • Plurk. or relationships of beliefs.plurk.plurk. Nodes are the individual actors within the networks.

or membership societies. geography. Social network analysis has now moved from being a suggestive metaphor to an analytic approach to a paradigm. J. and sociolinguistics. such as their "personal communities". information science. Barnes started using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties. Barry Wellman. Anatol Rapoport. communication studies. David Krackhardt.g. White. biology.. a method for examining hybrid networks has recently been developed in which egos in complete [3] networks can nominate alters otherwise not listed who are then available for all subsequent egos to see. The distinction between whole/complete networks and personal/egocentric networks has depended largely on how analysts were able to gather data. and researchers. The node with the highest betweenness centrality is marked in yellow. from interpersonal to international. That is. economics. or personal networks (also known as egocentric networks). Nicholas Mullins. Ronald Burt. ethnicity). . While there are severe logistic limits to conducting snowball network studies. Stanley Wasserman. methods. families) and social categories (e. Analysts reason from whole to part. schools. and has become a popular topic of speculation and study.. It has also gained a significant following in anthropology. People have used the idea of "social network" loosely for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales. the ties that specified people have. organizational studies. [1] Douglas R. from behavior to attitude.Social network 42 Social network analysis Social network analysis (related to network theory) has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology. Personal/egocentric studies were typically conducted when identities of egos were known. Linton Freeman. Stephen Borgatti. The hybrid network may be valuable for examining whole/complete networks that are expected to include important players beyond those who are formally identified. In 1954. Scholars such as S. Katherine Faust. They typically either study whole networks (also known as complete networks). social psychology. Peter Marsden. These studies rely on the egos to provide information about the identities of alters and there is no expectation that the various egos or sets of alters will be tied to each other.g. for groups such as companies. Carley. who are the focal actors who are being analyzed. to their alters. the analyst was expected to have complete information about who was in the network. A snowball network refers to the idea that the alters identified in an egocentric survey then become egos themselves and are able in turn to nominate additional alters. Berkowitz. For example.D. tribes. A. social network analysis software. Martin Everett. with its own theoretical statements. gender. from structure to relation to individual. David Knoke. Mark Granovetter. but not their alters. Kathleen An example of a social network diagram. all participants being both potential egos and alters.[2] In the latter case. employees of a company often work with non-company consultants who may be part of a network that cannot fully be defined prior to data collection. and Harrison White expanded the use of systematic social network analysis. all of the ties containing specified relations in a defined population. the ties are said to go from egos. encompassing concepts traditionally used by the public and those used by social scientists: bounded groups (e.

where the attributes of individuals are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors within the network. and instrumental social links (gesellschaft). Social networks also play a key role in hiring. His essays pointed to the nature of network size on interaction and to the likelihood of interaction in ramified. which assume that it is the attributes of individual actors—whether they are friendly or unfriendly. Moreno pioneered the systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups.[5] The power of social network analysis stems from its difference from traditional social scientific studies. it focuses on how the structure of ties affects individuals and their relationships. J. especially classrooms and work groups (sociometry). as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations. It is better for individual success to have connections to a variety of networks rather than many connections within a single network. but leaves less room for individual agency. formal. three main traditions in social networks appeared. with many weak ties and social connections. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (gemeinschaft) or impersonal. and in job performance.L.Social network Several analytic tendencies distinguish social network analysis:[4] There is no assumption that groups are the building blocks of society: the approach is open to studying less-bounded social systems. After a hiatus in the first decades of the twentieth century.[6] 43 History of social network analysis A summary of the progress of social networks and social network analysis has been written by Linton Freeman. Social network analysis produces an alternate view. writing at the turn of the twentieth century. He distinguished between a traditional society – "mechanical solidarity" – which prevails if individual differences are minimized. network analysis looks to see the extent to which the structure and composition of ties affect norms. are more likely to introduce new ideas and opportunities to their members than closed networks with many redundant ties. loosely-knit networks rather than groups (Simmel. a group of friends who only do things with each other already share the same knowledge and opportunities. For example. smart or dumb. Networks provide ways for companies to gather information. while a Harvard group led by W. In contrast to analyses that assume that socialization into norms determines behavior. in business success. organizations.—that matter. Georg Simmel. The shape of a social network helps determine a network's usefulness to its individuals. because so much of it rests within the structure of their network. from nonlocal communities to links among websites. tighter networks can be less useful to their members than networks with lots of loose connections (weak ties) to individuals outside the main network. This approach has turned out to be useful for explaining many real-world phenomena. Similarly. Rather than treating individuals (persons. deter competition. More open networks. and collude in setting prices or policies. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other. characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together. individuals can exercise influence or act as brokers within their social networks by bridging two networks that are not directly linked (called filling structural holes).[7] Precursors of social networks in the late 1800s include Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies. and the modern society – "organic solidarity" – that develops out of cooperation between differentiated individuals with independent roles. A group of individuals with connections to other social worlds is likely to have access to a wider range of information. Smaller. In other words. In the 1930s. Lloyd Warner and Elton Mayo explored . the ability for individuals to influence their success. power within organizations often comes more from the degree to which an individual within a network is at the center of many relationships than actual job title. 1908/1971). etc. was the first scholar to think directly in social network terms. Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. states) as discrete units of analysis.

it took about 15 years before this call was followed-up systematically. Kimball Romney and Douglas White. John Padgett. and communication scholars at Michigan State University. and Stanley Milgram. . Peter Marsden. arguing that seeing the world as social networks offered more analytic leverage. India and the United Kingdom. Lorne Tepperman and Barry Wellman.[11] Significant independent work was also done by scholars elsewhere: University of California Irvine social scientists interested in mathematical applications. including John Boyd. centered on former students of Harrison White: S. The rule arises from cross-cultural studies in sociology and especially anthropology of the maximum size of a village (in modern parlance most reasonably understood as an ecovillage). as it may be easier in larger groups to take advantage of the benefits of living in a community without contributing to those benefits. In 1940.[12] 44 Research Social network analysis has been used in epidemiology to help understand how patterns of human contact aid or inhibit the spread of diseases such as HIV in a population. Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly.[10] Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who have elaborated and popularized social network analysis. Concomitantly. Change agents and opinion leaders often play major roles in spurring the adoption of innovations.D.S. who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements. rumor spreading and social structure. Social network analysis developed with the kinship studies of Elizabeth Bott in England in the 1950s and the 1950s–1960s urbanization studies of the University of Manchester group of anthropologists (centered around Max Gluckman and later J. Diffusion of innovations theory explores social networks and their role in influencing the spread of new ideas and practices.[9] In the 1960s-1970s. SNA may also be an effective tool for mass surveillance – for example the Total Information Awareness program was doing in-depth research on strategies to analyze social networks to determine whether or not U. Kathryn Faust. citizens were political threats. A.[8] However. Susan Freeman. it may be due to economics and the need to track "free riders". It is theorized in evolutionary psychology that the number may be some kind of limit of average human ability to recognize members and track emotional facts about all members of a group. including Joseph Galaskiewicz. Mark Granovetter. providing insight into the interplay between communication rules. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis. However. centered around Linton Freeman. British anthropologist S. Wendy Griswold. A substantively-oriented University of Toronto sociology group developed in the 1970s.Social network interpersonal relations at work. who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis. Bonnie Erickson.R. a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. Radcliffe-Brown's presidential address to British anthropologists urged the systematic study of networks. One group was centered around Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations: Ivan Chase. quantitative analysts at the University of Chicago. it critiqued methodological individualism and group-based analyses. including Nan Lin and Everett Rogers.F. Nancy Howell. Nicholas Mullins. Edward Laumann. Robin Dunbar has suggested that the typical size of an egocentric network is constrained to about 150 members due to possible limits in the capacity of the human communication channel. Clyde Mitchell) investigating community networks in southern Africa. The evolution of social networks can sometimes be modeled by the use of agent based models. A. Nancy Howell. Harriet Friedmann. Joel Levine. Berkowitz. although factors inherent to the innovations also play a role. Harriet Friedmann. Michael Schwartz and Barry Wellman. and John Padgett. Nancy Leslie Howard.In terms of theory. Martina Morris. and also including noted modeler and game theorist Anatol Rapoport.

a group of 3 people (A. a sample of US individuals were asked to reach a particular target person by passing a message along a chain of acquaintances.[18] 45 . B. In signed social networks. people at the center of a social network tend to become happier in the future than those at the periphery. This group is very likely to morph into a balanced cycle. However. B and C have a positive relationship. they found that in-degree (the number of times a person is named as a friend). It is loosely analogous to "clout" or "pull" in the West. and some further research to replicate Milgram's findings found that the degrees of connection needed could be higher. so the researchers propose an alternative "Attract and Introduce" model that can explain heritability and many other features of human social networks. To find new information or insights. A recent electronic small world experiment at Columbia University found that about five to seven degrees of separation are sufficient for connecting any two people through e-mail.[14] Academic researchers continue to explore this phenomenon as Internet-based communication technology has supplemented the phone and postal systems available during the times of Milgram. and betweenness centrality (the number of paths in the network that pass through a given person) are all significantly heritable. Balanced graphs represent a group of people who are unlikely to change their opinions of the other people in the group. Guanxi can be studied from a social [13] network approach. For example. being similar. This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties". members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances. with a reach of three degrees of separation: a person's happiness was [16] (See also Emotional contagion. By using the concept of balances and unbalanced cycles. Signed social network graphs can be used to predict the future evolution of the graph. Guanxi (关 系 ) is a central concept in Chinese society (and other East Asian cultures) that can be summarized as the use of personal influence. anger). such as one where B only has a good relationship with A. This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. Existing models of network formation cannot account for this intrinsic node variation. but C and A have a negative relationship is an unbalanced cycle. Clusters of happy and unhappy people were discerned within the studied networks.[17] Using a sample of twins from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.[15] Collaboration graphs can be used to illustrate good and bad relationships between humans. there is the concept of "balanced" and "unbalanced" cycles. alliance.) associated with the level of happiness of their friends' friends' friends. Furthermore. and C) where A and B have a positive relationship. When a person is happy. The average length of successful chains turned out to be about five intermediaries or six separation steps (the majority of chains in that study actually failed to complete). The concept gave rise to the famous phrase six degrees of separation after a 1967 small world experiment by psychologist Stanley Milgram. Unbalanced graphs represent a group of people who are very likely to change their opinions of the people in their group. A balanced cycle is defined as a cycle where the product of all the signs are positive. In Milgram's experiment. The methods (and ethics as well) of Milgram's experiment were later questioned by an American scholar. Cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits. nearby friends have a 25 percent higher chance of being happy themselves. and both A and B have a negative relationship with C. transitivity (the probability that two friends are friends with one another). A positive edge between two nodes denotes a positive relationship (friendship. The small world phenomenon is the hypothesis that the chain of social acquaintances required to connect one arbitrary person to another arbitrary person anywhere in the world is generally short.Social network Mark Granovetter found in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation. Some researchers have suggested that human social networks may have a genetic basis. dating) and a negative edge between two nodes denotes a negative relationship (hatred. the evolution of signed social network graphs can be predicted. One study has found that happiness tends to be correlated in social networks. each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew.

"Betweenness". (See also: Proxemics) The shortest path may also be known as the "geodesic distance". Eigenvector centrality A measure of the importance of a node in a network. Centralization The difference between the number of links for each node divided by maximum possible sum of differences. It is found to be [21] very efficient compared to random immunization. The measure reflects the number of people who a person is connecting indirectly through their direct links. propose to immunize friends of randomly selected nodes. closeness is the inverse of the sum of the shortest distances between each individual and every other person in the network. and "Degree" are all measures of centrality. A higher clustering coefficient indicates a greater 'cliquishness'. giving a higher value for nodes which bridge clusters. Network or global-level density is the proportion of ties in a network relative to the total number possible (sparse versus dense networks). Influential Spreaders . Flow betweenness centrality The degree that a node contributes to sum of maximum flow between all pairs of nodes (not that node). It reflects the ability to access information through the "grapevine" of network members. Clustering coefficient A measure of the likelihood that two associates of a node are associates themselves. Thus. Closeness The degree an individual is near all other individuals in a network (directly or indirectly).[20] Degree The count of the number of ties to other actors in the network. See also degree (graph theory). while a decentralized network is one in which there is little variation between the number of links each node possesses. or as structurally cohesive blocks if precision is wanted. It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the principle that connections to nodes having a high score contribute more to the score of the node in question. "Closeness". This measure takes into account the connectivity of the node's neighbors. Centrality This measure gives a rough indication of the social power of a node based on how well they "connect" the network.Social network 46 Metrics (measures) in social network analysis Betweenness The extent to which a node lies between other nodes in the network. A centralized network will have many of its links dispersed around one or a few nodes. which is imprecise. Cohesion The degree to which actors are connected directly to each other by cohesive bonds.[19] Bridge An edge is said to be a bridge if deleting it would cause its endpoints to lie in different components of a graph. Groups are identified as ‘cliques’ if every individual is directly tied to every other individual. ‘social circles’ if there is less stringency of direct contact. (Individual-level) Density The degree a respondent's ties know one another/ proportion of ties among an individual's nominees. Efficient immunization strategy The acquaintance immunization strategy.

Unlike a bridge. "Degree Prestige". Structural hole Static holes that can be strategically filled by connecting one or more links to link together other points. Path length The distances between pairs of nodes in the network. See also degree (graph theory). Reach The degree any member of a network can reach other members of the network. Radiality Degree an individual’s network reaches out into the network and provides novel information and influence. Like other software tools.[25] Structural equivalence Refers to the extent to which nodes have a common set of linkages to other nodes in the system. Prestige In a directed graph prestige is the term used to describe a node's centrality. Network analysis tools allow researchers to investigate large networks like the Internet. the data can be saved in external files. a local bridge is contained in a cycle. and to analyze the network data.Social network A method to identify influential spreaders is described by Kitsak et al. etc.[22] Local bridge An edge is a local bridge if its endpoints share no common neighbors. 47 Network analytic software Network analytic tools are used to represent the nodes (agents) and edges (relationships) in a network. Second order centrality It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the observation that important nodes see a random walk (running on the network) "more regularly" than other nodes. Average path-length is the average of these distances between all pairs of nodes. would disconnect the group.[23] Structural cohesion The minimum number of members who. "Proximity Prestige". The nodes don’t need to have any ties to each other to be structurally equivalent. disease transmission. and "Status Prestige" are all measures of Prestige. These tools provide mathematical functions that can be applied to the network model. Linked to ideas of social capital: if you link to two people who are not linked you can control their communication. Additional information comparing the various data input formats used by network analysis software packages is available at NetWiki.[24] The relation between fragmentation (Structural cohesion) and percolation theory is discussed by Li et al. . if removed from a group.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance. 2004). "On Social Structure. 2002. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. . Many of the analytic software have modules for network visualization. (see also Scott. 221–41 in Social Connections in China: Institutions. Katherine. Berkowitz. 1988. "Introduction for the French Reader. References [1] Linton Freeman.D. and Reese. eds. [12] Mark Granovetter." Sociologica 2 (2007): 1–8. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology. pdf). [8] A. Social Structures: A Network Approach. Barry and S. 2000 and Freeman. edited by Barry Wellman and S. 2006. John. 2006. Stanley. Sociomapping). The Development of Social Network Analysis. 1974. edited by Thomas Gold. networkgenie. Barry. html) [11] Mullins. Network Genie User Manual (https:/ / secure. Charles." Pp." Sociologica 2 (2007): 1–8. com/ ar_bigworld. The Theory of Social Structure. [15] Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute: 70 (1940): 1–12.D. html): Judith Kleinfeld article. Boston: Little Brown. and attributing colors. [4] Freeman. Cambridge University Press. Social Structures: A Network Approach. however. [5] Scott. "Introduction for the French Reader. “Networking Guanxi.[30] Only about 100 of number of US patent applications to social networking. William B. The Development of Social Network Analysis.g.. There applications. NC: Tanglewood Research. Especially when using social network analysis as a tool for facilitating change.[27] Examples of network mapping techniques are Net-Map (pen-and-paper based) and VennMaker [28] (digital). The number growing at about 250% per year are now over 2000 published these applications have issued as patents. Patents There has been rapid growth in the that cover new technologies related of published applications has been over the past five years. Culture and the Changing Nature of Guanxi. Vancouver: Empirical Press. Social Network Analysis. Exploration of the data is done through displaying nodes and ties in various layouts. different approaches of participatory network mapping have proven useful.. judithkleinfeld. Vancouver: Empirical Pres. Linton. largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents. com/ semiotix/ semiotix14/ sem-14-05. [3] Hansen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nicholas. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach. [6] Wasserman. [14] Could It Be A Big World After All? (http:/ / www. Mark Granovetter. Barry. [9] Nadel. SF. London: Sage. Duncan Watts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: Harper and Row." Pp. edited by Barry Wellman and S. Wellman. Douglas Guthrie and David Wank. 1957. Wenhong Chen and Dong Weizhen. Typical representation of the network data are graphs in network layout (nodes and ties). [10] The Networked Individual: A Profile of Barry Wellman (http:/ / www. [7] The Development of Social Network Analysis Vancouver: Empirical Press. ed. 2009. eds. 1988. and Faust.D. Wellman. Berkowitz. These are not very easy-to-read and do not allow an intuitive interpretation. size and other advanced properties to nodes. Berkowitz. London: Cohen and West. An Urban World. Various new methods have been developed in order to display network data in more intuitive format (e. Here participants / interviewers provide network data by actually mapping out the network (with pen and paper or digitally) during the data collection session. 1994." Pp. Tilly. One benefit of this approach is that it allows researchers to collect qualitative data and ask clarifying questions while the network data is collected. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance. 1988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barry and S. 1973.R. semioticon. Number of US social network patent applications [29] published per year and patents issued per year [2] Wellman. Greensboro. com/ admin/ documentation/ Network_Genie_Manual.Social network 48 Visualization of networks Visual representation of social networks is important to understand the network data and convey the result of the analysis [26]. Eric L.D. 1991. Berkowitz. [13] Barry Wellman. 2006. Wellman. 1988. Radcliffe-Brown.

Computer Communications. ISBN 0-7619-6652-8 Excerpts in pdf format (http://www. L. London: Sage Publications. [23] Second order centrality: Distributed assessment of nodes criticity in complex networks. php/ Cohesive_blocking) is the R program for computing structural cohesion according to the Moody-White (2003) algorithm. This wiki site provides numerous examples and a tutorial for use with R. edu/ genes_and_social_networks. J. vennmaker. E 75: 046107. S. A short. Rev. Borgatti. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Fowler "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years. biu. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Phys. ac. James. uci. • Breiger." American Sociological Review 68(1):103–127. Stanley. (1992). Toronto: Butterworth. clear basic summary is in Krebs. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cohen. . 2008. npr.blocking (http:/ / intersci. H.G. 1982. & Faust. May 2007: 116-144. 15 April 2011. Lett 91: 247901. D.Social network [16] James H. Katherine. [18] Fowler. Christakis. January 23. (http:/ / ipwatchdog. Juan-Antonio Carrasco and Barry Wellman. il/ Publications.0806746106. Philip (January 27. Christakis. 2005. ISBN 0-409-81362-1 • Brandes." Internet Protocol Journal. NA (10 February 2009). "Genes and the Friends You Make" (http:/ / online. [20] Cohesive.edu/~breiger/NetworkAnalysis.). 2004. .). . December 4. ISBN 0-674-84372-X • (Italian) Casaleggio. doi:10. Chen.. com/ en/ [29] Mark Nowotarski. Nicholas and James H.1136/bmj. biu. Kitsak. (2000). PMID 19171900. edited by Melissa Hardy and Alan Bryman. "Identification of influential spreaders in complex networks" (http:/ / havlin. "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish". 2011. cmu. H. com/ article/ SB123302040874118079. edu/ wiki/ index. and Thomas Erlebach (Eds. Social Networks Analysis: Methods and Applications. [19] The most comprehensive reference is: Wasserman. Paul. J. E. pdf): (PDF file). H. Wall Street Journal. html& r=0& p=1& f=S& l=50& Query=spec/ "social+ network"& d=PG01) 49 Further reading • Barnes. Makse (2010). Havlin. S. TU SEI RETE. html). php?keyword=Efficient+ immunization+ strategies+ for+ computer+ networks+ and+ populations+ + & year=*& match=all). ben-Avraham (2003). Dawes. Havlin. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& u=/ netahtml/ PTO/ search-adv. ucsd. 2008: doi:10. Ronald S. "Efficient immunization strategies for computer networks and populations" (http:/ / havlin. "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups. E.. [22] M. "The Social Life of Routers. Liljeros. John Scott and Stanley Wasserman (Eds. Online (http:/ / www2. Stephen D.com/3-540-24979-6/) Berlin. L. S. org/ journals/ ASRFeb03MoodyWhite. Fowler and Nicholas A.arizona. Phys. ISBN 88-901826-5-2 • Carrington. Media account for those who cannot retrieve the original: Happiness: It Really is Contagious (http:/ / www. edu/ joss/ content/ articles/ volume1/ Freeman. org/ templates/ story/ story. MA: Harvard University Press." Field Methods 19 (2). uspto. and Douglas R. com/ cgi/ content/ full/ 337/ dec04_2/ a2338)" British Medical Journal. [21] R. PMC 2644104. pdf) (PDF). ss. Cohen. il/ Publications. CT.springeronline. " Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study.1073/pnas. Network Analysis: Methodological Foundations (http:// www. "Percolation theory applied to measures of fragmentation in social networks" (http:/ / havlin. php?keyword=Percolation+ theory+ applied+ to+ measures+ of+ fragmentation+ in+ social+ networks+ + & year=*& match=all). Ulrik. . 2008. Pages 619-628 [24] Moody. S. ac. Muchnik. (1994). Cambridge. ac. [25] Y. ISBN 978-0-521-80959-7 • Christakis. Davide (2008). Stanley (2007). php?keyword=Identification+ of+ influential+ spreaders+ in+ complex+ networks+ + & year=*& match=all). (http:/ / www. White (2003). 2009). 2005. Human Relations 7:39–58 • Berkowitz. [26] http:/ / www. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. La Rivoluzione del business. Havlin. asanet. "Don't Steal My Avatar! Challenges of Social Network Patents. [28] http:/ / www. html [27] Bernie Hogan. An Introduction to Structural Analysis: The Network Approach to Social Research. bmj. Liljeros. Issue 5.A. Nature Physics 6: 888." Pp. Rev. Ronald L. il/ Publications. F. del marketing e della politica attraverso le reti sociali. wsj. "Visualizing Personal Networks: Working with Participant-Aided Sociograms. 3 (December): 14–25. IP Watchdog. "Model of Genetic Variation in Human Social Networks" (http:/ / jhfowler.a2338. php?storyId=) Retrieved December 5. Peter J. 505–526 in Handbook of Data Analysis.u. P." New England Journal of Medicine 357 (4): 370–379 (26 July 2007) . Volume 34. Stanley. "The Analysis of Social Networks. F. K. Valdis. com/ 2011/ 01/ 23/ don t-steal-my-avatar-challenges-of-social-networking-patents/ id=14531/ ) [30] USPTO search on published patent applications mentioning “social network” (http:/ / appft. [17] Shishkin.pdf) • Burt. A. Structural Holes: The Structure of Competition. . H. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (6): 1720–1724. biu. R. Gallos.

and Dunbar.pdf) • Nohria.edu/files/gems/paleofoodwebs/ Newman2003SIAM. R. Robustness and Function (http:// havlin. March 25. doi:10. Carrington. (2005).0108.1006/jeth. Laura. Schechter. Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development. Vol. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (pp. & S. (2005). S. Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.il/Shlomo Havlin books_com_net. "The Value of Social Networks in rural Paraguay" (http://are. (2000).dalmatech. ISBN 978-0-521-80959-7 • Krebs. Identities. Tarik. Linton C. Networks in Organizations. Scott. Boundaries. Generalized Blockmodeling." American Sociological Review 68(1):103–127. Berkeley • Lima. Hadzibeganovic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and Dietrich Stauffer (2009).santafe. (Includes a list of recent SNA applications Web Reference (http://www.jstor. "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups. Framework. R. J.fae.115. doi:10. and Douglas R. White (2003). • Lin. ISBN 0-521-84085-6 • Freeman. No. Arjun.edu/ seminars/network value.1137/S003614450342480.14. Vancouver: Empirical Press. eds. pdf (http://www. Patrick. Mrvar and Vladimir Batagelj.pdf). and Social Ties.pdf) • Tilly.) • Ligon.com/~admin24/files/ socialnetworkvaluation.html). Journal of Economic Theory 71: 44–74. Valdis (2006) Social Network Analysis.0. In P J. • Manski. and Van Duijn. Complex Networks: Structure. (http://www2. CO: Paradigm press. Wouter d. Ronald S. J.org/sici?sici=0895-3309(200022)14:3<115:EAOSI>2. et al. A. 14. (2005). (http://links. A Brief Introduction. Social Network Analysis: A Handbook.pdf) Human Nature. (2004) The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. CA: Sage. 2nd Ed. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 270–316). SIAM Review 56 (2): 167–256..asanet.3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology.1996.pdf) • Huisman. ISBN 0-8204-9889-0. second ed.php). • Jackson. (2001).pdf) • Newman. CO. Physica A. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (3): 115–36. (2003).ac.org/journals/ ASRFeb03MoodyWhite. College of Natural Resources. Charles.Social network • Shlomo Havlin and Reuven Cohen (2010). • Doreian. James. Mark (2003).orgnet. Tobias (2006): Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation. Wasserman (Editors). Newberry Park. Seminar. "A Strategic Model of Social and Economic Networks". Vladimir Batagelj. John. 1973. ISBN 0-7619-6338-3 • Sethi. Valuation of Social Networking (http://fusion.ua. 1.liv.. Social Capital: Theory and Research. (2000). (2005). Charles F. New York: Harper and Row.berkeley. Cambridge University Press. Berkeley. ISBN 0-87584-324-7 • Nooy. ISBN 0-521-84173-9 • Scott. Software for Social Network Analysis. doi:10. M. (2008). Nitin and Robert Eccles (1992). 2009 . Frankfurt a. Burt and Karen Cook. Boston: Harvard Business Press. "Economic Analysis of Social Interactions". University of California. Francisco W. Matthew O. University of California. M. M. New York: Cambridge University Press.1257/jep.es/fvega/CourseNetworks-Alicante/ Artículos del curso/Jackson-Wolinsky-JET. ISBN 1-59457-714-5 • Hill.ac. 2002. pdf (http://merlin. 4999–5004. Evolution of ethnocentrism on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert networks. Nan.biu.: Peter Lang. and Anuška Ferligoj. ISBN 1-59451-131-4 50 . "Social Network Size in Humans. pp. Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Boulder. Ethan." (http://www. A. Nicholas.uk/evolpsyc/ Hill_Dunbar_networks. "The Structure and Function of Complex Networks". 388(24). ISBN 0-202-30643-7 • Mullins. 53–72.2-I&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage) via JSTOR • Moody. ISBN 0-06-044649-8 • Müller-Prothmann.com/sna.

Duncan J. 909–910 in Encyclopedia of Population. Susan Cott.org) (INSNA) – professional society of social network analysts. "Social Structure from Multiple Networks: I Blockmodels of Roles and Positions. W. with participants from computer science. rev. (2004). 1976. (1988). Harrison.casos. • Program on Networked Governance (http://www. maintained at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) • Building networks for learning (http://learningforsustainability.utoronto. (2003). Cresskill.harvard. Boulder. studies the intersection of social.insna. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. social science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.html) • Netwiki (http://netwiki. Katherine. (http://stat. information and computing networks (http://www. Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. "Social Networks. • Historical Dynamics in a time of Crisis: Late Byzantium. Thomas W." American Journal of Sociology 81: 730–80. A Multimedia Social-Networking Community for Mobile Devices Interactive Telecommunications Program.ksg. • Wellman. 1204–1453 (a discussion of social network analysis from the point of view of historical studies) (http://www. ISBN 0-393-32542-3 • Wellman.ca/~wellman/netlab/ABOUT/index.pdf) • Social Networking (http://www. New York: Macmillan Reference.dmoz. Stanley. 2001. nl/SnijdersSteglichVdBunt2009.cs. M.at/byzanz/historicaldynamics.amath.gamma. Scott Boorman and Ronald Breiger.php) – A guide to on-line resources on strengthening social networking.ac. ISBN 0-521-24441-2 • Weng.000 members • Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems (CASOS) at Carnegie Mellon (http:// www. Norton & Company. (2007). and related disciplines.net/social_learning/networks. communication. (2003). Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age.rug.Social network • Valente. ISBN 0-521-38269-6 • Watkins. Social Structures: A Network Approach. (1995). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities. ISBN 0-02-865677-6 • Watts.unc. (1994). W. Barry.edu/netgov) – Program on Networked Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barry and Berkowitz. 51 External links • Introduction to Stochastic Actor-Based Models for Network Dynamics . "Physical Place and Cyber-Place: Changing Portals and the Rise of Networked Individualism.edu/) (wiki page devoted to social networks.snakdd. with more than 1. & Faust.com) (SNAKDD) An annual workshop on social network analysis and mining.org/Computers/Internet/On_the_Web/Online_Communities/ Social_Networking/) at the Open Directory Project • The International Network for Social Network Analysis (http://www. Tisch School of the Arts/ New York University • White. Duncan J. ISBN 0-8133-1150-0 • Wellman. CO: Westview Press.Snijder et al." International Journal for Urban and Regional Research 25 (2): 227–52." Pp. NJ: Hampton Press. Stephen D.edu) • NetLab at the University of Toronto. ISBN 1-881303-21-7 • Wasserman.chass. Edited by Paul George Demeny and Geoffrey McNicoll. Barry (1998).oeaw. Harvard University • The International Workshop on Social Network Analysis and Mining (http://www.cmu. ed. Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovations. ISBN 0-691-11704-7 • Watts.htm) .

the site is now averaging 2. Type Founded Private 2007 Headquarters New York[1] . COO) social networking service.5 million total blogs. Inc.. 2011 Tumblr included more than 5 billion total posts and over 17.[15] [16] As of May 1. Tumblr was inaccessible for about 47 hours due to errors during maintenance. 2010 post by David Karp to the Tumblr staff blog. 2010. Tumblr acquired the Tumblr iPhone app. On April 17. Marco Arment left Tumblr to focus on Instapaper. 2010.[14] On December 5. John Maloney (President.[9] [10] According to a March 8. In September 2010. micro-blogging 27 | tumblr.[13] On March 17. or choose to make their tumblelog private. USA Key people Industry Employees Slogan Website Alexa rank David Karp (Founder. videos. the application was made available on BlackBerry App World. that was created by Jeff Rock and Garrett Ross. In 2009. quotes and audio to their tumblelog.[7] [8] 75.000 existing bloggers soon switched to the platform. is a microblogging platform that allows users to post text. the service has garnered more than 3 million users.000 posts and 15. 2010.[11] As of 2009. the Tumblr staff blog announced that Tumblr is now accessible on BlackBerry smart phones via an app created by Mobelux. CEO).000.com [4] [5] [3] [2] 54 (April 2011) Tumblr. Tumblr had an 85% retention rate. The service emphasizes ease of use.Tumblr 52 Tumblr Tumblr. New York. sometimes styled as tumblr. [17] . images. initially known as Tumblerette.000 new users every day.[6] History David Karp founded Tumblr in 2007 with Marco Arment as lead developer.[12] compared with 40% for Twitter. links. a short-form blog. Users can follow other users. and since that time.

tumblr. html) [19] Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2009 (http:/ / images. [15] http:/ / nymag. David Karp. . tumblr. was named Best Young Tech Entrepreneur 2009 by BusinessWeek. com/ 2009/ 03/ 13/ tumblr-makes-blogging-blissfully-easy/ ). . . [10] "Tumblerette is now the official Tumblr iPhone App! (and it’s free!)" (http:/ / staff. " Blog startup Tumblr goes bi-coastal with Sequoia Investment (http:/ / venturebeat. com/ about/ #press). fastcompany. tumblr. "Would You Take a Tumblr With This Man?" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ chris-dannen/ techwatch/ what-hell-tumblr-and-other-worthwhile-questions). Retrieved 2010-11-07. 2009-02-25.[18] In August 2009. com/ humor/ articles/ 57088/ davidkarpisthebarelylegalblogfather.[19] In August 2010. . com/ ss/ 09/ 04/ 0421_best_young_entrepreneurs/ 11. com/ post/ 434982975/ a-billion-hits).[20] Finances Tumblr's original funding came from Karp's earnings as a software consultant at parenting site UrbanBaby. . tumblr. "What the Hell is Tumblr? And other Worthwhile Questions" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2009-06-25. [14] "Marco Arment Leaves Tumblr To Work On Instapaper" (http:/ / techcrunch. htm). [13] Goldsmith. Retrieved 2009-04-29. html). com/ 2010/ 09/ 21/ marco-arment-instapaper/ ).com – Traffic Details from Alexa" (http:/ / www. observer. pcworld. . [12] Dannen. html [16] http:/ / staff. reuters. John Borthwick (Betaworks). io/ "About" (http:/ / www. Tumblr was named as one of Obama's Top 5 Tech Tools in PC World. com/ about). Retrieved 2009-03-23. "David Karp is the Barely Legal Blogfather" (http:/ / www. com/ topnewyorkcompanies. com/ article/ 157961/ obamas_top_5_tech_tools. tumblr. David (2010-03-08). com/ "tumblr. blogs. com/ daily/ intel/ 2010/ 12/ tumblrs_second_day_of_outtages. "Many Twitters are quick quitters: study" (http:/ / www. . html) [21] "Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2009" (http:/ / images. Retrieved 2011-03-22. com/ 2009/ 02/ 25/ tumblr-iphone-app/ ). . tumblr. . . com). ." November 12. com/ 2008/ would-you-take-tumblr-man). [22] Anthony Ha.Tumblr 53 Recognition In January 2009. businessweek. . . Reuters (Thompson Reuters). Retrieved 2011-03-22. com/ post/ 81463386/ iphone-app). Retrieved 2010-12-14. [8] Shafrir. 2010. com/ article/ deborahCohen/ idUSTRE53S1A720090429). com/ post/ 2127872280/ downtime [17] "About" (http:/ / www. John Maloney was the founder of UrbanBaby with wife Susan Maloney. tumblr. Retrieved April 18. com/ 2010/ 11/ 12/ sequoia-tumblr-investment/ ). com/ ss/ 09/ 04/ 0421_best_young_entrepreneurs/ 11. VentureBeat. Fred Seibert. . Doree. Tumblr was named as a finalist in Lead411's New York City Hot 125. Tumblr. "Has It Been Three Years Already?" (http:/ / staff. [11] Karp. http:/ / www. TechCrunch. businessweek. Retrieved 2009-04-13. Inc. "Tumblr Makes Blogging Blissfully Easy" (http:/ / gadgetwise. David. [7] Kushner. Tumblr's CEO. com/ about). [18] Obama's Top 5 Tech Tools (http:/ / www. http:/ / john. Alexa Internet. alexa. 2011. Paul (2009-03-13). Retrieved 2011-1-7. [9] Van Grove. Tumblr has raised funding from Union Square Ventures. 2009). References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] "Press Info" (http:/ / www. nytimes. Jennifer (2009-02-25). Retrieved May 1. 2010-09-21. Chris. 2011. Spark Capital. "Tumblr Rebrands Tumblerette and Releases Free iPhone App" (http:/ / mashable. Belinda (April 29. Retrieved 2009-03-26. maxim.[21] [22] Tumblr shares two lead investors with Twitter. Retrieved 2010-03-09. com/ siteinfo/ tumblr. Retrieved 2009-06-25. Martin Varsavsky. htm) [20] "New York City Hot 125" (http:/ / www. and Sequoia Capital (among other investors). Boutin. lead411. The New York Times.

was originally incorporated in California. Inc. Massachusetts. microblogging Required (to post) 200 million (March 2011) [6] Multilingual. Japanese. but as of 2007 is incorporated in the [8] jurisdiction of Delaware. 2006 [7] Current status Active Twitter is a website. including English.com/) Twitter Twitter Type Founded Founder Private San Francisco. San Francisco. United States Jack Dorsey Noah Glass Evan Williams Biz Stone [1] 795 Folsom Street. Korean. which offers a social networking and microblogging service. California. and Boston. head of product development) Dick Costolo (Chief executive officer) Evan Williams (Director) Biz Stone (Creative director) US $150 million (projected 2010) 450 (2011) | twitter. owned and operated by Twitter Inc. German. Twitter. Russian. Italian.tumblr. Texas. Spanish and Turkish July 15. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the user's profile page.tumblr. Suite 600.com/) • Tumblr Staff Blog (http://staff. . The website is based in San Francisco.Tumblr 54 External links • Official website (http://http://www.com [4] [5] [3] [2] Headquarters Area served Key people Revenue Employees Slogan Website Alexa rank Type of site Registration Users Available in Launched 9 (March 2011) Mobile social-network service. United States Worldwide Jack Dorsey (Executive chairman. French. California. Twitter also has servers and offices in San Antonio. CA 94107. enabling its users to send and read messages called tweets..

circa 2006.com and Twitter. exclusively streaming Twitter messages.[11] inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes.[16] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[9] 55 History Creation Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" that was held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability".Twitter Twitter was produced in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched in July.[6] It is sometimes described as the "SMS of the Internet". And we just did!"[21] The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T.' and 'chirps from birds'.[10] The original project code name for the service was twttr. used until September 14. In August 2010. Previous Twitter logo. generating 65 million tweets a day and handling over 800. by Jack Dorsey.[12] Work on the project started on March 21.[13] "…we came across the word 'twitter'.[20] Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less. 2006. The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15.[18] "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways.[17] Reaction The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest (SXSW) festival. and it was just perfect. 2006. Social software researcher Danah Boyd said Twitter "own[ed]" the festival. @NASA_Astronauts. See also NASA Tweetup. . 2010. Dorsey introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group. Dorsey. when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 PM Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr"." – Jack Dorsey[14] A blueprint sketch. Creamer on January 22. an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account. The definition was 'a short burst of inconsequential information. Evan Williams. and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo and all of its assets–including Odeo. And that's exactly what the product was.com–from the investors and shareholders.[7] In October 2006. 2010.000.000 tweets per day to 60.[22] By late November 2010."[19] Reaction at the festival was highly positive. an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass. While sitting in a park on a children’s slide and eating Mexican food. envisioning an SMS-based social network. During the event.[15] Williams fired Glass who was silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Since then Twitter has gained popularity worldwide and is estimated to have 200 million users. Biz Stone.000 search queries per day. Twitter usage increased from 20. and the bloggers in attendance touted it. Blogger Scott Beale said that Twitter "absolutely rul[ed]" SXSW.'s Fox Audience [23] Network." remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code. the company appointed Adam Bain as President of Revenue from News Corp. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service. J. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.

In February 2010. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. though the "Switch to Old Twitter" option is still available to users. as well as phasing out the "Old Twitter.[29] According to PC Magazine. 2010. but he became a member of Twitter's board of directors. about 65 million tweets were posted each day. so the previous "retro" homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved. and Dorsey became chairman of the board. and promised to "help in any way I can". the company recorded over 70. 2009. the new homepage was reintroduced. Costolo forged a close relationship" when Williams was away. 2010.[25] On October 16. now called "Twitter" and distributed [38] free of charge. as well as a complete overhaul of the interface. Flickr.[37] Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11. Dick Costolo. Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites including YouTube. 2011.[41] . which shifted links such as '@mentions' and 'Retweets' above the Twitter stream. according to Twitter. Twitter tested a new homepage. Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second. Twitter launched a redesigned site including a new logo.com. 2011. formerly Twitter's chief operating officer. is the official Twitter client for the iPhone.940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14. dated October 4.Twitter On September 14. Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. Williams was to stay with the company and "be completely focused on product strategy.000 registered applications.[24] 56 Leadership As chief executive officer. and whose offices are within walking distance of Twitter's in San Francisco.[33] As noted on Compete. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone.[32] As of June 2010. Dorsey and Mr."[28] According to The New York Times.085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers' victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17. the company confirmed that the "New Twitter experience" had been rolled out to all users. the company began rolling out "New Twitter". His time is split with Square where he is CEO.283 tweets per second.[27] On October 4. As of November 1. On April 5.[40] On April 20. When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25. The record was broken again when 3. Williams was "no longer involved in the day-to-day goings on at the company".000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. equaling about 750 tweets sent each second. a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2. He is focused on developing a new startup. "Mr. 2010.[26] Williams took over the role of CEO. 2010.[35] and then again at the close of Japan's victory over Denmark in [36] the World Cup when users published 3.[31] By March 2010."[39] However. company servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words "Michael Jackson" at a rate of 100.[30] Dorsey rejoined Twitter in March 2011. while 'Messages and 'Log Out' became accessible via a black bar at the very top of twitter.com. Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of capital funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company. as executive chairman focusing on product development. iPad and Mac. For example. a glitch came about after the page was launched. From September through October 2010. 2010. 2010. According to a Twitter blog. an entirely revamped edition of twitter. Williams announced that he was stepping down as CEO. It had 400.com. 2010.000 tweets per hour. 2008.[29] Growth The company experienced rapid growth. The application. became CEO.[34] Twitter's usage spikes during prominent events. Stone is still with Twitter but is working with AOL as an "advisor on volunteer efforts and philanthropy".

[42] Tweets are publicly visible by default.[56] [47] . the retweet function is symbolized by "RT" in the message. you'll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates. Users may subscribe to other users' tweets – this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers[44] or tweeps (Twitter + peeps). such as Twitpic. even musings on the future of education.[45] In a 2009 Time essay. goo.ly.im. and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. memozu.Twitter 57 Features Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client. that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. Malaysia and the Philippines.[54] A similar platform called GladlyCast[55] exists for mobile phone users in Singapore. senders can restrict message delivery to just their followers.[48] To repost a message from another Twitter user. and content-hosting services. Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. making it possible for users to follow (as well as mention and reply to) lists of authors instead of individual authors.[43] While the service is free. The 140-character limit has also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as bit. In late 2009. If you follow 20 people. Users can tweet via the Twitter website. or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries. music recommendations. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone.[44] [49] Through SMS. since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel. O2[50] and Orange[51] networks.com and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. When you choose to follow another Twitter user. compatible external applications (such as for smartphones). however. interesting new links.ly for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its website. and share it with one's own followers. India. Similarly. users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States. accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees.gl. Twitter uses bit. and tr. the "Twitter Lists" feature was added. introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as "remarkably simple:"[46] As a social network. The messages were initially set to 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging. New Zealand. the "@" sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users. Canada. In India. Messages Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a "#" sign.[52] an alternative platform called smsTweet[53] was set up by a user to work on all networks.

000 tweets (originating from the US and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 AM to 5:00 PM (CST) and separated them into six categories:[57] • Pointless babble – 40% • Conversational – 38% • Self-promotion – 6% • Spam – 4% • News – 4% [57] • Pass-along value – 9% Social networking researcher Danah Boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labelled "pointless babble" is better characterized as "social grooming" and/or "peripheral awareness" (which she explains as persons "want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling.000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. Salesforce."[65] . ed (August 12.Twitter 58 Tweet contents San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2. Twitter has a user retention rate of forty percent. monitoring content and conversations including Tweetdeck. 2010  News  Spam  Self-promotion  Pointless babble  Conversational  Pass-along value Rankings Twitter is ranked as one of the ten-most-visited websites worldwide by Alexa's web traffic analysis. Twitter Study Reveals Interesting Results About Usage.[64] Authentication As of August 31. and Twitterfeed. it is now compulsory and the user-name/password authentication method has been made redundant and is no longer functional.com blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits. a Nielsen.com.com blog ranked Twitter as the fastest-growing website in the Member Communities category for February 2009. 2009).[61] However. HootSuite.382 percent. Texas: Pear Analytics. 2010. Twitter stated that the move to OAuth will mean "increased security and a better experience. Ryan. the OAuth authentication method was optional. . increasing from 475. "Twitter Study – August 2009" (PDF format.[63] Less than half of tweets are posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos). Adobe Reader required). third-party Twitter applications are required to use OAuth. It was followed by Zimbio with a 240 percent increase. Retrieved Jun 3.[60] In March 2009. and Facebook with a 228 percent increase. Twitter had annual growth of 1. even when co-presence isn’t viable"). A February 2009 Compete. Previously.Kelly. an authentication method that does not require users to enter their password into the authenticating application.[58] Content of Tweets according to Pear Analytics.[62] Adding and following content There are numerous tools for adding content.[59] Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. San Antonio.

It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity.8% 19. . "Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years.Twitter 59 Demographics Twitter.5% 21.[72] Twitter is backed by Union Square Ventures." he said. but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American (sixteen percent) and Hispanic (eleven percent). 2009. and that New York has the most Twitter users. although exact numbers are not publicly disclosed.000.3% 16. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs. However. sixty percent of Twitter users are Caucasian.[70] According to Quancast. comScore as of late. said Jeremiah Owyang.com Top5 Global Markets by Reach (%) COUNTRY Indonesia Jun-2010 Indonesia Dec-2010 Brazil Jun-2010 Brazil Dec-2010 Venezuela Jun-2010 Venezuela Dec-2010 Netherlands Jun-2010 Netherlands Dec-2010 Japan Jun-2010 Japan Dec-2010 Percent 20. women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men — fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent. Digital Garage."[69] According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009. Sixty-three percent of Twitter users are less than thirty-five years old.[68] comScore attributes this to Twitter's "early adopter period" when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users.[72] Its second B round of funding in 2008 was for $22 million[73] and its third C round of funding in 2009 was for $35 million from Institutional Venture Partners and Benchmark Capital along with an undisclosed amount from other investors including Union Square Ventures. Spark Capital.7% 22. Twitter is mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter.8% 20.[71] Finances Twitter raised over US$57 million from venture capitalist growth funding. Spark Capital and Insight Venture Partners.[74] Twitter's San Francisco headquarters located at 795 Folsom St. Twitter's first A round of funding was for an undisclosed amount that is rumored to have been between $1 million and $5 million. and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq.0% 21. and Bezos Expeditions.0% 20.1% 17. an industry analyst studying social media. twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3. has stated that Twitter has begun to "filter more into the mainstream". fifty-eight percent of Twitter users have a total household income of at least $60.8% 19.0% [66] [67] Note: Visitor Age 15+ Home and Work Locations.[68] According to comScore only eleven percent of Twitter's users are aged twelve to seventeen. Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati.

