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Table of Contents
Cover Page Table of Contents Indian tractor industry Tractor Different brand of tractor by different companies Currant manufacturers of tractor in India Pervious manufacturers of tractor companies Objectives Questionnaire of the project on tractor Analysis of the data Conclusion 4 5-7 8-17 18-20 21 22-23 24-30 31 1 2 3


THE BEGINNING: Indian Tractor Industry took birth in 1959-60 when the first tractor manufacturing unit was established. However, this industry found a firm footing only after the turbulent period of 1968-74, during which the acceleration which should have emerged from the upsurge in demand generated by the Green Revolution was navigated by large-scale imports of fully built tractors and screw-driver assembly of CKD (Completely Knocked Down) kit by a number of operators who entered with de-licensing in 1968 for making a quick buck. By 1973-74 when imports were banned, 22 manufacturers remained.

It is in an environment of intense competition between 22 manufacturers that our tractor industry has grown during the last 30 years. During this period, it has become not only a major segment of our engineering industry but with a population of 1, 30,000 tractors in 1990, our country became the second largest tractor producer in the world. There could be no better index of the intensity of competition than the fact that all makers of tractors have been available off-the-shelf for the last 2 decades and market share of no single manufacturer exceeds 20%.


A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to provide a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. Most commonly, the term is used to describe the distinctive farm vehicle: agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanized. Another common use of the term is for the power unit of a semi-trailer truck. The word tractor is derived from the Latin trashier "to pull". A conflicting history of the name suggests that steam tractors were originally referred to as traction engines, with the word "tractor" eventually deriving from a contraction of 'traction' and 'motor'.

Different Brands of Tractors By different Companies

Escorts Ltd. Farmtrac


Farmtrac 45 Farmtrac 50 Farmtrac 60 New Farmtrac 70

Powertrac 430 Powertrac 435 Powertrac 440 Powertrac 455

Force Motors Balwan Tractor

Balwan 300 Balwan 400 Balwan 450 Balwan 500 OX 25

Swaraj Enterprise Swaraj Tractor

Swaraj Forklift Tractors

Swaraj 722 Super Swaraj 724 FE Swaraj 733 FE Swaraj 735 FE Swaraj 744 FE Swaraj 834 FE Swaraj 855 Swaraj 939 FE Swaraj 735 FE

Swaraj EL. Forklift 15 Swaraj Forklift 15 Swaraj Forklift 20 Swaraj Forklift 30

Swaraj Harvester Combine

Sonalika Tractors DI 35 DI 60 2WD

DI 55 DI 60 4WD

DI 60 2WD DI 60 Senior DI 75 4WD DI 340 S DI 730 III DI 735 DI 740 III DI 750 DI 750 III Mahindra Kisanmitra Mahindra Arjun

DI 60 4WD DI 75 2WD DI 90 4WD DI 730 II DI 732 III DI 740 DI 745 III DI 750 II

Mahindra Bhoomiputra

Arjun 445 DI Arjun 605 DI Arjun 555 DI

Bhoomiputra 265 DI Bhoomiputra 275 DI TU Bhoomiputra 475 DI Bhoomiputra 575 DI

Mahindra Sarpanch

Mahindra Yuvraj

Sarpanch 265 DI Sarpanch 275 DI TU Sarpanch 475 DI Sarpanch 585 DI Sarpanch 575 DI Sarpanch 595 DI Super Turbo

HMT Tractors HMT Yuva 2522 OS 3522 DX 4022 4922 DX 7511

2522 FX 3522 CS 3522 FX 4922 6522

Tafe Tractors MF 241 Eagle MF 1035 Std. Tafe 25 DI TAFE 4410 Samrat Tafe 8502 - 4WD Indofarm Tractors Indo Farm 2030 DI Indo farm 2040 DI

