# The Stepping Stone and the Modified Distribution Method (MODI) Stepping Stone: Procedure for finding optimal

transportation tableau. Given the s = 3 supply and d = 3 demands tableau below, first create feasible tableau by using the Northwest, VAM, Minimum cell, or Russell method. In an s x d tableau, the number of basic (allocated) cells must be s + d – 1 even if a 0 must be placed into a cell to satisfy requirement, A 6 7 4 200 B 8 11 5 100 C 10 11 12 300 Supply 150 175 275 600

Initial tableau From To 1 2 3 Demand

Feasible tableau using Northwest Corner Rule From To A B 1 6 (150) 8 2 7 (50) 11 (100) 3 4 5 Demand 200 100

C 10 11 (25) 12 (275) 300

Supply 150 175 275 600

Notice that there are 3 + 3 – 1 = 5 allocated cells of the 9 cells; and 4 non-basic cells. Closed loops are formed starting in an empty cell; go to an allocated cell, then another and another until returning to empty cell. Never go diagonal and you may pass over cells. Never visit a cell twice. Value = 150 * 6 + 50 * 7 + 100 * 11 + 25 * 11 + 275 * 12 = 5925 Example To evaluate the unallocated cell 3A, the loop is 3A 3C 2C 2A with values 4 – 12 + 11 – 7 = –4 meaning that for every unit shifted (give and take) into 3A and 2C from 3C and 2A results in a savings of 4. When shifting, feasibility constraints of supply and demand must be maintained. Look at the giving cells 3C with 275 and 2A with 50. Shift the minimum 50 into the receiving cells 3A and 2C to create the tableau below. A (150) 7 4 (50) 200 6 B 8 11 (100) 5 100 C 10 11 (75) 12 (225) 300 Supply 150 175 275 600

From

To 1 2 3 Demand

Value = 150 * 6 + 50 * 4 + 100 * 11 + 75 * 11 + 225 * 12 = 5725. The delta value of the tableaus is 5925 – 5725 = 200 = 50 * 4 The stepping stone evaluation is done for all empty cells and the best cell improvement is chosen for the change. Notice cell 3A entered into the basis and cell 2A left. Loops always contain the same number of + and – cells alternating as one completes the loop. In evaluating cell 3B, the loop is 3B 3C 2C 2B. Let’s evaluate cell 2A with loop 2A 2C 3C 3A with 7 – 11 + 12 – 4 = 4. Positive quantities mean no improvement. When all unallocated (non-basic) cells evaluate to positive quantities, the tableau is optimal. If the problem is one of maximization, use the same procedure except that positive quantities imply improvement. MODI Paths or loops in this method are determined mathematically. The tableau is modified with u (row) and v (column) variables. Allocated cell costs cij = ui + vj.

u2 + vc = 11 or 1 + vc = 11 => vc = 10. . evaluations are positive. we arbitrarily assign one of the unknowns. u1 = 0 (but more efficient to assign u2 to 0 since more allocated cells in the u2 row)*** Evaluate Cells 1A: 2A: 2B: 2C: 3C: u1 + va = 6 or 0 + va = 6 => va = 6 u2 + va = 7 or u2 + 6 = 7 => u2 = 1. Then u2 = 0 => va = 7. vc = 11. With 5 equations and 6 unknowns.g.vj 1B: X1b = c1b – u1 – vb = 8 – 0 – 10 = –2 same value using stepping stone for cell 1B 1C: X1c = c1c – u1 – vc = 10 – 0 – 10 = 0 same value using stepping stone for cell 1C 3A: X3a = c3a – u3 – va = 4 – 2 – 6 = –4 same value using stepping stone for cell 3A 3B: X3b = c3b – u3 – vb = 5 – 2 – 10 = –7 same value using stepping stone for cell 3B Re-visit stepping 1B: 1B 1A 1C: 1C 1A 3A: 3A 3C 3B: 3B 3C stone evaluations 2A 2B => 8 – 6 + 7 – 11 = –2 2A 2C =>10 – 6 + 7 – 11 = 0 2C 2A => 4 – 12 + 11 – 7 = –4 2C 2B => 5 – 12 + 11 – 11 = –7 The procedure is then repeated until all empty cell Thus cells 3B and 1B can improve solution..Feasible tableau using Northwest procedure va From/To A u1 1 6 (150) u2 2 7 (50) u3 3 4 Demand 200 vb B 8 11 (100) 5 100 vc C 10 11 (25) 12 (275) 300 Supply 150 175 275 600 Cell formulas for allocated or basis cells are: u1 + va = c1a. With 5 equations and 6 unknowns. u2 = 0. u3 + vc = 12 or u3 + 10 = 12 => u3 = 2 Evaluate empty cells with the formula Xij = cij – ui . u2 + vc = c2c u3 + vc = c3c The c-values are the respective cells cost. u2 + vc = c2c u3 + vc = c3c The c-values are the respective cells cost.g. vb = 11. u3 + vc = 12 => u3 = 1. u2 + va = c2a. *** Returning to initial tableau and using a different arbitrary assignment leads to the following: Feasible tableau using Northwest procedure vb=11 vc=11 va= 7 From/To A B C Supply u1 = -1 1 6 (150) 8 10 150 u2 = 0 2 7 (50) 11 (100) 11 (25) 175 u3 = 1 3 4 5 12 (275) 275 Demand 200 100 300 600 Cell formulas for allocated or basis cells are: u1 + va = c1a. u2 +vb = c2b. we arbitrarily assign one of the unknowns. u2 + va = c2a. e. u1 + va = 6 => u1 = –1. e. u2 +vb = c2b. u2 + vb = 11 or 1 + vb = 11 => vb = 10.

The selection is a bit tricky to ensure the evaluation of the other empty cells. but with the same optimal value. Degeneracy If number of unallocated cells is less than the number of rows R + the number of columns C – 1. Alternate optimal solutions Notice alternate solution is available with cell 1C = 0. Transshipments Each transshipment locality becomes both a supply and a demand center. similar to the assignment algorithm. degeneracy has occurred (R + C – 1). . Similarly try the MODI. try evaluating any empty cell in the tableau below using the stepping stone approach. Note that R + C – 1 = 3 + 3 – 1 = 6 ≠ 5.Evaluating unallocated cells 1B => X1b = 8 –7 –(–1) = 2 1C => 10 – (–1) – 11 = 0 3A => 4 – 1 – 7 = –4 3B => 5 – 1 – 11 = –7 show the same as stepping stone and the same as assigning u1 to 0. For example. We can revert to the Big M method for the cost When Supply ≠ Demand Dummy supply or demand can be set up for the excess and whatever is assigned to the dummy demand does not get received. From/To 1 2 3 Demand A 6 7 4 (200 200 B 8 11 (100) 5 100 C 10 (225) 11 12 (75) 300 Supply 150 175 275 600 Prohibited Assignments There may be times when a specified Supply is prohibited from satisfying a specified Demand. The solution is to choose an empty cell and assign it a very small value. subtract all cell profits from the maximum overall profit and use the same minimizing procedures. and to the dummy supply does not get shipped. Example From To 1 2 3 Demand Example Supply > Demand tableau A B 7 6 12 8 8 10 0 100 C 11 9 12 300 Dummy 0 0 0 50 Supply 150 175 275 650 From Demand > Supply tableau To A 1 7 2 12 3 8 Dummy 0 Demand 200 B 6 8 10 0 175 C 11 9 12 0 300 Supply 250 150 275 100 675 Maximizing When maximizing rather than minimizing.