[82] 60 Technology Implementation The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework.[80] In March 2011. and Starbucks.[76] On April 13. Red Bull. similar to Google Adwords' advertising model."[91] Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime). The projections for the end of 2013 were $1. noting that users may want to buy items directly from Twitter since it already provides product recommendations and promotions.[77] [78] In July 2009.000 in the third quarter and $4 million in the fourth quarter along with 25 million users by the end of the year.54 billion in revenue.8 billion.[2] No information about how Twitter planned to achieve those numbers was published. The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.000 Twitter shares sold for $34. Twitter has become something unexpectedly important — a discovery engine for finding out what is happening right now. adding a search bar and a sidebar of "trending topics" — the most common phrases appearing in messages. The documents projected 2009 revenues of $400. Biz Stone explains that all messages are instantly indexed and that "with this newly launched feature. . In response. users see the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu. and 1 billion users.[85] but since 2009 implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.Twitter In May 2008.50 each on Sharespost.[84] From the spring of 2007 until 2008 the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling. $111 million in net earnings.[81] Twitter has been identified as a possible candidate for an initial public offering by 2013. Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker.[93] [94] The Twitter fail whale error message.[87] [88] Interface On April 30.[86] The service's application programming interface (API) allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.[92] The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address. Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise including Sony Pictures.[83] deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby. an addition of $200 million in new venture capital in December 2010 and a forecasted $100 million to $110 million in revenue for 2011 rose the company's valuation to approximately $3. Best Buy. some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by the hacker Croll Hacker."[89] Outages When Twitter experiences an outage.[75] Twitter board member Todd Chaffee forecast that the company could profit from e-commerce. Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website.[79] Though the company only started selling ads midway through 2010 (late spring).[90] illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again. As of April 13. Twitter adjusted its web interface. Even operating at a loss through most of 2010. 2009. an implied valuation of $7. 2010. 35.7 billion as of February 2011. it still managed to generate $45 million in annual revenue.

[110] Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11. Patches were quickly released. causing the Twitter website to go offline for several hours. 2007.[97] • June 12.294. 2008 – Twitter's status blog announced that instant messaging (IM) service was no longer a temporary outage and needed to be revamped.[100] • August 6. 2009 – In what was called a potential "Twitpocalypse".[104] Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication. by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. The service reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.[103] • November 2010 – A number of accounts encountered a fault that resulted in them seeing the "fail whale" when they tried to login to their accounts.[112] In response to Twitter's security breaches. 2009 – Twitter and Facebook suffered from a denial-of-service attack.296 total messages) again breaking some third-party clients. Within a few weeks of this discovery Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number (PIN) that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.[109] Falsified tweets — including sexually explicit and drug-related messages — were sent from these accounts. though some iPhone applications had to wait for approval from the App Store. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information. comedian Conan O'Brien's account. But the timeline and a number of other features were unavailable during this outage (which remains ongoing).[99] • September 22. It was announced that Twitter aims to return its IM service pending necessary major work.[107] The vulnerability could be used if the spoofer knew the phone number registered to their victim's account. including .[98] While Twitter itself was not affected.[101] It was later confirmed that the attacks were directed at one pro-Georgian user around the anniversary of the 2008 South Ossetia War. advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads[106] directed specifically to the user. 33 high-profile Twitter accounts were compromised after a Twitter administrator's password was guessed by a dictionary attack. No connection between the hackers and Iran has been established. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status. 2010. a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük users that allowed Twitter users to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge. 2009 – A hacking attack replaced the website's welcoming screen with an image of a green flag and the caption "This site has been hacked by Iranian Cyber Army" for nearly an hour. the unique numerical identifier associated with each tweet exceeded the limit of 32-bit signed integers (2. 2009. some third-party clients could no longer access recent tweets.Twitter • May 2008 – Twitter's new engineering team made architectural changes to deal with the scale of growth. • August 2008 – Twitter withdrew free SMS services from users in the United Kingdom[95] and for approximately five months instant messaging support via a XMPP bot was listed as being "temporarily unavailable". which had been set to follow only one person. was changed to receive nearly 200 malicious subscriptions. rather than the sites themselves. allowing famous or notable people to announce their Twitter account name.147. For example. Stability issues resulted in down time or temporary feature removal. 61 Privacy and security Twitter messages are public but users can also send private messages. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses.967. 2009 – The identifier exceeded the limit for 32-bit unsigned integers (4. malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.[102] • December 17.647 total messages). the Federal Trade Commission brought charges against the service which were settled on June 24. A security vulnerability was reported on April 7.[111] In May 2010.[105] While Twitter displays no advertising.[108] On January 5. The accounts themselves were not locked out as account holders could still see their "mentions" page and post from there. 2009.[96] • October 10.483.

[114] Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement.[118] 62 Open source Twitter released several open source projects developed while overcoming technical challenges of their service. reported the XSS vulnerability to Twitter on August 14. sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions" and which include the 2011 Egyptian protests. For example. unless we are prevented by law from doing so". he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post coloured messages.[121] Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites.[116] and Holm later created and posted the XSS Worm that automatically re-tweeted itself.[120] [122] Having previously used the services of third parties TinyURL and bit. Later.[120] It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use. 2009–2010 Iranian election protests. There is some decentralized architecture to enhance the scalability of Twitter including Fethr[124] and Cuckoo.it's our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information. 2010–2011 Tunisian protests. 2010. when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. a Japanese developer.[104] A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21.[120] and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.[115] Security firm Sophos reported the virus was spread by people doing it for "fun and games". an email from Twitter to users said they would be expanding the roll-out of the service to users. when he found it was exploitable again. Magnus Holm.[126] The service has also been used in emergencies and political campaigning. and 2009 Moldova civil unrest. The origin is unclear but Pearce H.co is a URL shortening service created by Twitter.tl domain.co domain. Delphin (known on Twitter as @zzap) and a Scandinavian developer. Decentralized architecture The traditional centralized client-server architecture has not scaled with user demand.[115] Twitter issued a statement on their status blog at 13:50 UTC that "The exploit is fully patched". @rsarver and @raffi. both claim to have modified the exploit of a user. ".[116] Delphin says he exposed the security flaw by tweeting a JavaScript function for "onMouseOver".[113] On December 14. possibly Masato Kinugawa.[116] Kinugawa.ly.Twitter maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually. URL shortener t.co wrapper..[115] [117] Twitter representative Carolyn Penner said no charges would be pressed.[121] On September 2. it has been used to organize protests. 2010. When an account user held the mouse cursor over blacked out parts of a tweet.. leading to server overload and significant loss of availability.[119] Notable projects are the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores and the distributed graph database FlockDB.[123] Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for direct messages in March 2010 using the twt. who was using it to create coloured Tweets. the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks. 2010.[120] Eventually all links posted to Twitter will use a t.[115] The exploit was then re-used to post pop-up ads and links to pornographic sites. the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account. . but noted it could be exploited by cybercriminals.[121] before it purchased the t. [125] Uses Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many different industries and scenarios. The service has been being tested on the main site using the accounts @TwitterAPI.

"best-of" list." On the other hand Steve Dotto opined that part of Twitter's appeal is the challenge of trying to publish such messages in tight constraints.[127] This effect is sometimes referred to as the "virtual watercooler" or social television. with the use of "hashtags. The Wall Street Journal wrote that social-networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. saying. Nielsen Online reported that Twitter has a user retention rate of forty percent. Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School. he also noted that he felt uncomfortable with the fact that every user's Twitter page is available to the public.[141] [142] . Twitter won the "Breakout of the Year" Webby Award. the idea of describing your blow-by-blow activities in such detail is absurd. #edchat. used at the end of a tweet. 63 Reception In 2006. Many people stop using the service after a month therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users. Michael Arrington of TechCrunch commented that although he liked the service. super bowl[128] and MTV Awards.[136] "For many people." says Jonathan Zittrain. "Why would you subject your friends to your daily minutiae? And conversely. But some users are starting to feel 'too' connected."[132] On November 22."[135] "Using Twitter for literate communication is about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad". "Limiting yourself to 140 characters—the maximum for messages on this diabolically addictive social-networking tool—is easy. means that the communication will be viewed by all users who follow the topic which refers to an ongoing chat among educators.[139] In 2009.[134] The mobile version of twitter." For instance." hypothesized writer Clive Thompson in September 2008.[138] "The qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful. Biz Stone.[129] Change of focus Twitter emphasized its news and information-network strategy in November 2009 by changing the question asked to users for status updates from "What are you doing?" to "What's happening?"[130] [131] Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade. supermetabolic extreme—the ultimate expression of a generation of celebrity-addled youths who believe their every utterance is fascinating and ought to be shared with the [137] world. how much of their trivia can you absorb? The growth of ambient intimacy can seem like modern narcissism taken to a new.com Criticism In May 2008.[140] In 2009.Twitter It is also used for direct communication among social groups and organizations. said tech writer Bruce Sterling. when Twitter launched under the name "Twttr". such as the Oscars. Twitter is also increasingly used for making TV more interactive and social. 2010. a cofounder of the company. higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they're having for dinner. as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours. expressed for the first time the idea of a Twitter news network. Twitter has been used successfully to encourage people to watch live TV events.[133] a concept of wire-like news service he has been working on for years.

Twitter and Facebook.[151] Free Twitter bar Censorship Censorship of Twitter Censorship of Twitter has occurred in Iran. daily posters to Twitter had shorter relationships than everyone else. but those claims have been questioned by others who suggest that daily Twitter use may relate to narcissism which in turn undermines relationships. China.[152] and South Korea.[150] Some have suggested that Twitter causes the shorter relationships. In response. allegations have been made by several IT-news websites and other media reporting that Twitter appeared to engage in censorship activities by impeding WikiLeaks related tweets from becoming trending topics. The show's Samantha Bee satirized media coverage of the service saying "there's no surprise young people love it – according to reports of young people by middle-aged people.[144] During another episode of The Daily Show on March 2.Twitter During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition. the comic strip Doonesbury began to satirize Twitter. host Jon Stewart negatively portrayed members of Congress who chose to "tweet" during President Obama's address to Congress (on February 24.[148] In May 2011 concerns have risen about Twitter restricting the reuse of its data by researchers."[156] . guest Brian Williams. Egypt. Twitter has denied any involvement with altering Trend results explaining that "WikiLeaks and cablegate have trended worldwide or in specific locations. Williams implied that he would never use Twitter because nothing he did was interesting enough to publish in Twitter format. a journalist. across all ages.000 users of OkCupid show that. Many characters highlighted the triviality of tweets although one defended the need to keep up with the constant-update trend. 2009. the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. The formula was (Twitter followers) x 2 + (Facebook connections) divided by 2.[146] In March 2009. described tweets as only referring to the condition of the author. despite high numbers of tweets concerning WikiLeaks due to activities such as the United States diplomatic cables leak. To determine the influence of people it used a formula based on famous social networking sites."[145] Time magazine acknowledged growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100 most influential people. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher. Alleged censorship of WikiLeaks by Twitter In December 2010.[143] In an episode of The Daily Show on February 26. 2009) rather than pay attention to the content of the speech. Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.[147] SuperNews! similarly satirized Twitter as an addiction to "constant self-affirmation" and said tweets were nothing more than "shouts into the darkness hoping someone is listening".[149] 64 Social impact Data from over 800.[153] [154] [155] However. 2009.

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. . Ph. com/ items/ 89891774_twouble-with-twitters. "Doonesbury@Slate Daily Dose 3 March 2009" (http:/ / www.com. . Gary. Science of Relationships website. 2011). . Twitter and History March On (http:/ / blog. Eugenia (December 6. (April 22. doonesbury. "Twitter Appears to Censor WikiLeaks-Related Trends" (http:/ / www.com/)) • Twitter (http://twitter. Retrieved February 22. Retrieved February 22. com/ home/ 2011/ 4/ 22/ is-twitter-bad-for-relationships. html). Retrieved January 17.D. com/ story/ 24100/ Twitter_Appears_to_Censor_Wikileaks-Related_Trends?jkhyh=g). [153] Bell. 2011. 2009). nytimes. php/ 10-charts-about-sex/ ). com/ 2010/ 12/ to-trend-or-not-to-trend. htm) (Video (4+ minutes. 2011. com/ index. 2011.quantcast. . okcupid. Kareem (January 26. socialtimes. [151] Lewandowski. html?pagewanted=1& _r=1& hp). doonesbury. [149] Stuart Shulman. php?storyId=126086325) – audio report by NPR • Twittermania sweeps Russia's politicians (http://rt..com (a website maintained by Slate/The Washington Post).com/) ( Mobile (http://http://mobile. 2010. php/ 2011/ 05/ 07/ twitter-and-history-march-on/ ). 2010).org/templates/story/story. SuperNews! (via Current TV). "Twouble with Twitters" (http:/ / current.Twitter mon-march-2-2009/ twitter-frenzy). html?uc_full_date=20090302). com/ index. html). com/ 2010/ 04/ time-magazines-social-influence-index-led-by-obama-gaga-kutcher/ ). 2011. "10 Charts about Sex" (http:/ / blog.co. Retrieved February 22. 2010). [148] Faure-Brac. Christian (April 19. 2011. com/ blog-post/ 2010/ 12/ wikileaks_left_off_twitter_tre. Retrieved February 22. Neil (April 30.telegraph. html). twitter.com/twitter. phtml) osdir. com/ Article10586.com/Top_News/2010-08-31/ russia-politicians-twitter-mania. scienceofrelationships. The New York Times. The Daily Show (via Comedy Central. [146] Vidyarthi. [155] Twitter May be Censoring WikiLeaks (http:/ / osdir. com/ 2011/ 01/ 27/ world/ middleeast/ 27egypt.com/twitter) on Twitter • Twitter Demographics and Audience Profile (http://www. 2009). 2010).com. [147] Trudeau.uk/technology/twitter/) by The Daily Telegraph • The Library of Congress is Archiving Your Tweets (http://www. 2011. osnews. Retrieved February 22. December 8. "Is Twitter Bad for Relationships?" (http:/ / www. Garry (March 2. com/ strip/ dailydose/ index. blog. Melissa (December 6. Gaga. [152] (registration required) Fahim. 2011. 70 External links • Official website (http://http://twitter.html) (RT article) .npr. "Time Magazine's Social Influence Index Led by Obama. OSNews. . 2011). . texifter. BlogPost (blog of The Washington Post). requires Adobe Flash)).com#demographics) at Quantcast • Twitter in Depth Archive (http://www. ." (http:/ / blog. [154] Loli-Queru. "WikiLeaks Left Off Twitter Trends?" (http:/ / voices. Retrieved February 22. 2011 [150] Rudder. Kutcher" (http:/ / www. socialtimes. May 7.twitter.com on 2010 12 06 [156] "To Trend or Not to Trend. Josh (March 16. 2011).twitter. "Protesters in Egypt Defy Ban as Government Cracks Down" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. .

Inc. Status Net. The tables below compare general and technical information for some notable microblogging services and social network services that have status updates. General information Service Facebook Owner Launched February 2004 [4] Primary service social network Software license proprietary Content license own TOS [2] Multilingual Ads Facebook.com Bentio January 2010 [6] micro-blogging AGPL v3 (Bentio) CC-BY 3. June 2006 May 2008 March 2009 micro-blogging micro-blogging micro-blogging micro-blogging Apache License 2. but are not listed here.ca July 2008 micro-blogging AGPL v3 (StatusNet) CC-BY 3. February 2010 micro-blogging proprietary - Features An overview of integral features. Extras may be provided by third party applications/services. September 2008 [12] micro-blogging proprietary own TOS [13] Yes No Woondy CrazyWebber January 2011 [14] micro-blogging proprietary - No Yes Ohawo Goom. Inc.0 (JaikuEngine) proprietary proprietary.0 Yes bentio.Comparison of micro-blogging services 71 Comparison of micro-blogging services This list is incomplete. inc March 2011 [15] micro-blogging proprietary - Yes Yes No - Google Buzz Google. parts LGPL (Midgard) proprietary own TOS own TOS August 2006 [10] own TOS [11] Yes Yammer Yammer. . [1] Inc.0 [7] [8] [9] Yes Yes Yes Yes Jaiku NotePub Qaiku Twitter Google NotePub Rohea Twitter. [3] [5] Yes Yes Yes (Ad Bard) No No No No No identi. Inc. Inc.

facebook. VentureBeat. yammer. yammer. com/ novartis. using Bentio bookmarklet (http:/ / apps. com/ tos [12] .com Jaiku Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes (channels) Yes Yes Yes (O!Room) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? NotePub Qaiku Ohawo Yes No No Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? No No Twitter Google Buzz Yes ? No ? Yes ? Yes ? ? Yes (via third-party sites and/or apps) ? Yes ? Yes ? No ? No ? Yes [1] Eldon. Control Yourself. . com/ about/ terms [14] Woondy (http:/ / woondy.Where did the idea for Twitter come from? (http:/ / twitter. ca/ doc/ bookmarklet) [20] How to share content. com) [15] Ohawo (http:/ / ohawo. launches Bentio. com/ [6] "Bentio. Eric. 2010-01-02. Inc. Retrieved 2008-12-19. com/ terms [9] http:/ / notepub. [5] http:/ / bentio.. [7] Bentio Terms of Service (http:/ / bentio. com/ doc/ tos) [8] http:/ / www. com/ terms. com/ ?note=197 [10] Twitter . Retrieved 2010-01-02. Inc.Comparison of micro-blogging services 72 Service Tagging [16] Groups Conversation [17] Private [18] Private OpenMicroBlogging RSS Atom FOAF Bookmarklet following list ? ? ? ? No Yes ? No No Yes ? Yes No ? No No ? No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes [19] [20] Facebook identi. the Microblogging Service" (http:/ / bentio.. com/ widgets/ bookmarklet) Posting and reading Communicating with the services. net/ company/ [4] "Control Yourself. . launches Identi. [17] The ability to see whole conversation (multiple replies) on one flat page. "2008 Growth Puts Facebook In Better Position to Make Money" (http:/ / venturebeat. Inc. com/ eng) [16] Tagging in micro-blogging services is normally done with hash tags.ca. Inc. the Open Microblogging Service" (http:/ / controlyourself. com/ 2008/ 12/ 18/ 2008-growth-puts-facebook-in-better-position-to-make-money/ ). com/ novartis. ca/ 2008/ 07/ 02/ control-yourself-inc-launches-identica-the-open-microblogging-service/ ). 2008-07-02. [19] Identi. php [3] http:/ / status.ca bookmarklet (http:/ / identi.About Yammer (https:/ / www. (2008-12-18). Retrieved 2009-07-02. [2] http:/ / www.ca bentio. Bentio. . com/ about/ about) [13] https:/ / www. . bentio. com/ ). jaiku. [18] If this service has the ability to hide posts from the general public. com/ about#idea) [11] http:/ / twitter.

retirement benefits. freedom of information. In February 2010. Sydney and Sean Flynn a Queensland solicitor. Navy veteran Norbert Basil MacLean III O'Connor Keough who is a dual citizen of Australia and the United States. . health.com Jaiku NotePub Qaiku Ohawo Twitter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Post via XMPP No Yes No Yes Yes ? E-Mail SMS API Web Yes Yes No Yes ? ? Yes Yes No Yes ? ? Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes XMPP No Yes No Yes Yes ? Read via E-Mail SMS API Feed Yes Yes No Yes ? ? Yes Yes No Yes ? ? Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? Yes No Yes (via third-party sites and/or apps) Yes No ? No No Yes Yes No Yes (via third-party sites and/or apps) No No ? No No Yes Yes No Yes References Equal Justice for Troops blog Equal Justice for Troops blog is a military justice and veterans blog which discusses issues affecting servicemembers and veterans of Australia and United States.S.[3] Both Wiesener and Flynn are Australian Army veterans.[1] It was created in March 2009 by U. the blog's writers include Nicholas Brian Wiesener who is a law school student at University of Technology. active duty pay.ca Woondy bentio.Comparison of micro-blogging services 73 Service Web Facebook identi. There is also discussion on the rights of servicemembers and veterans to exercise their rights to redress grievances and issues of fairness affecting military personnel and veterans. privacy.[2] Besides MacLean (who is known in Australia by his Australian surname of "Keough"). defense spending. housing and national security matters. the blog was selected for preservation by the National Library of Australia due to its national significance. The topics of the blog concern military justice.

. qls. References [1] 2009 Black Weblog Awards "And The Award Goes To. com/ 2009/ 08/ 02/ the-2009-black-weblog-awards-finalist-list/ ). Retrieved on 2010-02-10.com/25mag) at Twitter 25 Magazine (http://www. blackweblogawards. entertainment and culture magazine headquartered in Washington. In September 2009. External links • • • • Official Website (http://www.com/ilove25mag) at Vimeo . and rapper 50 Cent. D. 2010) [3] Queensland Law Society. social issues and academics but later relaunched and rebranded in August 2008 as 25 Magazine. Nino Moschella. entertainment. com. au/ tep/ 115902) (retrieved March 22. Black Weblog Awards. blackweblogawards. student life. and producer and video blogger. nla. Recent features have included Kanye West affiliated producer and rapper. Black Weblog Awards. neo-funk singer." (http:/ / www. archived Equal Justice for Troops blog. refocusing its content to cater to a niche audience of young urban professionals in metropolitan cities. Jabari Johnson. Gangsta L. 2009-09-04. the magazine launched online as The Grind Magazine and covered careers..Equal Justice for Troops blog 74 References [1] Equal Justice for Troops blog (http:/ / justice4troops. Jay-Z's Roc Nation artist. Crisis. Previous winners of the Black Weblog Award winners have included Clutch Magazine and Liberator Magazine[2] . com/ ) (retrieved March 22. com/ 2009/ 09/ 04/ and-the-award-goes-to-3/ ). blogspot.25mag. 25 Magazine was the recipient of the "popular vote" award in the 2009 Black Weblog Awards[1] in the "Best Post Series" category for their "Starving Artists" feature series which at the time featured artists U-N-I. 88-Keys.youtube. 2010 (http:/ / pandora. February 10. Sean Daniel (http:/ / www. gov. Tanya Morgan. Retrieved on 2010-02-10. In January 2008. 2010) [2] National Library of Australia.com) 25 Magazine (http://www. 2010) 25 Magazine 25 Magazine is an urban arts. Flynn.C.com/ilove25) at Youtube 25 Magazine (http://www. Wale.twitter. [2] Black Weblog Awards "Past Winners" (http:/ / www.vimeo. au/ content/ ss/ solicitor/ 44945) (retrieved March 22.

Vox Pop was an independent publisher and a well-known local café in Brooklyn.[15] A second edition entitled Rebel Bookseller: Why Indie Businesses Represent Everything You Want to Fight for--from Free Speech to Buying Local to Building Communities is due out in July 2011 from Seven Stories Press. hbook. (http:/ / indiebookman. and What Publishers Can Do For Us" at the Digital Book World 2011 conference. 07-09-2009. php/ weblog/ comments/ my-day-at-digital-book-world) Retrieved 04-07-2011. New York[10] [11] [12] [13] with which Laties was intimately involved. com/ magazine/ articles/ 2011/ may11_laties. org/ print_article. com/ 978-0-9752763-4-1) Retrieved 04-30-2011. which received the 1987 WNBA Pannell Award for Excellence in Children's Bookselling. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=CSTB& p_theme=cstb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=0EB4220CC83C5913& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM) Retrieved 04-30-2011. Laties has spoken on the current state of independent publishing. (http:/ / www. [9] The Wall Street Journal. Laties co-founded The Children's Bookstore (1985-1996)[21] [22] [23] . pop. (http:/ / www. villagevoice. newsbank. 1-29-1995. [6] Bookselling This Week.[14] As of September 8. (http:/ / richmond. bookweb. com/ rebelbookseller/ wordpress/ ) Retrieved 04-07-2011. 05-16-2006. html) Retrieved 04-30-2011. statue. (http:/ / online. php?page=946) Retrieved 04-30-2011. [18] "My Day at Digital Book World". parents-choice. [21] Chicago Sun-Times. Previously. com/ book/ ?GCOI=58322100389500) [17] Frugal Marketing. com/ 2006-05-16/ books/ chain-reaction) Retrieved 04-07-2011. php) Retrieved 04-30-2011. Illinois. wsj. (http:/ / www. [10] The New York Times. fallofautumn. yippeeskippy. (http:/ / thebrooklynink. (http:/ / articles.[18] Laties is the founding manager of the Eric Carle Museum Bookshop[19] [20] in Amherst. com/ 2009-07-09/ justice/ liberty. 05-18-2006. 04-27-2006. com/ dtb/ bookstore-operators.[4] In 2005 Vox Pop published his IPPY Award-winning[5] book Rebel Bookseller: How To Improvise Your Own Indie Store And Beat Back The Chains[6] [7] [8] [9] . (http:/ / www. 05-30-2005. Vox Pop was forced to close its doors. com/ article/ S60518LIFESTYLE. frugalmarketing. (http:/ / www. 10-07-2010. 04-22-2007. from Free Speech To Buying Local To Building Communities (2011) [26] References [1] Fall of Autumn. com/ video/ #/ video/ us/ 2009/ 07/ 10/ chernoff. (http:/ / www. html) Retrieved 04-30-2011. 01-26-2011. com/ 2010/ 10/ 07/ 15254-state-seizes-vox-pop-but-not-its-spirit/ ) Retrieved 05-1-2011. in Chicago. 03-15-2005. org/ Shop_Home) [20] Parents Choice. 05-2011. cnn. cnn?iref=videosearch) Retrieved 04-30-2011. cfm?art_id=345& the_page=editorials) Retrieved 04-30-2011. Laties has written for a variety of websites[1] [2] and magazines[3] He also maintains a personal blog. com/ 2007/ 04/ 22/ fashion/ 22trade. (http:/ / www. Massachusetts. smartbitchestrashybooks. [4] Rebel Bookseller.[25] Bibliography • Rebel Bookseller: Why Indie Businesses Represent Everything You Want To Fight for. 08-23-2005. org/ newswire/ display/ 11813/ index. html)Retrieved 04-30-2011. [13] CNN.Andrew Laties 75 Andrew Laties Andrew Laties is an American writer and bookseller born in Baltimore. [7] Publishers Weekly. indymedia. (http:/ / www. vox. [5] Independent Publisher. villagevoice. [15] Brooklyn Ink. com/ index. cnn. decapitated_1_statue-youtube-video-vox-pop?_s=PM:CRIME) Retrieved 04-30-2011. (http:/ / www. Maryland. 07-10-2009. (http:/ / www. [3] The Horn Book. com/ 2005-03-15/ news/ kids-in-the-thrall/ ) Retrieved 04-30-2011. (http:/ / news. sevenstories. [11] The Village Voice. com/ 2009/ 12/ vox-pop-sander-and-me-chapter-4. however. 2010.[16] In addition to his writing.[24] He then created The Children's Museum Store (1994-2002). nytimes. asp) Retrieved 04-30-2011. [8] Richmond Indymedia. [19] Eric Carle Museum bookshop (http:/ / www. com/ index. (http:/ / www. carlemuseum. publishersweekly. 05-2006. cafe. [2] IndieBookMan. com/ article. . (http:/ / www. php?option=com_content& task=blogcategory& id=56& Itemid=74) Retrieved 04-07-2011. (http:/ / nl. [16] Rebel Bookseller (2011) (http:/ / www. shtml) Retrieved 04-30-2011.[17] Most recently he presented a lecture titled "Indie Bookstores Still Count: What We Can Do For Publishers. independentpublisher. [12] CNN. [14] The Village Voice. org/ news/ rebel-bookseller-cause) Retrieved 04-30-2011.

(http:/ / pqasb. org/ awards/ pannell. [26] http:/ / www. com/ magazine/ 19961001/ 1821. 8-27-1990. inc. php) Retrieved 04-30-2011. (http:/ / www. (http:/ / pqasb. 7-11-1999. pqarchiver. [23] INC. (http:/ / www. com/ USAToday/ access/ 56016230.+ 1990& author=Deirdre+ Donahue& pub=USA+ TODAY+ (pre-1997+ Fulltext)& desc=A+ storybook+ tale. pqarchiver.Writers+ flood+ the+ booming+ market. html) Retrieved 04-30-2011. [25] Chicago Tribune.Children's+ publishing+ enjoys+ a+ growth+ spurt.What's+ hot& pqatl=google) Retrieved 04-30-2011. com/ chicagotribune/ access/ 43059288. com/ book/ ?GCOI=58322100389500 76 . Magazine. sevenstories. html?dids=56016230:56016230& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Aug+ 27. html?dids=43059288:43059288& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Jul+ 11.+ 1999& author=Karen+ Schwartz& pub=Chicago+ Tribune& desc=MUSEUM+ STORE+ OWNER& pqatl=google) Retrieved 04-30-2011.Andrew Laties [22] USA Today. [24] Women's National Book Assocation. 10-1-1996. wnba-books.

[7] Communications using the system can be synchronous and/or asynchronous. designed to merge key features of media like e-mail. depending on the preference of individual users. 2010. Google Wave was released to the general public.[8] Initially released only to developers.[6] and numerous other features.[5] [6] Google Wave is a web-based computing platform and communications protocol. 2009. com [3] [1] and ConsoleClient [2] ) Apache Wave is a software framework centered on online real-time collaborative editing.[12] [13] [14] .[10] Development was handed over to the Apache Software Foundation which started to develop a server based product called Wave in a box [11] (WIAB). 2010. google.[9] On August 4. each allowed to invite additional users. and social networking. Google accepted most requests submitted starting November 29. soon after the September extended release of the technical preview. Software extensions provide contextual spelling/grammar checking. automated translation among 40 languages. On May 19.[4] It was first announced at the Google I/O conference on May 27.Apache Wave 77 Apache Wave Apache Wave Original author(s) Google Developer(s) Initial release Platform Type License Website Apache Software Foundation. originally developed by Google as Google Wave. instant messaging. Google announced the suspension of stand-alone Wave development and the intent of maintaining the web site at least for the remainder of the year. 2009. 2009 Cross-platform Web application/protocol Apache License (only Google Wave Federation Prototype Server http:/ / wave. wikis. Google May 27. a preview release of Google Wave was extended to 100.000 users in September 2009.

called Dollhouse after the TV-series by Firefly producer Joss Whedon. invitations were widely sought by users.S. however. Open source Google released most of the source code as open source software. and it is matched with a sign declaring that "This wave is experiencing some turbulence and might explode. use Joss Whedon-related references to describe. 2010. Google provided some detail about later phases of the open-source release:[20] 1." which is another reference to the opening of the film. for porting the code to other languages) Reception and end of development During the initial launch of Google Wave. the sandbox version of Wave.000 supporter registrations urging Google Wave's continuation. The possibility also existed for native Wave clients to be made. and the crash message of Wave being a popular quotation from the series: "Curse your sudden but inevitable betrayal!"[6] [16] Another common error message.[6] [18] [19] Initially. a testing and verification suite for people who want to do their own implementation (for example.[15] In the series. due to lack of interest. "Everything's shiny. The development of external extensions is codenamed "Serenity". Australia. often consisting of a video call or video message. 2. During an event in Amsterdam. Cap'n. a number of references were made to the series.. this code will evolve into the shared code base that Google will use and expects that others will too 2. Not to fret!" is a quote from Kaylee Frye in the 2005 motion-picture Firefly continuation. among others.[28] . Google was the only Wave service provider..[25] Google later clarified that the Wave service would be available indefinitely until Google Docs was capable of accessing saved waves [26] A response to the news of the end of development came from supporting Wave users in the form of a website.[23] [24] On August 4.[20] Google released initial open-source components of Wave:[21] 1. Netherlands. after the spaceship used in Firefly and Serenity. such as Lars Rasmussen replying to a message with "shiny". but it was hoped that other service providers would launch their own Wave services.[27] Since Google's announcement in early August. and 3. the website has recorded over 49.Apache Wave 78 History Origin of name The science fiction television series Firefly provided the inspiration for the project's name. as demonstrated by Google with their CLI-based console client. Serenity. which was aired on Fox in the U.[22] Google Wave still received positive press coverage for its potential uses.[15] During the developer preview.[17] it became apparent that the 60-strong team that was currently working on Wave in Sydney. Google announced that Wave would no longer be developed as a stand-alone product.[6] allowing the public to develop its features through extensions. a basic client/server prototype that uses the wave protocol In addition. a wave is an electronic communication. wave model code that is a simplified version of Google's production code and is tied to the OT code. and were sold on auction sites.[6] Google allowed third-parties to build their own Wave services (be it private or commercial) because it wanted the Wave protocol to replace the e-mail protocol. the underlying wave model. possibly designing their own unique web-based clients as is common with many email service providers. If you don't want to explode. the operational transformation (OT) code. a word commonly used in the series to mean cool or good.

The Google Wave Developer blog was updated with news of the change on December 6.Apache Wave 79 Apache Wave Google Wave was accepted by the Apache Foundation's Incubator program under the project name Apache Wave. letter-by-letter. Thus. It was written in Java using OpenJDK and its web interface used the Google Web Toolkit. It can also be public. such as specific kinds of changes or messages from a single user. message documents (referred to as waves) that contain complete threads of multimedia messages (blips) are perpetually stored on a central server.[7] The ability to modify a wave at any location lets users create collaborative documents. It is in many respects a more advanced forum.[6] Google will stop wave services soon.[32] A wave can be read and known to exist by only one person. may review those changes in chronological order. and add participants at any point in the process. Waves can easily link to other waves. are hosted XML documents that allow seamless and low latency concurrent modifications. and who was responsible for what in the wave." . it has already put an end to the development activities. waves are live. Multiple participants may edit a single wave simultaneously in Google Wave." Senior Vice President Urs Holzle said in the blog post. edit any part of the wave. Waves. blips that were added. All replies/edits are visible in real-time. as they are typed by the other collaborators. Collaborators may use a playback feature in Google Wave to observe [7] [8] the order in which a wave was edited. The history of each wave is stored within it. available for reading and writing to everyone on the Wave. The ability to show messages as they are typed can be disabled. waves can function not only as e-mails and threaded conversations but also as an instant messaging service when many participants are online at the same time. "We don't plan to continue developing Wave as a standalone product.[29] A Wave Proposal page with details on the projects goals was created on the Apache Foundation's Incubator Wiki. In addition. Recipients are notified of changes/replies in all waves in which they are active and. edited in a manner akin to wikis. Each edit/reply is a blip and users can reply to individual blips within waves. but we will maintain the site. but instead of sending a message along with its entire thread of previous messages.[30] Features Google Wave was a new Internet communications platform."Wave has not seen the user adoption we would have liked.[31] Any participant of a wave can reply anywhere within the message. and extend the technology for use in other Google projects. or by two or more. similar to conventional instant messaging. Google Wave works like previous messaging systems such as email and Usenet. at least through the end of the year. 2010. upon opening a wave. The history may also be searched by a user to view and/or modify specific changes. described by Google as "equal parts conversation and document". or requiring all responses to be stored in each user's inbox for context. Waves are shared with collaborators who can be added or removed from the wave at any point during a wave's existence. A wave may repeatedly shift roles between e-mail and instant messaging depending on the number of users editing it concurrently.

many of which are built on Google’s OpenSocial platform. a robot might publish the contents of a wave to a public blog site and update the wave with user comments. They can be best described as applications installed on a mobile phone.[34] Google Wave also supports extension installers. modify the wave's contents.[35] Robots A robot is an automated participant on a wave. etc.[36] The use of an open protocol is intended to parallel the openness and ease of adoption of the e-mail protocol and. and to which all participants have access. like e-mail. add or remove participants. For example. processing. but they generally serve different purposes. A gadget is an application users could participate with. Being an open protocol. FTP.[6] [18] [19] In this way.. In theory. A key feature of the protocol is that waves are stored on the service provider's servers instead of being sent between users. which bundle back-end elements (robots and gadgets) and front-end user interface elements into an integrated package. The originating wave server is responsible for hosting. and create new blips and new waves. copies of waves and wavelets are distributed by the wave provider of the originating user to the providers of all other participants in a particular wave or wavelet so all participants have immediate access to up-to-date content. such as blog sites.[6] [7] [33] Over 150 Google Wave extensions have been developed either in the form of Gadgets or Robots. Robots perform actions in response to events. anyone can use it to build a custom Wave system and become a wave provider. or gadgets to extend or change user interaction features. Google intends to be only one of many wave providers.[6] [33] The last version of robots API is 2. Google hopes that waves may replace e-mail as the dominant form of Internet communication. Robots may be added as participants to the Wave itself (they may appear as a contact person in the wave). Extensions Google Wave extensions are add-ins that may be installed on Google Wave to enhance its functionality.Apache Wave 80 Extension programming interface Google Wave is extensible through an application programming interface (API). instant messaging. allow communication regardless of provider. Waves are federated. For example. posting blips on microblog feeds or providing RSVP recording mechanisms. the open Wave Federation Protocol. Robots and Gadgets can be used together. They read the contents of a wave in which it participates. a wave might include a sudoku gadget that lets the wave participants compete to see who can solve the puzzle first.[18] [19] The protocol allows private reply wavelets within parent waves. The gadget is triggered based on the user action. A good comparison would be iGoogle gadgets or Facebook applications. Gadgets may be added to individual waves and all the participants share and interact with the gadget. a robot can be added anywhere a human participant can be involved. They may be Internet bots (robots) to automate common tasks. where other participants have no . and is embeddable by dropping interactive windows into a given wave on external sites.[6] [18] [19] It can also be used as a supplement to e-mail. It provides extensions in the form of Gadgets and Robots. Gadgets Gadget extensions are applications that run within the wave. Federation Protocol Google Wave provides federation using an extension of XMPP. e.0. Users may install extensions directly within the Wave client using an extension installer.g. and concurrency control of waves.

"Opinion: Google's wave drowns the bling in Microsoft's Bing" (http:/ / www. co. com/ 2009/ 05/ 28/ google-wave-drips-with-ambition-can-it-fulfill-googles-grand-web-vision/ ) [6] "I/O Conference Google Wave Keynote" (http:/ / www. Firefly: The Complete Series (Blu-ray). Nate (2009-05-29).opinion-googles-wave-drowns-the-bling-in-microsofts-bing.[40] [41] • Novell Vibe formerly known as Novell Pulse[42] • SAP StreamWork SAP Streamwork is a collaboration decision making service[43] [44] • WaveLook Server a wave protocol server that integrates with the desktop client[45] Compatible third-party clients The following desktop clients are compatible with the Google Wave protocol: • Wavelook a Wave desktop client that integrates with Microsoft Outlook[46] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / code. . Retrieved 2009-06-03. zdnet. A New Communication Platform For A New Web. Stephen. IDG.se. (1970-01-01) Google Spins Wave Into 'Wave in a Box' for Third-Party Use | News & Opinion (http:/ / www. asp).com (2010-04-08). org/ wave-in-a-box [12] Meyer. David. [17] Rottmann. techcrunch. google. Wave also has been adopted for corporate applications by Novell for Novell Pulse. com/ watch?v=v_UyVmITiYQ).com. com/ 2009/ 05/ introducing-google-wave-apis-what-can.uk. The Next Web. com. com/ 2010/ 08/ update-on-google-wave. 2009): Google Wave Drips With Ambition. com/ p/ wave-protocol/ wiki/ ConsoleClient http:/ / wave. . News. Googleblog. html). 2008. User-data is not federated. com/ appetite/ 2009/ 10/ 30/ breaking-google-wave-opened-federation-today-host/ ). google. [11] http:/ / www. first released before Google Wave became open-sourced. [14] Murphy.[37] and by SAP for Cloudave. Zdnet. blogspot. Is an ongoing open-source initiative in creating easy customizable and independent Wave Protocol server and clients written with help of Python.2817.co. Ralf (October 30. [16] Originally said by Wash at 6:36. like PyOfWave. google. [10] Official Google Blog: Update on Google Wave (http:/ / googleblog. youtube. [7] "About Google Wave" (http:/ / wave. PCMag. . html). uk/ news/ application-development/ 2010/ 09/ 03/ google-puts-open-source-wave-in-a-box-40089999/ ). Now seems to be obsolete. (http:/ / www. waveprotocol. 1085/ 1. . not shared with other wave providers. "[A] new web application for real-time communication and collaboration. 2009). . com/ Google (2009). David. google. aspx). IT News Australia.cnet. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. cnet. [8] "Google Wave Developer Blog" (http:/ / googlewavedev. "Google Wave Overview". se/ 2. 81 Adoption of Wave Protocol and Wave Federation Protocol Besides Apache Wave itself. that is.2368730. (2010-05-19) Google Wave: Now open to the public | Deep Tech – CNET News (http:/ / news. com/ help/ wave/ about. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. there are other open-source variants of servers and clients with different percentage of Wave Federation and Wave Protocol support. . idg. [9] Shankland." TechCrunch (May 28. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. au/ News/ 104396. Google.blogspot. 20th Century Fox. written mainly in Python. in Serenity. html). html). com/ 8301-30685_3-20005394-264. 355483/ google-wave-inte-ute-ur-leken). "Google Wave to be opened for federation today!" (http:/ / thenextweb. [13] Google Wave inte ute ur leken (http:/ / www.com.Apache Wave access or knowledge of them. itnews.[38] Compatible third-party servers The following servers are compatible with the Google Wave protocol: • PyOfWave formerly known as PyGoWave. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. com/ p/ wave-protocol/ http:/ / code.00.[18] [19] Security for the communications is provided via Transport Layer Security authentication. Google. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. pcmag. and encrypted connections and waves/wavelets are identified uniquely by a service provider's domain name and ID strings. com/ article2/ 0. [15] Cochrane. Javascript and last HTML5 technologies[39] • PyGoWave is a first open-source implementation of Wave Protocol server and web client. blogspot. Google. (2010-09-03) Google puts open-source Wave in a 'box' | Application Development | ZDNet UK (http:/ / www.

com/ 2009/ 07/ 26/ pygowave-google-wave/ ) [42] Novell Vibe (http:/ / www.appspot. (2009-10-19) SAP’s Gravity Prototype: Business Collaboration Using Google Wave (http:/ / www. com/ link/ sap-gravity-prototype-business-collaboration-using-google-wave). [37] Novell Vibe cloud service (http:/ / www. apache.com (2009-12-31).org. readwriteweb. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. [40] About auf PyGoWave Blog (http:/ / pygowave.com. WaveLook. . Novell. cloudave.blogspot. blogspot. htm?id=63015591) [25] ZDNet on GW's death (http:/ / www. org/ ). com/ server. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.waveprotocol. Wave-samples-gallery. com/ promo/ vibe.youtube. [34] "Introducing Robots API v2: The Rise of Active Robots" (http:/ / googlewavedev. org/ whitepapers/ internal-client-server-protocol).org (2010-11-24). .org. html). Retrieved on 2010-12-14. [38] Elliott. [20] "Google Wave Federation Protocol and Open Source Updates" (http:/ / groups. novell. [41] Want Google Wave Now? PyGoWave’s the Next Best Thing (http:/ / mashable. sapstreamwork. com/ products/ pulse/ ). waveprotocol. com/ blog/ google/ how-will-google-wave-be-reincarnated/ 2344) [26] http:/ / www. Save Google Wave!. com/ 2009/ 10/ 27/ google-wave-to-have-its-own-app-store/ ) [24] CNET Predictions for 2010 (http:/ / asia. Pygowave. Timo. html).com. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. org/ whitepapers/ google-wave-architecture).com/apis/wave/) Google Wave Developer Blog (http://googlewavedev. [32] Google Wave Review (http:/ / variableghz.google. com/ topnews/ 2010/ 08/ 09/ save-google-wave-site-forms) [28] Save Google Wave! (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. [19] Google Wave Client-Server Protocol – Google Wave Federation Protocol (http:/ / www.blogspot.com/) Google Wave API (http://code. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. Waveprotocol. com/ 2010/ 03/ introducing-robots-api-v2-rise-of. [35] Google Wave Samples Gallery (http:/ / wave-samples-gallery. html). html).com. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.google. com/ 2009/ 09/ 30/ google-wave-invite/ ) [23] Google Wave to get its own App Store (Engadget) (http:/ / www.com/watch?v=v_UyVmITiYQ) (80mins) on YouTube • Google Wave overview video (http://www. com/ 2009/ 07/ google-wave-federation-protocol-and. [22] Google Wave Invite Selling for $70 on eBay (http:/ / mashable. Googlewavedev. com/ alcinnz/ pyofwave).com. [44] How It Works | SAP® StreamWork™ (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2011-05-14. webpronews. [43] Williams. com/ group/ wave-protocol/ browse_thread/ thread/ 618ff4e9ef477e80?pli=1). waveprotocol. Readwriteweb. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. [31] Google Wave Operational Transformation – Google Wave Federation Protocol (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2010-12-14.apache. .com. VariableGHz (2009-10-13).Apache Wave [18] Google Wave Federation Architecture – Google Wave Federation Protocol (http:/ / www. com). Retrieved on 2010-12-14. Alex. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. novell. Novell. Google.com/watch?v=p6pgxLaDdQw) (7:52 mins) on YouTube • Google Wave Federation Protocol Home Page (http://www. Google. blogspot.org. engadget. . Sapstreamwork. Google. php). Cloudave. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. blogspot.org/) • • • • . [36] "Google Wave Federation Protocol" (http:/ / www. google. 82 External links Google Wave (http://wave. com/ support/ wave/ bin/ answer. com/ ). zdnet. Wavelook. Google. [30] WaveProposal – Incubator Wiki (http:/ / wiki. appspot. py?answer=1083134 [27] '"Save Google Wave" Site Forms' (http:/ / www. Waveprotocol. Retrieved on 2010-12-14. [46] WaveLook (http:/ / wavelook. com/ 2009/ 10/ google-wave-review/ ). [45] WaveLook Server – Wave Server for Enterprise (http:/ / wavelook. . [33] "Google Wave API – Google Code" (http:/ / code. com/ how-it-works/ ). savegooglewave. google.com. org/ whitepapers/ operational-transform). Retrieved on 2011-04-12. com/ blogs/ tokyo-shift/ post. google. Wiki.youtube.net.com. [29] North. com/ ). Alex. net/ blog/ ?page_id=2). Retrieved on 2010-12-14. waveprotocol. [21] "Google Wave Federation Protocol and Open Source Updates" (http:/ / googlewavedev. Google. (2010-05-17) SAP StreamWork Integrates With Google Wave – ReadWriteCloud (http:/ / www. html). Waveprotocol. [39] PyOfWave on GitHub (https:/ / github. cnet. com/ 2010/ 12/ introducing-apache-wave. com/ apis/ wave/ ). org/ incubator/ WaveProposal). com/ cloud/ 2010/ 05/ sap-streamworks-integrates-wit.com/) Full Video of the Developer Preview at Google IO (http://www. (2010-12-06) Google Wave Developer Blog: Introducing Apache Wave (http:/ / googlewavedev. waveprotocol.