MF 1035 DI MF 5245 Mahaan Tafe 30 DI Tafe 5900 DI Gajraj

Indo farm 2035 DI Indo farm 2050 DI

Tractor Manufacturers Association

The Tractor Manufacturers' Association of India (TMA) is housed under The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), New Delhi. Though not all manufacturers are members TMA is recognized as the main trade group representing the agricultural tractor industry in India. Mallika Srinivasan, Economic Times Businesswoman of the year 2006, and CEO of TAFE Limited, is currently serving as president

Current Manufacturers of Tractors in India

HMT Tractors
HMT is a large public sector unit and began manufacturing Agricultural Tractors in 1972 under the HMT brand name with technology acquired from Zetor of the Czech Republic. It manufactures its tractors in Pinjore, Mohali in a large factory that also manufactures machine-tools, and Hyderabad It has a capacity of 20,000 tractors per annum. In the Machine-tool company is a large foundry. It produces tractors in a range from 25 HP to 75 HP. For a short time, HMT exported tractors to the USA under the Zebra brand, which were marketed by Zetor distributors and dealers there. The company is controlled by the Ministry of Heavy industry that provides, on a monthly basis to the public its financial performance.

Mahindra Gujarat Tractor Limited

The company was originally incorporated in the state of Gujarat in 1963 with technical collaboration with Motokov-Praha of Czechoslovakia as Gujarat Tractor Corporate Ltd. It was taken over by Mahindra & Mahindra Limited on 17 December 1999 (holds 60% equity) and re-christened Mahindra Gujarat Tractor Ltd as part of Mahindra Tractors. The company is engaged in manufacturing of tractors in a range of 30-45hp which are marketed under Shaktimaan brand.

They were previously marketed under the

Mahindra Gujarat name, and before that the Hindustan name.

Mahindra & Mahindra

M&M's Farm Equipment Sector origins lie in a joint venture in 1963 between the Company, International Harvester Inc., and Voltas Limited, and was named International Tractor Company of India (ITCI). In 1977, ITCI merged with M&M and became its 8

Tractor Division. After M&M's organizational restructuring in 1994, this division was called the Farm Equipment Sector. The Farm Equipment Sector has also ventured into manufacturing of Industrial Engines. M&M Industrial engines are used for various applications like generator sets, industrial, construction, marine, compressors, etc. These engines are manufactured at the Company's engine assembly plants at Kandivli and Nagpur. M&M has two main tractor manufacturing plants located at Mumbai and Nagin Maharashtra. Apart from these two main manufacturing units, the Farm Equipment Sector has satellite plants located at Rudrapur in Uttaranchal and Jaipur in Rajasthan. The Farm Equipment Sector as reported by the Company has a dealer network of over 450 dealers. This dealer network is managed by 28 area offices, situated in all the major cities and covering all the principal states and M&M tractors has sold more than 13,00,000 tractors since its inception. M&M's Farm Equipment Sector is perhaps the largest

Exporter of Indian tractors to the USA and the west. And in a reversal to earlier trends of Indian tractor manufactures with joint ventures with western tractor companies, M&M, in 2004 announced that they had bought majority stake (80%) in Jiangling Tractor Company, and renamed it Mahindra Jiangling Motor Co Group (JMCG). This is the first instance of Indian tractor industries participating in India's reverse FDI. The plant in China reportedly has a production capacity of 12,000 tractors annually. In March 2007, M&M bought a controlling 43% stake in the Mohali-based tractor firm Punjab Tractors (Swaraj) that will reportedly increase M&M's share in the domestic farm equipment market from just over 30% to 40%. The 43% stake includes 29% owned by private equity firm Actis Capital and 14.2% by the Delhi-based Burman family. In July 2007, Mahindra upped its stake to 64.6%.[10]

Preet Tractors
Preet Agro began manufacturing tractors in 2002 in Punjab, India. They currently manufacture in the 35-70hp range.[12]

Punjab Tractors Ltd (Swaraj Tractors)

In 1965, Government of India research institute Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, WB initiated design and development of Swaraj Tractor based on indigenous know-how. In 1970, Punjab Government acquired the Swaraj tractor's design and established Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL). It was India's first largescale totally indigenous project. The company exports Tractors to various countries including USA. It manufactures nine models of tractor and several models of combine harvesters. The manufacturing units are located at Mohali District, Asron Village of Nawanshahar District and Nabha of Patiala District, Punjab. Today Swaraj tractor is the second most selling brand of tractors in India after Mahindra. More than 800000 lacs tractor sol