mainstream media supported. they may be visited not only for the practitioners of different forms of art. or virtual meeting ground. titled It is not Really Bloggers vs. In this way. some art blogs have taken on 'web 2." In September 2008. Content producers are just that. Little Brother contributed "Report from the Blogosphere: The New Grass Roots. and artist biographies. Such services range from processing and storage. On January 7. Defining Art Blogs Art blogs entries cover different topics. and their relationship with the mainstream media. 2. Information technology and systems. you might end up in a twelve step-program. noted in her article Art Blogs Hit Wikipedia [2] that commercially run. the Brooklyn Rail contributor Big Brother produced an article titled "Virtually Overwhelmed. a way to share information and images. admirably [3] 'unprofessional'—hence. from art critiques and commentary to insider art world gossip. As with anything online. You Know [1] . pointed to five trends that were shaping the communication and discussion of art on the internet. The interview. gossip. Journalists. 3. connoisseurs. speak out." In the November 2007 issue of Art in America. sculpture. conceptual art or new media. More recently. or theorize about art. providing a better match between desire and availability. provided as commodity (pay-as-you-go) services. art blogs face issues of acceptance among the independent art blogging community."[5] Plagens convened a round table of veteran art bloggers. Art Connect produced an in-depth interview by Peter Cowling for Art Connect and Jessica Palmer of Bioephemera. democratic—venue for people to speak their minds." [4] . Art blogs may also serve as a forum to reach out to anybody not interested in art — be it painting. Requests for feedback and further debate have been partially overtaken by things like conversations. Art Blogs and the Mainstream Media On April 28. video art. 4. 2009. printmaking. A practicing artist and video blogger himself. take it with a grain of salt. Kalm has this to say about art blogs. and further explosive discussions will certainly occur. Have fun. and that the real picture was much bigger than just the bloggers vs. interviews. 2009. and whether the content is produced to their timescales. and critics. What they do consistently care about is the quality of the content. "The art blogosphere is a work in progress. Consumers care less about how and where they can get the content they want. art critic of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. how they were run. The content producer-to-content consumer relationship is changing. but don’t let it cut too much into your studio time. The Greater Voice art critic Martha Schwendener suggests that art blogs have helped shape a more laissez-faire climate for art writing. creative photography. "Art blogs have created a new. portfolios. and you’ve got to be vigilant of hidden agendas. but also collectors. journalists that had been discussed to date.0' social networking features. Media convergence will continue to improve consumer choice. Regina Hackett. On January 8. largely unedited. art news. artists’ journals. 5. . auction results. who conversed via email on a range of questions. aimed at getting a better understanding of the what art blogs were. The economic conundrum. 2009. through to credit card processing and super-fast content delivery. personal essays. These five points were: 1. Art blogs that adopt this sort of change can develop to become a source of information on art events (listings and maps).Art blog 83 Art blog An art blog is a common type of blog that comments on art. as with other types of blogs.

such as Hrag Vartanian. alluded to and quoted from in Jerry Saltz's New York Magazine apology "A note from our art critic Jerry Saltz". and undertakes interviews with art bloggers [10] . other artists work and the wider art world. was the first to become a doctorate thesis in art and art science in and of itself: Artistic Intentions at Work. Absent Without Leave was one of the first personal artist blogs. Art bloggers played a role in distributing information about the David WojnarowiczSmithsonian scandal in 2010. Pope is a 1990 graduate of Goldsmiths' College. and ventures the opinion that art blogs "have no readers". artist. started in January 1994. their art related content. critic Charlie Finch suggested that art critiques and reviews by art bloggers are overrated and lengthy. technology and the internet. and recommendations of favourite sites. 2008) This PhD was directed by Prof. anaba anaba is quoted from in Deborah Solomon's New York Times profile "Figuring Marlene Dumas". and Prof. The Courtauld Institute of Art. AWoL covers art practice. He has written extensively on art. Christoph Buchel). in London. Poland) presented 9 artists whose works were derived from The Dump blog project list. where he penned a brief. at the time. Jury : Prof.". Hubertus von Amelunxen. In the January 2005 issue of Art in America [7] . Hypothesis for Committing Art Université Pantheon Sorbonne (December 6. Paddy Johnson. Specific art bloggers in the United States. Jean da Silva. In May 2010. artist and internet evangelist. Brian Sherwin. reviews of art blog site. Other coverage of Art Blogs Other coverage of art blogs includes interviews of art bloggers. featured in James Kalm's Brooklyn Rail article "The Ethics of Aesthetics". the art blog The Lump [8] . Joy Garnett and Jerry Saltz are all known for expressing their political motivations and concerns alongside. Raphael Rubinstein mentioned several blogs in the magazine's "Front Page" section. 84 Art Blogs and the Academy In December 2008.[6] The article includes several ad hominen arguments against specific art bloggers. Derrick de Kerckhove. quoted from and cited in Christoph Buchel's appeal to the US Court of Appeals (Mass MoCA v. University of London fine art BA. Notable art blogs Absent Without Leave Absent Without Leave[12] is an artist's blog by Ivan Pope. The Lump – Recycling of Thoughts. Art Fag City . where the new-media artist Maurice Benayoun dumped hundreds of undone art projects. a contemporary art exhibition curated by Agnieszka Kulazińska at Laznia Art Center (Gdansk. Edward Winkleman. Directories such as Yahoo! Directory and BlogCatalog maintain a list of user submitted art blogs. Prof. and implied that the art blogging community was overly insular. or within. maintains a list of recommended art blogs [11] . Rubinstein opined that “art-related blogs” had not. annotated survey of 12 art blogs that he found "to be worth regular visits. Anne-Marie Duguet. Louis Bec.Art blog In an October 2007 article for artnet Magazine. become as consequential as blogs in other fields such as poetry or politics.[9] Art Blogs and Politics Art bloggers and specific art blogs have been known to examine the cultural implications of art and politics ranging from the controversy over the Obama poster by street artist Shepard Fairey to the arrest of Chinese contemporary artist Ai Weiwei. Art Connect has produced around 90 reviews of art blogs.

Einspruch is also the editor of an online archive[16] of the writings of Walter Darby Bannard. and pop-ups.Art blog AFC[13] is a blog of New York art news. street art. Shotgun Review [25]. is based in Philadelphia but also covers art from around the world. photography. and more. Art Practical [21] Art Practical[22] is an online magazine that enriches critical dialogue for the San Francisco Bay Area visual arts by providing comprehensive analysis of events and exhibitions. illustration. Fallon and Rosof are collaborating artists. also writes for Art Review. artists. writes frequently for the 'Wall Street Journal. Frieze. Topics include art history and contemporary art including painting. and Talking Cure [26] quarterly—to create visibility for individual projects and a forum for critical reflection within the broadest possible audience. She has also published several Op-Ed pieces in the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. Art Fag City was one of the first art blogs to win a Creative Capital grant from the Warhol Foundation. Daily Art Fixx [30] Daily visual arts blog by Canadian artist and writer Wendy Campbell featuring artists from around the globe. "The Artblog"[17] . founded in April. a cultural journalist. Schiller A periodically updated art blog by map artist Nikolas Schiller[32] . non-profits. and art law news. Fallon also writes about art for Philadelphia Weekly and both write for print publications and lecture about contemporary art. Artlog." which appears most weekdays. 2003. design. She fled to the U.net Artblog. The Art Practical website choreographs a coalition of four independent chroniclers of contemporary art and culture—Bad At Sports [23]. random art facts. Bad at Sports[27] is a weekly podcast produced in Chicago that features artists talking about art and the community that makes.S.and is a regular cultural contributor on New York Public Radio (WNYC). gallerists. auctions.[29] Rosenbaum. worked for many years at a Luby’s Cafeteria in Lubbock. [31] Mainly a reference site. museums. art and the environment. The Daily Render by Nikolas R. CultureGrrl Lee Rosenbaum covers museums. a 2001 graduate of Rutgers University MFA program. women in the arts. sculpture. Created in May 2004. and the The L Magazine. 85 . Like many art bloggers. The format employed is that of a portfolio that tangentially includes art criticism. The Artblog Maintained by artists/writers Roberta Fallon and Libby Rosof. during the Great Border War of 1941. C-Monster speaks five languages and was taught to read palms and recite epic poems at the tender age of three. and other involved in the art world. C-Monster The true identity of C-Monster is unknown. Johnson. and after her arrival. reviews and critiques it.net[15] has been produced since 2003 by Franklin Einspruch. the author uses the blog format to post renderings of arabesque aerial photographs of cities throughout the United States of America.[14] Artblog. Bad at Sports also features a series of video interviews with artists. Happenstand [24]. upcoming gallery exhibits. reviews and gossip maintained by Paddy Johnson. and the bibiographic record of this Brooklyn-based art blog appears to be in jest: "Raised by a clan of gypsies throughout the Andean puna. Bad at Sports Created by Duncan MacKenzie. art and technology. DAF periodically covers current art news and events. Time Out."[28] The blog is best known for its "Digest.com Artlog[18] is an online platform and blog that highlights exhibitions and art works from galleries. an artist and writer in Boston. Artlog's content is also featured on NBC New York [19] and The Huffington Post [20] .

) in December 2008 "Benayoun submitted “The Dump” as his PhD thesis and became. Show Director for Scope art fair. FineArtViews [38] is a blog that focuses on art marketing.Art blog publications. critics and art historians. “The Dump” is the simplest form of digital art.net. where he majored in journalism. Art: A Cultural Ecology Handbook. founding editor of the Walker Art Center blogs and contributor to the Royal Society of Arts' book "Land. Green Modern Art Notes attended the University of Missouri. Of special interest is the connection of art to feminism. "is a collection of his ideas. the Boston Globe. Hrag Vartanian A contemporary online flaneur explores the New York art world. and culture.. FAV blog articles have been featured on The Huffington Post. He is also an editor for the Philippine Daily Inquirer. Vartanian also leads the art blog Hyperallergic which has been quoted by NPR and other notable sources. was founded by former gallery owner Clint Watson.[41] Hrag Vartanian was born in Aleppo.. DC.(. videos. Winkleman is noted for offering advice to emerging artists.org Founded in Jan. Eyeteeth: A Journal of Incisive Ideas[36] focuses on the interstices of art. The Outsider. also known as FAV. His Haberarts blog and hyperbook [40] was founded in 1994 and currently features over 850 artists. and art critic and consultant Alan Bamberger. media. At least. Ararat Quarterly. Time.. The Brooklyn Rail and other publications. but with it. raised in Toronto. critic and designer who regularly contributes to AGBU News Magazine. Cabinet magazine. Version magazine and others. the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. the Los Angeles Times."[37] He has written on art for Adbusters. Canada. Modern Art Notes [42] . or perhaps it’s both. and currently lives in Brooklyn. Gibbs Cadiz Plays and Film critic Gibbs Cadiz[39] is based in the Philippines. 2003. He is a writer. The FineArtViews blog is known for providing art marketing advice as well as an interview series that includes art world professionals such as Mollie White.000 links between reviews. the Denver Post. gaining exposure with social media. Thing. the Minnesota Independent. journalistic prose to write online reviews and essays about topics ranging from the early Renaissance to Postmodernism. 86 . He is currently Director of Communications at AGBU. Boldtype. and other art business advice. “Everyone can come and take them and do them if they want".. and social commentary. Hundreds of ideas. arguably. The Dump by Maurice Benayoun About the Dump Blog by the French new media artist Maurice Benayoun Barbara Robertson writes in the magazine Computer Graphics World : The Dump. Art critic Brian Sherwin is a regular contributor. but also the most accessible and most interactive. for now. Forbes magazine once named MAN a "Best of the Web" site. maintained by Tyler Green covers modern and contemporary art issues and criticism. the world's largest Armenian non-profit organization. It is written by Paul Schmelzer. the Wall Street Journal. It is neither virtual nor augmented reality. Winkleman Gallery[35] is located in the Chelsea arts district in New York City. Eyeteeth. with more than 5. and publications such as the New York Times. The blog. John Haber Art Blog New York-based John Haber writes and blogs about art in an accessible. the Detroit Free Press. "Of all his work. Slate." [33] Edward Winkleman New York dealer Edward Winkleman's blog[34] features discussions about art. philosophy and politics. He is a member of the United States section of the International Association of Art Critics (AICA) and lives in Washington. the first artist to use a blog to qualify for a doctorate degree". politics. Syria. and Art in America have all featured MAN. Raw Vision. activism and politics. Benayoun might have created the newest of all new media. New York.

NEWSgrist NEWSgrist[44] was created by artist Joy Garnett in the late 1990s and officially launched in March 2000 as an e-zine devoted to the politics of art and culture in the digital age. PORT Co-founded in 2005 by Jennifer Armbrust and Jeff Jahn (who still maintains the site) PORT[46] focuses on critical content related to the Portland art scene.. villagevoice. com/ 2008/ 02/ 03/ the-future-of-the-art-blog/ ) [6] Finch. (http:/ / www. Today it's one of the biggest art blogs in Germany and covering all kind of subversive artworks from the field of Culture Jamming.) of a print art magazine on the Internet. fair use.. gallerists.openmagazine. January 2009. founded as a print magazine in 2004 by Alain Bieber. asp) . commentary. Garnett is the Arts Editor at Cultural Politics[45] . January 2009. "Art Blogs Hit Wikipedia. "The undisputed champ of the regional art blogs. PORT describes itself as "dedicated to catalyzing critical discussion and disseminating information about art as lensed through Portland. Adbusting. Martha. and background information about painting and related subjects." The Village Voice. com/ 2009-01-07/ art/ what-crisis-some-promising-futures-for-art-criticism/ ) [4] Kalm.co. Butler. Peter and Palmer. and increasingly features original articles by Garnett herself.uk 87 References [1] Cowling. Wooster Collective The Wooster Collective[49] was founded in 2001. November 2007. Oregon. and Michael Craig-Martin. Notable interviewees include Vito Acconci. Journalists. an art professor at Eastern Connecticut State University. Net.. whose writings have appeared in Harper's. a contemporary culture. This site is dedicated to showcasing and celebrating ephemeral art placed on streets in cities around the world. (http:/ / madsilence. rebel:art rebel:art[48] is an art blog about art and activism. (http:/ / blog. Hacktivism. politics and media journal. seattlepi. asp) [3] Schwendener. Updated by Marc and Sara Schiller. advice for emerging artists. "A NOT-SO-VAST RIGHT-WING CONSPIRACY" artnet Magazine." In 2007 Tyler Green described PORT as. Charlie. also writes for The Brooklyn Rail and The American Prospect. James. Artnet. In recent years it has come to focus on copyright reform. com/ art-blog-reviews/ 2009/ 04/ 27/ extraordinary-art-blogs-series-part-seven-it-is-not-really-bloggers-vs-journalists-you-know) [2] Hackett. the Walker Art Center's blog. wordpress." on Off Center.com a blog on the London contemporary art scene. loveart-gallery. Intelligent Agent. "What Crisis? Some Promising Futures for Art Criticism.Art blog Myartspace Blog Is an art blog maintained by art critic and writer Brian Sherwin for the artist social networking site Myartspace[43] . org/ 2008/ 09/ artseen/ brooklyn-dispatches-virtually-overwhelmed) [5] Plagens. and art critics from throughout the world. It was initially distributed entirely through subscriber-based emails. Street Art etc. artnet. etc. Several of Sherwin's Myartspace interviews have been featured on the Juxtapoz website and articles cited by The Boston Globe and other sources. "Report from the Blogosphere: The New Grass Roots. "It is not Really Bloggers vs. The blog focuses on art news. James Rosenquist. Two Coats of Paint Maintained by artist/writer Sharon Butler. and in several theoretical books. and is home to an ongoing interview series involving artists. "Virtually Overwhelmed. (http:/ / www. Peter. office help." In the November 2007 Art in America roundtable Plagens described PORT as. You Know"." Brooklyn Rail (http:/ / www. Part of www. com/ art/ archives/ 159041. brooklynrail. Regina." Art in America." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Two Coats of Paint[47] is a daily digest of reviews. a service it continues to maintain despite having re-launched as a reblog in 2004. the site also offers podcasting with music and interviews featuring street artists. Art. nwsource. Art Sleuth: openmagazinepictures. Jessica.wordpress. appropriation art. "the closest thing to the virtues (paid critics. com/ magazineus/ features/ finch/ finch10-26-07. April 2009 (http:/ / www.

huffingtonpost. com/ [20] http:/ / www. nbcnewyork. eyeteeth. com/ ) [35] Winkleman Gallery (http:/ / winkleman. artsjournal. com/ artlog/ [21] http:/ / www. artpractical. artpractical. worldchanging." Art in America. html) [38] FineArtViews (http:/ / faso. com/ art-blog-reviews/ ) [11] List of art blogs recommended by the Courtauld Institute of Art. com/ blog/ ) [44] NEWSgrist (http:/ / newsgrist. rebelart. ivanpope. artblog. com/ [25] http:/ / www. artfagcity. com/ ) 88 . happenstand. shotgun-review. artfagcity. com/ ) [48] rebel:art (http:/ / www. artpractical. com/ blog/ ) [41] Hrag Vartanian (http:/ / hragvartanian. blogspot. com/ ) [42] Modern Art Notes (http:/ / www. net/ ) [16] Walter Darby Bannard Archive (http:/ / wdbannard. com/ ) [28] C-Monster (http:/ / c-monster.net (http:/ / www. artlog. pdf) [8] [[The Dump (http:/ / www. haberarts. com/ archives/ 005341. com/ talking_cure/ [27] Bad at Sports (http:/ / badatsports. com/ ) [40] John Haber Art Blog] (http:/ / www. dailyartfixx. courtauld. cgw. London. net/ )] Art Blog by Maurice Benayoun] [9] The Dump Recycling of Thoughts art exhibition by Agnieszka Kulazińska (http:/ / www. com/ ) [36] Eyeteeth: A Journal of Incisive Ideas (http:/ / www. com/ ) [45] Cultural Politics journal (http:/ / culturalpolitics. (http:/ / www." January 2005. nikolasschiller. pl/ index. the-dump. blogspot. Art: A Cultural Ecology Handbook (http:/ / www. com/ man/ ) [43] Myartspace (http:/ / www. php?idDzial=9& idWpis=525) [10] Art Connect review of art blogs (http:/ / www. firstpulseprojects. com/ culturegrrl/ ) [30] http:/ / www. aspx?Page=/ Publications/ CGW/ 2009/ Volume-32-Issue-4-Apr-2009-/ Without-Bounds. typepad. com/ ) [14] http:/ / www. dailyartfixx. woostercollective. com/ 2009/ 02/ 23/ art-fag-city-wins-creative-capital-warhol-foundation-arts-writers-grant/ # [15] Artblog. net/ ) [49] The Wooster Collective (http:/ / www. com/ [24] http:/ / www. com/ results/ ?keywords=artlog. myartspace. com) [19] http:/ / www. Schiller (http:/ / www. blogspot. net/ blog1/ about/ ) [29] CultureGrrl (http:/ / www. org) [46] PORT (http:/ / www. com/ fineartviews) [39] Gibbs Cadiz (http:/ / gibbscadiz. shtml/ ) [12] Absent Without Leave (http:/ / blog. aspx) Without Bounds by Barbara Robertson in CGW volume 32 issue 4 April 2009 [34] Edward Winkleman (http:/ / edwardwinkleman. com/ page/ ap/ [22] Art Practical (http:/ / www. org/ ) [18] (http:/ / www. com/ [26] http:/ / www. com [31] http:/ / www. laznia. com/ ) [37] Land.Art blog [7] Frankenstein. (http:/ / www. com [32] The Daily Render by Nikolas R. ac. "Front Page. uk/ booklibrary/ collections_services/ links. com/ frontpageaia. loveart-gallery. artsjournal. com/ Print. net/ ) [47] Two Coats of Paint (http:/ / twocoatsofpaint. "Art in the Blogoshere. com/ page/ ap/ ) [23] http:/ / badatsports. org) [17] The Artblog (http:/ / theartblog. blogspot. com/ ) [13] Art Fag City (http:/ / www. portlandart. com/ blog/ ) [33] (http:/ / www.

and a pioneering Web hosting company. Sony. The firm was merged with marketing agency Off Madison Ave in 2005. Jay was a political campaign manager on congressional. Later in 2000. He also worked in public relations. Arizona. He grew up in Lake Havasu City. After Internet Direct. he founded the digital agency (Mighty Interactive[6] . Baer now speaks at a lot of conferences and private events.com and all MAC America assets were sold to BELO Corporation in 1999. author. azfamily. Smarter and More Social [2]. Jay was the co-founder of azfamily. Social Media expert Jay Baer (Born 1969) is coauthor [1] of. Baer founded social media strategy consultancy Convince & Convert. he spent a short period working as a Vice President at visitalk.”[4] Jay Baer is a social media strategist. The book discusses the impact of the social web and how businesses need to “adapt to the new era of instantaneous business. azfamily. Professional speaker. KASW-WB61. search marketing. He began his online marketing career in 1994. usability. Cold Stone Creamery. and business culture. ExactTarget. Mighty Interactive was named Arizona's top digital marketing firm for five consecutive years by Ranking Arizona. Indiana with his wife. Jay currently lives in Bloomington. Consultant. "The Now Revolution: 7 Shifts to Make Your Business Faster. In his early career. Biography Baer was born in 1969 in Lincoln. A division of MAC America (a family-owned media conglomerate). and a major designer and developer of corporate websites.com. and was named #3 social media blog in the world by Social Media Examiner. he’s worked with over 700 brands (including Nike. Inc. In 2008.com. mostly talking about the intersection of the web. gubernatorial and state-wide initiative campaigns. a free VOIP calling and video calling service that functioned similarly to today's SKYPE. His Convince & Convert [5] blog is ranked among the world’s top marketing resources. communication. as Vice President at Internet Direct. and won many national and international awards for online marketing excellence. .Jay Baer 89 Jay Baer Jay Baer Born 1971 Occupation Author. a pioneering local content website powered by KTVK 3-TV. and KEZ Radio. working with corporate and agency clients nationally. two children. and online advertising solutions to corporate clients.”[3] (coauthored by Amber Naslund). providing Web strategy. He was a phi beta kappa graduate of the University of Arizona (class of 1991) with a major in political science and a minor in communications. including 25 of the Fortune 1000. Founder of five companies. Internet Direct was eventually sold to Mindspring. In 2000. and assorted mammals and reptiles. PHOENIX Magazine. a prestigious leadership and academic scholarship given to 20 Arizona high school seniors each year. email marketing. Nebraska. speaker and President of Convince & Convert [5]. and ConocoPhillips) since 1994. Arizona's first Internet Service Provider. and as a marketing manager for Waste Management.com was Arizona's second-largest content website. He attended as a Flinn Scholar.

Christian Brady[2] .com/jaybaer/) LinkedIn Page (http://www. com/ Blog/ New.convinceandconvert.com/home. 2009.com: Profile for Jay Baer. freeoldtestamentaudio.php#!/jaybaer/) "The Now Revolution. com [3] Jay Baer & Amber Naslund . php/ ?cat=406 . amazon. The Now Revolution: 7 Shifts to Make Your Business Faster." The activity of blogging on a biblioblog is termed "biblioblogging." FaceBook Page (http://www. org/ publications/ article. aspx?articleId=843 Bibliobloggers an SBL Affiliate http:/ / thechurchofjesuschrist. Robert Cargill presiding.com/jaybaer) Biblioblog A biblioblog is a blog with a significant focus on biblical studies.slideshare. sbl-site. nowrevolutionbook." Society of Biblical Literature Affiliate Status On September 11." The first 'biblioblogger' section was held during the SBL's 2010 annual meeting.Jay Baer 90 References [1] Amazon. com/ Jay-Baer/ e/ B0047CSCG6/ [2] http:/ / www. offmadisonave. Smarter. A blogger of a biblioblog is termed a "biblioblogger. com/ [4] Inside Flap of book: The Now Revolution http:/ / www.net/jaybaer/) Personal FaceBook Page (http://www. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. us/ 2010/ 11/ two-of-the-biblioblogging-papers-presented-at-sbl10/ http:/ / thechurchofjesuschrist. http:/ / www. us/ 2010/ 11/ more-thoughts-on-the-sbl10-biblioblogging-section/ http:/ / www. and James McGrath presented papers on the rise of biblioblogging and the need to consider online scholarship (or bloggership) as a legitimate means in conducting the critical studies of humanities. and More Social. the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) granted "Bibliobloggers" affiliate status.[1] The SBL nonexclusively defined "Bibliobloggers" as "a loose term used to describe the over 300 people who blog about the Bible.com/) Slide Share Page (http://www. amazon. nowrevolutionbook. convinceandconvert.facebook. http:/ / www.com/people/jaybaer/) Delicious Page (http://www. Michael Barber.com/in/jasonbaer/) YouTube Home Page (http://www.com/#!/nowrevolution) Twitter Page (http://twitter. http:/ / www.facebook. com/ your-agency/ history/ mighty-interactive/ External links • • • • • • • • • Current Company & Blog (http://www. with Dr. Doctor's Jim Davila.delicious.youtube. com/ [6] Mighty Interactive.linkedin.flickr.[3] List of Biblioblogs Top biblioblogs are ranked monthly at Free Old Testament Audio Website Blog [4]. com/ gp/ product/ product-description/ 047092327X [5] http:/ / www.com/user/jaybaer00/) Flickr Page (http://www.

such as the Washington Post[3] . and has now grown to include 36 categories. Each category has two winners—one winner is chosen by the public (known as the "Popular Vote"). Judges In 2007. there is a vote audit[8] . These winners are announced the first week of September before Labor Day. The public has a month to vote for the finalists. . video blogging. After the nomination period has ended. musician and DJ Questlove. Scott. comedian and YouTube personality Elon James White. and the top three to five nominated blogs in each category become the finalists for their respective categories. and model/media personality Tyra Banks.[2] Former Black Weblog Award winners include blogger and radio host B. and the winners are announced the first week of September before Labor Day. judges were introduced to the Black Weblog Awards. hip-hop artists D-Nice and Kanye West. The Black Weblog Awards started in 2005 with 11 categories.Black Weblog Awards 91 Black Weblog Awards Black Weblog Awards 2010 Black Weblog Awards logo Awarded for Presented by Country First awarded Recognizing the best Black bloggers since 2005 3eighteen media United States 2005 Official website [1] The Black Weblog Awards is an online awards event which recognizes bloggers of African-American descent for their contributions in blogging. and podcasting. Nominations and Voting Currently. LGBT activist and media personality Keith Boykin. In addition to the regular voting process from the public. users submit their blog for consideration through the Black Weblog Awards website via their online nomination form. comedian and television host Baratunde Thurston. the Los Angeles Times[4] . Other Black Weblog Award winners have also appeared in traditional media outlets. the Black Weblog Awards has a seven week nomination period for blogs. and NPR[5] [6] [7] . a panel of judges with extensive knowledge about blogs and bloggers of color were chosen to select winners in each of the award categories. and one winner is chosen by the judges (known as the "Judges' Vote").

Some categories are renamed.Black Weblog Awards 92 Award Categories Award categories for the Black Weblog Awards change annually. while others split to become separate categories. Current Awards • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Best Blog Design Best Blog Network Best Blog Post Series Best Business Blog Best Cooking or Food Blog Best Culture Blog Best Faith-Based Blog Best Fashion or Beauty Blog Best Film Blog Best Gaming or Comics Blog Best Gossip Blog Best Group Blog Best Health or Wellness Blog Best Hip-Hop Blog Best Humor Blog Best International Blog Best LGBT Blog Best Microblog Best Music Blog Best New Blog Best Parenting or Family Blog Best Personal Blog Best Photography Blog Best Podcast Series Best Political or News Blog Best Science or Technology Blog Best Sex or Relationships Blog Best Sports Blog Best Teen Blog Best Travel Blog Best Video Blog Series Best Writing in a Blog Blog of the Year Blog to Watch .

com/past-winners/#2009) 2008 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www. the Black Weblog Awards announced a Kickstarter fund-raising campaign for financial support in establishing a live awards ceremony for their 2011 awards installment. latimes. blackblogmedia.Black Weblog Awards Special Awards • Aaron Hawkins Award Retired or Deprecated Awards • • • • • • • • • Best Blog Community Best Blog Post or Blog Post Series Best Celebrity Blog Best Entertainment Blog Best Niche Blog Best Original Content Best Pop Culture Blog Best Topical Blog Blogger of the Year 93 Live Awards Ceremony On July 18. org/ templates/ story/ story. com/ 2007/ oct/ 18/ nation/ na-blogger18 [5] http:/ / www. com/ projects/ mcherry/ 2011-black-weblog-awards-ceremony-and-reception External links • • • • • • • Black Weblog Awards (http://www. blackweblogawards.[11] References [1] http:/ / www. php?storyId=14253966 [8] http:/ / www. com/ about/ [3] http:/ / www. com/ rules/ [9] http:/ / www. php?storyId=14192378 [7] http:/ / www. blackweblogawards. 2010.[9] [10] The campaign was not successful.blackweblogawards.com/past-winners/#2007) 2006 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www.blackweblogawards. com/ 2010/ 07/ 2011-bwa-live-ceremony. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 11/ 01/ AR2007110101709. html [4] http:/ / articles.blackweblogawards.com/) 2010 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www. org/ templates/ story/ story. washingtonpost. and ended on September 1.com/past-winners/#2008) 2007 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www. blackweblogawards. npr.com/past-winners/#2010) 2009 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www.blackweblogawards.com/past-winners/#2006) 2005 Black Weblog Awards Winners (http://www. html [11] http:/ / www. org/ templates/ story/ story. blackweblogawards. com [2] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 07/ 18/ help-kickstart-the-2011-black-weblog-awards [10] http:/ / www. npr. npr. kickstarter.blackweblogawards.com/past-winners/#2005) . 2010 reaching only 6% of their goal. php?storyId=10881992 [6] http:/ / www.blackweblogawards.blackweblogawards.

cnn. html) External links • Blog Action Day site (http://www. blogspot. The inaugural theme chosen was the environment. 2009: Climate Change Blog Action Day 2009 had new hosts: Change. day. gov.800 bloggers.CNN [2] Blog Action Day: One issue.[4] . The event was hosted by Envato. Elena Valenciano. action. 2010: Water Blog Action Day 2010 is on the theme of Water.327 blog posts were published by 20.Blog Action Day 94 Blog Action Day Blog Action Day is an annual worldwide event where bloggers write about a single topic on October 15 of every year. 14.053 blog posts were published by 12. Participants in 2009 included UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown [6] and Google's Official Blog. [7] . asp?DocumentID=519& ArticleID=5682& l=en) .org and was on the theme of climate change. Many popular blogs have participated including the White House blog in 2009. org/ general/ blog-action-day-roundup-27000-posts-including-the-uks-prime-minister-and-the-white-house-blog/ ) [6] Gordon Brown's Blog on Climate Change (http:/ / webarchive. BlogTalkRadio held a 12 hour talkathon for poverty relief. Multilingual/ Default.blogactionday. Cyan Ta'eed and Leo Babauta in 2007. References [1] Bloggers unite on climate change (http:/ / edition. The event has also attracted support from the United Nations Environment Programme.org) . uk/ + / number10. unep. org/ about/ 2007-the-environment/ ) [4] El efecto chica (http:/ / elenavalenciano.603 participating blogs including 19 of the Technorati Top 100 blogs at the time. The event commenced in 2007 on the inaugural topic of the environment. Minister for the European Union was one prominent participant in 2008. uk/ news/ latest-news/ 2009/ 10/ gordon-browns-blog-on-climate-change-20931) [7] A green tour of the Google campus (http:/ / googleblog. com/ 2009/ 10/ green-tour-of-google-campus.000 blog posts were published by 12. Successive years have focused on poverty in 2008 and climate change in 2009. blogactionday. gov. thousands of voices (http:/ / www.UNEP [3] 2007 Blog Action Day (http:/ / site. 2007: Environment Blog Action Day was founded by three bloggers Collis Ta'eed.[1] . 2008: Poverty Blog Action Day 2008 was on the theme of poverty.[3] .[2] . Over 32. com/ 2008/ 10/ el-efecto-chica/ ) [5] Blog Action Day 2009 Roundup (http:/ / site.[5] . org/ Documents. 23. com/ 2009/ WORLD/ europe/ 10/ 14/ blog. climate/ ) . nationalarchives. blogactionday.000 bloggers.

blogspot. A blog network can either be a group of loosely connected blogs.com/health/2008/11/26/ health-bloggers-want-you-to-talk-about-death/) • Endless Knots Blog on November 23. html) [2] (http:/ / runningahospital. The New York Times Company. when thought leaders across healthcare collaborated to launch HealthDataRights. or a group of blogs that are owned by the same company.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/11/ 26/talking_turkey_about_death/) • Wall Street Journal's Health Blog on November 26. Free blogs network Freeblogspot. com/ the_health_care_blog/ 2010/ 11/ engage-with-grace-at-thanksgiving. Another blog rally occurred on June 22.netage. in support of a viral movement called 'Engage with Grace: The One Slide Project' was organized to encourage families to discuss end-of-life care issues while gathered together for the Thanksgiving holiday weekend. com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0. asp). which was threatened with closure by its owner. A blog rally supported the introduction of the Declaration of Health Data Rights. 2008 (http://www.wsj.blogspot.[1] As reported by one of the project organizers.boston.org (http://freeblogspot. . for the purpose of engaging large numbers of readers and/or persuading them to adopt a certain position or take a certain action.org and unveiled a shared statement to ensure patients’ rights to access and share their own health information.html) • Blue Mass Group Blog on April 6.com/showDiary. The first recorded definition and use of a blog rally occurring from November 26 through November 30.com/endlessknots/2008/11/ to-my-facebook-friendsid-be-hard-put-to-list-all-the-causes-and-groups-im-asked-to-join-both-here-and-via-that-old-method. when a group of bloggers in the Boston area banded together in support of the Boston Globe. pcmag.[2] This blog rally was repeated in 2009 and 2010. com/ 2008/ 11/ thanks-for-engaging-gracefully.Blog network 95 Blog network A blog network is a group of blogs that are connected to each other in a network. PC World. 2008. blogspot. 2009 (http://runningahospital.2542.bluemassgroup.com/2009/04/ blog-rally-to-help-boston-globe. Blog Action Day can be likened to a blog rally. 2008 (http://blogs.do?diaryId=15311) . Over two dozen bloggers simultaneously published a post asking readers to submit suggestions on ways the Globe could improve its financial position. Ziff Davis. html/) • Running a Hospital Blog on April 6. 2008 (http://endlessknots. html) • Boston Globe on November 26. References [1] (http:/ / runningahospital. The purpose of such a network is usually to promote the other blogs in the same network and therefore increase the advertising revenue generated from online advertising on the blogs.[1] References [1] "Definition of: blog network" (http:/ / www.t=blog+ network& i=56587. another blog rally emerged in support of an imprisoned Iranian writer. Roxana Saberi.org/) Blog rally A blog rally is the simultaneous presentation of identical or similar material on numerous blogs.[3] Another blog rally occurred in April 2009. The simultaneous nature of a blog rally can create the result of joining the efforts of otherwise independent bloggers for an agreed-upon purpose. 2009 (http://www. com/ 2008/ 11/ engage-with-grace. Later that month. html) [3] (http:/ / www.00. over 95 bloggers participated in this event. 2009. thehealthcareblog. Retrieved 2010-03-22.

Blog rally • Venture Cyclist Blog on April 6. com/ 2011/ 8-tips-for-huge-blog-traffic .html) • "Bloggers rally for health data rights" Boston Globe June 22. Bloggers often seek out different ways [1] of drawing traffic to their site. an automatically generated list of all the pages served.html) • Boston Globe article on April 7. A page view is generated when a visitor requests any page within the web site – a visitor will always generate at least one page view (the main page) but could generate many more.html) • The Health Care Blog November 25.html) • Life As a Healthcare CIO Blog on April 6. thus a page with 5 images could generate 6 hits (the 5 images and the page itself). 2009 (http://www.com/business/articles/2009/04/07/ bloggers_rally_to_back_paper/) • "Got a Cause? Stage a Blog Rally" Slice of MIT.blogspot. 2009 (http://www.com/2009/04/07/blog-rally/) • "In Boston.com/the_health_care_blog/2010/ 11/engage-with-grace-at-thanksgiving. but images are also files.wordpress. 2009 (http://www. 2009 (http://geekdoctor. byethost7.com/2009/04/ blog-rally-to-help-boston-globe. 2010 (http://www. References [1] http:/ / balamoosh.boston.com/2009/04/ saving-boston-globe. 2009 (http://venturecyclist. The page itself is Example graph of blog traffic at Wikipedia considered a file.com/news/politics/ politicalintelligence/2009/06/bloggers_rally.html) 96 Blog traffic Measuring blog traffic Blog traffic is measured to see the popularity of blog sites and individual pages or sections within a site. Blog traffic can be analysed by viewing the traffic statistics found in the blog server log file.blogspot. A hit is generated when any file is served.boston.com/2009/04/13/ business/media/13globe. paper's peril hits a nerve" New York Times April 12.thehealthcareblog. News and Views for the Alumni Community Blog (http:// sliceofmit.nytimes.

com to Yelp for blogs. Yelp.[2] Method Blogged. This type of niche social networking has been employed successfully by sites such as Flixster.Blogged. but not the blog website itself. TechCrunch has recently compared Blogged. and Stumbleupon. it is sometimes difficult to gauge the quality or importance of the search results since the credibility of the website which contains the blog entry may be in question. It attempts to use a method of crowdsourcing to help evaluate the quality of various blogs.blogged. This method. It employs a method of niche social networking whereby people can connect to each other by their interests rather than their social connections. Therefore.com [1] Wiki Blog directory Optional multilingual February 24. commonly called crowdsourcing.com focuses on blog discovery and displays expert reviews and ratings on popular blogs thereby providing a basis from which to introduce new blogs to a potential reader. .com is a blog directory that attempts to combine social networking with people's interests in blogging.FM. 2008 Current status active Blogged. United States unknown number unknown www. Last.com Blogged. This method of propagating high-quality blogs via user feedback has been used by websites such as Digg. California. Blogged symbolizes a trend of new sites that attempt to connect people with their interests rather than social connections.com 97 Blogged. is being used by Blogged to utilize user feedback to gauge the importance of various blogs. Traditional blog search sites such as Technorati and Google Blog Search offer users a method of searching through individual blog entries or postings. Digg allows users to vote on the importance of articles and causes those articles which are most popular to rise to the top.com Type Founded Headquarters Revenue Employees Website Type of site Registration Available in Launched Private 2008 Alhambra.

6. The code was proposed due to threats made to blogger Kathy Sierra[1] . • " Blogged. techcrunch." Mashable. • " Blogged.mediapost. Take responsibility not just for your own words. • " Blogged. blogged. 7.do?id=825026&k=blogged. 2/25/2008 External links • Blogged. "I do think we need some code of conduct around what is acceptable behaviour. 3.com).webware. Erick (2008-02-24). Ignore the trolls. More than Just Another Blog Search Tool (http://mashable."[2] O'Reilly and others came up with a list of seven proposed ideas: 1. com/ [2] Schonfeld.Blogged. 2/25/2008.com Connects Bloggers With Readers. who quoted O'Reilly saying. The idea of the code was first reported by BBC News. Could Help Bloggers Monetize (http://publications.bloggingtips. 2/25/2008.com/) Blogger's Code of Conduct The Blogger's Code of Conduct is a proposal by Tim O'Reilly for bloggers to enforce civility on their blogs by being civil themselves and moderating comments on their blog.com. Take the conversation offline. Tech Crunch. Consider eliminating anonymous comments.com/8301-1_109-9877585-2.showArticleHomePage&art_aid=77147). • " Blogged.com (http://www. • " Blogged. Increases Traffic and Promotes Quality Content Filtered by People (http://marketwire.com Ranks Blogs For Consumers." Blogherald. but for the comments you allow on your blog. References • " Blogged.com/mw/release.cfm?fuseaction=Articles. reviews (http://www. com/index. .com launches blog directory.com new blog directory officially launches (http://www. "Blogged Hopes to Become the Yelp of Blog Directories" (http:/ / www. tell them so.com 98 Notes [1] http:/ / www. 2/25/2008." Marketwire.blogherald. 4.com/2008/02/25/ bloggedcom-public-beta-goes-live/). 5. ." CNET Blogs. Don't say anything online that you wouldn't say in person. Label your tolerance level for abusive comments. and talk directly.blogged. 2/25/2008. com/ 2008/ 02/ 24/ blogged-hopes-to-become-the-yelp-of-blog-directories/ ).com Public Beta Goes Live (http://www. 2/25/2008.com/2008/02/25/ bloggedcom-new-blog-directory-officially-launches/)." BloggingTips. I would hope that it doesn't come through any kind of regulation it would come through self-regulation. If you know someone who is behaving badly.com/2008/02/24/bloggedcom/). 2." Online Media Daily. or find an intermediary who can do so.html).

. Japan.[7] amongst others. .Blogger's Code of Conduct 99 References [1] Tim O'Reilly (2007-03-03).com/content.000 are active. com/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ call_for_a_blog_1.The first Persian blog is published by Salman Jariri.com/archives/2007/04/code_of_conduct. html).The blog using manual coding is published.com/archives/2007/04/draft_bloggers_1. . the Iranian language).BlogSky. though.oreilly.Instructions on "How to make a blog in Persian" using Blogger's free service is published. BBC News.[6] • 25 September .000-110. the Persian language is ranked as the second-most-popular language in the entire blogosphere.yankeesailor. bbc. • 5 November . the second free blog service in Persian.[1] [2] [3] With more than 700. • 10 November .000 Persian blogs. mostly based in Iran. the first free blog service in Persian.[4] [5] Timeline 2001 • 7 September . mostly written in Persian. oreilly. As of October 2005.com/wiki/Blogger's_Code_of_Conduct) MilBlogs Rules of Engagement (http://www. in response to readers' requests.ir. • 13 June .PersianBlog. using manual coding. there are estimated to be about 700.oreilly. stm). of which about 40. is launched by Ata Khalighi Sigaroudi. co.Cappuccino magazine is launched. by Tim O'Reilly • Blogger Content Policy (http://www. "Call for a Blogger's Code of Conduct" (http:/ / radar. 2002 • 2 June . Retrieved 2007-04-14. is launched. There are also many weblogs written by Iranians in English and other languages.com.wikia. 2007-03-28. Most of them. External links • • • • Draft Blogger's Code of Conduct (http://radar. Iran is the third-largest country of bloggers in the world after the United States and China. Retrieved 2007-04-14.html) Blogger's Code of Conduct at Blogging Wikia (http://blogging.us/?p=113) Code of Conduct: Lessons Learned So Far (http://radar. html). [2] "Call for blogging code of conduct" (http:/ / news. etc. belong to expatriates who live in North America. This characteristic can account for the huge popularity of blogs especially among Iranian youths. Europe.000 Iranian blogs (out of an estimated total of 100 million worldwide. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 6502643. O'Reilly Radar.g) Blogging in Iran Blogging in Iran operates under special circumstances because the government restricts certain views.blogger. Blogs in general tend to be unregulated compared to other forms of expression in Iranian society.

December: Mehrnoush Najafi Ragheb won city council election in Hamedan. each lasting about one minute. the speaker of the Judicial system of Iran confirmed Derakhshan's arrest.Blogging courses starts in the holy city of Qom.[8] • 26 September . [14] [15] • 1 November: Hossein Derakhshan. 2007 • 24 December: Almost a year after starting her blog in Persian. the first female vice president of Iran starts her blog in Persian.Mojtaba Saminejad is released from prison. said that Derakhshan was in the custody of the Islamic Revolutionary Court. Tehran's Chief prosecutor. • 27 January/12 February .Parsweblog. • 24 November .Protesting MPs on sit-in start a weblog. and that among the accusations were that Derakhshan had allegedly written about the "Pure Imams". Massoumeh Ebtekar starts her blog in English.Persian Blogging festival starts.[22] .Iranian blogger Mojtaba Saminejad arrested for writing about the arrests of three other bloggers. They are run by the newly-established office of religious weblog expansion. the first free blog service based on wordpress in Persian.[18] Amnesty International suggested that he was likely to face charges of "insulting religion".[18] • November: Revolutionary Guards announced [21] its plan to launch 10000 blogs. that his case was in early discovery phase. the traditional home of Iran's religious establishment.Sina Motallebi. starts Webnevesht. journalist and blogger is arrested.[18] [19] [20] He was allowed four calls to his family. • November . after serving term.000 Iranian blogs.[11] 2006 • • • • • Persian language was listed by Technorati among 10 most common languages among bloggers.President Ahmadinejad starts his multilingual blog with one long entry.Saeed Mortazavi.Iranian blogger Mojtaba Saminejad briefly released. 4 December: Masoumeh Ebtekar.[10] 2005 • 5 January . then rearrested • October Blog Herald estimate: 700. the first blog by a member of the Iranian cabinet. ordered major ISPs to filter PersianBlog and other blogging service websites.com.[12] 14 August . but he had not yet been charged as of mid-December. then Vice President for Legal and Parliamentary Affairs. is launched by mohammad hasan abbasi • July 05: Yaghoob Mehrnehad (Mirnehad) an Iranian blogger journalist was executed. not long after arriving there. of which about 10% are active • 11 October . • 6 June .[13] 13 September . • 30 December: Alireza Jamshidi.Blogging in Iran 100 2003 • 20 April . under the title "Persian Paradox". 2008 • 28 January .[9] 2004 • 16 January .Cafe Blog opens in northern Tehran.Mohammad-Ali Abtahi. during November. credited with starting the blogging revolution in Iran[16] and frequently called "the father of Persian blogs"[17] was arrested at his family home in Tehran.

Henry and Drezner. Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya . 2005). 2004). • Hendelman-Baavur. Middle East Review of International Affairs. No. of the Islamic Republic of Iran • Farrell.[26] • October 08: Hossein Ronaghi Maleki. 2004). California State University. he was alleged to have written and used software to combat filtering and to host and support websites and blogs that defend human rights. Erin A. vol. "Promises and Perils of Weblogistan: Online Personal Journals and the Islamic Republic of Iran" [43]. Jordan. 2004) ISBN 0-596-00733-7 Academic papers • Rahimi. 2006). 267–286 . The Power and Politics of Blogs [39]. Northridge. (March 2006). [25] • September 28: Hossein Derakhshan received a 19½ year jail sentence. The Middle East Review of International Affairs.[28] Directories • Persian Blog [29] • BlogFa [30] • • • • BlogSky [31] Mihan Blog [32] Parsi blog [33] Pars Weblog [34] Related books • We Are Iran: The Persian [35] Blogs by Nasrin Alavi (Soft Skull Press /November 28. American Anthropologist 106(4).34. • PetrossianL. 2004). • Jensen. Celine (2006). Annabelle (2007). and Power in Persian Weblogestan [37]. Duke University Press 26(1) • Halevi. 2005) ISBN 1-933368-05-5 • We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People. Alireza (Dec. • Simmons. Peder Are Nøstvold (Sep. (Aug. Babak (September 2003). Daniel W. died in prison in Iran[23] • late April 2009: Hossein Derakhshan remained under detention and had not been charged. pp. 'Becoming Intellectual: The Blogestan and Public Political Space in the Islamic Republic'.[24] 2010 • July 24: Fariborz Shamshiri. Janet A. Iranian blogger and journalist. The Impact of the Weblog: A Case Study of The United States and Iran [40]. Culture. The Iranian Weblog Research Project: Survey Results [42]. was sentenced to 15 years in prison. • Doostdar. inside and outside [38] . Cyberdissent: The Internet in Revolutionary Iran [36]. for the People by Dan Gilmor (O'Reilly. Iranian atheist blogger has been targeted with death threats from radical Muslims. A Case Study of Iranian English Language Weblogs. Comparative Studies of South Asia.com" was created • 18 March 2009: Omid Reza Mir Sayafi. (Jun. 7(3). British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. Liberating the Silenced: Iranian Bloggers in the Diaspora. • Sreberny. Liora (June 2007). Africa and the Middle East. often described as 'genius' blogger. • Alexanian. 3. Publicly Intimate Online: Iranian Web Logs in Southern California [41]. 11(2).Blogging in Iran 101 2009 • January 1. [27] According to Reporters Without Borders. 2009: Iranian's own video sharing site "IranianYouTube. (Nov. "The Vulgar Spirit of Blogging": On Language.

• IHRDC (May 2009). [24] Fathi. co. 2010-01-25. New York Times. com/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ world/ middleeast/ 20iran. org/ mediaculture/ 21316/ . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. globalvoicesonline. Sami Ben. salon. . Z. Robert (2006-10-11). 30 December 2008. webcitation. 2010-06-02. uk/ blogs/ persian/ 2006/ 11/ post_132. [18] "Document . com/ International/ Article. co. [9] Fathi. Retrieved 2009-03-18. Global Voices Online. Retrieved 2008-12-31. "Weblog heaven" (http:/ / www. [5] "The revolt in Iran continues" (http:/ / blogs. org/ futgen/ wjdc/ World Jewish Congress .. org/ 2010/ 07/ 24/ iranian-atheist-blogger-receives-threats/ ). "First executed Iranian blogger: Yaghoob Mehrnehad" (http:/ / www. 2004-09-14. html) on 2009-04-20. ece) on 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2010-01-26. [25] Lyons. .Iran UPR Attachment. org/ 5gA5oGJ6C). html) ‫و‬ ‫وو‬ ‫و‬ [13] "Iran's president launches weblog" (http:/ / news. 2005-01-31. Retrieved 2010-04-26. alternet. London: The Times. "Iranian atheist blogger receives threats" (http:/ / committeetoprotectbloggers. bbc. World Jewish Congress. BBC News. au/ heraldsun/ andrewbolt/ index. 9. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ middle_east/ article5190462. pdf). The Jerusalem Post / The Media Line. co. [17] Heller. "Iranian blogger Hossein Derakhshan "arrested" In Tehran" (http:/ / advocacy. rsf. com) [8] "Three journalists transferred to notorious "special wing" of Evin prison. html?id=2434707). nytimes. html). . [16] Perrone. [23] "Omid Reza Mir Sayafi. html). [3] "Hackers Take Iran's Civil War Online" (http:/ / www. [6] "The land of Goder and Ferfer. "Blogging Outside Iran: A Tool for Internal Democratic Change?" [45]. [19] Gharbia. co. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 2009-12-15.Blogging in Iran • Kelly. worldjewishcongress. DW-World. asp?NewsID=27839). London: The Guardian. Committee to Protect Bloggers. Nazila (2007-12-11). [21] http:/ / blogs. . Center for Communication and Civic Engagement. law. a Slightly Tamer Blog" (http:/ / www. themedialine. co. .Iran: Incommunicado detention/ fear of torture or other ill-treatment/ possible prisoner of conscience: Hossein Derakhshan (m)" (http:/ / www. . aspx?id=167963). bbc. Retrieved 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2010-04-26.. Retrieved 2009-03-19. p.00. uk/ technology/ 2003/ dec/ 18/ weblogs). Herald Sun. .1892562. Arman (June 2008). Retrieved 2009-03-18.Iran . The Media Line. [14] "World Jewish Diplomatic Corps . . Retrieved 2009-04-29. org/ 2008/ 11/ 18/ iranian-blogger-hossein-derakhshan-arrested-in-tehran/ ). International Freedom of Expression Exchange. . . Nazila (2009-04-19). de/ dw/ article/ 0. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. GlobalVoices. rottengods. Ctrl+Alt+Delete: Iran's Response to the Internet [46]. . [10] "Blogger Mojtaba Saminejad freed" (http:/ / www. • Nafisi. ata-khalighi. nytimes. Fariborz (2008-08-07). [7] (http:/ / www. org/ article. org/ 2009/ 03/ 19/ omid-reza-mir-sayafi-iranian-blogger-dies-in-prison/ ). . uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 4790005. . com/ news-sectors/ Story. edu/ idblog/ 2009/ 01/ 08/ irans-revolutionary-guards-take-on-the-internet/ [22] "The judiciary system confirmed the arrest of Hossein Derakhshan" (http:/ / www. com. "From Iran’s Fiery Leader. . [20] Theodoulou. Jane (2003-12-18). [11] Tait. php3?id_article=11978). Andrew Ford (2010-07-24). (2005-02-22). org/ news/ news_detail. 102 References [1] "Iranian hackers strike China" (http:/ / www. Amnesty International. . harvard. blogging with a Persian accent" (http:/ / www. php/ heraldsun/ comments/ the_revolt_in_iran_continues).00. . http:/ / www. . guardian. 2006-03-06. uk/ iran/ story/ 0. guardian. com/ 2007/ 12/ 11/ world/ asia/ 11blog. uk/ persian/ iran/ 2008/ 12/ 081230_ag_jb_derakhshan. Mapping Iran's Online Public: Politics and Culture in the Persian Blogosphere [44]. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-01-26. [4] "The revolution will be blogged" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-01-26. ifex. html). html). . Retrieved 2010-01-11. financialpost. dw-world. [2] "Hackers Take Iran's Civil War Online" (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2009-04-19.P. shtml) (in Persian). "Iranian President Asks Court to Reconsider Spy Case" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ feature/ 2006/ 03/ 06/ iranian_bloggers/ ). "Iranian 'Blogfather' Hossein Derakhshan is arrested on charge of spying for Israel" (http:/ / www. news. exiled journalist's father arrested" (http:/ / www. Iranian blogger Dies in Prison" (http:/ / globalvoicesonline. John and Bruce Etling (April 2008). webcitation. .4973862. 2010-02-01.UPR Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner" (http:/ / www. The Guardian (London). University of Washington. com/ 2008/ 08/ yaghoob-mehrnehad-first-executed. Retrieved 2009-03-18. bbc. "Iran's clerics caught up in blogging craze" (http:/ / www. Salon. Rotten Gods. Retrieved 2009-04-19. timesonline. org/ 5g9ySxomE). html?em& ex=1197522000& en=304e78e9e511aa10& ei=5087 ). 2009-06-18. Michael (2008-11-20). jpost. . . BBC Persian. Retrieved 2011-01-14. org/ en/ library/ asset/ MDE13/ 178/ 2008/ en/ cfe30c0e-cace-11dd-a6a3-63b538f8816c/ mde131782008en. Financial Post. stm). org/ en/ content/ view/ full/ 61261). . 2006-08-14. New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-20. [15] Shamshiri. Retrieved 2010-01-26. [12] BBC Persian | ‫(و ووو وو و و ووو وو وو و وو | و و و و و و و و و وو وو‬http:/ / www. International Freedom of Expression Exchange. amnesty. 2009-12-07.

parsiblog. edu/ dspace/ bitstream/ 1811/ 371/ 1/ BlogImpact. com [32] http:/ / www. oxinmob. payvand. parsweblog. com/ news/ 03/ sep/ 1156. com [34] http:/ / www. 1alexanian. edu/ publications/ 2008/ Mapping_Irans_Online_Public [45] http:/ / ccce. il/ journal/ 2007/ issue2/ jv11no2a6. . [27] "'Genius' Blogger Sentenced To 15 Years" (http:/ / www. [28] "One blogger freed on bail. org/ httpdocs/ English/ reports.Harvard University • Blogging in Iran: The Electronic Manifestation of Persian Thought (http://en. org/ iran-persecution-of-bloggers-continues-15-10-2010. law. org/ research/ iwrpresults. pdf [42] http:/ / www. htm 103 External links • Iranian Blogs (http://www. com [35] http:/ / www. com. html [37] http:/ / www. idc. pdf [40] https:/ / kb.law. 2010. persianblog. theglobeandmail. com [36] http:/ / www. blogsky.harvard. The Globe and Mail.edu/publications/2008/ Mapping_Irans_Online_Public/interactive_blogosphere_map) . pdf [38] http:/ / wo. woa/ wa/ these?WORKID=21737 [39] http:/ / www. Retrieved 28 September 2010. ir [30] http:/ / www. blogfa.iranian. pdf [43] http:/ / meria. mihanblog. danieldrezner.asia) . pdf [46] http:/ / iranhrdc. Radio Free Europe.de/webcom/ show_article. rsf. November 15. html). com/ news/ world/ africa-mideast/ canadian-iranian-blogger-sentenced-to-19-years-in-prison/ article1729730/ ). no/ as/ WebObjects/ theses. .php/_c-478/_nr-994/i. com/ articles/ vsob. osu. persianimpediment. com [33] http:/ / www. washington. October 08. com/ research/ blogpaperfinal. ac. com [31] http:/ / www. doostdar.38549. html).Blogging in Iran [26] "Canadian-Iranian blogger sentenced to 19 years in prison" (http:/ / www. rferl.html) .Iranian Blogs • Interactive Persian blogosphere map (http://cyber. 2010. html [44] http:/ / cyber. [29] http:/ / www. uio. edu/ projects/ assets/ Nafisi_Blogging_Outside_Iran.qantara. . pdf [41] http:/ / muse. 28 September 2010. edu/ cgi-bin/ access. jhu. cgi?uri=/ journals/ comparative_studies_of_south_asia_africa_and_the_middle_east/ v026/ 26. another blogger denied parole" (http:/ / en. Reporters Without Borders. org/ content/ Genius_Blogger_Sentenced_To_15_Years/ 2184616. harvard.

story http:/ / blogs. which was first awarded in 2006. Blog to book conversions via traditional publishing houses still happen. published by Apress on June 26.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / tonypierce. co.full.Blook 104 Blook A blook is printed book that contains or is based on content from a blog. html#002759 http:/ / www. uk/ news/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ 12/ bovvered_wins_word_of_the_year_award. com/ blog/ 2002_11_03_blogarc. based on his blog Joel on Software. htm http:/ / www.[1] The name came about when Pierce held a contest. some publishers are starting to realize that blog popularity does not translate to sales. guardian. How To Blog and Stiff. The first printed blook was User Interface Design for Programmers. com/ bookstandard/ news/ publisher/ article_display.0. com/ entertainment/ am-blogbook1211. buzzmachine. amny. The printed blook phenomenon is not limited to self-publishing. but the focus has shifted from blog popularity to content quality. An early blook was written by Tony Pierce in 2002 when he compiled selected posts from his one-year-old blog and turned the collection into a book called "Blook".[4] "Blook" was short-listed in 2006 for inclusion in the Oxford English Dictionary and was a runner-up for Word of the Year. Jeff Jarvis of BuzzMachine won the contest and subsequently invented the term. Several popular bloggers have signed book deals with major publishers to write books based on their blogs.5596105. 2001. jsp?vnu_content_id=1001001544 http:/ / www.[3] However. by Joel Spolsky. html/ . Print-on-demand publisher Lulu inaugurated the Lulu Blooker Prize for blooks. thebookstandard. asking his readers to suggest a title for the book. com/ archives/ 2002_12_21.[2] Pierce went on to publish two other blooks.

Podcasts and Videoblogs from all over the world can be submitted for the BOBs in one of the following 11 languages: Arabic. In 2007 the following categories will be: • Best Weblog • Best Podcast • Best Videoblog • Reporters Without Borders Award • Blogwurst Award (Our award for any different and/or quirky blog) • Best Weblog / Language (one per each of the 11 participating languages) • Special Topic Award (2010 . Lisa Neun (User Award) • Reporters Without Borders Award: Tanine Sokut und Kosoof (Jury Award). To date over 18. Through the BOBs. Portuguese. Blog da Alcinéa Cavalcante (User Award) • Best Podcast: Muzimei Studio (Jury Award). language or subject matter. Indonesian. In cooperation with Reporters Without Borders. Nostalgic Story Teller (User Award) • Best Weblog Chinese: The Colourful World . It allows the user to browse through the catalog by country. Chinese. Unusual Real Man (User Award) • Best Weblog Arabic: Jar el Kamar (Jury Award). podcasts and videoblogs have been entered into the Blogopedia by users and bloggers from all over the world. Blog do Tas (User Award) • Blogwurst Award: Mehrdad Aref-Adib (Jury Award). the German International Broadcasting Service.Climate Change) How the Competition Works The BOBs presents prizes for both Jury and User's Choice awards. Weblogs.is the world’s largest international Weblog competition. Award Categories The BOBs consist of 6 prize categories (all languages) and one award in each language of the competition (11 languages). Award Winners 2006 • Best Weblog: Sunlight Foundation (Jury Award). The User's Choice winners are chosen by worldwide online voting. Persian. English. French. Bieslog (User Award) . Deutsche Welle has presented a special award to Bloggers promoting these specific ideals since 2005. Haftegi (User Award) • Best Corporate Blog: Football-Club (Jury Award).The BOBs (weblog award) 105 The BOBs (weblog award) The BOBs – Best of the Blogs . The Jury prizes are awarded by a jury of international Bloggers.Shuweicao's Blog (Jury Award). Deutsche Welle focuses attention on the promotion of freedom of information and the press around the world. The Colourful World .000 different blogs. Blogopedia The Blogopedia is an online catalogue featuring a growing inventory of blogs written in eleven languages. Founded in 2004 and sponsored by Deutsche Welle.Shuweicao's Blog (User Award) • Best Weblog Dutch: Bureau Belgrado (Jury Award). Russian and Spanish. German. In each of the 17 different Award Categories the BOBs offer both a Jury and a User-Choice Award. Bengali.

com http:/ / www. de/ bobsblog http:/ / www. thebobs. de/ dw/ article/ 0. Garotas Que Dizem Ni (User Award) • Best Weblog Russian: Magazeta: All about China (Jury Award). La Buvette des Alpages (User Award) • Best Weblog German: Letters from Rungholt (Jury Award).00. com/ . html http:/ / blogs.The BOBs (weblog award) • Best Weblog English: PaidContent. Mangas Verdes (User Award) The Jury winners in the category “Best Weblog” of the past years include: • Sunlight Foundation (2006) • Más respeto. aref-adib.2227325. com/ l9log/ http:/ / www. php3?id_article=15582 http:/ / www. rsf. lisaneun. que soy tu madre (2005) • 18摸 狗 日 报 (2004) 106 External links • • • • The BOBs [1] Reporters without Borders [2] Deutsche Welle [3] BOBs Blog [4] • Sunlightfoundation Blog [5] • Lisa Neun Blog [6] • Aref-Adib Blog [7] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www.2144. dw-world. Black Looks (User Award) • Best Weblog French: La Buvette des Alpages (Jury Award). sunlightfoundation. com/ blog http:/ / www. Magazeta: All about China (User Award) • Best Weblog Spanish: La Huella Digital (Jury Award). An soie Diwar (User Award) • Best Weblog Portuguese: Apocalipse Motorizado (Jury Award). org/ article.org (Jury Award). dw-world. Beetlebum (User Award) • Best Weblog Persian: Zeitun (Jury Award).

clayburn-griffin. Sometimes these character blogs are done as a simple means of expression by fans or regular people unaffiliated with any professional media. These are often produced with marketing and tie-ins in mind. Unofficial character blogs often are inspired by comic books. com/ http:/ / amazingmutantrace4. putting the character into one or many fantasy universes. is making the blog post. html http:/ / masterjediyoda. TV shows and sometimes even brands (such as Captain Morgan) will publish an official blog for their characters. com/ 2005/ 04/ character_blogs. html http:/ / last-gladiator3. Types of character blogs Official Character Blogs . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / blog. blogspot. Unofficial Character Blogs . particularly within the Star Wars community. Criticism While seemingly harmless and considered a bit of fun by most. a corporate blog[3] . micropersuasion. some find Character Blogging hard to take. and so are planned to best convey the message wanted by the producers. Spider-Man and even solo characters created by the blogger themselves and placed in one of the many fictional universes found in fiction. Last Gladiator Standing [4] is a blog game that gets its name from Last Comic Standing and Amazing Mutant Race [5] puts an X-Men twist on The Amazing Race. the most famous example being Master Yoda's Blog [2]. There are many character blogs on the Internet.com's Steve Rubel has given his opinion stating that." Rubel's attack was on the official character blog for Captain Morgan. com/ http:/ / www. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 06/ what-is-character-blogging.Movies. but by fans and writers looking for a creative outlet. Fantasy Character Blogs . Star Wars has brought about several of these. "Character blogs are a waste of time because a character is not and never will be human . and it has recently become popular among TV show producers as a means of promoting their show.unless it's Pinocchio. blogspot. com/ . Often they will be some kind of superhero type character.Some blog writers choose to create their own original character to blog as. rather than just an ordinary person. even mixing them with established fictional universes from comic books. to play with and interact with characters ranging from Star Wars and Star Trek to Superman. movie. Most character blogs are not set up by corporations or companies. For instance. TV shows and movies. This is common among role-players.Sometimes fans of a known fictional character will create a blog as parody or homage to the work from which the character derives.[1] In the current decade they have become an outlet for fans of TV show. These are often in parody of reality TV shows. MicroPersuasion. Blog games Character blogs make it possible for blog games to be played on team blogs. and comic book characters. movies and television. where they can create their own Jedi (or Sith) character and blog as them. rather than an actual person. An element of fantasy often exists.Character blogging 107 Character blogging Character blogs are a type of blog written as though a fictional character.

html) Cnbloggercon The Chinese Blogger Conference (or CNBloggerCon) was the first national bloggers conference held in China. mit.[1] [2] The conference first convened in Shanghai in November 2005. The New York Times. of the use of the Internet for political activity. The campaign of Howard Dean. One of the more prominent organizers of the conference is the Shanghai-based investment manager and blogger Isaac Mao. Howard W. "Huge new wave of blogging in China" (http:/ / www.org/blog/ Cyberpolitics Cyberpolitics is a term widely employed across the world. in which a previously unknown former Democratic governor of a small state emerged for a while as the front runner for the 2004 Democratic Presidential nomination on the strength of his campaign's skill in cyberpolitics. and organization building. "Flatter world and thicker walls? Blogs. Rebecca (2008).com/2009/06/casting-call. [2] MacKinnon.wordpress. html?_r=1& sq=china blogger conference& st=cse& scp=5& pagewanted=all).cyberjournalist. . nytimes. (2005-11-24).Character blogging 108 External links • Heroes United (http://heroesunited.net/cyberpolitics_blog http:/ / www.tripod. censorship and civic discourse in China" (http:/ / www.[3] References [1] French.org/(an example of distributed political organization tool which uses blogs) http://www. External Links for American Politics http://actiontrigger. Guangzhou (2008) and Lianzhou (2009).com/ . and was held in the subsequent years in Hangzhou (2006). Beijing (2007). It embraces all forms of social software.1007/s11127-007-9199-0. html?res=9401E6D71631F937A15752C1A9639C8B63& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=2).cnbloggercon. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 11/ 23/ technology/ 23iht-bloggers. volunteer recruitment.com/cyber/index. (2005-11-24). The New York Times. . Howard W. blogging. springerlink. "A Party Girl Leads China's Online Revolution" (http:/ / query.blogspot. fundraising. . ai. com/ content/ u65456nm4j3tx7p7/ ). largely by academics interesting in analyzing its breadth and scope. com/ gst/ fullpage.htm http://cyberpolitics. [3] French.no-ip. Public Choice 134 (1-2): 31–46. doi:10. External links • http://www. edu/ projects/ iiip/ home-page. It includes journalism. html (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Intelligent Information Infrastructure Project) http://drhill. was a wake-up call to the American political establishments of political parties around the United States as to the importance of cyberpolitics as both a concept and as a series of organizational and communications strategies.

CIBERPOLITICA: COMO USAMOS LAS NUEVAS HERRAMIENTAS EN LA POLITICA LATINOAMERICANA? Konrad Adenauer Stittfung. CITIZENS AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS (2004) External Links for World Politics.ru Fernandez. HOW CITIZENS USE THE INTERNET (1997) W. Hughes and John E. amazon. Mattia Malkic (Editor). Kirsten Foot. Bas. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DIGITAL GOVERNMENT (2006) External Links for World Politics. AND THE INTERNET WORLDWIDE (2001) Philip Seib.C. CQ RESEARCHER CYBERPOLITICS v. com/ Internet-National-Elections-comparative-Communication%C3%A1/ dp/ 0415417368/ ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8& s=books&qid=1203345705&sr=1-1 (2007) Shanthi Kalathil and Taylor C. NEW MEDIA. [ASIA. CYBERPOLITICS UND CYBERPOLITY. CYBERPOLTICS: GUIDA NI SITI POLITICI SU INTERNET Miriam Meckel.Cyberpolitics 109 Books on American Cyberpolitics Kevin A. Carmen Beatriz [Study on Latinamerican Cyberpolitics]http:/ / www. JAPANESE CYBERCULTURE (2003) Pippa Noris.pdf (2008) Books About World Cyberpolitics. Randy Kluver. net/ novedades/ archivos/ciberpolitica. Ho. English Language http://www. FILTERS. and C.ciolek. NEW MEDIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (2007) Ari-Veiko Anttiroiko (Editor).COM. THE MEDIA IN THE NETWORK SOCIETY. English Language Gustave Cardoso & Manuel Castelli. ACTIVISM IN THE AGE OF THE INTERNET (1998) Tom Price. ASIA ENCOUNTERS THE INTERNET](2003) http:/ / www.amazon.net http://cyberpolitics. e-lecciones. NEWS.html Books On World Cyberpolitics.com http://politnet. BROWSING.Van DeDunk.Yang.C.CYBERPROTEST:NEW PROTEST. AND CITIZENSHIP (2007) Randy Kluver. Languages Other Than English Andrea Manica.14-32 (2004) Ed Schwartz. CIVIC ENGAGEMENT. CLOSED REGIMES. and Steve Schneider. Nick Jankowski. THE IMPACT OF THE FINLAND CONFERENCE RULE (2003) K.com/PAPERS/oregon-2003-text. INFORMATION POVERTY. CYBERPOLITICS. Buenos Aires 2008 . [THE INTERNET AND NATIONAL ELECTIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WEB CAMPAIGNING]http:/ / www.com/Asia-com-Encounters-Internet-Asias-Transformations/dp/0415315042 Mark McClelland. Languages Other Than English http://ciberpolitica. ZUR VIRTUALISIERUNG POLITISCHER KOMMUNIKATION Carmen Beatriz Fernández. OPEN NETWORKS. Hill.

Prof. “Everyone can come and take them and do them if they want". "Of all his work. the creative process has a hidden face: i. "is a collection of his ideas.. artist. “The Dump” is the simplest form of digital art. arguably. Louis Bec.) in December 2008 "Benayoun submitted “The Dump” as his PhD thesis and became. benayoun. com http:/ / www. Hubertus von Amelunxen. before the work of art takes place or so it can take place. about undone art projects." Maurice Benayoun About the Dump Barbara Robertson writes in Computer Graphics World magazine : The Dump. Jean da Silva PhD abstract "By its very nature. net http:/ / www. but also the most accessible and most interactive. Poland) works by 9 artists inspired by The Dump Blog. org http:/ / www. 2008) This PhD was directed by Prof.The Dump 110 The Dump The Dump is a blog initiated in 2006 by the new media artist Maurice Benayoun. pl/ index. php?idDzial=9& idWpis=525 . At least." The Dump – Recycling of Thoughts. aspx?Page=/ Publications/ CGW/ 2009/ Volume-32-Issue-4-Apr-2009-/ Without-Bounds. or perhaps it’s both.. It is neither virtual nor augmented reality. opendump. External links • • • • • official Blog/creation by [[Maurice Benayoun [1]] The Dump] official Blog/open to public participation version of The Dump [2] official [[Maurice Benayoun [3]]'s web site] [4] Without Bounds by Barbara Robertson in CGW volume 32 issue 4 April 2009] The Dump Recycling of Thoughts art exhibition by Agnieszka Kulazińska [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. laznia... com/ Print. determinations and hesitations contained in the act of artistic creation. This blog was probably the first to become a doctorate thesis in art by itself: Artistic Intentions at Work. a methodical expression of intention. presenting in May 2010. caught on the fly.(. This project aims to in[com]plement the creative process involved in the working out and selecting process by displaying visually and legibly that which constitutes the cluster of motivations. aspx http:/ / www. for now. Hypothesis for Committing Art Université Pantheon Sorbonne (December 6. cgw. but with it. Hundreds of ideas.at Laznia Art Center (Gdansk.e. and Prof. the first artist to use a blog to qualify for a doctorate degree". Derrick de Kerckhove. everything which the artist discards in both choice and conception of the work to be undertaken. the-dump. Anne-Marie Duguet Jury : Prof. Benayoun might have created the newest of all new media. The Dump is the experimental form of this applied research. a contemporary art exhibition curated by Agnieszka Kulazińska.

copy edit. from idea through writing and publication. the movement is forward and iterative. where to publish. Traditional print publishers have used editorial calendars in some form for centuries to manage the publication of books. and social media outlets like Twitter and Facebook fan pages. These publishers have discovered editorial calendars solve a difficult problem: how to ensure content can be published consistently over time in different media. Too little or too much data make editorial calendars difficult to . Publishers also extract some of their editorial calendar data and make the data publicly available to attract advertisers. the primary purpose of editorial calendars is to control the publication of content to ensure regular appearance of content that interests readers and advertisers. 4. for example. Review the first draft of each piece of content 5. email newsletters. Without a calendar. and newspapers. Public relations professionals also use these abbreviated editorial calendars to try and place stories for their clients. The details included and tracked in an editorial calendar depends upon the steps involved in publishing content for a publication. Submit piece of content formally to layout team for their creation of artwork to be included with the published content 11. publishers.Editorial calendar 111 Editorial calendar An editorial calendar is used by bloggers. where to publish. and rewrites as needed 8. and when to publish Write each piece of content based on the publication schedule Edit each piece of content Publish each piece of content A larger group might have this publishing process: 1. and when to publish. Brainstorm content ideas to publish. Submit piece of content for review by legal team 9. 2. Perform final edit. If go. Brainstorm content ideas to publish. magazines. if a writer becomes ill or an interview subject is unavailable) 2. They are an extremely efficient way to control publication of content across diverse media outlets over time. Give go or no go decision based on first draft edit and other criteria (then adjust the publishing schedule as needed) 6. magazine. Post content on a development/test server and make final changes if needed 12. on a website or blog. or in a social media outlet like Twitter or Facebook. An individual or small business might have this publishing process: 1. blog. include dates to determine whether to delay or kill each content item (for example. The internet has dramatically increased the number of publishers who also need to organize content and ensure content is published at regular intervals. Publishers encounter and cross a number of hurdles before a piece of content appears in print. businesses. finish writing each piece of content and submit draft content to layout team so they can plan their work 7. 3. Publish content on the production server or other media Whether the publishing process is simple or complex. Write each piece of content 4. Make changes if/as needed based on legal input 10. newspaper. as well as what is useful to track. Assign each piece of content based on the publication schedule 3. publishing can be erratic and possess little interest to readers and advertisers. However. and groups to control publication of content across different media. include backup content items for each piece of content. fact checking. The Editorial Process Editorial calendars are used to define and control the process of creating content.

each section would be a tab. the calendar usually tracks publishing activities grouped into these sections: • • • • Story Ideas Content Production Calendar Published Content Glossary of Terms/Style Decisions Content then moves from one section to the next. can be used to generate new story ideas and. Publications often group story ideas to be published on specific days of the week. The glossary and style decisions section contains details editors and authors need to ensure the publication retains a consistent style and tone. micro content (for example. Understanding the different creation processes involved help to set realistic dates in an editorial calendar. is required before they can be truly useful. each type of content has its own creation process an editorial calendar must accommodate. These results. and publish an interview are different from those needed to publish an editorial. or software integrated with their publishing tool. 112 The Content Creation Process In addition to the editorial process. There are at least four types of technology used to create an editorial calendar: • • • • Pieces of paper and a file folder A paper calendar or online calendar (for example. The spreadsheet has tabs that reflect the publishing process. Excel or Google Docs) Editorial process tracking software in your publishing software Each of these technologies have their strengths and weaknesses. and a tab for published stories. write. Some amount of tweaking of editorial calendar elements. If paper is used to track publication. a tab for stories currently being written and edited. the publication destination. for example. Facebook likes. an environmental news site might publish research articles on Mondays and interviews with industry leaders on Thursdays. Within each spreadsheet tab. for example. a tab for story ideas. and other sources. there might be columns to track the name of the published piece. Editorial Calendar Tools Tools used to create an editorial calendar vary from paper to standalone tracking software integrated into publishing tools. based on current events. This performance data allows the publisher to identify content that appeals most to their readers and larger audience. If a spreadsheet is used for an editorial calendar. these elements might be tracked: . a page for each section in a file folder with notes about style decisions and glossary might work. in turn. Within each section of an editorial calendar. the number of tweets. sub headings and HTML alt and title tags to be used in links to the piece of content) and other useful information to track. Grouping content helps train readers to return at regular intervals and makes it easier to organize advertising around these themes. if appropriate. Most editorial calendars are spreadsheets or can be exported as a spreadsheet for review. and links to the content from third party websites. the assigned author. Some editorial calendars also track the responses to each piece of content. from story idea to published content. There might be additional tabs to track editorial style decisions and scheduled changes to the blog that might impact publishing. Google Calendar) A spreadsheet or online spreadsheet (for example. a spreadsheet.Editorial calendar maintain and use. for example. attract advertisers. Editorial Calendar Structure and Elements Whether the publisher uses a paper calendar. Content ideas usually are created through brainstorming. while using the calendar to publish content. The steps and effort to conduct.

and search optimized descriptions for HTML links and tags. [10] .g. • How to Create an Editorial Calendar for Your Blog [8] . Further reading These resources describe the editorial calendar process in greater detail. Active or Inactive) 113 There also might be columns to check off whether or not micro-content has been created. Finally. • Blogging For Web Designers: Editorial Calendars and Style Guides [2] . For example. • How to Create and Use an Editorial Calendar [9] .Blog Editorial Calendar Template [4] • Creating an Editorial Calendar for a Blog [5] • Build Your Blog's Traffic with an Editorial Calendar [6] • Pattern Your Audience: How Editorial Calendars Can Increase Your Readership [7] . or other parts of the actual publishing process. sub headings. and Publication Date.Includes a video that shows how the author uses Google Calendar to track their editorial process. Author. images have been created for the story.g.Ideas about how to group content for regular publication. small businesses. when using a spreadsheet for an editorial calendar.General overview from Smashing Magazine with strong emphasis on style guides • How to Put Together an Editorial Calendar for Content Marketing [3] . Blog. • How to Create an Editorial Calendar to Publish Blogs.Describes a paper-based method to creating an editorial calendar useful for individuals. Facebook Fan Pages. as well as additional insights into how editorial calendars can be used effectively.Free editorial calendar download • An Editorial Calendar Template for You (and Your Sanity!) . the first three columns in all tabs of a spreadsheet calendar might be Story Title. and additional resources. for example. it is important to use the same column order and titles to track elements across tabs. templates. Or there might be columns to check off whether or not a legal review has been passed.Editorial calendar • • • • • • • Story Title Author Publication Date Media Outlet (e. Email Newsletter) Theme (or Section) Priority Status (e. and small groups that publish content at a low volume. story blurbs. Twitter. and Email Newsletters [1] Exhaustive article on the topic with links to other articles. Print Magazine. Ordering columns consistently makes it easy to copy and paste rows of entries from one spreadsheet tab to another without having to update the column order on a specific tab.Covers editorial calendars from a marketing perspective • Save Time & Stress .

rodkirby. reachcustomersonline. is about a teacher traveling the United States discussing drop out rates and sharing his experience with others. discussion boards. Anthony Mullen’s blog. There are many teacher related blogs on the internet where teachers can share information with one another. in keeping with the larger blogosphere. com/ more-than-words/ 2010/ 01/ creating-an-editorial-calendar-for-a-blog/ [6] http:/ / www. The ability for both the teacher and student to edit content allows for study to take place outside the classroom environment. It is easy to introduce the use of blogs in the classroom and allows both the teacher and student the ability to edit and add content at any time. various writing assignments. and gain support and recognition from other professionals in their field. com/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ the-importance-of-consistency-using-editorial-calendars-and-style-guides/ [3] http:/ / www. feelings. Students can respond initially to the text. especially teacher blogs which are directly making a difference in the educational system. Some of these blogs have become nationally recognized as useful tools. including their thoughts. Examples might include blogs written by or for teachers. blogs maintained for the purpose of classroom instruction. or blogs written about educational policy. contentmarketinginstitute. In this way the blog often acts as a support system for teachers where they can access ideas. com/ blog/ 2007/ 03/ 09/ how-to-create-and-use-an-editorial-calendar/ [10] http:/ / www. com/ blog/ entry/ 572231/ save-time-stress-%E2%80%93-blog-editorial-calendar-template [5] http:/ / aliciafarrell. important dates. 39/ [2] http:/ / www. educators who blog are sometimes called edubloggers. Students can also access the blog to ask each other questions regarding a missed assignment or lesson. Blogs increase exposure to other students from around the country or world while improving writing and communication skills. Teachers can create.) Similarly. Students can access this information from home. or from any computer that is connected to the Internet. for example. com/ pattern-your-audience-with-editorial-calendars/ [8] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 08/ 20/ 09. missed lessons. com/ 2010/ 08/ content-marketing-editorial-calendar/ [4] http:/ / www. com/ build-your-blog%E2%80%99s-traffic-with-an-editorial-calendar/ [7] http:/ / www.Editorial calendar 114 References [1] http:/ / www. or keeping in contact with parents. Blogs in Education The use of blogs has become popular in educational institutions including public schools and colleges [1] . smashingmagazine. com/ archives/ 1720 [9] http:/ / www. This would generate conversation amongst the students and develop their critical and analytical . tools. It is a tool for educators to share ideas with one another on what has worked with students and what has not. savvyb2bmarketing. or readings. Teachers are using blogs as a way to post important information such as homework. It also gives students an opportunity to collaborate on poetry. andywibbels. This can include specific content that they are working on in their classroom or exemplary lessons that they wish to share with other teachers. Students can use blogs to communicate with other students for group projects as well. Blogs can be important tools for sharing useful information and tips among co-workers. The collection of these blogs is called the edublogosphere by some. monitor and edit blogs to ensure that the postings are appropriate and pertain to the classroom. Other students would have the opportunity to respond and react to these responses. questions etc. dispersing information to students. and other useful classroom information that is accessible by all. Teachers use blogs as a way to communicate and enhance classroom instruction among their students. connections. nonprofitmarketingguide. projects. theloudfew. 16. although that label is not necessarily universally agreed upon. (Others refer to the community or collection of blogs and bloggers as the edusphere. doshdosh. com/ blog/ an-editorial-calendar-template-for-you-and-your-sanity/ Edublog An edublog is a blog written by someone in education. Teachers can often rely on these sources to communicate with one another regarding any issues in education that they may be having including classroom management techniques and policies.

The use of blogs in the classroom embeds technological literacy in children that will help them in adulthood. Teachers and parents can also use blogs in order to communicate with one another. Corwin Press [2] Bartlett-Bragg. Teachers from different states.pdf) • VanFossen. runs annually online across a range of platforms. au/ edition04/ pdf/ Blogging_to_Learn. Vol. Podcasts. Ministry of Education. ringsurf. http:/ / knowledgetree. Assisting parents on what is developmentally appropriate for their children on a blog could open communication and help parenting skills as well. 2005.org/2008/01/28/ who-are-the-top-edubloggers/). org/ web/ */ http:/ / edublog. flexiblelearning. Edublogs Magazine. and Steve Hagadon. Knowledge Tree. countries. 115 History The Wayback Machine records a webpage at edublog. A teacher's first priority is to educate their students. These blogs can be private between student and tutor or can be shared with the class. com [4] http:/ / www. The use of blogs in education gives students a global perspective.com [3] as early as May 2001.net/files/docs/weblogs_in_education. 2008. the international and community based awards programme for the use of blogs and social media to support education. and are currently managed by Ronnie Burt. com/ netring?ring=edublog& action=member& id=& sort_order= • IT Literature Review. Blogging is also a central tool for parents to find out daily assignments so that they can check up on their children and classroom expectations. It also allows students who are shy and reserved in class to voice their opinions and insight using a different approach. In higher education blogs are often used as reflective journals. etc. The Awards were founded by James N. celebrations. Farmer George Siemens Mark Alvin Macasaet References [1] Richardson. but educating and communicating openly with parents through blogs is a helpful tool to keep lines of communication open between teachers and student families. (2003) ‘Blogging to Learn’. Farmer in 2004. A. January 28. 2002. [2] . founded on January 30. The Edublog Awards. and presentations. . and continents are able to collaborate on different projects and learnings. Having this clear and open communication between parents and students can ensure success. Accessed January 29. Wikis. pdf [3] http:/ / web. Information can be posted for parents on special events occurring in the classroom such as field trips. "Who Are The Top Edubloggers" (http://magazine. (http:// edublog. Lorelle. Singapore. Will (2006) Blogs. Students are able to see that opinions and even strategies vary based on location and culture. Notable Edubloggers • • • • • Stephen Downes Will Richardson James N. (The Child Development Institute). with just a few clicks of a button. Another early recorded use of the term "edublog" can be traced to a webring called the Edublog WebRing [4]. but a common thread of learning can unite them.Edublog thinking skills. A classroom in China can collaborate with classrooms in Germany. With the use of blogs in the classroom students learn from one another and individually express themselves as well. Learning through blogs allows students to take control of their own learning and steer it to their own needs. 4 [online]. Mexico. Educational Technology Division. archive. 2008. Children are all different. net.edublogs. Sue Waters. Australia.

in the Jargon File. defined the term as: A point-by-point refutation of a blog entry or (especially) news story.com) . Classblogmeister (http://www. have reinvented this technique. or essay.blogspot. along with paragraph-by-paragraph commentary that challenged. I think the Internet has become a hate machine for a lot of people and I want nothing to do with it.Widely used edublog by teachers.Teach for America teacher blogs Teacher Lingo (http://teacherlingo. or disputes the analysis in a statement. logical.org) .odev. I've never seen a blog in my life.[1] Eric S. sarcastic and ruthlessly factual. saying "political bloggers. thinking they were discovering something fun and new" [4] As for Fisk himself. The British newspaper The Observer defined fisking as "the practice of savaging an argument and scattering the tattered remnants to the four corners of the internet (named after Robert Fisk of the Independent)"[3] Software engineering writer Joel Spolsky. the term was employed in 2001 by various American conservative and libertarian bloggers who reposted Fisk's dispatches on their own blogs. The eponymous journalist Robert Fisk (pictured in 2005) A fisking is characteristically an incisive and fierce point-by-point rebuttal. A really stylish fisking is witty.tr) Teach For Us (http://TeachForUs. flaming or handwaving is considered poor form. newcomers to the Internet. a British journalist.org) .com/International) Multiuser edublogging platforms • • • • • Free Edublogs (http://edublogs. author and expert on the Middle East. I don't even use email.com. and the aim is generally to weaken the target's credibility rather than seek common ground.Turkey Edu Center (http://www. Uses Telligent Community platform from Telligent Systems. I am not interested. "I have to be honest: I don't use the Internet. I couldn't care less. countered. and/or mocked Fisk's viewpoints. Raymond. finds a precedent for fisking in the "line-by-line nitpick" reply style common on Usenet.[2] Overview Named after Robert Fisk. Ödev Sitesi .classblogmeister. I don't waste my time with this. Fisking The term fisking is blogosphere slang describing a point-by-point criticism that highlights perceived errors. in a 2005 interview he stated that he was unaware of the term.Edublog 116 External links • Edublog awards (http://edublogawards.Community of teacher blogs. article.com/) • Edubloggers Directory (http://edubloggerdir."[5] .com) Widely used free edublog for students and teachers.