The popular models sold under SWARAJ brand are:

1.)SWARAJ 744, 2.)SWARAJ 735, 3.)SWARAJ 855, 4.)SWARAJ 978, 5.)SWARAJ 834, 6.) SWARAJ 939, 7.)SWARAJ 733,

8.)SWARAJ 724, 9.)SWARAJ 722

Swaraj also manufactures Forklifts and Combines, which are assembled in their Mohali Plant. Actis Capital, a private equity firm acquired 29% of Punjab Tractors in mid-2003 from the Punjab Government. In March 2007, and currently subject to the receipt of requisite approvals, M&M bought a controlling 43% stake in Punjab Tractors Ltd. that will reportedly increase M&M's share in the domestic tractor market from just over 30% to nearly 40%. The 43% stake in Punjab Tractors includes the 29% owned by Actis Capital and 14.2% by the Delhi-based Burman family. In July 2007, Mahindra upped its share in Punjab to 64.

Same Deutz-Fahr Ltd.

SAME Tractors is an USD 4 billion company for past 7 Decades of Rich Experience in Agriculture Segment. It was found by Francesco Cazzani along with his brother way back 1927. Greaves Ltd joined in collaboration with SAME for manufacturing of tractors in 1996 under the SAME-Greaves brand. By 2000, Greaves sold its shares to SAME and formed 50:50 Joint Venture as SAME Greaves Tractors Ltd. By 2002, Greaves Exited from SAME, SAME Greaves has become a wholly owned subsidiary of SAME, Italy. The company has been renamed as SAME DEUTZ Fahr Group India, Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, and India.


Sonalika (International Tractors Ltd.)

International Tractors Limited was incorporated on October 17, 1995 and began manufacturing tractors designed by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI). ITL currently is manufacturing Sonalika tractors between 30 HP to 90 HP, and the CERES brand between 60HP to 90HP. ITL went into collaboration with Renault Agricultural of France in July 2000. Renault Agriculture is a subsidiary of the Renault Group. Renault Agriculture was bought by CLAAS of Germany in 2003. Incidentally CLAAS already has a strong presence in India market producing its Crop Tiger range of Combine Harvesters in a plant in Faridabad (near New Delhi) since 1992. CLASS has opened a new plant in Punjab at Morinda in 2006

Balwan Tractors, Force Motors Ltd

Formerly known as Bajaj Tempo Ltd. until 2005, Force Motors Ltd., makers of India's ubiquitous 3-wheeler Tempos since 1957 in a collaboration with Vidal & Sohn Tempo Werke, Germany. In 1999 began production of Ox and Ox 45 Brand Tractors both which incorporated transmission technology from the German manufacturer ZF. Additional line Balwan was introduced in 2004 and between the lines Force Motors offers a line of twowheel and four-wheel tractors in a horsepower range from 10 - 50 HP.

Captain Tractors Pvt. Ltd


Founded in May 1994 and located in Rajkot, India, Captain Tractors manufactures minitractors under the Captain brand.

Crossword Agro Industries

Located in Rajkot, India, Crossword manufactures small tractors under the Nissan, Atmak and Captain brand names

In 1949, Eicher GoodEarth, was set up in India with technical collaboration with Gebr. Eicher a of Germany, imported and sold about 1500 tractors in India. In April 24, 1959 Eicher came out with the first locally assembled tractor from its Faridabad factory and in a period from 1965-1974 became the first fully manufactured (100% indigenization) tractor in India. In December, 1987 Eicher Tractors went public and in June, 2005 Eicher Motors Limited sold Eicher Tractors & Engines to a subsidiary of TAFE called TAFE Motors and Tractors Limited. Eicher also produced tractors under the Euro Power and Eicher Valtra brands under license from Valtra, an AGCO brand.[5]