2001). "It's Not Just Usability" (http:/ / www. Independent News & Media. but the main thrust of the speech should be on point-by-point refutation in the same order that 1AC was presented.1509575. co. Don’t try to give several overviews on case issues instead of point-by-point refutation. org/ web/ 20011210065358/ http:/ / news. independent. the purpose being to demonstrate that the underlying foundation is poorly constructed. perhaps due to time zone differences) [8] Top-post definition. nytimes. jsp?story=109257). com/ index.[9] where one debater addresses each point of an argument in turn. Robert (December 9. posted and archived the day after it was written and responded to. Retrieved 2008-03-09. This interlinear technique is found in Talmudic analysis and commentary. htm). uk/ world/ asia_china/ story. [5] Antonia Zerbisias. org/ web/ 20040416224040/ http:/ / andrewsullivan. Prager. That's when you take an article and reprint it on your blog adding your line-by-line critique. so the resulting edifice of reasoning cannot be trusted. org/ jargon/ html/ T/ top-post. html) [3] Archbishop on end of a good Fisking (http:/ / observer. Don’t reorganize the Affirmative case structure.6903.00. "He also notes "Another good blog term is to fisk. a U. taking the rhetorical position that their beating of a representative Westerner symbolized their reaction to the war. References [1] William Safire (February 19. Toronto Star." http:/ / webpages. from "the Jargon File": http:/ / catb. joelonsoftware. 2006). line-by-line format. co.Fisking 117 Origin "Fisking" was coined by bloggers in December 2001. html?). The term was first applied soon after on Instapundit and Sullivan's blog. but not in a complete. The Sunday Independent. archive. although it may contain a degree of derision and scorn. Author Doesn't Give a Flying Fisk About Fisking (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. November 29. with which it is sometimes confused. html). Sunday. Retrieved 2010-09-16.[7] Sullivan quoted and responded to passages from the Fisk piece. 2005 [6] The Daily Dish (http:/ / web. . Retrieved 2008-10-30. html#7786744). 2002: "ADAPT TO THE AFFIRMATIVE STRUCTURE. com/ articles/ NotJustUsability. org/ ~esr/ jargon/ html/ F/ fisking. . php?dish_inc=archives/ 2001_12_09_dish_archive. 2005 [4] Spolsky. 1996. 1993. all in one piece[8] ). . html [9] Introduction to Policy Debate by John R. net/ johnprager/ IPD/ Chapter16. Tuesday. It comes from bloggers doing that to Fisk's work.K. December 9. Occasional overviews in 1NC are acceptable. guardian. com/ 2006/ 02/ 19/ magazine/ 19wwln_safire. Fisking is not verbal abuse. journalist. as well as in RaShI. "My beating by refugees is a symbol of the hatred and fury of this filthy war" (http:/ / web. 2001. following a three-paragraph response by Andrew Sullivan[6] to an article Fisk wrote for The Sunday Independent earlier that month. independent. (Internet Archive. Joel (2004-09-06). and now you'll hear 'That was some fisking of Bush's State of the Union. as opposed to addressing the entire thesis of his or her opponent.' "" [2] Jargon File entry fisking (http:/ / catb. Comparisons and distinctions Fisking can be compared to the Usenet style of responding to an argument's specific points by quoting lines prefixed with the ">" character [4] (which contrasts with the style often found in e-mail of top-posting a reply. "Blargon" (http:/ / www. New York Times. Fisking is similar to the line-by-line method in policy debate. The Observer. org/ views05/ 1129-27. from Robert Fisk. jsp?story=109257) on 2001-12-10. html). co. commondreams. Sunday June 19. archive. uk/ world/ asia_china/ story. Internet Archive [7] Fisk. uk/ business/ story/ 0. htm . charter. Fisk's piece recounted his own beating at the hands of Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Fisking is different from flaming. Copyright © 1990.

html). . descending "river" of posts in the main region (which can be paused or resumed).[1] The feature was introduced on December 7. . TechCrunch. Google. Retrieved July 12. posts containing syndicated or attached shortened links were made searchable by the link: query option. Retrieved July 12. 2010. In addition. blogspot. Hashtag search links are also supported. Facebook. [4] "Google's Real-Time Search Ready to Challenge Bing" (http:/ / www. which showed results from Twitter and Facebook.ca TwitArmy References [1] "Google launches Real-Time Search" (http:/ / mashable. [5] "Features: Google Realtime Search" (http:/ / www. py?hl=en& answer=180138). [3] "Google Real-Time Search Now Includes A Fraction Of Facebook Status Updates" (http:/ / techcrunch. google. PC World. [2] "Relevance meets the real-time web" (http:/ / googleblog. In January 2011. 2009. 2010. com/ 2009/ 12/ relevance-meets-real-time-web. html).Google Real-Time Search 118 Google Real-Time Search Google Real-Time Search is a feature of Google Search provided by Google in which search results also sometimes include real-time information from sources that include Twitter. as are "promoted" tweets hosted by Twitter (located persistently on top of the river) and thumbnails of retweeted image or video links. Supported websites Confirmed • • • • • Twitter Facebook MySpace FriendFeed Google Buzz Rumored or stated.[4] Features The interface for the engine shows a live. com/ article/ 183984/ googles_realtime_search_ready_to_challenge_bing.[2] Real-Time Search included Facebook status updates beginning on February 24. 2010. com/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ google-facebook-status-updates/ ). Retrieved July 12. and news websites. while a bar chart metric of the frequency of posts containing a certain search term or hashtag is located on the right hand corner of the page above a list of most frequently-reposted posts and outgoing links. blogs. com/ 2009/ 12/ 07/ google-real-time-search/ ). Mashable. geolocation links of posts were made available alongside results in Real-Time Search. pcworld. Retrieved July 12. com/ support/ websearch/ bin/ answer. 2010. not implemented • • • • Yahoo! Answers[1] Jaiku[5] identi. 2010. Google.[3] A feature similar to Real-Time Search was already available on Microsoft's Bing search engine.

and media responsibility.[10] Gorrell's blog published After he was forced to flee the Philippines to Australia.[7] [8] [9] Developments ChikaTime Screenshot of Brian Gorrell's blog accusing his former lover of swindling him of US$70. The blogger also wrote that it also aimed to shame Montano (as well as the Gucci Gang) into paying him back. claimed that Montano has taken US$40.[5] Gorrell said he plans to use the money as treatment for his HIV. which was first published on 4 March 2008. cocaine abuse.[12] On 14 March 2008. The accusation first appeared on a high-society gossip blog ChikaTime. whom he tagged as "Gucci Gang".[12] He said he was charged with assault through the help of the Montano's friends. of attempting to cover up the deed and striking back at him. exposing its high-society youths' alleged freeloading lifestyle and addiction to cocaine. who identified himself as "BG".[5] The blog has since been visited over 2 million times.000. Gorrell (a landscape designer) published his blog on 4 March 2008.com. is three years.600 visits a day and each lasting an average of 52 minutes. totaling to US$70. and would erase the blog from the Internet once the debt is paid. He soon realized that the [8] [11] money was used to pay Montano's own debt and that the companies were non-existent.[3] He stated that the blog was put up when he was told by Philippine lawyers that the soonest Gorrell could recover the money. cover-up. when an informant. has also accused Montano's well-to-do friends. It has since become a hot gossip topic in Manila's society.[1] The blogger then posted entries involving the "Gucci Gang"—consisting of prominent young Manila socialites who are close to Montano including scions of political families and media personalities—accusing them of infidelity. but was later dismissed. and raised questions about the extent of freedom of speech in blogging. using Blogger. The informer added that he ended the relationship because he found out that Montano cheated on him. Gorrell then narrated that he confronted Montano about the money at a hotel room in Makati.[6] [13] Among those mentioned in the blog include lifestyle columnist and socialite Celine Lopez. who is described as the "Paris Hilton of Asia". freedom of speech.000.com on 8 February 2008.000.000 that was supposed to be as an investment for a Portuguese restaurant.[5] [6] It has also tested Philippine and Australian online libel laws.000 e-mails since the blog opened.[1] [2] [3] Gorrell's blog. Gorrell wrote that he has received over 3. which resulted in a public altercation. apart from hundreds of comments. and crassness.Gucci Gang controversy 119 Gucci Gang controversy The Gucci Gang controversy is a series of events that involved an Australian blogger Brian Gorrell who published his accusation against his former boyfriend—identified as DJ Montano—of swindling him of money totaling US$70. and has raised issues on the extent of libel. amounting to 36.[3] . the blog has received 270.000 visits.[4] The blog has since become a major gossip topic in Philippines' capital city Manila. He claimed that he had been sending money to Montano as a "silent investment" for a restaurant called Bonza in Makati City as well as a tour booking company in Boracay.

[3] Gorell's blog shut-down and reopening Gorrell closed his blog on 12 March 2008. He insisted that he has not been paid. Lopez's lawyer sent a letter to Gorrell. kept his first post published. the blogger stated in his site that officials from the Philippine consulate in Sydney and Australian Federal Police took away his computer and questioned him. (she) does not have the capacity to assist (him) as she was not privy to the transaction which only (him) and Montano can properly resolve". whether in the [18] Philippines or Australia. Montano's representative claimed that Gorrell does not have a legal case because the blogger has yet to sue Montano. saying that "the thought of spending years within the Philippine court system is not even an option for (him)".Gucci Gang controversy 120 Legal action Gorrell claimed that the Gucci Gang chose to attack him instead of paying the debt. He added that it was one of ten such documents in his possession. On 11 March 2008. citing conflict of interest. the blog re-opened a day later with a series of new posts. The local entertainment media first got hold of the blog on 11 March 2008. but provided keywords for googling) "made Gossip Girl looked like a Disney musical". Suggestions of a movie version was raised from comments in the blog.[17] He added that the blog "became bigger than (him)". in Korina Today on ABS-CBN News Channel. Gorrell published in his blog a receipt from Western Union money transfer as proof that he was sending money to Montano. and entertainment columnist Jobert Sucaldito included in the cast. but it was "a matter of principle" not to.[5] He wrote that he challenged the officials to check the blog's contents for accuracy.[5] On 17 March 2008. The letter also pointed out that Lopez and her friend Marco Antonio have been persistent in asking Montano to pay back the debt. with the likes of character actress Bella Flores. while Lopez's lawyer could not file a lawsuit against Gorrell because he is in another country. small-sized celebrity Mahal. however.[12] Meanwhile. after several readers commented on the site telling him to stop the "verbal violence" especially those who were not involved. It was also talked about during the final-episode taping of MariMar Philippine remake. and has also gotten people in local showbiz industry hooked. critics claimed that the series of events could be a .[5] He has also contacted the entertainment section staff of Philippine Daily Inquirer. saying "no comment" and that he would only issue an official statement if Gorrell filed a case "in the proper forum". but questioned who would dare invest in such production. The newspaper wrote that the blog (unnamed at that time.[12] Montano speaks out Montano and his family explained their side of the controversy to broadcaster Korina Sanchez on 11 April 2008. while TV host and comedian Ogie Diaz would portray the Montano's role. The socialite denied all of Gorrell's claims. Gossip and discussion topic The blog and the people mentioned in it have become a major topic of gossip in Manila. adding that he has been pressured by strangers to "pay up". which first published an article about the blog. stating that he has consulted three lawyers in Manila and all of them declined to take the case. Gorrell also greeted the Gucci Gang to have fun at their "anti-Brian blog" party that same night. although the "Comments" section remained disabled. but the latter would only provide "vague answers and a series of denials". They are determined to file a libel case against Gorrell. when Philippine Daily Inquirer published an article about it.[14] Montano and his family are exploring possible legal actions against Gorrell. Montano's parents said in the interview that they can pay the money if they have to.[12] [15] Gorrell said in an interview that he was not inclined to do so as of the moment.[16] Both lawyers of Montano and Lopez demanded that the blog be shut down. Meanwhile. He also stated that he does not consider taking the case to the Philippines.[4] Diaz was delighted of the suggestion. but no other legal actions has been done.[4] However.[19] Talks reaching at its peak when the blog abruptly closed. which states that "(she) is no longer in communication with Montano and in as much as she wants to help (him) with (his) problem with the latter.[5] The blogger.

handled the story appropriately. She also added that "these ills that Brian (revealed).[21] Hong Kong-based Filipino socialite and author Kitty Go sided on Gorrell.Gucci Gang controversy gimmick to promote one of the Gucci Gang's nightclubs."[22] Some experts on media and journalism. which the program's panelists say as both "tedious" and "expensive.[15] Meanwhile.[9] . This means that a simple mention of a name in a "malicious" article. questioned the extent of freedom of speech applied in blogging. who has been mentioned in the blog."[25] Meanwhile. resident psychologist of the Pinoy Big Brother series. meanwhile. herself a victim of a blog attack in 2007. Laws of both countries differ on what statement can be defined as libelous." explaining that although some of the characters in Gorrell's blog are famous. Disini further added that those characters were treated unfairly in the blog. a program in ABS-CBN News Channel on 27 March 2008. Law experts in the program were unanimous in their conclusion that Gorrell should go back to the Philippines and file charges against Montano. lifestyle columnist Malu Fernandez. the local show biz people are experiencing "scandal fatigue" within their own industry and that they "secretly aspire to become part of high society.[7] University of the Philippines law professor JJ Disini commented during Media in Focus that the statements posted in the blog are "libelous. a person may be accused of libel in any place reached by the publication where the alleged libel appeared. no matter how true it is. as he has "no intention of spending the next three years of (his) life battling a liar or thief in your court system in Manila. However. She wrote that journalists like her do not hide behind an anonymous name. Randy Dellosa. While Australian libel laws give greater weight to the veracity of the statements. and media responsibility particularly on how modern platforms and technological innovations have changed the landscape of journalism. contend that Gorrell's blog was not fit to print in the news pages of newspapers and that it had raised issues in lifestyle journalism in the Philippines. However. indirectly responded to the gossip on his weekly Philippine Star column. that there is "something not right in a setup where wealth and excessive lifestyles are flaunted and regularly splashed across the pages of newspapers as if they are the most natural things in the world while the majority (of Filipinos) live below the poverty line". calling the act as "plain cowardice". saying: "Freedom of speech is one thing. its counterpart in the Philippines defines anything written with "malice afterthought" as libelous."[8] The blog has also brought out issues of race. abuse of speech is another. while lambasting those who "place vicious comments and slanderous statements in blogs yet sign their names as 'anonymous'". gender. weighed in on the Philippine entertainment industry's fascination with Gorrell's blog. Montano can file libel charges against Gorrell. and that they are being used as pawns for Gorrell to get his money back..[23] Some media professionals [24] think that the mainstream press.[20] 121 Legal and social issues The blog raised questions about the extent of Philippine and Australian libel laws. can be cited for libel in the Philippines."[20] Criticisms on freedom of speech in blogging Self-proclaimed "eventologist" Tim Yap.. nevertheless. Witnesses at the party commented on Brian's blog. has been happening since the Spanish times. which said to have held an "anti-Brian blog" party. According to Dellosa. saying that the club was a "drug den" with one of its high-profile owners as a "drug dealer". the blogger wrote in his site that he will not return to the Philippines. saying that no one should prevent him from expressing his concerns.[12] [13] Gorrell's blog was also discussed in Media in Focus." Other legal options include having Gorrell extradited or file a libel case in Australia. In the Philippines. It was the first time the issue was brought up to mainstream television. such law suffers from loopholes if the publication in question appears wherever Internet access is available. with jurisdiction being the key issue. And in turn. Bong Austero of Manila Standard Today stated that the issue has raised the need for "a more realistic appraisal of the authentic social value that these so-called 'socialites' provide". the libelous statements have nothing to do with what they are famous for. stating the blog about the Gucci Gang as an example. Other vital issues such as freedom of the press and right to privacy were also discussed in the blog's comments section. and it still happens now.

archive. [2] Gabinete. . net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080313-124523/ Brian-blogspot-the-movie). Retrieved 18 March 2008. . H6. com/ watch?v=o0edgNHc_sY).000"" (http:/ / www. Manila Standard Today. . com. [6] Cadiz. natawa sa ‘The Dingdong Dantes Sex Scandal’!" (http:/ / web. html). net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080317-125117/ Brian-steps-out-of-his-blog-). Sydney Morning Herald. "The problem with blogging. manilastandardtoday. Retrieved 16 February 2008. blogspot.. Retrieved 12 April 2008. Philippine Daily Inquirer. abante. "Reality TV. inquirer. . inquirer. Zhiyai (16 March 2008). manilastandardtoday. Victor (17 March 2008). . net/ lifestyle/ lifestyle/ view/ 20080316-124986/ And-now-a-word-from-a-jologs). ABS-CBN News Online. nagsalita na" (http:/ / www. com/ ?page=business6_mar17_2008). net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080327-126809/ Reality-TV-virtual-reality). "Online libel: Aussie blogger’s victims are helpless" (http:/ / www. aspx?StoryId=113329). . Victor (14 March 2008). Nadia (3 April 2008). inquirer. E1. "Brian blogspot. [18] Sanchez. "Australyanong ibinulgar sa blog ang panloloko umano sa kanya ng Pinoy BF" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080317142342/ http:/ / www. Gibbs (16 March 2008). ph/ issue/ mar1508/ ent_jg. com/ watch?v=b_-uKZ4gkZ8). "Red faces and lurid accusations" (http:/ / www. inquirer. html).. [5] Zhou. virtual reality" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. [21] Austero. [14] Brian Gorrell (11 March 2008). [4] Inquirer Entertainment (13 March 2008). "Part of "Dingdong. . "Aussie blog has Philippine 'Gucci gang' all in a lather" (http:/ / www.. . Retrieved 19 March 2008. Philippine Daily Inquirer. blogspot. Gigi (1 April 2008)." (http:/ / www. inquirer. . net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080313-124523/ Brian-blogspot-the-movie). TV Patrol World. net/ lifestyle/ lifestyle/ view/ 20080316-124982/ Blogs-shame-campaign-raises-legal-issues). ph/ issue/ mar1508/ ent_jg. "Grumpy old men. Mr. the movie" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. Retrieved 18 March 2008. discussion on the ethics of blogging". Jojo (15 March 2008). com/ storypage. [9] Fernandez. com. [10] ChikaTime. "Naming names: Online 'telenovela' indicts RP 'high' society" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. "And now. p. a word from a 'jologs'" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 16 March 2008. "Ex-boyfriend: "DJ Montano Owes Me $40. regardless" (http:/ / delfindjmontano. He also added that the Filipinos' "collective tolerance for dirt and sleaze has breached new levels". html). Retrieved 16 March 2008. inquirer. Retrieved 31 March 2008. inquirer. "Move over. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Malu (10 March 2008). Retrieved 12 April 2008. . Philippine Daily Inquirer. [7] Inquirer Lifestyle (16 March 2008). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. suportado ang mga pagbubunyag ni Brian Gorrell" (http:/ / www. TV Patrol World. youtube. abante. htm). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippine Daily Inquirer. inquirer. "DJ Montano: Delfin Justiniano Ocampo Montano II" (http:/ / delfindjmontano.Gucci Gang controversy Austero wrote in his column at Manila Standard Today that "the latest scandal validates the emerging power of blogging as medium of our times and consequently and necessarily opens. "Fighting the GOOD fight. "Attack of the killer blog" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. com/ 2008/ 03/ fighting-good-fight-regardless. . "Brian steps out of his blog" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. [17] Agustin. (Tagalog) . com. [13] Inquirer Entertainment (16 March 2008). p. TV Patrol World. Manila Standard Today. youtube. Bong (17 March 2008). inquirer.com. htm) on 17 March 2008. manilastandardtoday.[21] 122 External links • Brian Gorrell's blog [26] Footnotes [1] Brian Gorrell (4 March 2008). Korina (11 April 2008). manilastandardtoday. [16] Agustin. . Manila Standard Today. . [15] Inquirer Entertainment (17 March 2008). [20] San Diego. Retrieved 18 March 2008. smh. (Tagalog) [3] Hornery. Retrieved 4 March 2008. [8] Fonbuena. "Pinay socialite. . net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080311-124118/ Naming-names-Online-telenovela-indicts-RP-high-society). . Philippine Daily Inquirer. once again. au/ news/ people/ aussie-blog-has-philippine-gucci-gang-all-in-a-lather/ 2008/ 04/ 04/ 1207249452813. chikatime. . youtube. Retrieved 16 March 2008.com (8 February 2008). (Tagalog) [19] Inquirer Entertainment (11 March 2008). angry old maids" (http:/ / www. . Bayani Jr (27 March 2008). Retrieved 16 March 2008. [11] Grande.com. (Tagalog) [12] San Diego. [22] Trinidad. Blogger. Abante. "Brian blogspot: the plot thickens" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. net/ lifestyle/ lifestyle/ view/ 20080316-124981/ Attack-of-the-killer-blog). com/ watch?v=MWaXuLpOoDc). p. Retrieved 16 March 2008. "Pinoy socialite na inatake sa sikat na blog. Philippine Daily Inquirer. html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2). com/ 2008/ 02/ ex-boyfriend-dj-montano-owes-me-40000. . Andrew (5 April 2008). . Retrieved 8 April 2008. com/ ?page=bongAustero_mar17_2008).. Carmela (28 March 2008). . com/ ?page=goodLife2_mar10_2008). . Retrieved 16 March 2008. "Hell hath no fury" (http:/ / www. Philippine Daily Inquirer. com/ ?page=business5_mar14_2008). E1. . p. E2. "Blog’s shame campaign raises legal issues" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. Ripley" (http:/ / showbizandstyle. Bayani Jr (18 March 2008). net/ entertainment/ entertainment/ view/ 20080318-125556/ Move-over-Mr-Ripley). abs-cbnnews. com/ 2008/ 03/ dj-montano-delfin-justiniano-ocampo. Blogger.

While any publishers (including the haul-video creators) are allowed to accept free merchandise[1] [2] and advertising. is also closely monitoring such Internet activities. Hence. pinoypress. nearly a quarter of a million haul videos had been shared on the website YouTube alone. The posted information includes blogging and podcasting in text. net/ 2008/ 04/ 09/ why-brian-gorrell-story-is-not-fit-for-newspapers/ ) [24] PinoyPress. the owners generally report positive experiences. Brands such as J.[2] In those videos. Penney (J. after having selected which products to buy.[2] [4] [5] [6] By late 2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / supreme.C. Many young adults (mostly women)[3] have displayed their shopping hauls. Retrieved 17 March 2008. California natives to launch HaulBlog[1] . The Canadian equivalent of the FTC in Canada. as a sponsor. images. By May 2010. "You want more internet gossip?" (http:/ / web.[2] Two of the biggest American haul-video bloggers have been the sisters Elle and Blair from Tennessee. The site is also home to the original monthly web series "The Haul [1] Monitor" a humorous commentary show that features haul videos from around the community. audio and video. including product details or even the price. "Why the Philippine Press Is Too Careful in Handling Brian Gorrell Case" (http:/ / www. during 2007-2010. millions of people[2] spent time watching other people.[1] Before haul videos became an online trend. while including their beauty and design commentary in the narration. This aspect of the genre of haul videos makes sponsorship by brand advertisers particularly appealing. Tim (15 March 2008). com/ 123 Haul video A haul video is a video recording. Some have translated their YouTube fame into product deals. The United States Federal Trade Commission recently enacted laws[2] to regulate many types of online publishers and content creators. net/ 2008/ 04/ 07/ why-the-philippine-press-is-too-careful-in-handling-brian-gorrell-case/ ) [25] Yap. blogspot. ph/ 2008/ 03/ 15/ you-want-more-internet-gossip/ ) on 22 March 2008. in technical product videos. shoes. Haul videos rarely ever have anything negative to say about the products. Philippine Star SUPREME.[5] Some of the individual videos have received tens of millions of views. The videos are often grouped by store name or by type of product (cosmetics. Haul videos also have created instant celebrity for some people. postage stamps. their combined haul videos had been viewed more than 75 million times. posted to the Internet. magazine articles.[1] [2] . configuring. Penney) reached out to haulers as part of their marketing efforts for Back To School 2010. "Why Brian Gorrell Story Is Not Fit to Print" (http:/ / www.a parody site that creates fake haul videos which poke fun at the phenomenon. however the majority of haulers are unsponsored and simply motivated by the social reward of being seen as an "expert" in shopping. Both sisters became represented by a Los Angeles-based talent agent.C. unbox their latest new gadgets and technology. ph/ 2008/ 03/ 15/ you-want-more-internet-gossip/ ). archive. pinoypress.[6] Haul videos also convinced three Bay Area. The trend of "unboxing videos" had emerged during 2006.). org/ web/ 20080322005442/ http:/ / supreme. the owners would show the entire process of opening.[1] [2] [3] which displays items recently purchased. accessories. the gifts or payments must be fully (and clearly) disclosed to reveal being paid by a brand name.Gucci Gang controversy [23] Luis Teodoro.[2] The rationale for those positive reviews is that the buyers wouldn't typically purchase something unless they really wanted it. Other haul video bloggers have entered sponsorship deals and advertising programs from major brands. etc. and other media/journalism deals. to review a product. the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. and activating their latest high-tech gadgets. . The posting of haul videos (or hauls) has been a growing trend. [26] http:/ / delfindjmontano.

the owners would show the entire process of opening. web: (http:/ / blogs. etc. California natives to launch HaulBlog[1] .[1] Before haul [2] videos became an online trend.Haul Video Brings a Bag of Finds. The trend of "unboxing videos" had emerged during 2006. This aspect of the genre of haul videos makes sponsorship by brand advertisers particularly appealing. The rationale for those positive reviews is that the buyers wouldn't typically purchase something unless they really wanted it. Montrealgazette. millions of people spent time watching other people. The posting of haul videos (or hauls) has been a growing trend. Many young adults (mostly women)[3] have displayed their shopping hauls. however the majority of haulers are unsponsored and simply motivated by the social reward of being seen as an "expert" in shopping. 13 May 2010. sfgate. 17 February 2010. 15 August 2010. and other media/journalism deals.com/Business/ jc-penney-turn-youtube-haul-videos/story?id=11148577) • Girl Haul: A Haul Video Social Community (http://www. shoes. montrealgazette. configuring. nytimes. [6] "J.C. html). unbox their latest new gadgets and technology.[5] Some of the individual videos have received tens of millions of views. External links • J. DallasNews. NPR. others turn to YouTube 'haul' videos for help (http://abcnews. [3] "Skin Deep . forbes. and activating their latest high-tech gadgets. Brands such as J. com/ business/ headlines/ 20100713-J-C-Penney-uses-teens-6189. The site is also home to the original monthly web series "The Haul [2] . com/ cgi-bin/ article. and Words Only". magazine articles. html).C. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2010/ 08/ 13/ LV301EP5CT. org/ blogs/ alltechconsidered/ 2010/ 02/ haul_videosthe_ultimate_pg_gir2. web: (http:/ / www. web: SFC-1 (http:/ / www.). By May 2010. web: NPR-2 (http:/ / www. The Gazette. [5] "Names You Need To Know: 'Haul Videos'".girlhaul. after having selected which products to buy. web: NYT-06 (http:/ / www.org. Haul videos rarely ever have anything negative to say about the products. Both sisters became represented by a Los Angeles-based talent agent.Haul video 124 References [1] "Even retailers buy into celebrity of haul videos".publicradio.[2] Two of the biggest American haul-video bloggers have been the sisters Elle and Blair from Tennessee.[2] In those videos. com/ news/ Kids+ mall+ haul+ more+ than+ geeks+ baring+ gifts/ 3020625/ story.a parody site that creates fake haul videos which poke fun at the phenomenon. html).C. Penney.Forbes.com. [4] "'Haul Videos:' The Ultimate In Materialistic PG Porn? : NPR". [2] "Kids and the mall haul: it's more than geeks baring gifts".go.[6] Haul videos also convinced three Bay Area. npr.com. New York Times. dallasnews. San Francisco Chronicle.C. Penney (J.[2] [4] [5] [6] By late 2010. com/ wendytanaka/ 2010/ 12/ 15/ names-you-need-to-know-haul-video/ ). their combined haul videos had been viewed more than 75 million times. nearly a quarter of a million haul videos had been shared on the website YouTube alone.org/display/web/2010/07/13/ pm-haulvideos/) Hauls A haul video is a video recording. Mitch Joel.com. while including their beauty and design commentary in the narration. Blogs. The videos are often grouped by store name or by type of product (cosmetics.com) • Brands and stores want haul videos (http://marketplace. the owners generally report positive experiences. postage stamps. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ fashion/ 06skin.com. Penney uses teens' videos as back-to-school shopping promos". Haul videos also have created instant celebrity for some people. posted to the Internet. accessories. NYtimes. DTL). Some have translated their YouTube fame into product deals. Hence. SFGate.[1] [2] [3] which displays items recently purchased.com. 15 December 2010. ece/ ). during 2007-2010. in technical product videos. including product details or even the price. 14 July 2010. Other haul video bloggers have entered sponsorship deals and advertising programs from major brands. Penney) reached out to haulers as part of their marketing efforts for Back To School 2010. 6 May 2010. web: MG5 (http:/ / www.

web: MG5 (http:/ / www. While any publishers (including the haul-video creators) are allowed to accept free merchandise[1] [2] and advertising.org.com/Business/ jc-penney-turn-youtube-haul-videos/story?id=11148577) • Girl Haul: A Haul Video Social Community (http://www.org/display/web/2010/07/13/ pm-haulvideos/) . the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. [5] "Names You Need To Know: 'Haul Videos'". and Words Only". the gifts or payments must be fully (and clearly) disclosed to reveal being paid by a brand name. com/ cgi-bin/ article. [3] "Skin Deep . New York Times. web: (http:/ / www. 14 July 2010.com. web: SFC-1 (http:/ / www. 15 December 2010. dallasnews. montrealgazette. The Canadian equivalent of the FTC in Canada. web: NPR-2 (http:/ / www.C. html). 17 February 2010. Penney uses teens' videos as back-to-school shopping promos". Montrealgazette.Forbes. forbes. [2] "Kids and the mall haul: it's more than geeks baring gifts".publicradio. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ fashion/ 06skin. com/ wendytanaka/ 2010/ 12/ 15/ names-you-need-to-know-haul-video/ ). 6 May 2010. others turn to YouTube 'haul' videos for help (http://abcnews. Mitch Joel. The Gazette.Haul Video Brings a Bag of Finds.go. sfgate. NPR.C. Blogs. html). is also closely monitoring such Internet activities. San Francisco Chronicle.com.com.com. web: (http:/ / blogs.[1] [2] 125 References [1] "Even retailers buy into celebrity of haul videos". org/ blogs/ alltechconsidered/ 2010/ 02/ haul_videosthe_ultimate_pg_gir2. as a sponsor. External links • J. com/ news/ Kids+ mall+ haul+ more+ than+ geeks+ baring+ gifts/ 3020625/ story. [6] "J. 15 August 2010. web: NYT-06 (http:/ / www. DallasNews. SFGate. NYtimes. images. [4] "'Haul Videos:' The Ultimate In Materialistic PG Porn? : NPR".girlhaul.com.Hauls Monitor"[1] a humorous commentary show that features haul videos from around the community. npr. 13 May 2010. html). audio and video. Penney. ece/ ). The United States Federal Trade Commission recently enacted laws[2] to regulate many types of online publishers and content creators. nytimes.com) • Brands and stores want haul videos (http://marketplace. com/ business/ headlines/ 20100713-J-C-Penney-uses-teens-6189. DTL). cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2010/ 08/ 13/ LV301EP5CT. The posted information includes blogging and podcasting in text. to review a product.

Because of the difficulties involved in typing Hindi script. the number of Hindi blogs increased rapidly and blogs focused on various topics like cinema. Various community services • • • • BlogPrahari [2] . During 2007. Hindi Blogosphere History Types of blogs During the beginning days. HindiBlogs. and there were few topic focused blogs. most Hindi blogs were personal. In 2007. His blog नौ दौ ग्यारह [1] (9-2-11) was the first known Hindi blog. due to the availability of Hindi typing tools. His effort to present a one stop center ब्लॉगप्रहरी [2] is the first Hindi Blogger Network. blogspot. science. com http:/ / blogprahari. org http:/ / chitthacharcha.Filter blog of Hindi blogs References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / 9211. com http:/ / hindiblogs. blogspot. India's first BlogJagat. the number of Hindi blogs increased rapidly. He coined the term Chittha (Hindi:चिट्ठा) for blog which was quickly adopted by other bloggers and later became the standard Hindi term for it. Founder of BLOG (Bhartiya Lekhak Online Group) is known as the first Hindi blogger to propound the idea of ethical blogging and present the directive principles of new media.Hindi blogs directory.Hindi blogs directory Chittha-Charcha [5] . but later on. This was due to the advent of Indic Unicode support in various blogging services.COM [3] . very few people used it online.Org [4] . hobbies. the number of Hindi bloggers began growing. com/ . He coined the term BRP Blog Rating Point which is now the standard to judge the quality of a blog content. photoblogs began. and the advent of new Hindi typing tools like Google Indic Transliteration tool in Blogger and the promotion of Hindi blogging in the mainstream media. enlisted state-wise.Pioneer Hindi blogs aggregator. technology. com http:/ / blogjagat. Kanishka Kashyap. Alok Kumar is known as the first Hindi blogger.Hindi Blogosphere 126 Hindi Blogosphere (Hindi:हिन्दी चिट्ठाजगत) is a term used to describe the online community of Hindi weblogs that are a part of the larger Indian Blogosphere.

including both corporate sites and personal homepages. Blogger or LiveJournal. Most such writers called themselves diarists. who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme. 1983–1990 (Pre-HTTP) Usenet was the primary serial medium included in the original definition of the Internet. commercial online services such as GEnie. Steve Gibson was hired to blog full-time by Ritual Entertainment on February 8. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance. Regularly. Before "blogging" became popular. named mod. Some of the very earliest bloggers. The Open Pages webring included members of the online-journal community. was created. the history of blogging starts with several digital precursors to it. or journalers.ber. Justin Hall. such as WordPress. The short form. and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994. 1994–2001 The modern blog evolved from the online diary. created running conversations with "threads". like Steve Gibson of sCary's Quakeholio (now Shacknews [3]) and Stephen Heaslip of Blue's News [4] (still running since 1995 with online archives [5] back to July 1996). One noteworthy early precursor to a blog was the tongue-in-cheek personal website that was frequently updated by Usenet legend Kibo. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger[7] on 17 December 1997. A few called themselves "escribitionists".History of blogging 127 History of blogging While the term "blog" was not coined until the late 1990s. who began eleven years of personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College. possibly making him the first hired blogger. this resulted in the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today. where people would keep a running account of their personal lives. A notable example was game programmer John Carmack's widely read journal. population. "blog. evolved from the Quake scene and Carmack's . e-mail lists[1] and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS).[8] [9] [10] Shortly thereafter. often on the index page and sorted by date. an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text. or they can be run using blog software. Other forms of journals kept online also existed. Another is the Institute for Public Accuracy which began posting news releases featuring several news-pegged one-paragraph quotes several times a week beginning in 1998. the evolution of tools to facilitate the production and maintenance of web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a much larger. one exception. One example of a news based "weblog" is the Drudge Report founded by the self-styled maverick reporter Matt Drudge. It featured the Moderated Newsgroup which allowed all posting in a newsgroup to be under the control of an individual or small group. Ultimately." was coined by Peter Merholz. 1997 [6] . BiX and the early CompuServe. is generally recognized as one of the earliest bloggers. Redman and a few associates posted summaries of interesting postings and threads taking place elsewhere on the net. Blogs can be hosted by dedicated blog hosting services.com in April or May 1999. Movable Type. Most such newsgroups were simply moderated discussion forums. Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb ("to . Internet forum software.[2] as is Jerry Pournelle. Threads are topical connections between messages on a metaphorical "corkboard". published via the finger protocol. Some have likened blogging to the Mass-Observation project of the mid-20th century. For instance. had and still often have "What's New" or "News" sections. however. the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging". such as WebEx.plan updates. named after and managed by an individual: Brian E. less technical. video. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam. in 1983-84. Redman. However. or on regular web hosting services. Early weblogs were simply manually updated components of common websites. Websites. including Usenet. In the 1990s. though apparently Drudge dislikes this classification. journalists. and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters. digital communities took many forms.

Established schools of journalism began researching blogging and noting the differences between journalism and blogging." meaning "to edit one's weblog or to post to one's weblog") and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product. especially in the wake of the September 11 attacks. soon growing to thousands of online diaries. More often. The Iraq war saw bloggers taking measured and passionate points of view that go beyond the traditional left-right divide of the political spectrum. The impact of this story gave greater credibility to blogs as a medium of news dissemination. and Jerome Armstrong's MyDD. Though often seen as partisan gossips. bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light.History of blogging blog. and Mickey Kaus' Kausfiles. launched in 1999). a well known blogger started LiveJournal in March 1999. becoming the first blog community where readers could add comments to other writers' blog entries. This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. Blog usage spread during 1999 and the years following. blogs have gained increasing notice and coverage for their role in breaking.) . • Brad Fitzpatrick. blogrolls and TrackBacks. Lott's critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of racial segregation. shaping. This. Senator Strom Thurmond.[11] After a slow start. Also in 2002. Open Diary innovated the reader comment.) Meanwhile. praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the United States would have been better off had Thurmond been elected president. Charles Johnson's Little Green Footballs. blogging rapidly gained in popularity. leading to the popularization of the terms. By 2001. an increasing number of experts blogged. no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story.com in July 1999 as an easier alternative to maintaining a "news page" on a website.) Though Lott's comments were made at a public event attended by the media. being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the first hosted blog tools: • Open Diary launched in October 1998.com — now entitled "The Daily Dish" — launched in October 2000 and gained readership during 2001. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott. 128 2001–2004 Several broadly popular American political blogs emerged in 2001: Ron Gunzburger's Politics1 [13]. focusing more on a personal diary community. together with weblog search engines enabled bloggers to track the threads that connected them to others with similar interests. (See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark. Taegan Goddard's Political Wire.[14] (Two earlier popular American political blogs were Bob Somerby's Daily Howler. (See Daniel Drezner and J. Blogging helped to create a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as majority leader. Glenn Reynolds' Instapundit.com in August 1999 (purchased by Google in February 2003) Blogging combined the personal web page with tools to make linking to other pages easier — specifically permalinks. • Andrew Smales created Pitas. making blogs a source of in-depth analysis. Bradford DeLong. news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. (See Josh Marshall's Talking Points Memo.[12] • Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs) launched blogger. blogging was enough of a phenomenon that how-to manuals began to appear. The importance of the blogging community (and its relationship to larger society) increased rapidly. Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to express opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs' role as a news source. launched in 1998. however. followed by Diaryland in September 1999. Senator Lott.S.S. at a party honoring U. Since 2002. primarily focusing on technique. a policy advocated by Thurmond's 1948 presidential campaign. with mainstream media having to follow their lead. Andrew Sullivan's AndrewSullivan. and spinning news stories. many blogs focused on comments by U.

In the summer of 2004. Markos Moulitsas Zúniga (Daily Kos). The following bloggers (and others) have appeared on radio and television: Duncan Black (known widely by his pseudonym. Atrios). Many bloggers view this scandal as the advent of blogs' acceptance by the mass media. following other news companies. Robert Scoble. Earvolution. In the United Kingdom. Minnesota Public Radio broadcast a program by Christopher Lydon and Matt Stoller called "The blogging of the President. In counter-point. Xeni Jardin. bringing to light bloggers from around the world. BBC News launched a weblog for its editors.S. Also in June 2006. Global Voices Online. Jonathan Schwartz. the site has a relationship with Reuters and is responsible for breaking many global news stories." which covered a transformation in politics that blogging seemed to presage. Anthologies of blog pieces reached print.") Real-time commentary is sometimes referred to as "liveblogging. including the Interdictor and Gulfsails were able to maintain power and an Internet connection and disseminate information that was not covered by the Main Stream Media. . Music blog publisher Jeff Davidson. Jason Goldman. which included a daily digest of blogs on page 2.History of blogging Blogging was used to draw attention to obscure news sources. Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass media personality who has moved in the other direction. The Guardian newspaper launched a redesign in September 2005. Blogs were among the driving forces behind the "Rathergate" scandal. Alex Steffen (Worldchanging) and Ana Marie Cox (Wonkette). Today. and blogs became a standard part of the publicity arsenal. Similarly.com. The Columbia Journalism Review began regular coverage of blogs and blogging. Ben Trott.[16] In January 2005. bloggers posted links to traffic cameras in Madrid as a huge anti-terrorism demonstration filled the streets in the wake of the March 11 attacks. began to blog to bond with constituents. creating a secondary meaning of the word "blogging": to simultaneously transcribe and editorialize speeches and events shown on television. Even politicians not actively campaigning. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary declared "blog" as the word of the year in 2004. to wit: (television journalist) Dan Rather presented documents (on the CBS show 60 Minutes) that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush's military service record. adding to his reach in "old media" by being an influential blogger. formed their own blogs. (For example.[15] In 2004. as political consultants. such as Chris Matthews' Hardball. and CBS apologized for what it said were inadequate reporting techniques (see Little Green Footballs)." 129 2004–present In 2004. Mainstream television programs. news services and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming. the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream. both United States Democratic and Republican Parties' conventions credentialed bloggers. now produces Sun Studio Sessions airing on PBS stations across the U. such as the UK's Labour Party's MP Tom Watson. For example. and blogging personalities began appearing on radio and television. Bloggers began to provide nearly-instant commentary on televised events. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. In 2007. a site which "aggregates. Tim O'Reilly proposed a Blogger's Code of Conduct. and amplifies the global conversation online – shining light on places and people other media often ignore" surfaced. Glenn Reynolds (Instapundit). Some blogs were an important news source during the December 2004 Tsunami such as Médecins Sans Frontières. "I am blogging Rice's testimony" means "I am posting my reactions to Condoleezza Rice's testimony into my blog as I watch her on television. Fortune magazine listed eight bloggers that business people "could not ignore": Peter Rojas. Some bloggers have moved over to other media. curates. Mena Trott. which used SMS text messaging to report from affected areas in Sri Lanka and Southern India. both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure. and Jason Calacanis. during Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 and the aftermath a few blogs which were located in New Orleans.

php). org/ cgi-bin/ wa?A2=ind0804C& L=ADS-L& P=R16795& I=-3). com/ index. [7] "After 10 Years of Blogs. Wikinews. Jason (August 26. Retrieved 2006-06-22. BBC News. Dawn (2006-06-26). the Future's Brighter Than Ever" (http:/ / www. 2004-12-01. . [12] Jensen. drupal. retrieved 2007-02-20 "Research staff and students welcome ‘E-Log’" (http:/ / www. University College London. . Retrieved 2009-07-02. stm). kottke.. html). 2003). wikinews. cgi?file=/ c/ a/ 2005/ 02/ 20/ MNGBKBEJO01. ucl. . com/ entertainment/ theweb/ news/ 2007/ 12/ blog_anniversary). com [14] Sullivan. sfgate. 20. [2] Harmanci. "A Blogger's Manifesto" (http:/ / sullivanarchives. [8] "It's the links. Retrieved 2006-07-21. "kottke. [3] http:/ / www. com/ content. drupal. [15] Wikinews "blog declared Word of the Year" (http:/ / en. ac. DTL). html) on 2007-06-07. com/ surveys/ displaystory. . . html). Ritual Entertainment. org/ archives/ development/ 2005-07/ msg00208. wired. Peter (1999). Wikinews. Reyhan (2005-02-20). archive. shacknews. [9] Merholz.Norman. . . ritualistic. Retrieved 2006-06-09. org/ web/ 19991013021124/ http:/ / peterme. Retrieved 2006-06-26. Andrew (2002-02-24). The Internet Archive. html) on 1999-10-13.org" (http:/ / www. archived from the original (http:/ / lists. theatlantic. "Peterme. bluesnews. so here's another" (http:/ / news. archive. org/ 03/ 08/ its-weblog-not-web-log). com/ archives/ [6] "Giggling About sCary Times for Ritual!" (http:/ / www. December 2003. [11] Origins of "Blog" and "Blogger" (http:/ / listserv. org/ issues/ 2003/ 5/ blog-jensen. Retrieved 2007-02-20. politics1. Retrieved 2006-07-21. American Dialect Society Mailing List (Apr. php/ articles/ press/ 970208. shtml?03120901). . uk/ news-archive/ archive/ 2003/ december-2003/ latest/ newsitem. linguistlist. cfm?story_id=6794172). co. 2008). com/ [5] http:/ / www. org/ archives/ development/ 2005-07/ msg00208. com/ culture. bluesnews. asp?printerfriendly=yes) [13] http:/ / www. bbc. org/ wiki/ Blog_declared_Word_of_the_Year). .com" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2007-12-18. . 2006-04-20. Archived from the original (http:/ / peterme. "Down with blogs. org/ web/ 20070607235110/ http:/ / lists. David (2005-07-13). Retrieved 2006-07-21. 1997-02-08. com/ [4] http:/ / www. php). com/ index. uk/ 1/ hi/ magazine/ 5116654. economist. Andrewsullivan. [10] Kottke. stupid" (http:/ / www. .. Users confused by blogs (http:/ / web. com/ cgi-bin/ article. The Economist. San Francisco Chronicle. Mallory A Brief History of Weblogs (http:/ / cjrarchives.History of blogging 130 References [1] The term "e-log" has been used to describe journal entries sent out via e-mail since as early as March 1996. "Time to get a life — pioneer blogger Justin Hall bows out at 31" (http:/ / www. [16] Wilson.com archives.

Later on. Indic language typing tools Although the standard keyboard of Indian languages is InScript yet Phonetic transliteration based typing became most popular for unicode Indic typing in spite of its drawbacks. Hindi blogging was started by Alok Kumar. WordPress being supporting Indic Unicode. In addition to this. Indic language typing tool Google Indic Transliteration was also integrated in it. with the advent of Google Indic Transliteration tool in its blogging service Blogger. blogs in Indian languages started to be written. number of Indian blogs started growing rapidly. History With the advent of unicode when typing in Indian languages on computer became possible. The two most popular phonetic typing tools of old times are Indic IME and BarahaIME. In 2007. it became the tool of choice for new bloggers because it is based on dictionary and does not need a learning curve. no need of separate Indic typing tool was left. In 2007. It is due to the fact that it supports Indic Unicode and has rich features. . Initially due to non-availability of Indic typing tools or due to non-awareness of such tools Indian blogosphere was small.Indian Blogosphere 131 Indian Blogosphere Indian Blogosphere (or IndiBlogosphere) is used to describe the online predominantly community of Indian weblogs that is part of the larger blogosphere. Blog platform Although Indian blogs are being written on various platforms yet Google's Blogger is most popular among Indian bloggers. is most popular among those who host their blog on their own domain. due to spread of awareness in this regard and due to development and availability of Indic typing tools.

Faculty. Additionally. Sabnis stated that IBM did not pressure him to remove the blogpost. However. The article was written by Arjun Ravi and edited by Rashmi Bansal. (Also reported in News Today (Chennai). The event caused uproar in the Indian Blogging Community who supported Sabnis and Bansal. job placements. This action generated spontaneous support for Sabnis from bloggers. Three months later.[6] The JAM article called IIPM's print advertisements "tall claims"—IIPM's rankings were questioned as being from 2003. and wrote that many of the claims made by IIPM are questionable. world class education. an article titled "IIPM: The Truth about IIPM Tall Claims" was printed in JAM which challenged the advertising statements made by IIPM.[6] Gaurav Sabnis.Sandeep as saying that he had no idea of any legal notices[9] BusinessWorld. conducted an independent verification [10] of the claims made by IIPM in its print advertisements. and reported that many of these companies have never hired from the IIPM campus or branches. contradicting the information provided by its Dean. linked that article.[4] [5] In 2005.[1] The controversy started in October 2005. Arindam Chaudhuri to the Times News Network. and visiting professors.[7] and an Indian Institute of Management Lucknow alumnus. Sandeep was indeed planning to "take legal action against the blogger for defamation". placement records being better than IIMs. other studies by Careers 360 Magazine (2009). posted this article in his blog with a link to the article on the JAM website. IIPM's fees were so high that the "FREE" in their ads made little sense. on 13 October 2005 Indian Express reported A. IIPM threatened to sue Sabnis for libel if the postings were not removed from his blog. UGC or under other state acts. Hindustan Times reported that[8] "All India Dean" A.[11] ) The statements of IIPM related to "salaries. but he decided to quit his job as he did not want IBM to suffer bad publicity through his actions. IBM. Sabnis refused to remove his postings. an employee of IBM who published Vantage Point. IIPM became the highest ranked search term on Technorati. Officials at IIPM read the post on Sabnis's blog and threatened to burn IBM laptops and Sabnis was forced to quit his job. JAM spoke to various companies featured in the IIPM website's Placements section. an IIM . On 11 October 2005. a business magazine in India. Sequence of Events Ahmedabad alumni and editor of a Mumbai-based monthly published JAM.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy 132 Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy The Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy involves media investigations of statements in IIPM print advertisements related to salaries. MBA Channel (2009)[2] argued that IIPM's claims in the ads were unjustified. IBM is yet to confirm this threat. quality of education. Gaurav Sabnis. IIPM's Mumbai and Delhi campuses were just buildings with no landscaping or swimming pools as claimed. According to the article. when an article taking an in-depth look at the statements by IIPM in the press advertisements was published in JAM Magazine.[1] Later. an Indian blogger. It is one of the first blogging controversy in India. Later another blogger. the JAM article wrote that IIPM has not been accredited by any Indian accreditation agency such as AICTE. professors from foreign universities"[3] in its print advertisement was initially challenged by Rashmi Bansal. On 12 October 2005. and allegedly threatened to publicly burn the IBM Laptop Computers they had purchased from IBM unless the posts were removed. and further stated that IIPM contacted his employer. degree and placement information on the advertisements were questioned. Many Indian bloggers stood by Bansal and Sabnis arguing that it is a litmus test for freedom of speech in India.[6] JAM further stated that all IIPM students do not get placed by IIPM.

Bangalore. Ahmedabad.[10] No verifiable data was found by Businessworld on any research conducted by IIPM faculty.[6] IIPM has stated that New Delhi is the only campus. Chennai. Oxford. Stanford et al. • IIPM's branches in Mumbai. • Placements: Placement information on the IIPM advertisements and web site mention that a number of companies have recruited its students. • Non-Indian MBA Degree: IIPM does not offer any degrees in India. • Not Accredited: IIPM is not accredited[13] with the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). 5. and has published two caution notices in 2005 warning students about such withdrawal. Critics say this makes the laptops anything but free. we are withdrawing all the rankings given to IIPM forthwith. Detractors state that such infrastructure is only available in its New Delhi Campus.[15] • Rankings: IIPM used the 2003 Outlook C-Fore B-School survey where the IIPM Delhi campus was ranked in the top 10. but Outlook has withdrawn these rankings. which has not been granted. The cost of the courses. The MBA degree is conferred by IMI.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy 133 Controversial elements in IIPM Advertisements Critics such as JAM have challenged a number of elements in IIPM print advertisements: • Infrastructure: IIPM states in its print advertisements and on its web site [12] that its campuses have infrastructure like swimming facilities and 1000 seat auditoriums.[10] but the IIPM web page on infrastructure [12] refers to all branches as campuses. Pune and Hyderabad do not have swimming pools.[10] • Faculty: Most of the faculty is IIPM alumni.[14] • Right to Name': The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) said that IIPM does not have the right to use the words "Indian Institute" in its name without central government approval. is one of the highest in India. they just collect students at an auditorium and give a one-time lecture. . Columbia. Instead of picking a subject and teaching it over some weeks. or 1000 seat auditoriums.Harvard.[16] [17] On the outlook site [18] (requires free registration) Outlook says: Indian Institute of Planning and Management (IIPM) doesn't disclose facts truly and correctly.26 Lakh for the MBA course and Rs. . JAM magazine and other critics[6] say they have spoken to the companies mentioned. Belgium. but in its print advertisements this is mentioned in very small print.do not actually 'teach' at IIPM. Wharton. and the average age is 27. Cambridge. as is the practice at the Indian School of Business. • Taught by world class faculty: From the Businessworld article[10] : Faculty from the names that IIPM advertises so heavily . AICTE says that it is illegal for IIPM to offer foreign degrees without AICTE approval. • Outlook states that[19] : IIPM doesn’t figure in any of the Outlook – C Fore Business School rankings for the year 2004. at Rs.85 Lakh for the BBA. and these companies have either denied going to the IIPM campus or branches or having recruited anyone from IIPM before they finished the IIPM course. Under notice to them. 8. the rest are branches. • Free Laptops: IIPM offers free laptops to students.

its infrastructure including classrooms. It also claimed that IIPM was advertising its free laptops and Wi-Fi before they actually started providing them to students.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy 134 Coverage in the Indian Media IIPM's official response[20] to the controversy was to state that the controversy was motivated by jealousy of IIPM on the part of IIM alumni and professors. About Gaurav Sabnis. Detractors have noted non-existent infrastructure and misrepresentation in promotional messages.[23] Infrastructure IIPM states that its infrastructure is cutting edge.[21] Businessworld came out with an article in its 31 October 2005 issue titled "When the Chickens come home". in the general interest of our existing students.[20] using the controversy to wonder: "The war has raised a flurry of questions — are blogs personal diaries in the public domain or can they be legislated?". But beyond a point. suffer from so much inferiority complex from IIPM that. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) said that IIPM does not have the right to use the words "Indian Institute" in its name without central government approval. it investigated the claims made by IIPM in its advertisements. teaching aids.) Outlook Magazine's October 31. or ex-IIM students like Rashmi or Gaurav and all the other IIM students on the net and other media).com (a Hindustan Times and Wall Street Journal joint venture) gives a mention to the JAM and IIPM issue. [22] 2. 2005 edition carried an article called "Bite in The Blog Bark". According to IIPM. as a policy decision we have decided that we will take legal action against any form of media trying to spread baseless lies and rumours about us with malicious intent. They did what they must have deemed fit after their internal examinations and procedures. several journalists published stories Sruthijit KK's large piece in Mumbai daily DNA being the first. It also pointed out that the fees paid by students is very high by Indian standards and . Therefore. The Indian University Grants Commission (UGC) was unhappy with IIPM for claiming to award Bachelors and Masters degrees which only UGC . though she did not write this particular article.[10] In addition to reporting on the controversy. IIPM cannot allow this kind of shallow rumour mongering to go on and had to take an action.[15] In June 2008. they stoop down so low as to write relentless lies about us and spread baseless rumours about IIPM. S. we approached IBM and asked them to take proper action against someone spreading baseless lies against a reputed institution. all we have to add is that yes." Following this statement being made public on certain blogs and mailing-lists. According to the institute. It issued the following statement: "We are stunned as to how the people from IIMs. Many of these criticisms relate to the infrastructure in centres other than its New Delhi campus. A Jam Magazine investigation[6] claimed that contrary to the impressions put out by IIPM's advertisements.affiliated institutions have the right to confer. The channel subsequently carried two exclusive news reports: 1. libraries. IIPM always believed in intellectual debating and not in false allegations with defamatory ulterior motives. given the first opportunity to pen something (be it the so-called IIM L professor Amit Kapoor.Mitra Kalita in an op-ed column in livemint. the institute's Mumbai centre is only a four storey building (which IIPM refers to as "tower" in its advertisements) with a parking lot. students learn the very latest in management techniques using the very best in equipment and teaching. our law firms will decide on how best to proceed and bring such liars to justice. CNBC TV18 carried a story on The Tech Show highlighting "Indian Blog Wars" which included an interview with Rashmi Bansal. electronic libraries. (Rashmi Bansal is mentioned in that article as a contributing editor of Businessworld. and leisure equipment like gymnasiums and swimming pools measure up to world class standards. For the rest. It found IIPM less than forthcoming with information. IT equipment like Wi-fi and laptops. who are the most pampered people of India.

infrastructure. 2004.[16] stating that it had "received serious complaints about the veracity of information given by them". . It doesn't even have hostel facilities for first year students who are accommodated as paying guests. placement salaries commanded. faculty. According to The Economic Times. 2. it mentions that the institute believes that it is #1 in India in terms of course content. 5 crore (Rs. 2005. It increases the frequency of advertising in the May to July period when universities begin admissions for their academic programs. Some advertisements also include an essay by Arindam Chaudhuri or Dr.. are available only in its New Delhi campus and not in its other branches though students at all centres pay the same fees.Respondents were asked to rank 30 shortlisted B-schools on eight parameters .[26] It usually runs full-page advertisements.The Outlook C-Fore B-School survey[24] had ranked IIPM's Delhi campus in the top 10 among several parameters in 2003. making it the largest advertiser in the print media for that month. C-Fore issued a clarification removing IIPM from its survey. "I don't know about the swimming pools and 1000 capacity auditorium. global .Friend of first year student of IIPM (Batch 2008) 135 Position in Indian B-School Rankings . Based on the scores on different parameters. 3 crore (30 million). Advertising strategy IIPM is one of the largest spenders on advertising in India.. the model calculates the Brand Equity Index (BEI) for each school.85 lakh for its BBA +MBA integrated course. IIPM's advertisements never make it clear that many of the facilities advertised.[25] It buys full-page print ads in The Times of India as well as the Hindustan Times. quality of course contents and quality of students. Rankings: Mentions IIPM's rankings on various parameters of various B-school ranking surveys. Malay Chaudhuri on economic or social topics. All I know is that my friend who just got into IIPM Bangalore is regreting about joining it. like swimming pools and gymnasiums.. teaching methodology and specialisation and admission eligibility.[17] IIPM continued to advertise rankings even after C-Fore had removed it from its survey. What's worse the food comes in tiffin carriers with terrible culiniaries. Large amounts of detailed text: IIPM advertisements typically include a large amount of text and many tables. In May 2005. Businessworld confired that. IIPM charges its students Rs 5. the institute had an ad spend of Rs."[10] The Businessworld article [10] pointed out the discrepancy between IIPM's use of the words "campus" and "branch". These essays have covered topics such as the existence of an 'MBA Mafia'. quality of placement.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy cover the price for the laptops many times over.Business Today-ACNielsen ORG-Marg's 2004 listing of India's top 30 B-schools (Source: Business Today.26 lakh for its MBA course and Rs 8. pg 96) ranked IIPM Mumbai at 23rd and IIPM Delhi the 30th. making it one of the most expensive management courses in the country.The Business Barons B-School Study 2004 (Source: BUSINESS BARONS. January 31. The Telegraph and The Hindu.Outlook Magazine has twice published caution notices in 2005 informing students and all related parties about the withdrawal of the rankings. . Link (requires free registration) [18] . Outlook also stated that they have also "come across instances. pg 65) ranked the Indian Institute of Planning & Management (IIPM) 8th overall in India. These advertisements are notable for: 1. After complaints made by IIPM students and alumni. corruption among politicians." . See this link [27]. depth of industry interface. Five parameters were used for the qualitative rankings . October 10. the institute was the seventh highest print advertiser for the month of September 2005 spending Rs. The schools were ranked using ACNielsen's Winning Brands model.infrastructure. In the fine print of its advertisements. where the institute doesn't disclose facts truly and correctly". 50 million). success of placement.reputation. . but IIPM advertisements generalised these rankings for all IIPM campuses. The college doesn't have a campus in the first place. "According to an admission counsellor.. and prescriptions for economic and social reform.

[6] JAM article on IIPM's claims (http:/ / www. . mba-channel.1 crores for May 2005 (http:/ / economictimes. p. com. com/ backends/ News/ frontend/ news_detail. com/ backends/ News/ frontend/ news_detail. highbeam. outlookindia. asp?act=sign& url=/ full. (Requires free registration) (http:/ / www. html) [9] A Sandeep's statement in Indian Express (http:/ / cities. html) [24] Outlook survey of business schools (http:/ / outlookindia. pp. com/ careers/ n/ showart. outlookindia.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy linkages and industry interface but that this has not been acknowledged by official rankings. Outlook. com/ scriptur11w2. Pustak Mahal. "Racket game lobs" (http:/ / books. com/ OCT3105/ indepth04. . September 2005 (http:/ / economictimes. com/ full.jammag. outlookindia. htm) [18] http:/ / www. com/ photos/ 28802891@N00/ 25678515/ ) [17] Outlook announcement (http:/ / indiabschools. [4] JAM stands for Just Another Magazine. com/ channel/ article/ iipm-international-Cooperations-Kooperationen/ ). 2008). php/ page-article-choice-more-id-506). iipm. moneycontrol. com/ careers/ articles/ mbacorner/ iipm/ index. cms) [26] Economic Times. website: www. com/ specialfeature. 50. an evening newspaper in Chennai (http:/ / www. Retrieved 11 December 2009. Mumbai Edition. flickr. com/ 2008/ 06/ 05232421/ Let-the-mangoes-be-purple. newstodaynet. php?autono=186410) [23] Mint Article . educationworldonline. jammag. 12 October 2005. "The Degree" section (http:/ / www. Bloggers have alleged that the mainstream media does not investigate the claims made by IIPM for fear of losing advertising revenue. google. . htm) [12] http:/ / www. net/ index. expressindia. [3] Peri. asp?fodname=20030915& fname=Cover+ Story& sid=2) [25] Economic Times article on ad-spends. Retrieved 11 December 2009. businessworldindia. edu/ infrastructure-campus. [2] Schwertfeger."Bite in the Blog Bark" (Requires free registration) (http:/ / www.com [5] "Two-edged sword cut" (http:/ / www. google. asp?fodname=20051031& fname=Internet+ (F)& sid=1) [21] DNA article (http:/ / dnaindia.curpg-2. jammag. sg/ books?id=u4anImQkPRYC& pg=PA46& dq=iipm). asp) [11] Article on News Today. com/ scriptur11w2. Education World. asp?NewsID=6136& CatID=5) [22] Moneycontrol story on UGC's concerns about IIPM offering MBA degrees without its approval (http:/ / news. php?autono=186908) [16] Clarification issued by Outlook (http:/ / www.Bloggers' rights: Storm brews in cyberspace" (http:/ / www. livemint. cms) [27] http:/ / www. com/ 2005/ 08/ fraud-that-is-iipm. July 2005 article about IIPM's ad spend of 5. com/ articleshow/ msid-1245942. Beginner's Guide to Journalism (http:/ / books. MBA Channel. asp?fodname=20050718& fname=IIPM& sid=1) (requires free registration) [20] Outlook Magazine article. com/ books?id=WTEEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PT4& dq=IIPM+ indian+ institute+ of+ planning+ management). com/ backends/ News/ frontend/ news_detail. moneycontrol. ISBN 9788122306842. "Freedom under siege . Bärbel (2009-07-07).Let the mangoes be purple (http:/ / www. com/ 20oct/ ld1. html [13] JAM Article on IIPM Degree not being accredited. 46. asp?fodname=20050718& fname=IIPM& sid=1 [19] Withdrawal of Rankings . "IIPM: For a handful of dollars" (http:/ / www. 136 Notes Footnotes [1] Barun Roy (2008). com/ articleshow/ 1163051. indiatimes. moneycontrol. iipm.Actual Outlook Site (http:/ / www. edu/ itt. com/ survey03. Retrieved 11 December 2009. com/ fullstory. . com/ report. html) [8] Hindustan Times. blogspot. htm) [7] Gaurav Sabnis' blog is hosted at gauravsabnis. Maheshwar (June 24–30. php?autono=193774) [15] Moneycontrol story on AICTE's notice to IIPM objecting to the use of the term 'Indian Institute' in its name (http:/ / news. html References . com/ doc/ 1P3-1093359461. indiatimes.blogspot. php?art_id=149#degree) [14] Moneycontrol story on AICTE raising objection to IIPM's offering foreign degrees in India (http:/ / news.com (http:/ / gauravsabnis. asp?act=sign& url=/ full. php?newsid=152721) [10] Businessworld article reporting on the controversy and investigating IIPM's advertising claims.

November 9. The International Community School. html?_r=4& hp=& adxnnl=1& oref=slogin& adxnnlx=1216476908-ln1hsvTkWfAHfR4xnX1IZQ& pagewanted=all& oref=slogin). Georgia. mediapost. 2007 . com/ 2007/ 12/ 24/ us/ 24cnd-school. says India's University Grants Commission (http://www. his family.[2] In what Credit: The Christian Science Monitor industry observers have called "a move that could change storytelling for newspapers. in Decatur. serial. 2008 [4] St.html) Little Bill Clinton "Little Bill Clinton: A School Year in the Life of a New American" is an award-winning [1]. com/2010/08/25212836/IIPM-not-recognized-bythegov. from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. and multimedia pieces. blog posts. References [1] http:/ / www. substandard housing.html) • Official IIPM Website (http://www. aspx?page_id=102 [2] Clifford.Indian Institute of Planning and Management advertising and blogging controversy 137 External links • IIPM is not recognized by the government. No Child Left Behind Act demands. named his son in honor of US president Bill Clinton years before the family was relocated by refugee agencies to Clarkston. Warren. John. com/ ?fa=Articles. Bill Clinton Hadam was born in a refugee camp in Tanzania.Little Bill Clinton" (http:/ / www. "Georgia School Melds a World of Differences" (http:/ / www. half-US-born student body. and his Georgia charter school in a series of articles. December 24. com/ 2008/ 10/ 29/ business/ media/ 29paper. October 28. nytimes. 2008 [3] "The Christian Science Monitor . was founded seven years ago to build community between its half-refugee. a new principal is struggling to keep the young school afloat amid budget cuts.ojr. ewa. Georgia. nytimes.livemint. as part of the 100-year-old newspaper's historic decision to abandon its daily print edition and shift its reporting energies online. Stephanie. by Mark Glaser on the USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review (http:// www.edu/) • A summary of the IIPM controversy. showArticleHomePage& art_aid=89212). The New York Times.in/lead-story/iipm---best-only-in-claims. His father. html?partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). OMMA: The Magazine of Online Media. "Christian Science Paper to End Daily Print Edition" (http:/ / www.iipm. org/ desktopdefault. Marketing & Advertising. The challenges they face as they begin their third year in the United States – job shortages."[3] reporter Mary Wiltenburg is spending the year following third-grader and Congolese refugee Bill Clinton Hadam.org/ojr/stories/051026glaser/) • Article in careers360 (http://careers360. narrative journalism project undertaken by The Christian Science Monitor in 2008-2009. and a missing child – are shared by many families at their sons' innovative charter school.[4] This year. The New York Times. and increasingly perilous political climate for school choice programs nationwide.

when they were initially used to broadcast updates of technology conferences in the absence of or alongside streaming video captures. Liveblogging has increased in usage by news organizations and blogging establishments since the mid-2000s. audio. Georgia • Mary Wiltenburg (http://wiltenburg.. During liveblogs. political or military events). and are usually performed during specific types of events rather than as regular features.Little Bill Clinton 138 External links • "Little Bill Clinton: A School Year in the Life of a New American" (http://www. have gained currency as an online publication format which performs the same function as that of live television news coverage. and like microblogs. a wide number of media. The Christian Science Monitor. 2008-2009 • International Community School (http://www. a live blog of an event by Al Jazeera English may post embedded video from CNN or YouTube if such video is centrally relevant to a recent occurrence within the scope of the event and is credited to authors affiliated with such organizations). a liveblog post will be ended after a 24-hour period and followed by a successive liveblog post for the next 24 hours. can be incorporated in order to explain what is going on at a specific location. Content and appearance A live blog is a single post which is continuously updated with timestamped micro-updates which are placed above previous micro-updates. by Mary Wiltenburg.e.com/). a liveblog is a single post which is constantly updated by one or more authors (usually on-location correspondents) with up-to-the-minute logs of the goings-on.csmonitor. Decatur. similar to Live television or live radio.org/). Posts may also be automatically updated using JavaScript-based auto-refreshes (by the minute) which do not reload the entire webpage.wordpress. such as other press agencies and non-employees. Operation Not entirely unlike microblogs (which are continuously updated but are also used widely as a short-form liveblogging platform).intcomschool. Georgia Liveblogging A liveblog is a blog post which is intended to provide a rolling textual coverage of an ongoing event. images and text. if such content is only available from those sources (i. including video. Atlanta. Live blogs are usually ordered from top-to-bottom so that the most recent updates appear at the top of the post. Such content may be posted from external sources. during longer-running events beyond the length of twenty-four hours (such as civil. Furthermore. .com/ littlebillclinton/).

The Guardian. uk/ politics/ blog/ 2008/ aug/ 21/ afghanistan. both on. co. uk1?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487). followed by more Guardian blogs adopting minute-by-minute formats for special events afterward. rather than being the "death of journalism". having first been applied by websites such as Gizmodo.live in Kabul" (http:/ / www.42 BST). guardian. Techcrunch and Macworld in 2003-2005 for coverage of technology-related events (such as the Macworld Expo's series of Stevenotes and the WWDC) first gained notoriety among news organizations during the coverage of the 2009 anti-government protests in Iran.and offline. "Gordon Brown . [3] Matt Wells (Monday 28 March 2011). while news specialty channels tend to provide almost 24-hour live studio broadcasts. "How live blogging has transformed journalism" (http:/ / www. but had first begun to publish official "minute-by-minutes" in the Politics blog in August 2008[1] (posts titled as "LIVE" or formatted to give time-stamped updates on events extend to as far as 2003[2] ). will actually be the "embodiment of its future. defence). "Today at PMQs" (http:/ / www. uk/ media/ 2011/ mar/ 28/ live-blogging-transforms-journalism). Usage The format is most regularly used for blow-by-blow coverage of sports competitions. co. . co.[3] " References [1] Andrew Sparrow (21 August 2008 10. and commentary on.20 GMT). guardian. uk/ politics/ 2003/ feb/ 05/ houseofcommons. Matt Wells. Further enhancement of the medium by organizations such as The Guardian accompanied later events such as Cablegate and the 2010-2011 Middle East and North Africa protests. The format. such blogs are almost always used for coverage of. The Guardian. one-time events. Impact on journalism The live blogging format is controversial for readers of news websites in that the presentation is a clear departure from more traditional methods of news presentation. live blogs have been compared to live broadcasting on television and radio in their immediacy and currency. . . [2] Matthew Tempest (5 February 2003 13. . The Guardian. Engadget. blogs editor for The Guardian. guardian.Liveblogging 139 Relevance Comparison with live broadcasting Because of their synchronous nature. contended that live blogs. However. The Guardian had been publishing "minute-by-minute" reports of local sports events since April 2001. and live blogging is not widely considered a regular feature for most online news services.

. "Something Is Rotten In Denmark: The A. TechCrunch. "Media Bloggers Association -. Robert Cox himself[15] and others [16] have written at length in response to these criticisms. New York Times February 16. Retrieved January 25. com/ news/ 2007/ jan/ 13/ history-bloggers-get-trial). nytimes. References [1] About Media Bloggers Association (http:/ / www.[2] The MBA described this as a significant step forward in its efforts on behalf of its members[3] . alongside bloggers from more established sites including Firedoglake. com/ 2008/ 06/ 18/ something-is-rotten-in-denmark-the-ap-nytimes-and-mba-love-triangle/ ). 2007. washingtonpost. . com/ 2008/ 06/ 18/ something-is-rotten-in-denmark-the-ap-nytimes-and-mba-love-triangle/ all-comments/ #comment-2379728 [9] Doctorow. Retrieved June 19. . BoingBoing. techcrunch. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2007/ 01/ 10/ AR2007011002424.[8] Jeff Jarvis of BuzzMachine. html). [13] Doctorow.[5] Criticism Many of the MBA's members are unknown bloggers. 2007 (registration required) [4] "For Bloggers. Retrieved 2008-06-19.[13] MBA supporters[14] . January 13. . mediabloggers. 2007. Michael Arrington of TechCrunch also claimed. without support. non-partisan voluntary association describing its activity as "supporting the development of 'blogging' or 'citizen journalism' as a distinct form of media". January 11. [12] Arrington. The Albuquerque Tribune. Gawker. "Too Casual To Sit on Press Row? Bloggers' Credentials Boosted With Seats at the Libby Trial" (http:/ / www. html). .P. . and Daily Kos. 2008 [5] How the Media Bloggers Association Got Involved | Workbench (http:/ / www. 2007. Retrieved January 25. BoingBoing.[4] In June 2008. The Washington Post. but some are prominent bloggers such as Glenn Reynolds of Instapundit[6] . some bloggers have claimed that the MBA has made sweeping claims to represent bloggers. com/ 2008/ 06/ 18/ media-bloggers-association-and-the-ap-story/ ). 2007 [3] Sipress. Alan. to cover the trial of Lewis Libby. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ who-are-the-media-bl. Libby Trial Is Fun and Fodder (Correction)" (http:/ / www.[9] [10] [11] These critics have claimed that the MBA did not include any major bloggers as members nor represent a significant proportion of the blogging community. abqtrib. [11] "Media bloggers association" (http:/ / gawker. oliverwillis. Michael. "Who are the "Media Bloggers Association" and what gives them to right to negotiate copyright with the Associated Press?" (http:/ / www. one of the blogs critical of the MBA. Oliver Willis' blog. boingboing. and not the MBA itself.[1] In January 2007. [10] Nielsen Hayden. org/ about) – MBA Mission [2] Associated Press. com/ tag/ media-bloggers-association/ ). "History: Bloggers get in trial" (http:/ / www.[12] BoingBoing. html). June 18. 2008. cadenhead. Still. issued a corrective stating that it was the Associated Press and the New York Times which implied that the MBA was acting on behalf of all bloggers. that a business relationship existed between the Associated Press and the MBA.Media Bloggers Association 140 Media Bloggers Association The Media Bloggers Association (MBA) is a United States membership-based. Oliver Willis. [8] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 02/ 15/ washington/ 15bloggers. . Cory. the Huffington Post. com/ makinglight/ archives/ 010354. NYTimes and MBA Love Triangle" (http:/ / www.who they are (and they aren't "representing blogs" to the Associated Press)" (http:/ / www. an MBA member received press credentials identical to those of broadcast and print journalists at a federal court. despite the fact that the major blogs covering the trial did not rely on the MBA for their credentials. techcrunch. html?hp& ).com. boingboing. org/ workbench/ news/ 3370/ media-bloggers-association-got) [6] The MBA logo can be seen on the Instapundit website [7] "Media Bloggers Association And The AP Story" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-19. Teresa. MBA became involved in a copyright dispute involving Associated Press demand of strict terms for bloggers quoting from their news at the request of Rogers Cadenhead whose Drudge Retort was affected.[7] Liza Sabater of Culture Kitchen. html). Cory. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ media-bloggers-assoc. "AP to negotiate with sham "Media Bloggers Association"" (http:/ / nielsenhayden. .

141 Micropoetry Micropoetry is a genre of poetic verse including twaiku (also known as twihaiku or twitter poetry) and captcha poetry [1]. Retrieved 2008-11-05. The novelist W.their shapes ntwined in2 the flowrs of gd's infnite spirogrph [12] The form is also often characterized by spontaneous and rapid production and dissemination. 2009. as in the King's Place Twitter contest [13]. html). 2007. While short poems are most associated with the haiku. culturekitchen. judged by Yoko Ono. A famous early example of this was Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin's Twitter feed. mediabloggers. The winning poem from that May 2009 contest was written by Simon Brake: beneath the Morning Sun. People move like bees through honey[14] . where poetic style is discovered in text not intended to be poetic. [16] Teresa (June 18.Media Bloggers Association [14] See notes 2 and 3 supra." in reference to the poems of about 20 words in length that made up his 2004 work. which was clearly lyrical but didn't appear to fit any preexistent form such as haiku or tanka. Possibly the earliest identification and coinage of the term "twitter poetry" came from Michael Tippet on November 27. org/ robert-cox/ backstory-on-ap-drudge-retort-issue). com/ liza/ blog/ exclusive_robert_cox_answers_some_questions_about_). com/ makinglight/ archives/ 010354. as a portmanteau of "microblogging" and "poetry" in a notice on Identica [4] on January 23. micropoetry often breaks traditional rules of grammar and lexicon. "AP to negotiate with sham “Media Bloggers Association”" (http:/ / nielsenhayden. 2008).[11] Examples In order to fit the most meaning into few characters. Making Light blog. which is characterized by its extreme brevity. Culture Kitchen. Retrieved 2008-11-05.Drudge Retort Issue" (http:/ / www. Unrecounted [2] [3] . the emergence of microblogging sites in the 21st century created a modern venue for epigrammatic verse. The city is painted gold.[5] A subsequent notice [6] linked to an example of micropoetry [7] by another user. . See also "EXCLUSIVE : Robert Cox answers some questions about his coming meeting with AP" (http:/ / www. . . which comedian Conan O'Brien and actor William Shatner spoofed as poetry.evrywhr:i C the bones. Sebald may have been the first to use the term "micropoem. The more recent popularity of "micropoetry" to describe poems of 140 characters in length or shorter appears to stem from a separate coinage. [15] "Back Story on AP . Daily haiku journal tinywords was one of the earliest proponents[8] .[10] Micropoetry often shares the quality of found poetry. G. publishing haiku via short message service starting in 2000[9] . as in this example: evrywhr:i c mmnts crl'd back like lips frm ancnt teeth. announcing the formation of a group for fans of poetry on that microblogging service.

hulu. ca/ notice/ 1937704 [5] http:/ / verylikeawhale. ca/ notice/ 1938032 [8] http:/ / www. com/ watch/ 85839/ the-tonight-show-with-conan-obrien-shatner-does-palin [12] http:/ / www.php/cyblog/comments/ cyberpoetry_readings/) • tinywords (http://tinywords. com/ books?id=rei2nHoQalcC& lpg=PP1& dq=unrecounted%20sebald& pg=PP1#v=onepage& q& f=false [3] http:/ / www. com/ [10] http:/ / blog.cz/prague/event. uk/ culture/ books/ 3623825/ A-trick-of-the-eye.com/) • Czech Poetry Micro-Festival (http://www. ca/ notice/ 1938136 [7] http:/ / identi. html [2] http:/ / books. archive. html [4] http:/ / identi.Micropoetry 142 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 11/ twitter-poetry/ [11] http:/ / www. telegraph. co. us/ 2009/ 11/ of-words-and-birds-tweety-and-otherwise/ [9] http:/ / web.micropoet.com/twihaiku/twitter-poetry) Mark Fullmer's twitter poetry collection (http://markfullmer. nowpublic.expats.com/).php?id=11054) • Cyberpoetry readings (videos) (http://cyberfrequencies. wordpress. net/ 2009/ 01/ 04/ captcha-poetry. co.com/index. uk/ news/ uk/ home-news/ while-in-the-station-dont-refrain-from-alliteration-1686271. html [13] http:/ / www.com/#search?q=#micropoetry) Poetry site publishing twitter poetry (http://www.com/books#tweet) Judy Kamilhor's micropoetry (http://kamihaiku.com/). net/ 2008/ 11/ twitter-poetry. a micropoetry heaven publishing since 2008 . html [14] http:/ / twitter. com/ 2010/ 06/ 29/ 10-questions-on-poets-technology-dave-bonta/ [6] http:/ / identi. independent. vianegativa.makeliterature. com/ KingsPlace External links • • • • all twitter posts tagged as micropoetry (http://twitter. fergusson.blogspot. boingboing. google. a haiku and micropoetry journal publishing since 2000 • micropoet (http://www. org/ web/ 20001206213700/ http:/ / tinywords.

[7] Wenger sought to remedy this situation and asked for suggestions for a name. the religious news site Religion Dispatches ran a story about the phenomenon of Mormon mommy blogging.[2] Some component blogs from the Mormon blogosphere's first two years were short lived. History It was on November 23. the shortened version of which gained wide approval. Messenger and Advocate. several LDS-themed podcasts entered the Bloggernacle to augment LDS blogging with audio programming. In a blog post titled "The Nameless Mormon Blogosphere". By the next two years. was named after the LDS publication of the same name published 1834–1837 in Kirtland. so Blessed!.[24] Some of the Bloggernacle's more prominent blogs are named after defunct Latter Day Saint publications.[3] On January 1. Utah 1866–1930. citing an online post by "Bookslinger" (pseudonymous author of the blog Flooding the Earth with the Book of Mormon). due to an article in The Revealer. Rich. Ohio." written by an anonymous Utah woman. By Common Consent.Mormon blogosphere 143 Mormon blogosphere The Mormon blogosphere (in some contexts referred to as the bloggernacle or Bloggernacle Choir) is the Mormon portion of the blogosphere. not all LDS-themed bloggers like or use the name Bloggernacle. and Mormon Metaphysics had been launched. published in England 1840–1970. however. a blog written by Guy Murray. Millennial Star. A Mormon "litblog" named A Motley Vision was founded in 2004 by William Morris.[5] (Several of these blogs currently do not exist and a great number more have joined the community's ranks. Feminist Mormon Housewives.[25] [26] Keepapitchinin.[1] The latter two terms were coined by individuals within members of LDS blogging community as a play on the name of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.[8] During 2005. Jane Kendrick of CJane Enjoy It [14]. a Mormon history blog written by Salt Lake Tribune columnist and independent historian Ardis Parshall that she founded in 2008. Dave Banack.[20] [21] Mormon videographer Seth Adam Smith[22] [23] began blogging in 2004. 2002. Joseph C. . was named after a sporadically published humorous newspaper published 1867–1871 and pseudonymously written by three sons of LDS apostles. 2003.[10] Stay-at-home mothers who are LDS and who blog are known to comment occasionally upon their religion. "Bloggernacle" is a term that has been used commonly by LDS bloggers. as well. which had lauded efforts by Mormon faithful to share their beliefs through such means as blogging. and Heber John Richards. George J. two such writers whose blogs have become popular with non-Mormon audiences are Stephanie Nielson. or even consider their blog to be part of it.[27] [28] The blog Millennial Star was named after The Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. these included podcasts produced by church affiliated sources and an independent series produced by John Dehlin (who has also founded the blog Stay LDS[9] and the group blog Mormon Matters). a mutli-author blog Mormon Momma [4] launched — a spin off from the original Circle of Sisters column from Meridian Magazine. Christopher Bradford posting under the name "Grasshopper" suggested "Bloggernacle Choir". 2004. Jeff Lindsay writes a Mormon apologetic blog entitled Mormanity."[15] [16] [17] (A spoof on this genre of blog is the blog "Seriously. The Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research features an LDS-apologetics website and blog. however one of its first bloggers. Taylor.) On March 23. of the blog the NieNie Dialogues [11]. Ministering Angels. began his longstanding Mormon Inquiry blog on August 19. that the Mormon blogging community became a distinct entity with the founding of the blog Metaphysical Elders. For example.[12] [13] C. and Jana Mathews who blogs at Momlogic as "The Meanest Mom. and the LDS history blog The Juvenile Instructor' [29] is the namesake of a publication intended as a catechism of Mormonism printed in Salt Lake City. LDS Science Review. Approaching Zion.[19] which its author believed arose in part in response to Elder Ballard's 2007 commencement address at Brigham Young University–Hawaii.[18] ) In 2009. Latter Day Liberation Front. Mormon Mommy Wars. 2003.[6] the writer Kaimi Wenger at the LDS blog Times and Seasons noticed that the Jewish and Catholic blogging communities had adopted names for themselves. the multi-author blogs Times and Seasons.

[41] As of 2010. Contributors to the BT come from most of the prominent Mormon blogs. • Times & Seasons • Faith Promoting Rumor [45] • Bloggernacle Times [46] "Neutral" group blog which hosts bloggernacle meta-discussions. The Mormon Times reporter covering the Bloggernacle is Emily W. Jensen. many blogs—both group blogs with multiple authors. • Mormon Mentality [47] • Mormon Matters [48] Large group blog providing a voice for both believing and former/disaffected Mormons.[43] The blog is now permanently hosted by MormonMentality.org. Group blogs • By Common Consent : Large group blog with devotional. six bloggers carried out an elaborate and. • The Juvenile Instructor [49] Smaller group blog specializing in Mormon history. Those involved in the prank were eventually exposed through a Bloggernacle-wide contest hosted at 9 Moons. a name derived from part of the name of a book of non-fiction by Jon Krakauer. of By Common Consent initiated a resurrection of the blog in order to conduct a five-year retrospective on the scandal.[42] Because of the controversy. comedic. and the Mormon blogging community engaged in multiple bouts of debate and protest over the ramifications of such a hoax. a group blog founded by David K. also debuted in 2008. the Banner of Heaven hoax continued to elicit strong debate whenever the subject was broached.[32] 144 Banner of Heaven hoax From May 30. Linescratchers.[36] [37] [38] [39] [40] although some of these were not well received by the community. 2005 until just before Halloween of the same year.[44] Selected list Since the birth of the Bloggernacle. and personal writings. The website version of this insert features readers' feedback. the perpetrators posted public apologies. .[30] [31] Neylan McBaine founded The Mormon Women Project in 2010. 2008 named Mormon Times. ultimately very controversial prank through a fake blog called Banner of Heaven. LDS-themed newspaper insert on January 10.[33] Although many people found the content on Banner of Heaven to be humorous. others found the deception to be very off-putting. an LDS contemporary music scene blog. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' own Internet presence is substantial. and solo blogs with a single author (many of which have also contributed material to group blogs) have played a role in the development and expansion of the Bloggernacle. Landrith. another group blog. and Church spokesman Michael Otterson's blogging contributions feature prominently in the LDS blogosphere as well. scholarly. Utah's The Deseret News began producing a separate. political. and the hoax constituted one of the most important or defining events in the history of Mormon blogging.Mormon blogosphere Salt Lake City. • Feminist Mormon Housewives Large group blog focused primarily on issues women face in the LDS Church. the Banner of Heaven weblog was taken down and made not accessible until Scott B.[34] [35] After seeing the extreme negative reaction. one of the perpetrators behind the hoax.

[61] In addition to the MA. one of the most distinguished and beloved Mormon scholars. compiled records of past winners as part of the awards. a list of both LDS-themed blogs. The most prominent and widely recognized portal is the Mormon Archipelago [58] (or MA). "Best Blog Design". or portals. Niblets Since 2005. Mormon Matters. LDS Blogs [64].[69] Niblet winners The host site for the 2009 Niblet awards. have been constructed by participants in the Bloggernacle.Mormon blogosphere • • • • • Millennial Star [50] New Cool Thang [51] Nine Moons [52] The Mormon Women Project [53] Mormon Momma [4] 145 Individual blogs • A Bird's Eye View [54] • Dave's Mormon Inquiry [55][56] • Mormon Soprano [57] Blog portals Numerous blog aggregators. "Best Humorous Post".org [62].[68] The Niblets often cause arguments and disputes within the bloggernacle. Mormon Blogosphere [63].[66] These awards have typically been awarded on the basis of open nominations and voting.[67] The term "Niblet" is an homage to Hugh Nibley. a list of both LDS-themed blogs. or addition of blogs has resulted in disputes over the role the MA plays in Mormon blogging. the Mormon blogging community has given out "Niblet Awards" (or just "Niblets") to recognize outstanding contributions to the bloggernacle. as there are frequently disagreements over which blogs should properly be considered members of the "bloggernacle community" and which blogs are simply Mormon-themed. with sidebars displaying links to recent comments around the Bloggernacle. while the location of the awards and voting has varied from year to year. other LDS Blog Aggregators include: • • • • MormonBlogs. "Best Overall Blogger". the location with the MA. an aggregator accepting any Mormon-related blog.[68] Among the winners were: Best big blog • • • • • 2005: Times and Seasons and By Common Consent (tie) 2006: By Common Consent 2007: By Common Consent 2008: By Common Consent 2009: By Common Consent . Over time. as well as non-LDS-themed blogs by LDS bloggers. "Best Post". with the newest content in each blog on top. "Best Individual/Solo Blog". an aggregator affiliated with the Mormon group weblog Mormon Matters. Categories for the awards include "Best Big Blog". and numerous other categories."[59] [60] The MA displays LDS-themed blogs. which was created in 2005 "to be a useful central place to see what’s going on at all of the best blogs in the Bloggernacle. grouped together in various boxes or "islands". removal of blogs. as well as non-LDS-themed blogs by LDS bloggers. Nothing Wavering [65].

com/ article/ oprahshow/ 20090924-tows-stephanie-plane-crash). com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4188/ is_20080101/ ai_n21181824/ ). therevealer. 2009-10-07. html). . com/ 2008/ 09/ 07/ fashion/ 07burn. Virtual Becomes Personal" (http:/ / www. deseretnews. 2005-02-22. .org. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 2005. php/ 2005/ 02/ in-memory-of-the-metaphysical-elders/ ). The New York Times. . religionnewsblog. [2] "In Memory of the Metaphysical Elders | Times & Seasons" (http:/ / timesandseasons. .00. com/ wghp-br-meanest-mom-090130. Johns plane crash appear on Oprah | Phoenix News | Arizona News | azfamily. "After Blogger's Plane Crash. Religionnewsblog.com | Phoenix News" (http:/ / www.com. Retrieved 2011-03-28. Timesandseasons. 2007-07-28. [17] "World's Meanest Mom .189358. mormonmomma. Answers and Minutiae on Blogs" (http:/ / www. [4] http:/ / www. 2009-01-30. Myfox8. [14] http:/ / blog. myfox8. org/ index. [3] "Wisdom of a Bloggernacle ancient" (http:/ / www. php?p=562) [8] "Fans in withdrawal from coffee substitute Postum" (http:/ / findarticles. January 1. blogspot. html). . com/ 12859). 2008. azfamily. com/ [12] "Stephanie and Christian Nielson's Plane Crash" (http:/ / www. . com/ article/ 1. sltrib. and voting can be found here. Deseret News. nominees. Retrieved 2011-03-28. . byu. .0. timesandseasons. The New York Times. . [11] http:/ / nieniedialogues. com/ 2005/ 03/ 05/ national/ 05religion. [9] http:/ / www.Mormon blogosphere Best group blog • • • • • 2005: Nine Moons [52] 2006: Zelophehad’s Daughters [70] 2007: Zelophehad’s Daughters 2008: Segullah [71] 2009: Segullah 146 Best solo blog • • • • • 2005: Dave’s Mormon Inquiry [55] 2006: Dave’s Mormon Inquiry 2007: (N/A) 2008: Keepapitchinin [72] 2009: Keepapitchinin Best overall blogger • • • • 2005: Wilfried Decoo 2006: Wilfried Decoo 2007: Kevin Barney 2008: Ardis Parshall [72] • 2009: Tracy M Further information and details about other categories.695195330. Retrieved 2011-03-28. [13] "Couple that survived St.com.5143.com. 2005-11-19. mormontimes. Retrieved 2011-03-28. story). [6] The Revealer: (http:/ / www. com/ faith/ ci_12871883 [10] "Sunstone foundation hires executive director" (http:/ / www.[73] References [1] "Faithful Track Questions. Alex (September 7. Retrieved 2011-03-28. edu/ Reviews/ Pages/ reviewdetail. com/ mormon_voices/ emily_w_jensen/ ?id=5255& seeRelated=1). azfamily. cjanerun. html?ref=fashion). Retrieved 2011-03-28. org/ archives/ daily_000274. . . org/ index. Deseret News. nytimes. aspx?reviewID=799 [16] Williams. March 5. html). Mormon Times. com [5] "A weblog full of ‘tiny dramas in Mormon lives’…" (http:/ / www. nytimes.com. oprah.WGHP" (http:/ / www. php) [7] Times & Seasons » The Nameless Mormon Blogosphere (http:/ / www. com/ [15] http:/ / byustudies. com/ news/ local/ Couple-that-survived-St-Johns-plane-crash-on-Oprah-63726622. 2008). Oprah.

lds. mormonmentality. mormonmentality. 2005 By Nate Oman (2005-10-27). (April 27. a Mormon Blog" (http:/ / bycommonconsent. [24] Smith. Retrieved 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2011-03-28. November 1. The. "Video: The Forgotten Man" (http:/ / michellemalkin. newsbank.Mormon blogosphere [18] "A clever twist on Mormon mommy blogs" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-03-28. Bannerofheaven. "Banner of Heaven » My Apology" (http:/ / bannerofheaven. [27] "Should Brigham Young share blame for Utah War?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 2. "Banner of Heaven » When Bad Writers Go Badder" (http:/ / bannerofheaven. [37] Jenn F. Matthew D.mormonmentality.com.org. org/ archives/ 147). millennialstar. Retrieved 2011-03-28.org. Smith (2005-11-01). mormonmentality. . org/ index. csp). 2010). [25] http:/ / news.00. A Motley Vision. . . But I Play Her On TV (2005-10-27). Retrieved 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2011-03-28. But I Play Her On TV" (http:/ / bannerofheaven. org/ archives/ 149). Retrieved 2011-03-28. mormonmentality. Michelle (September 7. Salt Lake Tribune. com/ mormon_voices/ emily_w_jensen/ ?id=3310& seeRelated=1). Bannerofheaven. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=SLTB& p_theme=sltb& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=11824075E8635EE8& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM. 2010). Mormon Times. php/ 2005/ 10/ blogging-lying-and-legal-theory/ ). 2009). org/ ldsnewsroom/ eng/ news-releases-stories/ apostle-urges-students-to-use-new-media). com/ article/ 705371469/ Today-in-the-Bloggernacle-Fictionist-interview-and-inside-a-temple-construction-site. . . . com/ article/ 4841/ Bloggernacle-Back-Bench-Mormon-beliefs-YouTube-style). com/ ?p=1208). [44] The Banner of Heaven Weblog (http:/ / bannerofheaven. com/ article/ 1. nine-moons. Deseret News. 2009-05-26. deseretnews. 2007-12-15. 2006-09-18. mormontimes.mormonmentality. Retrieved 2011-03-28. . [39] My Apology (2005-10-28). 2011). org/ archives/ 150). org/ [49] http:/ / www. Emily W. "After the Fall | Times & Seasons" (http:/ / timesandseasons.645201941. October 27. Retrieved 2011-03-28. mormonwomen. 2007). org [51] http:/ / www. [23] Malkin. com/ mormon_voices/ emily_w_jensen/ ?id=7957). Emily W. 2005-10-26. . com/ about/ ). org/ archives/ 144). [42] "Blog Archive : Banner of Heaven Retrospective Post Mortem: What Does It All Mean? » Banner of Heaven Retrospective Post Mortem: What Does It All Mean?" (http:/ / www. "Blogging and Lying | Times & Seasons" (http:/ / timesandseasons. Nine Moons. org [47] http:/ / mormonmentality. (August 4. Timesandseasons. org/ index. mormontimes. newcoolthang. . html). [29] "Bloggernacle Back Bench: Blogging connections at MHA" (http:/ / mormontimes. Salt Lake Tribune. com/ 2010/ 05/ 30/ bloggernacle-classics-the-banner-of-heaven-weblog/ ). org/ [48] http:/ / mormonmatters. mormonmentality. . [32] Stack. . [38] Aaron Unvailed (2005-10-28).mormonmentality. com/ ?p=182). . common faith" (http:/ / www. com/ 147 . . juvenileinstructor. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "New LDS women’s site features unique stories.mormonmentality. religiondispatches. html. org/ archives/ 145). 2011. Mormon Times. Nine Moons. mormonmentality. Bycommonconsent. . [21] (http:/ / www. (March 25. [34] Blogging and Lying Thursday. Bannerofheaven. mormontimes. Timesandseasons. com/ sltrib/ lifestyle/ 50094718-80/ women-lds-mcbaine-mormon.A.Q" (http:/ / bannerofheaven.A. Mormon Times. com/ archivesearch?um=1& ned=us& hl=en& q=%22guy+ murray%22+ flds& cf=all [26] LaPlante. Prize Inside » BoH Contest. "Banner of Heaven » Aaron Unvailed" (http:/ / bannerofheaven.org. [20] "Apostle Urges Students to Use New Media . com/ 2010/ 09/ 07/ video-the-forgotten-man/ ). (2005-10-27). [33] "Blog Archive : BoH Contest. bloggernacle. com [52] http:/ / www.org. org/ archive/ mediaculture/ 1148/ birth_of_the_bloggernacle) [22] Jensen. . . http:/ / nl. deseretnews. [31] Morris. "Banner of Heaven » Miranda: Who Am I and Why Am I Here?" (http:/ / bannerofheaven.mormonmentality. Peggy Fletcher (August 13. YouTube style" (http:/ / www. motleyvision. [30] Jensen. Seth Adam. nine-moons. [19] The story went on to quote a source saying that the term Bloggernacle arose as a Salt Lake City-based response to the rise of Mormon blogs. Retrieved 2011-03-28. google. html). com [46] http:/ / www. Prize Inside" (http:/ / www. [28] "Resources for Young Women leaders" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "About me" (http:/ / sethadamsmith. mormonmentality. "Q&A with Arthur from Linescratchers" (http:/ / www. sltrib. .lds.org. .Q. [43] "Bloggernacle Classics: The Banner of Heaven Weblog « By Common Consent. 2009). "Mormon beliefs. Bannerofheaven. . "Fictionist interview and inside a temple construction site" (http:/ / www. com/ people_news/ newsmakers/ ?id=2640). php/ 2005/ 11/ after-the-fall/ ).org.mormonmentality. org/ archives/ 146). .5143.LDS Newsroom" (http:/ / newsroom. Retrieved 2011-03-28. org/ [50] http:/ / www. org/ 2009/ qa-arthur-linescratchers/ ).org. com/ [53] http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. "Banner of Heaven » Allison: I’m Not Mari.org. [35] After the Fall Tuesday. faithpromotingrumor. 2005 By Julie M. Bannerofheaven.org. . Mormon Times. William (October 6. "Banner of Heaven » Jenn F. Mormon Times. [40] Allison: I’m Not Mari. Newsroom. org/ ) [45] http:/ / www. Bannerofheaven. [36] When Bad Writers Go Badder (2005-10-28). nine-moons. [41] Miranda: Who Am I and Why Am I Here? (2005-10-27).