Escorts (Escort, Powertrac and Farmtrac)

Escorts Ltd began local manufacture of Ford tractors in 1971 in collaboration with Ford, UK and total production climbed steadily to 33,000 in 1975 reaching 71,000 by 1980. Ford (Ford - New Holland) was sold in 1992. Ford Motor Company proper quit the tractors business, but the name was allowed to continue as per agreement until 2000, when Escorts relabeled its Ford models under the Escort brand. Escort manufactures


produces tractors in the 27-75 HP range and has already sold over 6 lac tractors. Its tractors are marketed under three brand names, Escort, Powertrac and

Indo Farm
Founded in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India in 1999, Indo Farms builds tractors in the 3050hp ranges. [6]

John Deere
In 2000, John Deere set up production in a joint venture with Larsen & Toubro Ltd in Sanaswadi, in a rural area near Pune, Maharashtra. It was known as L&T John Deere Private Ltd, and manufactured tractors under the L&T - John Deere name for sale in India, and under the John Deere name for worldwide sales. [7][8] In 2005, Deere & Company acquired nearly all the remaining shares in this joint venture. The new enterprise, is known as John Deere Equipment Private Limited. The factory currently produces tractors in of 35, 40, 42, 47, 50, 55 and 70 HP capacities for domestic markets and for export to the USA, Mexico, Turkey, North and South Africa, and South East Asia. Pune factory started to produce new 55 to 75 Hp 5003 series tractors for European market in 2008. John Deere India Private Limited is a subsidiary of Deere & Company, USA in India. Its factory, located near Pune, manufactures 5000 Series agricultural tractors. The Indian operations of Deere & Company include a technology center located at Magarpatta City Pune and John Deere Water Vadodara. The technology center provides services in the areas of Information technology, engineering, supply management, embedded systems


MARS Farm Equipments Ltd.

Originally established in 1976, the MARS Group is engaged in

manufacturing/marketing of dump trucks, loaders, foggers, and agricultural tractors and attachments. Based in Lucknow, U.P., it began manufacturing two mini-tractor models under the Marshal name in 2005, Captain DI 2600 of 25 HP and Trishul MT DI 625 10 HP.

New Holland
New Holland Ag's entry into India was facilitated by FIAT's acquisition of Ford-New Holland in 1991. By 1998 New Holland Ag. (India) completed the construction of a new plant in Noida, near New Delhi, with a capacity of 5000 tractors in the 35 - 75 hp range. In 1999, New Holland Ag.'s parent company FIAT bought 70% of holdings of Case Corporation and created Case New Holland Global (CNH one of the top three tractor/agricultural/construction machinery manufacturers in the world), the new holding company New Holland Ag. (India). In 2000, the capacity of the Noida plant rose to 12,000 tractors per year and in 2007 the company manufactured 24,000 tractors for the domestic and export markets.New Holland India exports fully-built tractors to 51 countries in Africa, Australia, South-East Asia, West Asia, North America and Latin America.The India plant of New Holland was originally built in 1998 to cater only to India domestic market. However due to slow down of economy by year 2001-2002 and slump in domestic demand, it became a challenge to utilize the installed capacity of the factory.Hence the company started looking its market beyond India borders. Its then CEO Mario Gasparri guided the vision and handed over the task of overseas business to its dynamic manager Bhanu Sharma. The efforts paid off well. Bhanu Sharma in capacity of Head-International Business Operations, took op the export volumes from the level of almost nil in 2003 to 8000 units in year 2007. The export business last year in 2007 contributed over 50% of the company business of total USD 250 millions.This also made


New Holland the second largest tractor exporter from India after John Deer. In year 2007, India exported around 32,000 tractors of which 25% share was of New Holland.

Same Deutz-Fahr Ltd.