sixteensmallstones. ldsblogs." (http://mormontimes.org. com [64] http:/ / mormon-blogs. The New York Times • Salt Lake Tribune article (http://www. splendidsun.org/blog/) – Blog of the LDS Church's Public Affairs Department • "Bloggernacle Rankings: BCC is #1!." (http://www. . org [63] http:/ / mormonblogosphere." (http://mormonmatters. Jensen • "Bloggernacle Voices. Retrieved 2011-03-28. blogspot.mormontimes.sltrib. mormonblogs. Salon. com/ Resources/ Additional-Resources/ The-Future-of-Mormon-Motherhood?offset=0& max=1& fb_xd_fragment#?=& cb=f22c38abb3e78ba& relation=parent& transport=fragment& frame=f5176b6323b04c& result=xxRESULTTOKENxx).lds. 2010-01-15. Jensen. Sixteensmallstones. com/ [55] http:/ / www. 148 • "From Tabernacle to Bloggernacle.com/index. php/ 2005/ 03/ convenience-or-death/ 37/ ). . com/ wp/ archipelago/ )." (https://www. Splendid Sun. Bloggernacle. patheos. org/ 2010/ 02/ 08/ 2009-niblets-results/ ) from Mormon Matters [69] "2009 Niblets are Here!!" (http:/ / mormonmatters. [62] http:/ / www. [57] http:/ / mormonsoprano. Answers and Minutiae on Blogs”. org/ janfeb-mini-niblets/ ). newcoolthang. bloggernacle.edu/Reviews/Pages/reviewdetail. 2005-03-03. Bloggernacle. Retrieved 2011-03-28. . New Cool Thang. com/ [71] http:/ / segullah. by Krista Kapralos External links • LDS Newsroom Blog (http://newsroom. "The Future of Mormon Motherhood" (http:/ / www. by Peggy Fletcher Stack. [68] 2009 Niblets Results — Analysis (http:/ / mormonmatters. keepapitchinin. January 15." (http://byustudies. jsp?article=3232348).html).sunstonemagazine. org/ 2010/ 01/ 15/ 2009-niblets-are-here/ ). 18 November 2005. 2011 • "The 'travails and triumphs' of Mormon mommies blogging. com [65] http:/ / www. .com/life/feature/2011/01/15/ feminist_obsessed_with_mormon_blogs/index. aspx?reviewID=799) by Emily W. "A Critical Look at LDS Blog Portals – Part 1 : “Never Show Your Face Anywhere in the Bloggernacle Ever Again” « Sixteen Small Stones" (http:/ / www. 5 March 2005.html) Emily Matchar. [61] Friday July 11th. "A weblog full of 'tiny dramas in Mormon lives' has a bigger drama going on behind the scenes". mormoninquiry.org. BYU Studies Review • NY Times article (http://www.com/mormon_voices/today_bloggernacle/ ?showAll=1) Emily W. [67] "Bloggernacle Times » Jan/Feb Mini-Niblets*" (http:/ / www. org/ bloggernacle-awards-2005/ ). Retrieved 2011-03-28. org/ a-critical-look-at-lds-blog-portals-part-1-never-show-your-face-anywhere-in-the-bloggernacle-ever-again).nytimes.byu.religiondispatches." (http://www. Jensen.org. .org/2009/06/23/ bloggernacle-rankings-bcc-is-1/#more-5919) by Batman at Mormon Matters blog • "Why I can't stop reading Mormon housewife blogs. 2010). [70] http:/ / zelophehadsdaughters. October 1. org/ 2010/ 02/ 08/ 2009-niblets-results/ ). Mormon Matters. . The Salt Lake Tribune • "Mormon Bloggernacle is No Choir" (http://www. com/ [56] McBaine. [60] "The Mormon Archipelago" (http:/ / www. “Faithful Track Questions. by Debra Nussbaum Cohen. Mormon Times online magazine . Retrieved 2011-03-28. Mormon Matters. com/ index.com/mormon_voices/ mormon_experience/?id=10212) by Emily W. 2008 (2008-07-12).Mormon blogosphere [54] http:/ / abev. bloggernacle. .org/archive/mediaculture/1179/ mormon_bloggernacle_is_no_choir). Retrieved 2011-03-28.php?option=com_mira&Itemid=35& searchword=bloggernacle+voices&filter=all&searchphrase=exact&constraint=title) Sunstone Magazine.com/2005/03/05/national/05religion. Retrieved 2011-03-28. Neylan (August 9.salon.com/portlet/article/html/fragments/print_article. . Patheos. org/ [73] "2009 Niblets Results — Analysis" (http:/ / mormonmatters. Retrieved 2011-03-28. 2005-01-25. com/ [58] http:/ / www. 2007 • "Today in the Bloggernacle. org [59] "Give me convenience or give me death!" (http:/ / www. org [66] "Bloggernacle Times » Bloggernacle Awards 2005" (http:/ / www. org/ [72] http:/ / www. wordpress. 2010-02-08. nothingwavering.

44.com) – Considered the most inclusive – hence.ldsblogs.sixteensmallstones. Max Wilson • Online communities for Latter Day Saints (http://www.70.org) .Mormon blogosphere • Mormon Blogosphere (http://www.mormonblogosphere.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/ Christianity/Denominations/Latter_Day_Saints/Church_of_Jesus_Christ_of_Latter-day_Saints/ Online_Communities//) at the Open Directory Project Other branches of the Latter Day Saint movement • Saints Herald (http://saintsherald.blogspot.An LDS-themed blog portal that focuses on comparatively orthodox LDS blogs • "The history of lds blog portals" (http://www.68/blogs/plurallife/) – The Salt Lake Tribune's blog covering fundamentalist Latter Day Saints written by Brooke Adams 149 .nothingwavering. independent Community of Christ blogs.dmoz.org/ a-critical-look-at-lds-blog-portals-part-2-the-history-of-lds-blog-portals) by J.com/) – Blog linking to a collection of other. immense – aggregator of LDS-themed blogs • Mormon Archipelago (http://www.org) – A pioneering and still very popular Bloggernacle aggregator • Nothing Wavering (http://www. • The Plural Life (http://166.

Amber is an avid writer and passionate content creator. amazon. http:/ / www. Radian6 [4] was founded in 2006 by Chris Newton and Chris Ramsey. com/ top-10-social-media-blogs-of-2010/ [9] AdAge Power 150.radian6. php?kwd=brass External links • • • • • • • • • Radian6. Professional speaker.com/) Personal Home Page (http://www.com/ambernaslund/) "The Now Revolution. and among the AdAge Power 150[9] . com/ power150/ index.com/) Blog Page: Brass Tack Thinking (http://www.slideshare.”[3] Naslund is a communications and business strategist. Consultant. forbes.com (Now BrassTackThinking. https:/ / analytics." FaceBook Page (http://www. communications. and More Social. http:/ / www. nowrevolutionbook. socialmediaexaminer. as PostRank’s top community management blog of 2009[6] with AltitudeBranding.com/in/ambernaslund/) YouTube Home Page (http://www. mostly talking about the intersection of the web. postrank. com/ Amber-Naslund/ e/ B0046CC92A/ [2] Amber Naslund & Jay Baer. communication. Current Company (http://www. com [8] Social Media Examiner. and her blog has been [5] recognized among Forbes’ 20 Best Social Media and Marketing Blogs By Women .com/user/AmberNaslund/) .com: Profile for Amber Naslund. http:/ / adage. Biography Naslund was born in 1975. References [1] Amazon. For the past 15 years.com/#!/ambercadabra/) LinkedIn Page (http://www. and business culture.com [7]). com/ [3] Inside Flap of book: The Now Revolution http:/ / www.net/AmberNaslund/) Personal FaceBook Page (http://www. html [6] PostRank Analytics 2009. a company that builds software to help businesses manage their social media efforts. http:/ / www. radian6. The book discusses the impact of the social web and how businesses need to “adapt to the new era of instantaneous business. and the VP of Social Strategy for Radian6. brasstackthinking.com/) Slide Share Page (http://www. com/ gp/ product/ product-description/ 047092327X [4] http:/ / www. Naslund speaks at a lot of conferences and private events.ambernaslund. Naslund has enjoyed a diverse career as a fundraiser. amazon. com/ 2010/ 01/ 14/ social-media-twitter-marketing-forbes-woman-entrepreneurs-best-blogs. http:/ / www. marketing and communications executive. to lead branding. Smarter. and client experience initiatives. com [5] Forbes’ 20 Best Social Media and Marketing Blogs By Women. The Now Revolution: 7 Shifts to Make Your Business Faster. Amber currently lives in Chicago with her daughter. com/ 2009/ feed/ e48e945eeb961f3bbc0aca6fc0702a3f [7] http:/ / www.facebook.facebook. She attended University of Iowa (1993–1994) and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (1995–2000).brasstackthinking.linkedin. client services professional.youtube. and entrepreneur. from the Fortune 50 to startups and local nonprofits.com/#!/nowrevolution) Twitter Page (http://twitter. Amber has worked with businesses of all sizes. as one of the Top 10 Social Media Blogs of 2010[8] .Amber Naslund 150 Amber Naslund Amber Naslund Born 1975Illinois Occupation Author. Social Media expert Amber Naslund (Born 1975) is a coauthor [1] of "The Now Revolution [2]”[2] (coauthored by Jay Baer).

sentimentality and enthusiasm.[22] . poetry. Dmitry Vodennikov has been acclaimed as the leader of the new wave of Russian New Sincerity. film criticism. the term new sincerity (novaia iskrennost) was used as early as the mid 1980s[17] or early 1990s by dissident poet Dmitry Prigov and critic Mikhail Epstein. critically acclaimed songwriter Daniel Johnston. Devendra Banhart. Cat Power. It's not my cup of tea.Amber Naslund • Flickr Page (http://www. and the "scene" ended within a few years."[2] In any event.com/AmberNaslund) 151 New Sincerity New sincerity is a term that has been used in music.flickr.[13] and Idlewild. aesthetics.[18] In Epstein's words.[19] This conception of "new sincerity" meant the avoidance of cynicism.com/people/ambernaslund/) • Friend Feed (http://friendfeed.com/ambercadabra/) • Delicious Page (http://www. The use of "New Sincerity" in connection with these bands began with an off-handed comment by Austin punk rocker/author Jesse Sublett to his friend.[14] as well as Austin's Okkervil River[15] and Leatherbag. is an experiment in resuscitating "fallen. New sincerity in music "New Sincerity" was used as a collective name for a loose group of alternative rock bands. but to postmodernism.[10] [11] Other music writers have used "new sincerity" to describe later performers such as Conor Oberst[12] . none of the "New Sincerity" bands met with much commercial success. centered in Austin. and it ended up becoming the catch phrase for these bands. as a response to the dominant sense of absurdity in late Soviet and post-Soviet culture. led by Alejandro Escovedo and Jon Dee Graham.[1] [3] [4] Nationally. . but not necessarily of irony. who released four well-received albums between 1985 and 1991. but the band had difficulty capturing its live sound on recordings. among other problems. literary criticism and philosophy. According to author Barry Shank.[8] and Glass Eye.delicious.[5] Other important "New Sincerity" bands included Doctors Mob. Sublett said: "All those new sincerity bands. they're crap." dead languages with a renewed pathos of love. and actually told Moser. also received extensive critical praise and local acclaim in Austin. Despite extensive critical attention (including national coverage in Rolling Stone and a 1985 episode of the MTV program The Cutting Edge).[20] it "is a particular brand of irony. Berkeley professor Alexei Yurchak."[1] Sublett (at his own website) states that he was misquoted. Texas in the years from about 1985 to 1990."[18] [21] Nowadays New Sincerity is being contraposed not to Soviet literature. Joanna Newsom. while also being somewhat ironic about this commitment. . who were perceived as reacting to the ironic outlook of then-prominent music movements like punk rock and New Wave. local music writer Margaret Moser. In the words of University of California. or the New Sincerity. generally to describe art or concepts that run against prevailing modes of postmodernist irony or cynicism.[6] [7] Wild Seeds. "Postconceptualism.[9] Another significant "New Sincerity" figure was the eccentric. Moser began using the term in print. and allows its authors to remain committed to the ideals that they discuss. Will Oldham.[16] New sincerity in Russia In Russia. the most successful "New Sincerity" band was The Reivers (originally called Zeitgeist). . True Believers. which is sympathetic and warm. "It's all new sincerity to me.

anachronistic. Maybe that’ll be the point. Who eschew self-consciousness and hip fatigue. P. These anti-rebels would be outdated.[28] Related literature includes Wendy Steiner's The Trouble with Beauty. with "new sincerity.[26] New sincerity in philosophy "New sincerity" has also sometimes been used to refer to a philosophical concept deriving from the basic tenets of performatism. Of softness." Collins describes the 'new sincerity' of films like Field of Dreams (1989).[18] The "aesthetics of new sincerity" have also been connected to other art forms including "reality television. but on an "ethnographic" rewriting of the classic genre film that serves as their inspiration. using one strategy or another. disgust. censorship. . Clearly repressed. as well as the Dogme 95 film movement led by Lars von Trier and others. Internet blogs. and Jared Hess. writer David Foster Wallace predicted. Too sincere." Adam Kelly argues that Wallace's fiction. and Hook (1991). T. the parody of gifted ironists. Anderson. . naive. Of overcredulity. accusations of socialism.New Sincerity 152 New sincerity in film criticism Critic Jim Collins introduced the concept of "new sincerity" to film criticism in his 1993 essay entitled “Genericity in the 90s: Eclectic Irony and the New Sincerity. .S. life with reverence and conviction. "[18] New sincerity in literary criticism In response to the hegemony of metafictional and self-conscious irony in contemporary fiction. Dances With Wolves (1990)." a new literary movement which would espouse something like the New Sincerity ethos: "The next real literary “rebels” in this country might well emerge as some weird bunch of anti-rebels. The new rebels might be artists willing to risk the yawn." which apparently pre-existed even the Golden Age of film genre. and the term was taken up designer/film auteur Brady Becker. anarchism. the Dogme 95 movement. . Sofia Coppola. Beauty. [and] personal videos on You-Tube. before they even started.” In this essay he contrasts films that treat genre conventions with "eclectic irony" and those that treat them seriously. Michel Gondry and Charlie Kaufman. Zach Braff. of course. Elaine Scarry's On Beauty and Being Just. all of which depend not on hybridization. nihilism. in his 1993 essay "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U. Real rebels. The old postmodern insurgents risked the gasp and squeal: shock.[27] It is also seen as one of the key characteristics of metamodernism. New Puritans. to recover a lost "purity.S. Backward. the “Oh how banal. the rolled eyes.[23] Other critics have suggested "new sincerity" as a descriptive term for work by American filmmakers such as Wes Anderson. " [25] In his essay "David Foster Wallace and the New Sincerity in American Fiction. all attempting. outrage. and the Victorian Body as Art. diary style 'chicklit' literature. Today’s risks are different. the nudged ribs. risk disapproval. melodrama. born oglers who dare somehow to back away from ironic watching. Related movements may include Post-Postmodernism. as far as I can see. is marked by a revival and theoretical reconception of sincerity. and that of his generation. challenging the emphasis on authenticity that dominated twentieth-century literature.” To risk accusations of sentimentality. Dead on the page. Who treat of plain old untrendy human troubles and emotions in U. who have the childish gall actually to endorse and instantiate single-entendre principles. quaint. and Pedro Almodóvar. Fiction. and Remodernism. and Bryn Gribben's 2005 Bodies that Shatter: Ekphrasis. Stuckism. Todd Louiso. Aki Kaurismäki. Maybe that’s why they’ll be the next real rebels.[24] and filmmakers from other countries such as Lars von Trier. Of willingness to be suckered by a world of lurkers and starers who fear gaze and ridicule above imprisonment without law. Who knows. the cool smile.

Tao Lin. Dissonant Identities: The Rock'N'Roll Scene in Austin. awesome. If those strain the brain. p." Our lifestyle: "Maximum Fun. D. Benjamin. google." It celebrates outsized celebration of joy.[13] and Karyna McGlynn. 2009). just think of Evel Knievel. self-described as "the public radio program about things that are awesome. com/ books?id=v79of-KXnfgC& lpg=PP1& vq=crap& pg=RA1-PA171#v=snippet& q="all those new sincerity bands"& f=false) at Google Books). driving some kind of rocket car." (http:/ / www. because the reality is too over the top.New Sincerity 153 New sincerity in The Sound of Young America "The New Sincerity" has been espoused since 2002 by radio host Jesse Thorn of PRI's The Sound of Young America. either. [7] Doctors Mob (http:/ / www. com/ the-skunks-the-band-that-blasted-austin-out-of-the-1970s/ ) at Jesse Sublett's Little Black Book (http:/ / jessesublett. References [1] Barry Shank. ( excerpt available (http:/ / books. There's no way to appreciate Evel Knievel literally. Let's be frank. Andrew Mister. Catherine Wagner."[37] Other poets named as associated with this movement. Matt Hart. or its tenets. Austin Chronicle Weekly Wire August 30. 2008. Thorn has promoted this concept on his program and in interviews[29] [30] [31] [32] [33] to the point that a scholarly work on Russian post-Soviet aesthetic theory included mention of Thorn as American popularizer of the term "new sincerity. html). com/ gyrobase/ Issue/ story?oid=oid:79685) Austin Chronicle. and live The New Sincerity. Evel Knievel boggles the mind." Thorn characterizes New Sincerity as a cultural movement defined by dicta including "Maximum Fun" and "Be More Awesome. see Ken Lieck. While we were talking about ridiculous.[35] In a September 2009 interview. Frederick Seidel. 2004). com/ ) (retrieved September 18. where less is (obviously) more. 148–149 & p. [2] "Jesse's Music Bio" (http:/ / jessesublett. .S. wordpress. But by the same token. and Anthony Robinson have collaborated in a blog-driven poetry movement. "Young. and Cheap: The Skunks. The Skunks. [4] Regarding Jesse Sublett and his band. Joseph Massey. "'is it worth the admission. include David Berman. allmusic. and Jesse Sublett. Evel is the kind of man who defies even fiction. poets including Reb Livingston. com/ artist/ p26360) at Allmusic. Here is a real man who feels at home as Spidey on the cover of a comic book. Chapman. . described by Massey as "a ‘new sincerity’ brewing in American poetry -. Our credo: "Be More Awesome. Simply put.271 n. Our greeting: a double thumbs-up.. nodepression. google. and rejects irony. com/ ww/ 08-30-99/ austin_music_feature2. and particularly ironic appreciation of cultural products. December 8. com/ books?as_isbn=9780819562760) (Wesleyan University Press. Texas (http:/ / books. allmusic. friend. net/ blogs/ peter/ 2008/ 01/ _is_it_worth_the_admission.a contrast to the cold. com/ books?id=-6yPxcrGqfMC& lpg=PP1& dq=Jesse Sublett& pg=PP1#v=onepage& q=& f=false) at Google Books). Thorn commented that "'new sincerity'" had begun as "a silly. [3] Peter Blackstock. 1999. the Band That Broke Austin Out of the Seventies. google. [8] Wild Seeds (http:/ / www."[36] New sincerity in American poetry Since 2005. funny things we were sincere about them. A man who achieved fame and fortune jumping over things. [5] True Believers (http:/ / www. . Here is a man in a red-white-and-blue leather jumpsuit. com/ artist/ p27102) at Allmusic. html).. wordpress. Loud." Throw caution to the wind. "Why Should Anyone Care Now?" (http:/ / weeklywire."[34] A typical explication of Thorn's concept is this 2006 "Manifesto for the New Sincerity": What is The New Sincerity? Think of it as irony and sincerity combined like Voltron. 2000. philosophical movement that me and some friends made up in college" and that "everything that we said was a joke. Dean Young. irony-laden poetry dominating the journals and magazines and new books of poetry.. Arielle Greenberg. 1994) (ISBN 9780819562760). [6] Kent H. ISBN 9781580085984 ( excerpts available (http:/ / books. he isn't to be taken ironically. The fact of the matter is that Evel is. . in a word. Or think of it as the absence of irony and sincerity. Never the Same Again: A Rock 'N' Roll Gothic (Ten Speed Press. but at the same time it wasn’t all a joke in the sense that we weren’t being arch or we weren’t being campy. to form a new movement of astonishing power. allmusic. com/ artist/ p27169) at Allmusic.84.'" (http:/ / www. No Depression blog post dated January 15. austinchronicle.

unomaha. 2008). [26] Adam Kelly. excerpt (http:/ / books. 2008). anthropoetics. posted November 2.M1) available at Google Books. All Over the Map: True Heroes of Texas Music (University of Texas Press. edu/ dept/ anth/ yurchak. Hilary Radner and Ava Preacher Collins. ISBN 9780292709768. "Post-Post-Communist Sincerity: Pioneers. eds. [19] Mikhail Epstein. [30] Dennis McCafferty. net/ index.6 (March 22. pdf) . eds. austinchronicle. [17] Mikhail Epstein. See also his book. Memories (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. htm) The Journal of Religion and Film. net/ DFW_TV. posted September 15. 2005. [12] The New York Times. Cosmonauts. 2007). aestheticsandculture. com/ books?id=5qjzj3JwaoIC& printsec=frontcover#PPA146. "Müz: The New Ambiguity. Cosmonauts. "A Catalogue of New Poetries. January 16. p. and Other Soviet Heroes Born Today. p. ISBN 9780415905763). Sincerity tries a new trick" (http:/ / www. "Top podcast picks: Favorites from experts in their category. By which I meant: never be cynical. 2009). Davies Group: Aurora. "Texas Platters: deEP end" (http:/ / www. "On the Place of Postmodernism in Postmodernity. Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover. com/ books?id=3GonhERyzwEC& printsec=frontcover#PPA258. Almost Famous: The Austin Texas Soundtrack Circa 1985 (http:/ / annabellemagazine." (http:/ / www.6. 245. [32] Dan Brodnitz. pp. nytimes. 2 (October 2005).M1) available at Google Books. com/ papers/ cruz/ 03. Performatism or the End of Postmodernism. Aleksandr Genis. themerlinshow. allmusic. com/ artist/ p4370) at Allmusic. "A Community of Characters – the Narrative Self in the Films of Wes Anderson. 129-44. com/ 2006/ 11/ 02/ jesse_thorn_ame. 2009. php) in Gothamist. 146 excerpt (http:/ / books.258 n. Solomon." (http:/ / www." in Thomas Lahusen and Peter H. eds. "Performatism. "Okkervil River: The New Sincerity. Aleksandr Genis. The Village Voice. no. Memories (LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. posted June 4. "Seriously Uncool." (http:/ / jsomers. What Is Soviet Now?: Identities. TX: SSMG Press. Part 1. villagevoice. google. php/ jac/ article/ view/ 5677) in Journal of Aesthetics and Culture 2 (2010) [29] Ben Kharakh. 9. htm) in Anthropoetics 6 (2000/2001) . metroactive.. google.3. 1993) (ISBN 0415905761.) [22] (http:/ / magazines." in Mikhail Epstein. What Is Soviet Now?: Identities. ISBN 9781571810984. Austin Chronicle. google. "Jesse Thorn. reprinted in Michael Corcoran. com/ 2001-03-27/ music/ vibrators/ 2/ ). html) at University of California." (http:/ / www. "Notes on metamodernism" (http:/ / www. 06/ muz-0610.S.New Sincerity [9] Glass Eye (http:/ / www. 1999). Berkeley Department of Anthropology website (retrieved February 15. [25] David Foster Wallace. com/ ep/ 019-interview-jesse-thorn-part-1) The Merlin Show.M1) available at Google Books. 35/1 (January/February 1999). html) O'Reilly Digital Media. p. Colorado 2008. oreilly. com/ books?id=oDwTPU8l2RQC) (New York: Routledge. "Vibrators" (http:/ / www. com/ digitalmedia/ 2008/ 09/ an-interview-with-the-sound-of. [11] Michael Corcoran. Fiction. Legacies. google. com/ books?id=5qjzj3JwaoIC& printsec=frontcover#PPA457. [34] Alexei Yurchak. further explains this contrast in terms of Susan Sontag's comment that a good writer should "Be serious. 2007. [21] Yurchak. html) USA Weekend. 2000.) [31] "Interview: Jesse Thorn. excerpt (http:/ / books. 2006. " E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.. (Thorn's program was the in-print "podcast pick" of comedian Patton Oswalt. ru/ novyi_mi/ 2006/ 8/ vo9. shtml) Jacket 35 (2008) [14] Robert Christgau. com/ annabelle issue 12/ 08Z. p. March 3." (http:/ / www. ("In the United States. 2006 (opining that New Sincerity is "just another ironic hoax"). citing Mark Olsen.259 n.col1) Film Comment. usaweekend. [27] Raoul Eshelman. January 14. edu/ ap0602/ perform. 242. excerpt (http:/ / books. 150–156. "Post-Post-Communist Sincerity: Pioneers." in Thomas Lahusen and Peter H. Annabelle Magazine. Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover. [24] Brannon M. Ed. com/ 07_issues/ 070114/ 070114tech. Austin.. 2007. March 27. com/ 35/ morris-sincerity. html) [23] Jim Collins. berkeley. [16] Austin Powell. [18] Alexei Yurchak. p. 12 (2006). google.) 154 ." (http:/ / blogs. March 8–15. at p. "Mr. vol." in Mikhail Epstein. com/ 2005/ 01/ 16/ arts/ music/ 16sann. Legacies. March 13. [15] Kate X. And which doesn't preclude being funny. David Hering. 2005). 08. com/ books?id=3GonhERyzwEC& printsec=frontcover#PPA258. russ." (http:/ / findarticles. [10] Kristin Gorski. Film Theory Goes to the Movies (http:/ / books. Hancock." (Citing Sontag as quoted in Jenny Diski. 258–259. 2008. [33] But see Bill Forman. ISBN 9783825806408.M1) available at Google Books. the term 'new sincerity' has been popularized since 9/11 by some youth media (for example. html) Metro Santa Cruz. html). No. Messer. 1999). America's Radio Sweetheart" (http:/ / gothamist. ISBN 9781571810984. 457. "David Foster Wallace and the New Sincerity in American Fiction." London Review of Books 29." Consider David Foster Wallace: Critical Essays. 2010. html) The New York Times. “The Time Between Time: Messianism & the Promise of a “New Sincerity." (http:/ / www. 2001. austinchronicle. by Jesse Thorn.. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m1069/ is_1_35/ ai_53705833/ pg_1?tag=artBody. the host of a popular music program Sound of Young America. “Genericity in the 90s: Eclectic Irony and the New Sincerity” in Jim Collins. Russian Postmodernism: New Perspectives on Post-Soviet Culture (Berghahn Books. Russian Postmodernism: New Perspectives on Post-Soviet Culture (Berghahn Books. or the End of Postmodernism" (http:/ / www. [28] Timotheus Vermeulen & Robin van den Akker. on New York's National Public Radio station WNYC"). eds. "An Interview with The Sound of Young America's Jesse Thorn. ISBN 9783825806408. ucla. "If I Can Dream: The Everlasting Boyhoods of Wes Anderson. edu/ jrf/ Vol9No2/ HancockCommunity. com/ gyrobase/ Issue/ story?oid=oid:76071) Austin Chronicle. "The New Sincerity: Austin in the Eighties". [20] Alexei Yurchak biography (http:/ / ls.” (http:/ / jacketmagazine. no. com/ gyrobase/ Issue/ review?oid=oid:754184). and Other Soviet Heroes Born Today. Solomon. [13] Jason Morris.

• Peter Cresswell. has his own personal blog [6]. Unlike overseas counterparts. public discourse" blogs in New Zealand and ranks them according to a formula of traffic. Red Alert and Frogblog allow comments. "Q&A: With Jesse Thorn. former leader of the small Libertarianz Party maintains the popular Not PC [14] blog on libertarian issues. • The Green Party has an official blog. Hide often comments from within the House of Representatives itself. Many blogs are written by current and former party apparatchiks. " Drunk Bunnies. com/ 2009/ 09/ 15/ qa-with-jesse-thorn-americas-radio-sweetheart/ ). a coalition against climate change Unofficial blogs Many political activists in New Zealand maintain blogs. maximumfun. which often links to. Flarf: How Blogs are Transforming Poetry. com/ m/ index." (http:/ / www. [37] Katy Henriksen. and expands on. [36] Jonathan Valania. National MP for Tukituki. Frogblog [7]. • Coalition for Open Government COG [10] • The Socialist Worker (Aotearoa) blog gives a view from the revolutionary left [11] • Climaction [9]. • Joe Carolan from Socialist Aotearoa updates SocialistAotearoa. New Zeal [12]. 2009. 2006. Lobby group blogs A number of political pressure groups have blogs. Numerous politicians began blogs during the 2005 election. posting frequency and comments. The Tumeke! nz blogosphere [2] lists over 200 "author-operated. econoculture. in which the MPs discuss policy and Parliamentary business. Green party press releases. • Trevor Loudon. org/ blog/ 2006/ 02/ manifesto-for-new-sincerity. The blog is partly written by Greens co-leader Russel Norman. html) February 17. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=414& Itemid=45) EconoCulture. phawker. Phawker. Red Alert [8]. society and occurrences. The New Sincerity. Political blogs There are a considerable number of blogs that focus on the politics of New Zealand. former Vice-President of ACT New Zealand. links incoming. These rankings show a wide range of ideological positions are popular and that female bloggers are scarce. and particularly copyright. • The Labour caucus has an official blog. but these have since ceased." (http:/ / www.org [13]. January 23. both Rodney Hide. 2007. • Academic Stephen Marshall has a blog [15] on legal matters. . although it mainly pertains to anti-communism rather than ACT party policy. 155 New Zealand blogosphere New Zealand's blogosphere is a small community of around 600[1] blogs that comment largely on New Zealand politics. and many bloggers are journalists and print media commentators such as the bloggers on Russell Brown's Public Address [4]. Blogs from within political parties • The ACT party leader Rodney Hide has a blog [5]. America’s Radio Sweetheart" (http:/ / www. September 15.New Sincerity [35] Jesse Thorn. • Craig Foss. has a blog. such as David Farrar's Kiwiblog and Jordan Carter's Just Left [3]. "A Manifesto for The New Sincerity.

[23] .[21] On 1 June 2010.[16] A few weeks earlier the National Business Review had stated that. Dannevirke blogger Henk van Helmond was convicted of breaching a name suppression order and given a suspended sentence. The blogosphere has also make an impart on parliament – Russell Brown is quoted as saying. Slater published a blog post that used binary and hexadecimal code to reveal the identity of a person charged with indecent assault on a 13 year old girl. alongside the fact that unlike newspapers blogs can link directly to facts and sources. Sunday News revealed[19] a blog site set up by Wellington-based national socialist Nic Miller after personal details of four Jewish families living in the city were posted on it. On Dec 23. The Ministry responded to the publication of the blog.[22] CYFS Watch In January 2007 another controversial blog. The blog remained online until 22 February 2007 when Google deleted the site. by complaining to internet company Google. often bringing up controversial points. In August 2006.[20] The charges relate to two blog posts that contained pictures which reveal the identities of two New Zealanders. Cameron Slater was charged with five counts of breaching name suppression orders. who posted them on the blog. The pamphlet for which he was convicted and imprisoned on a charge of sedition was published on his website.New Zealand blogosphere 156 Relationship to "mainstream" politics A 2007 New Zealand Herald article by Bill Ralston described political bloggers as being potentially the most powerful "opinion makers" in New Zealand politics.[18] The article saw the increasing influence of the Internet (as opposed to television and radio) on people's lives and the number of professional journalists now maintaining blogs as the reason for the blogosphere's increased significance. The Nelson Bays police announced that they would investigate this further breach of New Zealand's name suppression laws. On Jan 11. The judge suppressed the publication of any details which might identify van Helmond's blog. CYFS Watch. The details were later removed from the site.[18] Controversies Criminal charges Tim Selwyn. 2010. which published the details of several social workers."[17] And in 2008 The Press said that year's election "could be the time when New Zealand's burgeoning political bloggers finally make their presence felt". Selwyn was also criticised in parliament for sending letters about his prison experiences to his co-blogger Martyn 'Bomber' Bradbury. The blog's stated aim was unveiling examples of alleged incompetence by the Child Youth and Family Service (known by its acronym CYFS) of the Ministry of Social Development. 2009. an Auckland man convicted of sedition in 2006. appeared. "Every now and then you see a line from the blog turn up in a parliamentary speech" and in December 2007 then prime minister Helen Clark accused political journalists of "rushing to judgment" on their blogs. is also a prominent blogger. due to the blog's anonymous author making death threats towards Green MP Sue Bradford because of her Crimes (Abolition of Force as a Justification for Child Discipline) Amendment Bill 2005. "Any realistic 'power list' produced in this country would include either [David] Farrar or his fellow blogger and opinion leader Russell Brown.

In June blogger 'Skinny' made the discovery [39] that a photo used in promotional material about the 2008 budget was of an American family. they do not repeat the news. The mainstream media at first was highly critical of bloggers. Personal blogs There are many long-running personal blogs. gutless wonders who prefer to spit inarticulate venom under inarticulate pseudonyms. In January 2007 The New Zealand Herald printed an editorial that stated "[M]ost bloggers – and we're talking 95 per cent – are fly-by-night. blogger David Farrar revealed the Green Party's preliminary party list.Paul Reynolds (1997–2010) • Robyn Gallagher [45] (1996) • Aardvark [46] . There are also a number of geographical based blog such as The Wellingtonista [42]. such as Russell Brown.Bruce Simpson (1995) . In February 2008 a blog post [31] by Russell Brown about the Wikipedia article on Bill English being edited from a computer at parliament received coverage in The New Zealand Herald. which have been around since the mid.[37] The story was subsequently picked up by NZPA and published on Stuff [38]. For instance."[24] Since then though the newspaper has picked up multiple stories first broken on blogs (see below).[40] Non-political blogs There are numerous non-political blogs. • Hubris [43] . not a New Zealand one – the story was then published in The New Zealand Herald. Some current and former bloggers have worked in or for the media industry. Keith Ng.[34] a blog with links to the Labour Party. Tze Ming Mok and Dave Crampton. instead putting forward their viewpoint on it.[18] A similar story was that of a computer at Air New Zealand being used to edit the Wikipedia article on Air New Zealand Flight 901 which was first mentioned on NZBC [35] and later picked up by The Press.[32] The story had first been broken on The Standard [33].[26] Bloggers breaking news There have been many notable examples of bloggers breaking news stories and then having the media pick it up. Political scientist Bryce Edwards who maintains the liberation blog has also been a guest columnist for The New Zealand Herald[25] as has Geoffrey Miller of Douglas to Dancing.New Zealand blogosphere 157 Media relationship The majority of bloggers still rely upon the media for the provision of news stories to comment upon.[41] They range from music blogs to group blogs to personal blogs. Idiot/Savant [27] discovered [28] that neither Rodney Hide nor Heather Roy had been showing up to Parliament and consequently the ACT party had not voted in the 2006 budget debate.or late-1990s. The story was subsequently picked up by The Dominion Post [29] and The New Zealand Herald [30]. However.Joanna McLeod (1998) • PeoplePoints [44] .[36] In April 2008.

2007-10-07. blogspot. blogspot. [33] http:/ / www. nzherald. co. co. com/ [13] http:/ / www. stuff. com/ http:/ / blog. nz/ thepress/ 4402999a13135. http:/ / www. cog. html. org. com [14] http:/ / pc. com/ index.00. . cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10619680). cfm?c_id=280& objectid=10468322& pnum=0). nz/ section/ story.00. html [29] http:/ / www. vuw. [17] Ben Thomas and David W Young (20 September 2007). . co. nzherald. blogs. nz:8000/ pebble/ [16] "Bill Ralston: Public opinion on Key turns rabid" (http:/ / www. labour.New Zealand blogosphere 158 Fashion blogs With the development of the fashion industry in New Zealand. Retrieved 2007-09-21. . net/ default. http:/ / nzblogosphere. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10425243)". The New Zealand Herald. thestandard. blogspot. nzherald.2106. blogspot. . 12 January 2010. nz/ [8] http:/ / blog. co. • Thread [47] • NZ Girl [48] • Fashion NZ [49] Science blogs A group of science.4833. rodneyhide. "Blogger guilty of breach". nz/ nz/ news/ article. most of them being online magazines. com/ http:/ / jtc. 2008-02-28. nzherald. stuff. com [15] http:/ / artemis. nz/ section/ 466/ story. 26 December 2009. The Press. nz/ section/ story. nz/ section/ 1/ story. nz/ ?p=1236). The New Zealand Herald. Kiwiology. 2008-03-12. stuff. co. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10617454). com/ just_left http:/ / publicaddress. . php/ weblog/ index/ http:/ / craigfossmp. net/ http:/ / www. org/ 5Vl6g6JHD)) [19] Sunday News. publicaddress. August 2006. org. The New Zealand Herald. The Standard. unityaotearoa. co. technology and medical bloggers are operating under the auspices of the Science media centre [50] Royal Society of New Zealand at Sciblogs [51]. blogspot. The New Zealand Herald. nz/ stuff/ sundaynews/ 0. . co. com/ 2006/ 05/ wheres-rodney. org. org. sm#post4833 [32] "Blogger targets 'political' editing of Wikipedia in Beehive" (http:/ / www. cfm?c_id=466& objectid=10497511& pnum=0). [23] " Google shuts down Cyfswatch website (http:/ / www. nzherald. html [30] http:/ / www. nzherald. asp?id=19070& cid=39& cname=NBR+ Comment). p. a lot of fashion blogs have appeared. 2008-02-16. nz [11] http:/ / www. nz/ [9] http:/ / climaction. . [20] "Blogger to Defend Suppression Breach Charges" (http:/ / www. ( archive copy (http:/ / www. nz/ ). blogspot. nzherald. webcitation.3679946a6160. blogspot. 2006-09-14. National Business Review. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10401160). References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] "The New Zealand Blogosphere" (http:/ / kiwiology. 1. New Zealand Herald [24] "Big Blogger Is Watching" The New Zealand Herald (2007-01-27) [25] "Bryce Edwards: Backdoor funding affects democracy" (http:/ / www. NZ Herald. [21] "Blogger in trouble again for naming ex-MP in teen sex case" (http:/ / www. ac. nz/ section/ story. Manawatu Standard.3763198a15596. co. NZ Herald. [26] "Geoffrey Miller: Act's dilemma . nz/ nz/ news/ article. [22] Michelle Duff (2010-06-01). blogspot. nz/ home/ column_article. com [28] http:/ / norightturn. [18] "Bloggers left and right" (http:/ / www. co. com/ [10] http:/ / www. [27] http:/ / norightturn. "Politicians will be haunted by their past on internet" (http:/ / www. html). nzherald.what's in a name?" (http:/ / www. co. 2008-02-27. org. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10383618 [31] http:/ / www. utdc. . nz [34] "Bills Wikipedia Edits" (http:/ / www. co.2106. greens. co. co. com [12] http:/ / newzeal. . . nz/ stuff/ 0. thestandard. blogspot. nz/ section/ 1/ story. . socialistaotearoa. nbr. cfm?c_id=280& objectid=10495206& ref=rss).

nzherald. co. In this way. co. so it is vital to the niche blogger to have useful content that is related to the chosen niche. While it could be argued that every blog is. [42] http:/ / wellingtonista. nz/ search?q=personal+ blog& meta=cr=countryNZ). the niche blog itself often contains valuable information. Neither blogging nor niche marketing is a new concept. nz/ [49] http:/ / www. co. but this is a misnomer. thread. html) [38] http:/ / www. . com [43] http:/ / hubris. niche blogs will contain advertisements of some sort (pay-per-click or products or both). nz/ [51] http:/ / sciblogs. Cost The most significant reason for the popularity of niche blogging is the cost. nz/ [44] http:/ / www. only in recent years has the concept of a niche blog come into being. co. nz/ [48] http:/ / www. fashionz. html). co. google. co. nz/ 4463361a11.nz search for 'personal blog'" (http:/ / www. In some cases. [41] "Google. net. Usually.co. Most pay-per-click advertising is content-sensitive. a niche blog. nzbc. co. co. robyngallagher. co. the marketer can determine the viability of the selected niche before making a large investment of time and money. sciencemediacentre. peoplepoints. co. . . the term as it applies to marketing refers to a particular kind of blog. co. including cost. nz/ 159 Niche blogging Niche blogging is the act of creating a blog with the intent of using it to market to a particular niche market. co. Even though the desired end result for the niche blogger is to make money. in some form. cfm?c_id=1& objectid=10515612). nz/ [50] http:/ / www. 2008-06-11. nz/ 2008/ 06/ 07/ labour-and-the-typical-new-zealand-family/ [40] "US photographer surprised at Labour using his happy family picture" (http:/ / www. stuff. kiwiblog. nz/ [47] http:/ / www. nz/ section/ 1/ story.New Zealand blogosphere [35] http:/ / www. stuff. aardvark. nz/ 2008/ 04/ green_party_list. Features of niche blogging The popularity of niche blogging among new marketers can be attributed to several factors. Niche bloggers can quickly and easily create a blog for free. nz/ 2007/ 08/ whos-been-editing-wikipedia. . co. skinny. html [39] http:/ / www. 2007-08-21. adaptability and generating traffic. the purpose of the niche blog is to incite the reader into visiting another website which may then attempt to sell the reader a product or service. However. nzgirl. nz/ [45] http:/ / www. com/ [46] http:/ / www. [37] Green Party List (http:/ / www. co. Niche blogs are sometimes referred to as splogs. html [36] "Erebus article censor found at Air NZ" (http:/ / www. nz/ 4171940a10. The Press. The New Zealand Herald.

the niche blogger can inform various online directories of the blog's existence. Adaptability also refers to the ability to update the information on the niche blog at will. it must have visitors. Visitors to these directories are then exposed to the blog's listing and may choose to visit the blog. . A great feature of blogs is the ability to add new articles on a daily. Ilana. it is important for a successful marketer to stay up-to-date on current trends.DTL). incorporate Really Simple Syndication (RSS). on the other hand. The San Francisco Chronicle. Blog services like Blogger.but here's how" (http:/ / sfgate. cgi?f=/ c/ a/2007/09/12/BUJSRRJ9H.Niche blogging 160 Adaptability Because people's interests often change over time. Normal websites require search engine optimization or paid advertisement in order to gain visitors. References DeBare. "Blogging tough way to make money . basis Also each post is akin to a stand alone webpage allowing the blogger to create articles independent of each other. the directories act as a marketing tool for the niche blogger. com/ cgi-bin/ article. Generating traffic In order for a website to be profitable. Thus. provide links to the blog. in turn. Retrieved 2007-09-18. By using free services. Using this technology. They. the niche blogger can quickly adapt to the changing market and create a new blog marketed to that niche. or more frequent.

novell. Name change Novell Vibe was formerly known as Novell Pulse. The software is one of the first major developments outside Google to utilize the Google Wave Federation Protocol. com/ products/ vibe-cloud/ [2] (http:/ / www.[4] References [1] http:/ / www. and other Novell software. computerweekly. but after the launch of Google Wave. com/ promo/ vibe. as is currently the case with Groupwise.novell.[3] Service Vibe will first be offered as a cloud service. Teaming.Novell Vibe 161 Novell Vibe Novell Vibe Developer(s) Novell Initial release April 6.com/products/vibe-cloud/) • Pulse press release (http://www. com/ Articles/ 2009/ 11/ 05/ 238438/ novell-announces-first-major-integration-with-google. html External links • Novell Vibe product page (http://www. com/ c/ a/ Messaging-and-Collaboration/ Novell-Pulse-Launches-With-Google-Wave-Support-For-Realtime-Collaboration-667027/ ) [4] http:/ / www.com/news/press/ novell-unveils-real-time-collaboration-platform-for-the-enterprise-and-demonstrates-google-wave-interoperability-1/ Novell) .[2] Vibe was originally an autonomous project. 2011 Type Website Web application Novell Vibe [1] Novell Vibe is an real time collaborative editing (RTCE) software platform under development from Novell released in April 2011.novell. Novell began working to allow interoperability between the two platforms. eweek. novell. but it is expected that Novell will offer standalone software to enterprises for local deployment. htm) [3] (http:/ / www.

this is a powerful tool to build digital literacy and digital citizenship in marginalized groups. there are now a range of photoblog hosting services available which provide ready made photoblogs in which everything has already been set up. However. developers have begun to write purpose-built CMS just for creating photoblogs.Photoblog 162 Photoblog A photoblog (or photolog. As an example. Over time. Good photoblogging platforms also include camera metadata (Exif) that display the camera settings of each photo taken. have APIs that allow other blogging systems to display their images. Convergence of mobile phones with digital cameras has opened a new era in photoblogging as authors may publish photos directly from smart devices to the Web. or low literacy to contribute to material on the Web. such as Flickr and Fotolog. These content management systems usually provide the photoblog's authors with a web service that allows the creation and management of posts and the uploading of images. The CMS delivers webpages based on the data entered by the photoblog author.[2] . as this gives them full control over the display and functionality of their photoblog. Construction There are three basic types of photoblogs. The dynamic nature of blogs and photoblogs compared to static sites means that blogs require some form of content management system (CMS) rather than being built by hand. a photoblog author might limit his blog to display a single entry per day (as opposed to several entries which is typical for text blogs) and he might put thumbnails in entry excerpts to provide archives that display images instead of text snippets. Access to photoblogs is usually unrestricted and available to anyone with internet access and a web browser. or phlog) is a form of photo sharing and publishing in the format of a blog.[1] Visual blogging enables people with limited english. Some existing blogging CMS have been modified by the use of add-ons or plugins (and sometimes core code rewriting) to enable the transition from text blogging to photoblogging. Pixelpost or Picoplog). Photoblogging (the action of posting photos to a photoblog) gained momentum in the early 2000s with the advent of the moblog and cameraphones. This has made photoblogging more accessible to the layman. It differs from a blog through the predominant use of and focus on photographs rather than text.g. giving the user many options as to the construction of a particular site. Combined with automatic (photo-booth) uploading technology. and photoblogs on photo specific blogging services such as Fotolog or Flickr. photoblogs on blogging services such as Blogger that were designed primarily for text content. Many photobloggers still prefer this option of running their own server. Additionally many services specializing in hosting and displaying images. Developments and Accessibility The early days of photoblogging required some level of technical experience with setting up a webserver and installing or writing the CMS code for it (e. Screenshot of a typical photo blog. Photoblogs on individual domains.

unlike social news services like Digg. in Twitter parlance. user moderation on front pages was de-emphasized as a feature in favor of "reblogs" on user profiles. by August 2010. in addition. journalism. Twitter officially began integrating the "retweet" mechanism by replacing the string "RT @username" with a retweet symbol[1] [2] . php) [2] Wilurarra Creative (http:/ / wilurarra. including major news service websites. giving bloggers and news services a seemingly-more accurate metric for readership and traffic than ever before. the "retweet" phenomenon began around March 2008. For a number of microblogging and social networking services. while the hashtag protocol would later be developed by users within the same year to highlight important keywords which they wished to be indexed in a search engine. wilurarra. a post by User A which was considered notable by another Twitter user. however. to encourage readers of a post to share a link to the post with others on one's contact list. Only in the mid-2000s was the "share via e-mail" solicitation accompanied or replaced by branded "sharing" buttons from various social news or bookmarking services at the time. reblogging has become a means of both social bookmarking and user commentary. was copied by User B and reposted under User B's account and prepended with "RT @username". reblogging typically does not involve a centralized "front page" to which the highest-ranked post is appended. it was not uncommon for webmasters. In August 2009. uk/ 2/ articles/ 530925. as "Internet petitions" and "chain e-mails" which encouraged e-mail users to "resend" the e-mail to at least a minimum number of contacts on one's contact list were highly popular (and highly controversial) in the 1980s and 1990s. php). however. Twitter On Twitter. and it has also become a potent means of secondary content promotion and audience measurement whereby links to external content are syndicated across multiple profiles and the reposts are indexed as a measurement of currency and relevance. History and comparison A historical precedent to reblogging is the viral nature of e-mail. however. With the rise of micro-blogging in the latter 2000s. With the rise of the World Wide Web. an official "Tweet button" was developed and launched by Twitter for external websites[3] . with Twitter-based .com External links • Photoblogs (http://www. User B. which were usually taken by bloggers and news services as automatic endorsement of an original/linked post's currency. retweet buttons were added to all Twitter posts (alongside "reply") and. In this protocol. retweeting) is the mechanism in microblogging which allows users to repost the content of another user's post with an indication that the content of the repost is a "reblog" from another user.org/Arts/Photography/Weblogs/Photoblogs//) at the Open Directory Project Reblogging Reblogging (or. Slashdot and Reddit. co. with "RT" meaning "retweet". gave bloggers and news services pause due to both real and alleged competition in moderation ranking of shared "front-page" posts.dmoz. com/ index. if not popular favor. The at sign had been previously developed as a means of replying to Twitter posts. whereby an informal protocol slowly developed among Twitter users. In 2009. Reblogging (and the increased attention paid to the indexing and encouragement of reblogging) has become a major feature of many social networking sites and content-hosting services. the "retweet" phenomenon would experience a major uptick in adoption by Twitter users in order to forward SMS posts by Iranian observers and participants in the events following the Iranian presidential election.Photoblog 163 References [1] Mobile journalism (http:/ / www. the issue of user moderation.

Analysis With the growing popularity of reblogging or re-syndication in the latter 2000s and early 2010s. . posts to Tumblr are typically shown less as typical blog posts (as offered by most major blog providers) and more as a blend of both Internet forum and blog features. resulting in often highly-stacked semi-threaded conversations which are indexed and interpreted by the Tumblr server in the presented manner. In addition. hashtags.Reblogging application developer Tweetmeme agreeing with Twitter to integrate the functionality of its own then-popular button into Twitter's official button[4] . Links grant authority. while Arrington (stating his opinion in light of the recent launch of Topsy. with the option of making a comment in reply to the previous post. Links build branding."[10] However. links are currency. users and lists utilizing the Retweet protocol. a number of analyses have been offered on the functionality and value of the practice. LeBleu's version of the "retweet bank" interprets the virtual currency model in the following manner: • one's own repost of other's posts = means of gaining influence currency • other's reposts of one's own posts = loss in influence currency. social news or micro-blogging service. a micro-blog search engine which endorses the view of retweets as currency based upon "influence"[9] )cited journalist Jeff Jarvis. meaning 'Regards To' and 'Re-Tweet' respectively. another micro-blogging service. allows users to share links to and comments on external webpages to their walls. As virtual currency In 2009. while not promoting itself as a social bookmarking. buttons for publishers to automatically share their posts on Facebook and index the current number of user links to the linked post are available. 164 Tumblr Tumblr. link and publishing username in the repost. who wrote in 2005: "Just remember this: In this new world. A feature of this method that distinguishes Tumblr from Twitter is that less emphasis is placed upon reblogging only the original post. An original post by one Tumblr user is reblogged by another user by embedding a quote of the original post.from the perspective of the importance of web search engines in driving link-based traffic to web pages . Facebook Facebook. Links equal value. RT is a popular acronym on social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Topsy and a few other external third-party websites provide indexes of currently-trending posts. is also profile-driven and hierarchical in its facilitation of "reblogs". Tweetmeme. As a result. LeBleu endorsed the idea of a "favour bank" (or "banco de favores") as put forth by Paulo Coelho in his 2005 novel The Zahir[7] [8] . commentators such as Gillaume LeBleu[5] and Michael Arrington[6] stated their views of the retweet as a virtual "currency" system .interprets the model in the following manner: • the repost by someone else of one's own post = means of accruing influence currency • one's repost of another user's post = the loss of influence currency. while Arrington's version .

North Carolina. tweetmeme. Carl Zimmer and others. Tweetmeme. html). Notable attendees have included PZ Myers. "Favour Bank" (http:/ / paulocoelhoblog. com/ article/ 170209/ twitter_to_bolster_tools_with_retweet_function. charlotteobserver. boingboing. twitter. org/ blog/ 2009/ 01/ 08/ please-retwit-rt-as-currency-and-twitter-social-ad-business-model/ ). [7] Paulo Coelho (July 1. com/ 2009/ 07/ 01/ the-favor-bank/ ). Jennifer Ouellette. "Twitter to Bolster Tools with 'Retweet' Function" (http:/ / www. 2009). [9] "Influence: The Social Web Currency" (http:/ / corp. "Wired" (http:/ / www. . com/ 2009/ 05/ 26/ topsy-search-launches-retweets-are-the-new-currency-of-the-web/ ). The conferences have been covered as local news by publications such as the Charlotte Observer[2] . . "The Favor Bank" (http:/ / paulocoelhoblog. net/ 2011/ 01/ 14/ the-classroom-blog-t. topsy. 2010).[1] It is attended primarily by bloggers and science journalists from North America. "“Please ReTweet”: RT as currency and Twitter social ad business model" (http:/ / lebleu. com/ 2010/ 08/ pushing-our-tweet-button. mit. as well as "new media" like Boing Boing[3] . com/ 2007/ 11/ 21/ favour-bank/ ). com/ blog/ post. com/ 2005/ 08/ 13/ wired/ ). html http:/ / www. [5] Gillaume LeBleu (January 2009). . 2007). . . Twitter. Topsy. [4] Nick Halstead (August 2010). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / scienceonline2011. August 12. twitter. "Pushing Our (Tweet) Button" (http:/ / blog. com/ 2010/ 08/ 12/ twitter-tweet-button/ ). The conference has been held annually since 2007. [6] Michael Arrington (May 26. [3] Carolyn Penner (Thursday. html). html http:/ / www. that focuses on the role of the internet in science and science communication. [10] Jeff Jarvis (August 13. scientificamerican. com/ about/ http:/ / www. edu/ 2011/ 01/ 19/ cjr-scio11-etc-scienceonline2011-a-festive-sell-out-meeting/ http:/ / www. html?tk=rel_news). . cfm?id=science-bloggers-gather-to-battle-m-2011-01-17 . "Project Retweet: Phase One" (http:/ / blog. TechCrunch. [8] Paulo Coelho (November 21. org/ the_observatory/ the_hottest_thing_in_science_b. Science online (conference) Science Online is an annual conference held in Durham. pcworld. com/ 2009/ 08/ project-retweet-phase-one. com/ about/ influence/ ). [2] Daniel Ionescu (14 August 2009). com/ 2011/ 01/ 15/ 1983493/ scientists-nourish-the-youtube. . professional journalist organizations like the Columbia Journalism Review[4] [5] and science-oriented publications like Scientific American[6] . . cjr. PC World. 2009). buzzmachine. . 2005). "Twitter Tweet Button" (http:/ / blog. Rebecca Skloot. . "Topsy Search: ReTweets Are The New Currency Of The Web" (http:/ / techcrunch. php http:/ / ksjtracker.Reblogging 165 References [1] Biz Stone (13 August 2009).

uk/ blogs_profile. micro-blogging. dk/ alle-børn-har-ret-til-uddannelse) http:/ / www. audio or video. The blog has been called "refreshingly insightful. Swazi Media Commentary Swazi media Commentary is a blog written by former Associate Professor in journalism and mass communication at the University of Swaziland.com. These ever-changing constructions represent the new way of communicating for people who like to express their activities and share their common interests. including the web. The Blog discusses and informs about the political and human rights situation in Swaziland. Through several ways messages can be transmitted to social blogs. html Alle børn har ret til uddannelse| AFRIKA KONTAKT (http:/ / www. pambazuka. blogcatalog.Social blogging 166 Social blogging Social blogging is a popular concept developed due to the advances of weblogging. monthlyreview. html/ Amnesty Blogs: SwaziMedia's profile (http:/ / blogs. amnesty. focusing primarily on media freedom and the ethical issues of journalism practitioners in newspapers and other media. and it's completely free. These updates often include text (around 140 characters). pictures. People can create blogs on places like blogspot. On social blogs people inform each other about their activities by providing them with updates continually. comprehensive. com/ ) http:/ / mrzine. instant messaging. org/ 2009/ rooney220809. blogspot. and widely read" by Pambazuka News. com/ blogs/ swazi-media-commentary. honest and unrestrained" by the Swazi Nation Magazine and "very outspoken. org. Richard Rooney. org/ en/ category/ features/ 70617 .[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Swazi Media Commentary (http:/ / swazimedia. text messaging and e-mail. asp?uid=1137424) http:/ / www. and social networking. sydafrika.

Tablog 167 Tablog "Tablog"' is a neologism (a portmanteau word conjoining “tabloid” and “blog”) and refers to a specific form of blog. The element that distinguishes a tablog from other forms of blogs is the selection of material or means of presentation. and with links to other blogs. com [2] GPWA Times: The First iGaming Executive Blog… With a Twist (http:/ / www. Founded in 2008 during the presidential campaign season it is also the home of the video series [1] of the same name hosted by Elon James White. Please Sit Down (http:/ / thisweekinblackness.Com July 27th. html) The Huffington Post. 2009 [6] Message From The Average Black Person (http:/ / www. com/ bccofilms) [2] Black Weblog 2009 Winners (http:/ / www. html) The Huffington Post. Please Sit Down"[3] discussing the arrest of Henry Louis Gates Jr. July 20th. com/ 2009/ 07/ 23/ notes-from-a-phantom-negro-skip-gatesplease-sit-down/ ) This Week In Blackness July 23rd. pop culture and opinion from a Black progressive point of view. com/ 2008/ 09/ 15/ obama-waffles-get-em-while-the-are-hot) Crooks & Liars September 14th. The Huffington Post[8] and Salon. and other media related to its topic. with regular entries of commentary. 2009 [7] Obama Wafles. web pages. Get'em while they're HOT! (http:/ / crooksandliars. Crooks and Liars[7] . June 24th. 2009 [5] Message From the Average Black Person (http:/ / thisweekinblackness. which was then republished by Salon. References [1] BcCo Films: Elon James White (http:/ / youtube. blackweblogawards. gpwa. com/ past-winners/ #2009) [3] Notes From a Phantom Negro: Skip Gates. graphics. This Week in Blackness:The Web Series has been featured on DailyKos. History The term was coined by Calvin Ayre. CalvinAyre. com/ news/ opinion/ feature/ 2009/ 07/ 24/ gates) Salon. which tends to sensationalize.com [4] The blog also originally posted "Message From The Average Black Person"[5] which later was published by The Huffington Post[6] and AlterNet. 2009 [4] Skip Gates: Please Sit Down (http:/ / www.com [1] an executive blog targeted at the online gambling community. com/ elon-james-white/ a-message-from-the-averag_b_220022. emphasize or exaggerate for effect. 2008 [8] This Week in Blackness: 2009 is the new 1952 (http:/ / www. and which often focuses on scandalous information relating to the personal lives of celebrities or of members of their target industry.[2] Notes [1] http:/ / www. com/ elon-james-white/ this-week-in-blackness-20_b_241668. huffingtonpost. salon. huffingtonpost. org/ article. 2009 . com/ 2009/ 06/ 24/ a-message-from-the-average-black-person/ ) This Week In Blackness June 24th. The Blog was nominated for 4 Black Weblog Awards in 2009 and won 3 [2] including "Blog of the Year." This Week in Blackness originally published the controversial "Notes From a Phantom Negro: Skip Gates. asp?id=179303) This Week In Blackness This Week in Blackness (also referred to as TWiB!) is an American culture blog which primarily publishes news. The site is best known for the critically acclaimed web series by the same name. video. usually maintained by an individual or organization. founder of the online gambling company Bodog in reference to CalvinAyre. descriptions of events.

. [3] [4] More recently Thurston has become a Thurston began hosting the Popular Science's Future Of television show on the Science Channel in August 2009.com) Baratunde Thurston Baratunde Rafiq Thurston Baratunde Rafiq Thurston Born September 11. com Baratunde Rafiq Thurston (born September 11. entitled How To Be Black. baratunde.) is an American comedian based in Boston and New York City. D. USA Occupation Comedian.This Week In Blackness 168 External links • Official Website (http://thisweekinblackness.C. the Press & Pop Culture (2004) 2. author Website http:/ / www. due in early 2011. 1977 in Washington. to be published by HarperCollins. Thank You Congressional Pages (For Being So Damn Sexy!) (2006) As part of Laughing Liberally.[5] External links • • • • • Baratunde Thurston's web site [6] Keep Jerry Falwell Away from My Oreo Cookies [7] Thank You Congressional Pages (For Being So Damn Sexy!) [8] Baratunde Thurston on The Young Turks [9] Baratunde makes an appearance in The Onion [10] . He is writing his fourth book. Thurston is the author of three self-published books: 1. 1977Washington. semi-regular panelist on the podcast this Week in Tech with Leo Laporte.[2] Thurston has contributed to the Huffington Post and the Weekly Dig. Thurston emceed the YearlyKos convention in 2006[1] and also appeared in 2007. Keep Jerry Falwell Away from My Oreo Cookies (2005) 3. D. Better than Crying: Poking Fun at Politics. Thurston is currently the Web Editor at The Onion.C. He is a graduate of Sidwell Friends School and a cum laude graduate of Harvard University.

uk/ commentisfree/ 2010/ jan/ 05/ twitter-tory-kerry-mccarthy). 2010-05-13. . [2] Jeff Zeleny (August 5. co. Retrieved 2008-04-07. . html). [3] "Huffington Post blog posts by Thurston" (http:/ / www. guardian. External links • Tory Bear (http://www. torybear. Harry Cole. Retrieved 2011-04-28. co. Thisisbristol. Retrieved 2011-04-28. Retrieved 2011-04-28. BBC News. [6] http:/ / www. "Democratic Candidates Spar at 'Netroots' Forum" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-04-28.co. . "The trouble with Tory Twitter" (http:/ / www. co. com/ events-and-promotions/ article/ 2009-08/ baratunde-thurston-correspondent-future). com/ doc/ 18341/ Thank-You-Congressional-Pages-for-being-so-damn-sexy [9] http:/ / www. [2] "right-wing political gossip" (http:/ / www.Baratunde Thurston 169 References [1] "PoliticsTV entry covering the 2006 YearlyKos" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 2007). uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ politics/ election_2010/ 8677492. . . The New York Times. html). com/ 2007/ 08/ 05/ us/ politics/ 05dems. com/ blog/ ?p=363). uk/ news/ Bristol-MP-attacks-bully-boy-Twitter-campaign-started-Tories/ article-1673921-detail/ article. harrycole. stm). [4] "Search for 'Baratunde Thurston' on Weekly Dig" (http:/ / www. com/ doc/ 18350/ Keep-Jerry-Falwell-Away-From-My-Oreo-Cookies [8] http:/ / www. Sarah (2011-02-07).[4] Cole's "Kerry Out" campaign was criticized for its overt negativity.[5] References [1] "View from the blogs: Was this the internet election?" (http:/ / news. com/ [7] http:/ / www.[2] Tory Bear is written by Harry Cole. .uk. net/ 2009/ 11/ freelance-hack-and-editor-of-political. com/ story/ 2008/ 5/ 16/ 2092/ 22694/ [10] http:/ / www. [4] "Bristol MP attacks 'bully boy' Twitter campaign started by Tories" (http:/ / www. com/ search/ node/ baratunde+ thurston). scribd. weeklydig. . html).com/) . theonion. 2006. popsci. Retrieved 2008-04-07. [3] "Harry Cole" (http:/ / www. [5] Ditum.torybear. baratunde. . theyoungturks. politicstv. . [5] "Baratunde Thurston: Correspondent of the Future" (http:/ / www. nytimes.[3] During the 2010 general election campaign it was reported that Tory Bear campaign to sabotage the efforts of Bristol East MP Kerry McCarthy who was standing for re-election. bbc. Retrieved 2008-04-07. Tory Bear. huffingtonpost. 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2011-04-28. com/ ). . Retrieved 2008-04-07. scribd. thisisbristol. com/ content/ news/ obamas_hillbilly_half_brother Tory Bear (blog) Tory Bear[1] is a British political blog specializing in "right-wing political gossip". com/ baratunde-thurston). July 14. Guardian.

then the commenting blogger can notify the other blog with a "TrackBack ping". History The TrackBack specification was created by Six Apart. The receptor often publishes a link back to the originator indicating its worthiness. and both blogging tools support the TrackBack protocol.[1] The TrackBack has since been implemented in most other blogging tools. Blogger provides "backlinks". such as WordPress. and so referring. Drupal and Movable Type. to their articles. and links to. Some blogging tools are able to discover these TrackBack URLs automatically. which first implemented it in its Movable Type blogging software in August 2002. This URL is used by the commenting blogger. an entry found at another blog. Some weblog software. Trackbacks are used primarily to facilitate communication between blogs. or referring to. Selected software supporting trackbacks • • • • • • • • • Drupal ExpressionEngine Kentico CMS Movable Type WordPress Serendipity Sitefinity Telligent Community Typo . Six Apart started a working group in February 2006 to improve the Trackback protocol with the goal to eventually have it approved as an Internet standard by the IETF.Trackback 170 Trackback A trackback is one of three types of linkback methods for Web authors to request notification when somebody links to one of their documents. others require the commenting blogger to enter them manually. Software support Blogging software that supports the TrackBack protocol displays a "TrackBack URL" with every entry. Trackback requires both sites to be trackback-enabled in order to establish this communication. This enables authors to keep track of who is linking. all the commenting entries below the original entry. Function A trackback is an acknowledgment. if a blogger writes a new entry commenting on. This acknowledgment is sent via a network signal (ping) from the originating site to the receiving site. the receiving blog will typically display summaries of. Instead. This allows for conversations spanning several blogs that readers can easily follow. One notable blogging service that does not support trackback is Blogger. supports automatic pingbacks where all the links in a published article can be pinged when the article is published. whose software will send XML-formatted information about the new entry to this URL. The term is used colloquially for any kind of linkback.[2] which allow users to employ Google's search infrastructure to show links between blog entries.

References [1] TrackBack Technical Specification (http:/ / www. but differentiated by the predominant use of and focus on text created with a typewriter and then scanned rather than text entered directly into a computer. including writers ". a means of remembering a vanishing skill or as a form of manual communication. This is similar to comment spam but avoids some of the safeguards designed to stop the latter practice. Cheryl. Many blogs have stopped using trackbacks because dealing with spam became too much of a burden. February 2009 External links • http://talesfromthetyper. typecast blogs on blogging services such as Blogger that were designed primarily for electronically entered text content. Typecast blogs may be posted on individual domains. html).org. Construction There are several reasons to create typecasting blogs. Typecasting (the action of posting scanned typewritten images to a typecasting blog) is still a relatively rare form of a media type blog similar to vblog and photoblogs. movabletype. As reported by Martin Kaste in "An Ode To Clicky Keys" on NPR.. and sketchblogs or image specific blogging services.who like the sound of a typewriter bell at the end of a sentence" [1] . html) [2] Blogger: backlinks feature (not quite trackback) . References [1] Lowry.A Consuming Experience (http:/ / www. errors and corrections. Other typecasters pay tribute to manual forms of writing and like the appeal of typecasting. html) External links • Official specification (http://www. net/ 2009/ 01/ typecast-in-which-some-visual-effects. many people that typecast do so in order to preserve typewriting as a means of creating texts. handwritten edits.. consumingexperience. notes or signs of proofreading that allow the reader to see the raw text complete with typos.k.com/pronet/docs/trackback_spec) Typecasting (blogging) A typecast (blogging) (a. TrackBack spam filters similar to those implemented against comment spam now exist in many weblog publishing systems.a. typecasting or typecasting blog) is a form of blogging by media type and publishing in the format of a blog. strikethru. As a result.Trackback 171 Spam Some individuals or companies have abused the TrackBack feature to insert spam links on some blogs. These texts or portions of texts may include unedited text. Typecasting may appeal to fans of or collectors of typewriters and some typecasters employ the use of several different machines or styles of machines to create their posts. Some typecasters are writers who dislike word processors or who reject computers use as a writing tools even if they use them for revisions. org/ docs/ mttrackback.com/ .blogspot.sixapart. Lastly. For writers who prefer the use of typewriters to write text manually it remains the best way to post electronic copies of their original text. com/ 2005/ 10/ blogger-backlinks-feature-not-quite. (http:/ / www.

2009). Global Nerdy. com/ dangerroom/ 2009/ 01/ usaf-blog-respo/ ). 2009). [3] deVilla.net/2009/04/ case-study-social-traditional-pr.html) Versions • Original (http://freshspot.United States Air Force Web Posting Response 172 United States Air Force Web Posting Response The United States Air Force Web Posting Response Assessment is a twelve-point plan developed by the Emerging Technology Division of the US Air Force’s Affairs Agency that illustrates how US Airmen should respond to online blogs. . The plan provides in a detailed and specific way how it is that Airmen should respond to blogs. .typepad. com/ 2008/ 12/ 30/ the-air-forces-rules-of-engagement-for-blogging/ )"]. Retrieved 31 March 2010.af.S. Retrieved 31 March 2010.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-091210-037. Condé Nast Digital. Air Force Social & Traditional PR (http://www. "When to Hit the ‘Reply’ Button? Ask the Air Force" (http:/ / opinionator. blogs. Joey (January 5. The New York Times. "The Air Force’s Rules of Engagement for Blogging [Updated (http:/ / www.com/. 2009).typepad.a/6a00d83451f23a69e20105365f0d62970b-popup) • Version 2 (http://freshspot. [2] ETHERIDGE. wired. Wired News. com/ 2009/ 01/ 08/ when-to-hit-the-reply-button-ask-the-air-force/ ). . Noah (January 6. nytimes.[1] [2] [3] References [1] Shachtman.S government and to bolster support and credibility for positive blog posts. Retrieved 31 March 2010. External links • Case Study: U. ERIC (January 8. Opinionater. "Air Force Releases ‘Counter-Blog’ Marching Orders" (http:/ / www.com/.member-to-member.a/6a00d83451f23a69e2010536ab4efc970b-popup) • Final Version (http://www. globalnerdy. The assessment. It was created to combat blog posts that have negative opinions about the U.pdf) .

images. the first videoblogger conference. History In November of 2000.[8] [9] In 2004. 2006–March 17. is held in San Francisco.[12] [20] • 2006. coining the term vog to refer to his video blog. July .[15] [16] • 2004. which becomes the center of a community of vloggers[17] [18] • 2005. March 17 . Moreover. It is also a very popular category on YouTube.The Yahoo! Videoblogging Group grows to over 1.[19] • 2005. with 100 million videos viewed daily.Vloggercon. Due to be released in 2011. 2007).[10] In an effort to fulfill this prediction.[11] Vlogging saw a strong increase in popularity beginning in 2005.[14] Significant events in the development of video blogs • 2000.Host Amanda Congdon leaves Rocketboom over differences with her business partner Andrew Baron. Entries often combine embedded video or a video link with supporting text. May and August — The Wall Street Journal places a grandmother [25] on the front page of its Personal Journal section.[21] • 2006.the show with zefrank is launched.an announcement is made about a movie entirely made by combining vlogs from real people and virtual avatars (VLOGGERthemovie. The Yahoo! Videoblogging Group saw its membership increase dramatically in 2005. and Christophe Bouten in creating a group on Yahoo! Groups devoted to video blogging. is held in New York City.net).Peter Van Dijck and Jay Dedman start the Yahoo! Videoblogging Group. • 2006. July 5 .[12] The most popular video sharing site to date.Adrian Miles posts a video of changing text on a still image.[8] [9] • 2004.Video blogging 173 Video blogging Video blogging. Andreas Haugstrup Pedersen. November 27 . A short video program produced Monday through Friday for one year (March 17. sometimes shortened to vlogging[1] (pronounced 'vlogging'. January 1 . as opposed to 'v-logging'[2] ) or vidding[3] [4] [5] or vidblogging[6] is a form of blogging for which the medium is video. November . coining the term vog to refer to his video blog.[28] . YouTube. Miles and Garfield soon joined their online colleagues Jay Dedman. Adrian Miles posted a video of changing text on a still image.[22] [23] • 2006.Steve Garfield launches his videoblog and declares that 2004 would be the year of the video blog.[7] and is a form of Internet television.YouTube has become the 5th most popular web destination.[13] Radio Stations and television stations are now using video blogging as a way to help interact more with listeners and viewers. and other metadata. Video logs (vlogs) also often take advantage of web syndication to allow for the distribution of video over the Internet using either the RSS or Atom syndication formats. was founded in February 2005. Peter Van Dijck. Many open source content management systems enable posting of video content allowing bloggers to host and administer their own video blogging sites.000 new uploads per day.000 members. Entries can be recorded in one take or cut into multiple parts. and 65. Steve Garfield launched his own video blog and declared that year "the year of the video blog". the first annual videoblogging awards. for automatic aggregation and playback on mobile devices and personal computers (See video podcast).[24] • 2007. November — The Vloggies. June 1 . convergence of mobile phones with digital cameras allow publishing of video content to the Web almost as it is recorded. • 2010.[26] In August she is featured on an ABC World News Tonight segment[27] showing the elderly now becoming involved in the online video world. July 20 . January .

Vascellaro (2007-05-10). html) [16] I like to watch: Video blogging is ready for its close-up Mike Miliard. co. archive. com/ group/ videoblogging/ messages/ 1). yahoo. moblogs. htm) [18] Vlogs. edu. Yahoo! Groups. Steve Garfield. Wall Street Journal: p. rmit. htm) [8] Miles. usatoday. html) [23] Amanda UnBoomed Amanda UnBoomed (http:/ / amandaunboomed.Video blogging 174 References [1] Pilkington. . go. Adrian (2000-11-27). html) January 8. [ Archived (http:/ / web. Steve (2004-01-01). wsj. Adrian (2000-11-27). uk/ world/ 2009/ jul/ 09/ merriam-webster-dictionary-new-words). blogspot. com/ Cities/ City_Supplements/ Delhi_Times/ Watch_meVlog/ articleshow/ msid-1184088. com/ title/ tt1838731/ . USA Today (Gannett Co. org/ 20010723205211/ http:/ / hypertext. [12] Those darn video blogging pioneers BusinessWeek (http:/ / www. 2006-07-16. 2004-05-31. html?campaign_id=rss_blog_blogspotting) [13] Mobile blogging for journalists (http:/ / www. com/ videoblog/ 2004/ 01/ index. com/ boston/ news_features/ top/ features/ documents/ 05145823. uk/ 2/ articles/ 530925. 2007-08-08. groups. blogs. businessweek. [11] "Yahoo! Groups: Videoblogging" (http:/ / tech. businessweek. Archived from the original (http:/ / stevegarfield. html) on 2001-07-23. php) [14] http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / hypertext. . washingtonpost. com/ Video/ playerIndex?id=3459908). asp) [17] Let a Million Videos Bloom Online (http:/ / www. au/ vog/ 12. au/ vog/ 12. [27] "The Elderly YouTube Generation" (http:/ / abcnews. edu. html?slide=5 [26] Jessica E. bostonphoenix. 2000/ 27. 00. edu. [22] Popular News Anchor Leaves Video Blog Site washingtonpost. com/ article/ SB117880450303898581-search.). Archived from the original (http:/ / vogmae. Boston Phoenix (http:/ / www. [9] Miles. wsj. rmit. com/ the_thread/ blogspotting/ archives/ 2005/ 08/ those_darn_vide. imdb. Ed (2009-07-09). archive. webcitation. il dibattito sul nome di un fenomeno in espansione La Stampa Web (http:/ / www. html) [7] Media Revolution: Podcasting New England Film (http:/ / www. com/ tech/ news/ 2006-07-16-youtube-views_x. "Merriam-Webster releases list of new words to be included in dictionary" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-06-03.. html [15] 2004: The Year of the Video Blog Steve Garfield (http:/ / stevegarfield. org/ 5yDB54ARH). com/ magazines/ business2/ business2_archive/ 2006/ 05/ 01/ 8375939/ ) [5] Will video kill the blogging star? San Diego Union Tribune (http:/ / www. com/ news/ archives/ 2006/ 02/ podcasting. html) [6] Has vlogging. lastampa. au/ vog/ 2000/ 11/ welcome/ ) on 2004-01-08.curpg-1. journalism. Retrieved 2011-04-25.com (http:/ / www. redherring. com/ pages/ burlander. org/ 20040108152653/ http:/ / hypertext. 11. au/ vog/ vog_archive/ 000082. [2] http:/ / www. it/ _web/ _RUBRICHE/ cinema/ cineweb/ cybercinema/ cybercinema050808. html) on 2011-04-25. asp) [19] Watch me@Vlog The Times of India (http:/ / timesofindia. signonsandiego. 11. . co. guardian. Retrieved 2010-06-03. html) July 23. Steve Garfield's VIdeo Blog.tv Brings Vlogs to Masses Red Herring (http:/ / www. rmit. cms) [20] Blogging + Video = Vlogging Wired News (http:/ / www. D1. . redherring. wired. 2000/ 27. indiatimes. Inc. Retrieved 2006-07-28. vidblogging etc found a name--Video Podcasting? BusinessWeek (http:/ / www. html?mod=googlewsj). com/ Article. 2004 at the Wayback Machine. [10] Garfield. forvo. "Welcome"]. com/ uniontrib/ 20050613/ news_lz1b13vlog. com/ videoblog/ 2004/ 01/ index. . blogs. com/ bwdaily/ dnflash/ dec2004/ nf20041229_0845_db016. com/ 2006/ 07/ amanda-unboomed_05. htm?). 00. aspx?a=20843) [4] Prime Time for Vlogs? CNNMoney. [28] http:/ / www. businessweek. "2004: The Year of the Video Blog" (http:/ / www. The Guardian (London). "vog"]. aspx?a=19588& hed=A+ Night+ at+ the+ Vloggies) [25] http:/ / online. html) [24] A Night at the Vloggies Red Herring (http:/ / www. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 07/ 05/ AR2006070501742. com/ word/ vlog/ [3] Blip. .com (http:/ / money. nefilm. com/ entertainment/ music/ news/ 2005/ 07/ 68171) [21] "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ SB117876177359697968. 933flz. glogs. cnn. "Using YouTube for Posterity" (http:/ / online. com/ Article. Retrieved 2010-06-03. 2001 at the Wayback Machine. com/ the_thread/ blogspotting/ archives/ 2005/ 10/ has_vlogging_vi.. net. [ Archived (http:/ / web.

106) • A Post-Cinema of Distractions: On the Genealogical Constitution of Personal Videoblogging.rgn=main. academic essay on videoblogging (http://www.view=text.esotericrabbit.umich.q1=Winter 2007.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=postid.0005. academic essay on videoblogging (http://quod.com/essays/post_cinema.idno=pid9999.lib.pdf) .Video blogging 175 External links • A Certain Tendency in Videoblogging and Rethinking the Rebirth of the Author.cc=postid.

2011 Development status Active Platform Type License Website PHP Content management system GNU General Public License http:/ / www. wuzly.0 / April 23. This method requires the use of a web browser with Javascript enabled. com . com [2] http:/ / http:/ / www. Rosie-Kate Day February 13. Releases Version 1 Beta (Codename:Sparky) . each which their specific purpose on the generated blog.April 23rd 2011 Requirements PHP 5 or Later MySQL 5 or Later Installation Wuzly can be installed using a web interface which executes an installation process after certain non-optional inputs have been entered. an admin view and a public view. It has features relating to content distribution including a Sitemap builder and an RSS Feed generator. com Wuzly is a Content Management System (CMS) and blogging platform. 2011 1. wuzly.Wuzly 176 Wuzly Wuzly Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Sam Ruston. Other features can be accessed by installing the necessary extensions using the built-in installer.February 13th 2011 Version 1 (Codename:Sparky) . It has two interfaces. wuzly. Examples Wuzly Blog [1] External Links • Official website [2] References [1] http:/ / blog. The back end framework uses MySQL for storage and data management and PHP.



YULBlog is an association of blogs based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It has a Web site with a list of those blogs, as well as a "meta blog" that aggregates the blog posts from YULBlog members. It takes its name from YUL, the airport code for Pierre Elliot Trudeau International Airport in Montreal. The organization hosts monthly face-to-face meetings, called "First Wednesday," in which Montreal area bloggers and people interested in social media get together at a popular mid-town bar. The first YULBlog meeting was held in March 2000. At that meeting were Ed Bilodeau [1], Michael Boyle [2], Heather Champ [3], Aaron Straup Cope [4], and David Petite [5]. YULBlog has been in continuous existence, in one form or another, since that gathering in 2000, making it the longest continuously running "geo-specific" blogger association in the world (unconfirmed). Other, more recent associations have used YULBlog as a model, such as YULBiz [6] and Paris Carnet [7]. Face-to-face meetings continue to occur on the first Wednesday of every month at Le Cheval Blanc [8], a brew pub on rue Ontario in Montreal. Previous venues for "first Wednesday" gatherings were La Cabane on Boulevard Saint-Laurent and La Quincaillerie [9] on rue Rachel. The event draws between 30 and 80 people each month. A spinoff of YULBlog is YULBiz [6], for people interested in the business and professional aspects of blogging and social media. YULBiz started in Montreal, but considers itself to be an international organization.

YULBlog in the Media
YULBlog's 5th Anniversary Party [10] (CBC Television Montreal; video sourced from VIMEO) YULBlog's 5th Anniversary Party [11] (Hour magazine) YULBlog places 9th in the Montreal Mirror's "Best of Montreal" (2005) [12] in the category "Best Blog." Ed Hawco of Blork Blog VIMEO)

talks about blogging and YULBlog


on CBC Television. (Video sourced from

YULBlog on Montreal.tv [15] Dominic Arpin reporting from YULBlog for Web TV [16]. (Video, in French.) Branchez-Vous.com on YULBlog's 2009 facelift [17] (in French).

External links
YULBlog [18] YULBiz [6]

[1] http:/ / www. coolweblog. com/ bilodeau/ [2] http:/ / www. mikel. org [3] http:/ / www. hchamp. com/ [4] http:/ / www. aaronland. net/ [5] http:/ / thisboyistoast. nu/ [6] http:/ / yulbiz. org/ [7] http:/ / paris-carnet. org/ [8] http:/ / www. lechevalblanc. ca/ [9] http:/ / laquincaillerie. ca/ [10] http:/ / www. vimeo. com/ 331152 [11] http:/ / www. hour. ca/ news/ news. aspx?iIDArticle=5579 [12] http:/ / www. montrealmirror. com/ 2005/ 051205/ bom05_7. html [13] http:/ / www. blork. org/ blorkblog/ [14] http:/ / www. vimeo. com/ 340051

[15] [16] [17] [18] http:/ / www. montreal. tv/ portail/ view_video. php?viewkey=f202f26c1a174c735758 http:/ / www. videopresse. com/ 2008/ 02/ 14/ webtv-au-quebec-dominic-arpin-se-pose-des-questions-au-yulbog/ http:/ / blogosphere. branchez-vous. com/ 2009/ 01/ le_yulblog_fait_peau_neuve. html http:/ / yulblog. org


Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors
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O'Shea, RockMFR, Romasha, RoodyAlien, Rubendavidgomez, Saintamh, Saminshams, Saqib, ShakataGaNai, Shii, Silenceandnoise-, Silvonen, Sin-man, SiobhanHansa, SkyeWaye, Socialwokwiki, Soenke2008, Spike the Dingo, Sscheper, Stephanejolicoeur, Stezton, Sykes83, TalSh, TastyPoutine, Textcreek, TheGiftedOne, Theoptare, ThreeOneFive, Titus44, Tnxman307, Tobias Bergemann, Tomdobb, Toncek, Toniher, Tonygilloz, Tonygillsydney, Toussaint, Tradingcalc, Ttam, Ttonyb1, Unitymix, Uusijani, Velociped, Verticalanswer, Verticalsoftwares, Vixmontana, WWGB, Wangx, WillOakland, Yahya Abdal-Aziz, Yaotang, Yerpo, ZeroOne, ZimZalaBim, Zollerriia, ‫ , م م مم م م م م‬आशीष भटनागर, 294 anonymous edits ‫مم‬ Blauk  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=420241397  Contributors: Bearcat, Chuckraverthy, Racklever, 3 anonymous edits Blog  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=429008951  Contributors: (, 05thomasr, 0x, 16x9, 7265, 8bitJake, 97198, A-giau, A. 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Az1568, AzaToth, Azgs, Azlan91, B0Rn2bL8, BF, BPinard, BWH76, Babbage, Bacrito, Bact, Bakanov, Balzin, Banes, BanyanTree, Barista, Barrel Roll, Barry Pearson, Barryap, Bayerotik, Baylink, Bbtommy, Bcorr, Bdegfcunbbfv, Bdesham, Bdude, Bdushaw, Bedir26, Beeezy, Beijing-message, BenForta, BenFrantzDale, Benhoyt, Benpage26, BerLon, Berg1115, Bevo, Bgold, Bhearsum, Bhupen maurya, Bhuston, Biggpimping, Bigwyrm, Birdfluboy, Birdmessenger, Bjarki S, Blackcarr, Blewtooth, Blm0303, Blogem, Blogg1, Bloodshedder, Blork-mtl, Blue Tie, Blue520, Bluefusionx, Bmdavll, Bmicomp, Bmr128, Bnkailash, Bob Wyman, Bobblewik, Bobbyelliott, Bodhi dharma, Bomac, Bondegezou, Bonniegrrl, Booyabazooka, Bornofdust, Bowei Huang 2, BradLehrbass, Bradtem, Brainhell, Breno, Briaboru, Brianallen, Briansince1988, Brianskinner51, BrokenSegue, Brouzdej, Brownsteve, Bryan Derksen, Bryan20, Bsawhill, Bstepno, Bstrawse, Btipling, Btyner, Buchanan-Hermit, Budtheteacher, Bullemhead, Buotte, Buridan, Butros, Butterboy, Bwabes, Bwelford, By97aa, C, CNicol, CSTAR, Cacophony, Caesura, Cafzal, CambridgeBayWeather, Camillaherrmann, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canihaveacookie, Cantara, Cantus, Cardsplayer4life, Carmen Smith Jones, Carre, Carrie S., Casey Abell, Caspiax, Ccacsmss, Cdhondt, Celtkin, Centrx, Ceyockey, ChaTo, Chairboy, Chakira, Chamli Tennakoon, Chardish, Charles Gaudette, Chatfecter, Cheejyg, Chefsuffolk, ChemGardener, Chemanel, Chenming, Chic happens, Chitown2pa, Chivista, Chokhani, Chowdrew, Chris 42, Chris Chittleborough, Chris Roy, Chrischris349, Chrisinajar, Chrisjchurch, Chrislk02, Chrisranders, Christopherlin, Christophore, Christoswinter, Chulcoop, Chuq, Chwats, Ciaranholahan, Cleon169, Clinical Cases, Clipdude, Cncxbox, Cnilep, Cobra libre, Codeczero, Cogburnd02, Comatose51, Cometstyles, CommonsDelinker, Computerjoe, Conant1022, Condem, Conti, Conversion script, Coolcaesar, Copperchair, Cralar, Crazeman, Crazie 88, Crazycomputers, Crkian, Crust, CryptoDerk, Ctjf83, Curious1i, Curps, Cyanide-Assasin, CyberSkull, Cybercobra, CycloCide, Cypherpunk, Czalex, D Monack, DHN, DJ Clayworth, DO'Neil, Dakuhippo, Dakutaa, Damien, Dan Atkinson, Dancter, Daniel Klein, Daniel Quinlan, Daniel.Cardenas, Danlev, Darklight, Dave1g, Davemcarlson, Daverose31, David Gerard, David Jay Walker, David Martland, David Shankbone, David Weisman, DavidCary, Davidbrake, Davidculp, Dbabbitt, Dbc100, Dcljr, DeadlyAssassin, Deadman0603, Dean, Debeshlohani, Deenoe, Deltabeignet, Den fjättrade ankan, Denelson83, Deon Steyn, Deramisan, Derek.cashman, Desmay, Desodyl, Dfrankow, Dgonzal4, Dgsinclair, Dhammapal, Dharanpdeepak, Dhartung, Dhollings, Dhoomk2, Diberri, DidgeGuy, DigitalMedievalist, Disavian, Discospinster, Dispenser, DivineDeeds, Djanem, Djlanger, Djphoton, Dlewis3, Dmyersturnbull, Doc glasgow, DocWatson42, Doctorbruno, Dodo bird, Dolphin674, Dori, Doug, Dpnelson, Dr dex, Dr.enh, DragonHawk, Drdrew, Dreag21, Drewby9000, Drknexus, Droob, DropDeadGorgias, Drunkasian, Dstanfor, Dtcdthingy, 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Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Gakmo, Galloisian, Gamingexpert, Gandalf1491, Gardar Rurak, Gareth McCaughan, Gareth Wyn, Garzo, Gasull, Gdavidrameshkumar, Genesiskw, Genglo, Gennaro Prota, Geraki, Geschichte, GetItRight, Ghosts&empties, Gigantus, Gilliam, Gleezus, Glenn, Glogger, Goel madhur, Gohst, Goldom, Gouthamlal, GraemeL, Graham87, Gravychalupa, Greatgavini, Green knight, GregoryEtc, Grenavitar, Greudin, Grid, Grimace01, Grm wnr, Grstain, Grunt, Grymwulf, Gsiskind, Gtahq, Gtbrown, Gtog, Guaka, Guerby, Guinanie, Gurch, Gurubrahma, Guy Peters, Gwernol, Gyco, H Bruthzoo, H.sanat, H2g2bob, H311jump3r, H755bpx, Hackaback, Hadal, Haf369, Hairymon, Hamidtesta, Hamiltro, Happylobster, Haukurth, Haunti, Hawaiian717, Hayabusa future, Hayama, Hendrixski, Henrygb, Herzen, Hetar, Higley777, Hindleyite, Hintha, Hitherto, Hmallett, Hmg2002, Hoder, Honeytech, Hope(N Forever), Horkana, HornyDesertLizard, Hourick, Hu12, Hufis NYC, Ian Pitchford, Ianmacm, Idontshower2006, Iempleh, Ikip, Image uploader, 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