SAME Tractors is an USD 4 billion company for past 7 Decades of Rich Experience in Agriculture Segment. It was found by Francesco Cazzani along with his brother way back 1927. Greaves Ltd, joined in collaboration with SAME for manufacturing of tractors in 1996 under the SAME-Greaves brand. By 2000, Greaves sold its shares to SAME and formed 50:50 Joint Venture as SAME Greaves Tractors Ltd. By 2002, Greaves Exited from SAME, SAME Greaves has become a wholly owned subsidiary of SAME, Italy. The company has been renamed as SAME DEUTZ Fahr Group India, Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India.

Standard Combine began building tractors in 2000 in Barnala, Punjab, India. In Standard Tractors, tractors are being manufactured in the range of 35, 45, 50, 60, and 75 HP with respective model names: Standard 335, Standard 345, Standard 450, Standard 460, and Standard 475. Engines for all these tractor models, except the last one, are manufactured within the plant as Standard Engines, in specific names SE 335, SE 345, SE 450 and SE 460, respectively. All the above-mentioned models of Standard Engines have shown compliance to the TREM-III emission norms, as have been verified by the ARAI. However, two new variants of tractor of 35 hp (Standard 335-I) and 45 hp (Standard 345-I), equipped with famous Perkins engines (assembled within the Standard Tractors plant), and two completely new models of tractor of 30 hp (Standard 330) and 40 hp (Standard 340) are on the verge to be launched. Besides these, three 3-wheelers (two passenger-carriers and one cargo), one 4-wheeler (cargo), a crane, an electric 3-


wheeled mini-car, and two 2-wheelers (scooters) are either in the process of development or on the verge of launch from the Standard Tractor Division.[13].

Tractors and Farm Equipment Limited (TAFE) was established in 1961 to manufacture and market Massey Ferguson tractors and related farm equipment in India. AGCO, the owner of Massey Ferguson, now owns 24% of TAFE. Tractors are built and sold in India under both the TAFE and Massey Ferguson brands, and exported under

both brands as well. In 2005, TAFE bought the Eicher Motors tractor and engine division

VST Tillers
VST Tillers was set up in 1965 in Bangalore, India. In collaboration with Mitsubishi Agricultural Machinery of Japan, they manufacture 18HP tractors under various brands, including Mitsubishi-Shakti', Shakti, Eurotrac-VST and Euro-Trac. They have been exported to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and the USA. 1987 with tte halpe of m/s sahoo agrochemi cuttack 753009

in odisa thet intarduse in


Previous Indian Tractor Companies

Tractor companies that did not survive and were not acquired by other companies are:

Asian Tractors Ltd

Began building tractors in 1989 from their own designs.

Ford Tractors
Ford (formerly Ford Tractor Division) began producing Ford Tractors in India in 1972 with a tie up with Escorts. In 1986 Ford acquired New Holland and tractor operations was transferred to Ford-New Holland and made into an independent corporation. In 1991, Fiat began an arranged purchase of Ford-New Holland that was completed in 1993, ending Ford Motor Company's long history of tractor production. The deal required that New Holland/FIAT stop using the Ford name. New Holland India Pvt began production of tractors in India in 1998. [18]

Harsha Tractors
In 1975, Harsha Tractors Ltd began manufacturing tractors in conjunction with Motoimport of Russia.[17] Tractor production never amounted to much, and has since ceased.

Haryana Tractors Ltd

As a part of Pratap Steel Rolling Mills Ltd., Haryana began building tractors from their own designs in 1983.[17]

Kirloskar Tractors

See also: Kirloskar Group Founded in cooperation with Deutz-Fahr of Germany in 1974.[17] It has since ceased to manufacture tractors. However, the company continues to manufacture engines under license from Deutz.

Pittie Tractors
Pittie Tractors was set-up by a young and dynamic engineer - Shrikant Pittie and started out as Pittie Tools. The Pittie family are prominent industrialists in Pune and the family set-up the first private industry in Pune - The Raja Bahadur Motilal Poona Mills Ltd. in 1893. Pittie Tractors indigenously developed and manufactured tractors and was well set to capture a large share of the market in India. However, due to an unfortunate labor strike at one of its critical vendors, followed by a similar strike at its own plant, the company lost nearly a year of production. As a result, the company fell into financial difficulty and ultimately had to wind-up operations.

United Auto Tractors Ltd.


Began in 1986 in conjunction with Uzina Tractorul of Romania

Objective of The Project:-


1. To Study on the behavior for the uses of tractors in local area. 2. To determine the product of people regarding the satisfaction of tractor. 3. The choice of the people for Mahindra tech in comparison with other companies. 4. To study the present market of the tractors. 5. To identify elements that act as satisfier and dissatisfies for each individual.

Questionnaire of Project on Tractor

Name 21

Address.. . Contact No.. 1. Gender Male Female 2. Age Group 0 20 40 60 3. Occupation Student Business 4. Income Group 100000 200000 300000 400000 5. Do you have tractor? Yes No 6. If yes than which brand tractor you have? Mahindra Sonalika Ford Asian Any other 20 40 Above 60 Service House wife 200000 300000 400000 500000

7. If no than which brand tractor you want to purchase? Mahindra Sonalika Ford Asian Any other

8. The price of tractor on which you purchase it or you want to spend on it? 100000 400000 400000 600000 600000- 800000 Above 800000

9. Are you seen the advertisement of tractor? Yes No 10. On which source you seen the advertisement? Television News paper Internet advertisement 11. Does advertisement influence your buying behavior? Yes No


12. If yes which factor influences you? Brand celebrity brand Name Product features sales offer

13. If no what are the reason? Product design High price Less innovative Sale offers

14. Are you satisfied with the services provided by Tractor Company on brand? Yes No 15. If yes satisfied with the services provide by Tractor Company on brand? Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Unsatisfied highly unsatisfied

16. Is the use of tractors making your work perfect? Highly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

17. Opinion for the sale formation carried out by Mahindra tractors? Good v.Good Average Poor v. poor

18. What is your suggestion for the improvement of sale? Quality improvement Transportation Interest rate low large credit period



Qus.1 Gender Gender
100 80 60 40 20 0 Female Male

Qus.2Age group
50 40 30 20 10 0
40 -6 0 ab ov e 60 G ro up 020 20 -4 0

Qus.3 Occupation

Ag e


60 50 40 30 20 10 0
e bu sin es s oc cu pa t io n st ud en t se rv ic ho us e w ife

Qus4 Income group

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Income 100000- 200000- 300000- 400000group 200000 300000 400000 500000

Qus5 Do you have tractor?

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 tractors yes no


If yes than Which brand tractor you have?

30 20 10 0
m ah in dr a so na lik a fo rd as ia n ot he r

If no that Which brand tractor you want to purchase?
12 10 8 6 4 2 0
m ah in dr a so na lik a fo rd as ia n

The price of tractor on which you purchase it or you want to spend
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100000400000 400000600000 above 800000


an y

ot he r

an y

Are you seen the advertisem ent of tractor?

100 80 60 40 20 0 yes no

On which source you seen the advertisement?
40 30 20 10 0
io n in te rn et Te liv is pa pe r se m en t

ne ws

Does advertisement influence your buying behavior?
80 60 40 20 0 yes no


ad ve r ti


If yes which factor influence you?

50 40 30 20 10 0 brand celebrity brand name product features sales offer

If no what are the reason?
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 product design high price less inovative sale offers



Are you satisfied with the services provided by tractor company on brand?
100 80 60 40 20 0 yes no

If yes satisfied with services provide by tractor company on brand?
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 highly unsatisfied Highly satisfied satisfied unsatisfied neutral


Is the use of tractor making your morking your work perfect?
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
ag re e di sa st gr ro ee ng ly di sa gr ee ag re e ne ut ra l

Opinion for the sale formation carried out by mahindra tractors?
40 30 20 10 0 Good v.good average poor v.poor

Hi g

hl y


What is your suggestion for the improvement of sale?
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 quality improvement transportation interest rate low large credit period 31

After getting feedback from various peoples from our area they expressed their views about the importance and the objectives of project functions in their companies. I met and conducted survey with the all peoples of the area to get feedback on my project summery.